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1

Complex propagation on directed small world networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of directionality on the information propagation in a contagion model with complex propagation, i.e., that takes into account the need for simultaneous exposure to multiple activation sources, is studied. While it is known that complex propagation is blocked with increasing network randomness, here it is shown that network directionality affects such a result, leading to several different behaviors depending on the preservation of the in-degree or out-degree. The critical points for the occurrence of complex propagation in 1D directed small world networks are determined. It is shown that these points only depend on the number of outgoing links.

Gandica, Yérali; Bonalde, Ismardo; Cabrera, Juan Luis

2010-10-01

2

Rupture directivity of small earthquakes at Parkfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractTheoretical modeling of strike-slip ruptures along a bimaterial interface suggests that earthquakes initiating on the interface will have a preferred rupture <span class="hlt">direction</span>. We test this model with 450 <span class="hlt">small</span> earthquakes (2 < M < 5) from Parkfield, California, to look for evidence of consistent rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> along the San Andreas Fault. We analyze azimuthal variations in earthquake source spectra after applying an iterative correction for wave propagation <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Our approach avoids <span class="hlt">directly</span> modeling source spectra because these models generally assume symmetric rupture; instead, we look for azimuthal variations in the amplitudes of the source spectra over specified frequency bands. Our overall results show similar proportions of events exhibiting characteristics of rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> toward either the southeast or northwest. However, the proportion of events with southeast rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> increases as we limit the data set to larger magnitudes, with 70% of the 46 events M > 3 exhibiting southeast rupture characteristics. Some spatial and temporal variability in rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> is also apparent. We observe a higher proportion of northwest <span class="hlt">directivity</span> ruptures following the 2004 M 6 Parkfield earthquake, which ruptured toward the northwest. Our results are generally consistent with the preferred southeast rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> model but suggest that <span class="hlt">directivity</span> is likely due to several contributing factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kane, Deborah L.; Shearer, Peter M.; Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Vernon, Frank L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">3</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228243"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ebolavirus proteins suppress the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> interfering RNA by <span class="hlt">direct</span> interaction with the mammalian RNA interference pathway.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cellular RNA interference (RNAi) provides a natural response against viral infection, but some viruses have evolved mechanisms to antagonize this form of antiviral immunity. To determine whether Ebolavirus (EBOV) counters RNAi by encoding suppressors of RNA silencing (SRSs), we screened all EBOV proteins using an RNAi assay initiated by exogenously delivered <span class="hlt">small</span> interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against either an EBOV or a reporter gene. In addition to viral protein 35 (VP35), we found that VP30 and VP40 independently act as SRSs. Here, we present the molecular mechanisms of VP30 and VP35. VP30 interacts with Dicer independently of siRNA and with one Dicer partner, TRBP, only in the presence of siRNA. VP35 <span class="hlt">directly</span> interacts with Dicer partners TRBP and PACT in an siRNA-independent fashion and in the absence of <span class="hlt">effects</span> on interferon (IFN). Taken together, our findings elucidate a new mechanism of RNAi suppression that extends beyond the role of SRSs in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding and IFN antagonism. The presence of three suppressors highlights the relevance of host RNAi-dependent antiviral immunity in EBOV infection and illustrates the importance of RNAi in shaping the evolution of RNA viruses. PMID:21228243</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fabozzi, Giulia; Nabel, Christopher S; Dolan, Michael A; Sullivan, Nancy J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">4</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19211517"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of a <span class="hlt">direct</span>-fed microbial (Primalac) on structure and ultrastructure of <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine in turkey poults.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of dietary supplementation of the <span class="hlt">direct</span>-fed microbial (DFM) Primalac in mash or crumbled feed on histological and ultrastructural changes of intestinal mucosa was determined in 2 populations of poults; 1 with and 1 without a Salmonella spp. challenge. Three hundred thirty-six 1-d-old female Large White turkey poults were randomly distributed into 8 treatment groups with 6 replicates of 7 poults in each pen. The poults were placed on 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (mash or crumble feed, with or without DFM, not-challenged or challenged at 3 d of age). The DFM groups were fed a Primalac-supplemented diet from d 1 until the last day of the experiment (d 21). At 3 d of age, 50% of the poults were challenged with 1 mL of 10(10) cfu/ mL of Salmonella spp. (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Kentucky) by oral gavage. The inoculated poults were housed in a separate room from nonchallenged controls. Feed and water were provided ad libitum for all birds. At d 21, 1 poult per pen (total of 6 poults per treatment) was randomly selected and killed humanely by cervical dislocation. After necropsy, the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine was removed, and tissue samples from duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were taken for light and electron microscopic evaluation. The DFM birds showed increased goblet cell (GC) numbers, total GC area, GC mean size, mucosal thickness, and a greater number of segmented filamentous bacteria compared with controls. Changes in intestinal morphology as observed in this study support the concept that poultry gut health and function, and ultimately bird performance, can be improved by dietary supplementation with DFM products such as Primalac as used in this study. PMID:19211517</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rahimi, S; Grimes, J L; Fletcher, O; Oviedo, E; Sheldon, B W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120050228"> <span id="translatedtitle">The persistence of <span class="hlt">directivity</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We derive a simple inversion of peak ground acceleration (PGA) or peak ground velocity (PGV) for rupture <span class="hlt">direction</span> and rupture velocity and then test this inversion on the peak motions obtained from seven 3.5 ??? M ??? 4.1 earthquakes that occurred in two clusters in November 2002 and February 2003 near San Ramon, California. These clusters were located on two orthogonal strike-slip faults so that the events share the same approximate focal mechanism but not the same fault plane. Three earthquakes exhibit strong <span class="hlt">directivity</span>, but the other four earthquakes exhibit relatively weak <span class="hlt">directivity</span>. We use the residual PGAs and PGVs from the other six events to determine station corrections for each earthquake. The inferred rupture <span class="hlt">directions</span> unambiguously identify the fault plane for the three earthquakes with strong <span class="hlt">directivity</span> and for three of the four earthquakes with weak <span class="hlt">directivity</span>. The events with strong <span class="hlt">directivity</span> have fast rupture velocities (0.63????? v ??? 0.87??); the events with weak <span class="hlt">directivity</span> either rupture more slowly (0.17????? v ???0.35??) or bilaterally. The simple unilateral inversion cannot distinguish between slow and bilateral ruptures: adding a bilateral rupture component degrades the fit of the rupture <span class="hlt">directions</span> to the fault planes. By comparing PGAs from the events with strong and weak <span class="hlt">directivity</span>, we show how an up-dip rupture in <span class="hlt">small</span> events can distort the attenuation of peak ground motion with distance. When we compare the rupture <span class="hlt">directions</span> of the earthquakes to the location of aftershocks in the two clusters, we find than almost all the aftershocks of the three earthquakes with strong <span class="hlt">directivity</span> occur within 70?? of the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of rupture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boatwright, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3469576"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Changes in pH Have <span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Marine Bacterial Community Composition: A Microcosm Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, more CO2 will dissolve in the oceans, leading to a reduction in pH. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of ocean acidification on bacterial communities have mainly been studied in biologically complex systems, in which indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>, mediated through food web interactions, come into play. These approaches come close to nature but suffer from low replication and neglect seasonality. To comprehensively investigate <span class="hlt">direct</span> pH <span class="hlt">effects</span>, we conducted highly-replicated laboratory acidification experiments with the natural bacterial community from Helgoland Roads (North Sea). Seasonal variability was accounted for by repeating the experiment four times (spring, summer, autumn, winter). Three dilution approaches were used to select for different ecological strategies, i.e. fast-growing or low-nutrient adapted bacteria. The pH levels investigated were in situ seawater pH (8.15–8.22), pH 7.82 and pH 7.67, representing the present-day situation and two acidification scenarios projected for the North Sea for the year 2100. In all seasons, both automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S ribosomal amplicon pyrosequencing revealed pH-dependent community shifts for two of the dilution approaches. Bacteria susceptible to changes in pH were different members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae and further less abundant groups. Their specific response to reduced pH was often context-dependent. Bacterial abundance was not influenced by pH. Our findings suggest that already moderate changes in pH have the potential to cause compositional shifts, depending on the community assembly and environmental factors. By identifying pH-susceptible groups, this study provides insights for more <span class="hlt">directed</span>, in-depth community analyses in large-scale and long-term experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krause, Evamaria; Wichels, Antje; Gimenez, Luis; Lunau, Mirko; Schilhabel, Markus B.; Gerdts, Gunnar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26581697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pb Bi-cooled <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling water <span class="hlt">small</span> reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A design concept of PbBi cooled <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling water <span class="hlt">small</span> fast reactor (PBWFR) has been formulated with some design parameters identified. Water is injected into hot PbBi above the core, and <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling takes place in chimneys. Boiling bubbles rise due to buoyancy <span class="hlt">effects</span>, which works as a lift pump for PbBi circulation. The generated steam passes through</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minoru Takahashi; Shoji Uchida; Koji Hata; Takaharu Matsuzawa; Hiroo Osada; Yoshiyuki Kasahara; Naoki Sawa; Yoshiyuki Okubo; Toru Obara; Elin Yusibani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAP...108e3719Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Au contamination on the electrical characteristics of a ``model'' <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle grain boundary in n-type <span class="hlt">direct</span> silicon bonded wafer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have investigated the electrical characteristics of a ``model'' <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle grain boundary (GB) in n-type <span class="hlt">direct</span> silicon bonded wafers with intentional Au contamination. It is found that the Au aggregated at the GB can cause new acceptorlike states, developing a potential barrier. The density of Au-related GB states is about 1-2×1012 cm-2 eV-1 in the energy range of Ec-0.65-Ec-0.33 eV. With the energy level becoming deeper, the corresponding electron capture cross-section becomes larger, in the order of magnitude 10-16-10-15 cm2. It is believed that Au contamination has strong influence on the electrical properties of GB. These results are interesting for the GB engineering of n-type multicrystalline silicon solar cells for terrestrial application.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, X.; Li, X.; Fan, R.; Yang, D.; Kittler, M.; Reiche, M.; Seibt, M.; Rozgonyi, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61231298"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sources of hydrocarbon emissions from a <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection diesel engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to clarify the mechanisms of unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">direct</span> - injection (DI) diesel engine. HC emission levels of <span class="hlt">small</span> DI diesel engines are considerably higher than those of corresponding indirect - injection (IDI) diesel engines, even when sacless injection nozzles that are <span class="hlt">effective</span> in reducing HC emissions are installed on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Matsui; K. Sugihara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=overcrowding&pg=2&id=EJ737749"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Schools' Ripple <span class="hlt">Effects</span> Debated</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Major initiatives in New York City and Chicago to close unsuccessful schools and create <span class="hlt">small</span> schools in their wake are stirring criticism from some community activists, local politicians, and others. Critics charge that the growing scale of the efforts is producing negative ripple <span class="hlt">effects</span> on other schools in these cities. In Chicago, the chief…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robelen, Erik W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2133362"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The <span class="hlt">direct</span> tensile test of composite resins using the <span class="hlt">small</span> specimen--<span class="hlt">effect</span> of the preparation of specimen, the size of specimen and the testing condition on the tensile properties].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> tensile test of composite resins using the specimen with the gauge length 10 mm has been developed by authors. In this study smaller specimens with the gauge length 5 mm and 2 mm were also investigated. As the gauge length became smaller, tensile properties such as the proportional limit, the proof stress, and the tensile strength showed the tendency to become higher. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of strain rate on the tensile properties appeared clearly when using the specimen with the gauge length 2 mm. The <span class="hlt">small</span> specimen was found to have many advantages for the preparation, the cost of material and the handling during the tensile test. PMID:2133362</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujishima, A; Miyazaki, T; Kuneshita, H; Suzuki, E; Miyaji, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3635328"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automating <span class="hlt">Directional</span> <span class="hlt">Small</span> RNA Library Preparation for Illumina GA Sequencing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have demonstrated an efficient automated method for preparing high quality <span class="hlt">directional</span> libraries for deep sequencing of <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA (sRNA) using the Illumina Genome Analyzer. sRNA molecules are approximately 21 nt in length and play an important role in regulating gene expression. They are uniquely challenging to sequence because they degrade faster than other RNA molecules and represent a very <span class="hlt">small</span> fraction (1% to 2%) of the RNA population depending on sample/tissue type. Although next generation sequencing allows researchers to rapidly sequence entire genomes and process many samples in parallel, the sample preparation can often be very tedious, time consuming, and prone to human errors. We have explored novel methodologies for streamlining and automating <span class="hlt">directional</span> library preparation processes while enhancing sequencing data quality. In this study, we demonstrated a process of enrichment for sRNA from raw tissue samples and automated library construction of the enriched sRNA to increase throughput and reduce human error. While conventional RNA-Seq methods do not permit <span class="hlt">directional</span> sequencing of RNA, this method of <span class="hlt">directional</span> library preparation has the advantage of preserving strand polarity of the transcript to provide more valuable sequence data. The raw tissue sample (rabbit brain) was pre-enriched using the mirVana™ kit (Ambion) to purify and concentrate the sRNA. Following the manual enrichment step, the libraries were prepared from as little as 10 ng of enriched sRNA using the PrepX™ RNA-Seq Library Kit for Illumina (IntegenX Inc.) on the Apollo 324™ System to autonomously generate, in parallel, eight RNA-Seq libraries in three hours. The percent mRNA mapped for enriched samples was reduced from 12% to 3% when compared to the non-enriched RNA sample. miRBase analysis of the enriched sRNA samples increased the percentage of sRNA mapped reads from 54% to 74% with a two-fold increase in the number of known and unique miRs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berger, Jacob; Butler, Paul; Olenic, Tom; Yeung, Stephanie; Smith, Sally; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.crm2day.com/library/docs/ap0006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Mailshots: The Gender <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> marketing can target individuals, but not merely according to name and address drawn from lists - it can also use different content and tone of voice. But is the 'gender <span class="hlt">effect</span>' such that men and women should be targeted differently? This paper reports a research programme which explores this issue. Ten group discussions were conducted around the UK and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Agnes Nairn; Martin Evans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect&pg=6&id=EJ824408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Making the Most of <span class="hlt">Small</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The idea that classroom social ecologies are shaped by the aggregate <span class="hlt">effects</span> of peers' prior care experiences is provocative, even though the evidence is weak that this explains the <span class="hlt">small</span> and diminishing <span class="hlt">effect</span> of childcare experience in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development study. <span class="hlt">Small</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> may indeed be <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thompson, Ross A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/26650/1/23030011.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> PRODUCE PROFIT FOR <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> AND INTERMEDIATE SIZE GROCERY RETAILERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> product profit (DPP) is a retailing tool used to analyze product sales performance. Although the concept is over 20 years old, its widespread use in grocery stores is a fairly recent phenomena. A product's DPP is calculated as its adjusted gross margin less its <span class="hlt">direct</span> selling costs, which normally include transportation, warehousing, and retailing or store costs. A product's</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michelle Roberts Blanchard; George K. Criner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N7529915"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Observation of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Cluster Mobility and Ripening.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence is reported for the simultaneous occurrence of Ostwald ripening and short-distance cluster mobility during annealing of discontinuous metal films on clean amorphous substrates. The annealing characteristics of very thin particulate deposit...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Heinemann H. Poppa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.3297R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural aerosol plays a significant role in the Earth's system due to its ability to alter the radiative balance of the Earth. Here we use a global aerosol microphysics model together with a radiative transfer model to estimate radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> for five natural aerosol sources in the present-day atmosphere: dimethyl sulfide (DMS), sea-salt, volcanoes, monoterpenes, and wildfires. We calculate large annual global mean aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> and cloud albedo <span class="hlt">effects</span> especially for DMS-derived sulfate (-0.23 Wm-2 and -0.76 Wm-2, respectively), volcanic sulfate (-0.21 Wm-2 and -0.61 Wm-2) and sea-salt (-0.44 Wm-2 and -0.04 Wm-2). The cloud albedo <span class="hlt">effect</span> responds nonlinearly to changes in emission source strengths. The natural sources have both markedly different radiative efficiencies and indirect/<span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> ratios. Aerosol sources that contribute a large number of <span class="hlt">small</span> particles (DMS-derived and volcanic sulfate) are highly <span class="hlt">effective</span> at influencing cloud albedo per unit of aerosol mass burden.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine E.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Forster, Piers M.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Schmidt, Anja; Mann, Graham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49234497"> <span id="translatedtitle">Future <span class="hlt">directions</span> in the management of <span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment of <span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer (SCLC) has continued to evolve over the past 20 years and now consists primarily of combination chemotherapy with or without thoracic radiotherapy depending on stage at presentation. However, despite marked improvement in overall survival, a majority of patients continue to die of their disease. It is not likely that conventional chemotherapy agents will</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David H. Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-30/pdf/2010-7018.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 15756 - <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Innovation Research Program Policy <span class="hlt">Directive</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Research (SBIR) Program Policy <span class="hlt">Directive</span> (PD). This amendment adjusts the SBIR Program...proposed amendments to the SBIR Program PD to raise the SBIR Phase I award threshold...determined that these amendments to the SBIR PD do not impose additional reporting or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5661308"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> oxide reduction demonstration, <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project was initiated to provide process design information to the Plutonium Recovery Project (PRP). Although <span class="hlt">direct</span> oxide reduction (DOR) has been operated in a production mode both at the Rocky Flats Plant (now operated by EG G, Inc.) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, many aspects of the process are ill-defined. Because the PRP plans include significant DOR capability, a well-defined process should minimize capital cost and maximize productivity. Reduced radiation exposure may also be realized. A detailed, statistically valid investigation of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> oxide reduction process was carried out utilizing 100 grams or less of plutonium dioxide per experiment. Conditions were established for obtaining 95% + yields. Conclusions drawn from the results of the experimental work were utilized to make recommendations for future large-scale investigative and confirmative work as well large-scale production demonstration work. 4 refs., 5 figs., 14 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Long, J.L.; Santi, D.J.; Fisher, D.C.; Humiston, T.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-12-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3617124"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and selective <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule activation of proapoptotic BAX</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BCL-2 family proteins are key regulators of the apoptotic pathway. Antiapoptotic members sequester the BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3) death domains of proapoptotic members such as BAX to maintain cell survival. The antiapoptotic BH3-binding groove has been successfully targeted to reactivate apoptosis in cancer. We recently identified a geographically distinct BH3-binding groove that mediates <span class="hlt">direct</span> BAX activation, suggesting a new strategy for inducing apoptosis by flipping BAX’s ‘on switch’. Here we applied computational screening to identify a BAX activator molecule that <span class="hlt">directly</span> and selectively activates BAX. We demonstrate by NMR and biochemical analyses that the molecule engages the BAX trigger site and promotes the functional oligomerization of BAX. The molecule does not interact with the BH3-binding pocket of antiapoptotic proteins or proapoptotic BAK and induces cell death in a BAX-dependent fashion. To our knowledge, we report the first gain-of-function molecular modulator of a BCL-2 family protein and demonstrate a new paradigm for pharmacologic induction of apoptosis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Reyna, Denis E; Bellairs, Joseph A; Leshchiner, Elizaveta S; Walensky, Loren D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhRvB..58.5213B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parity <span class="hlt">effect</span> in a <span class="hlt">small</span> superconducting particle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Matveev and Larkin calculated the parity <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the ground-state energy of a <span class="hlt">small</span> superconducting particle in the regimes where the mean level spacing ? is either large or <span class="hlt">small</span> compared to the bulk gap ?. We perform a numerical calculation which extends their results to intermediate values of ?/?.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berger, S. D.; Halperin, B. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcSpe..73...26J"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a miniature argon flow rate on the spectral characteristics of a <span class="hlt">direct</span> current atmospheric pressure glow micro-discharge between an argon microjet and a <span class="hlt">small</span> sized flowing liquid cathode</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A stable <span class="hlt">direct</span> current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-?APGD) was generated between a miniature Ar flow microjet and a <span class="hlt">small</span> sized flowing liquid cathode. The microdischarge was operated in the open to air atmosphere. High energy species, including OH, NH, NO, N2, H, O and Ar were identified in the emission spectra of this microdischarge. Additionally, atomic lines of metals dissolved in water solutions were easily excited. The near cathode and the near anode zones of the microdischarge were investigated as a function of an Ar flow rate up to 300 sccm. The spectroscopic parameters, i.e., the excitation, the vibrational and the rotational temperatures as well as the electron number density, were determined in the near cathode and the near anode regions of the microdischarge. In the near cathode region, the rotational temperatures obtained for OH (2000-2600 K) and N2 bands (1600-1950 K) were significantly lower than the excitation temperatures of Ar (7400 K-7800 K) and H (11 000-15 500 K) atoms. Vibrational temperatures of N2, OH and NO varied from 3400 to 4000 K, from 2900 to 3400 K and from 2700 to 3000 K, respectively. In the near anode region, rotational temperatures of OH (350-1750 K) and N2 (400-1350 K) and excitation temperatures of Ar (5200-5500 K) and H (3600-12 600 K) atoms were lower than those measured in the near cathode region. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the introduction of a liquid sample on the microdischarge radiation and spectroscopic parameters was also investigated in the near cathode zone. The electron number density was calculated from the Stark broadening of the H? line and equals to (0.25-1.1) × 1015 cm- 3 and (0.68-1.2) × 1015 cm- 3 in the near cathode and the near anode zones, respectively. The intensity of the Na I emission line and the signal to background ratio (SBR) of this line were investigated in both zones to evaluate the excitation properties of the developed excitation microsource. The limit of detection for Na was determined at the level of 3 ng mL- 1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jamróz, Piotr; ?yrnicki, Wies?aw; Pohl, Pawe?</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA408809"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biological <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Directed</span> Energy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Final Report summarizes the biological <span class="hlt">effects</span> research conducted by Veridian Engineering personnel under contract F41624-96-C-9009 in support of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Radio Frequency Radiation Branch from April 1997 to April 2002. Biol...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Dayton C. Beason M. K. Hitt W. Rogers M. Cook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/168083p24331756h.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic <span class="hlt">effects</span> of linear dissipative <span class="hlt">small</span> deformations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a phenomenological model of dissipative losses manifested as heat transfer <span class="hlt">effects</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> linear deformations\\u000a of solid continua. The impetus is the need for a unified theory characterizing heat transfer <span class="hlt">effects</span> (called “stretching calorimetry”\\u000a in the literature) on the mechanics of deformations from a macroscopic point of view, overcoming the fragmentary description\\u000a of these thermodynamic <span class="hlt">effects</span> in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Afshin Anssari-Benam; Giuseppe Viola; Theodosios Korakianitis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38194925"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why is U.S. <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment in China so <span class="hlt">small</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">While the United States is the largest source of foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment (FDI) in the world, and China is the largest FDI recipient among developing countries, U.S. <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment (USDI) in China has been surprisingly <span class="hlt">small</span>. This article investigates the determinants of USDI through a relative-demand model with time-series data. Evidence presented in this article indicates that the <span class="hlt">small</span> USDI</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. H. Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50234988"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval and <span class="hlt">small</span> correction system for sailing <span class="hlt">directions</span> using the Internet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we propose an automatic retrieval and <span class="hlt">small</span> correction system for Japanese Sailing <span class="hlt">Directions</span> using the Internet. There are two kinds of retrieval methods. One is the retrieval with a keyword, and the other is retrieval with ship's sailing route. The system is easily able to materialize automatic <span class="hlt">small</span> corrections, for example revisions and additions for new navigational</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yuji Hayashi; Nobukazu Wakabayashi; Koji Murai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meat&pg=4&id=EJ813553"> <span id="translatedtitle">Process Evaluation Results from the Healthy <span class="hlt">Directions-Small</span> Business Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The Healthy <span class="hlt">Directions-Small</span> Business randomized, controlled study aimed to reduce cancer risk among multiethnic workers in <span class="hlt">small</span> manufacturing businesses by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and daily multivitamin in take and decreasing consumption of red meat. The intervention incorporated participatory strategies…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hunt, Mary K.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Lederman, Ruth; Stoddard, Anne M.; Chetkovich, Carol; Goldman, Roberta; Wallace, Lorraine; Sorensen, Glorian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021084"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells with high fill factors via pyrene-<span class="hlt">directed</span> molecular self-assembly.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are constructed by attaching completely planar, symmetric end-groups to donor-acceptor electroactive <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules. Appending C2-pyrene as the <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule end-group to a diketopyrrolopyrrole core leads to materials with a tight, aligned crystal packing and favorable morphology dictated by ?-? interactions, resulting in high power conversion efficiencies and high fill factors. The use of end-groups to <span class="hlt">direct</span> molecular self-assembly is an <span class="hlt">effective</span> strategy for designing high-performance <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule OPV devices. PMID:22021084</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Olivia P; Yiu, Alan T; Beaujuge, Pierre M; Woo, Claire H; Holcombe, Thomas W; Millstone, Jill E; Douglas, Jessica D; Chen, Mark S; Fréchet, Jean M J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50506804"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Quantification of 3D <span class="hlt">Directional</span> Spread from <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Scale Fading Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">directional</span> dispersion of multipath energy arriving at the receiver is an important quantity, as increasing it leads to lower correlation between spatial diversity elements. The `RMS angular spread' metric, commonly used to measure this, is only applicable for relatively <span class="hlt">small</span> angles in the 2-D plane. The quantification of the 3-D <span class="hlt">directional</span> spread is not straighforward, and must be justified</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arindam Pal; Mark Beach; Andy Nix</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21387356"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span>-EI in LC-MS: towards a universal detector for <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule applications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review article will give an up-to-date and exhaustive overview on the efficient use of electron ionization (EI) to couple liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with an innovative interface called <span class="hlt">Direct</span>-EI. EI is based on the gas-phase ionization of the analytes, and it is suitable for many applications in a wide range of LC-amenable compounds. In addition, thanks to its operating principles, it prevents unwelcome matrix <span class="hlt">effects</span> (ME). In fact, although atmospheric pressure ionization (API) methodologies have boosted the use of LC-MS, the related analytical methods are sometime affected by inaccurate quantitative results, due to unavoidable and unpredictable ME. In addition, API's soft ionization spectra always demand for costly and complex tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) instruments, which are essential to acquire an "information-rich" spectrum and to obtain accurate quantitative information. In EI a one-stage analyzer is sufficient for a qualitative investigation and MS/MS detection is only used to improve sensitivity and to cut chemical noise. The technology illustrated here provides a robust and straightforward access to classical, well-characterized EI data for a variety of LC applications, and readily interpretable spectra for a wide range of areas of research. The <span class="hlt">Direct</span>-EI interface can represent the basis for a forthcoming universal LC-MS detector for <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules. PMID:21387356</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cappiello, Achille; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Pierini, Elisabetta; Termopoli, Veronica; Trufelli, Helga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9791807"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> doses of ionising radiation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uncertainty remains about the quantitative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of doses of ionising radiation less than 0.2 Sv. Estimates of hereditary <span class="hlt">effects</span>, based on the atomic bomb survivors, suggest that the mutation doubling dose is about 2 Sv for acute low LET radiation, but the confidence limits are wide. The idea that paternal gonadal irradiation might explain the Seascale cluster of childhood leukaemia has been disproved. Fetal irradiation may lead to a reduction in IQ and an increase in seizures in childhood proportional to dose. Estimates that doses to a whole population cause a risk of cancer proportional to dose, with 0.1 Sv given acutely causing a risk of 1%, will need to be modified as more information is obtained, but the idea that there is a threshold for risk above this level is not supported by observations on the irradiated fetus or the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of fallout. The idea, based on ecological observations, that <span class="hlt">small</span> doses protect against the development of cancer is refuted by the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of radon in houses. New observations on the atomic bomb survivors have raised afresh the possibility that <span class="hlt">small</span> doses may also have other somatic <span class="hlt">effects</span>. PMID:9791807</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doll, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47864210"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">effect</span> on plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbon dioxide may affect plants by changing the climate, but it can have another more subtle and quite separate influence,\\u000a through its <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on plant physiology. Since CO2 is fundamental to photosynthesis, it makes sense that increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will tend to allow plants to photosynthesize faster. This then is one-half of the <span class="hlt">direct</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonathan Adams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1497970"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> parameter-extraction method for HBT <span class="hlt">small</span>-signal model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An accurate and broadband method for the <span class="hlt">direct</span> extraction of heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) <span class="hlt">small</span>-signal model parameters is presented in this paper. This method differs from previous ones by extracting the equivalent-circuit parameters without using special test structures or global numerical optimization techniques. The main advantage of this method is that a unique and physically meaningful set of intrinsic parameters</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sami Bousnina; Pierre Mandeville; Ammar B. Kouki; Robert Surridge; Fadhel M. Ghannouchi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3155571"> <span id="translatedtitle">Driving and Driven Architectures of <span class="hlt">Directed</span> <span class="hlt">Small</span>-World Human Brain Functional Networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the investigation of the human brain connectome that describes the patterns of structural and functional connectivity networks of the human brain. Many studies of the human connectome have demonstrated that the brain network follows a <span class="hlt">small</span>-world topology with an intrinsically cohesive modular structure and includes several network hubs in the medial parietal regions. However, most of these studies have only focused on undirected connections between regions in which the <span class="hlt">directions</span> of information flow are not taken into account. How the brain regions causally influence each other and how the <span class="hlt">directed</span> network of human brain is topologically organized remain largely unknown. Here, we applied linear multivariate Granger causality analysis (GCA) and graph theoretical approaches to a resting-state functional MRI dataset with a large cohort of young healthy participants (n?=?86) to explore connectivity patterns of the population-based whole-brain functional <span class="hlt">directed</span> network. This <span class="hlt">directed</span> brain network exhibited prominent <span class="hlt">small</span>-world properties, which obviously improved previous results of functional MRI studies showing weak <span class="hlt">small</span>-world properties in the <span class="hlt">directed</span> brain networks in terms of a kernel-based GCA and individual analysis. This brain network also showed significant modular structures associated with 5 well known subsystems: fronto-parietal, visual, paralimbic/limbic, subcortical and primary systems. Importantly, we identified several driving hubs predominantly located in the components of the attentional network (e.g., the inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, insula and fusiform gyrus) and several driven hubs predominantly located in the components of the default mode network (e.g., the precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule). Further split-half analyses indicated that our results were highly reproducible between two independent subgroups. The current study demonstrated the <span class="hlt">directions</span> of spontaneous information flow and causal influences in the <span class="hlt">directed</span> brain networks, thus providing new insights into our understanding of human brain functional connectome.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yan, Chaogan; He, Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21858129"> <span id="translatedtitle">Driving and driven architectures of <span class="hlt">directed</span> <span class="hlt">small</span>-world human brain functional networks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the investigation of the human brain connectome that describes the patterns of structural and functional connectivity networks of the human brain. Many studies of the human connectome have demonstrated that the brain network follows a <span class="hlt">small</span>-world topology with an intrinsically cohesive modular structure and includes several network hubs in the medial parietal regions. However, most of these studies have only focused on undirected connections between regions in which the <span class="hlt">directions</span> of information flow are not taken into account. How the brain regions causally influence each other and how the <span class="hlt">directed</span> network of human brain is topologically organized remain largely unknown. Here, we applied linear multivariate Granger causality analysis (GCA) and graph theoretical approaches to a resting-state functional MRI dataset with a large cohort of young healthy participants (n?=?86) to explore connectivity patterns of the population-based whole-brain functional <span class="hlt">directed</span> network. This <span class="hlt">directed</span> brain network exhibited prominent <span class="hlt">small</span>-world properties, which obviously improved previous results of functional MRI studies showing weak <span class="hlt">small</span>-world properties in the <span class="hlt">directed</span> brain networks in terms of a kernel-based GCA and individual analysis. This brain network also showed significant modular structures associated with 5 well known subsystems: fronto-parietal, visual, paralimbic/limbic, subcortical and primary systems. Importantly, we identified several driving hubs predominantly located in the components of the attentional network (e.g., the inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, insula and fusiform gyrus) and several driven hubs predominantly located in the components of the default mode network (e.g., the precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule). Further split-half analyses indicated that our results were highly reproducible between two independent subgroups. The current study demonstrated the <span class="hlt">directions</span> of spontaneous information flow and causal influences in the <span class="hlt">directed</span> brain networks, thus providing new insights into our understanding of human brain functional connectome. PMID:21858129</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yan, Chaogan; He, Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sgc.engin.umich.edu/erps/IEPC_1993/IEPC1993-135.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF NOZZLE GEOMETRY ON PLUME EXPANSION FOR <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> THRUSTERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">systems such that impingement impacts are minimized without compromising performance. The current work The <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Simulation Monte Carlo method is is specifically <span class="hlt">directed</span> at applying gas dynamics on the currently being applied to study flowfields of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecular level to the phenomena associated with thrusters. Accurate prediction of both the internal and viscous flows in nozzles and plumes of <span class="hlt">small</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donna Zelesniki; Paul F. Penkot</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5067283"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-diameter guided boring systems; <span class="hlt">Directionally</span> controlled drilling for the gas utility market</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increased emphasis on the social costs involved with open-cut installation of underground utilities, as well as the need to renew aging gas lines in densely developed urban areas, has spurred the development of several <span class="hlt">small</span>-diameter guided boring systems. The goal of these systems is to allow the installation of <span class="hlt">small</span>-diameter gas lines (6-in. or less) along accurately guided paths beneath streets, residential lawns or any surface structure that cannot be readily be disturbed. Actual installation of the gas distribution piping using a guided boring system is generally accomplished in a two-stage process similar to that used to install <span class="hlt">directionally</span> drilled river crossings. The author describes how a <span class="hlt">directional</span> pilot hole is drilled, enlarged and the line is pulled into it.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hair, J.D. (J.D. Hair and Associates, Tulsa, OK (US))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57791191"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Predation on a Fish Community: A Whole-Lake Experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We designed an experiment to test the relative importances of <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of piscivorous predation on an assemblage of <span class="hlt">small</span> fishes in a piscivore-free lake, The <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> is defined as consumption of prey fishes. Indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> include habitat changes associated with predator avoidance behavior, increases of emigration rates, and changes of composition and size structure of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xi He; James F. Kitchell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........18T"> <span id="translatedtitle">An incrementally non-linear model for clays with <span class="hlt">directional</span> stiffness and a <span class="hlt">small</span> strain emphasis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In response to construction activities and loads from permanent structures, soil generally is subjected to a variety of loading modes varying both in time and location. It also has been increasingly appreciated that the strains around well-designed foundations, excavations and tunnels are mostly <span class="hlt">small</span>, with soil responses at this strain level generally being non-linear and anisotropic. To make accurate prediction of the performance of a geo-system, it is highly desirable to understand soil behavior at <span class="hlt">small</span> strains along multiple loading <span class="hlt">directions</span>, and accordingly to incorporate these responses in an appropriate constitutive model implemented in a finite element analysis. This dissertation presents a model based on a series of stress probe tests with <span class="hlt">small</span> strain measurements performed on compressible Chicago glacial clays. The proposed model is formulated in an original constitutive framework, in which the tangent stiffness matrix is constructed in accordance with the mechanical nature of frictional materials and the tangent moduli therein are described explicitly. The stiffness description includes evolution relations with regard to length of stress path, and <span class="hlt">directionality</span> relations in terms of stress path <span class="hlt">direction</span>. The former relations provide distinctive definitions for <span class="hlt">small</span>-strain and large-strain behaviors, and distinguish soil responses in shearing and compression. The latter relations make this model incrementally non-linear and thus capable of modeling inelastic behavior. A new algorithm based on a classical substepping scheme is developed to numerically integrate this model. A consistent tangent matrix is derived for the proposed model with the upgraded substepping scheme. The code is written in FORTRAN and implemented in FEM via UMAT of ABAQUS. The model is exercised in a variety of applications ranging from oedometer, triaxial and biaxial test simulations to a C-class prediction for a well-instrumented excavation. The computed results indicate that this model is successful in reproducing soil responses in both laboratory and field situations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tu, Xuxin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DDA....4410203F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Binary Asteroids with the Binary YORP <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): <span class="hlt">Small</span>, Near-Earth binaries are believed to be created following the fission of an asteroid spun up by the YORP <span class="hlt">effect</span>. It is then believed that the YORP <span class="hlt">effect</span> acting on the secondary (Binary YORP) increases or decreases the binary mutual distance on 10^5 yr timescales. How long this mechanism can apply is not yet fully understood. We investigate the binary orbital and rotational dynamics by using non-averaged, <span class="hlt">direct</span> numerical simulations, taking into account the relative motion of two ellipsoids (primary and secondary) and the solar perturbation. We add the YORP force and torque on the orbital and rotational motion of the secondary. As a check of our code we obtain a ~ 7.2 cm/yr drift in semi-major axis for 1999 KW4 beta, consistent with the values obtained with former analytical studies. The synchronous rotation of the secondary is required for the Binary YORP to be <span class="hlt">effective</span>. We investigate the synchronous lock of the secondary in function of different parameters ; mutual distance, shape of the secondary, and heliocentric orbit. For example we show that the secondary of 1999 KW4 can be synchronous only up to 7 Rp (primary radius), where the resonance becomes completely chaotic even for very <span class="hlt">small</span> eccentricities. We use Gaussian Random Spheres to obtain various secondary shapes, and check the evolution of the binaries with the Binary YORP <span class="hlt">effect</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frouard, Julien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ChPhL..21...40L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Halo <span class="hlt">Effect</span> on <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Neutron Capture Process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We calculate the capture cross sections of the 10Be(n,gamma) 11Be reaction by means of the asymptotic normalization coefficient method and demonstrate the halo <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the capture cross sections for the <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative neutron capture where a p-, s- or d-wave neutron is captured into an s-orbit or p-orbit in 11Be by emitting an E1 gamma-ray, respectively. The result shows that the enormous enhancement of the capture cross section is just due to the large overlap of the incident neutron wave with the extended tail of the halo, which is clearly illustrated by the reduced transition amplitude function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Zu-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21128082"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Measurement of the Chudakov <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental results for the restricted energy loss of pairs created from 1-178 GeV photons in a thin Au target and subsequently passing a CCD detector are presented. It is shown that pairs--when detected close to the creation vertex--suffer a reduced energy loss due to the internal screening of the charges constituting the pair. Furthermore, the ability to measure <span class="hlt">directly</span> the energy of the pair by calorimetry enables a comparison with theory as a function of energy. The observed phenomenon is in good qualitative agreement with general expectations from the Chudakov <span class="hlt">effect</span> but indicates a quantitative disagreement with either of two mutually disagreeing theories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Virkus, T.; Thomsen, H. D.; Uggerhoej, E.; Uggerhoej, U. I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Mangiarotti, A. [Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Ketel, T. J. [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dizdar, A.; Kartal, S. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Pagliarone, C. [University of Cassino and INFN Pisa (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834551"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Drive Permanent Magnet Generator for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Wind Turbines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this program, TIAX performed the conceptual design and analysis of an innovative, modular, <span class="hlt">direct</span>-drive permanent magnet generator (PMG) for use in <span class="hlt">small</span> wind turbines that range in power rating from 25 kW to 100 kW. TIAX adapted an approach that has been successfully demonstrated in high volume consumer products such as <span class="hlt">direct</span>-drive washing machines and portable generators. An electromagnetic model was created and the modular PMG design was compared to an illustrative non-modular design. The resulting projections show that the modular design can achieve significant reductions in size, weight, and manufacturing cost without compromising efficiency. Reducing generator size and weight can also lower the size and weight of other wind turbine components and hence their manufacturing cost.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chertok, Allan; Hablanian, David; McTaggart, Paul; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1064033"> <span id="translatedtitle">A RECIPROCATING SOLAR HEATED ENGINE UTILIZING <span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> ABSORPTION BY <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> PARTICLES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new type of reciprocating solar engine utilizing <span class="hlt">small</span> particles to absorb concentrated sunlight <span class="hlt">directly</span> within the cylinders is described. The engine operates by drawing an air particle mixture into the cylinder, compressing the mixture, opening an optical valve to allow concentrated sunlight to enter through a window in the top of the cylinder head, absorbing the solar flux with the particles, and converting the heat trapped by the air-particle mixture into mechanical energy with the downward stroke of piston. It differs from other gas driven heat engines using solar energy in three main respects. First, the radiant flux is deposited <span class="hlt">directly</span> in the working fluid inside the cylinder; second, the heat is <span class="hlt">directed</span> to the appropriate cylinder by controlling the solar flux by an optical system; third, the gas is heated during a significant portion of the compression stroke. The thermodynamic efficiency of the engine is calculated using an analytical model and is compared to several other engine cycles of interest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hull, Patricia G.; Hunt, Arlon J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22310926"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combination <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule PPT1 mimetic and CNS-<span class="hlt">directed</span> gene therapy as a treatment for infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) is a profoundly neurodegenerative disease of children caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme palmitoyl protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). There is currently no <span class="hlt">effective</span> therapy for this invariably fatal disease. To date, preclinical experiments using single treatments have resulted in incremental clinical improvements. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of CNS-<span class="hlt">directed</span> AAV2/5-mediated gene therapy alone and in combination with the systemic delivery of the lysosomotropic PPT1 mimetic phosphocysteamine. Since CNS-<span class="hlt">directed</span> gene therapy provides relatively high levels of PPT1 activity to specific regions of the brain, we hypothesized that phosphocysteamine would complement that activity in regions expressing subtherapeutic levels of the enzyme. Results indicate that CNS-<span class="hlt">directed</span> gene therapy alone provided the greatest improvements in biochemical and histological measures as well as motor function and life span. Phosphocysteamine alone resulted in only minor improvements in motor function and no increase in lifespan. Interestingly, phosphocysteamine did not increase the biochemical and histological response when combined with AAV2/5-mediated gene therapy, but it did result in an additional improvement in motor function. These data suggest that a CNS-<span class="hlt">directed</span> gene therapy approach provides significant clinical benefit, and the addition of the <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule PPT1 mimetic can further increase that response. PMID:22310926</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roberts, Marie S; Macauley, Shannon L; Wong, Andrew M; Yilmas, Denis; Hohm, Sarah; Cooper, Jonathan D; Sands, Mark S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11041989"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perceiving human locomotion: priming <span class="hlt">effects</span> in <span class="hlt">direction</span> discrimination.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the perception of biological motion, the available stimulus information is confined to a <span class="hlt">small</span> number of lights attached to the major joints of a moving actor. Despite this drastic impoverishment of the stimulus, the human visual apparatus organizes the swarm of moving dots in a vivid percept of a human figure. In addition, observers effortlessly identify the action the figure is involved in. After a historical introduction and a short walk through the literature, data from a priming experiment are presented. In a serial two-choice reaction-time task, participants were presented with a point-light walker, facing either to the right or to the left and walking either forward or backward on a treadmill. Subjects had to identify the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of articulatory movements. Reliable priming <span class="hlt">effects</span> were established in consecutive trials, but these <span class="hlt">effects</span> were tempered by the relation between priming and primed walker. The reaction time to a walker was shorter when the walker in the preceding trial moved in the same <span class="hlt">direction</span> and was facing in the same <span class="hlt">direction</span>. The findings are discussed in relation to recent data from neuropsychological case studies, neuroimaging, and single-cell recording. PMID:11041989</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verfaillie, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024889"> <span id="translatedtitle">FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global and annual mean aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> are <span class="hlt">small</span> due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koch, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychoacoustics&pg=5&id=ED073502"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Noise on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Group Interaction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This study reports an analysis of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of moderate levels of noise on task performance of an interacting group. Groups of students first interacted in information-sharing discussions under varying conditions of noise and then responded to an objective test over the shared information and to a series of semantic differential scales designed…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whitehead, Jack L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CoPhC.181.2057Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cooperation in the snowdrift game on <span class="hlt">directed</span> <span class="hlt">small</span>-world networks under self-questioning and noisy conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cooperation in the evolutionary snowdrift game with a self-questioning updating mechanism is studied on annealed and quenched <span class="hlt">small</span>-world networks with <span class="hlt">directed</span> couplings. Around the payoff parameter value r=0.5, we find a size-invariant symmetrical cooperation <span class="hlt">effect</span>. While generally suppressing cooperation for r>0.5 payoffs, rewired networks facilitated cooperative behavior for r<0.5. Fair amounts of noise were found to break the observed symmetry and further weaken cooperation at relatively large values of r. However, in the absence of noise, the self-questioning mechanism recovers symmetrical behavior and elevates altruism even under large-reward conditions. Our results suggest that an updating mechanism of this type is necessary to stabilize cooperation in a spatially structured environment which is otherwise detrimental to cooperative behavior, especially at high cost-to-benefit ratios. Additionally, we employ component and local stability analyses to better understand the nature of the manifested dynamics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qiu, Tian; Hadzibeganovic, Tarik; Chen, Guang; Zhong, Li-Xin; Wu, Xiao-Run</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cancan.cshl.edu/publications/Mi_2008_18342361.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sorting of <span class="hlt">Small</span> RNAs into Arabidopsis Argonaute Complexes Is <span class="hlt">Directed</span> by the 5? Terminal Nucleotide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Argonaute (AGO) proteins recruit <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs to form thecore ofRNAieffectorcomplexes.Arabidopsisen- codes ten AGO proteins and a large network of <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs. How these <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs are sorted into specific AGO complexes remains largely unknown. We have cataloged <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs resident in four AGO com- plexes. We found that AGO2 and AGO4 preferentially recruit <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs with a 50 terminal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shijun Mi; Tao Cai; Yugang Hu; Yemiao Chen; Emily Hodges; Fangrui Ni; Liang Wu; Shan Li; Huanyu Zhou; Chengzu Long; She Chen; Gregory J. Hannon; Yijun Qi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29282278"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Leptin on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Intestine Adaptation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. Leptin is a 16-kDa peptide produced by adipocytes that plays an important role in the regulation of body fat and satiety. We have previously shown that leptin is a growth factor for normal rat <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. This study was designed to examine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of systemic leptin administration on <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel absorptive function after massive <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel resection (MSBR).Materials</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philip Y. Pearson; Darlise M. O'Connor; Marshall Z. Schwartz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042384"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Reactor Designs Suitable for <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Nuclear Thermal Propulsion: Interim Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests requires high performance propulsion systems to support missions beyond low Earth orbit. A robust space exploration program will include robotic outer planet and crewed missions to a variety of destinations including the moon, near Earth objects, and eventually Mars. Past studies, in particular those in support of both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. In NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option for the human exploration of Mars because of its high thrust and high specific impulse ({approx}900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. The recently announced national space policy2 supports the development and use of space nuclear power systems where such systems safely enable or significantly enhance space exploration or operational capabilities. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted under the Rover/NERVA, GE-710 and ANL nuclear rocket programs (1955-1973). Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. The primary and significantly larger Rover/NERVA program focused on graphite type fuels. Research, development, and testing of high temperature graphite fuels was conducted. Reactors and engines employing these fuels were designed, built, and ground tested. The GE-710 and ANL programs focused on an alternative ceramic-metallic 'cermet' fuel type consisting of UO2 (or UN) fuel embedded in a refractory metal matrix such as tungsten. The General Electric program examined closed loop concepts for space or terrestrial applications as well as open loop systems for <span class="hlt">direct</span> nuclear thermal propulsion. Although a number of fast spectrum reactor and engine designs suitable for <span class="hlt">direct</span> nuclear thermal propulsion were proposed and designed, none were built. This report summarizes status results of evaluations of <span class="hlt">small</span> nuclear reactor designs suitable for <span class="hlt">direct</span> nuclear thermal propulsion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce G. Schnitzler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55944609"> <span id="translatedtitle">Even-odd electron number <span class="hlt">effect</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> superconducting islands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report an experimental study of the behavior of superconducting single-electron transistors. It consists of a <span class="hlt">small</span> superconducting island weakly coupled to two bias leads through low-capacitance tunnel junctions and capacitively coupled to a gate electrode. The total capacitance of the island to the external circuit is so <span class="hlt">small</span> that the device behavior is dominated by single- electron charging <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jia Grace Lu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22ar%22&pg=2&id=EJ998934"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Group Social Skills Lessons with Elementary Students</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This action research study (ARS) describes the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> group social skills lessons with elementary students, using "Too Good for Violence: A Curriculum for Non-violent Living" by the Mendez Foundation. The school counselor and school social worker taught the curriculum in a structured <span class="hlt">small</span> group of 4th grade students in 8 weekly…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chupp, Amy I.; Boes, Susan R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3262284"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-angle light scattering to detect strain-<span class="hlt">directed</span> collagen degradation in native tissue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been demonstrated that there is a mechanochemical relationship between collagen and collagenolytic enzymes such that increased tensile mechanical strain reduces the enzymatic cutting rate. This mechanochemical relationship has the potential to permit <span class="hlt">directed</span> remodelling of tissue-engineered constructs in vitro and to shed light on the generation of load-adapted collagen-based connective tissue. In this investigation, we demonstrate that <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle light scattering (SALS) has the sensitivity to dynamically detect the preferential enzymatic degradation of a subset of unloaded collagen fibrils within differentially loaded native tissue. Detection of the difference in the relative degradation rate of unloaded fibrils versus loaded fibrils was manifested through changes in the spatial distribution of the SALS signal. Specifically, we found a linear increase in the eccentricity of the SALS data that was consistent with preferential retention of the collagen fibrils aligned with the applied tensile strain. We conclude that SALS is simple, inexpensive and may provide a useful optical screening method permitting real-time monitoring of strain-controlled tissue and construct remodelling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robitaille, Michael C.; Zareian, Ramin; DiMarzio, Charles A.; Wan, Kai-Tak; Ruberti, Jeffrey W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300028"> <span id="translatedtitle">EGFR-<span class="hlt">directed</span> monoclonal antibodies in non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several monoclonal antibodies <span class="hlt">directed</span> against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been evaluated in patients with non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody, has been studied in combination with first-line chemotherapy in phase II and two phase III trials in patients with advanced NSCLC. The phase III FLEX trial demonstrated an increase in survival for cisplatin/vinorelbine plus cetuximab compared to chemotherapy alone in patients with advanced EGFR-expressing NSCLC. Cetuximab added to carboplatin/paclitaxel failed to improve progression-free survival in the BMS099 phase III trial. However, a meta-analysis of four randomized trials confirmed a significant survival benefit for platinum-based chemotherapy plus cetuximab compared to chemotherapy alone. High EGFR expression of tumor cells was then shown to predict the benefit of cetuximab, whereas KRAS mutations and EGFR fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis were without predictive value. Matuzumab and panitumumab have also been studied in phase II trials. Necitumumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, is currently evaluated in combination with chemotherapy in two phase III trials in patients with advanced NSCLC. Cetuximab is also studied in combination with chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. PMID:23300028</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pirker, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1219649M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and disequilibrium <span class="hlt">effects</span> on precipitation in transient climates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate models are in broad agreement that global precipitation increases with surface temperature as atmospheric CO2 concentrations rise, but recent studies have shown that climates that are not yet in equilibrium exhibit additional "transient precipitation <span class="hlt">effects</span>". In conditions of rising CO2, for example, precipitation at a given temperature is suppressed relative to its equilibrium value. Some authors argue that the primary driver of these <span class="hlt">effects</span> is ocean heat uptake, but most recent studies assume that they result from some <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span>. We show here that global precipitation and temperature anomalies are insufficient to resolve mechanisms, since the conventional "fast/slow" representation of transient precipitation <span class="hlt">effects</span> is degenerate with a "disequilibrium" representation that posits control only by ocean heat uptake. We use regional anomalies instead to show in multiple ways that ocean heat uptake is the dominant driver of transient precipitation <span class="hlt">effects</span> in CO2-forced climates. Precipitation suppression appears predominantly over the ocean, with response over land of the opposite sign. The coefficients of a disequilibrium representation are uncorrelated, suggesting that they capture physically meaningful processes, while those of a fast/slow representation are highly correlated. Further, the regional patterns of transient precipitation response are highly similar for both CO2 and solar forcing, with a relatively <span class="hlt">small</span> and homogeneous offset between them. Examination of the surface energy budget allows us to conclude that energy balance in solar-forced climates is achieved by the superposition of both disequilibrium and <span class="hlt">direct</span> processes. Our results highlight the importance of using regional information rather than global aggregates for understanding the physics of transient climate change and its impacts on societies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McInerney, D.; Moyer, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22strength%22&pg=2&id=EJ851401"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Directional</span> Exercise on Lingual Strength</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one <span class="hlt">direction</span> result in strength changes for tongue movements…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMB....57.6947C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of very <span class="hlt">small</span> air gaps on <span class="hlt">small</span> field dosimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of very <span class="hlt">small</span> air gaps (less than 1 mm) on the dosimetry of <span class="hlt">small</span> photon fields used for stereotactic treatments. Measurements were performed with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) for 6 MV photons on a Varian 21iX linear accelerator with a Brainlab µMLC attachment for square field sizes down to 6 mm × 6 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using EGSnrc C++ user code cavity. It was found that the Monte Carlo model used in this study accurately simulated the OSLD measurements on the linear accelerator. For the 6 mm field size, the 0.5 mm air gap upstream to the active area of the OSLD caused a 5.3% dose reduction relative to a Monte Carlo simulation with no air gap. A hypothetical 0.2 mm air gap caused a dose reduction >2%, emphasizing the fact that even the tiniest air gaps can cause a large reduction in measured dose. The negligible <span class="hlt">effect</span> on an 18 mm field size illustrated that the electronic disequilibrium caused by such <span class="hlt">small</span> air gaps only affects the dosimetry of the very <span class="hlt">small</span> fields. When performing <span class="hlt">small</span> field dosimetry, care must be taken to avoid any air gaps, as can be often present when inserting detectors into solid phantoms. It is recommended that very <span class="hlt">small</span> field dosimetry is performed in liquid water. When using <span class="hlt">small</span> photon fields, sub-millimetre air gaps can also affect patient dosimetry if they cannot be spatially resolved on a CT scan. However the <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the patient is debatable as the dose reduction caused by a 1 mm air gap, starting out at 19% in the first 0.1 mm behind the air gap, decreases to <5% after just 2 mm, and electronic equilibrium is fully re-established after just 5 mm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles, P. H.; Crowe, S. B.; Kairn, T.; Kenny, J.; Lehmann, J.; Lye, J.; Dunn, L.; Hill, B.; Knight, R. T.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861333"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wong's equations and the <span class="hlt">small</span> x <span class="hlt">effective</span> action in QCD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a new form for the <span class="hlt">small</span> x <span class="hlt">effective</span> action in QCD. This form of the <span class="hlt">effective</span> action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at <span class="hlt">small</span> x.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-07-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12283743"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> surface tension in Hele-Shaw multifinger dynamics: An analytical and numerical study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the singular <span class="hlt">effects</span> of vanishingly <span class="hlt">small</span> surface tension on the dynamics of finger competition in the Saffman-Taylor problem, using the asymptotic techniques described by Tanveer [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 343, 155 (1993)] and Siegel and Tanveer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 419 (1996)], as well as <span class="hlt">direct</span> numerical computation, following the numerical scheme of Hou, Lowengrub,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Pauné; M. Siegel; J. Casademunt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48338004"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> mechanical <span class="hlt">effects</span> of wind on crops</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review describes those mechanisms by which wind <span class="hlt">directly</span> affects crop growth rates and hence yields. Wind-induced plant\\u000a movement is capable of altering growth rates and leaf morphology, although this is unlikely to be a major cause of growth\\u000a differences between sheltered and unsheltered crops grown outdoors. The wind's force can tear leaves or strip them from the\\u000a plant. Dense</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. A. Cleugh; J. M. Miller; M. Böhm</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60592545"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design and Experimental Study for Development of Pb-Bi Cooled <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Contact Boiling Water <span class="hlt">Small</span> Fast Reactor (PBWFR)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A design concept of Pb-Bi cooled <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling water <span class="hlt">small</span> fast reactor (PBWFR) has been formulated with some design parameters identified. In the PBWFR, water is injected into hot Pb-Bi above the core, and <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling takes place in the chimney. The boiling two-phase flow in the chimney serves as a steam lift pump and a steam generator.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Takahashi; T. Obara; T. Iguchi; A. Otsubo; M. Kondo; Y. Qi; M. Matsumoto; E. Yusibani; T. Akashi; A. Yamada; H. Nei; K. Hata; K. Hara; S. Uchida; H. Osada; Y. Kasahara; K. Matsuzawa; N. Sawa; Y. Yamada; K. Kurome; Y. Okubo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1430..889L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of beam <span class="hlt">directivity</span> on the inspection of anisotropic materials using ultrasonic arrays</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The beam <span class="hlt">directivity</span> from an ultrasonic transducer in isotropic materials is well documented. However, beam <span class="hlt">directivities</span> in elastically anisotropic materials and their <span class="hlt">effect</span> on ultrasonic NDE inspection has been investigated far less extensively. In this paper, analytical and numerical finite element models are developed to predict the beam <span class="hlt">directivity</span> in a single crystal nickel-based superalloy. This material is highly anisotropic and is used widely in the gas-turbine industry. The developed models are used to investigate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the crystallographic orientation on the beam <span class="hlt">directivity</span>. In turn, the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of beam <span class="hlt">directivity</span> on defect detection sensitivity and characterization capability using an ultrasonic array is demonstrated. It is shown that the <span class="hlt">effect</span> is particularly important for the accurate sizing of <span class="hlt">small</span> defects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lane, C. J. L.; Wilcox, P. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290522"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">DIRECTED</span> APPROACH FOR ENGINEERING CONDITIONAL PROTEIN STABILITY USING BIOLOGICALLY SILENT <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> MOLECULES*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability to regulate the function of specific proteins using cell-permeable molecules can be a powerful method for interrogating biological systems. To bring this type of “chemical genetic” control to a wide range of proteins, we recently developed an experimental system in which the stability of a <span class="hlt">small</span> protein domain expressed in mammalian cells depends on the presence of a high-affinity ligand. This ligand-dependent stability is conferred to any fused partner protein. The FK506- and rapamycin-binding protein (FKBP12) has been the subject of extensive biophysical analyses, including both kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the wild-type protein as well as dozens of mutants. The goal of this study was to determine if the thermodynamic stabilities (??GU-F) of various amino acid substitutions within a given protein are predictive for engineering additional ligand-dependent destabilizing domains. We used FKBP12 as a model system and found that in vitro thermodynamic stability correlates weakly with intracellular degradation rates of the mutants and that the ability of a given mutation to destabilize the protein is context dependent. We evaluated several new FKBP12 ligands for their ability to stabilize these mutants and found that a cell-permeable molecule called Shield-1 is the most <span class="hlt">effective</span> stabilizing ligand. We then performed an unbiased microarray analysis of NIH3T3 cells treated with various concentrations of Shield-1. These studies show that Shield-1 does not elicit appreciable cellular responses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maynard-Smith, Lystranne A.; Chen, Ling-chun; Banaszynski, Laura A.; Lisa Ooi, A. G.; Wandless, Thomas J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52290317"> <span id="translatedtitle">SWAD: <span class="hlt">small</span> arms fire warning and <span class="hlt">direction</span> finding system: a passive IR concept</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A passive IR approach for stationary system is introduced providing protection to high value infrastructure and strategic areas by detecting and warnings against fire shot from rifles, carbines, sub-machines and various other <span class="hlt">small</span> arms - SWAD. SWAD provides protected surroundings in which it remotely detects <span class="hlt">small</span> arms fire. By analyzing their patterns, including duration and intensity, SWAD classifies the type</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moti Zahler; Meir Danino</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/919065"> <span id="translatedtitle">Colloidal Graphite-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization MS and MSn of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Molecules. 2. <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Profiling and MS Imaging of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Metabolites from Fruits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to a high background in the low-mass region, conventional MALDI is not as useful for detecting <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules (molecular masses <500 Da) as it is for large ones. Also, spatial inhomogeneity that is inherent to crystalline matrixes can degrade resolution in imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). In this study, colloidal graphite was investigated as an alternative matrix for laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in IMS. We demonstrate its advantages over conventional MALDI in the detection of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules such as organic acids, flavonoids, and oligosaccharides. GALDI provides good sensitivity for such <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules. The detection limit of fatty acids and flavonoids in the negative-ion mode are in the low-femtomole range. Molecules were detected <span class="hlt">directly</span> and identified by comparing the MS and MS/MS spectra with those of standards. Various fruits were chosen to evaluate the practical utility of GALDI since many types of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules are present in them. Distribution of these <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules in the fruit was investigated by using IMS and IMS/MS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hui Zhang; Sangwon Cha; Edward S. Yeung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48146011"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Determinants of the Location of Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment by Japanese <span class="hlt">Small</span> and Medium-sized Enterprises</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Japanese manufacturing <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium enterprises (SMEs) have actively undertaken Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment (FDI) in Asia since the mid-1980s. FDI contributes to economic growth of the FDI recipient countries, as it brings in not only financial resources for investment but also technologies and managerial know-how, which are important factors for promoting economic growth. Recognizing these benefits of receiving FDI, policy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shujiro Urata; Hiroki Kawai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42407776"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changing <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Direct</span>-to-Consumer Broadcast Drug Advertising Information Sources on Prescription Drug Requests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study tracks the changes of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of 4 information sources for <span class="hlt">direct</span>-to-consumer drug advertising on patients' requests for prescription drugs from physicians since the inception of the “Guidance for Industry about Consumer-<span class="hlt">directed</span> Broadcast Advertisements.” The Guidance advises pharmaceuticals to use four information sources for consumers to seek further information to supplement broadcast drug advertisements: <span class="hlt">small</span>-print information, the Internet,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Annisa Lai Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32244664"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of psychostimulants on rats relearning the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of avoidance in a U-shaped maze</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability of rats to relearn the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of the avoidance response was studied in a U-shaped maze. Four training series of experiments were carried out, each with a different <span class="hlt">direction</span> (to right or left) of running. In <span class="hlt">small</span> and average doses (0.5 and 2 mg\\/kg) amphetamine shortened the latent periods of the responses and had no <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. A. Baturin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=33934"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> BIOLOGICAL <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF INCREASED ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report assesses the likely biological nonclimatic, <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of carbon dioxide (CO2) on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and on human health. It summarizes the current literature on the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of rising CO2 levels on the biosphere and identifies technical info...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35041173"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of ephedrine isomers on human ?-adrenergic receptor subtypes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ephedrine and its alkaloids are used for the treatment of asthma, nasal congestion, and obesity. Ephedrine, with two chiral centers, exists as four isomers that exhibit <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on both ?- and ?-adrenergic receptors (AR). Our main goal was to study the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the ephedrine isomers on human ?1-, ?2-, and ?3-AR expressed in Chinese hamster</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandeep S Vansal; Dennis R Feller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P41B1617C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Potential and Gravity on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Bodies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-scale topography is key to characterizing surface morphology and geological processes on <span class="hlt">small</span> bodies as well as planets. <span class="hlt">Small</span> bodies are typically irregular in shape, and numerical calculations of surface gravitational and centrifugal potential as well as surface <span class="hlt">effective</span> gravity are essential for studying the sedimentation and mass motion of surface materials. Evidence of such processes is found on all <span class="hlt">small</span> bodies observed to date at sufficient resolution. For Eros and Itokawa, the two objects studied from rendezvous, the measured gravity field is consistent with a body of constant density. Werner and Scheeres (1997) introduced an exact method for calculating the potential of constant-density, polyhedral bodies with a sum over surface polygon faces and another sum over polygon edges. For applications to Eros and Itokawa, we have used a simpler, approximate method for calculating the <span class="hlt">effective</span> potential and <span class="hlt">effective</span> gravity of a <span class="hlt">small</span> body, summing over facets of plate models in which the surface is tessellated into triangular plates (Cheng et al. 2001 and 2002). This calculation method approximates the potential recognizing that the actual surface is not polyhedral but is approximated as such. Here we use high-resolution shape models of an arbitrary ellipsoid, Eros, and Itokawa to make quantitative comparisons of the <span class="hlt">effective</span> potential and gravity calculated from the exact polyhedral method, the approximate method, and a spherical harmonic method applied outside the body.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, A. F.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22213037"> <span id="translatedtitle">Overexpression of <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases <span class="hlt">directly</span> correlates with expression of ?-catenin and their coexpression predicts a poor clinical outcome in nonsmall cell lung cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">?-catenin can affect cytoskeletal assembly, and promote cell migration by regulating the activity of <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases. While many malignancies have been shown to be positive for ?-catenin, it is still unclear whether ?-catenin and <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases are coexpressed in tumor cells, and so is the relationship between their coexpression and prognosis in the tumor patients. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed to examine expressive levels of ?-catenin, cdc42, and Rac1 in 135 cases of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including 60 cases with follow-up records. Thirty samples of paired lung cancer tissues and adjacent normal lung tissues were collected to analyze mRNA and protein expression of ?-catenin and <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of ?-catenin on <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases expression and invasive ability of lung cancer cells were also evaluated. Compared with normal lung tissues, both mRNA and protein levels of ?-catenin and <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases were increased in lung cancer tissues (P < 0.05), and the expression of <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases <span class="hlt">directly</span> correlated with that of ?-catenin (P < 0.001). In addition, ?-catenin and <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases tended to be coexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma, advanced stages, and primary tumors with lymph node metastasis (all P < 0.05). The patients with coexpression of ?-catenin and <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases had a shorter survival time than those without coexpression (P < 0.05). Furthermore, ?-catenin overexpression could enhance invasive ability of lung cancer cells by upregulating protein and transcriptional level of <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases. Therefore, ?-catenin likely upregulates the activity of <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases at transcriptional level, and their coexpression may predict a poor clinical outcome in NSCLC patients. PMID:22213037</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Di; Wang, En-Hua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1056018"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Fast Spectrum Reactor Designs Suitable for <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Nuclear Thermal Propulsion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. Past studies, in particular those in support of both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. The recent NASA Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study re-examined mission, payload, and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system. A common nuclear thermal propulsion stage with three 25,000-lbf thrust engines was used for all primary mission maneuvers. Moderately lower thrust engines may also have important roles. In particular, lower thrust engine designs demonstrating the critical technologies that are <span class="hlt">directly</span> extensible to other thrust levels are attractive from a ground testing perspective. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. Reactors and engines employing graphite based fuels were designed, built and ground tested. A number of fast spectrum reactor and engine designs employing refractory metal alloy fuel types were proposed and designed, but none were built. The <span class="hlt">Small</span> Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art graphite based fuel design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. The SNRE was a nominal 16,000-lbf thrust engine originally intended for unmanned applications with relatively short engine operations and the engine and stage design were constrained to fit within the payload volume of the then planned space shuttle. The SNRE core design utilized hexagonal fuel elements and hexagonal structural support elements. The total number of elements can be varied to achieve engine designs of higher or lower thrust levels. Some variation in the ratio of fuel elements to structural elements is also possible. Options for SNRE-based engine designs in the 25,000-lbf thrust range were described in a recent (2010) Joint Propulsion Conference paper. The reported designs met or exceeded the performance characteristics baselined in the DRA 5.0 Study. Lower thrust SNRE-based designs were also described in a recent (2011) Joint Propulsion Conference paper. Recent activities have included parallel evaluation and design efforts on fast spectrum engines employing refractory metal alloy fuels. These efforts include evaluation of both heritage designs from the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and General Electric Company GE-710 Programs as well as more recent designs. Results are presented for a number of not-yet optimized fast spectrum engine options.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce G. Schnitzler; Stanley K. Borowski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhyE....4..149F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carrier transport characteristics of <span class="hlt">small</span>-size field <span class="hlt">effect</span> transistors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The quantum wave transport of carriers driven by an external electric field (drain bias) is studied numerically in a typical GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction field <span class="hlt">effect</span> transistor as a function of the gate bias. We have shown that when the size of the transistor is reduced so that quantum <span class="hlt">effects</span> become important, the operational characteristics of the transistor are dominated by the conductance quantization <span class="hlt">effect</span> at infinitely <span class="hlt">small</span> drain bias and zero temperature. The conductance quantization is diminished when the temperature is increased due to the thermal excitation <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Normal I-V characteristics of the transistor performance are obtained for <span class="hlt">small</span>-size field <span class="hlt">effect</span> transistor where quantum wave transmission is the principal carrier transport mechanism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fu, Y.; Willander, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2450..428A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cost <span class="hlt">effective</span> FITL technologies for <span class="hlt">small</span> business and residential customers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">FIRST is a RACE project where 5 main European telecoms operators, 4 equipment manufacturers and one university have joined up to define and test in a field trial in Portugal a cost <span class="hlt">effective</span> Optical Access Network. The main design target has been a system which gives cost <span class="hlt">effective</span> provision of wideband services for <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium business customers. The system however, incorporates provision of telephone, ISDN and analog and digital video for residential customers as well. Technologies have been chosen with the objective of providing a simple, robust and flexible system where initial deployment costs are low and closely related to the service take up. The paper describes the main technical features of the system and network applications which shows how the system may be introduced in network planning. The system is based on Passive Optical Network technology where video is distributed in the 1550 nm window and telecoms services transmitted at 1300 nm in full duplex mode. The telecoms system provides high capacity, flexibility in loop length and robustness towards outside plant performance. The Subcarrier Multiple Access (SCMA) method is used for upstream transmission of bi-<span class="hlt">directional</span> telecoms services. SCMA has advantages compared to the Time Division Multiple Access technology used in other systems. Bandwidth/cost tradeoff is better and the lower requirements to the outside plant increases the overall cost benefit. Optical beat noise due to overlapping of laser spectra which may be a problem for this technology has been addressed with success through the use of a suitable modulation and control technique. This technology is further validated in the field trial. The video system provides cost <span class="hlt">effective</span> long distance transmission on standard fiber with externally modulated lasers and cascaded amplifiers. Coexistence of analog and digital video on one fiber with different modulation schemes i.e. BPSK, QPSK and 64 QAM have been validated. Total life cycle cost evaluations based on availability data, maintenance requirements and expectations for service development have been made. The field trial will be running for two years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andersen, Niels E.; Woolnough, Peter; Seidenberg, Juergen; Ferreira, Mario F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22704574"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> bowel endoscopy: cost-<span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the different approaches.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Obscure gastrointestinal haemorrhage is defined the presence of overt or occult bleeding in the setting of a normal endoscopic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts. While obscure bleeding is not common, the evaluation and management of these patients often incurs considerable expense. Potential options for <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel evaluation include traditional radiographic studies, push enteroscopy, video capsule endoscopy, deep enteroscopy, tagged red blood cell scans, angiography, and enterography examinations with either computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. The decision regarding which modality to employ depends on the cost of the procedure, its <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in rendering a diagnosis, and the potential for administration of therapy. This article will discuss determination of costs associated with technology for <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel imaging, quality of life data associated with chronic GI haemorrhage, and available cost-<span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> studies comparing the options for <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel exploration. PMID:22704574</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerson, Lauren B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JChPh.128k4702H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Size extensivity of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> optimized <span class="hlt">effective</span> potential method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the size extensivity of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> optimized <span class="hlt">effective</span> potential procedure of Yang and Wu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143002 (2002)]. The choice of reference potential within the finite basis construction of the local Kohn-Sham potential can lead to a method that is not size extensive. Such a situation is encountered when one employs the Fermi-Amaldi potential, which is often used to enforce the correct asymptotic behavior of the exact exchange-correlation potential. The size extensivity error with the Fermi-Amaldi reference potential is shown to behave linearly with the number of electrons in the limit of an infinite number of well separated monomers. In practice, the error tends to be rather <span class="hlt">small</span> and rapidly approaches the limiting linear behavior. Moreover, with a flexible enough potential basis set, the error can be decreased significantly. We also consider one possible reference potential, constructed from the van Leeuwen-Baerends potential, which provides a size extensive implementation while also enforcing the correct asymptotic behavior.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heaton-Burgess, Tim; Cohen, Aron J.; Yang, Weitao; Davidson, Ernest R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034700"> <span id="translatedtitle">SUCCESSIVE SOLAR ERUPTIONS TRIGGERED BY THE COLLISION OF TWO <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> SUNSPOTS WITH OPPOSITE POLARITIES AND MOTIONAL <span class="hlt">DIRECTIONS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a study of the two successive M-class flares associated with two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) triggered by the collision of two <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspots with opposite magnetic polarities and motional <span class="hlt">directions</span> in NOAA active region (AR) 10484 on 2003 October 22. From the evolution of this AR in the TRACE white-light images and 96 minute line-of-sight magnetograms observed by the Michelson Doppler Imager on board SOHO, a large sunspot and a <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspot with negative polarity rotated clockwise about 33 Degree-Sign and 18 Degree-Sign , respectively, from the northeast of a quiescent sunspot with negative polarity to the southeast from 15:00 UT on October 21 to 16:24 UT on October 23. During the process of their motion, the <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspot with negative polarity collided with the <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspot with positive polarity and opposite motional <span class="hlt">direction</span>. In the collision, this AR produced two successive M-class flares and CMEs according to the observations of GOES and the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. By analyzing the magnetic fields at polarity inversion lines (PILs) between the two <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspot, it is found that a sudden squeeze occurred near the onset of the two M-class flares and then recovered itself after the flares. We ruled out the emergence of the magnetic fields near the PIL. According to the brightenings in TRACE 1600 A and the hard X-ray sources of the RHESSI of two M-class flares, we found that the locations of the two flares are almost situated in the same location at the PIL between the two <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspots. We suggest that the sudden squeeze between the opposite magnetic polarities is caused by the pressure of the collision of the two <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspots and resulted in the magnetic reconnection. These results could contribute to understanding the mechanism of flares and CMEs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Kong, D. F. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32400501"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of antitumor drug side <span class="hlt">effects</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> animals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is an initial report on the development of screening tests for side <span class="hlt">effects</span> of antitumor drugs, with <span class="hlt">small</span> amounts of compound and short time intervals. These tests are based on acute dosing of mice and various blood or serum measurements: (a) total white blood cell count for leukopenia; (b) BUN for kidney toxicity; (c) SGPT for liver toxicity; and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. T. Bradner; J. E. Schurig; J. B. Huftalen; G. J. Doyle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fenton+AND+process&pg=2&id=ED119262"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Communication Inhibition on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Group Interaction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This study examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of high and low communication inhibition on <span class="hlt">small</span> group interaction. Communication inhibition was identified in terms of a scale developed through the factor analysis of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker--Short Form, the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension--College, and Unwillingness to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fenton, Raymond Joseph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58987625"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical estimation of the <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge of <span class="hlt">small</span> urban streams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regardless of the design approach, the success or failure of stream restoration projects, especially in <span class="hlt">small</span> urban streams is dependent on the accurate estimation of the channel-forming discharge. Among the different types of channel-forming discharges, I <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge (Qe) is the only one that incorporates sediment transport mechanics in its estimation process. This thesis primarily focuses on Qe paying special</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asif Quader</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33469356"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of caffeine on large and <span class="hlt">small</span> artery compliance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Decreased artery compliance is strongly associated cardiovascular disease. Although caffeine is known to acutely increase blood pressure (BP), <span class="hlt">effect</span> of caffeine on artery compliance is not well defined. We examined change in large artery elastic index (LAEI) and <span class="hlt">small</span> artery elastic index (SAEI) in response to caffeine. The study is designed as a single-blind crossover study in healthy volunteers. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ajith Kuriakose; Bong H. Sung; Michael F. Wilson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=the+AND+giver&pg=5&id=EJ733789"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-Group Reflections: Parallels Between Teacher Discourse and Student Behavior in Peer-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> Groups</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prior research on <span class="hlt">small</span>-group collaboration identifies several behaviors that significantly predict student learning, such as exchanging explanations and applying help received. Previous reports focus on student behavior to understand why many students do not engage in behaviors predictive of learning, leaving unexplored how teachers may influence…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Ing, Marsha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u062v097u2154373.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neurochemically similar myenteric and submucous neurons <span class="hlt">directly</span> traced to the mucosa of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Antisera to neuropeptide Y (NPY) gave an intense immunohistochemical reaction of certain nerve cells in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the guinea-pig <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. Each nerve cell had up to 20 branching, tapering processes that were less than ~50 µm long and a long process that could be followed for a considerable distance. This morphology corresponds to that of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. B. Furness; M. Costa; I. L. Gibbins; I. J. Llewellyn-Smith; J. R. Oliver</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/2009/nrs_2009_glynn_001.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selected Achievements, Science <span class="hlt">Directions</span>, and New Opportunities for the WEBB <span class="hlt">Small</span> Watershed Research Program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over nearly two decades, the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) <span class="hlt">small</span> watershed research program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented how water and solute fluxes, nutrient, carbon, and mercury dynamics, and weathering and sediment transport respond to natural and human- caused drivers, including climate, climate change, and atmospheric deposition. Together with a continued and increasing focus on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pierre D. Glynn; Matthew C. Larsen; Earl A. Greene; Heather L. Buss; David W. Clow; Randall J. Hunt; M. Alisa Mast; Sheila F. Murphy; Norman E. Peters; Stephen D. Sebestyen; James B. Shanley; John F. Walker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53997303"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-<span class="hlt">small</span> carbon-dot patterns for <span class="hlt">directed</span> Ge quantum dot growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The controlled growth of patterns of <span class="hlt">small</span> quantum dots in the diameter range of 10 nm is critical for the application in quantum computer architectures. It is well known that Ge quantum dots with a diameter smaller than 10 nm nucleate on the Si(100) surface after carbon pre-adsorption in a random pattern 1. We follow this approach to generate ultimately</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olivier Guise; Hubertus Marbach; Sergey Mezhenny; Jeremy Levy; Joachim Ahner; J. R. Yates</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=college+AND+students+AND+using+AND+drugs&pg=5&id=EJ1003236"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Direct</span>, Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a Quantitative Technique for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Molecules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used technique with applications in disease diagnosis, detection of contaminated foods, and screening for drugs of abuse or environmental contaminants. However, published protocols with a focus on quantitative detection of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules designed for teaching laboratories are limited. A…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Powers, Jennifer L.; Rippe, Karen Duda; Imarhia, Kelly; Swift, Aileen; Scholten, Melanie; Islam, Naina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1560830"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direction</span> and polarization estimation using arrays with <span class="hlt">small</span> loops and short dipoles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that when polarization-sensitive arrays consisting of crossed <span class="hlt">small</span> loops and short dipoles are used, one can eliminate the requirement in the ESPRIT algorithm that sensors must occur in matched pairs. The dipoles and loops are sensitive to the polarizations of incident electromagnetic plane waves. The dipoles are sensitive to the incident electric field components, and the loops</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jian Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36120439"> <span id="translatedtitle">The RITS Complex—A <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Link between <span class="hlt">Small</span> RNA and Heterochromatin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a recent report, Moazed, Grewal, and colleagues (Verdel et al., 2004) characterize the RITS (RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional silencing) protein complex in fission yeast. They provide a sought-for link between the <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA produced by the RNA interference machinery and heterochromatin components, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatin formation can be targeted in trans to specific chromosomal regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karl Ekwall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S52A0130G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Directional</span> Site Amplification <span class="hlt">Effect</span> on Tarzana Hill, California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Significantly amplified ground accelerations at the Tarzana Hill station were recorded during the 1987 Mw 5.9 Whittier Narrows and the 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. Peak horizontal ground acceleration at the Tarzana station during the 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake was almost twice as large as the accelerations recorded at nearby stations. The Tarzana site was drilled to a depth of 100 m. A low shear-wave velocity near the surface of 100 m/sec increasing to near 750 m/sec at 100 m depth was measured. The 20 m high hill was found to be well drained with a water table near 17 m. Modelo formation (extremely weathered at the surface to fresh at depth) underlies the hill. The subsurface geology and velocities obtained allow classification of this location as a soft-rock site. After the Northridge earthquake the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program significantly increased instrumentation at Tarzana to study the unusual site amplification <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Current instrumentation at Tarzana consists of an accelerograph at the top of Tarzana hill (Tarzana - Cedar Hill B), a downhole instrument at 60 m depth, and an accelerograph at the foot of the hill (Tarzana - Clubhouse), 180 m from the Cedar Hill B station. The original station, Tarzana - Cedar Hill Nursery A, was lost in 1999 due to construction. More than twenty events, including the Hector Mine earthquake, were recorded by all these instruments at Tarzana. Comparison of recordings and response spectra demonstrates strong <span class="hlt">directional</span> resonance on the top of the hill in a <span class="hlt">direction</span> perpendicular to the strike of the hill in the period range from 0.04 to 0.8 sec (1.2 to 25 Hz). There is practically no amplification from the bottom to the top of the hill for the component parallel to the strike of the hill. In contrast to accelerations recorded during the Hector Mine earthquake (high frequency part of seismic signal), displacements (relatively low frequency part of seismic signal) demonstrate almost no site amplification from the bottom of the hole to the surface at periods greater than 1.5 sec, in either <span class="hlt">direction</span>. The <span class="hlt">directional</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> at Tarzana hill seems to be azimuth dependent. Relatively higher amplification at the perpendicular component is produced for the earthquake sources located north of the station. We were not able to see any differences in hill response before and after development (a relatively <span class="hlt">small</span> part of the hill was developed). The source of the site amplification that produces large motions at Tarzana is still under investigation with "the usual suspects" like topography and shear wave velocity profile not providing the explanation. New data recorded at Tarzana in recent years clearly show that the Tarzana <span class="hlt">effect</span> is a very localized high-frequency <span class="hlt">effect</span> observed only at the top of the hill. Drilling at Tarzana was co-funded by CSMIP and by the National Science Foundation through the Resolution of Site Response Issues from the Northridge Earthquake Project (ROSRINE).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graizer, V.; Shakal, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37930610"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethical Unit Trust Financial Performance: <span class="hlt">Small</span> Company <span class="hlt">Effects</span> and Fund Size <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent papers which have examined unit trusts have controlled either for a 'fund size <span class="hlt">effect</span>' or for the '<span class="hlt">small</span> firms <span class="hlt">effect</span>' in the investment portfolio. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of the '<span class="hlt">small</span> firms <span class="hlt">effect</span>' whilst simultaneously controlling for the 'fund size <span class="hlt">effect</span>'. We show that the ethical unit trusts have significantly greater exposure than general unit</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alan Gregory; John Matatko; Robert Luther</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35391689"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical methods in environmental <span class="hlt">effects-directed</span> investigations of effluents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effluent discharges are released into aquatic environments as complex mixtures for which there is commonly either no knowledge of the toxic components or a lack of understanding of how known toxicants interact with other effluent components. <span class="hlt">Effects-directed</span> investigations consist of chemical extraction and iterative fractionation steps <span class="hlt">directed</span> by a biological endpoint that is designed to permit the identification or characterization</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Mark Hewitt; Chris H. Marvin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56672830"> <span id="translatedtitle">Porous vycor glass: The microstructure as probed by electron microscopy, <span class="hlt">direct</span> energy transfer, <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle scattering, and molecular adsorption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We provide a comprehensive analysis of the microstructure of the porous glass, vycor. Using transmission electron microscopy, <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle x-ray scattering, molecular adsorption, and the dynamic process of <span class="hlt">direct</span> energy transfer, a consistent picture of the mass, pore, and interfacial features of this material is presented. From a transmission-electron-microscopy image of an ultrathin section of vycor the material appears to have</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Levitz; G. Ehret; S. K. Sinha; J. M. Drake</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976267"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for <span class="hlt">direct</span> profiling and imaging of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules from raw biological materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules <span class="hlt">directly</span> from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of <span class="hlt">small</span> metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. <span class="hlt">Directly</span> from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cha, Sangwon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA497498"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weaponeering the Future: <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Energy Weapons <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Now and Tomorrow.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Energy weapons can exist on the battlefield of today, and the warfighter needs to know what Probability of Damage these weapons can attain. Currently, the Joint Munitions <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Manual calculates a Single Sortie Probability of Damage for con...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. F. Fager</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fie-conference.org/fie2004/papers/1216.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> group, self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> problem based learning development in a traditional engineering program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Criterion 3 of ABET 2003-2004 criteria for accrediting engineering programs [ABET, 2003] requires that all engineering programs demonstrate that their graduates possess the ability and desire to become lifelong learners as well as an ability to formulate and solve engineering problems. Self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> problem based learning is a pedagogical approach that can help students learn and retain material while developing skills</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kevin C. Bower; T. W. Ways; Christopher M. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22outward+investment%22&id=EJ808640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Outward Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment and Human Capital Development: A <span class="hlt">Small</span> Country Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McDonnell, Anthony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18085155"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Strain Oscillation: a new oscillatory method enabling measurements at very <span class="hlt">small</span> shear stresses and strains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As shown previously, a rotational rheometer equipped with an electronically commutated motor (EC-motor) allows one to conduct stress and strain experiments with the same rheometer in rotational mode. A new method has now been developed to improve further strain controlled oscillatory measurements by adjusting the strain <span class="hlt">directly</span> within a single oscillation cycle. Generally, a strain controlled oscillatory test in a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jörg Läuger; Klaus Wollny; Siegfried Huck</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22HRMS%22&pg=4&id=EJ808640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Outward Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment and Human Capital Development: A <span class="hlt">Small</span> Country Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McDonnell, Anthony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50689976"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> thrust controlled linear induction motor including end <span class="hlt">effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a special feature, the linear induction motor (LIM) has an end <span class="hlt">effect</span> phenomena causing weakening in airgap flux also in thrust. In this paper, <span class="hlt">direct</span> thrust control of linear induction motors is improved by considering the end <span class="hlt">effect</span> in flux and thrust estimator part based on the mathematical model of LIM. To show the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the improved system,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berrin Susluoglu; Vedat M. Karsli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40479707"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical study on the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of electrode force in <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale resistance spot welding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since electrode force is an important process parameter in <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW), its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the electrical, thermal and mechanical behavior of the welding process when using <span class="hlt">direct</span> current have been studied numerically in the present paper using the finite element method. The variations of contact radius, current density distribution and temperature profile at the sheet\\/sheet (S\\/S) and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. H. Chang; Y. Zhou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1440..541A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of CNG <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in <span class="hlt">small</span> engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the <span class="hlt">direct</span> injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20519954"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> RNA-<span class="hlt">directed</span> transcriptional control: new insights into mechanisms and therapeutic applications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) has opened new avenues in biology and medicine. In addition to post-transcriptional gene silencing, new findings are expanding the range of action of <span class="hlt">small</span> duplex RNAs and broadening the spectrum of the potential applications of RNAi-based therapeutics. In recent years a complex and heterogeneous network of non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with potential regulatory functions has come into the spotlight providing an unexpected perspective on the mechanisms of transcriptional and epigenetic control of gene expression in human cells. The spread and complexity of these RNA-based transcriptional regulatory networks are still to be explored. However, they are likely to be important mechanisms controlling gene expression in human cells. As we will learn more about these processes, endogenous <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs and ncRNAs participating in these transcriptional regulatory networks might become valuable targets to modulate expression of genes involved in human diseases. Thus, understanding these basic processes of gene regulation might be translated in the near future into innovative therapeutic strategies to treat human diseases. PMID:20519954</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pastori, Chiara; Magistri, Marco; Napoli, Sara; Carbone, Giuseppina M; Catapano, Carlo V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26792485"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear <span class="hlt">effects</span> of line tension in adhesion of <span class="hlt">small</span> droplets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three-phase line tensions may become crucial in the adhesion of micro-nano or <span class="hlt">small</span> droplets on solid planes. In this paper\\u000a we study for the first time the nonlinear <span class="hlt">effects</span> in adhesion spanning the full range of physically possible parameters of\\u000a surface tension, line tension, and droplet size. It is shown that the nonlinear adhesion solution spaces can be characterized\\u000a into</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cun-jing Lv; Ya-jun Yin; Quan-shui Zheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57524727"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of obesity on balance recovery from <span class="hlt">small</span> postural perturbations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Obesity is a major and growing health concern associated with a risk of falls. While obese individuals exhibit increased sway during quiet standing, most falls result from some type of postural perturbation. This study investigated <span class="hlt">effects</span> of obesity on balance recovery from <span class="hlt">small</span> forward postural perturbations. Altogether, 20 males, 10 normal weight (BMI: 21.9 ± 1.4) and 10 obese (BMI: 33.2 ± 2.3), received</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emily M. Miller; Sara L. Matrangola; Michael L. Madigan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/wr/wr0504/2004WR003703/2004WR003703.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Type curve analyses of pneumatic single-hole tests in unsaturated fractured tuff: <span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence for a porosity scale <span class="hlt">effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A large number of single- and cross-hole pneumatic injection tests have been conducted in shallow vertical and inclined boreholes in unsaturated fractured tuff at the Apache Leap Research Site (ALRS) near Superior, Arizona. Previously, <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect evidence for a permeability scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> was provided through the analysis of these tests. <span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence was based on the comparison of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walter A. Illman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7221166"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of glipentide on galactose absorption and disaccharidase activity in rat <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of hypoglycemic sulfonylurea glipentide on galactose transport and disaccharidase activity has been studied in rat <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. When 2 x 10(-4) M glipentide is present in the mucosal bathing solution, galactose active transport is inhibited 30% both in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of rats with 5 mg/kg glipentide p.o. for 10 days does not modify galactose absorption of disaccharidase activity. Incubation of the enzymes with glipentide shows no <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the drug on its hydrolytic activity. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of glipentide on sugar transport are slight, or non significant in maintaining low blood sugar levels. PMID:7221166</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gómez, P L; Planas, J M; Moretó, M; Bolufer, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1284323"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus characteristics within <span class="hlt">directives</span>: <span class="hlt">effects</span> on accuracy of task completion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three experiments were conducted in an outpatient setting with young children who had been referred for treatment of noncompliant behavior and who had coexisting receptive language or receptive vocabulary difficulties. Experiment 1 studied differential responding of the participants to a brief hierarchical <span class="hlt">directive</span> analysis (least-to-most complex stimulus prompts) to identify <span class="hlt">directives</span> that functioned as discriminative stimuli for accurate responding. Experiment 1 identified distinct patterns of accurate responding relative to manipulation of <span class="hlt">directive</span> stimulus characteristics. Experiment 2 demonstrated that <span class="hlt">directives</span> identified as <span class="hlt">effective</span> or ineffective in obtaining stimulus control of accurate responding during Experiment 1 continued to control accurate responding across play activities and academic tasks. Experiment 3 probed <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the interaction between the type of <span class="hlt">directive</span> (<span class="hlt">effective</span> vs. ineffective) and the reinforcement contingency (differential reinforcement for attempts vs. differential reinforcement for accurate responses) on accurate task completion and disruptive behavior. Results suggested that behavioral escalation from inaccurate responding to disruptive behavior occurred only when ineffective <span class="hlt">directives</span> were combined with differential reinforcement for accurate task completion. The overall results are discussed in terms of developing a methodology for identifying stimulus characteristics of <span class="hlt">directives</span> that affect accurate responding.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richman, D M; Wacker, D P; Cooper-Brown, L J; Kayser, K; Crosland, K; Stephens, T J; Asmus, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ITEIS.130..317T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Sized Long Tail Business with the Dual-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> Recommendation System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a novel architecture to promote retail businesses using information recommendation systems. The main features of the architecture are 1) Dual-<span class="hlt">directed</span> Recommendation system, 2) Portal site for three kinds of users: Producers, Retailers, and Consumers, which are considered to be Prosumers, and 3) Agent-based implementation. We have developed a web-based system DAIKOC (Dynamic Advisor for Information and Knowledge Oriented Communities) with the above architecture. In this paper, we focus on the recommendation functions to extract the items that will achieve the large sales in the future from the ID (IDentification)-POS (Point-Of-Sales) data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takahashi, Masakazu; Yamada, Takashi; Tsuda, Kazuhiko; Terano, Takao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=new+AND+invention&pg=5&id=EJ732825"> <span id="translatedtitle">Promoting Transfer: <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Self-Explanation and <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Explaining new ideas to oneself can promote transfer, but how and when such self-explanation is <span class="hlt">effective</span> is unclear. This study evaluated whether self-explanation leads to lasting improvements in transfer success and whether it is more <span class="hlt">effective</span> in combination with <span class="hlt">direct</span> instruction or invention. Third- through fifth-grade children (ages 8-11;…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rittle-Johnson, Bethany</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37450762"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of quality of institutions on outward foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we study the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of quality of institutions in the OECD and Asian host countries on outward foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment (FDI) stocks of source OECD countries using International Country Risk Guide governance indicators, for the period 1991 to 2001. We find that better institutions in the host countries have an overall positive and significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on source</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anil Mishra; Kevin Daly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36913876"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direction</span> of the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of questions in prose material</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Examined the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of the facilitative <span class="hlt">effect</span> of questions inserted at intervals in prose material in terms of the textual distance of particular information in the passage from the inserted questions and the relationship between the information tested by the inserted questions and that tested by the criterion test items. Results with 140 undergraduates show that the initial <span class="hlt">effect</span> of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barry McGaw; Arden Grotelueschen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83j3906W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> structural characterisation of line gratings with grazing incidence <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle x-ray scattering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Grazing incidence <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and x-ray reflectometry (XRR) have been used to investigate structural parameters, especially period length, line width, groove width, and line height, of grating test structures in the sub-micron range. The gratings are e-beam written structures on a quartz substrate with a fixed period length, but different line and groove widths, covered by a layer of ruthenium. A Ru layer thickness of 9.4 nm has been determined with XRR. GISAXS was performed in two orientations, with an incident beam alignment perpendicular and parallel to the grating lines. The scattering patterns in parallel orientation have been analysed without numerical simulation by Fourier transformation. The obtained results for line and groove width are in good agreement with nominal values. The analysis method has been validated by analysing simulated scattering data. A superposition of scattering intensities measured for different azimuthal rotation angles close to parallel alignment was used to determine the line height of a grating of 27.3 nm, which is also close to the nominal value. The Fourier analysis procedure opens up the possibility of traceable structure determination with GISAXS in the nanometre range.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wernecke, Jan; Scholze, Frank; Krumrey, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26507134"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> signal stability analysis and control of the wind turbine with the <span class="hlt">direct</span>-drive permanent magnet generator integrated to the grid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, a model of the wind turbine (WT) with <span class="hlt">direct</span>-drive permanent magnet generator (DDPMG) and its associated controllers is presented, based on which a <span class="hlt">small</span> signal stability analysis model is derived. The <span class="hlt">small</span> signal stability analysis shows that the WT with DDPMG without the controllers is stable, and the controller can improve the <span class="hlt">small</span> signal stability of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Wu; Xiao-Ping Zhang; P. Ju</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3791397"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Bariatric Surgery on Human <span class="hlt">Small</span> Artery Function</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of bariatric surgery on <span class="hlt">small</span> artery function and the mechanisms underlying this. Background In lean healthy humans, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anticontractile <span class="hlt">effect</span> on adjacent <span class="hlt">small</span> arteries, but this is lost in obesity-associated conditions such as the metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes where there is evidence of adipocyte inflammation and increased oxidative stress. Methods Segments of <span class="hlt">small</span> subcutaneous artery and perivascular fat were harvested from severely obese individuals before (n = 20) and 6 months after bariatric surgery (n = 15). <span class="hlt">Small</span> artery contractile function was examined in vitro with wire myography, and perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) morphology was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Results The anticontractile activity of PVAT was lost in obese patients before surgery when compared with healthy volunteers and was restored 6 months after bariatric surgery. In vitro protocols with superoxide dismutase and catalase rescued PVAT anticontractile function in tissue from obese individuals before surgery. The improvement in anticontractile function after surgery was accompanied by improvements in insulin sensitivity, serum glycemic indexes, inflammatory cytokines, adipokine profile, and systolic blood pressure together with increased PVAT adiponectin and nitric oxide bioavailability and reduced macrophage infiltration and inflammation. These changes were observed despite the patients remaining severely obese. Conclusions Bariatric surgery and its attendant improvements in weight, blood pressure, inflammation, and metabolism collectively reverse the obesity-induced alteration to PVAT anticontractile function. This reversal is attributable to reductions in local adipose inflammation and oxidative stress with improved adiponectin and nitric oxide bioavailability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Greenstein, Adam S.; Yadav, Rahul; Jeziorska, Maria; Hama, Salam; Soltani, Fardad; Pemberton, Phil W.; Ammori, Basil; Malik, Rayaz A.; Soran, Handrean; Heagerty, Anthony M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21344015"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extraction of Network Topology From Multi-Electrode Recordings: Is there a <span class="hlt">Small</span>-World <span class="hlt">Effect</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simultaneous recording of the activity of many neurons poses challenges for multivariate data analysis. Here, we propose a general scheme of reconstruction of the functional network from spike train recordings. <span class="hlt">Effective</span>, causal interactions are estimated by fitting generalized linear models on the neural responses, incorporating <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the neurons' self-history, of input from other neurons in the recorded network and of modulation by an external stimulus. The coupling terms arising from synaptic input can be transformed by thresholding into a binary connectivity matrix which is <span class="hlt">directed</span>. Each link between two neurons represents a causal influence from one neuron to the other, given the observation of all other neurons from the population. The resulting graph is analyzed with respect to <span class="hlt">small</span>-world and scale-free properties using quantitative measures for <span class="hlt">directed</span> networks. Such graph-theoretic analyses have been performed on many complex dynamic networks, including the connectivity structure between different brain areas. Only few studies have attempted to look at the structure of cortical neural networks on the level of individual neurons. Here, using multi-electrode recordings from the visual system of the awake monkey, we find that cortical networks lack scale-free behavior, but show a <span class="hlt">small</span>, but significant <span class="hlt">small</span>-world structure. Assuming a simple distance-dependent probabilistic wiring between neurons, we find that this connectivity structure can account for all of the networks' observed <span class="hlt">small</span>-world ness. Moreover, for multi-electrode recordings the sampling of neurons is not uniform across the population. We show that the <span class="hlt">small</span>-world-ness obtained by such a localized sub-sampling overestimates the strength of the true <span class="hlt">small</span>-world structure of the network. This bias is likely to be present in all previous experiments based on multi-electrode recordings. PMID:21344015</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerhard, Felipe; Pipa, Gordon; Lima, Bruss; Neuenschwander, Sergio; Gerstner, Wulfram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..DFD..FF07M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Heat Release at the <span class="hlt">Small</span> Scales of Turbulent Flows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of density changes due to heat release by exothermic reactions in turbulent flows are known to alter the outer variable scalings, and thereby affect the resulting entrainment and mixing rates achieved by the flow, even in the absence of any buoyancy <span class="hlt">effects</span>. There are additional <span class="hlt">effects</span> of heat release at the <span class="hlt">small</span> scales of reacting turbulent flows, due among other things to changes in the transport properties of the fluid with temperature, and to the volume source field induced by dilatation. The significance of these heat release <span class="hlt">effects</span> at the <span class="hlt">small</span> scales is not known. It is the latter <span class="hlt">effect</span> that is considered here. We present results from simultaneous PIV and CH PLIF imaging measurements in turbulent jet diffusion flames that resolve the <span class="hlt">small</span> scales of the flow. Regions of exothermicity as marked by CH concentration fields are compared with those identified by dilatation fields from the PIV measurements. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of anisotropy in vector orientations are accounted for, and the resulting comparisons of the velocity gradients induced by the vorticity field and by the dilatation field are obtained. These provide <span class="hlt">direct</span> insights into the relative significance of dilatation <span class="hlt">effects</span> in exothermic turbulent reacting flows.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mullin, John A.; Dahm, Werner J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21160594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design and Experimental Study for Development of Pb-Bi Cooled <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Contact Boiling Water <span class="hlt">Small</span> Fast Reactor (PBWFR)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A design concept of Pb-Bi cooled <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling water <span class="hlt">small</span> fast reactor (PBWFR) has been formulated with some design parameters identified. In the PBWFR, water is injected into hot Pb-Bi above the core, and <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling takes place in the chimney. The boiling two-phase flow in the chimney serves as a steam lift pump and a steam generator. A two-region core is designed. A decrease in reactivity was estimated to be 1.5 % dk/kk' for 15 years. A fuel assembly has 271 fuel rods with 12.0 mm in diameter and 15.9 mm in pitch in a hexagonal wrapper tube. The chimney, cyclone separators and chevron dryers, <span class="hlt">direct</span> heat exchangers (DHX), reactor vessel air cooling systems (RVACS) and guard vessel are designed. For the technical development of the PBWFR, experimental and analytical studies are performed for Pb-Bi <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling two-phase flow, steel corrosion in Pb-Bi flow, oxygen control and oxygen sensor, and removal of polonium contamination. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takahashi, M.; Obara, T.; Iguchi, T.; Otsubo, A.; Kondo, M.; Qi, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Yusibani, E.; Akashi, T.; Yamada, A.; Nei, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, N1-18 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan); Hata, K.; Hara, K. [Nuclear Development Corporation, 622-12 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchida, S.; Osada, H.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuzawa, K.; Sawa, N.; Yamada, Y.; Kurome, K.; Okubo, Y. [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd., 2-16-5 Kohnan, Minatoku, Tokyo (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2592982"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of traverse length on human perioral <span class="hlt">directional</span> sensitivity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The capacity of 8 neurologically healthy adults to distinguish <span class="hlt">direction</span> of motion on the skin overlying the mental foramen was determined. The velocity, orientation, and the length and width of skin traversed by the moving tactile stimuli were precisely controlled. <span class="hlt">Directional</span> sensitivity, d', was found to depend on both stimulus velocity and the length of skin traversed. Since the relationship between d' and velocity at each traverse length was well described by a generalized gamma function, it was possible to quantitatively characterize the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of changes in traverse length on the relationship between d' and velocity. Specifically, peak (i.e., maximal) <span class="hlt">directional</span> sensitivity increased as the length of skin traversed was increased, yet the velocity which resulted in peak <span class="hlt">directional</span> sensitivity (i.e., the optimal or model velocity) remained invariant over the range of traverse lengths investigated (0.35-1.0 cm). The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of stimulus velocity on <span class="hlt">directional</span> sensitivity was least at the longest traverse lengths used. The generalized gamma function model fit the relationship between <span class="hlt">directional</span> sensitivity and velocity equally well at all traverse lengths studied. The results lead us to anticipate that stimuli of the type used in this study should prove valuable for the detection and quantification of disturbances in orofacial tactile spatiotemporal integration in patients with peripheral nerve injury. PMID:2592982</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Essick, G K; Whitsel, B L; Dolan, P J; Kelly, D G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17333695"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Effective</span> laws for tobacco control: EU <span class="hlt">directives</span> and Italian legislation].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> tobacco control policies include law issuing: bans/restrictions on smoking in public areas and workplaces, increasing of taxes on tobacco products, bans on advertising of tobacco products, warning labels on cigarette boxes. For some of these policies the European Union (EU) has introduced specific <span class="hlt">directives</span> that EU member states have to put into law. This paper briefly presents literature data, EU <span class="hlt">directives</span> and the laws consequently issued in Italy. The importance of standardizing European legislation, especially for those policies that are not enforced by EU <span class="hlt">directives</span> is also discussed. In Italy and in some other European countries smoking is forbidden in public and work-places, despite no EU <span class="hlt">directive</span>. The positive impact of this ban in these countries suggests that it should be considered a priority in the European policies against tobacco in order to reduce the gap between literature recommendations and actions. PMID:17333695</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charrier, Lorena; Piccinelli, Cristiano; Coppo, Alessandro; Di Stefano, Francesca; D'Elia, Paolo; Molinar, Roberta; Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Segnan, Nereo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51562754"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> power plants; Seminar on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Power Plants - Technology and Cost <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>, Technische Universitaet Wien, Vienna, Austria, January 15, 16, 1981, Reports</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Progress in the production of <span class="hlt">small</span> power plants is discussed. The topics considered include <span class="hlt">small</span> power plants in Switzerland, the BRD, and Hungary, and the use of nontraditional energy sources in the USSR. The economic aspects of <span class="hlt">small</span> power plants are examined, and <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect means of producing solar energy are studied. The <span class="hlt">direct</span> forms include the Austrian 10-kW</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Bauer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=identity+AND+formation+AND+children&pg=5&id=EJ910873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changing <span class="hlt">Directions</span>: Young People and <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Work against Racism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This article explores <span class="hlt">effective</span> approaches against racism in work with young people, and the relevance of new policy agendas in the UK. Since the 2001 disturbances, the UK has controversially prioritised "Community Cohesion", with the accusation that this new <span class="hlt">direction</span> represents the "death of multiculturalism". Drawing on empirical evidence from…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, Paul; Henri, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Racism&pg=6&id=EJ910873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changing <span class="hlt">Directions</span>: Young People and <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Work against Racism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article explores <span class="hlt">effective</span> approaches against racism in work with young people, and the relevance of new policy agendas in the UK. Since the 2001 disturbances, the UK has controversially prioritised "Community Cohesion", with the accusation that this new <span class="hlt">direction</span> represents the "death of multiculturalism". Drawing on empirical evidence from…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, Paul; Henri, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42416393"> <span id="translatedtitle">Religion and Euroscepticism: <span class="hlt">Direct</span>, Indirect or No <span class="hlt">Effects</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Taking as starting points the (growing) political significance of religion and increasing scepticism towards European integration, this study sets out to investigate the impact of religious divides and religiosity on attitudes towards the EU, both on the micro and on the macro level. In addition to considering <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>, it focuses on the mediated nature of relationships between religion and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hajo G. Boomgaarden; André Freire</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22TPS%22&pg=4&id=EJ685225"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Online Learning on Distance Education</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an exploratory study that investigates the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of online learning on distance education students in an open university context. Two hypotheses are posited: (1) a <span class="hlt">direct</span> relationship exists between students involvement in online learning and distance learning outcomes, and (2) an indirect relationship exists between these…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shin, Namin; Chan, Jason K. Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=education+AND+arden&pg=6&id=ED061539"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Direction</span> of the <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Questions in Prose Materials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The <span class="hlt">direction</span> of the facilitative <span class="hlt">effect</span> of questions inserted at intervals in prose material is examined in terms of: 1) the testual distance of the questions from the material to which it refers; and 2) the relationship between the information tested by the inserted questions and that tested by the criterion test items. Results with 140…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGaw, Barry; Grotelueschen, Arden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091375"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ion exchange liquid chromatography method for the <span class="hlt">direct</span> determination of <span class="hlt">small</span> ribonucleic acids.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bioanalysis of siRNAs is challenging due to their size (5-14kDa) and negative charge across the backbone, which complicates both sample preparation and chromatography. We present here a one step sample preparation combined with non-denaturing anion exchange chromatography with UV detection for the quantitation of siRNA and its chain shortened metabolites. The sample preparation uses a novel lysis buffer with proteinase K to <span class="hlt">effectively</span> isolate siRNA from cells and formulated media with greater than 95% recovery. The ion exchange chromatography allows for a lower limit of quantitation of 6ngmL(-1) in cells and media equivalent to 6ng/200,000cells. This method is applied to study the uptake of siRNA in prostate cancer cells and the disappearance in the media and siRNA metabolism. siRNA metabolites are identified by matching the retention time of standards to metabolite peaks. Identification is further confirmed by mass spectrometry. To our knowledge this is the first ion exchange method reported for the quantitation of siRNA from a biological matrix. It is also the first non-denaturing chromatographic method reported for siRNA quantitation. PMID:24091375</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGinnis, A Cary; Cummings, Brian S; Bartlett, Michael G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/y578467vq7386148.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Childhood Adversity on Adult Depression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exposure to adverse events in childhood is a predictor of subsequent exposure to adverse events in adulthood, and both are\\u000a predictors of depression in adults. The degree to which adult depression has a <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of childhood adversity versus\\u000a an indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> mediated by adult adversity has not previously been reported. We report data collected from 210 adult participants\\u000a regarding</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marianna LaNoue; David Graeber; Brisa Urquieta de Hernandez; Teddy D. Warner; Deborah L. Helitzer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34721341"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of diazepam on emotional processing in healthy volunteers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rationale  Pharmacological agents used in the treatment of anxiety have been reported to decrease threat relevant processing in patients\\u000a and healthy controls, suggesting a potentially relevant mechanism of action. However, the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the anxiolytic diazepam\\u000a have typically been examined at sedative doses, which do not allow the <span class="hlt">direct</span> actions on emotional processing to be fully\\u000a separated from global <span class="hlt">effects</span> of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. E. Murphy; C. Downham; P. J. Cowen; C. J. Harmer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB93115152"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cost-<span class="hlt">Effective</span> Regulation by EPA and <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Impacts; Includes Addendum and Individual Case Studies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Environmental regulations can have serious and disproportionately large impacts on <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses and other <span class="hlt">small</span> entities. When regulating <span class="hlt">small</span> entities yields few benefits, such regulations may not be cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span>. The Regulatory Flexibility Act re...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. B. R. Beale R. E. Burt K. A. Shaver C. R. Allen C. Pantazis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7022E..10T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> phase function of light scattered at <span class="hlt">small</span> angles by polydisperse particulate media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Particles with typical dimensions higher than the light wavelength and relative refraction indexes close to one, scatter light mainly in the forward <span class="hlt">direction</span> where the scattered light intensity has a narrow peak. For particulate media accomplishing these requirements the light scattered at <span class="hlt">small</span> angles in a far-field detecting set-up can be described analytically by an <span class="hlt">effective</span> phase function (EPF) even in the multiple scattering regime. The EPF model which was built for monodispersed systems has been extended to polydispersed media. The main ingredients consist in the replacement of the single particle phase function and of the optical thickness with their corresponding averaged values. Using a Gamma particle size distribution (PSD) as a testing model, the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of polydispersity was systematically investigated. The increase of the average radius or/and of the PSD standard deviation leads to the decrease of the angular spreading of the <span class="hlt">small</span> angle scattered light.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Turcu, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT........56L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Even-odd electron number <span class="hlt">effect</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> superconducting islands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report an experimental study of the behavior of superconducting single-electron transistors. It consists of a <span class="hlt">small</span> superconducting island weakly coupled to two bias leads through low-capacitance tunnel junctions and capacitively coupled to a gate electrode. The total capacitance of the island to the external circuit is so <span class="hlt">small</span> that the device behavior is dominated by single- electron charging <span class="hlt">effects</span>. At low bias voltages, we have studied the mechanisms of charge transport (Andreev reflection or Cooper pair tunneling) when the island is coupled to either normal metal leads (NSN configuration) or superconducting leads (SSS configuration). The main focus of this thesis is to study the even-odd electron number <span class="hlt">effect</span> in single-electron transistors. We demonstrate that the behavior of the device depends strongly on whether the island contains an even or an odd number of electrons, even when the number of conduction electrons is as large as 109. This behavior, also referred as a parity <span class="hlt">effect</span>, is a result of electron pairing in the superconductor. We have conducted a detailed study of the temperature, magnetic field, and length dependence of this parity <span class="hlt">effect</span>, and explain our results with a simple equilibrium model. We have also observed an unexpected phenomenon. With longer islands at low temperatures, there is a marked reduction below the prediction of orthodox theory of the Coulomb blockade modulation width. This modulation appears to fall roughly exponentially with the island length, with a characteristic length of ~18 ?m. We describe different models which are either found to be inadequate or feasible to explain our observation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Jia Grace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21755011"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modified habitats influence kelp epibiota via <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota <span class="hlt">directly</span> and/or indirectly, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to test hypotheses to distinguish between <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes <span class="hlt">directly</span> due to the provision of shade and indirectly by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. Indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> were more important than <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and indirectly affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms. PMID:21755011</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Underwood, Antony J; Coleman, Ross A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22897089"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parent socialization <span class="hlt">effects</span> in different cultures: significance of <span class="hlt">directive</span> parenting.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization <span class="hlt">effects</span> in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization <span class="hlt">effects</span> in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's <span class="hlt">directive</span> parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental <span class="hlt">effects</span> associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. <span class="hlt">Directions</span> for research on the three explanations are mentioned. PMID:22897089</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sorkhabi, Nadia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5593270"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of atmospheric sulfate deposition on vegetation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The frequency distribution of 0/sub 3/ episodes follows a Weibull distribution. However, ion deposition in wetfall follows a log normal distribution. This is also true for the chemical constituents in aerosols. (Nosal, in preparation). Unfortunately, these and aforementioned ambient phenomena have not been utilized in simulation experiments designed to establish dose-response or cause and <span class="hlt">effect</span> relationships. This paper describes what has been accomplished up to now in terms of the dry and wet deposition of sulfates and their <span class="hlt">effects</span> singly or jointly with other pollutants, in terms of <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on vegetation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chappelka, A.H.; Chevone, B.I.; Hersfeld, D.E.; Krupa, S.V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JCoPh.227.4142S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">direction</span> decoupling in flux calculation in finite volume solvers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a finite volume CFD method for unsteady flow fluxes of mass, momentum and energy are exchanged between cells over a series of <span class="hlt">small</span> time steps. The conventional approach, which we will refer to as <span class="hlt">direction</span> decoupling, is to estimate fluxes across interfaces in a regular array of cells by using a one-dimensional flux expression based on the component of flow velocity normal to the interface between cells. This means that fluxes cannot be exchanged between diagonally adjacent cells since they share no cell interface, even if the local flow conditions dictate that the fluxes should flow diagonally. The <span class="hlt">direction</span> decoupling imposed by the numerical method requires that the fluxes reach a diagonally adjacent cell in two time-steps. To evaluate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of this <span class="hlt">direction</span> decoupling, we examine two numerical methods which differ only in that one uses <span class="hlt">direction</span> decoupling while the other does not. We examine a generalized form of Pullin’s equilibrium flux method (EFM) [D.I. Pullin, <span class="hlt">Direct</span> simulation methods for compressible ideal gas flow, J. Comput. Phys. 34 (1980) 231 244] which we have called the true <span class="hlt">direction</span> equilibrium flux method (TDEFM). The TDEFM fluxes, derived from kinetic theory, flow not only between cells sharing an interface, but ultimately to any cell in the grid. TDEFM is used here to simulate a blast wave and an imploding flow problem on a structured rectangular mesh and is compared with results from <span class="hlt">direction</span> decoupled EFM. Since both EFM and TDEFM are identical in the low CFL number limit, differences between the results demonstrate the detrimental <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">direction</span> decoupling. Differences resulting from <span class="hlt">direction</span> decoupling are also shown in the simulation of hypersonic flow over a rectangular body. The computational cost of allowing the EFM fluxes to flow in the correct <span class="hlt">directions</span> on the grid is minimal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, M. R.; Macrossan, M. N.; Abdel-jawad, M. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NJPh...13l3005L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">small</span> world yields the most <span class="hlt">effective</span> information spreading</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spreading dynamics of information and diseases are usually analyzed by using a unified framework and analogous models. In this paper, we propose a model to emphasize the essential difference between information spreading and epidemic spreading, where the memory <span class="hlt">effects</span>, the social reinforcement and the non-redundancy of contacts are taken into account. Under certain conditions, the information spreads faster and broader in regular networks than in random networks, which to some extent supports the recent experimental observation of spreading in online society (Centola D 2010 Science 329 1194). At the same time, the simulation result indicates that the random networks tend to be favorable for <span class="hlt">effective</span> spreading when the network size increases. This challenges the validity of the above-mentioned experiment for large-scale systems. More importantly, we show that the spreading <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> can be sharply enhanced by introducing a little randomness into the regular structure, namely the <span class="hlt">small</span>-world networks yield the most <span class="hlt">effective</span> information spreading. This work provides insights into the role of local clustering in information spreading.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lü, Linyuan; Chen, Duan-Bing; Zhou, Tao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..88g5207R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organic magnetoresistance near saturation: Mesoscopic <span class="hlt">effects</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In organic light-emitting diodes with <span class="hlt">small</span> area the current may be dominated by a finite number, N, of sites in which electron-hole (e-h) recombination occurs. As a result, averaging over the hyperfine magnetic fields, bh, that are generated in these sites by the environment nuclei is incomplete. This creates a random (mesoscopic) current component, ?I(B), at field B having relative magnitude ˜N?1/2. To quantify the statistical properties of ?I(B) we calculate the correlator K(B,?B)=<?I(B?(?B)/(2))?I(B+(?B)/(2))> for parallel, ?B?B, and perpendicular, ?B?B orientations of ?B. We demonstrate that mesoscopic fluctuations develop at fields |B|?|bh|, where the average magnetoresistance is near saturation. These fluctuations originate from the slow beating between the singlet (S) and triplet (T0) states of the recombining e-h spin-pair partners. We identify the most relevant processes responsible for the current fluctuations as being due to anomalously slow beatings that develop in sparse e-h polaron pairs at sites for which the bh projections on the external field <span class="hlt">direction</span> almost coincide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roundy, R. C.; Vardeny, Z. V.; Raikh, M. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49807989"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> \\</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermal insulation is one of the most critical components involved in life support in a large number of operations undersea. The degree to which thermal insulation is <span class="hlt">effective</span> in blocking the flow of heat depends both upon its properties and also upon the environment. For example; the common closed cell wet-suit material compresses and loses efficiency as a function of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">GEORGE L. HODY; JAMES J. KACIRK; ANDREW A. PILMANIS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApPhL..93h3106Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> observation of the size dependence of Dexter energy transfer from polymer to <span class="hlt">small</span> PbS quantum dots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> PbS quantum dots (QDs) with diameters ranging from 2.5 to 3 nm were synthesized <span class="hlt">directly</span> in the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) at 70 °C. To monitor the size dependence of Dexter energy transfer [D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953)] from MEH-PPV to PbS QDs, the photoluminescence of MEH-PPV is measured for a series of samples with varying QD sizes controlled by the reaction time. A decreased transfer rate is observed for PbS QDs with a diameter of about 2.65 nm due to the minimum overlap between the emission spectrum of MEH-PPV and the 1Se-1Sh and 1Pe-1Sh transitions of PbS QDs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Yating; Xu, Zhangcheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB97186068"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Interstate Banking on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Lending.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study investigates how bank acquisitions influence the willingness of a banking organization to lend to <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses. The concern that bank consolidation may reduce credit availability to <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses is related to several factors. First, duri...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Peek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22269092"> <span id="translatedtitle">The allele-frequency spectrum in a decoupled Moran model with mutation, drift, and <span class="hlt">directional</span> selection, assuming <span class="hlt">small</span> mutation rates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze a decoupled Moran model with haploid population size N, a biallelic locus under mutation and drift with scaled forward and backward mutation rates ?(1)=?(1)N and ?(0)=?(0)N, and <span class="hlt">directional</span> selection with scaled strength ?=sN. With <span class="hlt">small</span> scaled mutation rates ?(0) and ?(1), which is appropriate for single nucleotide polymorphism data in highly recombining regions, we derive a simple approximate equilibrium distribution for polymorphic alleles with a constant of proportionality. We also put forth an even simpler model, where all mutations originate from monomorphic states. Using this model we derive the sojourn times, conditional on the ancestral and fixed allele, and under equilibrium the distributions of fixed and polymorphic alleles and fixation rates. Furthermore, we also derive the distribution of <span class="hlt">small</span> samples in the diffusion limit and provide convenient recurrence relations for calculating this distribution. This enables us to give formulas analogous to the Ewens-Watterson estimator of ? for biased mutation rates and selection. We apply this theory to a polymorphism dataset of fourfold degenerate sites in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:22269092</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vogl, Claus; Clemente, Florian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10161201"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other <span class="hlt">small</span> estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of <span class="hlt">effects</span> can be accounted for by <span class="hlt">direct</span> size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral <span class="hlt">effects</span> on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6181033"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other <span class="hlt">small</span> estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of <span class="hlt">effects</span> can be accounted for by <span class="hlt">direct</span> size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral <span class="hlt">effects</span> on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology); Rose, K.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23123684"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triggering memory recovery: <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span> and incidental cuing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study examined forgetting and recovery of narrative passages varying in emotional intensity, using what we refer to as the "dropout" method. Previous studies of this dropout procedure have used word lists as to-be-remembered material, but the present experiments used brief story vignettes with one-word titles (e.g., "Torture", "Insects"). These vignettes showed a strong dropout forgetting <span class="hlt">effect</span> in free recall. Both text and picture cues from the vignettes eliminated the forgetting <span class="hlt">effect</span> on a subsequent cued recall test. Vignette-related pictures in an incidental picture naming task, however, triggered little recovery of initially forgotten vignettes, as shown on a post-test. The results extend findings of large forgetting and memory recovery <span class="hlt">effects</span> to materials that are more naturalistic than word lists. The findings also show that picture cues, which trigger strong memory recovery <span class="hlt">effects</span> on a <span class="hlt">direct</span> test of memory, had little <span class="hlt">effect</span> on recovery when cues were encountered incidentally. PMID:23123684</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Handy, Justin D; Smith, Steven M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2999851"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> delays on stability of singularly perturbed systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract A <span class="hlt">small</span> delay in the feedback loop of a singularly perturbed system may destabilize it; however, without the delay, it is stable for all <span class="hlt">small</span> enough values of a singular perturbation parameter ? . Su3cient and necessary conditions for preserving stability, for all <span class="hlt">small</span> enough values of delay and ? , are obtained in two cases: in the case</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emilia Fridman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24018829"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of spine hardware on <span class="hlt">small</span> spinal stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of a 6 MV photon beam was used to study the dose perturbation from a titanium rod 5 mm in diameter in various <span class="hlt">small</span> fields range from 2 × 2 to 5 × 5 cm(2). The results showed that the rod increased the dose to water by ?6% at the water-rod interface because of electron backscattering and decreased the dose by ?7% in the shadow of the rod because of photon attenuation. The Pinnacle(3) treatment planning system calculations matched the MC results at the depths more than 1 cm past the rod when the correct titanium density of 4.5 g cm(-3) was used, but significantly underestimated the backscattering dose at the water-rod interface. A CT-density table with a top density of 1.82 g cm(-3) (cortical bone) is a practical way to reduce the dosimetric error from the artifacts by preventing high density assignment to them, but can underestimates the attenuation by the titanium rod by 6%. However, when multi-beam with intensity modulation is used in actual patient spinal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, the dosimetric <span class="hlt">effect</span> of assigning 4.5 instead of 1.82 g cm(-3) to titanium implants is complicated. It ranged from minimal <span class="hlt">effect</span> to 2% dose difference affecting 15% target volume in the study. When hardware is in the beam path, density override to the titanium hardware is recommended. PMID:24018829</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Xin; Yang, James N; Li, Xiaoqiang; Tailor, Ramesh; Vassilliev, Oleg; Brown, Paul; Rhines, Laurence; Chang, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15016890"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Compositional Defects on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Polaron Hopping in Micas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hartree-Fock calculations and electron transfer (ET) theory were used to model the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of compositional defects on ET in the brucite-like octahedral sheet of mica. ET was modeled as a FeII/III valence interchange reaction across shared octahedral edges of the M2-M2 iron sublattice. The model entails the hopping of localized electrons and <span class="hlt">small</span> polaron behavior. Hartree-Fock calculations indicate that substitution of F for structural OH bridges increases the reorganization energy l, decreases the electronic coupling matrix element VAB, and thereby substantially decreases the hopping rate. The l increase arises from modification of the metal-ligand bond force constants, and the VAB decrease arises from reduction of superexchange interaction through anion bridges. Deprotonation of an OH bridge, consistent with a possible mechanism of maintaining charge neutrality during net oxidation, yields a net increase in the ET rate. Although substitution of Al or Mg for Fe in M1 sites distorts the structure of adjacent Fe-occupied M2 sites, the distortion has little net impact on ET rates through these M2 sites. Hence the main <span class="hlt">effect</span> of Al or Mg substitution for Fe, should it occur in the M2 sublattice, is to block ET pathways. Collectively, these findings pave the way for larger-scale oxidation/reduction models to be constructed for realistic, compositionally diverse micas</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosso, Kevin M.; Ilton, Eugene S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16035795"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of compositional defects on <span class="hlt">small</span> polaron hopping in micas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hartree-Fock calculations and electron transfer (ET) theory were used to model the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of compositional defects on ET in the brucite-like octahedral sheet of mica. ET was modeled as an Fe(IIIII) valence interchange reaction across shared octahedral edges of the M2-M2 iron sublattice. The model entails the hopping of localized electrons and <span class="hlt">small</span> polaron behavior. Hartree-Fock calculations indicate that substitution of F for structural OH bridges increases the reorganization energy lambda, decreases the electronic coupling matrix element V(AB), and thereby substantially decreases the hopping rate. The lambda increase arises from modification of the metal-ligand bond force constants, and the V(AB) decrease arises from reduction of superexchange interaction through anion bridges. Deprotonation of an OH bridge, consistent with a possible mechanism of maintaining charge neutrality during net oxidation, yields a net increase in the ET rate. Although substitution of Al or Mg for Fe in M1 sites distorts the structure of adjacent Fe-occupied M2 sites, the distortion has little net impact on ET rates through these M2 sites. Hence the main <span class="hlt">effect</span> of Al or Mg substitution for Fe, should it occur in the M2 sublattice, is to block ET pathways. Collectively, these findings pave the way for larger-scale oxidation/reduction models to be constructed for realistic, compositionally diverse micas. PMID:16035795</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosso, Kevin M; Ilton, Eugene S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PMB....58.6733W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of spine hardware on <span class="hlt">small</span> spinal stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of a 6 MV photon beam was used to study the dose perturbation from a titanium rod 5 mm in diameter in various <span class="hlt">small</span> fields range from 2 × 2 to 5 × 5 cm2. The results showed that the rod increased the dose to water by ˜6% at the water-rod interface because of electron backscattering and decreased the dose by ˜7% in the shadow of the rod because of photon attenuation. The Pinnacle3 treatment planning system calculations matched the MC results at the depths more than 1 cm past the rod when the correct titanium density of 4.5 g cm-3 was used, but significantly underestimated the backscattering dose at the water-rod interface. A CT-density table with a top density of 1.82 g cm-3 (cortical bone) is a practical way to reduce the dosimetric error from the artifacts by preventing high density assignment to them, but can underestimates the attenuation by the titanium rod by 6%. However, when multi-beam with intensity modulation is used in actual patient spinal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, the dosimetric <span class="hlt">effect</span> of assigning 4.5 instead of 1.82 g cm-3 to titanium implants is complicated. It ranged from minimal <span class="hlt">effect</span> to 2% dose difference affecting 15% target volume in the study. When hardware is in the beam path, density override to the titanium hardware is recommended.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Xin; Yang, James N.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Tailor, Ramesh; Vassilliev, Oleg; Brown, Paul; Rhines, Laurence; Chang, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3409262"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of ADARs on <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA processing pathways in C. elegans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are RNA editing enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). To evaluate <span class="hlt">effects</span> of ADARs on <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs that derive from dsRNA precursors, we performed deep-sequencing, comparing <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs from wild-type and ADAR mutant Caenorhabditis elegans. While editing in <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs was rare, at least 40% of microRNAs had altered levels in at least one ADAR mutant strain, and miRNAs with significantly altered levels had mRNA targets with correspondingly affected levels. About 40% of siRNAs derived from endogenous genes (endo-siRNAs) also had altered levels in at least one mutant strain, including 63% of Dicer-dependent endo-siRNAs. The 26G class of endo-siRNAs was significantly affected by ADARs, and many altered 26G loci had intronic reads and histone modifications associated with transcriptional silencing. Our data indicate that ADARs, through both <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect mechanisms, are important for maintaining wild-type levels of many <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs in C. elegans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Warf, M. Bryan; Shepherd, Brent A.; Johnson, W. Evan; Bass, Brenda L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19931631"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of cigarette smoke on human pulmonary artery tension.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of chronic cigarette smoke on pulmonary artery (PA) tension has been studied extensively; nevertheless, the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of cigarette smoke is poorly understood. We investigated the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on PA tension in non-smokers, smokers, and COPD patients in vitro. PA samples from 35 patients who underwent lung resection were examined by measuring isometric tension in response to increasing serotonin concentrations. CSE dose dependently inhibited the response to serotonin in smokers and COPD patients, and to a lesser extent in non-smokers. CSE-induced relaxation was similarly inhibited by the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor l-NOARG and the specific inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor l-NIL, mainly in non-smokers and smokers, and to a lesser extent in COPD patients. Immunostaining of iNOS in PA samples was greater for smokers and COPD patients compared with non-smokers, which explains the lesser <span class="hlt">effect</span> of CSE on PA tension in non-smokers. Moreover, CSE induced the release of nitrite via iNOS in human PA smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, CSE inhibition of serotonin-induced PA contraction was mediated mainly by iNOS in non-smokers, smokers, and COPD patients, but in different ways, which may be explained by differential iNOS expression in the PA of these patients. PMID:19931631</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ortiz, Jose Luis; Milara, Javier; Juan, Gustavo; Montesinos, Jose Luis; Mata, Manuel; Ramón, Mercedes; Morcillo, Esteban; Cortijo, Julio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3314333"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> in a logit model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article discusses a method by Erikson et al. (2005) for decomposing a total <span class="hlt">effect</span> in a logit model into <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Moreover, this article extends this method in three ways. First, in the original method the variable through which the indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> occurs is assumed to be normally distributed. In this article the method is generalized by allowing this variable to have any distribution. Second, the original method did not provide standard errors for the estimates. In this article the bootstrap is proposed as a method of providing those. Third, I show how to include control variables in this decomposition, which was not allowed in the original method. The original method and these extensions are implemented in the ldecomp package.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buis, Maarten L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2991340"> <span id="translatedtitle">First Isolation and <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Evidence for the Existence of Large <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Mammal Reservoirs of Leptospira sp. in Madagascar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Leptospirosis has long been a major public health concern in the southwestern Indian Ocean. However, in Madagascar, only a few, old studies have provided indirect serological evidence of the disease in humans or animals. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a large animal study focusing on <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal populations. Five field trapping surveys were carried out at five sites, from April 2008 to August 2009. Captures consisted of Rattus norvegicus (35.8%), R. rattus (35.1%), Mus musculus (20.5%) and Suncus murinus (8.6%). We used microbiological culture, serodiagnosis tests (MAT) and real-time PCR to assess Leptospira infection. Leptospira carriage was detected by PCR in 91 (33.9%) of the 268 <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals, by MAT in 17 of the 151 (11.3%) animals for which serum samples were available and by culture in 9 of the 268 animals (3.3%). Rates of infection based on positive PCR results were significantly higher in Moramanga (54%), Toliara (48%) and Mahajanga (47.4%) than in Antsiranana (8.5%) and Toamasina (14%) (p?=?0.001). The prevalence of Leptospira carriage was significantly higher in R. norvegicus (48.9%), S. murinus (43.5%) and R. rattus (30.8%) than in M. musculus (9.1%) (p<0.001). The MAT detected antibodies against the serogroups Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae. Isolates were characterized by serology, secY sequence-based phylogeny, partial sequencing of rrs, multi-locus VNTR analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The 10 isolates obtained from nine rats were all identified as species L. interrogans serogroup Canicola serovar Kuwait and all had identical partial rrs and secY sequences. Conclusions/Significance We present here the first <span class="hlt">direct</span> evidence of widespread leptospiral carriage in <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals in Madagascar. Our results strongly suggest a high level of environmental contamination, consistent with probable transmission of the infection to humans. This first isolation of pathogenic Leptospira strains in this country may significantly improve the detection of specific antibodies in human cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Leon, Albertine; Harstskeerl, Rudy A.; Sertour, Natacha; Ahmed, Ahmed; Raharimanana, Claudine; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Garnier, Martine; Chartier, Loic; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Rahalison, Lila; Cornet, Muriel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21118760"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neural control of posture during <span class="hlt">small</span> magnitude perturbations: <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aging and localized muscle fatigue.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aging and localized muscle fatigue on the neural control of upright stance during <span class="hlt">small</span> postural perturbations. Sixteen young (aged 18-24 years) and 16 older (aged 55-74 years) participants were exposed to <span class="hlt">small</span> magnitude, anteriorly-<span class="hlt">directed</span> postural perturbations before and after fatiguing exercises (lumbar extensors and ankle plantar flexors). A single degree of freedom model of the human body was used to simulate recovery kinematics following the perturbations. Central to the model was a simulated neural controller that multiplied time-delayed kinematics by invariant feedback gains. Feedback gains and time delay were optimized for each participant based on measured kinematics, and a novel delay margin analysis was performed to assess system robustness. A 10.9% longer <span class="hlt">effective</span> time delay ( p = 0.010) was found among the older group, who also showed a greater reliance upon velocity feedback information (31.1% higher differential gain, p = 0.001) to control upright stance. Based on delay margins, older participants adopted a more robust control scheme to accommodate the <span class="hlt">small</span> perturbations, potentially compensating for longer time delays or degraded sensory feedback. No fatigue-induced changes in neural controller gains, time delay, or delay margin were found in either age group, indicating that integration of this feedback information was not altered by muscle fatigue. The sensitivity of this approach to changes with fatigue may have been limited by model simplifications. PMID:21118760</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davidson, Bradley S; Madigan, Michael L; Southward, Steve C; Nussbaum, Maury A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bridge&pg=5&id=EJ949781"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brisk and <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Fluency Instruction for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Groups</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Fluency is known as the bridge between phonics and comprehension. Teachers of reading provide high-quality instruction in phonics and decoding strategies, usually in a <span class="hlt">small</span>-group format, but may be unsure how to insert fluency instruction into the <span class="hlt">small</span>-group lesson. This article presents key concepts in fluency instruction and a description of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilson, Judith K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MART18013F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental studies of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> flexoelectric <span class="hlt">effect</span> in bone materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The piezoelectric <span class="hlt">effect</span> in biological tissues has been attracting research interest due to the hypothesis that it may behave as a biological transducer, which can convert external stimuli into biologically-recognizable signals capable of controlling growth or resorptive processes. The piezoelectric <span class="hlt">effect</span> in dried bone materials was first observed in 1957 [1]. A link between the <span class="hlt">effect</span> and the adaptive response of bone cells was proposed in 1970 [2]. In this paper, we report our recent measurements on the <span class="hlt">direct</span> flexoelectric <span class="hlt">effect</span> in bone materials. Our specimens are both dried and wet bones. The origin of both piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity in bone may be ascribed to the crystalline alignment of the micelle of collagen molecules. The Curie group symmetries of the configuration of collagen fibres in the bone texture demonstrate the existence of both <span class="hlt">effects</span>. However, our experimental results show that the piezoelectric responses in bone materials may be dominated by flexoelectricity at the micro and nano scales. Finally, we propose a link between the flexoelectric <span class="hlt">effect</span> and bone spur (osteophyte). [1] E. Fukada and I. Yasuda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 1158 (1957). [2] A. Marino and R. Becker, Nature 228, 78 (1970).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fu, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2493525"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of diazepam on emotional processing in healthy volunteers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rationale Pharmacological agents used in the treatment of anxiety have been reported to decrease threat relevant processing in patients and healthy controls, suggesting a potentially relevant mechanism of action. However, the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the anxiolytic diazepam have typically been examined at sedative doses, which do not allow the <span class="hlt">direct</span> actions on emotional processing to be fully separated from global <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the drug on cognition and alertness. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a lower, but still clinically <span class="hlt">effective</span>, dose of diazepam on emotional processing in healthy volunteers. Materials and methods Twenty-four participants were randomised to receive a single dose of diazepam (5 mg) or placebo. Sixty minutes later, participants completed a battery of psychological tests, including measures of non-emotional cognitive performance (reaction time and sustained attention) and emotional processing (affective modulation of the startle reflex, attentional dot probe, facial expression recognition, and emotional memory). Mood and subjective experience were also measured. Results Diazepam significantly modulated attentional vigilance to masked emotional faces and significantly decreased overall startle reactivity. Diazepam did not significantly affect mood, alertness, response times, facial expression recognition, or sustained attention. Conclusions At non-sedating doses, diazepam produces <span class="hlt">effects</span> on attentional vigilance and startle responsivity that are consistent with its anxiolytic action. This may be an underlying mechanism through which benzodiazepines exert their therapeutic <span class="hlt">effects</span> in clinical anxiety.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murphy, S. E.; Downham, C.; Cowen, P. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.112..659W"> <span id="translatedtitle">A numerical simulation of aerosols' <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on tropopause height</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of sulfate aerosol, dust aerosol, carbonaceous aerosol, and total combined aerosols on the tropopause height are simulated with the Community Atmospheric Model version 3.1 (CAM3.1). A decrease of global mean tropopause height induced by sulfate, carbonaceous aerosol, and total combined aerosols is found, and a tropopause height increase is induced by dust aerosol. Sulfate aerosol decreases the tropospheric temperature and increases the stratospheric temperature. These <span class="hlt">effects</span> cause a decrease in the height of the tropopause. In contrast, carbonaceous and total combined aerosols increase both the tropospheric and the stratospheric temperatures, and they also cause a decrease in the height of the tropopause. The changes in the tropopause height show highly statistically significant correlations with the changes in the tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures. The changes in the tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures are related to the changes in the radiative heat rate, cloud cover, and latent heat, but none of these factors absolutely dominate the temperature change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Jian; Xu, Yanyan; Yang, Qian; Han, Zhiwei; Zhao, Deming; Tang, Jianping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SMaS...16..570A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linearity of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> elastomagnetic <span class="hlt">effect</span>: evaluation and limits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> elastomagnetic <span class="hlt">effect</span> in composite materials, made of ferromagnetic micro-magnets inside an elastomeric matrix, consists in their relative elastic deformation (10-4-10-3) under the action of an external magnetic field, dependent on the equilibrium between the magneto-mechanical moments and the internal elastic reaction, but independent of the standard magnetostriction. This investigation is focused on the evaluation of the strain linearity with the excitation field in view of the application of these materials for MEMS devices. The studied composite is made of permanently magnetized Sm2Co7 microparticles uniformly dispersed inside a silicone matrix. The field-induced strain is measured using a fiber Bragg grating sensor and, at the same time, theoretically evaluated from the model of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> elastomagnetic <span class="hlt">effect</span>. The linearity and reversibility of the material response are experimentally verified up to a threshold value of the magnetic field corresponding to the break in the coupling between the particles' magnetic moments and their body and to the passage from the linear magnetization to the non-linear regime accompanied by irreversible magnetization processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ausanio, G.; Campana, C.; Hison, C.; Iannotti, V.; Lanotte, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685313"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of leptin on adipocyte metabolism.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Leptin is hypothesized to function as a negative feedback signal in the regulation of energy balance. It is produced primarily by adipose tissue and circulating concentrations correlate with the size of body fat stores. Administration of exogenous leptin to normal weight, leptin responsive animals inhibits food intake and reduces the size of body fat stores whereas mice that are deficient in either leptin or functional leptin receptors are hyperphagic and obese, consistent with a role for leptin in the control of body weight. This review discusses the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of leptin on adipocyte metabolism. Because adipocytes express leptin receptors there is the potential for leptin to influence adipocyte metabolism <span class="hlt">directly</span>. Adipocytes also are insulin responsive and receive sympathetic innervation, therefore leptin can also modify adipocyte metabolism indirectly. Studies published to date suggest that <span class="hlt">direct</span> activation of adipocyte leptin receptors has little <span class="hlt">effect</span> on cell metabolism in vivo, but that leptin modifies adipocyte sensitivity to insulin to inhibit lipid accumulation. In vivo administration of leptin leads to a suppression of lipogenesis, an increase in triglyceride hydrolysis and an increase in fatty acid and glucose oxidation. Activation of central leptin receptors also contributes to the development of a catabolic state in adipocytes, but this may vary between different fat depots. Leptin reduces the size of white fat depots by inhibiting cell proliferation both through induction of inhibitory circulating factors and by contributing to sympathetic tone which suppresses adipocyte proliferation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease. PMID:23685313</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harris, Ruth B S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Geomo.159..156G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of exceptional rainstorms on a <span class="hlt">small</span> Mediterranean basin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comprehensive investigation of rainstorms and their consequent impacts on landscape evolution is geomorphologically important, but only scant information may be available on exceptional events, because parameters on synoptic conditions, rainstorm, landforms and hydrology for such events may be incomparable with previous knowledge. We studied an exceptional storm on April 2, 2006, in the Ramot Menashe region, Israel. Our investigation of rainfall, landslides, debris flows and channel suggests the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of such an event on the development of basin-scale morphology.The storm caused damage and casualties although it covered relatively narrow strips. Neither <span class="hlt">direct</span> rainfall nor runoff measurements exist for the most severely affected area of Ramot Menashe, but the geomorphologic evidence combined with high-resolution meteorological radar data provides the basic understanding of the processes and hazardous conditions which prevailed at the time. In the storm core, based on estimation from meteorological radar data, 263 mm of rain fell within 3 h with a maximum intensity of 220 mm h- 1 for 10 min, triggering both sporadic landslides at the soil/bedrock contact on the upper slopes and widespread landslides at the fractured/massive bedrock contact on the lower slopes. The 1st order channels on the alternation of chalk and marl also underwent erosion, and the produced sediment deposited on alluvial fans at the confluence with the main channel. The specific peak discharges for catchment size of 0.3-10 km2 were 11 to 73 m3 s- 1 km- 2, higher than any recorded floods in the Mediterranean climatic region of Israel. The <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the flood for geomorphic work, represented by shear stress and stream power per unit boundary area reached 87-398 N m- 2 and 212-2134 W m- 2, respectively. This kind of analysis can be applied to hazard prediction in other areas under similar geomorphological conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grodek, Tamir; Jacoby, Yael; Morin, Efrat; Katz, Oded</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1667.6447C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient Calculation of <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Potential and Gravity on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Bodies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Cheng et al. (2002) plate model method for calculating gravity of <span class="hlt">small</span> bodies is compared quantitatively to the Werner and Scheeres (1997) method; the methods are comparably accurate but the former method is computationally simpler.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, A. F.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.; Kahn, E. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48060633"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rapid and cost <span class="hlt">effective</span> method in purifying <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purification of RNA fragments from a complex mixture is a very common technique, and requires consideration of the time, cost,\\u000a purity and yield of the purified RNA fragments. This study describes the fastest method of purifying <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA with the lowest\\u000a cost possible, without compromizing the yield and purity. The technique describes the purification of <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA from polyacrylamide\\u000a gel,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marimuthu Citartan; Soo-Choon Tan; Thean-Hock Tang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2010010"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of progesterone on mammary carcinogenesis by DMBA applied <span class="hlt">directly</span> to rat mammae.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> and site(s) of action of progesterone on DMBA mammary carcinogenesis in the rat, when a <span class="hlt">small</span> dose of the carcinogen was applied <span class="hlt">directly</span> to the inguinal mammary gland, were investigated. No reduction in tumour yield was apparent when progesterone was administered s.c. for 18 days before dusting DMBA. This finding contrasts with a previously reported inhibitory <span class="hlt">effect</span> on carcinogenesis when hormone treatment was followed by intragastric administration of DMBA. When progesterone injections were begun either 2 days before or 2 days after <span class="hlt">direct</span> application of DMBA, and were continued until the end of the experiment (135 or 195 days) an enhancement in carcinogenesis was observed similar to that previously demonstrated after gastric intubation of DMBA. These findings, together with previously reported observations, suggest that progesterone may exert its inhibitory <span class="hlt">effect</span> on carcinogenesis by acting at a site outside the breast, perhaps on the liver. However, it is likely that the hormone acts <span class="hlt">directly</span> on the mammary tissue to exert its enhancing <span class="hlt">effect</span> on tumorigenesis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jabara, A. G.; Marks, G. N.; Summers, J. E.; Anderson, P. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........27A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of occlusion, <span class="hlt">directionality</span> and age on horizontal localization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Localization acuity of a given listener is dependent upon the ability discriminate between interaural time and level disparities. Interaural time differences are encoded by low frequency information whereas interaural level differences are encoded by high frequency information. Much research has examined <span class="hlt">effects</span> of hearing aid microphone technologies and occlusion separately and prior studies have not evaluated age as a factor in localization acuity. Open-fit hearing instruments provide new earmold technologies and varying microphone capabilities; however, these instruments have yet to be evaluated with regard to horizontal localization acuity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of microphone configuration, type of dome in open-fit hearing instruments, and age on the horizontal localization ability of a given listener. Thirty adults participated in this study and were grouped based upon hearing sensitivity and age (young normal hearing, >50 years normal hearing, >50 hearing impaired). Each normal hearing participant completed one localization experiment (unaided/unamplified) where they listened to the stimulus "Baseball" and selected the point of origin. Hearing impaired listeners were fit with the same two receiver-in-the-ear hearing aids and same dome types, thus controlling for microphone technologies, type of dome, and fitting between trials. Hearing impaired listeners completed a total of 7 localization experiments (unaided/unamplified; open dome: omnidirectional, adaptive <span class="hlt">directional</span>, fixed <span class="hlt">directional</span>; micromold: omnidirectional, adaptive <span class="hlt">directional</span>, fixed <span class="hlt">directional</span>). Overall, results of this study indicate that age significantly affects horizontal localization ability as younger adult listeners with normal hearing made significantly fewer localization errors than older adult listeners with normal hearing. Also, results revealed a significant difference in performance between dome type; however, upon further examination was not significant. Therefore, results examining type of dome should be viewed with caution. Results examining microphone configuration and microphone configuration by dome type were not significant. Moreover, results evaluating performance relative to unaided (unamplified) were not significant. Taken together, these results suggest open-fit hearing instruments, regardless of microphone or dome type, do not degrade horizontal localization acuity within a given listener relative to their 'older aged' normal hearing counterparts in quiet environments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alworth, Lynzee Nicole</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..SHK.F1027M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The AMRDEC Process for Analyzing Initiation <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Against Explosive Filled <span class="hlt">Small</span> Arms Threats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mortar threats, due to their <span class="hlt">small</span> size and robust structure, present difficult challenges to new and existing systems for acquisition, tracking, intercept and defeat. Defeat must come through either the fuze or detonation of the explosive. <span class="hlt">Direct</span> detonation of the explosive payload at the point of intercept via fragment or <span class="hlt">direct</span> missile impact is considered a more achievable alternative. A pre-detonation of the fuze due to impact can produce similar results. However, fuzes can be a <span class="hlt">small</span> percentage of the target area. Another possible outcome is the fuze would simply be duded. However, a dudded mortar can be indistinguishable from a non-dudded mortar until it strikes the ground. A robust process must have the capability of analyzing multiple solution types. An extensive database of single fragment impacts against threats with high explosive payloads was utilized to develop and modify models to predict explosive reaction. The goal was to create models or equations that could be incorporated into fast running simulation tools to access potential lethal mechanisms over a wide range of battlespace conditions quickly. A methodology to ascertain impact <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> on a typical generic threat fuze was also developed separately to be included in the simulation tools. Computational efforts and trade studies can be conducted with fast running simulation tools whose accuracy had been validated with significant test data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moore, Dedra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=computer+AND+machine+AND+language&pg=3&id=EJ866993"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparing <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Semi-<span class="hlt">Direct</span> Modes for Speaking Assessment: Affective <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Test Takers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent decades, with an increasing application of computer technology to the delivery of oral language proficiency assessment, there have been renewed debates over the appropriateness of two different testing modes, namely, (a) face-to-face, or <span class="hlt">direct</span>, testing, and (b) person-to-machine, or semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span>, testing. Previous research conducted in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qian, David D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3531595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neurobiological <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Transcranial <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Current Stimulation: A Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transcranial <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is affordable and easy to operate compared to other neuromodulation techniques. Anodal stimulation increases cortical excitability, while the cathodal stimulation decreases it. Although tDCS is a promising treatment approach for chronic pain as well as for neuropsychiatric diseases and other neurological disorders, several complex neurobiological mechanisms that are not well understood are involved in its <span class="hlt">effect</span>. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of tDCS. The initial search resulted in 171 articles. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, we screened 32 full-text articles to extract findings about the neurobiology of tDCS <span class="hlt">effects</span> including investigation of cortical excitability parameters. Overall, these findings show that tDCS involves a cascade of events at the cellular and molecular levels. Moreover, tDCS is associated with glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic activity modulation. Though these studies provide important advancements toward the understanding of mechanisms underlying tDCS <span class="hlt">effects</span>, further studies are needed to integrate these mechanisms as to optimize clinical development of tDCS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Souza, Izabel Cristina Custodio; Vidor, Liliane Pinto; de Souza, Andressa; Deitos, Alicia; Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=546152"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression by retroviral vector-mediated <span class="hlt">small</span>-guide RNAs that <span class="hlt">direct</span> specific RNA cleavage by tRNase ZL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The tRNA 3?-processing endoribonuclease (tRNase Z or 3? tRNase; EC 3.1.26.11) is an essential enzyme that removes the 3? trailer from pre-tRNA. The long form (tRNase ZL) can cleave a target RNA in vitro at the site <span class="hlt">directed</span> by an appropriate <span class="hlt">small</span>-guide RNA (sgRNA). Here, we investigated whether this sgRNA/tRNase ZL strategy could be applied to gene therapy for AIDS. We tested the ability of four sgRNA-expression plasmids to inhibit HIV-1 gene expression in COS cells, using a transient-expression assay. The three sgRNAs guide inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression in cultured COS cells. Analysis of the HIV-1 mRNA levels suggested that sgRNA <span class="hlt">directed</span> the tRNase ZL to mediate the degradation of target RNA. The observation that sgRNA was localized primarily in nuclei suggests that tRNase ZL cleaves the HIV-1 mRNA when complexed with sgRNA in this location. We also examined the ability of two retroviral vectors expressing sgRNA to suppress HIV-1 expression in HIV-1-infected Jurkat T cells. sgRNA-SL4 suppressed HIV-1 expression almost completely in infected cells for up to 18 days. These results suggest that the sgRNA/tRNase ZL approach is <span class="hlt">effective</span> in downregulating HIV-1 gene expression.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Habu, Yuichiro; Miyano-Kurosaki, Naoko; Kitano, Michiko; Endo, Yumihiko; Yukita, Masakazu; Ohira, Shigeru; Takaku, Hiroaki; Nashimoto, Masayuki; Takaku, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21569778"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> molecule Wnt inhibitors enhance the efficiency of BMP-4-<span class="hlt">directed</span> cardiac differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells potentially provide a unique resource for generating patient-specific cardiomyocytes to study cardiac disease mechanisms and treatments. However, existing approaches to cardiomyocyte production from human iPS cells are inefficient, limiting the application of iPS cells in basic and translational cardiac research. Furthermore, strategies to accurately record changes in iPS cell-derived cardiomyocyte action potential duration (APD) are needed to monitor APD-related cardiac disease and for rapid drug screening. We examined whether modulation of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways could induce efficient cardiac differentiation of human iPS cells. We found that early treatment of human iPS cells with BMP-4 followed by late treatment with <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule Wnt inhibitors led to a marked increase in production of cardiomyocytes compared to existing differentiation strategies. Using immunocytochemical staining and real-time intracellular calcium imaging, we showed that these induced cardiomyocytes expressed typical sarcomeric markers, exhibited normal rhythmic Ca(2+) transients, and responded to both ?-adrenergic and electric stimulation. Furthermore, human iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes demonstrated characteristic changes in action potential duration in response to cardioactive drugs procainamide and verapamil using voltage-sensitive dye-based optical recording. Thus, modulation of the BMP-4 and Wnt signaling pathways in human iPS cells leads to highly efficient production of cardiomyocytes with typical electrophysiological function and pharmacologic responsiveness. The use of human iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and the application of calcium- and voltage-sensitive dyes for the <span class="hlt">direct</span>, rapid measurement of iPS cell-derived cardiomyocyte activity promise to offer attractive platforms for studying cardiac disease mechanisms and therapeutics. PMID:21569778</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ren, Yongming; Lee, Min Young; Schliffke, Simon; Paavola, Jere; Amos, Peter J; Ge, Xin; Ye, Mingyu; Zhu, Shenjun; Senyei, Grant; Lum, Lawrence; Ehrlich, Barbara E; Qyang, Yibing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1096..271L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Edge <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in Four Point <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Current Potential Drop Measurement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The four point <span class="hlt">direct</span> current potential drop (DCPD) technique is used to measure electrical conductivity and crack depth. It is also used, together with Hall voltage measurements, to evaluate carrier concentration and mobility in semiconductors. Here the theory of DCPD is studied for planar structures in which edge <span class="hlt">effects</span> may have to be taken into account and correction made to ensure accuracy. The current injected at a point on the surface of an infinite plate of finite thickness gives rise to a field that can be expressed as a summation derived using image theory. Because the images are periodic in the <span class="hlt">direction</span> perpendicular to the plate surface, the field can also be conveniently expressed in the form of a Fourier series. The two basic formulas; image summation and Fourier series, can be modified for the case where the probe points are near the edge of a plate by further applying image theory and summing image/Fourier terms in two dimensions. Both of these approaches agree with measurement results very well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Yi; Bowler, John R.; Zhang, Chongxue; Bowler, Nicola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB88185483"> <span id="translatedtitle">Economic Model of <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Tax Reform on Agriculture,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study develops a model to examine the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of tax reform on agricultural resources. Previous models have concentrated on the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of a tax change on agricultural resources, but have largely ignored the indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Boyd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGP33E..03M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of flocculation on DRM <span class="hlt">direction</span> and intensity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sedimentary rock records, being relatively more continuous than igneous records, are indispensable for studying past geomagnetic field variations. Sedimentary paleointensity studies rest upon the basic assumption that detrital remanent magnetization (DRM) is linearly related to the ambient field in which sediments acquired magnetization and paleosecular variation studies assume that the magnetization is parallel to the geomagnetic field. Yet, DRM is complicated. Factors other than the magnetic field such as particle size, shape, nature of sediments, hydrodynamic forces etc all affect how sediments get magnetized. In light of the many factors affecting DRM the key assumptions of linearity and parallelism are open to question. Inclination error has been known since the very early days of sedimentary paleomagnetism, yet the mechanisms that control it are poorly understood. Moreover, it has recently been suggested that even linearity may not always hold true. One of the most important control on DRM is now thought to be flocculation. Its role in controlling DRM magnitude has been explored but its influence on the <span class="hlt">directional</span> properties of DRM is virtually unknown. In a series of laboratory experiments in different field and flocculation states we have confirmed the strong non-linearity of certain sedimentary systems. In addition, we have discovered a marked dependence of inclination error with the field strength and flocculation state. Our findings have serious implications for paleosecular variation studies using sediments, in particular from low salinity environments, such as fresh water lakes in which very <span class="hlt">small</span> changes in salinity could result in very large changes in flocculation state and DRM acquisition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mitro, R.; Tauxe, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6239052"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of UVA on skin vessel leakiness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using the suction blister technique we have investigated the leakiness of skin vessels in healthy volunteers after whole-body suberythemogenic doses of UVA radiation (a quadrant on one side of the abdominal skin was shielded with lead-rubber). The accumulation of intravenously injected labeled albumin in blister fluid was slightly elevated 1 day after irradiation and increased significantly 2 days later. The blister concentrations of 4 endogenous plasma proteins (albumin, transferrin, IgG, and alpha 2-macroglobulin) were elevated 1 day after radiation exposure and normalized 2 days later. All changes were equal on irradiated and nonirradiated skin. It is concluded that UVA radiation can induce a continued or biphasic increased leakage of plasma proteins in the skin vessels, due to a humoral rather than to a <span class="hlt">direct</span> physical <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the radiation on the vessel walls. It is suggested that an increased microvascular leakiness in organs other than the skin might be present.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Staberg, B.; Worm, A.M.; Brodthagen, H.; Rossing, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..DPP.HI102C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of radiation on <span class="hlt">direct</span>-drive laser target interaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radiation may be useful for reducing laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth in <span class="hlt">direct</span>-drive target pellets. We will discuss the important role of radiation in a proposed <span class="hlt">direct</span>-drive X-ray preheated target concept(S.Bodner et al., Phys. Plasmas 5,1901(1998)). In this design, a high-Z coating surrounds a thin plastic coat, over a DT-wicked foam and on top of the DT fuel. Radiation <span class="hlt">effects</span> will be examined and discussed in the context of this design. The soft X-ray radiation emitted during the foot of the laser pulse - at a few 10^12W/cm^2- preheats the foam ablator which contributes to the reduction of the RT instability. The ablator also stops the radiation, allowing the fuel to stay on a low adiabat. Radiation in the blow-off corona of the target establishes a long scalelength plasma. This separates the ablation region from the laser absorption region where the remaining defects in laser uniformity/pellet surface finish constitute the seed for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, when the pulse intensity rises, the pressure generated by the laser in combination with the changing opacity of the plasma causes the plasma to be pushed back toward the ablator. This is called a Radiative Plasma Structure (RPS)(J.Dahlburg et al., J.Q.S.R.T. 54,113(1995)). These RPS's are a potential problem because they may carry with them the imprint which was present in the low-density corona. We will show and discuss these various <span class="hlt">effects</span>, as well as some of the experimental work(C.Pawley et al., this conference) under way in connection with this program. These experiments are essential in order to validate both the design concepts and the numerical models, which include on-line state-of-the-art atomic physics modeling(M.Klapisch et al.,Phys. Plasmas 5,1919(1998)).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colombant, D. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hicss.hawaii.edu/HICSS36/HICSSpapers/CLWMC03.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wireless Brainstorming: Overcoming Status <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Group Decisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Social factors, such as status differences, may prevent some members from participating in group decisions. Computerized group decision support systems (GDSSs) can reduce social influences by allowing group members to contribute anonymously and in parallel. This study explores how a simple GDSS on a wireless handheld device can augment face-to-face group decisions. <span class="hlt">Small</span> groups of men and women brainstormed potential</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John Davis; Melora Zaner; Shelly Farnham; Cezary Marcjan; Brenda P. Mccarthy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=benefits+AND+of+AND+telephone+AND+surveys&pg=5&id=ED524920"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Information Technology in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Businesses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Information technology (IT) has become a strategic vehicle for <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses to achieve and sustain their competitive advantage. Prior research has suggested that information technology plays an important role in the decision-making process. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between organizational IT performance and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Newman, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57470142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management <span class="hlt">effects</span> on colostrogenesis in <span class="hlt">small</span> ruminants: a review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Colostrum feeding in <span class="hlt">small</span> ruminants is crucial during the first hours after birth due to the lack of Ig transfer during pregnancy via the placenta. In addition the immature immune system of the neonate is slow to produce its own Ig during the first weeks of life. Colostrogenesis, i.e. the transfer of Ig from blood into mammary secretions, starts several</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Castro; J. Capote; R. M. Bruckmaier; A. Argüello</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37854653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perception of success and its <span class="hlt">effect</span> on <span class="hlt">small</span> firm performance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into <span class="hlt">small</span> firm entrepreneurs' perceptions of success and how these perceptions affect the performance of a firm. The emphasis is on non-financial measures of success and their interaction with the financial indicators of a firm's performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a comparative analysis of two separate studies</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Helen Reijonen; Raija Komppula</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-06/pdf/2012-29462.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 72868 - Compliance Guidance for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Entities on Labeling and <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Testing; Sunscreen...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...and <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Testing; Sunscreen Drug...Over-the-Counter Human Use; Notice of Availability...and <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Testing: Sunscreen Drug...Over-the-Counter Human Use; <span class="hlt">Small</span> Entity...and <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Testing: Sunscreen Drug...Over-the-Counter Human Use; <span class="hlt">Small</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6933182"> <span id="translatedtitle">Porosity <span class="hlt">effects</span> on machining <span class="hlt">direction</span> -- Strength anisotropy and failure mechanisms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The anisotropy in room-temperature flexural strength of ceramics as a result of machining test bar tensile surfaces parallel vs perpendicular to the bar axis was studied for various porous bodies. This shows that fine, relatively homogeneous porosity has no significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on such strength anisotropy, implying that such porosity has no significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on flaw sizes or shapes, which was also shown by fractography. However, as the size of pores or pore clusters (due to pore heterogeneity) increases, the strength anisotropy diminishes, becoming zero when the pores or pore clusters dominate failure. Logarithm of strength vs porosity (P) plots for the two machining <span class="hlt">directions</span> followed nearly parallel lines for fine, homogeneous porosity, but have less separation and intersect at lower porosity as pore size or heterogeneity increases. Fracture toughnesses calculated from fractography data for Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and B of varying porosity levels could be normalized to values at P [approximately] 0. Thus, extrapolation of strengths to P = 0 is clearly justified for bodies with fine, homogeneous porosity, but may be uncertain in bodies with coarser, or heterogeneous porosity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rice, R.W. (W.R. Grace and Co.-Conn., Columbia, MD (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55813836"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microplasticity of surfaces and <span class="hlt">small</span> volumes: Microstructural and environmental <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study utilizes contact mechanics techniques to address several critical aspects of micro\\/nanotribology. An emphasis is placed on scale, structure and environmental <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Scale <span class="hlt">effects</span> refer to the earliest stages of plastic deformation where continuum laws are no longer applicable. Structure <span class="hlt">effects</span> involve complex relationships between microstructure and mechanical behavior. Environmental <span class="hlt">effects</span> are manifested in changes of deformation and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Natalia Igorivna Tymiak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52831315"> <span id="translatedtitle">Generation of highly <span class="hlt">directional</span> beam by k-space filtering using a metamaterial flat slab with a <span class="hlt">small</span> negative index of refraction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors show how a flat slab made of a metamaterial engineered to have a <span class="hlt">small</span> negative index of refraction can be used to reshape radiation emitted from an isotropic source and produce a highly <span class="hlt">directional</span> output beam. The slab makes a filtering of high transverse wave vectors of the input diverging beam. The predicted phenomenon is demonstrated at microwave</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alejandro Martínez; Miguel A. Piqueras; Javier Martí</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40877556"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delving into the carbon footprints of Singapore—comparing <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect greenhouse gas emissions of a <span class="hlt">small</span> and open economic system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> and open economic systems like cities face specific challenges for greenhouse gas accounting. They typically import most of their energy requirements as secondary energy products based on conversion processes which caused emissions elsewhere. Emission estimates therefore already require attention not only to <span class="hlt">direct</span> on-site activities. Moreover, for a comprehensive approach it is suggested to include upstream and downstream processes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niels B. Schulz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4858410"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photoacoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">Effect</span> from Flowing <span class="hlt">Small</span> Light-Absorbing Particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">From the flow of a suspension of micrometer-scale carbon particles, the photoacoustic Doppler shift is observed. As predicted theoretically, the observed Doppler shift equals half of that in Doppler ultrasound and does not depend on the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of laser illumination. This new physical phenomenon provides a basis for developing photoacoustic Doppler flowmetry, which can potentially be used for detecting fluid</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hui Fang; Konstantin Maslov; Lihong V. Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMP....54f2102K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of the magnetic field <span class="hlt">direction</span> and anisotropy on the interband light absorption of an asymmetric quantum dot</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, the <span class="hlt">direct</span> interband transition and the threshold frequency of absorption in a two-dimensional anisotropic quantum dot are studied under the influence of a tilted external magnetic field. We first calculate the analytical wave functions and energy levels using a transformation to simplify the Hamiltonian of the system. Then, we obtain the analytical expressions for the light interband absorption coefficient and the threshold frequency of absorption as a function of the magnetic field, magnetic field <span class="hlt">direction</span>, and anisotropy of the system. According to the results obtained from the present work, we find that (i) the absorption threshold frequency (ATF) increases when the magnetic field increases for all <span class="hlt">directions</span>. (ii) When anisotropy is increased, ATF increases. (iii) At <span class="hlt">small</span> anisotropy, the magnetic field <span class="hlt">direction</span> has no important <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the ATF. In brief, the magnetic field, magnetic field <span class="hlt">direction</span>, and anisotropy play important roles in the ATF and absorption coefficient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khordad, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6754065"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health and environmental <span class="hlt">effects</span> document for <span class="hlt">direct</span> coal liquefaction - 1981.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document presents initial estimates of potential human health <span class="hlt">effects</span> from inhalation of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) that may be released from a future hypothetical industry producing about 600,000 bb1/day of synthetic fuel by <span class="hlt">direct</span> liquefaction of coal. The assessment approach starts wth general assumptions that are then refined in a tiered sequence that considers available epidemiological, environmental and chemical data. The uncertainties involved in such an evaluation have been quantified where possible at this early stage of health risk analysis. Many surrogate data bases were considered for application to coal liquefaction including coke oven, British gas retort, roofing tar and asphalts, and cigarette smoke. The coke oven data base was selected for this assessment because the chemical and physical nature of coke oven emissions are judged to more closely approximate potential coal liquefaction emissions. Utilizing the extensive epidemiological data base for coke oven workers as a surrogate model, health <span class="hlt">effects</span> from release of coal liquefaction NMHC may be quantified. This method results in estimates of about 1 x 10/sup -3/ excess cancer deaths/yr to an industrial work force of 7800 persons and 5 x 10/sup -2/ excess cancer deaths/yr in the U.S. population as a whole from NMHC that boil above 600/sup 0/F. Sources of uncertainty in the estimates are listed. Using these uncertainties, it is estimated that from 2 x 10/sup -4/ to 5 x 10/sup -3/ lung cancer deaths/yr may occur in the industrial work force and from 1 x 10/sup -2/ to 2.5 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancer deaths/yr in the U.S. population as a whole. On an individual basis, the excess lifetime risk to occupationally exposed workers is estimated to be 500 times greater than to members of the U.S. public.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mellinger, P.J.; Wilson, B.W.; Mahlum, D.D.; Sever, L.E.; Olsen, A.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...H42A02S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Nutrient Concentrations in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Southeastern Coastal Streams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to characterize nutrient concentrations in several streams that drain <span class="hlt">small</span> watersheds (0.21-3.62 km2) on the South Carolina coast. Two of the watersheds are natural coastal pine forest; 10 are at various levels of development (including 5 pond outfalls). Monthly (during 1999) water samples were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), total dissolved nitrogen, nitrate-nitrite (NO3), ammonia (NH3), total phosphorus (TP), total dissolved phosphorus, and orthophosphate (OPO4). Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) generally comprised >50% of the TN with higher concentrations during the summer than during the spring and fall. DON was significantly higher in the forested streams than the urban streams and ponds, suggesting the influence of forests on organic matter loading and export. NH3 was significantly higher in forested creeks than urbanized ponds and creeks. The dominant fraction of dissolved inorganic N in the forested streams was NH3; in the urban creeks and ponds it was NO3. NO3 had generally higher concentrations during the winter than spring. TP had significantly higher concentrations in the urbanized ponds than the forested streams. This pattern was apparently related to higher concentrations of particulate phosphorus in the urban ponds than in the forested creeks. TP concentrations were significantly higher in summer than spring and winter. Also due to elevated particulate phosphorus levels in the summer. Both results suggest that phytoplankton and organic detritus are dominant fractions of TP. OPO4 generally comprised a greater proportion of the TP in the forested streams than in the urban streams. DOP generally comprised only a <span class="hlt">small</span> fraction (<15%) of total phosphorus in any of the streams sampled. Multiple regression models show seasonality and some land uses may be significant factors influencing stream nutrient concentrations. However, the models have poor predictive strength (<span class="hlt">small</span> r2), indicating there are other watershed factors that control nutrient export from the study area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samarghitan, C.; Tufford, D.; McKellar, H.; Porter, D.; Hussey, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvL..99r4501F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photoacoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">Effect</span> from Flowing <span class="hlt">Small</span> Light-Absorbing Particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From the flow of a suspension of micrometer-scale carbon particles, the photoacoustic Doppler shift is observed. As predicted theoretically, the observed Doppler shift equals half of that in Doppler ultrasound and does not depend on the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of laser illumination. This new physical phenomenon provides a basis for developing photoacoustic Doppler flowmetry, which can potentially be used for detecting fluid flow in optically scattering media and especially low-speed blood flow of relatively deep microcirculation in biological tissue.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fang, Hui; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22404832"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> high-yielding binary Ti vectors pLSU with co-<span class="hlt">directional</span> replicons for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of higher plants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> high-yielding binary Ti vectors of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were constructed to increase the cloning efficiency and plasmid yield in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens for transformation of higher plants. We reduced the size of the binary vector backbone to 4566bp with ColE1 replicon (715bp) for E. coli and VS1 replicon (2654bp) for A. tumefaciens, a bacterial kanamycin resistance gene (999bp), and the T-DNA region (152bp). The binary Ti vectors with the truncated VS1 replicon were stably maintained with more than 98% efficiency in A. tumefaciens without antibiotic selection for 4 days of successive transfers. The transcriptional <span class="hlt">direction</span> of VS1 replicon can be the same as that of ColE1 replicon (co-<span class="hlt">directional</span> transcription), or opposite (head-on transcription) as in the case of widely used vectors (pPZP or pCambia). New binary vectors with co-<span class="hlt">directional</span> transcription yielded in E. coli up to four-fold higher transformation frequency than those with the head-on transcription. In A. tumefaciens the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of co-<span class="hlt">directional</span> transcription is still positive in up to 1.8-fold higher transformation frequency than that of head-on transcription. Transformation frequencies of new vectors are over six-fold higher than those of pCambia vector in A. tumefaciens. DNA yields of new vectors were three to five-fold greater than pCambia in E. coli. The proper functions of the new T-DNA borders and new plant selection marker genes were confirmed after A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of tobacco leaf discs, resulting in virtually all treated leaf discs transformed and induced calli. Genetic analysis of kanamycin resistance trait among the progeny showed that the kanamycin resistance and sensitivity traits were segregated into the 3:1 ratio, indicating that the kanamycin resistance genes were integrated stably into a locus or closely linked loci of the nuclear chromosomal DNA of the primary transgenic tobacco plants and inherited to the second generation. PMID:22404832</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Seokhyun; Su, Guiying; Lasserre, Eric; Aghazadeh, Monty Arta; Murai, Norimoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57845799"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Curriculum Alignment Versus <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction on Urban Children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The city of Camden, New Jersey, received a Follow Through grant to implement the <span class="hlt">direct</span>-instruction model in one of its elementary schools. The standardized achievement test scores of Grade 2 pupils who experienced the <span class="hlt">direct</span>-instruction model were compared with the scores of pupils who experienced traditional basal programs. The traditional programs were aligned with the standardized Comprehensive Test of Basic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George Brent; Nicholas Diobilda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TePhL..37..640G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facet <span class="hlt">effect</span> manifestation during crystallization from <span class="hlt">small</span> volumes of solution in melt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Manifestations of the facet <span class="hlt">effect</span> are possible during the thermomigration of discrete inclusions of the solution of a growing crystal material in <span class="hlt">small</span> volumes of the melt of a solvent metal. Similar to the case of a bulk crystal growth, the facet <span class="hlt">effect</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> volumes is related to the nonequilibrium trapping of impurity by singular regions of the crystallization front.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gershanov, V. Yu.; Garmashov, S. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB95100285"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Local <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Defense Cuts on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business, 1992-1999.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to estimate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of reductions in <span class="hlt">small</span> business employment for the period 1992-1999 that results from cuts in defense expenditures for payrolls and procurement. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> are concentrated geographically because mo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. E. Terleckyj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/207703"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">effects</span> on <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification of Te-doped cast irons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a recent study, <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification experiments were employed with increasing and decreasing velocities to evaluate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> Te additions on the transition velocities between gray to white cast irons during acceleration, V{sub g-w}, and the reverse transition (white to gray) during deceleration, V{sub w-g}. The irons had a hypoeutectic composition of 3.4 wt pct C, 2 wt pct Si and were doped with 0.1 wt pct Te. In an extension of this work to lower Si levels, a hypoeutectic iron of 3.9 wt pct C, 1 wt pct Si + 0.05 wt pct Te, an important discovery was made involving the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of H on the transition velocities. In conclusion, the authors have made the following discoveries: (1) <span class="hlt">small</span> additions of H to the atmosphere present in <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification experiments of Te-doped cast irons have a large <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the gray-white and white-gray transition velocities; (2) addition of 10% H to the atmosphere allows growth of white cast iron at rates down to 1 and 2.5 {micro}sm/s in irons containing 1 and 2 wt pct Si, respectively; (3) it appears that the action of the H is to reduce compounds of Te, most likely oxides, thereby allowing more Te to remain in liquid solution and to adsorb on the graphite/liquid iron growth front interfaces; this, in turn, reduces the graphite growth kinetics and permits white iron growth to dominate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, J.S.; Verhoeven, J.D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science]|[Ames Lab., IA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1629412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Leptin, the obesity-associated hormone, exhibits <span class="hlt">direct</span> cardioprotective <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and purpose: Protection against ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involves PI3K-Akt and p44/42 MAPK activation. Leptin which regulates appetite and energy balance also promotes myocyte proliferation via PI3K-Akt and p44/42 MAPK activation. We, therefore, hypothesized that leptin may also exhibit cardioprotective activity. Experimental approach: The influence of leptin on I/R injury was examined in perfused hearts from C57Bl/6?J mice that underwent 35?min global ischaemia and 35?min reperfusion, infarct size being assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The concomitant activation of cell-signalling pathways was investigated by Western blotting. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of leptin on mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening was studied in rat cardiomyocytes. Key results: Leptin (10?nM) administered during reperfusion reduced infarct size significantly. Protection was blocked by either LY294002 or UO126, inhibitors of Akt and p44/42 MAPK, respectively. Western blotting confirmed that leptin stimulated p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation significantly. Akt phosphorylation was also enhanced but did not achieve statistical significance. Additionally, leptin treatment was associated with a significant increase in p38 phosphorylation. By contrast, leptin caused downregulation of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated STAT3, and of total AMP-activated kinase. Cardiomyocytes responded to leptin with delayed opening of the MPTP and delayed time until contracture. Conclusions and implications: Our data indicate for the first time that the adipocytokine, leptin, has <span class="hlt">direct</span> cardioprotective properties which may involve the PI3-Akt and p44/42 MAPK pathways.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, C C T; Mocanu, M M; Davidson, S M; Wynne, A M; Simpkin, J C; Yellon, D M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008RaPC...77.1280Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">DNA damage induced by the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied the nature of DNA damage induced by the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of radiation. The yields of single- (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB), base lesions and clustered damage were measured using the agarose gel electrophoresis method after exposing to various kinds of radiations to a simple model DNA molecule, fully hydrated closed-circular plasmid DNA (pUC18). The yield of SSB does not show significant dependence on linear energy transfer (LET) values. On the other hand, the yields of base lesions revealed by enzymatic probes, endonuclease III (Nth) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which excise base lesions and leave a nick at the damage site, strongly depend on LET values. Soft X-ray photon (150 kVp) irradiation gives a maximum yield of the base lesions detected by the enzymatic probes as SSB and clustered damage, which is composed of one base lesion and proximate other base lesions or SSBs. The clustered damage is visualized as an enzymatically induced DSB. The yields of the enzymatically additional damages strikingly decrease with increasing levels of LET. These results suggest that in higher LET regions, the repair enzymes used as probes are compromised because of the dense damage clustering. The studies using simple plasmid DNA as a irradiation sample, however, have a technical difficulty to detect multiple SSBs in a plasmid DNA. To detect the additional SSBs induced in opposite strand of the first SSB, we have also developed a novel technique of DNA-denaturation assay. This allows us to detect multiply induced SSBs in both strand of DNA, but not induced DSB.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yokoya, A.; Shikazono, N.; Fujii, K.; Urushibara, A.; Akamatsu, K.; Watanabe, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23672501"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal dynamics of <span class="hlt">direct</span> reciprocal and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> in a host-parasite network.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temporal variation in the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect influence that hosts and parasites exert on each other is still poorly understood. However, variation in species' influence due to species and interactions turnover can have important consequences for host community dynamics and/or for parasite transmission dynamics, and eventually for the risk of zoonotic diseases. We used data on a network of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals and their ectoparasites surveyed over 6 years to test hypotheses exploring (i) the temporal variability in <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect influences species exert on each other in a community, and (ii) the differences in temporal variability of <span class="hlt">direct</span>/indirect influences between temporally persistent (TP) and temporally intermittent species. We modelled the temporal variation in (i) <span class="hlt">direct</span> reciprocal influence between hosts and parasites (hosts providing resources to parasites and parasites exploiting the resources of hosts), using an asymmetry index, and (ii) indirect influence among species within a community (e.g. facilitation of parasite infestation by other parasites), using betweenness centrality. We also correlated asymmetry and centrality to examine the relationship between them. Network dynamics was determined by TP species but even those species had strong among-species heterogeneity in the temporal variation of the <span class="hlt">direct</span>/indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> they exerted. In addition, there was a significant positive linear correlation between asymmetry and centrality. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of host-parasite interactions is driven by TP hosts. However, even within this group of persistent species, some exhibit large temporal variation, such that the functional roles they play (e.g. in promoting parasite transmission) change over time. In addition, parasites having a large negative impact on hosts are also those facilitating the spread of other parasites through the entire host community. Our results provide new insights into community dynamics and can be applied in the management of antagonistic networks aimed at preventing disease outbreaks. PMID:23672501</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pilosof, Shai; Fortuna, Miguel A; Vinarski, Maxim V; Korallo-Vinarskaya, Natalia P; Krasnov, Boris R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3116620"> <span id="translatedtitle">Signaling of the <span class="hlt">direction</span>-sensing FAK/RACK1/PDE4D5 complex to the <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPase Rap1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We recently reported that a complex between focal adhesion kianse (FAK) and the molecular scaffold RACK1 controlled nascent integrin adhesion formation and cell polarization, via peripheral recruitment of the cAMP - degrading PDE4D5 isoform. Here we review and extend these studies by demonstrating that the FAK/RACK1/PDE4D5 ‘<span class="hlt">direction</span>-sensing’ complex likely functions by signaling, via the guanine nucleotide exchange factor EPAC , to its <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPase target Rap1. Specifically, activating EPAC suppresses polarization of squamous cancer cells, while, in contrast, modulating PKA, the other major cAMP effector, has no <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Moreover, FAK-deficient malignant keratinocytes re-expressing a FAK mutant that cannot bind to RACK1, namely FAK-E139A,D140A, display elevated Rap1 that is linked to impaired polarization. Thus, it is likely that the FAK/RACK1/PDE4D5 complex signals to keep Rap1 low at appropriate times and in a spatially-regulated manner as cells first sense their environment and make decisions about nascent adhesion stabilization and polarization. RACK1 is abundantly expressed in both normal and malignant keratinocytes, while FAK and PDE4D5 are both elevated in the cancer cells, suggesting that the FAK/RACK1/PDE4D5/Rap1 signaling axis may contribute to FAK's well documented role in tumor progression.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Serrels, Bryan; Sandilands, Emma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26114833"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Turbulence on Self-sustained Combustion in Premixed Flame Kernels: A <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Numerical Simulation (DNS) Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of mean flame radius and turbulence on self-sustained combustion of turbulent premixed spherical flames in decaying\\u000a turbulence have been investigated using three-dimensional <span class="hlt">direct</span> numerical simulations (DNS) with single step Arrhenius chemistry.\\u000a Several flame kernels with different initial radius or initial turbulent field have been studied for identical conditions\\u000a of thermo-chemistry. It has been found that for very <span class="hlt">small</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Klein; N. Chakraborty; R. S. Cant</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2006112258"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consumer-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> Health Plans: <span class="hlt">Small</span> but Growing Enrollment Fueled by Rising Cost of Health Care Coverage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Insurance carriers, employers, and individuals are showing increasing interest in consumer-<span class="hlt">directed</span> health plans (CDHP). CDHPs typically combine a high-deductible health plan with a health reimbursement arrangement (HRA) or health savings account (HSA). H...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24339602"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy for <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Observation of Polymer and <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Molecule Materials and Structures in Solution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) in the study of molecular self-assembly of amphiphilic macromolecules, lipid\\/surfactants, peptides, and other hybrid material systems is quickly growing in popularity as a standard characterization technique. Cryo-TEM allows the <span class="hlt">direct</span> visualization of nanostructures and microstructures embedded in a thin film of vitrified solvent at liquid nitrogen temperature. This <span class="hlt">direct</span> observation technique provides</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheng Zhong; Darrin J. Pochan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4488N"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and residual <span class="hlt">effects</span> of manure on soil chemical properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The beneficial <span class="hlt">effects</span> of manure recycling in cropland on soil fertility are well documented. Nowadays it can help sequestrate C in the soil organic matter, advocated to mitigate the atmospheric CO2 increase. Because of the gradual disappearance of conventional livestock farming in Western Europe, the study of the persistence of the positive <span class="hlt">effects</span> of manuring after its interruption can be interesting. Any research on soil fertility dynamic, however, requires long-term experiments because it is quite slow and greatly influenced by weather. A field trial, started in 1966 and still in progress in the Experimental Farm of Bologna University, compares 5 crop rotations (a 9-year course: corn-wheat-corn-wheat-corn-wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-alfalfa, corn-wheat and sugarbeet-wheat, continuous corn and continuous wheat), at 3 levels of cattle manure supply combined with 3 inorganic NP fertilizers rates in a split-split plot replicated twice. The soil is an alluvial silty loam, fertile but low in organic matter (13.3 g kg-1). Manure is spread before corn, sugarbeet and alfalfa, at a mean yearly rate of 0 (M0), 20 (M1) and 40 (M2) t ha-1 of fresh material. Since 1984 M2 has been interrupted to evaluate residual <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Regarding mineral fertilizer rates, for this study we considered only the unfertilized control (N0P0) and N1P1 level, corresponding to a mean yearly application of 220 kg N ha-1 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Each year, since 1972 till now, we have sampled soil in the ploughed layer (0-0.4 m) to assess its pH (in water) and its content of organic carbon (SOC, Lotti method), total nitrogen (TN, Kjeldahl) and available phosphorus (P2O5, Olsen). To reduce the influence of crops and weather, statistical analyses were conducted on the averages of data obtained in the 4-year periods at the end of four 9-year cycles (1972-75, 81-84, 90-93 and 99-02). In 30 years, the continuous M1 supply without any inorganic integration increased SOC, TN and P2O5 by +3.6 t ha-1 (+11%), +1.09 t ha-1 (+ 29%) and + 166 kg ha-1 (+107%), respectively, compared to the control. These significant increments were obtained linearly, at mean annual rates of: 0.15 t ha-1 year-1 for SOC, 20 kg ha-1 for TN and 4.18 kg ha-1 for P2O5. During the first 18 years, doubling the manure supply (M2) caused further increments (72%, 76% and 112% increases for SOC, TN and P2O5, respectively, compared to M1). The complete interruption of M2 application, from 1984 onward, gradually decreased the positive <span class="hlt">effects</span>. In the 1990-93 period, no differences between M1 and M2 were detected. After 18 years all the amounts were lower in M2 than in M1. However, a residual <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the double manuring was still evident: M2 plots had higher SOC, TN and P2O5, contents compared to the unfertilized control (+3.1 t ha-1, +0.21 t ha-1 and +88 kg ha-1, respectively). Inorganic fertilization, in the absence of manure, did not affect SOC dynamic, whereas it had significant cumulative <span class="hlt">effects</span> on TN (+0.94 t ha-1 (+26%) increase in the '99-02 period compared to the initial contents) and P2O5, with 223 kg ha-1 (+160%) increment. Treatments slightly influenced pH (6.43, on average): compared to the unfertilized control, manure increased it a little (+2.7%), while mineral fertilization had an opposite <span class="hlt">effect</span> (-2.7%). In conclusion, the <span class="hlt">direct</span> influences of manure on main components of soil fertility appeared cumulative with time and proportional to the application rates, at least up to 40 t ha-1 year-1 of fresh material. Residual <span class="hlt">effects</span> gradually disappeared, but at low speed, thus their study requires really long experiments, lasting more than 20-years. Inorganic fertilization could increase nitrogen and, even more, available phosphorus content in the soil, but, in our research where crop residues are always removed, it had a null <span class="hlt">effect</span> on SOC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nastri, A.; Triberti, L.; Giordani, G.; Comellini, F.; Baldoni, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23371547"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of water on the chemical stability of amorphous pharmaceuticals: I. <span class="hlt">Small</span> molecules.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amorphous states, ubiquitous in pharmaceutical products, possess higher tendency for chemical degradation in comparison to crystalline materials. This instability can be further enhanced by water, which is present even in nominally dry systems. It has been increasingly recognized that in addition to the plasticizing <span class="hlt">effect</span> of lowering the glass transition temperature, water could influence the degradation rates through medium <span class="hlt">effects</span> (e.g., through change in solvation of the reactants and the transition state) as well as by <span class="hlt">direct</span> participation in solid-state hydrolytic degradation processes. In the current review, the impact of water on the chemical stability of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules is examined, with emphasis on hydrolysis reactions in freeze-dried materials remaining in the glassy state. Quantitative relationships between water content and stability are discussed, including molecular mobility (global and local) and solution-like mechanisms, using the medium <span class="hlt">effects</span> concept that has been developed for liquid-state reactions. Further progress in this field requires the development of quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the relationship between local mobility and chemical reactivity in amorphous solids, as well as incorporating the learning from solution chemistry on the role of reaction media in chemical processes. PMID:23371547</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohtake, Satoshi; Shalaev, Evgenyi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8611E..11S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive control of pulse front tilt, the quill <span class="hlt">effect</span>, and <span class="hlt">directional</span> ultrafast laser writing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The "quill <span class="hlt">effect</span>" describes a <span class="hlt">directional</span> phenomenon encountered during ultrafast laser fabrication. Even in homogeneous and isotropic materials, fabrication <span class="hlt">effects</span> can depend on the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of focus translation. The <span class="hlt">directionality</span> has been attributed to pulse front tilt, leading to a spatiotemporal asymmetry in the focus. We use adaptive optics to control pulse front tilt and demonstrate controllable quill <span class="hlt">effect</span> writing in fused silica using a femtosecond laser. Through adaptive control of the intensity profile, we also confirm that inhomogeneous pupil illumination causes similar <span class="hlt">directional</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>. We show dynamic control of ultrashort pulses and <span class="hlt">directional</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> during fabrication.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salter, P. S.; Simmonds, R. D.; Booth, M. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17458728"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defining brain mechanical properties: <span class="hlt">effects</span> of region, <span class="hlt">direction</span>, and species.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">No regional or <span class="hlt">directional</span> large-deformation constitutive data for brain exist in the current literature. To address this deficiency, the large strain (up to 50%) <span class="hlt">directional</span> properties of gray and white matter were determined in the thalamus, corona radiata, and corpus callosum. The constitutive relationships of all regions and <span class="hlt">directions</span> are well fit by an Ogden hyperelastic relationship, modified to include dissipation. The material parameter alpha, representing the non-linearity of the tissue, was not significantly sensitive to region, <span class="hlt">direction</span>, or species. The average value of the material parameter mu, corresponding to the shear modulus of the tissue, was significantly different for each region, demonstrating that brain tissue is inhomogeneous. In each region, mu, obtained in 2 orthogonal <span class="hlt">directions</span>, was compared. Consistent with local neuroarchitecture, gray matter showed the least amount of anisotropy and corpus callosum exhibited the greatest degree of anisotropy. Finally, human temporal lobe gray matter properties were determined and compared to porcine thalamic properties. The results show significant regional inhomogeneity at large strains and significant anisotropy in each region tested. The extent of regional anisotropy correlated with the degree of alignment in the local neuroarchitecture. These large strain, regional and <span class="hlt">directional</span> data should enhance the biofidelity of computational models and provide important information regarding the mechanisms of traumatic brain injury. PMID:17458728</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prange, M T; Meaney, D F; Margulies, S S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6539840"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of crystal tilt on high resolution micrographs of <span class="hlt">small</span> metal particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The structure of <span class="hlt">small</span> (1.5-5 nm) metal particles has been studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. For particles of this size, it is not possible to use tilting techniques (selected area diffraction), which means that the microscopist has to rely on the image when deciding in which <span class="hlt">direction</span> the particle is viewed. This work points out some of the problems of intuitive determination of the viewing <span class="hlt">direction</span>. (DLC)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malm, J.O. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry 2); O'Keefe, M.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26287634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance evaluation of <span class="hlt">small</span> size externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) power plants integrated with <span class="hlt">direct</span> biomass dryers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper concerns a performance evaluation of a <span class="hlt">small</span> scale (about 100kWe), externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) fuelled by residual biomass and integrated with a biomass dryer. In biomass fuelled EFGT power plants, compressed air is heated in the high temperature heat exchanger by using the hot gases produced by the biomass combustion process. The hot air expands in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniele Cocco; Paolo Deiana; Giorgio Cau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/214693"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving <span class="hlt">direct</span>-mapped cache performance by the addition of a <span class="hlt">small</span> fully-associative cache and prefetch buffers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Projections of computer technology forecast processors with peak performance of 1,000 MIPS in the relatively near future. These processors could easily lose half or more of their performance in the memory hierarchy if the hierarchy design is based on conventional caching techniques. This paper presents hardware techniques to improve the performance of caches. Miss caching places a <span class="hlt">small</span> fully-associative cache</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Norman P. Jouppi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23680130"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">small</span> jab - a big <span class="hlt">effect</span>: nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent epidemiological studies have shown that, in addition to disease-specific <span class="hlt">effects</span>, vaccines against infectious diseases have nonspecific <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the ability of the immune system to handle other pathogens. For instance, in randomized trials tuberculosis and measles vaccines are associated with a substantial reduction in overall child mortality, which cannot be explained by prevention of the target disease. New research suggests that the nonspecific <span class="hlt">effects</span> of vaccines are related to cross-reactivity of the adaptive immune system with unrelated pathogens, and to training of the innate immune system through epigenetic reprogramming. Hence, epidemiological findings are backed by immunological data. This generates a new understanding of the immune system and about how it can be modulated by vaccines to impact the general resistance to disease. PMID:23680130</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benn, Christine S; Netea, Mihai G; Selin, Liisa K; Aaby, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17664150"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> beam <span class="hlt">directions</span> using radiobiologically optimized IMRT of node positive breast cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimal coplanar beam <span class="hlt">directions</span> when treating an early breast cancer with locoregional lymphatic spread with a few radiobiologically optimized intensity modulated beams. Also to determine the increase in the probability of complication-free cure with the number of beam portals and the smallest number required to perform a close to optimal treatment for this tumour site. Four test patients with stage II left-sided breast cancer were studied with heart, lung and contralateral breast as principal organs at risk. The clinical target volume consisted of the breast tissue remaining after surgery, the axillary, the internal mammary as well as the supraclavicular lymph nodes. Through an exhaustive search of all possible beam <span class="hlt">directions</span> the most <span class="hlt">effective</span> coplanar beams with one to four intensity modulated photon beam portals were investigated. Comparisons with uniform beam treatment techniques and up to 12 intensity modulated beams were also made. The different plans were optimized using the probability of complication-free tumour cure, P(+), as biological objective function. When using two intensity modulated beam <span class="hlt">directions</span> three major sets of suitable <span class="hlt">directions</span> were identified denoted by A, P and T. A corresponds to an anterior oblique pair of beams around 25 degrees and 325 degrees , P is a perpendicular lateral pair at around 50 degrees and 130 degrees whereas T is a more conventional tangential pair at around 155 degrees and 300 degrees . Interestingly, these configurations identify simply three major <span class="hlt">effective</span> beam <span class="hlt">directions</span> namely at 30 degrees +/-20 degrees , 145 degrees +/-20 degrees and 310 degrees +/-15 degrees . For the three intensity modulated beam technique a combination of these three <span class="hlt">effective</span> beam <span class="hlt">directions</span> generally covered the global maximum of the probability of complication-free tumour control. The improvement in complication-free cure probability with two optimally selected intensity modulated beams is around 10% when compared to a uniform beam technique with three to four beam portals. This increase is mainly due to a reduction by almost 1% in the probability of injury to the heart and an increase of 6% in the probability of local tumour control. When three or four biologically optimized beam portals are used a further increase in the probability of complication-free cure of about 6% can often be obtained. This improvement is caused by a <span class="hlt">small</span> decrease in the probability of injury to the heart, left lung and other surrounding normal tissue, as well as a slight further increase in the probability of tumour control. The increase in the treatment outcome is minimal when more than four intensity modulated beams are employed. A <span class="hlt">small</span> increase in dose homogeneity in the target volume and a slight decrease in the normal tissue volume receiving high dose may be seen, but without appreciably improving the complication-free cure probability. For a stage II breast cancer, three and in more complex cases four optimally oriented beams are sufficient to reach close to the maximum probability of complication-free tumour control when biologically optimized intensity modulated dose delivery is used. Angle of incidence optimization may then be advantageous starting from the given most <span class="hlt">effective</span> three beam <span class="hlt">directions</span>. PMID:17664150</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferreira, Brigida Costa; Svensson, Roger; Lind, Bengt; Johansson, Jonas; Brahme, Anders</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19152442"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intestinal hormones and growth factors: <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In part I, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive <span class="hlt">effect</span> of GLP2 plus steroids. PMID:19152442</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan B R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2653359"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intestinal hormones and growth factors: <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive <span class="hlt">effect</span> of GLP2 plus steroids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......153C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical and chemical <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span> aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall <span class="hlt">effects</span> of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these <span class="hlt">effects</span> are not well understood. This research examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of bench-scale <span class="hlt">direct</span> aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to <span class="hlt">effectively</span> separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more <span class="hlt">effective</span> than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in <span class="hlt">small</span> particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the surface charge of the <span class="hlt">small</span> clay particles upon AO treatment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clobes, Jason Kenneth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/rq13m2346400047w.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale turbulence on microalgae</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Turbulence flows are characterized by their viscous dissipation rates ? and the kinematic viscosity of the fluid ?, but the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of turbulence on organisms such as microalgae smaller than the Kolmogorov inertial-viscous length scale LK ? (?3\\/?)\\/14 depend on the stress ? ? µ?, where µ = ?? is the dynamic viscosity, ? is the density, and the rate-of-strain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William H. Thomas; Carl H. Gibson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x01vnk6904w24478.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of weight bearing in promoting fracture healing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We treated 66 consecutive type IV comminuted femoral shaft fractures with static Grosse-Kempf interlocking nails and followed them up for at least 1 year (median 27 months). Although the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of weight bearing was completely lost, 60 fractures healed primarily without dynamization. We conclude that weight bearing contributes only an auxiliary role in promoting fracture healing, and that the most</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. C. Wu; C.-H. Shih</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://rydberg.biology.colostate.edu/funklab/pdfs/Funk%20et%20al_1999.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> <span class="hlt">effective</span> population size in the long-toed salamander</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effective</span> population sizes ( N e ) of six populations of the long-toed salamander ( Ambystoma macrodactylum ) from Montana and Idaho, USA were estimated from allozyme data from samples collected in 1978, 1996 and 1997 using the temporal allele frequency method. Five of the six estimates ranged from 23 to 207 (mean = 123 ? ? ? ?</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Chris Funk; David A. Tallmon; Fred W. Allendorf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P23C1728R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the Combined <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Gravity and Rotation on <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Body Surface Terrains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In November 2010, the Deep Impact spacecraft flew by comet Hartley 2 as part of its extended (EPOXI) mission. The flyby revealed a nucleus comprised of two, relatively coarse-terrained lobes connected by a smooth, neck region (A'Hearn et al., Science, 2011). If we assume that this smooth neck formed via some type of fluidized particulate flow, then it should lie roughly coincident with an equipotential surface with respect to the combined forces of gravity and rotation. Utilizing a Hartley 2 shape model and measured rotation state, we tested this idea by varying the model bulk density to find the gravity field wherein the potential variation across the neck region was at a minimum, yielding a best-fit bulk density of 220 (140-520) kg/m^3. Curiously, this same potential variance minimization technique applied to the entire shape model yields a bulk density of 200 (140-350) kg/m^3. At first glance, this similar global result seems to invalidate the regional result. However, the same global exercise performed for asteroids 243 Ida and 433 Eros does yield densities close to the measured densities for those objects. For 433 Eros, the technique yields a best-fit density of 2200 (1400-4000) kg/m^3, within 18% of the measured density of 2670 +/- 30 kg/m^3. For 243 Ida, the technique yields a best-fit density of 2300 (1500-4800) kg/m^3, within 12% of the measured density of 2600 +/- 500 kg/m^3. Clearly, there is some mechanism that causes the topography of some <span class="hlt">small</span>, rotating bodies to move toward as <span class="hlt">small</span> a potential energy variance over the surface as possible. We hypothesize that the above phenomena can be explained by the <span class="hlt">effect</span> that disturbance-driven slope degradation processes have on the topography of a <span class="hlt">small</span> body, given a mobile regolith layer on its surface. The first key factor in this explanation involves the exponential increase in the downslope flow/creep rate that occurs when the slope is increased toward the critical angle for that material (Roerring, Water Resources Res., 35, 1999). The second key factor occurs when rotational forces on the surface of a body represent a significant fraction of the total force, such that the rotational force has a significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on surface slope magnitude (what <span class="hlt">direction</span> is "up") at a given location. Initially, it would seem that if the rotation rate of a body is changed, some slopes will increase and some decrease, with an overall rough cancellation. However, when 433 Eros is considered, either increasing or decreasing the rotation rate will cause an increase in the slope distribution. That is, the current surface shape of 433 Eros appears to rest in an 'erosional saddle-point', wherein changing the rotation rate of the body in either <span class="hlt">direction</span> will cause an overall increase in surface slopes, with a corresponding, non-linear increase in downslope erosion rates, which push the surface back towards a low overall slope distribution again. This dynamic thus creates a self-correcting system in which disturbance-driven slope degradation is constantly working to push the topography towards that of a flat, equipotential surface. In this work, we explore this phenomena within a study that includes seven <span class="hlt">small</span> objects for which detailed shape models exist (four asteroids, two comets, and one <span class="hlt">small</span> martian moon).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richardson, J. E.; Bowling, T. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22213548"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controlled deposition of a high-performance <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule organic single-crystal transistor array by <span class="hlt">direct</span> ink-jet printing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ink-jet printed <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule organic single-crystal transistors are realized by using selective surface energy modification, precise control of volume density of ink droplets on spatially patterned areas, and a co-solvent system to control solvent evaporation properties. The single-crystal formation in bottom-contact-structured transistors via <span class="hlt">direct</span> printing is expected to permit high-density array fabrication in large-area electronics. PMID:22213548</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Yong-Hoon; Yoo, Byungwook; Anthony, John E; Park, Sung Kyu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56540712"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of a human <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer cell line resistant to the DNA topoisomerase I-<span class="hlt">directed</span> drug topotecan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Camptothecins are DNA topoisomerase I-<span class="hlt">directed</span> anti-tumour drugs with a novel mechanism of action. Topotecan (TPT), a hydrophilic derivative of camptothecin, is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials in <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Human SCLC OC-NYH cells were made more than 6-fold resistant to topotecan by stepwise drug exposure and resistance was stable for 70 passages without drug. NYH\\/TPT cells had</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M Sorensen; M Sehested; PB Jensen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24023301"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tumor-stromal Interactions with <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Cell Contacts Enhance Motility of Non-<span class="hlt">small</span> Cell Lung Cancer Cells Through the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The metastatic potential of non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been shown to be associated with interactions with the tumor microenvironment, which primarily comprises of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Heterotypic cell-cell interactions occur via released signaling molecules and <span class="hlt">direct</span> physical contact. To investigate the differential contribution of <span class="hlt">direct</span> cell-cell contact and paracrine signaling factors to NSCLC metastasis, we performed two types of co-cultures: <span class="hlt">direct</span> co-cultures of the NSCLC cell line H358 with primary cultures of CAFs from patients with resected NSCLC; and indirect co-cultures across a separable membrane. We showed that CAFs more potently induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NSCLC H358 cells through <span class="hlt">direct</span> contacts than through indirect interactions, as indicated by an elongated and disseminated appearance. Immunocytochemical experiments show that EMT accompanies the expression of mesenchymal cytoskeletal proteins, including vimentin. However, H358 cells proliferate more slowly in <span class="hlt">direct</span> co-culture than in indirect co-culture. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that H358 cells in <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact with CAFs up-regulate the expression of the pan-mesenchymal markers ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), fibroblast activation protein (FAP), transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signaling effector SMAD family number-3 (SMAD3), and hedgehog signaling effector GLI family zinc finger-1 (GLI1), compared with the indirect co-culture system. Furthermore, we found that the <span class="hlt">direct</span> GLI1 transcription targets snail family zinc finger-1 (SNAI1) and SNAI2 are up-regulated, suggesting that the hedgehog signaling pathway is active in <span class="hlt">direct</span> co-culture. A scratch wound assay showed that <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact co-culture increases the motility of H358 cells. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that paracrine factors and <span class="hlt">direct</span> physical contact between NSCLC cells and CAFs might control the metastatic potential of NSCLC through the hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:24023301</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choe, Chungyoul; Shin, Yong-Sung; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Jeon, Mi-Jin; Choi, So-Jung; Lee, Jinseon; Kim, Jhingook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/751705"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inflation and flat <span class="hlt">directions</span> in modular invariant superstring <span class="hlt">effective</span> theories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential during inflation must be very flat in, at least, the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of the inflaton. In renormalizable global supersymmetry, flat <span class="hlt">directions</span> are ubiquitous, but they are not preserved in a generic supergravity theory. It is known that at least some of them are preserved in no-scale supergravity, and simple generalizations of it. We here study a more realistic generalization, based on string-derived supergravity, using the linear supermultiplet formalism for the dilaton. We consider a general class of hybrid inflation models, where a Fayet-Illiopoulos D term drives some fields to large values. The potential is dominated by the F term, but flatness is preserved in some <span class="hlt">directions</span>. This allows inflation, with the dilaton stabilized in its domain of attraction, and some moduli stabilized at their vacuum values. Another modulus may be the inflaton.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gailliard, M.K.; Lyth, D.; Murayama, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58921633"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">EFFECT</span> OF NATURAL PRODUCTS AND <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> GTPASES IN ADIPOGENESIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Insulin signaling is one of the main initiators of adipogenesis, the conversion from pre-adipocyte to adipocyte or lipid droplet. Rab proteins are the master regulator of intracellular trafficking and endosome fusion in endocytosis, making them potential regulators of insulin signaling in adipogenesis. Pre-adipocytes 3T3-Ll cells expressing several Rab5 constructs were used to examine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of dehydroleucodine (DhL ), a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nathalie Rivero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/29/10/2199.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient new ribozyme mimics: <span class="hlt">direct</span> mapping of molecular design principles from <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules to macromolecular, biomimetic catalysts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dramatic improvements in ribozyme mimics have been achieved by employing the principles of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule catalysis to the design of macromolecular, biomimetic reagents. Ribozyme mimics derived from the ligand 2,9-dimethylphenanthroline (neocuproine) show at least 30-fold improvements in efficiency at sequence-specific RNA cleavage when compared with analogous o-phenanthroline- and terpyridine- derived reagents. The suppression of hydroxide- bridged dimers and the greater</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William C. Putnam; Andrew T. Daniher; Bobby N. Trawick; James K. Bashkin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37768393"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolation by Distance in a Population of a <span class="hlt">Small</span> Land Snail Trochoidea geyeri: Evidence from <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect Methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Population structure was estimated in a continuous population of a <span class="hlt">small</span> land snail (Trochoidea geyeri). Mark-recapture experiments and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses indicate that the population structure can be described by the isolation by distance model of Wright (1946). Estimates of density and dispersal suggest a neighbourhood size of 70-208 individuals on an area of 13-21 m2. A principal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Markus Pfenninger; Andreas Bahl; Bruno Streit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://skirball.med.nyu.edu/research/mp/littmanlab/pubupdate/18854238.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Specific Microbiota <span class="hlt">Direct</span> the Differentiation of IL17-Producing T-Helper Cells in the Mucosa of the <span class="hlt">Small</span> Intestine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY The requirements for in vivo steady state differentia- tion of IL-17-producing T-helper (Th17) cells, which are potent inflammation effectors, remain obscure. We report that Th17 cell differentiation in the lamina propria (LP) of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine requires specific commensal microbiota and is inhibited by treating mice with selective antibiotics. Mice from different sources had marked differences in their Th17</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ivaylo I. Ivanov; Rosa de Llanos Frutos; Nicolas Manel; Keiji Yoshinaga; Daniel B. Rifkin; R. Balfour Sartor; B. Brett Finlay; Dan R. Littman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sequestration.mit.edu/pdf/Caldeira_et_al_NETL.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting and Evaluating the <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of Ocean Carbon Sequestration by <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Injection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> injection of CO into the ocean is a potentially <span class="hlt">effective</span> carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we want to understand the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of oceanic injection and develop the appropriate analytic framework to allow us to compare the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of this strategy with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of <span class="hlt">direct</span> oceanic injection, we estimate the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of ocean</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ken Caldeira; Howard J. Herzog; Michael E. Wickett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.137e4712A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> cage guests on hydrogen bonding of tetrahydrofuran in binary structure II clathrate hydrates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular dynamics simulations of the pure structure II tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate and binary structure II tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate with CO2, CH4, H2S, and Xe <span class="hlt">small</span> cage guests are performed to study the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the shape, size, and intermolecular forces of the <span class="hlt">small</span> cages guests on the structure and dynamics of the hydrate. The simulations show that the number and nature of the guest in the <span class="hlt">small</span> cage affects the probability of hydrogen bonding of the tetrahydrofuran guest with the large cage water molecules. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> on hydrogen bonding of tetrahydrofuran occurs despite the fact that the guests in the <span class="hlt">small</span> cage do not themselves form hydrogen bonds with water. These results indicate that nearest neighbour guest-guest interactions (mediated through the water lattice framework) can affect the clathrate structure and stability. The implications of these subtle <span class="hlt">small</span> guest <span class="hlt">effects</span> on clathrate hydrate stability are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894376"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> cage guests on hydrogen bonding of tetrahydrofuran in binary structure II clathrate hydrates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular dynamics simulations of the pure structure II tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate and binary structure II tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate with CO(2), CH(4), H(2)S, and Xe <span class="hlt">small</span> cage guests are performed to study the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the shape, size, and intermolecular forces of the <span class="hlt">small</span> cages guests on the structure and dynamics of the hydrate. The simulations show that the number and nature of the guest in the <span class="hlt">small</span> cage affects the probability of hydrogen bonding of the tetrahydrofuran guest with the large cage water molecules. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> on hydrogen bonding of tetrahydrofuran occurs despite the fact that the guests in the <span class="hlt">small</span> cage do not themselves form hydrogen bonds with water. These results indicate that nearest neighbour guest-guest interactions (mediated through the water lattice framework) can affect the clathrate structure and stability. The implications of these subtle <span class="hlt">small</span> guest <span class="hlt">effects</span> on clathrate hydrate stability are discussed. PMID:22894376</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40292332"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of focused ion beam milling on the compressive behavior of <span class="hlt">directionally</span> solidified micropillars and the nanoindentation response of an electropolished surface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is the typical method used to fabricate micropillars to study <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale plasticity and size <span class="hlt">effects</span> in uniaxial compression. However, FIB milling can introduce defects into the milled pillars. To investigate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of FIB damage on mechanical behavior, we tested Mo-alloy micropillars that were FIB milled following <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification, and compared their compressive response to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Shim; H. Bei; M. K. Miller; G. M. Pharr; E. P. George</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42147289"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of cycle mean strain on <span class="hlt">small</span> crack growth in Alloy 718 at elevated temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of the cyclic compressive excursion on the fatigue crack growth behavior of <span class="hlt">small</span> surface cracks in Alloy 718 at 650 C is studied experimentally. Test conditions were chosen to simulate the cyclic plasticity found at notch locations in high temperature structural components. During cycling, the crack lengths were continuously monitored using the <span class="hlt">direct</span> current potential drop method while</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. H. Rosenberger; H. Ghonem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=saudi+AND+arabia&pg=7&id=EJ887344"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Extra <span class="hlt">Small</span> Group Session during PBL Implementation on Student's Achievement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Problem based learning (PBL) started to spread in health professions in Saudi Arabia at the beginning of this century. There are several challenges facing its implementation such as defects on interpersonal communications and self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> learning. These challenges would affect students' performance in <span class="hlt">small</span> group discussions and their…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al Rukban, Mohammad Othman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Immunology&id=EJ887344"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Extra <span class="hlt">Small</span> Group Session during PBL Implementation on Student's Achievement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Problem based learning (PBL) started to spread in health professions in Saudi Arabia at the beginning of this century. There are several challenges facing its implementation such as defects on interpersonal communications and self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> learning. These challenges would affect students' performance in <span class="hlt">small</span> group discussions and their…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al Rukban, Mohammad Othman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36929120"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Directionality</span> of Significance Tests on the Bias of Accessible <span class="hlt">Effect</span> Sizes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The proportion of studies that use one-tailed statistical significance tests (?) in a population of studies targeted by a meta-analysis can affect the bias of the sample <span class="hlt">effect</span> sizes (sample ESs, or ds) that are accessible to the meta-analyst. H. C. Kraemer, C. Gardner, J. O. Brooks, and J. A. Yesavage (1998) found that, assuming ? = 1.0, for <span class="hlt">small</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Louis M. Hsu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V51A2513H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Measurement of Recoil <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Ar-Ar Standards</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advances in the precision possible with the Ar-Ar method using new techniques and equipment have led to considerable effort to improve the accuracy of the calibration of interlaboratory standards. However, ultimately the accuracy of the method relies on the measurement of 40Ar*/39ArK ratios on primary standards that have been calibrated with the K-Ar method and, in turn, on secondary standards that are calibrated against primary standards. It is usually assumed that an Ar-Ar total gas age is equivalent to a K-Ar age, but this assumes that there is zero loss of Ar due to recoil. Instead, traditional Ar-Ar total gas ages are in fact Ar retention ages [1] and not, strictly speaking, comparable to K-Ar ages. There have been efforts to estimate the importance of this <span class="hlt">effect</span> on standards along with prescriptions for minimizing recoil <span class="hlt">effects</span> [2,3], but these studies have relied on indirect evidence for 39Ar recoil. We report <span class="hlt">direct</span> measurements of 39Ar recoil for a set of primary and secondary standards using the vacuum encapsulation techniques of [1] and show that significant adjustments to ages assigned to some standards may be needed. The fraction f of 39Ar lost due to recoil for primary standards MMhb-1 hornblende and GA-1550 biotite are 0.00367 and 0.00314 respectively. It is possible to modify the assumed K-Ar ages of these standards so that when using their measured Ar retention 40Ar*/39ArK ratios, one obtains a correct K-Ar age for an unknown, assuming that the unknown sample has zero loss of 39Ar due to recoil. Assuming a primary K-Ar age for MMhb-1 of 520.4 Ma, the modified age would be 522.1 Ma and assuming a primary K-Ar age for GA-1550 of 98.79 Ma [4] yields a modified <span class="hlt">effective</span> age of 99.09 Ma. Measured f values for secondary standards FCT-3 biotite, FCT-2 sanidine and TCR-2 sanidine are 0.00932, 0.00182 and 0.00039 respectively. Using an R value for FCT-3 biotite relative to MMhb-1 [5], the K-Ar age for this standard would be 27.83 Ma and using R values for FCT and TC sanidines [4] against GA-1550, their K-Ar ages would be 28.06 Ma and 28.41 Ma respectively. For retrospective recalculation purposes, the <span class="hlt">effective</span> Ar-Ar age of these samples that should yield correct K-Ar ages for unknowns with zero recoil loss would be 28.09 Ma, 28.11 Ma and 28.42 Ma for FCT-3 biotite, FCT-2 sanidine and TCR-2 sanidine respectively. The measured f for FCT-3 appears to explain the R value of it relative to FCT sanidine of 1.0086 found by [8]. From the low T portion of the Ar release spectra of the biotite and amphibole standards, it is clear that the dominant recoil artifact affecting Ar release is the re-implantation mechanism seen in clay samples [1,6,7] and not the loss of 39Ar at the surface of the grain. The geometry of neighboring grains during irradiation and internal defects may predominate in controlling recoil loss. [1] Dong et al., 1995, Science, 267, 355-359. [2] Paine et al., 2006, Geochim.Cosmochim. Acta, 70, 1507-1517. [3] Jourdan et al., 2007, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 2791-2808 [4] Renne et al., 1998, Chem. Geol., 145 117-152. [5] Hall & Farrell, 1995, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 133, 327-338. [6] Hall et al., 1997, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 148, 287-298. [7] Hall et al., 2000, Econ. Geol., 95, 1739-1752. [8] Di Vincenzo & Roman Skála, 2009, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73, 493-513.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=NUCLEAR&id=EJ843322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Goal <span class="hlt">Direction</span> and <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>, Emotional Maturity, and Nuclear Family Functioning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal <span class="hlt">direction</span> and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klever, Phillip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40973808"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of nitrogen deposition on litter decomposition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition can affect litter decomposition <span class="hlt">directly</span>, by raising soil N availability and the quantity and quality of litter inputs, and indirectly by altering plant community composition. We investigated the importance of these controls on litter decomposition using litter bags placed in annual herb based microcosm ecosystems that had been subject to two rates of N deposition (which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Manning; Mark Saunders; Richard D. Bardgett; Michael Bonkowski; Mark A. Bradford; Richard J. Ellis; Ellen Kandeler; Sven Marhan; Dagmar Tscherko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA091460"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sample Size <span class="hlt">Effects</span> Using the NGI <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Simple Shear Apparatus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The contents of this report include a comparison of <span class="hlt">direct</span> simple shear test results for variations in sample size and for two different soils. Soils tested were undisturbed samples of Gulf of Alaska and Gulf of Mexico clays. Testing was performed on the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. D. Carroll</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nuclear&id=EJ843322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Goal <span class="hlt">Direction</span> and <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>, Emotional Maturity, and Nuclear Family Functioning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal <span class="hlt">direction</span> and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klever, Phillip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40152762"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> in microcosm communities of protists</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increased complexity in biological communities can increase the variety of interactions among species, but the relative strengths and long-term consequences of various <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect interactions require further investigation. I studied interactions among four species of protists by monitoring their population dynamics when they were cultured either together or in seven different subset communities. Two protists were bacterivores (Chilomonas and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharon P. Lawler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB258781"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Multi-<span class="hlt">Directional</span> Shaking on Liquefaction of Sands.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both qualitative results of shaking table tests on dry sand and the results of a quantitative evaluation using data from cyclic simple shear tests are used to show that the shear stresses causing liquefaction under multi-<span class="hlt">directional</span> shaking with two equal...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. R. Martin H. B. Seed R. Pyke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Makers+AND+Movement&pg=6&id=EJ825750"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span> School Size on Mathematics Achievement: A Propensity Score-Matching Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Background: <span class="hlt">Small</span> schools have been promoted as an educational reform that is capable of improving student outcomes. However, a survey of the research on <span class="hlt">small</span> schools indicates that much of the movement for decreasing school size is based primarily on correlational methods that do not control for selection <span class="hlt">effects</span> in the data. In addition,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wyse, Adam E.; Keesler, Venessa; Schneider, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31023708"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass <span class="hlt">effect</span> of injected dose in <span class="hlt">small</span> rodent imaging by SPECT and PET</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of mass (chemical quantity) of injected dose on positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Commonly, PET or SPECT imaging study uses a “no-carrier added” dose, which contains a <span class="hlt">small</span> amount of radioactive imaging agent (in picogram to microgram). For <span class="hlt">small</span> animal (rodent) imaging studies, specifically targeting binding sites or biological processes,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mei-Ping Kung; Hank F. Kung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2025654"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> worlds and mega-minds: <span class="hlt">effects</span> of neighborhood topology on particle swarm performance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study manipulated the neighborhood topologies of particle swarms optimizing four test functions. Several social network structures were tested, with “<span class="hlt">small</span>-world” randomization of a specified number of links. Sociometric structure and the <span class="hlt">small</span>-world manipulation interacted with function to produce a significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on performance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James Kennedy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Icar..192..417M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The shielding <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale martian surface geometry on ultraviolet flux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The atmosphere of Mars does little to attenuate incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Large amounts of UV radiation sterilize the hardiest of terrestrial organisms within minutes, and chemically alter the soil such that organic molecules at or near the surface are rapidly destroyed. Thus the survival of any putative martian life near the surface depends to a large extent on how much UV radiation it receives. Variations in <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale geometry of the surface such as pits, trenches, flat faces and overhangs can have a significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the incident UV flux and may create "safe havens" for organisms and organic molecules. In order to examine this <span class="hlt">effect</span>, a 1-D radiative transfer sky model with 836 meshed points (plus the Sun) was developed which includes both diffuse and <span class="hlt">direct</span> components of the surface irradiance. This model derives the variation of UV flux with latitude and an object's Geometric Shielding Ratio (a ratio which describes the geometry of each situation). The best protection is offered by overhangs with flux reduced to a factor of 1.8±0.2×10 of the unprotected value, a reduction which does not vary significantly by latitude. Pits and cracks are less <span class="hlt">effective</span> with a reduction in UV flux of only up to 4.5±0.5×10 for the modeled scenarios; however, they are more <span class="hlt">effective</span> for the same geometric shielding ratio than overhangs at high latitudes due to the low height of the Sun in the sky. Lastly, polar faces of rocks have the least <span class="hlt">effective</span> shielding geometry with at most a 1.1±0.1×10 reduction in UV flux. Polar faces of rocks are most <span class="hlt">effective</span> at mid latitudes where the Sun is never <span class="hlt">directly</span> overhead, as at tropical latitudes, and never exposes the back of the rock, as at polar latitudes. In the most favorable cases, UV flux is sufficiently reduced such that organic in-fall could accumulate beneath overhanging surfaces and in pits and cracks. As well, hardy terrestrial microorganisms such as Bacillus pumilus could persist for up to 100 sols on the outer surfaces of typical spacecraft or several tens of martian years in the most shielded surface niches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moores, J. E.; Smith, P. H.; Tanner, R.; Schuerger, A. C.; Venkateswaran, K. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20945753"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of habitat area on interaction diversity in pollination webs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Island biogeography theory predicts that species richness increases with habitat area and declines with isolation. We expand this framework to address changes in the number of links and species in pollination webs from 12 isolated hills, ranging in area from tens to thousands of hectares, immersed in the agriculture matrix of the Argentine Pampas. We also studied whether total interaction frequency is partitioned more evenly among individual links in richer webs. Our results reveal a <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of area on the number of links and species present in each pollination web. However, link richness increased twofold faster than species richness with area. These area <span class="hlt">effects</span> were not confounded by sampling effort or correlated incidence of exotic species, despite widespread habitat disturbance. Habitat proximity, an inverse measure of isolation, had a marginally significant influence on link but not on species richness. Increased link number was associated with decreasing dominance by any particular interaction and increasing interaction evenness. Despite the strong area <span class="hlt">effect</span>, a rich pollination web sampled from a <span class="hlt">small</span>, protected sierra suggests that simple conservation measures, such as reduced grazing and fire suppression, may <span class="hlt">effectively</span> preserve much local interaction diversity. PMID:20945753</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sabatino, Malena; Maceira, Néstor; Aizen, Marcelo A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51102982"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study on 3-D Computer Aided Design for the <span class="hlt">small</span> bore <span class="hlt">directed</span>-injection engine combustion system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Computer-Aided Design is used to carry out 3-D (three dimensions) design for diesel engine combustion system. The diesel engine combustion system is designed and each part is modeled in Pro\\/E. Pro\\/E is a solid modeler and this offers considerable advantage for solid model creation. Normally, the geometry is first sketched in 2-D and then extruded in the third <span class="hlt">direction</span> to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yongfeng Liu; Jianwei Yang; Jianmin Sun; Qinghui Zhou; Aihua Zhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15380392"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collective <span class="hlt">effects</span> in traffic on bi-<span class="hlt">directional</span> ant trails.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivated by recent experimental work of Burd et al., we propose a model of bi-<span class="hlt">directional</span> ant traffic on pre-existing ant trails. It captures in a simple way some of the generic collective features of movements of real ants on a trail. Analysing this model, we demonstrate that there are crucial qualitative differences between vehicular- and ant-traffics. In particular, we predict some unusual features of the flow rate that can be tested experimentally. As in the uni-<span class="hlt">directional</span> model a non-monotonic density-dependence of the average velocity can be observed in certain parameter regimes. As a consequence of the interaction between oppositely moving ants the flow rate can become approximately constant over some density interval. PMID:15380392</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John, Alexander; Schadschneider, Andreas; Chowdhury, Debashish; Nishinari, Katsuhiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6181885"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collective <span class="hlt">effects</span> in traffic on bi-<span class="hlt">directional</span> ant trails</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivated by recent experimental work of Burd et al., we propose a model of bi-<span class="hlt">directional</span> ant traffic on pre-existing ant trails. It captures in a simple way some of the generic collective features of movements of real ants on a trail. Analysing this model, we demonstrate that there are crucial qualitative differences between vehicular- and ant-traffics. In particular, we predict</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexander John; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Katsuhiro Nishinari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37821447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consumer opinion and <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span>-to-consumer advertising</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to look at the relationship between attitudes toward <span class="hlt">direct</span>-to-consumer (DTC) advertising and its impact on consumer requests for a particular drug. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of 154 consumers completed the survey on-site at a pharmacy while waiting for their prescription(s) to be filled. Based on exploratory research (focus groups), survey items were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deborah F. Spake; Mathew Joseph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37845130"> <span id="translatedtitle">Online purchase determinants : Is their <span class="hlt">effect</span> moderated by <span class="hlt">direct</span> experience?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating influence of <span class="hlt">direct</span> online shopping experience in an e-commerce context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The conceptual framework links attitudinal constructs such as price attractiveness, merchandise quality, service quality, time\\/effort costs, risk and enjoyment to future online purchase intentions. Purchasers and inquirers of a car insurance comparison website were approached by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thijs Broekhuizen; Eelko K. R. E. Huizingh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2674510"> <span id="translatedtitle">CYTOPROTECTIVE <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF IAPS REVEALED BY A <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> MOLECULE ANTAGONIST</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SYNOPSIS Deregulated expression of members of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) family has been found in a wide variety of neoplastic cells, and synthetic IAP antagonists represent a promising novel class of chemotherapeutic agents. Early work focused on the ability of these compounds to block the caspase inhibitory function of XIAP. However, recent studies have shown that IAP antagonists, although primarily designed to target XIAP, trigger a ubiquitin-mediated degradation of two related proteins, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2, and through this process potentiate the death of tumor cells via autocrine cellular signaling pathways. In this context, the relative contribution of XIAP as a target of this class of compounds is unclear. Here we examine the involvement of XIAP using a recently described synthetic IAP antagonist, AEG40730, and through the comparison of a human tumor cell line targeted for XIAP with its isogenic, wild type control line. Treatment with nanomolar concentrations of AEG40730 resulted in the loss of both XIAP and c-IAP1 proteins, albeit with different kinetics. While XIAP-deficient HCT116 cells retained some sensitivity to AEG40730 to external apoptotic stimuli, the data suggest that IAP antagonists such as AEG40730 exert their apoptotic enhancing <span class="hlt">effects</span> through XIAP in addition to the c-IAPs. These data indicate that IAP antagonists can target multiple IAPs to augment distinct pro-apoptotic signaling pathways, thereby revealing the potential for these compounds in cancer therapy and underscoring the promise of IAP-targeted therapies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galban, Stefanie; Hwang, Clara; Rumble, Julie M.; Oetjen, Karolyn A.; Wright, Casey W.; Boudreault, Alain; Durkin, Jon; Gillard, John W.; Jaquith, James B.; Morris, Stephen J.; Duckett, Colin S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/11/4865.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of oral erythromycin on gastric and <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel transit time of capsule endoscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To determine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of oral erythromycin on gastric and <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel transit time of capsule endoscopy. METHODS:Consecutive patients who underwent,capsule</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wai K Leung; Francis KL Chan; Sara SL Fung; Mei-Yin Wong; Joseph JY Sung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22158868"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> molecule structure correctors abolish detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span> of apolipoprotein E4 in cultured neurons.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the major genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer disease, assumes a pathological conformation, intramolecular domain interaction. ApoE4 domain interaction mediates the detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span> of apoE4, including decreased mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 levels, reduced mitochondrial motility, and reduced neurite outgrowth in vitro. Mutant apoE4 (apoE4-R61T) lacks domain interaction, behaves like apoE3, and does not cause detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span>. To identify <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules that inhibit domain interaction (i.e. structure correctors) and reverse the apoE4 detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span>, we established a high throughput cell-based FRET primary assay that determines apoE4 domain interaction and secondary cell- and function-based assays. Screening a ChemBridge library with the FRET assay identified CB9032258 (a phthalazinone derivative), which inhibits domain interaction in neuronal cells. In secondary functional assays, CB9032258 restored mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 levels and rescued impairments of mitochondrial motility and neurite outgrowth in apoE4-expressing neuronal cells. These benefits were apoE4-specific and dose-dependent. Modifying CB9032258 yielded well defined structure-activity relationships and more active compounds with enhanced potencies in the FRET assay (IC(50) of 23 and 116 nm, respectively). These compounds efficiently restored functional activities of apoE4-expressing cells in secondary assays. An EPR binding assay showed that the apoE4 structure correction resulted from <span class="hlt">direct</span> interaction of a phthalazinone. With these data, a six-feature pharmacophore model was constructed for future drug design. Our results serve as a proof of concept that pharmacological intervention with apoE4 structure correctors negates apoE4 detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span> in neuronal cells and could be further developed as an Alzheimer disease therapeutic. PMID:22158868</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Hung-Kai; Liu, Zhaoping; Meyer-Franke, Anke; Brodbeck, Jens; Miranda, Rene D; McGuire, James G; Pleiss, Michael A; Ji, Zhong-Sheng; Balestra, Maureen E; Walker, David W; Xu, Qin; Jeong, Dah-eun; Budamagunta, Madhu S; Voss, John C; Freedman, Stephen B; Weisgraber, Karl H; Huang, Yadong; Mahley, Robert W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35655055"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide on Sodium-Glucose Cotransport in the Rat <span class="hlt">Small</span> Intestine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">GonzÁLez Bosc, L. V., P. A. Elustondo, M. C. Ortiz and N. A. Vidal. <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of atrial natriuretic peptide on sodium-glucose cotransport in the rat <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. Peptides 18(10) 1491–1495, 1997.—Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) decreases sodium absorption in <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of rats in vitro under sodium concentration-gradient conditions (SCG) and this <span class="hlt">effect</span> may be mediated by the inhibition of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. V González Bosc; P. A Elustondo; M. C Ortiz; N. A Vidal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19658479"> <span id="translatedtitle">Standard random walks and trapping on the Koch network with scale-free behavior and <span class="hlt">small</span>-world <span class="hlt">effect</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A vast variety of real-life networks display the ubiquitous presence of scale-free phenomenon and <span class="hlt">small</span>-world <span class="hlt">effect</span>, both of which play a significant role in the dynamical processes running on networks. Although various dynamical processes have been investigated in scale-free <span class="hlt">small</span>-world networks, analytical research about random walks on such networks is much less. In this paper, we will study analytically the scaling of the mean first-passage time (MFPT) for random walks on scale-free <span class="hlt">small</span>-world networks. To this end, we first map the classical Koch fractal to a network, called Koch network. According to this proposed mapping, we present an iterative algorithm for generating the Koch network; based on which we derive closed-form expressions for the relevant topological features, such as degree distribution, clustering coefficient, average path length, and degree correlations. The obtained solutions show that the Koch network exhibits scale-free behavior and <span class="hlt">small</span>-world <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Then, we investigate the standard random walks and trapping issue on the Koch network. Through the recurrence relations derived from the structure of the Koch network, we obtain the exact scaling for the MFPT. We show that in the infinite network order limit, the MFPT grows linearly with the number of all nodes in the network. The obtained analytical results are corroborated by <span class="hlt">direct</span> extensive numerical calculations. In addition, we also determine the scaling efficiency exponents characterizing random walks on the Koch network. PMID:19658479</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng; Xie, Wenlei; Chen, Lichao; Lin, Yuan; Guan, Jihong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23358112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neural lineage-specific homeoprotein BRN2 is <span class="hlt">directly</span> involved in TTF1 expression in <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) plays crucial roles in thyroid, lung, and developing brain morphogenesis. Because TTF1-expressing neoplasms are generated from organs and tissues that normally express TTF1, such as the thyroid follicular epithelium and peripheral lung airway epithelium, TTF1 is widely used as a cell lineage-specific and diagnostic marker for thyroid carcinomas and for lung adenocarcinomas with terminal respiratory unit (TRU) differentiation. However, among lung neuroendocrine tumors, <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell carcinomas (<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancers (SCLCs)), most of which are generated from the central airway, also frequently express TTF1 at high levels. To clarify how SCLCs express TTF1, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of its expression using cultivated lung cancer cells and focusing upon neural cell-specific transcription factors. Both SCLC cells and lung adenocarcinoma cells predominantly expressed isoform 2 of TTF1, and TTF1 promoter assays in SCLC cells revealed that the crucial region for activation of the promoter, which is adjacent to the transcription start site of TTF1 isoform 2, has potent FOX-, LHX-, and BRN2-binding sites. Transfection experiments using expression vectors for FOXA1, FOXA2, LHX2, LHX6, and BRN2 showed that BRN2 substantially upregulated TTF1 expression, whereas FOXA1/2 weakly upregulated TTF1 expression. BRN2 and FOXA1/2 binding to the TTF1 promoter was confirmed through chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, and TTF1 expression in SCLC cells was considerably downregulated after BRN2 knockdown. Furthermore, the TTF1 promoter in SCLC cells was scarcely methylated, and immunohistochemical examinations using a series of primary lung tumors indicated that TTF1 and BRN2 were coexpressed only in SCLC cells. These findings suggest that TTF1 expression in SCLC is a cell lineage-specific phenomenon that involves the developing neural cell-specific homeoprotein BRN2. PMID:23358112</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sakaeda, Masashi; Sato, Hanako; Ishii, Jun; Miyata, Chie; Kamma, Hiroshi; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Masachika; Endo, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Ryota; Kondo, Haruhiko; Goya, Tomoyuki; Aoki, Ichiro; Yazawa, Takuya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNG51B1201L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of boundary condition <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the propagation of density current using <span class="hlt">direct</span> numerical simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of density current in a channel has been studied extensively using theoretical, experimental and numerical tools. For high resolution numerical method, such as <span class="hlt">direct</span> numerical simulations (DNS), the boundary conditions on the bottom and top of the channel are usually assumed to be no-slip and no-penetration. This study aims to investigate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of various boundary conditions encountered in reality, such as shear-stress free top boundary in an open channel, wind shear, suction/blowing bottom due to groundwater flow. The DNS code used in the research implements a revised Kleiser and Schumann (1980) influence-matrix method to treat the Robin type velocity boundary conditions and the related "tau" error corrections. This revised method broadens the applicability of the original Kleiser and Schumann method and is ideal for the purpose of this research. Comparisons of the simulation results reveal that the boundary conditions changes the turbulent flow field and therefore the propagation of the front. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> on some of the parameters (such as front speed) are investigated and quantified. Further study need to address the scale <span class="hlt">effects</span> when the vertical scale of the density current is <span class="hlt">small</span> than or comparable with the channel depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18761825"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Effect</span> of the GCP <span class="hlt">Directive</span> on academic drug trials].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 2004, adherence to Good Clinical Practice has been mandatory for all clinical drug trials. This was new to the investigator-initiated trials. Our study showed no association between the implementation of the <span class="hlt">Directive</span> and investigator or industry-initiated trials. However, a steady decline was observed over the entire period. Presumably, the introduction of GCP did not entail a decline because of the presence of GCP units at university hospitals. Thus, researchers can conduct clinical drug trials under the same regulations as drug companies. PMID:18761825</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berendt, Louise; Håkansson, Cecilia; Bach, Karin Friis; Dalhoff, Kim; Andreasen, Per Buch; Petersen, Lene Grejs; Andersen, Elin; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.4521L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The roles of aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> in past and future climate change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL's) fully coupled chemistry-climate (ocean/atmosphere/land/sea ice) model (CM3) with an explicit physical representation of aerosol indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> (cloud-water droplet activation), we find that the dramatic emission reductions (35%-80%) in anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors projected by Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 result in ~1 °C of additional warming and ~0.1 mm day-1 of additional precipitation, both globally averaged, by the end of the 21st century. The impact of these reductions in aerosol emissions on simulated global mean surface temperature and precipitation becomes apparent by mid-21st century. Furthermore, we find that the aerosol emission reductions cause precipitation to increase in East and South Asia by ~1.0 mm day-1 through the second half of the 21st century. Both the temperature and the precipitation responses simulated by CM3 are significantly stronger than the responses previously simulated by our earlier climate model (CM2.1) that only considered <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative forcing by aerosols. We conclude that the indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of sulfate aerosol greatly enhance the impacts of aerosols on surface temperature in CM3; both <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> from sulfate aerosols dominate the strong precipitation response, possibly with a <span class="hlt">small</span> contribution from carbonaceous aerosols. Just as we found with the previous GFDL model, CM3 produces surface warming patterns that are uncorrelated with the spatial distribution of 21st century changes in aerosol loading. However, the largest precipitation increases in CM3 are colocated with the region of greatest aerosol decrease, in and downwind of Asia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levy, Hiram; Horowitz, Larry W.; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Ming, Yi; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Naik, Vaishali; Ramaswamy, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37030148"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring propaganda <span class="hlt">effects</span> with <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect attitude tests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An attempt is made to study propaganda <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> through the use of disguised attitude measures. The relative <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of two typical radio styles used in informational programs is studied  The traditional pretest design is abandoned in favor of matched groups given a post-test only.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jack A. Parrish; Donald T. Campbell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1953-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5669006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survival after total-body irradiation. I. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of partial <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel shielding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedures 80, 40, 20, or 10 cm, or none of the proximal or distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine were temporarily exteriorized and shielded during irradiation with photons from an 18 MeV linear accelerator. Less than 17% of the dose was delivered to the shielded intestines. In unshielded animals deaths occurred from Days 4 to 6 with 13, 15, or 17 Gy and from Days 8 to 30 with 9, 11, and 12 Gy. However, in all animals exposed to 15 Gy with all or part of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine shielded, survival was increased to between 5 and 9 days. Shielding of the distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine was more <span class="hlt">effective</span> in prolonging survival than shielding of the proximal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. The previously identified target of radiation damage in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine is the crypt stem cell. In this study, the analysis of histological specimens of shielded and irradiated <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine suggested that humoral factors also influence intestinal histology and survival after irradiation. These humoral factors are thought to originate from the irradiated body tissues, the shielded proximal intestine, and the shielded distal intestine. Further studies are required to identify these factors and to determine their mode of action and their therapeutic potential after radiation damage to the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vigneulle, R.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Taylor, P.; Burns, W.; Pelkey, T. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10474081"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of wood creosote and loperamide on propulsive motility of mouse colon and <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To elucidate a mechanism of the antidiarrheal activity of wood creosote, its <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the propulsive motility of mouse colon and <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine was studied using a charcoal meal test and a colonic bead expulsion test. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> was compared with that of loperamide. At an ordinary therapeutic dose, wood creosote inhibited the propulsive motility of colon, but not of <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. On the other hand, loperamide inhibited the propulsive motility of <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, but not of colon. The results indicate that at least a part of the antidiarrheal activity of wood creosote and loperamide is attributable to their antikinetic <span class="hlt">effect</span> predominantly on colon of the former and predominantly on <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of the latter. PMID:10474081</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ogata, N; Ataka, K; Morino, H; Shibata, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60322252"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of torch jet <span class="hlt">direction</span> on combustion and performance of a prechamber spark-ignition engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To examine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of torch jet <span class="hlt">direction</span> on the combustion characteristics and engine performances, a spark-ignition engine with each divided chamber having a torch nozzle of different flow <span class="hlt">direction</span> is used by changing the torch nozzle area, prechamber volume and air-fuel ratio, while keeping the engine speed of 1000 rpm. Typical pressure diagrams for different torch jet <span class="hlt">directions</span> are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Ryu; A. Chtsu; T. Asanuma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/192871"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EFFECT</span> OF <span class="hlt">DIRECTIONAL</span> ARRAY SIZE ON THE MEASUREMENT OF AIRFRAME NOISE COMPONENTS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was conducted to examine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> ofoverall size of <span class="hlt">directional</span> (or phased) arrays on themeasurement of aeroacoustic components. An airframemodel was mounted in the potential core of an open-jetwindtunnel, with the <span class="hlt">directional</span> arrays located outsidethe flow in an anechoic environment. Two array systemswere used; one with a solid measurement anglethat encompasses 31.6 of source <span class="hlt">directivity</span> and asmaller one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas F. Brooks; William M. Humphreys</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22950080"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> detection of peptides and <span class="hlt">small</span> proteins in fingermarks and determination of sex by MALDI mass spectrometry profiling.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) can detect and image a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds from latent fingermarks. This opportunity potentially provides investigators with both an image for suspect identification and chemical information to be used as additional intelligence. The latter becomes particularly important when the fingermark is distorted or smudged or when the suspect is not a previously convicted offender and therefore their fingerprints are not present in the National Fingerprint Database. One of the desirable pieces of intelligence would be the sex of the suspect from the chemical composition of a fingermark. In this study we show that the <span class="hlt">direct</span> detection of peptides and proteins from fingermarks by MALDI MS Profiling (MALDI MSP), along with the multivariate modeling of the spectra, enables the determination of sex with 85% accuracy. The chemical analysis of the fingermark composition is expected to additionally provide information on traits such as nutritional habits, drug use or hormonal status. PMID:22950080</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferguson, Leesa Susanne; Wulfert, Florian; Wolstenholme, Rosalind; Fonville, Judith Marlou; Clench, Malcolm Ronald; Carolan, Vikki Amanda; Francese, Simona</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2033626"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antisense oligonucleotides <span class="hlt">directed</span> against p53 have antiproliferative <span class="hlt">effects</span> unrelated to <span class="hlt">effects</span> on p53 expression.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Antisense oligonucleotides targeting p53 have been hailed as a potentially new technique for treating patients with cancer, and there have been encouraging reports of good patient tolerance in vivo and of antiproliferative <span class="hlt">effects</span> in vitro. However, evidence is lacking that these oligonucleotides are acting via an antisense interaction to modulate p53 expression. We examined a phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide, <span class="hlt">directed</span> against exon 10 of the TP53 gene, and a chimaeric phosphorothioate-phosphodiester oligonucleotide <span class="hlt">directed</span> against the p53 translation initiation codon. Both failed to specifically suppress p53 protein production in a cell-free assay system or to have any <span class="hlt">effect</span> on mutant p53 expression by human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Antiproliferative <span class="hlt">effects</span> were apparent, especially with the phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide, but this was independent of the p53 status of the cells (mutant, wild-type or absent) and also occurred with the control (sense and randomised) oligonucleotides. The most dramatic antiproliferative <span class="hlt">effects</span> were seen with the 'control' phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. These findings suggest that the antiproliferative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of some antisense oligonucleotides may be unrelated to expression of the gene they have been designed to target. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barton, C. M.; Lemoine, N. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.elec.qmul.ac.uk/people/josh/documents/ReissSandler-DAFX2004.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">DIGITAL AUDIO <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> APPLIED <span class="hlt">DIRECTLY</span> ON A DSD BITSTREAM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Digital audio <span class="hlt">effects</span> are typically implemented on 16 or 24 bit signals sam- pled at 44.1 kHz. Yet high quality audio is often encoded in a one-bit, highly oversampled format , such as DSD. Processing of a bitstream, and the application of audio <span class="hlt">effects</span> on a bitstream, requires special care and modification of existing methods. However, it has strong advantages</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Josh Reiss; Mark Sandler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JAP...103gF102K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of magnetization <span class="hlt">direction</span> on irreversible magnet demagnetization in brushless dc motor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnetization <span class="hlt">direction</span> of a permanent magnet is an important variable in the design process of a brushless dc motor. This paper describes the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the magnetization <span class="hlt">direction</span> on the various characteristics. Especially, we concentrate on the irreversible demagnetization characteristic of a permanent magnet. Two kinds of magnetization <span class="hlt">direction</span> (radial and parallel <span class="hlt">direction</span>) and finite element method are used to analyze the <span class="hlt">effect</span>. From the simulation and experimental results, we suggest that the radial magnetization <span class="hlt">direction</span> has more advantage in terms of the irreversible magnet demagnetization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Tae Heoung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......204C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> field dosimetry on the biological models used in evaluating IMRT dose distributions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary goal in radiation oncology is to deliver lethal radiation doses to tumors, while minimizing dose to normal tissue. IMRT has the capability to increase the dose to the targets and decrease the dose to normal tissue, increasing local control, decrease toxicity and allow for <span class="hlt">effective</span> dose escalation. This advanced technology does present complex dose distributions that are not easily verified. Furthermore, the dose inhomogeneity caused by non-uniform dose distributions seen in IMRT treatments has caused the development of biological models attempting to characterize the dose-volume <span class="hlt">effect</span> in the response of organized tissues to radiation. Dosimetry of <span class="hlt">small</span> fields can be quite challenging when measuring dose distributions for high-energy X-ray beams used in IMRT. The proper modeling of these <span class="hlt">small</span> field distributions is essential in reproducing accurate dose for IMRT. This evaluation was conducted to quantify the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> field dosimetry on IMRT plan dose distributions and the <span class="hlt">effects</span> on four biological model parameters. The four biological models evaluated were: (1) the generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose (gEUD), (2) the Tumor Control Probability (TCP), (3) the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) and (4) the Probability of uncomplicated Tumor Control (P+). These models are used to estimate local control, survival, complications and uncomplicated tumor control. This investigation compares three distinct <span class="hlt">small</span> field dose algorithms. Dose algorithms were created using film, <span class="hlt">small</span> ion chamber, and a combination of ion chamber measurements and <span class="hlt">small</span> field fitting parameters. Due to the nature of uncertainties in <span class="hlt">small</span> field dosimetry and the dependence of biological models on dose volume information, this examination quantifies the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> field dosimetry techniques on radiobiological models and recommends pathways to reduce the errors in using these models to evaluate IMRT dose distributions. This study demonstrates the importance of valid physical dose modeling prior to the use of biological modeling. The success of using biological function data, such as hypoxia, in clinical IMRT planning will greatly benefit from the results of this study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cardarelli, Gene A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8617589"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organ and <span class="hlt">effective</span> doses in the male phantom ADAM exposed in AP <span class="hlt">direction</span> to broad unidirectional beams of monoenergetic electrons.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Organ and <span class="hlt">effective</span> doses per unit of fluence are calculated through Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport (MCNP code, version 4) for the mathematical adult male phantom, ADAM, placed in vacuum and irradiated in the AP <span class="hlt">direction</span> with broad unidirectional electron beams. The electrons are monoenergetic in the energy range of 0.1 tp 10 MeV. <span class="hlt">Effective</span> dose per unit of fluence increases with increasing electron energy from 8x10(-14) to 2x10(-10) Sv cm(-2). Corresponding <span class="hlt">effective</span> dose equivalents are also calculated. At the high end of the energy range considered, the present values agree reasonably well with the results of a series of calculations performed with the MIRD-5 male phantom in the 5 to 46 MeV electron energy range, as published in ICRU Report 43 (1988). The difference between <span class="hlt">effective</span> dose and <span class="hlt">effective</span> dose equivalent is relatively <span class="hlt">small</span> for electron energies between 1.5 and 10 MeV. However, the difference increases rapidly if the electron energy decreases. Below 0.5 MeV, <span class="hlt">effective</span> dose equivalent is about a factor of 100 less than <span class="hlt">effective</span> dose. In this low energy range, annual dose limits are reached sooner if <span class="hlt">effective</span> dose instead of <span class="hlt">effective</span> dose equivalent is used as parameter of risk assessment. Taking the <span class="hlt">directional</span> dose equivalent as a substitute for <span class="hlt">effective</span> dose introduces an unnecessarily large safety factor. PMID:8617589</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schultz, F W; Zoetelief, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhL..89m1111M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Generation of highly <span class="hlt">directional</span> beam by k-space filtering using a metamaterial flat slab with a <span class="hlt">small</span> negative index of refraction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors show how a flat slab made of a metamaterial engineered to have a <span class="hlt">small</span> negative index of refraction can be used to reshape radiation emitted from an isotropic source and produce a highly <span class="hlt">directional</span> output beam. The slab makes a filtering of high transverse wave vectors of the input diverging beam. The predicted phenomenon is demonstrated at microwave frequencies using a two-dimensional photonic crystal made of alumina rods. Simulations using the finite-difference time-domain method support the experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martínez, Alejandro; Piqueras, Miguel A.; Martí, Javier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DPS....39.5006O"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Lack of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Craters on Eros is not due to the Yarkovsky <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eros approaches saturation for craters larger than 200 m in diameter, but is significantly depleted in smaller craters [1]. It has been suggested that this could reflect a paucity of <span class="hlt">small</span> impactors in the main belt, due to their removal by the Yarkovsky <span class="hlt">effect</span> [1,2]. Here we present the results of a self-consistent collisional and dynamical evolution model for the main belt and NEAs, along with a model for the evolution of asteroid crater populations, that show that Eros' lack of <span class="hlt">small</span> craters is not likely due to the depletion of <span class="hlt">small</span> impactors by the Yarkovsky <span class="hlt">effect</span>, or any other depletion mechanism. To produce a main-belt size distribution that is suitably depleted in <span class="hlt">small</span> impactors to match Eros' <span class="hlt">small</span> crater population requires a more extreme size-dependent removal rate than the Yarkovsky <span class="hlt">effect</span> and Poynting-Robertson drag can provide. Using such an extreme removal rate introduces a wave into the model main-belt size distribution that propagates to large sizes, and is inconsistent with the observed main-belt population. Similarly, it introduces a wave in the model NEA population that is inconsistent with the observed NEAs. Eros is not alone in showing a depletion of <span class="hlt">small</span> craters. Recent observations of the asteroid Itokawa by the Hyabusa spacecraft show relatively few craters, and Yarkovsky depletion of <span class="hlt">small</span> impactors has again been suggested as a possible explanation [3]. Our work shows that a substantial depletion of <span class="hlt">small</span> impactors from the main belt would have consequences at large sizes, inconsistent with observations of the actual main-belt and NEA size distributions. Other explanations for the depletion of <span class="hlt">small</span> craters on asteroid surfaces must be explored [eg. 4,5]. References: [1] Chapman (2002), Icarus 155, p.104. [2] Bell (2001), LPSC XXXII, no.1964. [3] Saito (2006), Science 312, p.1341. [4] Richardson (2004), Science 306, p.1526. [5] Greenberg (2003), DPS 35, no.24.06.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Brien, David P.; Greenberg, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987penn.rept.....J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continued research on <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact heat exchangers: <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of crystallization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes a preliminary study to determine whether crystallizer schemes could be <span class="hlt">effectively</span> used in binary geothermal power plants. An industry and literature search was conducted for models that predict potential scale formation. The results indicated that the theoretical models for predicting not only homogeneous nucleation, but also secondary nucleation are suspect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobs, H. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=head+AND+-end+AND+equipment&pg=6&id=EJ544435"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Collateral <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Restraints and Restraint Fading.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|A study of three individuals with self-injurious behavior (SIB) evaluated a device designed for restraint fading with individuals who display hand-to-head SIB. Results demonstrated that stimulus control of SIB occurred in all individuals subsequent to restraint fading. The study also examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the rigid arm sleeves and restraint…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fisher, Wayne W.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.newmediaexplorer.org/sepp/aspartamebrain.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect cellular <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aspartame on the brain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of the artificial sweetener, aspartame, has long been contemplated and studied by various researchers, and people are concerned about its negative <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Aspartame is composed of phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%). Phenylalanine plays an important role in neurotransmitter regulation, whereas aspartic acid is also thought to play a role as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P Humphries; E Pretorius; H Naude</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42192088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electron Beam <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Write <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on CMOS Devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electron beam exposure <span class="hlt">effects</span> on metallised MOS devices have been studied. The results show that exposure leads to the generation of interface traps and positive oxide charge that can be almost completely removed using low temperature annealing (450°). However, bulk oxide traps generated during exposure are only partly removed by the anneal and this leads to an increased trapping efficiency,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Barlow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6274209"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal <span class="hlt">effects</span> in rapid <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification: Linear theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors study the morphological instability of the planar solid/liquid interface of a unidirectionally-solidified dilute binary mixture. They use a model developed by Boettinger et al., Aziz, and Jackson et al., which allows for nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the interface through velocity-dependent segregation and attachment kinetics. Two types of instabilities are found in the linear stability analysis: (1) a cellular instability, and (2) an oscillatory instability driven by disequilibrium <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Merchant and Davis characterized these instabilities subject to the frozen-temperature approximation (FTA). The present work relaxes the FTA by including the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of latent heat and the full temperature distribution. Thermal <span class="hlt">effects</span> slightly postpone the onset of the cellular instability but dramatically postpone the onset of the oscillatory instability; however, the absolute-stability conditions, at which at high speed the cellular and oscillatory instabilities are suppressed, remain unchanged from the FTA. The critical wavenumber for the oscillatory instability can be zero or nonzero depending on the material parameters. The experimental observations of banding are correlated with the predictions of the theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huntley, D.A.; Davis, S.H. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..DFD.GG004C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow <span class="hlt">Effects</span> during <span class="hlt">Directional</span> Solidification of Monotectic Alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In monotectic alloy solidification, two phases, a solid phase, ?, and a liquid phase, L_2, grow cooperatively from a single liquid phase L_1. For example, during the <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification of the aluminum-indium monotectic system, a solid-liquid two-phase structure consisting of liquid indium rods in an aluminum rich solid matrix can be grown from an aluminum-indium melt. The indium rods subsequently solidify at a lower temperature, forming a composite material. Theoretical models developed to quantitatively predict the inter-rod spacing observed in monotectic systems are largely based on diffusive solute transport. The role played by transport due to fluid flow is not well understood. Bulk flow may result from density change upon solidification or buoyancy-driven thermosolutal convection due to the thermal and solutal gradients inherent to the solidification process. We have developed numerical models to investigate the impact of an imposed flow on the solute field in the L1 phase. In addition, we propose to model the coupled flow at the L_1--L2 interface driven by surface tension variation. For monotectic growth, since phase equilibrium is maintained at the L_1--L2 interface, the temperature, compositions, pressures, and interface curvature are related by thermodynamic constraints that do not apply in a simple mechanical system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coriell, S. R.; Murray, B. T.; McFadden, G. B.; Andrews, J. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD750729"> <span id="translatedtitle">In Vivo <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Low Intensity <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Current on Viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of low intensity <span class="hlt">direct</span> current on infected wounds is reported along with preliminary work on <span class="hlt">effects</span> on wound healing. A complete description of the procedures and results are given. The results show that electrical currents had a deleterious ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. A. Rowley G. R. Chase J. M. McKenna L. E. Wolcott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhS.234...85B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Massive Boson Production at <span class="hlt">Small</span> qT in Soft-Collinear <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the differential cross sections for electroweak gauge-boson and Higgs production at <span class="hlt">small</span> and very <span class="hlt">small</span> transverse-momentum qT. Large logarithms are resummed using soft-collinear <span class="hlt">effective</span> theory. The collinear anomaly generates a non-perturbative scale q*, which protects the processes from receiving large long-distance hadronic contributions. A numerical comparison of our predictions with data on the transverse-momentum distribution in Z-boson production at the Tevatron and LHC is given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Becher, Thomas; Neubert, Matthias; Wilhelm, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/t05l006v55052076.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel transplantation, denervation and ischaemia on rat intestinal microflora</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of denervation and warm ischaemia on quantitative and qualitative changes in <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal microflora following rat heterotopic <span class="hlt">small</span>-bowel isotransplantation were assessed. Animals with Thiry-Vella fistula, but without transplants, acted as controls. Thirty and 40-fold increases in bacterial colony counts were seen in the isografts compared to controls at 2 and 7 days, respectively (PFlavobacterium meningosepticum occurred at 28</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. A. Price; N. S. Cumberland; C. L. Ingham Clark; A. G. Pockley; P. A. Lear; R. F. M. Wood</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jssm.org/vol8/n3/9/v8n3-9pdf.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games on physical conditioning and performance in young soccer players</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games and, second, their <span class="hlt">effects</span> on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. <span class="hlt">Small</span>-sided games included three-a-side (3</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Athanasios Katis; Eleftherios Kellis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.units.muohio.edu/vannilab/publications/pdf/knoll%20et%20al%202009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Feedbacks of consumer nutrient recycling on producer biomass and stoichiometry: separating <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Herbivores can have both <span class="hlt">direct</span> (consumptive) and indirect (nutrient-mediated) <span class="hlt">effects</span> on primary producer biomass and nutrient stoichiometry. Ecological stoichiometry theory predicts that herbivores of contrasting body stoichiometry will differentially remineralize nutrients, resulting in feedbacks on producer stoichiometry. We experimentally separated <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aquatic vertebrate grazers on periphyton by manipulating grazer abundance and identity in mesocosms, and using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lesley B. Knoll; Peter B. McIntyre; Michael J. Vanni; Alexander S. Flecker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10125840"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consumer-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> Health Care: Early Evidence About <span class="hlt">Effects</span> On Cost And Quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Demand for consumer-<span class="hlt">directed</span> health care (CDHC) is growing among purchas- ers of care, and early evidence about its <span class="hlt">effects</span> is beginning to emerge. Studies to date are consistent with <span class="hlt">effects</span> predicted by earlier literature: There is evidence of modest favorable health selection and early reports that consumer-<span class="hlt">directed</span> plans are associated with both lower costs and lower cost increases. The early</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melinda Beeuwkes Buntin; Cheryl Damberg; Amelia Haviland; Kanika Kapur; Nicole Lurie; Roland McDevitt; M. S. Marquis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Lateral+Dominance%22&pg=3&id=EJ993412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Target- and <span class="hlt">Effect-Directed</span> Actions towards Temporal Goals: Similar Mechanisms?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an <span class="hlt">effect</span>) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">effect-directed</span> and target-<span class="hlt">directed</span> action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177355"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF <span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> INSTRUCTION ON THE ACQUISITION OF PREPOSITIONS BY STUDENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some students with intellectual disabilities require explicit instruction of language skills, including preposition use; however, little is known about <span class="hlt">effective</span> ways to teach preposition use to this population. This study examined <span class="hlt">direct</span> instruction (DI) to teach students to use and respond to prepositions. Results indicated that DI was an <span class="hlt">effective</span> way to teach prepositions. Limitations and <span class="hlt">directions</span> for future research are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hicks, S. Christy; Bethune, Keri S; Wood, Charles L; Cooke, Nancy L; Mims, Pamela J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42338536"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Parental Influence Upon Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model incorporating the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of parental monitoring on adolescent alcohol use was evaluated by applying structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to data on 4,765 tenth-graders in the 2001 Monitoring the Future Study. Analyses indicated good fit of hypothesized measurement and structural models. Analyses supported both <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of parental monitoring on adolescent alcohol use.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young-Mi Kim; James Alan Neff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26944647"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Area of the Human Body with Respect to <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Solar Radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methods of determining the <span class="hlt">effective</span> radiation area for <span class="hlt">direct</span> solar radiation have been compared. It was shown that the ratio of <span class="hlt">effective</span> area to total surface area is <span class="hlt">directly</span> proportional to the cosine of solar altitude for all the methods considered. The photographic method of Underwood and Ward (1961) and the shadow method of Chrenko and Pugh (1961) gave lower</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. G. C. E. PUGH; F. A. CHRENKO</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.zju.edu.cn/jzus/2005/A0503/A050311.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study of seismic cyclic loading <span class="hlt">effects</span> on <span class="hlt">small</span> strain shear modulus of saturated sands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seismic loading on saturated soil deposits induces a decrease in <span class="hlt">effective</span> stress and a rearrangement of the soil-particle structure, which may both lead to a degradation in undrained stiffness and strength of soils. Only the <span class="hlt">effective</span> stress influence on <span class="hlt">small</span> strain shear modulus Gmax is considered in seismic response analysis nowadays, and the cyclic shearing induced fabric changes of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ZHOU Yan-guo; CHEN Yun-min; HUANG Bo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/1997/mp_002_session_04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale crown-of-thorns starfish eradication procedures using acid injections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation was undertaken to determine the most <span class="hlt">effective</span> method of controlling the crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) on <span class="hlt">small</span> patch reefs. Two acid injection regimes were trialled over an eight month period and both significantly reduced the densities and size classes of COTS on isolated patch reefs. The frequent injection regime (approximately 2 person hours effort per week) was more <span class="hlt">effective</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Fisk; Lyle Vail; Anne Hoggett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51895464"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of ion drift on <span class="hlt">small</span>-amplitude ion-acoustic solitons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some properties of <span class="hlt">small</span>-amplitude ion-acoustic solitons in a plasma consisting of nondrifting electrons and drifting ions are investigated. Electron inertia <span class="hlt">effects</span> are shown to be considerably more important than relativistic <span class="hlt">effects</span>. It is also shown that ion-acoustic soliton solutions exist only if the ion drift velocity is less than the electron thermal velocity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. H. Kuehl; C. Y. Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41102954"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of prolonged intraluminal ?-amylase inhibition on eating, weight, and the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of chronic intraluminal amylase inhibition on eating and the digestive system are unclear. In growing rats, we determined the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of ingesting a wheat amylase inhibitor (AI) on eating, weight, <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal mucosal growth, and disaccharidases. Three groups of 12 rats received AI, were pair-fed controls (PFC), or had free access to food (FAC). After measuring food intake and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keisho Kataoka; Eugene P DiMagno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6275914"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamics of Informality: Employment Relations in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Firms and the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Regulatory Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">abstract,This paper addresses two related issues: the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the ‘regulatory shock’ of the National Minimum,Wage on <span class="hlt">small</span> firms and the consequent <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the commonly observed practice of ‘informality’. It draws on a survey of such firms but primarily uses case study evidence from five firms to examine the processes at work. Detailed case studies of such firms remain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monder Ram; Paul Edwards; Mark Gilman; James Arrowsmith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40294057"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of dispersible soil clay and algae on seepage prevention from <span class="hlt">small</span> dams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A field experiment was conducted on a red-brown earth (Natrixeralf) to find the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of spontaneously dispersed clay from sodic soils and mechanically dispersed clay (by puddling) from calcic and sodic soils in reducing the seepage loss of water from a series of <span class="hlt">small</span> dams (pits). The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of inoculating algae in the pits on reducing seepage was also investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Rengasamy; A. J. McLeod; S. R. Ragusa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22893246"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of adipokines on the heart: focus on adiponectin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, is a principal cause of death in individuals with obesity and diabetes. However, the mechanisms of obesity- and diabetes-induced heart disease are multifaceted and remain to be clearly defined. Of relevance to this review, there is currently great research and clinical interest in the endocrine <span class="hlt">effects</span> of adipokines on the myocardium and their role in heart failure. We will discuss the potential significance of adipokines in the pathogenesis of heart failure via their ability to regulate remodeling events including metabolism, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cell death. As an excellent example, we will first focus on adiponectin which is best known to confer numerous cardioprotective <span class="hlt">effects</span>. However, we comprehensively discuss the existing literature that highlights it would be naive to assume that this was always the case. We also focus on lipocalin-2 which mediates pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic <span class="hlt">effects</span>. It is important when studying actions of adipokines to integrate cellular and mechanistic analyses and translate these to physiologically relevant in vivo models and clinical studies. However, assimilating studies on numerous cardiac remodeling events which ultimately dictate cardiac dysfunction into a unifying conclusion is challenging. Nevertheless, there is undoubted potential for the use of adipokines as robust biomarkers and appropriate therapeutic targets in heart failure. PMID:22893246</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Min; Sweeney, Gary</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3515765"> <span id="translatedtitle">Similar Mechanisms of Movement Control in Target- and <span class="hlt">Effect-Directed</span> Actions toward Spatial Goals?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous research has shown that actions conducted toward temporal targets and temporal <span class="hlt">effects</span> are controlled in a similar way. To investigate whether these findings also apply to spatially restricted movements we analyzed movement kinematics of continuous reversal movements toward given spatial targets and toward self-produced spatial <span class="hlt">effects</span> in two experiments. In Experiment 1 target- and <span class="hlt">effect-directed</span> movements were investigated in three different goal constellations. A spatial target/<span class="hlt">effect</span> was always presented/produced on one movement side, on the other side either (a) no target/<span class="hlt">effect</span>, (b) the same target/<span class="hlt">effect</span>, or (c) a more difficult target/<span class="hlt">effect</span> was presented/produced. Results showed that both target-<span class="hlt">directed</span> and <span class="hlt">effect-directed</span> movements have a typical spatial kinematic pattern and that both can be equally well described by linear functions as suggested by Fitts’ Law. However, <span class="hlt">effect-directed</span> movements have longer movement times. In Experiment 2 participants performed target-<span class="hlt">directed</span> movements to the one side and <span class="hlt">effect-directed</span> movements to the other side of a reversal movement. More pronounced spatial kinematics were observed in <span class="hlt">effect-directed</span> than in target-<span class="hlt">directed</span> movements. Together, the results suggest that actions conducted toward spatial targets and spatial <span class="hlt">effects</span> are controlled in a similar manner. Gradual differences in the kinematic patterns may arise because <span class="hlt">effects</span> are cognitively more demanding. They may therefore be represented less accurately than targets. However, there was no indication of qualitative differences in the cognitive representations of <span class="hlt">effects</span> and targets. This strengthens our assumption that both targets and <span class="hlt">effects</span> play a comparable role in action control: they can both be viewed as goals of an action. Thus, ideomotor theories of action control should incorporate action targets as goals similar to action <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.7895E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of observed diurnal cycles of aerosol optical depth on aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be significant, depending on location and dominant aerosol type. However, these diurnal cycles have rarely been taken into account in measurement-based estimates of aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative forcing (ADRF) or aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> (ADRE). The objective of our study was to estimate the influence of diurnal aerosol variability at the top of the atmosphere ADRE estimates. By including all the possible AERONET sites, we wanted to assess the influence on global ADRE estimates. While focusing also in more detail on some selected sites of strongest impact, our goal was to also see the possible impact regionally. We calculated ADRE with different assumptions about the daily AOD variability: taking the observed daily AOD cycle into account and assuming diurnally constant AOD. Moreover, we estimated the corresponding differences in ADREs, if the single AOD value for the daily mean was taken from the the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra or Aqua overpass times, instead of accounting for the true observed daily variability. The mean impact of diurnal AOD variability on 24 h ADRE estimates, averaged over all AERONET sites, was rather <span class="hlt">small</span> and it was relatively <span class="hlt">small</span> even for the cases when AOD was chosen to correspond to the Terra or Aqua overpass time. This was true on average over all AERONET sites, while clearly there can be much stronger impact in individual sites. Examples of some selected sites demonstrated that the strongest observed AOD variability (the strongest morning afternoon contrast) does not typically result in a significant impact on 24 h ADRE. In those cases, the morning and afternoon AOD patterns are opposite and thus the impact on 24 h ADRE, when integrated over all solar zenith angles, is reduced. The most significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on daily ADRE was induced by AOD cycles with either maximum or minimum AOD close to local noon. In these cases, the impact on 24 h ADRE was typically around 0.1-0.2 W m-2 (both positive and negative) in absolute values, 5-10% in relative ones.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eck, T. F.; Huttunen, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Lindfors, A. V.; Myhre, G.; Smirnov, A.; Tripathi, S. N.; Yu, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19615341"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, <span class="hlt">small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effects</span> are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the <span class="hlt">small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the <span class="hlt">small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effect</span>. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the <span class="hlt">small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effect</span>. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the <span class="hlt">small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules. PMID:19615341</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gao, Yuanwen; Lei, Fang-Ming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6064501"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> inhomogeneities on dose in a cobalt-60 beam</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> ring-shaped cavities on the dose delivered by a cobalt-60 beam to a homogeneous medium was studied experimentally and theoretically. Changes as <span class="hlt">small</span> as 1 x 10/sup -4/ of the total dose were measured. Experimental results show that, depending on the position of the cavity, replacing water with a <span class="hlt">small</span> cavity can either increase or decrease scatter dose to a point in the medium. The increase in scatter dose was not anticipated and to our knowledge is not predicted by any of the presently available inhomogeneity dose correction algorithms used in treatment planning. Calculations were based on the perturbations of first and second scatter dose contributions and show that the presence of a cavity in the medium introduces three processes that decrease scatter dose and five that increase it. The calculated net <span class="hlt">effect</span> is in good agreement with experiment. Additional calculations show that the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a single <span class="hlt">small</span> inhomogeneity cannot be easily extrapolated to larger inhomogeneities and that multiple inhomogeneities do not act independently. Results from this study demonstrate two constraints that must be satisfied by future dose calculation algorithms: (i) they must correctly determine dose in a homogeneous non-unit density material, and (ii) they must account for the change in dose due to <span class="hlt">small</span> inhomogeneities in the medium. Key words: computed tomography, dose calculations, <span class="hlt">small</span> inhomogeneity, first scatter dose, second scatter dose</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, J.W.; Henkelman, R.M.; Andrew, J.W.; Van Dyk, J.; Johns, H.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005WRR....41.4018I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Type curve analyses of pneumatic single-hole tests in unsaturated fractured tuff: <span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence for a porosity scale <span class="hlt">effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A large number of single- and cross-hole pneumatic injection tests have been conducted in shallow vertical and inclined boreholes in unsaturated fractured tuff at the Apache Leap Research Site (ALRS) near Superior, Arizona. Previously, <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect evidence for a permeability scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> was provided through the analysis of these tests. <span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence was based on the comparison of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale single-hole and larger-scale cross-hole test results obtained through the type curve and steady state analysis of these data separately. Indirect evidence was provided by comparing cross-hole test analyses conducted at fine and coarse scales of resolution by means of a three-dimensional numerical inverse model. The latter study also provided indirect evidence for a porosity scale <span class="hlt">effect</span>. However, there were no <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale porosity data from single-hole tests to <span class="hlt">directly</span> verify this indirect evidence. This paper presents such data generated through the type curve interpretation of the recovery phase of the single-hole tests conducted at a nominal 1-m scale providing <span class="hlt">direct</span> evidence for a porosity scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> at the site. Statistical analysis of results revealed a strong porosity scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> confirming an earlier finding obtained indirectly. These results also showed that (1) the injection phase of the pneumatic single-hole tests do not yield reliable estimates of porosity but the recovery phase are amenable to type curve interpretation, (2) flow dimensionality of single-hole tests at 1-m scale are three-dimensional across the site except for a few tests which exhibited two-dimensional and fracture flow behavior, (3) there is a very weak correlation between permeability and porosity, and (4) there is a lack of correlation between fracture density and both permeability and porosity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Illman, Walter A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3086393"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Phosphate on Vascular Cell Function</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elevated serum phosphate has clinically been associated with vascular stiffness and cardiovascular mortality. Mechanistic studies over the past decade looking at phosphate’s local <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the vessel wall have lent insight into various pathways that culminate in vascular calcification.Smooth muscle cell phenotype change and apoptosis play prominent roles. The sodium-phosphate cotransporter PiT-1 is required for the osteochondrogenic differentiation of smooth muscle cellsin vitro. Less is known about phosphate-driven valve interstitial cell calcification and elastin degradation.In this paper, we review the current knowledge about phosphate-induced changes in the vascular wall.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lau, Wei Ling; Pai, Ashwini; Moe, Sharon M.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3416944"> <span id="translatedtitle">Future <span class="hlt">Directions</span> for Cardiovascular Disease Comparative <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Research</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Comparative <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> research (CER) aims to provide decision-makers the evidence needed to evaluate the benefits and harms of alternative clinical management strategies. CER has become a national priority, with considerable new research funding allocated. Cardiovascular disease is a priority area for CER. This workshop report provides an overview of CER methods, with an emphasis on practical clinical trials and observational treatment comparisons. The report also details recommendations to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute for a new framework for evidence development to foster cardiovascular CER, and specific studies to address eight clinical issues identified by the Institute of Medicine as high priorities for cardiovascular CER.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hlatky, Mark A; Douglas, Pamela S; Cook, Nakela L; Wells, Barbara; Benjamin, Emelia J; Dickersin, Kay; Goff, David C; Hirsch, Alan T; Hylek, Elaine M; Peterson, Eric; Roger, Veronique L; Selby, Joseph V; Udelson, James E; Lauer, Michael S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..832Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">N2O - <span class="hlt">direct</span> versus indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concentration of N2O in the atmosphere is much lower than that of CO2, but it is an important GHG because on an equivalent mass basis, N2O has c. 300 times the global warming potential of CO2. In addition to being a strong GHG, N2O is the primary stratospheric ozone depleting substance. The dominant sources of N2O are closely related to microbial production processes in soils, sediments and water bodies. Agricultural emissions due to N fertilizer use and manure management (4.3-5.8 Tg N2O-N yr-1) and emissions from natural soils (6-7 Tg N2O-N yr-1) are already representing 56-70% of all global N2O sources. The main agricultural sources of nitrous oxide include emissions from soils after application of inorganic and organic forms of nitrogen (N) as synthetic fertilizers, crop residues, manures or composts. Livestock operations also result in emissions from urine and faeces deposited on soils during grazing. In addition to the <span class="hlt">direct</span> sources of N2O, there are also indirect ones that include N deposited onto land surfaces following ammonia and NOx volatilization, and nitrate leached from agricultural land in drainage water which, on passing into aquifers or into surface waters and their sediments, can be partially transformed to N2O (Smith et al., 2012). For inventories a default emission factor (EF) of 1.0 % of N fertilizer application has been fixed. The default indirect EFs are 1.0 % of N deposited from the atmosphere, and 0.75 % of N lost to watercourses by leaching or runoff. Depending on fertilizer type and environmental conditions field measurements reveal emission factors which deviate largely from the theoretical values. As soil moisture and temperature are major drivers of N2O emissions, warming and precipitation changes strongly affect the emission of N2O. More difficult is the prediction of climate extremes and their feedback on N2O which may occur via soil processes as well as limitations for plant growth and N uptake. Based on examples of recent research dealing with landuse, N-deposition, forest and river management, drought and fire, we will sort out the importance and uncertainties of anticipated impacts of global change on future N2O fluxes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kitzler, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JEMat..41.1766S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Fluid <span class="hlt">Directions</span> on Heat Exchange in Thermoelectric Generators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermal fluids can transport heat to the large surface of a thermoelectric (TE) panel from hot and/or cold sources. The TE power thus obtainable was precisely evaluated using numerical calculations based on fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The commercial software FLUENT was coupled with a TE model for this purpose. The fluid velocity distribution and the temperature profiles in the fluids and TE modules were calculated in two-dimensional space. The electromotive force was then evaluated for counter-flow and split-flow models to show the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a stagnation point. Friction along the fluid surface along a long, flat path was larger than that along a short path split into two parts. The power required to circulate the fluids along the flow path is not negligible and should be considered in TE generation system design.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Ryosuke O.; Sasaki, Yuto; Fujisaka, Takeyuki; Chen, Min</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21344258"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of environment and <span class="hlt">direct</span> species interactions on the population growth rate of an exotic ascidian.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The success of exotic species can be influenced by both the abiotic environment and species interactions. Many studies have demonstrated significant <span class="hlt">effects</span> of either type of factor on aspects of exotic success, but few have considered their relative <span class="hlt">effects</span> on population growth rate, a more holistic measure of success. To quantify the relative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of environment and <span class="hlt">direct</span> competition on an exotic ascidian, Botrylloides violaceus, I manipulated <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact interactions at four sites with different abiotic environments and tracked individual colonies over 3 years. I tested site and contact treatment <span class="hlt">effects</span> on survival, growth and fecundity, and then conducted a life table response experiment on a periodic, size-structured population matrix model to test their <span class="hlt">effects</span> on population growth rate. Both site and contact interaction were important to explaining variation in survival and growth. Contact interactions decreased the survival and growth of larger colonies but unexpectedly increased the survival of <span class="hlt">small</span> colonies at some sites, which led to relatively weaker and spatially variable <span class="hlt">effects</span> on overall population growth rates. Site <span class="hlt">effects</span> on population growth rates were an order of magnitude larger than contact <span class="hlt">effects</span>, and site variation in winter vital rates made the largest contributions to changes in population growth rate. The results of this study suggest that the abiotic environment plays a larger role in the success of B. violaceus. Thus, environmental variables, such as temperature and salinity, could be used to predict this exotic species' success under different environmental scenarios, including global climate change. PMID:21344258</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grey, Erin K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2859388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by <span class="hlt">small</span> interfering RNAs <span class="hlt">directed</span> against Glioma Pathogenesis Related Protein (GliPR) expression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Previously, we showed that glioma pathogenesis related protein (GliPR) is induced in CEM T cells upon HIV-1 infection in vitro. To examine whether GliPR plays a role as HIV dependency factor (HDF), we tested the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of GliPR suppression by siRNA on HIV-1 replication. Results Induction of GliPR expression by HIV-1 was confirmed in P4-CCR5 cells. When GliPR was suppressed by siRNA, HIV-1 replication was significantly reduced as measured by HIV-1 transcript levels, HIV-1 p24 protein levels, and HIV-1 LTR-driven reporter gene expression, suggesting that GliPR is a cellular co-factor of HIV-1. Microarray analysis of uninfected HeLa cells following knockdown of GliPR revealed, among a multitude of gene expression alterations, a down-regulation of syndecan-1, syndecan-2, protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA), the catalytic subunit ? of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACB), nuclear receptor co-activator 3 (NCOA3), and cell surface protein CD59 (protectin), all genes having relevance for HIV-1 pathology. Conclusions The up-regulation of GliPR by HIV-1 and the early significant inhibition of HIV-1 replication mediated by knockdown of GliPR reveal GliPR as an important HIV-1 dependency factor (HDF), which may be exploited for HIV-1 inhibition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24002698"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> sequencing and amplification refractory mutation system for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in patients with non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) provides encouraging outcomes for advanced non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutations. Pleural effusion is a common complication of NSCLC. We compared <span class="hlt">direct</span> DNA sequencing and ADx Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ADx-ARMS) to detect EGFR mutations in malignant pleural effusion samples. We obtained 24 samples from pleural effusion fluid of NSCLC patients. Three common types of EGFR mutations were examined by <span class="hlt">direct</span> sequencing and ADx-ARMS analysis. The sensitivity of the methods was compared and the relationship between EGFR mutations and response rates of the patients determined. In 14/24 patients, we detected EGFR mutations (58.3%) by ADx-ARMS, and in 10 samples (41.7%) by <span class="hlt">direct</span> sequencing. In 6 samples, EGFR mutations were on exon 19, and in 8 samples, mutations were on exon 21 by ADx-ARMS. By contrast, we found EGFR mutations in 4 samples on exon 19, and in 6 samples on exon 21 by <span class="hlt">direct</span> sequencing. Neither method showed mutations on exon 20. Among the 24 patients, there was 83.3% concordance for the methods. In 18/24 patients, gefitinib treatment was administered, including 10 patients with mutations who showed improved response compared to 8 of the wild-type patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, EGFR mutation analysis by ADx-ARMS was the most sensitive compared to <span class="hlt">direct</span> sequencing, and provided more reliable EGFR mutation assessments. ADx-ARMS could be introduced into the clinical practice to identify NSCLC patients likely to benefit from TKI treatment, especially those with malignant pleural effusion. PMID:24002698</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chu, Huili; Zhong, Chen; Xue, Guoliang; Liang, Xiuju; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yingxin; Zhao, Shiwei; Zhou, Qian; Bi, Jingwang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7243303"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survival after total-body irradiation. 1. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of partial <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel shielding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedures 80, 40, 20, or 10 cm, or none of the proximal or distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine were temporarily exteriorized and shielded during irradiation with photons from an 18-MeV linear accelerator. Less than 17% of the dose was delivered to the shielded intestines. In unshielded animals deaths occurred from Days 4 to 6 with 13, 15, or 17 Gy and from Days 8 to 30 with 9, 11, and 12 Gy. However, in all animals exposed to 15 Gy with all or part of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine shielded, survival was increased to between 5 and 9 days. Shielding of the distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. The previously identified target of radiation damage in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine is the crypt stem cell. In this study, the analysis of histological specimens of shielded and irradiated <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine suggested that humoral factors also influence intestinal histology and survival after irradiation. These humoral factors are thought to originate from the irradiated body tissues, the shielded proximal intestine, and the shielded distal intestine. Further studies are required to identify these factors and to determine their mode of action and their therapeutic potential after radiation damage to the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vigneulle, R.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Taylor, P.; Burns, W.; Pelkey, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n23160j0ux767k74.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> <span class="hlt">effective</span> population sizes of two remnant ocelot populations ( Leopardus pardalis albescens ) in the United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Threatened populations are vulnerable to the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of genetic drift and inbreeding, particularly when gene flow is low and\\u000a the <span class="hlt">effective</span> population size is <span class="hlt">small</span>. Estimates of <span class="hlt">effective</span> population size (N\\u000a \\u000a e\\u000a ) provide important information on the status of endangered populations that have experienced severe fragmentation and serve\\u000a as indicators of genetic viability. Genetic data from microsatellite loci were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jan E. Jane?ka; M. E. Tewes; L. L. Laack; L. I. Grassman; A. M. Haines; R. L. Honeycutt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17263116"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span>, maternal, and sibsocial genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> on individual and colony traits in an ant.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When social interactions occur, the phenotype of an individual is influenced <span class="hlt">directly</span> by its own genes (<span class="hlt">direct</span> genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span>) but also indirectly by genes expressed in social partners (indirect genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span>). Social insect colonies are characterized by extensive behavioral interactions among workers, brood, and queens so that indirect genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> are particularly relevant. I used a series of experimental manipulations to disentangle the contribution of <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>, maternal (queen) <span class="hlt">effects</span>, and sibsocial (worker) <span class="hlt">effects</span> to variation for worker, gyne, and male mass; caste ratio; and sex ratio in the ant Temnothorax curvispinosus. The results indicate genetic variance for <span class="hlt">direct</span>, maternal, and sibsocial <span class="hlt">effects</span> for all traits, except for male mass there was no significant maternal variance, and for sex ratio the variance for <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> was not separable from maternal variance for the primary sex ratio. Estimates of genetic correlations between <span class="hlt">direct</span>, maternal, and sibsocial <span class="hlt">effects</span> were generally negative, indicating that these <span class="hlt">effects</span> may not evolve independently. These results have broad implications for social insect evolution. For example, the genetic architecture underlying social insect traits may constrain the realization of evolutionary conflicts between social partners. PMID:17263116</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linksvayer, Timothy A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6292918"> <span id="translatedtitle">Separation and measurement of <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of light on stomata</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conductance for water vapor, assimilation of CO/sub 2/, and intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration of leaves of five species were determined at various irradiances and ambient CO/sub 2/ concentrations. Conductance and assimilation were then plotted as functions of irradiance and intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration. On leaves of Xanthium strumarium L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Perilla frutescens (L.), Britt., the stomatal response to light was mainly a <span class="hlt">direct</span> response to light and to a <span class="hlt">small</span> extent only a response to changes in intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration. This was also true for stomata of Zea mays L., except at irradiances <150 watts per square meter. Stomata responded to light even in leaves whose net exchange of CO/sub 2/ was reduced to zero. When leaves were inverted and irradiated on the abaxial surface, conductance decreased in the shaded and increased in the illuminated epidermis, indicating that the photoreceptor pigment(s) involved are located in the epidermis. In leaves of X. strumarium, the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of light on conductance is primarily a response to blue light. Stomatal responses to CO/sub 2/ and to light opposed each other. In X. strumarium, stomatal opening in response to light was strongest in CO/sub 2/-free air and saturated at lower irradiances than in CO/sub 2/-containing air. Conversely, stomatal closure in response to CO/sub 2/ was strongest in darkness and it decreased as irradiance increased. In X. strumarium, P. vulgaris, and P. frutescens, an irradiance of 300 watts per square meter was sufficient to eliminate the stomatal response to CO/sub 2/ altogether. Application of abscisic acid, or an increase in vapor pressure deficit, or a decrease in leaf temperature reduced the stomatal conductance at light saturation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharkey, T.D.; Raschke, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/835048"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-04-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36991495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Personality, Problem Drinking, and Drunk Driving: Mediating, Moderating, and <span class="hlt">Direct-Effect</span> Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three different general explanations of the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of personality on problems from drinking alcohol were investigated. One general explanation involved mediating <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The 2nd explanation involved <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of personality. The 3rd general personality process held that alcohol consumption and personality interact as moderating <span class="hlt">effects</span> on drinking problems. Results provided support for each of the 3 general explanations of personality</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alan W. Stacy; Michael D. Newcomb; Peter M. Bentler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/65/19/8869.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gene Expression Changes and Signaling Events Associated with the <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Antimelanoma <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of IFN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">IFN-; plays a role in the response to melanoma indirectly through its <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the immune system and <span class="hlt">directly</span> through its antiproliferative and proapoptotic <span class="hlt">effects</span> on melanoma cells. To understand the molecular basis for the <span class="hlt">direct</span> antimelanoma <span class="hlt">effect</span> of IFN-;, we studied IFN-induced changes in gene expression and signaling among three human melanoma cell lines (DM6, DM93, and 501mel). These</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jared A. Gollob; Catherine J. Sciambi; Zhiqing Huang; Holly K. Dressman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.faculty.virginia.edu/jmcgloth/newphyt2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of <span class="hlt">direct</span> and maternal genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> to life-history evolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary • Maternal <span class="hlt">effects</span> are ubiquitous in nature. In plants, most work has focused on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of maternal environments on offspring trait expression. Less is known about the prevalence of genetic maternal <span class="hlt">effects</span> and how they influence adaptive evolution. Here, we used multivariate genetic models to estimate the contributions of maternal and <span class="hlt">direct</span> genetic (co)variance, the cross-generation <span class="hlt">direct</span>-maternal covariance,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laura F. Galloway; Julie R. Etterson; Joel W. McGlothlin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1460275"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> size and polymorphism of linked neutral loci in populations under <span class="hlt">directional</span> selection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The general theory of the <span class="hlt">effective</span> size (Ne) for populations under <span class="hlt">directional</span> selection is extended to cover linkage. Ne is a function of the association between neutral and selected genes generated by finite sampling. This association is reduced by three factors: the recombination rate, the reduction of genetic variance due to drift, and the reduction of genetic variance of the selected genes due to selection. If the genetic size of the genome (L in Morgans) is not extremely <span class="hlt">small</span> the equation for Ne is [formula, see text] where N is the number of reproductive individuals, C 2 is the genetic variance for fitness scaled by the squared mean fitness, (1 - Z) = Vm/C2 is the rate of reduction of genetic variation per generation and Vm is the mutational input of genetic variation for fitness. The above predictive equation of Ne is valid for the infinitesimal model and for a model of detrimental mutations. The principles of the theory are also applicable to favorable mutation models if there is a continuous flux of advantageous mutations. The predictions are tested by simulation, and the connection with previous results is found and discussed. The reduction of <span class="hlt">effective</span> size associated with a neutral mutation is progressive over generations until the asymptotic value (the above expression) is reached after a number of generations. The magnitude of the drift process is, therefore, smaller for recent neutral mutations than for old ones. This produces equilibrium values of average heterozygosity and proportion of segregating sites that cannot be formally predicted from the asymptotic Ne, but both parameters can still be predicted by following the drift along the lineage of genes. The spectrum of gene frequencies in a given generation can also be predicted by considering the overlapping of distributions corresponding to mutations that arose in different generations and with different associated <span class="hlt">effective</span> sizes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santiago, E; Caballero, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70003342"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal trends in marine reserves reveal differential rates of change in <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Decadal-scale observations of marine reserves suggest that indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on taxa that occur through cascading trophic interactions take longer to develop than <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on target species. Combining and analyzing a unique set of long-term time series of ecologic data in and out of fisheries closures from disparate regions, we found that the time to initial detection of <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on target species (+ or -SE) was 5.13 + or - 1.9 years, whereas initial detection of indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on other taxa, which were often trait mediated, took significantly longer (13.1 + or - 2.0 years). Most target species showed initial <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>, but their trajectories over time were highly variable. Many target species continued to increase, some leveled off, and others decreased. Decreases were due to natural fluctuations, fishing impacts from outside reserves, or indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> from target species at higher trophic levels. The average duration of stable periods for <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> was 6.2 + or - 1.2 years, even in studies of more than 15 years. For indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>, stable periods averaged 9.1 + or - 1.6 years, although this was not significantly different from <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Populations of <span class="hlt">directly</span> targeted species were more stable in reserves than in fished areas, suggesting increased ecologic resilience. This is an important benefit of marine reserves with respect to their function as a tool for conservation and restoration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Babcock, R.C.; Shears, N.T.; Alcala, A.C.; Barrett, N.S.; Edgar, G.J.; Lafferty, K.D.; McClanahan, T.R.; Russ, G.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22369271"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and contextual <span class="hlt">effects</span> of individual values on organizational citizenship behavior in teams.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors use Schwartz's values theory as an integrative framework for testing the relationship between individual values and peer-reported organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in teams, controlling for sex, satisfaction, and personality traits. Using hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 582 students distributed across 135 class project teams, the authors find positive, <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> for achievement on citizenship behaviors <span class="hlt">directed</span> toward individuals (OCB-I), for benevolence on citizenship behaviors <span class="hlt">directed</span> toward the group (OCB-O), and for self-<span class="hlt">direction</span> on both OCB-I and OCB-O. Applying relational demography techniques to test for contextual <span class="hlt">effects</span>, the authors find that group mean power scores negatively moderate the relationship between individual power and OCB-I, whereas group mean self-<span class="hlt">direction</span> scores positively moderate the relationship between self-<span class="hlt">direction</span> and both OCB-I and OCB-O. PMID:22369271</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arthaud-Day, Marne L; Rode, Joseph C; Turnley, William H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BoLMe.tmp...57S"> <span id="translatedtitle">How to Parametrize Urban-Canopy Drag to Reproduce Wind-<span class="hlt">Direction</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> Within the Canopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mean wind <span class="hlt">direction</span> within an urban canopy changes with height when the incoming flow is not orthogonal to obstacle faces. This wind-turning <span class="hlt">effect</span> is induced by complex processes and its modelling in urban-canopy (UC) parametrizations is difficult. Here we focus on the analysis of the spatially-averaged flow properties over an aligned array of cubes and their variation with incoming wind <span class="hlt">direction</span>. For this purpose, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations previously compared, for a reduced number of incident wind <span class="hlt">directions</span>, against <span class="hlt">direct</span> numerical simulation results are used. The drag formulation of a UC parametrization is modified and different drag coefficients are tested in order to reproduce the wind-turning <span class="hlt">effect</span> within the canopy for oblique wind <span class="hlt">directions</span>. The simulations carried out for a UC parametrization in one-dimensional mode indicate that a height-dependent drag coefficient is needed to capture this <span class="hlt">effect</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santiago, J. L.; Coceal, O.; Martilli, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6551780"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of a self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> learning project and preference for structure on self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> learning readiness.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of preference for structure and a self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> learning (SDL) project on the SDL readiness of junior-class baccalaureate nursing students. The sample was divided into a control group consisting of two sections (N = 50) who did not conduct an SDL project, and an experimental group consisting of two sections (N = 54) who did conduct an SDL project. Preference for structure was measured by Ginther's Reactions to Statements; SDL readiness was measured by Guglielmino's Self-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS). Before treatment, both groups of students and both groups of faculty were similar on these research variables. Data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis of covariance, with pretest SDLRS scores as the covariate. It was concluded that neither preference for structure nor conducting an SDL project contributed significantly to the variance in posttest SDL readiness, but the interaction of these two variables did contribute. The findings suggest that persons who prefer low structure benefit from SDL teaching more than do persons who prefer high structure. PMID:6551780</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiley, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21541486"> <span id="translatedtitle">New framework for analyzing the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> scale inhomogeneities in cosmology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of nonlinear phenomena occurring on <span class="hlt">small</span> scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the shortwave approximation, which we generalize to analyze the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric, but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on <span class="hlt">small</span> scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only <span class="hlt">effect</span> that <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an <span class="hlt">effective</span> stress-energy tensor that is traceless and has positive energy density-corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear <span class="hlt">effects</span> produced by <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale inhomogeneities. Under various assumptions concerning the absence of gravitational radiation and the nonrelativistic behavior of the matter, we argue that the short-wavelength deviations of the metric from the background metric near a point x should be accurately described by Newtonian gravity, taking into account only the matter lying within a homogeneity length scale of x. Finally, we argue that our framework should provide an accurate description of the actual universe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M. [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/nt5g83n583767t31.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on infant mortality in a high-fertility US population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of social and demographic measures on infant mortality using data from a church directory of the Old Order Amish of the Lancaster, PA, Settlement. The sample includes all infant deaths and a simple random sample of survivors (total n=2013). The results reveal that the death of the immediately prior sibling <span class="hlt">directly</span> increases</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linda E. Dorsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22koi%22&pg=2&id=EJ156083"> <span id="translatedtitle">Home-Career Conflict Reduction Revisited: The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Experimental <span class="hlt">Directions</span> on KOIS Scores for Women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of experimental <span class="hlt">directions</span> designed to reduce a home-career conflict in women's occupational choices on the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey was investigated. Results indicate that the validity of the Kuder survey is not compromised by the experimental <span class="hlt">directions</span>. Tables are presented and implications are discussed. (Author/JKS)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tittle, Carol Kehr; Denker, Elenor Rubin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52474286"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of uncertain geoacoustic parameters and coastal shipping densities on shipping noise <span class="hlt">directionality</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The bearing-elevation <span class="hlt">directionality</span> of low-frequency shipping noise is influenced both by the sediment geoacoustic parameters and by the coastal shipping density. This study examines the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of geoacoustic parameter and shipping density uncertainties on noise <span class="hlt">directionality</span> through simulations for a North Pacific site. The simulations are based in part on stochastic models of the spatial variations of geoacoustic parameters that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas J. Hayward; Richard M. Heitmeyer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Heather+AND+Turner&pg=3&id=EJ642724"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Training and Treatment Integrity on Treatment Outcomes in School Consultation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Study attempts to expand the empirical consultation research base by examining the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect consultee training methods on treatment integrity and treatment outcomes. A multiple baseline design across consultation dyads was used to investigate the influence of these variables. Results suggest that <span class="hlt">direct</span> consultee training…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sterling-Turner, Heather E.; Watson, T. Steuart; Moore, James W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36831564"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Training and Treatment Integrity on Treatment Outcomes in School Consultation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current study attempts to expand the empirical consultation research base by examining the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect consultee training methods on treatment integrity and treatment outcomes. A multiple baseline design across consultation dyads was used to investigate the influence of these variables. The results suggest that <span class="hlt">direct</span> consultee training led to higher treatment integrity. In addition, results for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heather E. Sterling-Turner; T. Steuart Watson; James W. Moore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49858345"> <span id="translatedtitle">The optimization of <span class="hlt">direct</span> digital frequency synthesizer performance in the presence of finite word length <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Techniques for the design of VLSI architectures for <span class="hlt">direct</span> digital frequency synthesis have been introduced that allow for the optimization of the spurious response in the presence of finite-wordlength <span class="hlt">effects</span>. These optimization techniques exploit certain number-theoretic properties of the phase accumulator to make the exhaustive simulation of <span class="hlt">direct</span> digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) performance in the presence of different system nonlinearities</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henry Samueli; Bruce Kim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35406801"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of movement <span class="hlt">direction</span> upon kinematic characteristics of vertical arm pointing movements in man</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vertical arm pointing movements in two <span class="hlt">directions</span> (upwards and downwards), imposing two different loads (unload and 0.5 kg) and speeds (normal and fast) have been studied in six subjects. Movements were recorded using an optoelectronic system. Data analysis concentrated upon finger-tip kinematics. Significant <span class="hlt">effects</span> of movement <span class="hlt">direction</span> were recorded upon velocity profiles. The acceleration time, computed relative to total movement</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charalambos Papaxanthis; Thierry Pozzo; Paul Stapley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22%22&pg=6&id=EJ1000596"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect Instruction on Fostering Decision-Making Competence in Socioscientific Issues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In this study the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of different learning environments on the promotion of decision-making competence for the socioscientific issue of genetically modified crops is investigated. The comparison focuses on <span class="hlt">direct</span> vs. indirect instructions. Therefore on the one hand a sophisticated decision-making strategy was presented to the <span class="hlt">directly</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bottcher, Florian; Meisert, Anke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cims&id=EJ687017"> <span id="translatedtitle">English Reading <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Group Intensive Intervention in Spanish for K-1 English Learners</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In this article we report <span class="hlt">small</span>, but statistically significant, <span class="hlt">effects</span> of brief supplemental instruction on English reading by Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N=37) who performed poorly on a bilingual battery of phonological-processing tasks. Intervention design was compatible with the Reading First initiative and with research on use of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerber, Michael; Jimenez, Terese; Leafstedt, Jill; Villaruz, Jessica; Richards, Catherine; English, Judy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59508866"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of parasitic diseases on nutrient metabolism and productivity in <span class="hlt">small</span> ruminants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><strong>INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigation of voluntary feed intake (VFI) and nitrogen retention (NRET) during parasitic infections in <span class="hlt">small</span> ruminants is the central theme of this thesis. An attempt was made to examine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of trypanosomiasis on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen retention and animal products. In addition, a similar investigation was conducted during a low to medium level fascioliasis infection in Menz</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. O. Akinbamijo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32419329"> <span id="translatedtitle">Examination of Protective <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Ischemic Postconditioning After <span class="hlt">Small</span> Bowel Autotransplantation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) injury is a serious condition that results from some surgical procedures, including intestinal transplantation. Ischemic postconditioning is defined as brief periods of reperfusion alternating with reocclusion applied during the early minutes after reperfusion. The objective of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of ischemic postconditioning before <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel autotransplantation. Total orthotopic intestinal autotransplantation was performed in 30</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Ferencz; I. Takács; S. Horváth; S. Ferencz; S. Jávor; T. Fekecs; K. Shanava; B. Balatonyi; G. Wéber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47006099"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving performance in very <span class="hlt">small</span> firms through <span class="hlt">effective</span> assessment and feedback</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to improve assessment and feedback processes in the training practices of very <span class="hlt">small</span> firms, thereby improving the firms' human capital. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews research and practice on <span class="hlt">effective</span> assessment and feedback. Findings – Based on this paper, human resources are increasingly seen as a potential source of sustained competitive advantage,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven J. Lorenzet; Ronald G. Cook; Cynthia Ozeki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22competitive+AND+advantage%22&pg=2&id=EJ750434"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving Performance in Very <span class="hlt">Small</span> Firms through <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Assessment and Feedback</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve assessment and feedback processes in the training practices of very <span class="hlt">small</span> firms, thereby improving the firms' human capital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews research and practice on <span class="hlt">effective</span> assessment and feedback. Findings: Based on this paper, human resources are increasingly…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenzet, Steven J.; Cook, Ronald G.; Ozeki, Cynthia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+chemistry&pg=5&id=EJ814869"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of Facilitating <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Group Learning in Large Lecture Classes: A General Chemistry Case Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|We report the results of a study designed to investigate the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of peer-led, <span class="hlt">small</span>-group discussions in a large (N greater than 400) general chemistry course usually taught in a traditional lecture format. The administrative structure, the training of the peer facilitators, and the achievement of students exposed to this environment…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyon, D. C.; Lagowski, J. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/8aebny12t4xcjnxw.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of omega-3 fatty acids in rat allogenic <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal transplantation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to estimate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of omega-3 fatty acids on the recipient and graft immune response after rat allogenic <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal transplantation. Seven-week-old Lewis rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to the diet received: an FO group (fish oil supplemented), an SB group (soy bean oil supplemented) or a control group</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Ogita; S. Suita; T. Taguchi; T. Yamanouchi; M. Nakamura; S. Taguchi; Y. Nishimoto; T. Uesugi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40866609"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of training on acquisition of pest management knowledge and skills by <span class="hlt">small</span> vegetable farmers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of farmer field school (FFS) and the conventional (classroom lectures) training on acquisition of pest management knowledge and skills by <span class="hlt">small</span> vegetable farmers were studied in Yunnan province, China from 2003 to 2007. There were significant gains of knowledge about vegetable pests, natural enemies, insect and disease ecology and pest management among the FFS farmers, but were no significant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Puyun Yang; Wenxin Liu; Xunan Shan; Ping Li; Jinyu Zhou; Jianping Lu; Yahong Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14403515"> <span id="translatedtitle">Animation, <span class="hlt">Small</span> Multiples, and the <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Mental Map Preservation in Dynamic Graphs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present the results of a human-computer interaction experiment that compared the performance of the animation of dynamic graphs to the presentation of <span class="hlt">small</span> multiples and the <span class="hlt">effect</span> that mental map preservation had on the two conditions. Questions used in the experiment were selected to test both local and global properties of graph evolution over time. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel Archambault; Helen C. Purchase; Bruno Pinaud</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dlr.de/iaa.symp/Portaldata/49/Resources/dokumente/archiv3/0207P.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">APPLICATION OF <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> SATELLITES FOR HIGH PRECISION MEASURING <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The radio holography methodology may be applied in the scientific programs for future <span class="hlt">small</span> satellite that will use radio signals emitted by radio navigation, radio communication satellites for precise measuring <span class="hlt">effects</span> of radio waves propagation at low elevation angles and for global monitoring of radio communication channels passed through the atmosphere and ionosphere. Another task consists in monitoring of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Igarashi; N. A. Armand; A. G. Pavelyev; Ch. Reigber; J. Wickert; K. Hocke; G. Beyerle; S. S. Matyugov; O. I. Yakovlev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/v701w55645g60502.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Scale Intermittency in Turbulent Reacting Flows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is now well established that quantities such as energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and enstrophy possess huge fluctuations in turbulent flows, and that the fluctuations become increasingly stronger with increasing Reynolds number of the flow. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of this <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale “intermittenc” on various aspects of reacting flows have not been addressed fully. This paper draws brief attention to a few</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. R. Sreenivasan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55991435"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Guide Vane in Ring Groove Arrangement for a <span class="hlt">Small</span> Turbocharger</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A high-pressure ratio and a wide operating range are highly required for a turbocharger in diesel engines. Ring groove arrangement is <span class="hlt">effective</span> for flow range enhancement of centrifugal compressors. Two ring grooves on the suction pipe and the shroud casing wall are connected by means of the annular passage, and the stable recirculation flow is formed at <span class="hlt">small</span> flow rates</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daisaku Sakaguchi; Keiichi Nagoshi; Motoki Tanimura; Masahiro Ishida; Hironobu Ueki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37845045"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">small</span> company's dilemma: using search engines <span class="hlt">effectively</span> for corporate sales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – Smaller companies must continually review the pay-per-click (PPC) option or an organic listing on search engines. The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of a <span class="hlt">small</span> manufacturing firm that is beginning to evaluate which search engine, Yahoo or Google, is more cost <span class="hlt">effective</span>. Ultimately, management would like to identify if PPC advertising is worth</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kristin Kennedy; Bonnie Brayton Kennedy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47930902"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation Into Cost-<span class="hlt">Effective</span> Propulsion System Options for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Satellites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper summarizes research into cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> propulsion system options for <span class="hlt">small</span> satellites. Research into the primary cost drivers for propulsion systems is discussed and a process for resolving them is advanced. From this analysis, a new paradigm for understanding the total cost of propulsion systems is defined that encompasses nine dimensions – mass, volume, time, power, system price, integration, logistics,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jerry Jon Sellers; Malcolm Paul; Martin Sweeting</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Vries&pg=4&id=EJ229098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cooperative Learning in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Groups: Recent Methods and <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Three peer tutoring methods and two group investigation approaches are examined for <span class="hlt">effects</span> on academic achievement, students' attitudes, and ethnic relations. The five methods are: Jigsaw classroom (Aronson), Teams-Games-Tournaments (DeVries), Student Teams and Academic Division (Slavin), cooperative learning approach (Johnson), and <span class="hlt">small</span>-group…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharan, Shlomo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38521349"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Minimum Wage LegislationSome Evidence from <span class="hlt">Small</span> Enterprises in the UK</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article explores the consequences of minimum wage legislation on <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses, focusing specifically on the case of the equestrian sector in the UK. This was done by means of a survey of employers, rather than trying to discern impacts from existing national survey data. The survey revealed that, contrary to conventional wisdom regarding the negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of minimum wages</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Morris; Tamsin Collier; Geoff Wood</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2443231"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> classification image space which can solve <span class="hlt">small</span> sample size problem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular methods in feature extraction and dimension reduction. However, in many real applications, particularly in image recognition applications such as face recognition, conventional LDA algorithm will often encounter <span class="hlt">small</span> sample size problem. In this paper, an <span class="hlt">effective</span> classification image space is defined and optimal features are extracted from this space. With</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu-jie Zheng; Jing-yu Yang; Jian Yang; Xiao-jun Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA214524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survival after Total-Body Irradiation. 1. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Partial <span class="hlt">Small</span> Bowel Shielding.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedure...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. M. Vigneulle H. M. Vriesendorp P. Taylor W. Burns T. Pelkey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54187306"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> deformation on abnormal grain growth in bulk Cu</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> deformation below the level (about 8 pct) required for primary recrystallization on abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) has been investigated in bulk polycrystalline Cu. The starting microstructure, without any texture and with a nearly uniform grain size of 168 µm, has been obtained by compressing a cylindrical Cu specimen and recrystallizing at 800 °C. The fully</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jae Bon Koo; Duk Yong Yoon; Michael F. Henry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://filebox.vt.edu/users/midavis1/documents/mammals.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disturbance <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Mammal Species in a Managed Appalachian Forest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forestry practices result in a range of levels of disturbance to forest ecosystems, from clearcutting and deferment (high disturbance) to single-tree selection cutting and unharvested forests (low disturbance). We investigated the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of timber harvest and disturbance on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. In 2003 and 2004, mammals were captured using Sherman box traps, individually</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JEFFREY A. KAMINSKI; MICHELLE L. DAVIS; MARCELLA KELLY; PATRICK D. KEYSER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.westernsnowconference.org/proceedings/pdf_Proceedings/2004%20WEB/Teti,%20P._Effects%20of%20Small%20Logged%20Openings%20on%20Snow%20Ablation%20D.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> LOGGED OPENINGS ON SNOW ABLATION DURING A HIGH SNOW YEAR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> logged openings on snow ablation rate were studied from 1994 through 1998 at a sub- alpine silvicultural systems research site in the Quesnel Highland of B.C. Six snow plots were in north-facing treatment units from which 21 to 34 percent of the forest had been previously harvested and one was installed in an unharvested control. One</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patrick Teti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1569557"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the human body on radiation properties of <span class="hlt">small</span>-sized communication systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results are presented of an experimental investigation of the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the human body on <span class="hlt">small</span>-sized radio communication systems equipped with whip antennas. For a frequency range of approximately 30 to 150 MHz, the qualitative relations are defined between, on the one band, the space configuration of an antenna system and the operator's body, and, on the other hand,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. Krupka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26597173"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> openings on strength and stiffness of shear walls in reactor buildings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A total of 26 wall specimens were tested to examine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> openings on the strength and stiffness of shear walls in reactor buildings. The parameters tested were the shape, number and local arrangement of the openings, and the reinforcing method around the openings. Reversed cyclic loads were applied to the specimens, and their strengths and restoring force</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Kobayashi; T. Korenaga; A. Shibata; K. Akino; T. Taira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5666534"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of hypocholesterolemia on cholesterol synthesis in <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of diabetic rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies by our and other laboratories have demonstrated that cholesterol synthesis is increased in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of insulinopenic diabetic animals. In normal animals, many factors have been shown to regulate cholesterol synthesis in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, including changes in plasma cholesterol levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of lowering plasma cholesterol levels on <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine cholesterol synthesis in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, 4-aminopyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine (4-APP)-induced hypocholesterolemia (plasma cholesterol levels less than 20 mg/dl) resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine cholesterol synthesis, which was most marked in the distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, decreasing proximally. In the distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine the incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into cholesterol was 0.28 +/- 0.04 mumol.h-1.g-1 in diabetic rats versus 1.60 +/- 0.38 in diabetic rats administered 4-APP (P less than .01). This stimulation of cholesterol synthesis occurred in the upper villus, middle villus, and crypt cells isolated from the middle intestine of the 4-APP-treated diabetic animals. In agreement with these observations, functional hypocholesterolemia due to Triton WR-1339 administration also stimulated cholesterol synthesis 2.5-fold in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of normal and diabetic animals. In the distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, cholesterol synthesis was 0.43 +/- 0.10 mumol.h-1.g-1 in the diabetic rats versus 1.08 +/- 0.21 in diabetic rats treated with Triton WR-1339 (P less than .05). In both the 4-APP and Triton WR-1339 experiments, the response of the diabetic rats was similar to that observed in normal rats.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feingold, K.R.; Moser, A.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2684610"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostic <span class="hlt">effect</span> of capsule endoscopy in 31 cases of subacute <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel obstruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To evaluate the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and safety of capsule endoscopy (CE) in patients with recurrent subacute <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel obstruction. METHODS: The study was a retrospective analysis of 31 patients referred to hospital from January 2003 to August 2008 for the investigation of subacute <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel obstruction, who underwent CE. The patients were aged 9-81 years, and all of them had undergone gastroscopy and colonoscopy previously. Some of them received abdominal computed tomography or <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel follow-through. RESULTS: CE made a definitive diagnosis in 12 (38.7%) of 31 cases: four Crohn’s disease (CD), two carcinomas, one intestinal tuberculosis, one ischemic enteritis, one abdominal cocoon, one duplication of the intestine, one diverticulum and one ileal polypoid tumor. Capsule retention occurred in three (9.7%) of 31 patients, and was caused by CD (2) or tumor (1). Two with retained capsules were retrieved at surgery, and the other one of the capsules was spontaneously passed the stricture by medical treatment in 6 mo. No case had an acute <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel obstruction caused by performance of CE. CONCLUSION: CE provided safe and <span class="hlt">effective</span> visualization to identify the etiology of a subacute <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel obstruction, especially in patients with suspected intestinal tumors or CD, which are not identified by routine examinations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Bing-Ling; Yang, Li-Ping; Su, Hua-Jing; Teng, Li-Song; Li, You-Ming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1756-8722-2-1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radical cyberknife radiosurgery with tumor tracking: an <span class="hlt">effective</span> treatment for inoperable <span class="hlt">small</span> peripheral stage I non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE: Curative surgery is not an option for many patients with clinical stage I non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), but radical radiosurgery may be <span class="hlt">effective</span>. METHODS: Inoperable patients with <span class="hlt">small</span> peripheral clinical stage I NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Three-to-five fiducial markers were implanted in or near tumors under CT guidance. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured using lung windows.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brian T Collins; Saloomeh Vahdat; Kelly Erickson; Sean P Collins; Simeng Suy; Xia Yu; Ying Zhang; Deepa Subramaniam; Cristina A Reichner; Ismet Sarikaya; Giuseppe Esposito; Shadi Yousefi; Carlos Jamis-Dow; Filip Banovac; Eric D Anderson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22planning+AND+work%22&pg=6&id=ED164787"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achieving Success in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business: A Self-Instruction Program for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Owner-Managers. Improving Profits through <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Management.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This self-instructional module on improving profits through <span class="hlt">effective</span> management is the seventh in a set of twelve modules designed for <span class="hlt">small</span> business owner-managers. Competencies for this module are (1) apply planning and organizing skills in the operation of a business and (2) implement <span class="hlt">effective</span> time management practices. Provided are…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/11j15q1702461724.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of introduced rodents on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals on islands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this first comprehensive review of negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of introduced rodents on insular <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals, the focal species Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, R. exulans and Mus musculus are implicated in at least 11 extinctions. Furthermore, removal experiments, eradication campaigns and control programmes\\u000a provide evidence for negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> on extant populations. While data are currently insufficient for meaningful generalisation\\u000a with regard</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donna B. Harris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48008792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study of seismic cyclic loading <span class="hlt">effects</span> on <span class="hlt">small</span> strain shear modulus of saturated sands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seismic loading on saturated soil deposits induces a decrease in <span class="hlt">effective</span> stress and a rearrangement of the soil-particle\\u000a structure, which may both lead to a degradation in undrained stiffness and strength of soils. Only the <span class="hlt">effective</span> stress influence\\u000a on <span class="hlt">small</span> strain shear modulusG\\u000a max is considered in seismic response analysis nowadays, and the cyclic shearing induced fabric changes of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou Yan-guo; Chen Yun-min; Huang Bo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49304936"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">small</span> scale multi-<span class="hlt">effect</span> distillation (MED) unit for rural micro enterprises</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aspects of fabrication, design and operation with design optimization of various components of the <span class="hlt">small</span> scale multiple <span class="hlt">effect</span> distillation (MED) unit have been discussed in part I of the paper. The MED system can be operated as n <span class="hlt">effects</span>+condenser (n+C), where 1?n?9. Extensive experiments were carried out respectively using 9+C, 6+C and 3+C systems. The present part II is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. K. Sen; Padma Vasudevan Sen; Anurag Mudgal; S. N. Singh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60631887"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethanol Blend <span class="hlt">Effects</span> On <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. <span class="hlt">Small</span> displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John Morse Storey; Samuel Arthur Lewis Sr; Teresa L Barone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhD...42m5004L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Edge <span class="hlt">effects</span> in four-point <span class="hlt">direct</span> current potential drop measurements on metal plates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four-point <span class="hlt">direct</span> current potential drop (DCPD) measurements are commonly used to measure the conductivity (or resistivity) of semiconductors and ferrous or non-ferrous metals. The measured electrical potential difference is often interpreted in terms of analytic expressions developed for large plates that are either 'thin' or 'thick' relative to the probe length. It is well known that the presence of the back surface of a plate leads to a solution expressed in terms of an infinite series representing the current source and its images. This approach can be generalized to account for multiple surfaces in order to obtain a solution for a finite plate, but convergence of the series is poor when the plate dimensions are similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Here, Fourier series representations of the infinite sums are obtained. It is shown that the Fourier series converge with many fewer terms than the series obtained from image theory, for plates with dimensions similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Comparing calculated results for the potential drop obtained by a four-point probe centred on finite plates of varying dimension, with those for a probe in contact with a large (laterally infinite) plate, estimates are given of the uncertainty due to edge <span class="hlt">effects</span> in measurements on <span class="hlt">small</span> plates interpreted using analytic formulae developed for large plates. It is also shown that these uncertainties due to edge <span class="hlt">effects</span> are reduced, for a given plate size, if the probe pick-up points are moved closer to the current injection points, rather than adopting the common arrangement in which the four probe points are equally spaced. Calculated values of DCPD are compared with experimental data taken on aluminium and spring-steel plates of various sizes and excellent agreement is obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Y.; Bowler, N.; Bowler, J. R.; Huang, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB93141281"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Ethane Dimethanesulphonate on Epididymal Function in Adult Rats. An In vitro Demonstration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It was recently demonstrated that the Leydig cell toxicant ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) produces multiple <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the epididymis after a single in vivo exposure. To determine whether any of the perturbations were mediated by a <span class="hlt">direct</span> action of the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. L. Klinefelter N. L. Roberts J. D. Suarez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE86013525"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Atmospheric CO sub 2 Enrichment on Plants and Ecosystems: A Bibliography with Abstracts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This bibliography contains 1032 references, with authors abstracts or summaries where possible, on the subject of <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of atmospheric CO sub 2 enrichment on plants and ecosystems. The references are indexed by keywords, which appear in the title...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. R. Strain J. D. Cure</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8917548"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Insulated Combustion Chamber Surfaces on <span class="hlt">Direct</span>-Injected Diesel Engine Performance, Emissions, and Combustion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, <span class="hlt">direct</span>-injected diesel engine was insulated with ceramic coatings to determine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of low heat rejection (LHR) operation on engine performance, emissions, and combustion. In comparison to the baseline co...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. W. Dickey S. Vinyard R. Keribar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AcPPB..32.1245K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible LSND <span class="hlt">Effect</span> as a <span class="hlt">Small</span> Perturbation of the Bimaximal Texture for Three Active Neutrinos</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A particular form of mixing matrix for three active and one sterile neutrinos is proposed. Its 3 X 3 part describing three active neutrinos arises from the popular bimaximal mixing matrix that works satisfactorily in solar and atmospheric experiments if the LSND <span class="hlt">effect</span> is ignored. Then, the sterile neutrino, <span class="hlt">effective</span> in the fourth row and fourth column of the proposed mixing matrix, is responsible for the possible LSND <span class="hlt">effect</span> by inducing one extra neutrino mass state to exist actively. The LSND <span class="hlt">effect</span>, if it exists, turns out to reveal its perturbative nature related to <span class="hlt">small</span> mixing of three active neutrinos with their sterile partner.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krolikowski, Wojciech</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g518588j73184525.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age and <span class="hlt">directed</span>-participation variables influencing the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of televised instruction in concrete operational behaviors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Head Start preschoolers on an isolated Papago reservation in southern Arizona were subjects of two studies of the <span class="hlt">effects</span>\\u000a of televised instruction and <span class="hlt">directed</span> participation on teaching enumeration and conservation skills. Television instruction\\u000a was most <span class="hlt">effective</span> when used with active, <span class="hlt">directed</span> participation and corrective feedback, but this, as well as amount and\\u000a skills learned, varied with age. The televised segments</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ronald W. Henderson; Rosemary A Swanson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57863717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Right-Wing Authoritarianism via Personality and Dangerous World Beliefs: <span class="hlt">Direct</span>, Indirect, and Interactive <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an Italian sample (N?=?483, 78.23% women, mean age = 27.61 years old), we used structural equation modeling with latent variables and interactions to analyze the <span class="hlt">direct</span>, indirect, and interactive <span class="hlt">effects</span> exerted on right-wing authoritarianism by the Big Five factors of personality and by dangerous world beliefs. Openness, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness exerted <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on right-wing authoritarianism; the first two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francesca Dallago; Alberto Mirisola; Michele Roccato</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42496358"> <span id="translatedtitle">Firm-specific <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Location Decisions of Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment in China's Logistics Industry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hong J. (2007) Firm-specific <span class="hlt">effects</span> on location decisions of foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment in China's logistics industry, Regional Studies41, 673–683. This paper uses conditional logit models to investigate firms-specific <span class="hlt">effects</span> on location decisions of foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment in China's logistics industry. Based on a recent census database, the empirical results indicate that the importance of some location factors varies with firm</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Junjie Hong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7993569"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel transplantation, denervation and ischaemia on rat intestinal microflora.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of denervation and warm ischaemia on quantitative and qualitative changes in <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal microflora following rat heterotopic <span class="hlt">small</span>-bowel isotransplantation were assessed. Animals with Thiry-Vella fistula, but without transplants, acted as controls. Thirty and 40-fold increases in bacterial colony counts were seen in the isografts compared to controls at 2 and 7 days, respectively (P < 0.05). Aerobic faecal organisms predominated at 2 and 7 days, but an overgrowth of Flavobacterium meningosepticum occurred at 28 days in the transplanted and host bowels. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of warm ischaemia on intestinal microflora was assessed by the application of a microvascular clamp to the superior mesenteric artery for 90 min. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of denervation was assessed following microsurgical division of all nervous tissue around the superior mesenteric artery. After 7 days, lengths of jejunum and ileum were removed and intraluminal microflora assessed. The number of bacterial colonies isolated from the ileum in the warm ischaemia group was six times greater than the number in the control group, whereas no significant changes were seen in the upper bowel. In contrast, denervation led to a slight, but consistent, decrease in colony counts. These findings suggest that the increase in bacterial numbers in an isografted <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel primarily results from warm ischaemia rather than from mesenteric denervation, and that physical aspects of the procedure may affect the development of sepsis following <span class="hlt">small</span>-bowel transplantation. PMID:7993569</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Price, B A; Cumberland, N S; Ingham Clark, C L; Pockley, A G; Lear, P A; Wood, R F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17452327"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human TRBP and PACT <span class="hlt">directly</span> interact with each other and associate with dicer to facilitate the production of <span class="hlt">small</span> interfering RNA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mammalian Dicer interacts with double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP or PACT to mediate RNA interference and micro-RNA processing. TRBP and PACT are structurally related but exert opposite regulatory activities on PKR. It is not understood whether TRBP and PACT are simultaneously required for Dicer. Here we show that TRBP <span class="hlt">directly</span> interacts with PACT in vitro and in mammalian cells. TRBP and PACT form a triple complex with Dicer and facilitate the production of <span class="hlt">small</span> interfering RNA (siRNA) by Dicer. Knockdown of both TRBP and PACT in cultured cells leads to significant inhibition of gene silencing mediated by short hairpin RNA but not by siRNA, suggesting that TRBP and PACT function primarily at the step of siRNA production. Taken together, these findings indicate that human TRBP and PACT <span class="hlt">directly</span> interact with each other and associate with Dicer to stimulate the cleavage of double-stranded or short hairpin RNA to siRNA. Our work significantly alters the current model for the assembly and function of the Dicer-containing complex that generates siRNA and micro-RNA in human. PMID:17452327</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kok, Kin Hang; Ng, Ming-Him James; Ching, Yick-Pang; Jin, Dong-Yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18801254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiotelemetric analysis of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of prevailing wind <span class="hlt">direction</span> on Mormon cricket migratory band movement.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During outbreaks, flightless Mormon crickets [Anabrus simplex Haldeman (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)] form large mobile groups known as migratory bands. These bands can contain millions of individuals that march en masse across the landscape. The role of environmental cues in influencing the movement <span class="hlt">direction</span> of migratory bands is poorly understood and has been the subject of little empirical study. We examined the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of wind <span class="hlt">direction</span> on Mormon cricket migratory band movement <span class="hlt">direction</span> by monitoring the local weather conditions and daily movement patterns of individual insects traveling in bands over the same time course at three close, but spatially distinct sites. Although weather conditions were relatively homogeneous across sites, wind <span class="hlt">directions</span> tended to be more variable across sites during the morning hours, the period during which <span class="hlt">directional</span> movement begins. Migratory bands at different sites traveled in distinctly different <span class="hlt">directions</span>. However, we failed to find any evidence to suggest that the observed variation in migratory band movement <span class="hlt">direction</span> was correlated with local wind <span class="hlt">direction</span> at any time during the day. These results support the notion that the cues mediating migratory band <span class="hlt">directionality</span> are likely to be group specific and that a role for landscape-scale environmental cues such as wind <span class="hlt">direction</span> is unlikely. PMID:18801254</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sword, G A; Lorch, P D; Gwynne, D T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..116.0T10L"> <span id="translatedtitle">An examination of the aerosol semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> for a polluted case of the ISDAC field campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span> aerosol <span class="hlt">effect</span> is examined with a mesoscale meteorological model for a polluted Arctic haze episode at Barrow, Alaska during the Indirect and Semi-<span class="hlt">Direct</span> Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). Initialized with chemical and aerosol reanalysis fields from a global chemistry model, the WRF/Chem mesoscale model is used to simulate a polluted event over Alaska and its environs on 18-21 April 2008. It is shown that the atmosphere is sensitive to changes in the black carbon concentration, even though it comprises just a <span class="hlt">small</span> fraction (less than one percent) of the total aerosol mass. Comparisons with a baseline run (which does not include aerosol radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span>) show that in regions where black carbon is concentrated, the semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> heats the lower troposphere by about 0.15 K. Additional sensitivity tests reveal that the heating is more uniform and higher in magnitude by up to 0.1 K when the initial concentration of black carbon is doubled, and a reduction in heating occurs when black carbon is reduced to zero. At Barrow, atmospheric warming is sensitive to variations in the black carbon concentration, and heating generally occurs above 0.5 km altitude where black carbon is located. A more stably stratified lower troposphere due to the warming aloft and surface cooling from the aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> leads to a redistribution and reduction in the cloud optical thickness and liquid water content. This cloud reduction decreases the amount of downward surface longwave radiation and further lowers the surface temperature at Barrow.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindeman, J. D.; Boybeyi, Z.; Gultepe, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19247837"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of urban street gang densities on <span class="hlt">small</span> area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This <span class="hlt">effect</span> is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in <span class="hlt">small</span> areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative <span class="hlt">effects</span> on <span class="hlt">small</span> area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more <span class="hlt">direct</span> public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides. PMID:19247837</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IAUJD...7E..20B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced dynamical models for very well observed asteroids : perturbations from <span class="hlt">small</span> bodies, relativity, non - gravitational <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The availability of radar data and high precision optical observations has increased the number of objects with a very well constrained orbit, especially for those objects with a long observed arc. In these cases, the uncertainty of orbital predictions is often dominated by the inaccuracy of the dynamical model. However, the motion of <span class="hlt">small</span> solar system bodies poses a serious challenge in modeling their dynamics. In particular, for those objects with a chaotic motion <span class="hlt">small</span> differences in the model are amplified with propagation. Thus, we need to take into account <span class="hlt">small</span> perturbations too, especially for long - term prediction. An improved dynamical model is relevant in several applications such as assessing the risk of an impact between an asteroid and the Earth. The N - body model describing the motion of a <span class="hlt">small</span> solar system body includes the Newtonian attraction of the planets. The contribution o f other perturbing bodies has to be taken into account. We propose to include the Moon, two dwarf planets (Ceres and Pluto) and fifteen asteroids (Pallas, Vesta, Juno, Metis, Hygiea, Eunomia, Psyche, Amphitrite, Euphrosyne, Europa, Cybele, Sylvia, Davida, Herculina, Interamnia). The next step is the introduction of the relativity terms due to both the Sun and the planets . Despite their <span class="hlt">small</span> magnitude, planetary relativistic terms turn out to be relevant for objects experiencing close approaches with a planet. Finally, we discuss non - gravitational <span class="hlt">effects</span> such as solar radiation pressure and the Yarkovsky <span class="hlt">effect</span>. In particular, the latter acts as a tiny but secular semimajor axis drift that may decisively drive long - term predictions. These non - gravitational <span class="hlt">effects</span> are difficult to model as they depend on object ’ s physical properties that are typically unknown. However, a very well observed object can have an orbit precise enough to allow the determination of the parameters defining a non - gravitational perturbation and thus the modeling of the corresponding acceleration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernardi, Fabrizio; Farnocchia, Davide; Milani, Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3588672"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Review on the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Soccer <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Sided Games</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the last years there has been a substantial growth in research related to specific training methods in soccer with a strong emphasis on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games. The increase of research in this topic is coincident with the increase of popularity obtained by specific soccer conditioning, which involves training players to deal with soccer match situations. Given the limited time available for fitness training in soccer, the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games as a conditioning stimulus needs to be optimized to allow players to compete at the highest level. Available studies indicate that physiological responses (e.g. heart rate, blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion), tactical and technical skill requirements can be modified during <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games by altering factors such as the number of players, the size of the pitch, the rules of the game, and coach encouragement. However, because of the lack of consistency in <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games design, player fitness, age, ability, level of coach encouragement, and playing rules in each of these studies, it is difficult to make accurate conclusions on the influence of each of these factors separately.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aguiar, Marco; Botelho, Goreti; Lago, Carlos; Macas, Victor; Sampaio, Jaime</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23486554"> <span id="translatedtitle">A review on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of soccer <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the last years there has been a substantial growth in research related to specific training methods in soccer with a strong emphasis on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games. The increase of research in this topic is coincident with the increase of popularity obtained by specific soccer conditioning, which involves training players to deal with soccer match situations. Given the limited time available for fitness training in soccer, the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games as a conditioning stimulus needs to be optimized to allow players to compete at the highest level. Available studies indicate that physiological responses (e.g. heart rate, blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion), tactical and technical skill requirements can be modified during <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games by altering factors such as the number of players, the size of the pitch, the rules of the game, and coach encouragement. However, because of the lack of consistency in <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games design, player fitness, age, ability, level of coach encouragement, and playing rules in each of these studies, it is difficult to make accurate conclusions on the influence of each of these factors separately. PMID:23486554</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aguiar, Marco; Botelho, Goreti; Lago, Carlos; Maças, Victor; Sampaio, Jaime</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52814466"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of ocean carbon sequestration by <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection: Leakage and discount rates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> injection of CO2 into the ocean is a potentially <span class="hlt">effective</span> carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we develop an analytic framework to allow us to compare the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of this strategy with other carbon management options. We estimate the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of ocean carbon sequestration using one-dimensional and three-dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of carbon sequestration in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. J. Herzog; K. Caldeira; M. E. Wickett; J. Reilly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3511512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic and Evolutionary Consequences of Social Behaviours: Interactions among Individuals Affect <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Genetic <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traditional quantitative genetics assumes that an individual's phenotype is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. For many animals, part of the environment is social and provided by parents and other interacting partners. When expression of genes in social partners affects trait expression in a focal individual, indirect genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> occur. In this study, we explore the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of indirect genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the magnitude and range of phenotypic values in a focal individual in a multi-member model analyzing three possible classes of interactions between individuals. We show that social interactions may not only cause indirect genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> but can also modify <span class="hlt">direct</span> genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> substantially alter the range of phenotypic values, particularly when a focal trait can influence its own expression via interactions with traits in other individuals. We derive a function predicting the relative importance of <span class="hlt">direct</span> versus indirect genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Our model reveals that both <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> can depend to a large extent on both group size and interaction strength, altering group mean phenotype and variance. This may lead to scenarios where between group variation is much higher than within group variation despite similar underlying genetic properties, potentially affecting the level of selection. Our analysis highlights key properties of indirect genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> with important consequences for trait evolution, the level of selection and potentially speciation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trubenova, Barbora; Hager, Reinmar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JChPh.109.2135R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Hamiltonian for near-degenerate states in relativistic <span class="hlt">direct</span> perturbation theory. II. H2+-like systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recently developed <span class="hlt">effective</span> Schrödinger-like Hamiltonian equation (EHA) in a model space of near-degenerate nonrelativistic two-component spinors is applied to the relativistic energy corrections at first, second, and third order of c-2 within the framework of relativistic <span class="hlt">direct</span> perturbation theory (DPT). The dominant singular part of the total relativistic correction is already recovered by the lowest-order <span class="hlt">effective</span> Hamiltonian in the spirit of degenerate perturbation theory, while the perturbative expansion needs to account for only the <span class="hlt">small</span> remaining part. Numerical results for groups of excited potential curves of the one-electron H2+-like quasimolecule Sn299+ are presented and discussed. In general the most efficient approach is first-order EHA-DPT for the set of states, followed by single-state DPT of higher orders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rutkowski, A.; Schwarz, W. H. E.; Koz?owski, R.; B?czek, J.; Franke, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.3408H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Velocity-weakening behavior of plagioclase and pyroxene gouges and stabilizing <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> amounts of quartz under hydrothermal conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated properties of frictional sliding of plagioclase, pyroxene, and their mixture gouges with a <span class="hlt">small</span> amount of hornblende, biotite, and quartz as accessory minerals, under hydrothermal conditions with an <span class="hlt">effective</span> normal stress of 200 MPa, pore pressure of 30 MPa, and temperatures from 100°C to 600°C. Axial loading rate was stepped between 0.001 and 0.0001 mm/s to acquire the rate dependence. Both plagioclase and pyroxene gouges showed velocity-weakening behavior in the whole temperature range except the velocity-strengthening behavior of pyroxene at 200°C. For temperatures above 400°C, both plagioclase and pyroxene gouges showed oscillatory slips, as a result of <span class="hlt">small</span> dc values of 3-4 µm which make the critical stiffness rise remarkably and approach the system stiffness. Above 300°C, the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of plagioclase shows an increasing trend with temperature, indicating control of the deformation process by thermally activated mechanisms. As the difference of a and b values here are only 20% at most, this trend also applies to the evolution <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Our analytical derivation based on the theory of pressure solution shows a log-linear contact area growth with time that corresponds to an evolution <span class="hlt">effect</span>, and estimations based on this encompass the plagioclase data, though the identification of actual mechanisms is not easy. Finally, it is found that a little quartz (3-5%) added to the plagioclase (60-62%)-pyroxene (35%) mixture has a strong stabilizing <span class="hlt">effect</span>, leading to a transition from velocity weakening to velocity strengthening. These results may help constrain the depth range of seismic slips on deep faults in the lower crust of gabbroic composition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">He, Changrong; Luo, Li; Hao, Quan-Ming; Zhou, Yongsheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=425884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Separation and Measurement of <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Light on Stomata 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conductance for water vapor, assimilation of CO2, and intercellular CO2 concentration of leaves of five species were determined at various irradiances and ambient CO2 concentrations. Conductance and assimilation were then plotted as functions of irradiance and intercellular CO2 concentration. The slopes of these curves allowed us to estimate infinitesimal changes in conductance (and assimilation) that occurred when irradiance changed and intercellular CO2 concentration was constant, and when CO2 concentration changed and irradiance was constant. On leaves of Xanthium strumarium L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Perilla frutescens (L.), Britt., the stomatal response to light was determined to be mainly a <span class="hlt">direct</span> response to light and to a <span class="hlt">small</span> extent only a response to changes in intercellular CO2 concentration. This was also true for stomata of Zea mays L., except at irradiances < 150 watts per square meter, when stomata responded primarily to the depletion of the intercellular spaces of CO2 which in turn was caused by changes in the assimilation of CO2. Stomata responded to light even in leaves whose net exchange of CO2 was reduced to zero through application of the inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, cyanazine (2-chloro-4[1-cyano-1-methylethylamino]-6-ethylamino-S-triazine). When leaves were inverted and irradiated on the abaxial surface, conductance decreased in the shaded and increased in the illuminated epidermis, indicating that the photoreceptor pigment(s) involved are located in the epidermis (presumably in the guard cells). In leaves of X. strumarium, the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of light on conductance is primarily a response to blue light. Stomatal responses to CO2 and to light opposed each other. In X. strumarium, stomatal opening in response to light was strongest in CO2 free air and saturated at lower irradiances than in CO2 containing air. Conversely, stomatal closure in response to CO2 was strongest in darkness and it decreased as irradiance increased. In X. strumarium, P. vulgaris, and P. frutescens, an irradiance of 300 watts per square meter was sufficient to eliminate the stomatal response to CO2 altogether. Application of abscisic acid, or an increase in vapor pressure deficit, or a decrease in leaf temperature reduced the stomatal conductance at light saturation, but when the data were normalized with respect to the conductance at the highest irradiance, the various curves were congruent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharkey, Thomas D.; Raschke, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3158225"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of biological factors on extinction risk in fossil bivalves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biological factors, such as abundance and body size, may contribute <span class="hlt">directly</span> to extinction risk and indirectly through their influence on other biological characteristics, such as geographic range size. Paleontological data can be used to explicitly test many of these hypothesized relationships, and general patterns revealed through analysis of the fossil record can help refine predictive models of extinction risk developed for extant species. Here, I use structural equation modeling to tease apart the contributions of three canonical predictors of extinction—abundance, body size, and geographic range size—to the duration of bivalve species in the early Cenozoic marine fossil record of the eastern United States. I find that geographic range size has a strong <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> on extinction risk and that an apparent <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of abundance can be explained entirely by its covariation with geographic range. The influence of geographic range on extinction risk is manifest across three ecologically disparate bivalve clades. Body size also has strong <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on extinction risk but operates in opposing <span class="hlt">directions</span> in different clades, and thus, it seems to be decoupled from extinction risk in bivalves as a whole. Although abundance does not <span class="hlt">directly</span> predict extinction risk, I reveal weak indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of both abundance and body size through their positive influence on geographic range size. Multivariate models that account for the pervasive covariation between biological factors and extinction are necessary for assessing causality in evolutionary processes and making informed predictions in applied conservation efforts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harnik, Paul G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42427392"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of advertising on materialism of college students in China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we propose a theoretical framework through which we examine the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and the indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of advertising on college students’ materialistic attitudes in China. The framework is built on the influence-of-presumed-influence model, which allows us to examine how advertising and peer influence interact with each other and exert joint <span class="hlt">effects</span>. We conducted a survey of 210 undergraduate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ranxi Jiang; Stella C. Chia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22english+grammar%22&id=EJ895096"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction Model on Intermediate Class Achievement and Attitudes toward English Grammar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was aimed at investigating the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> instruction model on intermediate class achievement and attitudes toward English grammar. It was an experimental study and the purpose was to explore the relative <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of instructional methodology (independent variable) on students' achievement and attitude (dependent…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kousar, Rubina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TDCS&pg=2&id=EJ948542"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Transcranial <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Behaviour and Electrophysiology of Language Production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Excitatory anodal transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation (A-tDCS) over the left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) has been shown to improve language production. The present study examined neurophysiological underpinnings of this <span class="hlt">effect</span>. In a single-blinded within-subject design, we traced <span class="hlt">effects</span> of A-tDCS compared to sham stimulation over the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wirth, Miranka; Rahman, Rasha Abdel; Kuenecke, Janina; Koenig, Thomas; Horn, Helge; Sommer, Werner; Dierks, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23320309"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of water on <span class="hlt">direct</span> ethanol molten carbonate fuel cell</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bio-ethanol can be used <span class="hlt">directly</span> as a fuel in molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Unfortunately, the high water content of bio-ethanol has several negative <span class="hlt">effects</span>; decrease in performance, electrolyte loss due to evaporation, and corrosion of anode cell frame. This research was conducted to overcome the negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> without degrading MCFC's performance and stability. A decrease in performance due to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hary Devianto; Zhenlan Li; Sung Pil Yoon; Jonghee Han; Suk-Woo Nam; Tae-Hoon Lim; Ho-In Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50652383"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of loss on <span class="hlt">directivity</span> enhancement of line source radiation by left-handed material</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have investigated radiation of a line source within a hollow cylinder made of left-handed materials (LHMs). We find that the LHMs cylinder functions <span class="hlt">directivity</span> enhancement of source radiation. However, electromagnetic loss can degrade the enhancement <span class="hlt">effects</span>. By comparing the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of electric and magnetic losses, we find that magnetic loss is a main issue and should be minimized in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang Zhu; Jie Xu; Rui-xin Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34300559"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of media factors that influence the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span> response television advertising</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> responsive television (DRITV) commercials provide a unique opportunity for assessing advertising <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>, since responses are tangible and can be immediately measured. In this study we examine media factors, such as day-part and program type, that influence the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of DRTV commercials. Over 700 commercial spots covering 12 campaigns are analyzed with a Tobit regression model. We find that the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter J. Danaher; Benjamin J. Green</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44461730"> <span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Turbidity and Irradiances and Their Dependence on Surface Wind <span class="hlt">Direction</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar irradiances, atmospheric turbidity and meteorological variables measured at the University of Michigan are analyzed to determine <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the 30 m wind <span class="hlt">direction</span> on irradiance and turbidity changes caused by the El Chichón volcanic cloud. Results for the period with the largest volcanic <span class="hlt">effects</span>, from 26 October 1982 through mid-June 1983, are compared with results for the same eight-month</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edward Ryznar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1564204"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved compensation for the mutual coupling <span class="hlt">effect</span> in a dipole array for <span class="hlt">direction</span> finding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new and practical method is proposed to compensate for the mutual coupling <span class="hlt">effect</span> in a dipole array deployed for <span class="hlt">direction</span> finding. This method does not require either the current distributions on the antenna elements or the elevation angles of the incoming signals to be known. A new definition of mutual impedance is introduced to characterize the <span class="hlt">effect</span> due to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. T. Hui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21863246"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large grazers modify <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aboveground-belowground interactions on <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale plant community composition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales interact with <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale aboveground-belowground interactions on plant community heterogeneity. Here, we investigate how cattle (Bos taurus) modify the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of interactions between yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) and European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the formation of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale heterogeneity in vegetation composition. In the absence of cattle, hares selectively foraged on ant mounds, while under combined grazing by hares and cattle, vertebrate grazing pressure was similar on and off mounds. Ant mounds that were grazed by only hares had a different plant community composition compared to their surroundings: the cover of the grazing-intolerant grass Elytrigia atherica was reduced on ant mounds, whereas the relative cover of the more grazing-tolerant and palatable grass Festuca rubra was enhanced. Combined grazing by hares and cattle, resulted in homogenization of plant community composition on and off ant mounds, with high overall cover of F. rubra. We conclude that hares can respond to local ant-soil-vegetation interactions, because they are <span class="hlt">small</span>, selective herbivores that make their foraging decisions on a local scale. This results in <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale plant patches on mounds of yellow meadow ants. In the presence of cattle, which are less selective aboveground herbivores, local plant community patterns triggered by <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale aboveground-belowground interactions can disappear. Therefore, cattle modify the consequences of aboveground-belowground interactions for <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale plant community composition. PMID:21863246</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Veen, G F Ciska; Geuverink, Elzemiek; Olff, Han</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686318"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Nucleolar RNA-Derived MicroRNA hsa-miR-1291 Modulates Cellular Drug Disposition through <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Targeting of ABC Transporter ABCC1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) is an important membrane transporter that contributes to cellular disposition of many endobiotic and xenobiotic agents, and it can also confer multidrug resistance. This study aimed to investigate the role of human noncoding microRNA-1291 (hsa-miR-1291) in regulation of ABCC1 and drug disposition. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that hsa-miR-1291, localized within the <span class="hlt">small</span> nucleolar RNA H/ACA box 34 (SNORA34), might target ABCC1 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR). Using splinted ligation <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA detection method, we found that SNORA34 was processed into hsa-miR-1291 in human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that ABCC1 3'-UTR-luciferase activity was decreased by 20% in cells transfected with hsa-miR-1291 expression plasmid, and increased by 40% in cells transfected with hsa-miR-1291 antagomir. Furthermore, immunoblot study revealed that ABCC1 protein expression was sharply reduced in hsa-miR-1291-stably transfected PANC-1 cells, which was attenuated by hsa-miR-1291 antagomir. The change of ABCC1 protein expression was associated with an alternation in mRNA expression. In addition, hsa-miR-1291-<span class="hlt">directed</span> downregulation of ABCC1 led to a greater intracellular drug accumulation and sensitized the cells to doxorubicin. Together, our results indicate that hsa-miR-1291 is derived from SNORA34 and modulates cellular drug disposition and chemosensitivity through regulation of ABCC1 expression. These findings shall improve the understanding of microRNA-controlled epigenetic regulatory mechanisms underlying multidrug resistance and interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics. PMID:23686318</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pan, Yu-Zhuo; Zhou, Amy; Hu, Zihua; Yu, Ai-Ming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3030375"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crystal Structure of Heterodimeric Hexaprenyl Diphosphate Synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 Reveals That the <span class="hlt">Small</span> Subunit Is <span class="hlt">Directly</span> Involved in the Product Chain Length Regulation*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 (Ml-HexPPs) is a heterooligomeric type trans-prenyltransferase catalyzing consecutive head-to-tail condensations of three molecules of isopentenyl diphosphates (C5) on a farnesyl diphosphate (FPP; C15) to form an (all-E) hexaprenyl diphosphate (HexPP; C30). Ml-HexPPs is known to function as a heterodimer of two different subunits, <span class="hlt">small</span> and large subunits called HexA and HexB, respectively. Compared with homooligomeric trans-prenyltransferases, the molecular mechanism of heterooligomeric trans-prenyltransferases is not yet clearly understood, particularly with respect to the role of the <span class="hlt">small</span> subunits lacking the catalytic motifs conserved in most known trans-prenyltransferases. We have determined the crystal structure of Ml-HexPPs both in the substrate-free form and in complex with 7,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-yl diphosphate ammonium salt (3-DesMe-FPP), an analog of FPP. The structure of HexB is composed of mostly antiparallel ?-helices joined by connecting loops. Two aspartate-rich motifs (designated the first and second aspartate-rich motifs) and the other characteristic motifs in HexB are located around the diphosphate part of 3-DesMe-FPP. Despite the very low amino acid sequence identity and the distinct polypeptide chain lengths between HexA and HexB, the structure of HexA is quite similar to that of HexB. The aliphatic tail of 3-DesMe-FPP is accommodated in a large hydrophobic cleft starting from HexB and penetrating to the inside of HexA. These structural features suggest that HexB catalyzes the condensation reactions and that HexA is <span class="hlt">directly</span> involved in the product chain length control in cooperation with HexB.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sasaki, Daisuke; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Okuyama, Naomi; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Noike, Motoyoshi; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Miki, Kunio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/q751j78g15440wll.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal genetic samples indicate <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">effective</span> population size of the endangered yellow-eyed penguin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is an increasing awareness that the long-term viability of endemic island populations is negatively affected by genetic\\u000a factors associated with population bottlenecks and\\/or persistence at <span class="hlt">small</span> population size. Here we use contemporary samples\\u000a and historic museum specimens (collected 1888–1938) to estimate the <span class="hlt">effective</span> population size (N\\u000a e) for the endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) in South Island, New Zealand,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanne Boessenkool; Bastiaan Star; Philip J. Seddon; Jonathan M. Waters</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5173590"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of cholera enterotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal mucosa of rabbits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of cholera enterotoxin injected in vivo on glucose formation from alanine, and also on glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver and mucosa of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine was studied. L-(2,3-/sup 3/H)-alanine was added to the incubation medium. Chromatograms were developed with 5% AgNO/sub 3/ with the addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia. The quantity of radioactive glucose was determined in a scintillation counter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vengrov, P.R.; Cherkasova, T.D.; Yurkiv, V.A.; Pokrovskii, V.I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvE..64d6504G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-angle approximation in the description of radiative collective <span class="hlt">effects</span> within an ultrarelativistic electron bunch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of the evaluation of radiative collective <span class="hlt">effects</span> accompanying accelerated motion of a short ultrarelativistic electron bunch in vacuum is considered within the framework of the <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle approximation; second order expansion in the transverse velocity of electrons is performed in order to obtain an analytical expression for energy spread within the bunch. Comparison with earlier results by other authors shows good agreement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geloni, Gianluca; Goloviznin, Vladimir; Botman, Jan; van der Wiel, Marnix</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31980101"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of a nucleoside\\/nucleotide-free diet in rat allogenic <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal transplantation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study is to estimate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of nucleoside (NS) and nucleotide (NT) on the recipient and graft immune response after rat allogenic <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal transplantation. Seven-week-old Lewis rats were randomly assigned to two groups, including the NS\\/NT free group ( n=6) and the NS\\/NT supplemented group ( n=6), according to the diet received. The recipient Lewis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keiko Ogita; Sachiyo Suita; Tomoaki Taguchi; Masatoshi Nakamura; Toru Uesugi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26483307"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vibration <span class="hlt">effects</span> on boil-off rate from a <span class="hlt">small</span> liquid hydrogen tank</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of an investigation of the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of vibrations on the thermal performance of a cryogenic tank are presented. The experimental hydrogen tank is a <span class="hlt">small</span> unit with a maximum capacity of 1101 of liquid hydrogen. During the experiments the tank was subjected to a range of low frequency (0-4 Hz), high amplitude (0.01-0.05 m) vertical harmonic oscillations. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Rotenberg; M. Burrows; R. McNeil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..84b1102W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of adaptive coupling on stochastic resonance of <span class="hlt">small</span>-world networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phenomenon of stochastic resonance in networks with <span class="hlt">small</span>-world connectivity is investigated when the coupling strength is adaptive. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the fixed and adaptive couplings on stochastic resonance of the system are discussed. It is found that the resonance is a monotonically increasing function of the adaptive coupling strength, while there is a peak when the coupling strength is fixed. The resonance for the adaptive coupling can reach a much larger value than that for fixed coupling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Dan; Zhu, Shiqun; Luo, Xiaoqin; Wu, Liang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21928944"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of adaptive coupling on stochastic resonance of <span class="hlt">small</span>-world networks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phenomenon of stochastic resonance in networks with <span class="hlt">small</span>-world connectivity is investigated when the coupling strength is adaptive. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the fixed and adaptive couplings on stochastic resonance of the system are discussed. It is found that the resonance is a monotonically increasing function of the adaptive coupling strength, while there is a peak when the coupling strength is fixed. The resonance for the adaptive coupling can reach a much larger value than that for fixed coupling. PMID:21928944</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Dan; Zhu, Shiqun; Luo, Xiaoqin; Wu, Liang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26672165"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of a <span class="hlt">small</span> amount of NO x on extinction limit of lean premixed counterflow flame</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a <span class="hlt">small</span> amount of NOx (NO and NO2) on the extinction of CH4 and C2H4 flames was experimentally and numerically investigated. The extinction stretch rates of counterflow premixed flames when NO2 was added to the mixture were measured at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 0.3MPa. Calculations by using one-dimensional flame code with full chemistry were also conducted</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenichi Takita; Akihiro Morinaga; Taku Someya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhLA..372.3725B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the dielectric function and <span class="hlt">small</span> polaron hopping conduction in organic molecular crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Green function formalism is applied to study the dielectric function spectra and the <span class="hlt">small</span> polaron hopping conduction in organic molecular crystals. In the calculations, the electron phonon interaction is considered within the Hartree Fock approximation, and the temperature <span class="hlt">effect</span> is taken into account. Our theoretical approach is based on the polar electron phonon interaction (Fröhlich type) to characterize the non-degenerate polaron gas, with the assumption of the electronic hopping between the first-neighbor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barbosa, C. A.; Henriques, J. M.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.vetsci.org/2009/pdf/157.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of mosapride on motility of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine and caecum in normal horses after jejunocaecostomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prokinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> of mosapride with non-invasive assessment of myoelectrical activity in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine and caecum of healthy horses after jejunocaecostomy. Six horses underwent celiotomy and jejunocaecostomy, and were treated with mosapride (treated group) at 1.5 mg\\/kg per osos once daily for 5 days after surgery. The other six horses</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kouichi Okamura; Naoki Sasaki; Takuya Kikuchi; Aya Murata; Inhyung Lee; Haruo Yamada; Hisashi Inokuma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20726554"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-x <span class="hlt">effects</span> in forward-jet production at HERA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate <span class="hlt">small</span>-x <span class="hlt">effects</span> in forward-jet production at HERA in the two-hard-scale region kT {approx} Q >> {lambda}QCD. We show that, despite describing different energy regimes, both a BFKL parametrization and saturation parametrizations describe well the H1 and ZEUS data for d{sigma}/dx published a few years ago. This is confirmed when comparing the predictions to the latest data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marquet, Cyrille [Service de physique theorique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); URA 2306, unite de recherche associee au CNRS (France)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39196484"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> area contextual <span class="hlt">effects</span> on self-reported health: Evidence from Riverside, Calgary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: We study geographic variation within one community in the City of Calgary using a more fine-grained geographic unit than the Census tract, the Census Dissemination Area (DA). While most Riverside residents consider their neighbourhood to be a fairly cohesive community, we explore the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of socio-economic variation between these <span class="hlt">small</span> geographic areas on individuals' self-reported health, net of individual</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenny Godley; Valerie A. Haines; Penelope Hawe; Alan Shiell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40065316"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> deformation on abnormal grain growth in bulk Cu</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> deformation below the level (about 8 pct) required for primary recrystallization on abnormal grain growth\\u000a (secondary recrystallization) has been investigated in bulk polycrystalline Cu. The starting microstructure, without any texture\\u000a and with a nearly uniform grain size of 168 µm, has been obtained by compressing a cylindrical Cu specimen and recrystallizing at 800 °C. The fully</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jae Bon Koo; Duk Yong Yoon; Michael F. Henry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40065592"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of au plating on <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale resistance spot welding of thin-sheet nickel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of Au plating on joint formation and joint strength in <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets\\u000a have been investigated using tensile-shear testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive\\u000a X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the mechanisms of the joint formation during the welding of Au-plated Ni sheets\\u000a involve solid-state bonding, brazing, and fusion</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Tan; Y. Zhou; H. W. Kerr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/20020867"> <span id="translatedtitle">SiO2 Hole Etching Using Perfluorocarbon Alternative Gas with <span class="hlt">Small</span> Global Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The etching of contact holes of 0.1 mum size in SiO2 is achieved using, for the first time, cyclic (c-)C5F8 with a <span class="hlt">small</span> greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> in the pulse-modulated inductively coupled plasma. The shape of the cross section of the contact hole is as good as that etched using conventional c-C4F8. It is confirmed that Kr mixing instead of Ar in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masahiro Ooka; Shin Yokoyama</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19323141"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of face eccentricity on the perception of gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The perception of a looker's gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> depends not only on iris eccentricity (the position of the looker's irises within the sclera) but also on the orientation of the lookers' head. One among several potential cues of head orientation is face eccentricity, the position of the inner features of the face (eyes, nose, mouth) within the head contour, as viewed by the observer. For natural faces this cue is confounded with many other head-orientation cues, but in schematic faces it can be studied in isolation. Salient novel illustrations of the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of face eccentricity are 'Necker faces', which involve equal iris eccentricities but multiple perceived gaze <span class="hlt">directions</span>. In four experiments, iris and face eccentricity in schematic faces were manipulated, revealing strong and consistent <span class="hlt">effects</span> of face eccentricity on perceived gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span>, with different types of tasks. An additional experiment confirmed the 'Mona Lisa' <span class="hlt">effect</span> with this type of stimuli. Face eccentricity most likely acted as a simple but robust cue of head turn. A simple computational account of combined <span class="hlt">effects</span> of cues of eye and head turn on perceived gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> is presented, including a formal condition for the perception of <span class="hlt">direct</span> gaze. An account of the 'Mona Lisa' <span class="hlt">effect</span> is presented. PMID:19323141</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Todorovi?, Dejan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37025596"> <span id="translatedtitle">The soothing <span class="hlt">effect</span> of rocking as determined by the <span class="hlt">direction</span> and frequency of movement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent research has revealed that rocking is a potent soother of infant distress, the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of which is a <span class="hlt">direct</span> function of frequency and amplitude. The present 2 experiments with a total of 112 2-mo-old infants were conducted because previous studies have not examined the influence of <span class="hlt">direction</span> per se. In Exp I, Ss were rocked in an up-and-down, side-to-side,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David R. Pederson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x53t4411n1x26013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of phosphorus on solidification process and segregation of <span class="hlt">directionally</span> solidified IN738 superalloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of phosphorus on the solidification and the solute segregation of a <span class="hlt">directionally</span> solidified IN738 Ni-based superalloy\\u000a was investigated experimentally employing a method of partially <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification and subsequent quick quenching.\\u000a It was found that the phosphorus addition widened the solidus-liquidus temperature interval of the alloy. Both the P content\\u000a and the solidification rate affected the morphology of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Q. Zhu; Z. Q. Hu; Y. X. Zhu; S. R. Guo; H. R. Guan; C. X. Shi; M. Morinaga; Y. Murata</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61321297"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near ultraviolet radiation (280-400 nm): <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on microbial pathogens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Responses of pigmented pathogenic fungi and E. coli strains differing in DNA repair and catalase proficiency to <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of ultraviolet radiation were evaluated. Pigments in the four fungal pathogens of Citrus differed in their ability to protect against <span class="hlt">direct</span> UV and damage by UV-A -mediated phototoxins of both host and non-host origin. UV-A and UV-B did not</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asthana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.met.reading.ac.uk/~radiation/papers/qj_johnson.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span> aerosol <span class="hlt">effect</span>: Impact of absorbing aerosols on marine stratocumulus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aerosols that absorb solar radiation may lead to a decrease of low-cloud cover and liquid-water path (LWP), leading to a positive radiative forcing. A large-eddy model was used to investigate this 'semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span>' for marine stratocumulus and examine the dependency on the vertical distribution of the aerosol. In this study, the aerosols influenced clouds by <span class="hlt">directly</span> altering the short-wave heating</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. T. Johnson; K. P. Shine; P. M. Forster</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/25133577"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of a Restorative Intervention on Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Capacity to <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Attention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose:The purpose of this study was to examine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of a restorative intervention on undergraduate nursing students’ capacity to <span class="hlt">direct</span> attention.Method:Kaplan and Kaplan’s attention restoration theory, which describes and links concepts of <span class="hlt">directed</span> attention, attention fatigue, and restorative environments, formed the theoretical basis for this research. A convenience sample consisted of 33 students randomly assigned to nonintervention and intervention</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kristen Lethbridge; Dawn Yankou; Mary-Anne Andrusyszyn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19674793"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating motionese: The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of infant-<span class="hlt">directed</span> action on infants' attention and object exploration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adults modify their communication when interacting with infants, and these modifications have been tied to infant attention. However, the <span class="hlt">effect</span> infant-<span class="hlt">directed</span> action on infant behavior is understudied. This study examined whether infant-<span class="hlt">directed</span> action affects infants, specifically their attention to and exploratory behaviors with objects. Forty-eight 8- to 10-month-old infants and their caregivers participated in a laboratory session during which caregivers demonstrated objects to infants using infant-<span class="hlt">directed</span> action. Results indicated that variation in amplitude and repetition were tied to differences in infant attention, and varying levels of repetition were tied to differences in object exploration. PMID:19674793</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koterba, Erin A; Iverson, Jana M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55977959"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Directly</span> Determined Linear Radii and <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Temperatures of Exoplanet Host Stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present interferometric angular sizes for 12 stars with known planetary companions, for comparison with 28 additional main-sequence stars not known to host planets. For all objects we estimate bolometric fluxes and reddenings through spectral-energy distribution (SED) fits, and in conjunction with the angular sizes, measurements of <span class="hlt">effective</span> temperature. The angular sizes of these stars are sufficiently <span class="hlt">small</span> that the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerard T. van Belle; Kaspar von Braun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a 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showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034104"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge in the ocean delivery of particulate organic carbon by <span class="hlt">small</span>, mountainous river systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent research has shown that <span class="hlt">small</span>, mountainous river systems (SMRS) account for a significant fraction of the global flux of sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean. The enormous number of SMRS precludes intensive studies of the sort conducted on large systems, necessitating development of a conceptual framework that permits cross-system comparison and scaling up. Herein, we introduce the geomorphic concept of <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge to the problem of source-to-sink POC transport. This idea recognizes that transport <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> is the product of discharge frequency and magnitude, wherein the latter is quantified as a power-law relationship between discharge and load (the 'rating curve'). An analytical solution for <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge (Qe) identifies two key variables: the standard deviation of the natural logarithm of discharge (??q), and the rating exponent of constituent i (bi Data from selected SMRS are used to show that for a given river Qe-POC < Qesediment, Qe for different POC constituents (e.g., POCfossil vs. POC(modern) differs in predictable ways, and Qe for a particular constituent can vary seasonally. When coupled with the idea that discharge peaks of <span class="hlt">small</span> rivers may be coincident with specific oceanic conditions (e.g., large waves, wind from a certain <span class="hlt">direction</span>) that determine dispersal and burial, these findings have potentially important implications for POC fate on continental margins. Future studies of POC transport in SMRS should exploit the conceptual framework provided herein and seek to identify how constituent-specific <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharges vary between rivers and respond to perturbations. ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wheatcroft, R. A.; Goni, M. A.; Hatten, J. A.; Pasternack, G. B.; Warrick, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3235596"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aspirin-induced <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel injuries and the preventive <span class="hlt">effect</span> of rebamipide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To evaluate the influence of taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk on <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal complications and to examine the preventive <span class="hlt">effect</span> of rebamipide. METHODS: This study was conducted as a single-center, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Eleven healthy male subjects were enrolled. Each subject underwent video capsule endoscopy after 1 and 4 wk of taking aspirin and omeprazole, along with either rebamipide or placebo therapy. The primary endpoint was to evaluate <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel damage in healthy subjects before and after taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk. RESULTS: The number of subjects with mucosal breaks (defined as multiple erosions and/or ulcers) were 1 at 1 wk and 1 at 4 wk on the jejunum, and 6 at 1 wk (P = 0.0061) and 7 at 4 wk on the ileum (P = 0.0019). Rebamipide significantly prevented mucosal breaks on the ileum compared with the placebo group (P = 0.0173 at 1 wk and P = 0.0266 at 4 wk). CONCLUSION: Longer-term, low-dose aspirin administration induced damage in the <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel. Rebamipide prevented this damage, and may be a candidate drug for treating aspirin-induced <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel complications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mizukami, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Kazunari; Abe, Takashi; Inoue, Kunimitsu; Uchida, Masahiro; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Kodama, Masaaki; Fujioka, Toshio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1558.1261D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reynolds number and pitch blade <span class="hlt">effects</span> on aerodynamic performances of <span class="hlt">small</span> VAWTs in starting phase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many <span class="hlt">small</span> vertical axis wind tubines operate at Reynolds number around 105, when the NACA series airfoils have some specific aerodynamic characteristics considered as "anomalies". These particularities influence on the turbine performance and their inability to self-start. Therefore, the present paper is focused on the symmetric NACA airfoils which for this Reynolds number range experience a dead band of negative torque at tip speed ratios (TSR) between 1 to 3. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of Reynolds number are discussed and the pitch blade <span class="hlt">effects</span> is experimental evaluated, regarding to the starting phase behaviour.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dumitrache, Alexandru; Dumitrescu, Horia; Frunzulica, Florin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48566143"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Nicorandil on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Intestinal Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury in a Canine Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  It has been shown that nicorandil, which has both ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opener-like and nitrate-like properties, has an organ-protective <span class="hlt">effect</span> in ischemia–reperfusion injury in several\\u000a experimental animal models.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  We evaluate the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of nicorandil on warm ischemia–reperfusion injury of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine in a canine model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighteen beagle dogs were divided into three groups: the control group (n = 6); the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yujin Suto; Kiyohiro Oshima; Kazuhisa Arakawa; Hiroaki Sato; Hodaka Yamazaki; Koshi Matsumoto; Izumi Takeyoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50481412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-cost <span class="hlt">direct</span> torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motor using Hall-<span class="hlt">effect</span> sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, a <span class="hlt">direct</span> torque control (DTC) scheme for permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors (surface-mount type) using cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> Hall-<span class="hlt">effect</span> sensors for constant torque region is presented. Unlike conventional DTC proposed method estimates necessary quantities in the rotor reference frame by obtaining continuous position and speed information from the Hall-<span class="hlt">effect</span> sensors resembling expensive high resolution position sensors (encoder and resolver).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salih Baris Ozturk; Bilal Akin; Hamid A. Toliyat; Farhad Ashrafzadeh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22606323"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and allosteric inhibition of the FGF2/HSPGs/FGFR1 ternary complex formation by an antiangiogenic, thrombospondin-1-mimic <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are recognized targets for the development of therapies against angiogenesis-driven diseases, including cancer. The formation of a ternary complex with the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs), and heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) is required for FGF2 pro-angiogenic activity. Here by using a combination of techniques including Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Molecular Dynamics, Surface Plasmon Resonance and cell-based binding assays we clarify the molecular mechanism of inhibition of an angiostatic <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule, sm27, mimicking the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin-1. NMR and MD data demonstrate that sm27 engages the heparin-binding site of FGF2 and induces long-range dynamics perturbations along FGF2/FGFR1 interface regions. The functional consequence of the inhibitor binding is an impaired FGF2 interaction with both its receptors, as demonstrated by SPR and cell-based binding assays. We propose that sm27 antiangiogenic activity is based on a twofold-<span class="hlt">direct</span> and allosteric-mechanism, inhibiting FGF2 binding to both its receptors. PMID:22606323</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pagano, Katiuscia; Torella, Rubben; Foglieni, Chiara; Bugatti, Antonella; Tomaselli, Simona; Zetta, Lucia; Presta, Marco; Rusnati, Marco; Taraboletti, Giulia; Colombo, Giorgio; Ragona, Laura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3351436"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Allosteric Inhibition of the FGF2/HSPGs/FGFR1 Ternary Complex Formation by an Antiangiogenic, Thrombospondin-1-Mimic <span class="hlt">Small</span> Molecule</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are recognized targets for the development of therapies against angiogenesis-driven diseases, including cancer. The formation of a ternary complex with the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs), and heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) is required for FGF2 pro-angiogenic activity. Here by using a combination of techniques including Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Molecular Dynamics, Surface Plasmon Resonance and cell-based binding assays we clarify the molecular mechanism of inhibition of an angiostatic <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule, sm27, mimicking the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin-1. NMR and MD data demonstrate that sm27 engages the heparin-binding site of FGF2 and induces long-range dynamics perturbations along FGF2/FGFR1 interface regions. The functional consequence of the inhibitor binding is an impaired FGF2 interaction with both its receptors, as demonstrated by SPR and cell-based binding assays. We propose that sm27 antiangiogenic activity is based on a twofold–<span class="hlt">direct</span> and allosteric–mechanism, inhibiting FGF2 binding to both its receptors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pagano, Katiuscia; Torella, Rubben; Foglieni, Chiara; Bugatti, Antonella; Tomaselli, Simona; Zetta, Lucia; Presta, Marco; Rusnati, Marco; Taraboletti, Giulia; Colombo, Giorgio; Ragona, Laura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......123C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Setting the question for inquiry: The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of whole class vs <span class="hlt">small</span> group on student achievement in elementary science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted to determine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of two different student-centered approaches to setting the question for inquiry. The first approach (whole class) consisted of students setting a single question for inquiry after which students worked in <span class="hlt">small</span> groups during an investigation phase of the activity with all groups exploring the same question. The second approach (<span class="hlt">small</span> group) consisted of each group of students setting a question resulting in numerous questions being explored per class. A mixed method quasi-experimental design was utilized. Two grade five teachers from a <span class="hlt">small</span> rural school district in the Midwestern United States participated, each teaching two sections of science (approximately 25 students per section). Results indicate three major findings. Instructional approach (whole class vs. <span class="hlt">small</span> group) did not <span class="hlt">effect</span> student achievement in science or language arts. Observational data indicated the actions and skills teachers utilized to implement the approaches were similar. Specifically, the pedagogical skills of dialogical interaction (which was found to be influenced by teacher level of control of learning and teacher content knowledge) and <span class="hlt">effective</span> rather than efficient use of time were identified as key factors in teachers' progression toward a student-centered, teacher-managed instructional approach. Unit exams along with qualitative and quantitative teacher observation data indicated that these factors do have an impact on student achievement. Specifically increased dialogical interaction in the forms of greater student voice, and increased cognitive demands placed on students by embedding and emphasizing science argument within the student inquiry corresponded to positive gains in student achievement. Additionally, teacher's perception of student abilities was also found to influence professional growth. Finally, allowing students to set the questions for inquiry and design the experiments impact the classroom environment as teacher talk changed from giving <span class="hlt">directions</span> toward scaffolding student thought. These results have implications for professional development and teacher education as they suggest that more time should be spent on challenging teachers to align their pedagogy with how students learn rather than simply providing strategies and lesson plans for teachers to use in the classrooms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cavagnetto, Andy Roy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3767635"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Edge <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Mammal Communities across a Conservation-Agricultural Interface in Swaziland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Such <span class="hlt">effects</span>, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge <span class="hlt">effects</span> to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge <span class="hlt">effects</span> on communities across sites and seasons. Using <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that <span class="hlt">effects</span> can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hurst, Zachary M.; McCleery, Robert A.; Collier, Bret A.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Silvy, Nova J.; Taylor, Peter J.; Monadjem, Ara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48802502"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of anthropogenic aerosols in the Western United States: Seasonal and geographical variations according to regional climate characteristics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> and semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of anthropogenic aerosols on the radiative transfer and cloud fields in the Western\\u000a United States (WUS) according to seasonal aerosol optical depth (AOD) and regional climate are examined using a regional climate\\u000a model (RCM) in conjunction with the aerosol fields from a GEOS-Chem chemical-transport model (CTM) simulation. The two radiative\\u000a <span class="hlt">effects</span> cannot be separated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jinwon Kim; Yu Gu; Kuo-Nan Liou; Chang-Keun Song</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18625730"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin on the rabbit <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine and colon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clostridium perfringens type B and type C isolates, which produce beta-toxin (CPB), cause fatal diseases originating in the intestines of humans or livestock. Our previous studies demonstrated that CPB is necessary for type C isolate CN3685 to cause bloody necrotic enteritis in a rabbit ileal loop model and also showed that purified CPB, in the presence of trypsin inhibitor (TI), can reproduce type C pathology in rabbit ileal loops. We report here a more complete characterization of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of purified CPB in the rabbit <span class="hlt">small</span> and large intestines. One microgram of purified CPB, in the presence of TI, was found to be sufficient to cause significant accumulation of hemorrhagic luminal fluid in duodenal, jejunal, or ileal loops treated for 6 h with purified CPB, while no damage was observed in corresponding loops receiving CPB (no TI) or TI alone. In contrast to the CPB sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, the colon was not affected by 6 h of treatment with even 90 mug of purified CPB whether or not TI was present. Time course studies showed that purified CPB begins to induce <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal damage within 1 h, at which time the duodenum is less damaged than the jejunum or ileum. These observations help to explain why type B and C infections primarily involve the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, establish CPB as a very potent and fast-acting toxin in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestines, and confirm a key role for intestinal trypsin as an innate intestinal defense mechanism against CPB-producing C. perfringens isolates. PMID:18625730</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vidal, Jorge E; McClane, Bruce A; Saputo, Juliann; Parker, Jaquelyn; Uzal, Francisco A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23236139"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> changes in enzyme function can lead to surprisingly large fitness <span class="hlt">effects</span> during adaptive evolution of antibiotic resistance.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In principle, evolutionary outcomes could be largely predicted if all of the relevant physicochemical variants of a particular protein function under selection were known and integrated into an appropriate physiological model. We have tested this principle by generating a family of variants of the tetracycline resistance protein TetX2 and identified the physicochemical properties most correlated with organismal fitness. Surprisingly, <span class="hlt">small</span> changes in the K(m(MCN)), less than twofold, were sufficient to produce highly successful adaptive mutants over clinically relevant drug concentrations. We then built a quantitative model <span class="hlt">directly</span> relating the in vitro physicochemical properties of the mutant enzymes to the growth rates of bacteria carrying a single chromosomal copy of the tet(X2) variants over a wide range of minocycline (MCN) concentrations. Importantly, this model allows the prediction of enzymatic properties <span class="hlt">directly</span> from cellular growth rates as well as the physicochemical-fitness landscape of TetX2. Using experimental evolution and deep sequencing to monitor the allelic frequencies of the seven most biochemically efficient TetX2 mutants in 10 independently evolving populations, we showed that the model correctly predicted the success of the two most beneficial variants tet(X2)(T280A) and tet(X2)(N371I). The structure of the most efficient variant, TetX2(T280A), in complex with MCN at 2.7 Å resolution suggests an indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> on enzyme kinetics. Taken together, these findings support an important role for readily accessible <span class="hlt">small</span> steps in protein evolution that can, in turn, greatly increase the fitness of an organism during natural selection. PMID:23236139</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walkiewicz, Katarzyna; Benitez Cardenas, Andres S; Sun, Christine; Bacorn, Colin; Saxer, Gerda; Shamoo, Yousif</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3535585"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> changes in enzyme function can lead to surprisingly large fitness <span class="hlt">effects</span> during adaptive evolution of antibiotic resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In principle, evolutionary outcomes could be largely predicted if all of the relevant physicochemical variants of a particular protein function under selection were known and integrated into an appropriate physiological model. We have tested this principle by generating a family of variants of the tetracycline resistance protein TetX2 and identified the physicochemical properties most correlated with organismal fitness. Surprisingly, <span class="hlt">small</span> changes in the Km(MCN), less than twofold, were sufficient to produce highly successful adaptive mutants over clinically relevant drug concentrations. We then built a quantitative model <span class="hlt">directly</span> relating the in vitro physicochemical properties of the mutant enzymes to the growth rates of bacteria carrying a single chromosomal copy of the tet(X2) variants over a wide range of minocycline (MCN) concentrations. Importantly, this model allows the prediction of enzymatic properties <span class="hlt">directly</span> from cellular growth rates as well as the physicochemical-fitness landscape of TetX2. Using experimental evolution and deep sequencing to monitor the allelic frequencies of the seven most biochemically efficient TetX2 mutants in 10 independently evolving populations, we showed that the model correctly predicted the success of the two most beneficial variants tet(X2)T280A and tet(X2)N371I. The structure of the most efficient variant, TetX2T280A, in complex with MCN at 2.7 Å resolution suggests an indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> on enzyme kinetics. Taken together, these findings support an important role for readily accessible <span class="hlt">small</span> steps in protein evolution that can, in turn, greatly increase the fitness of an organism during natural selection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walkiewicz, Katarzyna; Benitez Cardenas, Andres S.; Sun, Christine; Bacorn, Colin; Saxer, Gerda; Shamoo, Yousif</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3507642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dose-dependent <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule antagonists on the genomic landscape of androgen receptor binding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The androgen receptor plays a critical role throughout the progression of prostate cancer and is an important drug target for this disease. While chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is becoming an essential tool for studying transcription and chromatin modification factors, it has rarely been employed in the context of drug discovery. Results Here we report changes in the genome-wide AR binding landscape due to dose-dependent inhibition by drug-like <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules using ChIP-Seq. Integration of sequence analysis, transcriptome profiling, cell viability assays and xenograft tumor growth inhibition studies enabled us to establish a <span class="hlt">direct</span> cistrome-activity relationship for two novel potent AR antagonists. By selectively occupying the strongest binding sites, AR signaling remains active even when androgen levels are low, as is characteristic of first-line androgen ablation therapy. Coupled cistrome and transcriptome profiling upon <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule antagonism led to the identification of a core set of AR <span class="hlt">direct</span> effector genes that are most likely to mediate the activities of targeted agents: unbiased pathway mapping revealed that AR is a key modulator of steroid metabolism by forming a tightly controlled feedback loop with other nuclear receptor family members and this oncogenic <span class="hlt">effect</span> can be relieved by antagonist treatment. Furthermore, we found that AR also has an extensive role in negative gene regulation, with estrogen (related) receptor likely mediating its function as a transcriptional repressor. Conclusions Our study provides a global and dynamic view of AR’s regulatory program upon antagonism, which may serve as a molecular basis for deciphering and developing AR therapeutics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23041879"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> retrieval of Kerr and plasma <span class="hlt">effects</span> from alignment-induced spatiotemporal modulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We developed a <span class="hlt">direct</span> measurement method for comprehensive analyses of Kerr and plasma <span class="hlt">effects</span> that cooperated or competed with molecular alignment-induced spatiotemporal modulation for intense aligning and weak probing pulses around zero time delay. The mixed influences were revealed by time-resolving the combined spatial focusing or defocusing dynamics under different molecular alignment <span class="hlt">directions</span> and degrees. The nonlinear refractive index and plasma density were extracted straightforwardly, facilitating accurate explorations on multiphoton ionization and nonlinear optical Kerr <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aligned molecular gases. PMID:23041879</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feng, Yahui; Li, Wenxue; Liu, Jia; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, Jian; Zeng, Heping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5889..366C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Aging and Domain Knowledge on Usability in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Screen Devices for Diabetes Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Technology acceptance has become a key concept for the successful rollout of technical devices. Though the concept is intensively studied for nearly 20 years now, still, many open questions remain. This especially applies to technology acceptance of older users, which are known to be very sensitive to suboptimal interfaces and show considerable reservations towards the usage of new technology. Mobile <span class="hlt">small</span> screen technology increasingly penetrates health care and medical applications. This study investigates impacts of aging, technology expertise and domain knowledge on user interaction using the example of diabetes. For this purpose user <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and efficiency have been measured on a simulated <span class="hlt">small</span> screen device and related to user characteristics, showing that age and technology expertise have a big impact on usability of the device. Furthermore, impacts of user characteristics and success during the trial on acceptance of the device were surveyed and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calero Valdez, André; Ziefle, Martina; Horstmann, Andreas; Herding, Daniel; Schroeder, Ulrik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5692804"> <span id="translatedtitle">A cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> qualification procedure for <span class="hlt">small</span> bore piping using flexible loops</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> procedure for qualification of <span class="hlt">small</span> bore piping systems subjected to large static and high-energy dynamic loading was developed using flexible loops. The present effort included design of flexible loops with appropriate structural characteristics and development of a simplified, efficient analytical procedure for the determination of loop stress for given installation orientations. The analysis method was based on a unit load approach in which stresses were obtained by multiplying the stresses for a unit load by a factor representing the magnitude of the input load. The procedure was employed in qualifying <span class="hlt">small</span> bore piping systems in a nuclear power plant. The procedure was found to be extremely efficient in satisfying both the field and the code requirements. Furthermore, an analysis cost reduction of approximately 70 per cent was achieved when compared to the conventional analysis method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Y.C.; Khatua, T.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1781945"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anti-tumor <span class="hlt">effect</span> of bisphosphonate (YM529) on non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer cell lines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background YM529 is a newly developed nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) classified as a third-generation BP that shows a 100-fold greater potency against bone resorption than pamidronate, a second-generation BP. This agent is, therefore expected to be extremely useful clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. Recently, YM529 as well as other third-generation BPs have also been shown to exert anti-tumor <span class="hlt">effects</span> against various types of cancer cells both in vitro or/and in vivo. In this study, we investigate the anti-tumor <span class="hlt">effect</span> of YM529 on non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods <span class="hlt">Direct</span> anti-tumor <span class="hlt">effect</span> of YM529 against 8 NSCLC cell lines (adenocarcinoma: H23, H1299, NCI-H1819, NCI-H2009, H44, A549, adenosquamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H125, squamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H157) were measured by MTS assay and calculated inhibition concentration 50 % (IC50) values. YM529 induced apoptosis of NCI-H1819 was examined by DNA fragmentation of 2 % agarose gel electrophoresis and flowcytometric analysis (sub-G1 method). We examined where YM529 given <span class="hlt">effect</span> to apoptosis of NSCLC cells in signaling pathway of the mevalonate pathway by western blotting analysis. Results We found that there was <span class="hlt">direct</span> anti-tumor <span class="hlt">effect</span> of YM529 on 8 NSCLC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and their IC50 values were 2.1 to 7.9 ?M and YM529 induced apoptosis and G1 arrest cell cycle with dose-dependent manner and YM529 caused down regulation of phospholyration of ERK1/2 in signaling pathways of NSCLC cell line (NCI-H1819). Conclusion Our study demonstrate that YM529 showed <span class="hlt">direct</span> anti-tumor <span class="hlt">effect</span> on NSCLC cell lines in vitro, which supports the possibility that third-generation BPs including YM529 can be one of therapeutic options for NSCLC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koshimune, Ryuichiro; Aoe, Motoi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Hara, Fumikata; Ouchida, Mamoru; Tokumo, Masaki; Sano, Yoshifumi; Date, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22405445"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of disturbance on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal community structure in the New Jersey Pinelands, USA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compared <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal community composition among undisturbed habitats and habitats disturbed by military operations on Warren Grove Gunnery Range (WGR) in the New Jersey Pinelands. WGR is one of the largest tracts of protected land within this globally rare ecosystem. Disturbance in the form of fire, mowing, soil disruption and logging has had a large <span class="hlt">effect</span> on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal occurrence and distribution. Of the 14 <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species that occur in the Pinelands, 9 live on WGR, including large populations of the southern bog lemming (Synaptomys cooperi Baird, 1858) and meadow jumping mouse [Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780)]. Simpson's Index of Diversity was 0 for most disturbed sites and was generally greater in wetlands than in uplands. White-footed mouse [Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque, 1818)] was the most common species on WGR and had a dominant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on species diversity and community similarity indices. It dominated upland habitats and was the only species to occur in several disturbed habitats, whereas all 9 species occurred in wetlands. Principal components analysis indicated that most variation in species diversity was explained by disturbance and differences between upland and wetland habitats, due to presence of white-footed mice in disturbed and upland sites. Meadow jumping mice, southern bog lemmings and red-back voles [Myodes gapperi (Vigors, 1830)] were positively correlated with wetland habitats, and pine voles [Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte, 1830)], short-tail shrews [Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1823)] and eastern chipmunks [Tamias striatus (Linnaeus, 1758)] were associated with uplands. Habitat heterogeneity at WGR, including extensive undisturbed wetlands and uplands supported a rich diversity of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species. PMID:22405445</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shenko, Alicia N; Bien, Walter F; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3486605"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Focused <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Molecule Screen Identifies 14 Compounds with Distinct <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Toxoplasma gondii</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Toxoplasma gondii is a globally ubiquitous pathogen that can cause severe disease in immunocompromised humans and the developing fetus. Given the proven role of Toxoplasma-secreted kinases in the interaction of Toxoplasma with its host cell, identification of novel kinase inhibitors could precipitate the development of new anti-Toxoplasma drugs and define new pathways important for parasite survival. We selected a <span class="hlt">small</span> (n = 527) but diverse set of putative kinase inhibitors and screened them for <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the growth of Toxoplasma in vitro. We identified and validated 14 noncytotoxic compounds, all of which had 50% <span class="hlt">effective</span> concentrations in the nanomolar to micromolar range. We further characterized eight of these compounds, four inhibitors and four enhancers, by determining their <span class="hlt">effects</span> on parasite motility, invasion, and the likely cellular target (parasite or host cell). Only two compounds had an <span class="hlt">effect</span> on parasite motility and invasion. All the inhibitors appeared to target the parasite, and interestingly, two of the enhancers appeared to rather target the host cell, suggesting modulation of host cell pathways beneficial for parasite growth. For the four inhibitors, we also tested their efficacy in a mouse model, where one compound proved potent. Overall, these 14 compounds represent a new and diverse set of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules that are likely targeting distinct parasite and host cell pathways. Future work will aim to characterize their molecular targets in both the host and parasite.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kamau, Edwin T.; Srinivasan, Ananth R.; Brown, Mark J.; Fair, Matthew G.; Caraher, Erin J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img i