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1

Direct solar radiation pressure on the orbits of small near-Earth asteroids: observable effects?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the perturbations of Near-Earth Asteroid orbits due to direct solar radiation pressure (both the absorption and the reflection components). When the body is spherical and the surface albedo homogeneous the effect is small (and only short-periodic). However, when at least one of these restrictive and unrealistic assumptions is relaxed, long-term orbital effects appear and they may potentially lead to observable displacement of the orbit. We illustrate this conclusion by computing the orbital perturbations due to radiation pressure for objects with an odd-zonal distribution of albedo and for objects with ellipsoidal shape. Especially in the first case the effects are large, due to the long-term perturbations of the semimajor axis. For high-eccentricity orbits observed over a long interval of time, the (v/c)-correction of the direct radiation pressure, known as Poynting-Robertson effect, should be also considered. As an example we demonstrate that for the asteroid 1566 Icarus, during its next close approach to the Earth, the orbit displacement due to the direct solar radiation forces might be, under reasonable assumptions, comparable to the orbit determination uncertainty, thus potentially observable.

Vokrouhlický, D.; Milani, A.

2000-10-01

2

Effect of Stepwise Pressure Change on Porosity Evolution during Directional Solidification in Small Cylindrical Channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled directional solidification experiments were performed in capillary channels, using nitrogen-saturated succinonitrile, to examine the effect of an in-situ stepwise processing pressure increase on an isolated pore evolution. Two experiments were performed using different processing pressure input profiles. The results indicate that a processing pressure increase has a transient effect on pore growth geometry characterized by an initial phase of decreasing pore diameter, followed by a recovery phase of increasing pore diameter. The experimental results also show that processing pressure can be used as a control parameter to either increase or terminate porosity formation. A theoretical model is introduced which indicates that the pore formation process is limited by the diffusion of solute-gas through the melt, and that the observed response toa pressure increase is attributed to the re-equilibration of solute concentration in the melt associated with the increased melt pressure.

Grugel, R.N.; Lee, C.P.; Cox, M.C.; Blandford, B.T.; Anilkumar, A.V.

2008-01-01

3

Effect of Processing Pressure on Isolated Pore Formation during Controlled Directional Solidification in Small Channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directional solidification experiments were performed, using succinonitrile saturated with nitrogen gas, to examine the effects of in-situ processing pressure changes on the formation growth, and evolution of an isolated, cylindrical gaseous pore. A novel solidification facility, capable of processing thin cylindrical samples (I.D. < 1.0 mm), under controlled pressure conditions, was used for the experiments. A new experimental method for growing the isolated pore from a seed bubble is introduced. The experimental results indicate that an in-situ processing pressure change will result in either a transient change in pore diameter or a complete termination of pore growth, indicating that pressure changes can be used as a control parameter to terminate bubble growth. A simple analytical model has been introduced to explain the experimental observations.

Cox, Matthew C.; Anilkumar, Amrutur V.; Grugel, RIchard N.; Lee, Chun P.

2008-01-01

4

Rupture directivity of small earthquakes at Parkfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractTheoretical modeling of strike-slip ruptures along a bimaterial interface suggests that earthquakes initiating on the interface will have a preferred rupture <span class="hlt">direction</span>. We test this model with 450 <span class="hlt">small</span> earthquakes (2 < M < 5) from Parkfield, California, to look for evidence of consistent rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> along the San Andreas Fault. We analyze azimuthal variations in earthquake source spectra after applying an iterative correction for wave propagation <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Our approach avoids <span class="hlt">directly</span> modeling source spectra because these models generally assume symmetric rupture; instead, we look for azimuthal variations in the amplitudes of the source spectra over specified frequency bands. Our overall results show similar proportions of events exhibiting characteristics of rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> toward either the southeast or northwest. However, the proportion of events with southeast rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> increases as we limit the data set to larger magnitudes, with 70% of the 46 events M > 3 exhibiting southeast rupture characteristics. Some spatial and temporal variability in rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> is also apparent. We observe a higher proportion of northwest <span class="hlt">directivity</span> ruptures following the 2004 M 6 Parkfield earthquake, which ruptured toward the northwest. Our results are generally consistent with the preferred southeast rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> model but suggest that <span class="hlt">directivity</span> is likely due to several contributing factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kane, Deborah L.; Shearer, Peter M.; Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Vernon, Frank L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24899169"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrients on Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from <span class="hlt">small</span> wetlands.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination with fertilizers on the emergence patterns of chironomids from wetlands. Using a replicated, split-wetland experiment, the authors examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of 2 nominal concentrations (2.88?mg acid equivalents/L and 0.21?mg acid equivalents/L) of the glyphosate herbicide Roundup WeatherMax, alone or in combination with nutrient additions, on the emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) before and after herbicide-induced damage to macrophytes. There were no <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of treatment on the structure of the Chironomidae community or on the overall emergence rates. However, after macrophyte cover declined as a result of herbicide application, there were statistically significant increases in emergence in all but the highest herbicide treatment, which had also received no nutrients. There was a negative relationship between chironomid abundance and macrophyte cover on the treated sides of wetlands. Fertilizer application did not appear to compound the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the herbicide treatments. Although <span class="hlt">direct</span> toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax was not apparent, the authors observed longer-term impacts, suggesting that the indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of this herbicide deserve more consideration when assessing the ecological risk of using herbicides in proximity to wetlands. PMID:24899169</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Houlahan, Jeff E; Thompson, Dean G; Kidd, Karen A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3469576"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Changes in pH Have <span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Marine Bacterial Community Composition: A Microcosm Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, more CO2 will dissolve in the oceans, leading to a reduction in pH. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of ocean acidification on bacterial communities have mainly been studied in biologically complex systems, in which indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>, mediated through food web interactions, come into play. These approaches come close to nature but suffer from low replication and neglect seasonality. To comprehensively investigate <span class="hlt">direct</span> pH <span class="hlt">effects</span>, we conducted highly-replicated laboratory acidification experiments with the natural bacterial community from Helgoland Roads (North Sea). Seasonal variability was accounted for by repeating the experiment four times (spring, summer, autumn, winter). Three dilution approaches were used to select for different ecological strategies, i.e. fast-growing or low-nutrient adapted bacteria. The pH levels investigated were in situ seawater pH (8.15–8.22), pH 7.82 and pH 7.67, representing the present-day situation and two acidification scenarios projected for the North Sea for the year 2100. In all seasons, both automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S ribosomal amplicon pyrosequencing revealed pH-dependent community shifts for two of the dilution approaches. Bacteria susceptible to changes in pH were different members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae and further less abundant groups. Their specific response to reduced pH was often context-dependent. Bacterial abundance was not influenced by pH. Our findings suggest that already moderate changes in pH have the potential to cause compositional shifts, depending on the community assembly and environmental factors. By identifying pH-susceptible groups, this study provides insights for more <span class="hlt">directed</span>, in-depth community analyses in large-scale and long-term experiments. PMID:23071704</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krause, Evamaria; Wichels, Antje; Giménez, Luis; Lunau, Mirko; Schilhabel, Markus B.; Gerdts, Gunnar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730040178&hterms=curle&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcurle"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sound <span class="hlt">directivity</span> pattern radiated from <span class="hlt">small</span> airfoils.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Verification of Curle's (1955) point dipole sound theory as a means for predicting the level and <span class="hlt">directivity</span> of sound radiated from rigid surfaces in flow. A presented comparison between theory and experiment is shown to provide evidence that airfoils in flow, whose dimensions are <span class="hlt">small</span> in relation to the wavelength of the radiated sound, radiate like point dipoles in apparent support of Curle's theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hersh, A. S.; Meecham, W. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22130398"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-sided games versus interval training in amateur soccer players: <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of <span class="hlt">direction</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to compare the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided games (SSGs) in soccer versus high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) on a continuous aerobic test (Vameval) and the performance in an intermittent test with changes of <span class="hlt">direction</span> (CODs; 30-15 intermittent fitness test [30-15(IFT)]). Twenty-two amateur soccer players (mean age ± SD: 26.3 ± 4.7 years) were assigned to 3 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 8), HIT group (n = 8), and control group (CG; n = 6). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 9 sessions of 2 versus 2 and 1 versus 1 SSGs, whereas the HIT group performed 9 sessions of intermittent runs in the form of 30 seconds of effort interspersed with 30 seconds of passive recovery (30s-30s), 15s-15s, and 10s-10s. The HIT and SSG groups showed performance improvements in the Vameval test (5.1 and 6.6%, respectively) and the 30-15(IFT) intermittent test with CODs (5.1 and 5.8%, respectively), whereas there was no change in the performance of the CG. Players from HIT and SSG groups showed similar increase in their performance in the 30-15(IFT) and the Vameval tests during the 6-week training period, especially with an increase significantly different to that in a traditional training as in the CG (p < 0.05). This investigation demonstrates that both SSG and HIT interventions are equally <span class="hlt">effective</span> in developing the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with CODs in male amateur soccer players. Furthermore, these 2 methods of training applied during the 6 weeks induce similar <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the recovery capacity and on the ability to repeat <span class="hlt">directional</span> changes of 180°. Coaches will now be able to choose between these two methods according to the objective of the training and to optimize the training. PMID:22130398</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dellal, Alexandre; Varliette, Christophe; Owen, Adam; Chirico, Erica N; Pialoux, Vincent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jornada.nmsu.edu/bibliography/09-006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Ruminant Research 81 (2009) 152162 Contents lists available at Science<span class="hlt">Direct</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Ruminant Research 81 (2009) 152­162 Contents lists available at Science<span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">Small</span> Ruminant of feed intake of <span class="hlt">small</span> ruminants. Their <span class="hlt">effects</span> depend on the type and amounts of PSM and nutrients fed protein levels can increase voluntary intake of one-seed juniper of <span class="hlt">small</span> ruminants during seasons when</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780003086&hterms=lightning+protection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dlightning%2Bprotection"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> protection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Protection of an aircraft and each of its various systems against the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of lightning were analyzed. Components located in different sections of the aircraft were individually examined since they are likely to experience different degrees of susceptibility to lightning, and may be vulnerable to different components of the lightning flash. The basic steps to be followed in establishing lightning protection were presented by discussing the varieties of arc entry and current flow-through damage. The lightning-strike zones and lightning current environments are established, since environmental conditions in the zones are those under which specific protective measures must perform. Airworthiness regulations which apply to lightning protection are cited.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-30/pdf/2010-7018.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 15756 - <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Innovation Research Program Policy <span class="hlt">Directive</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...SBA prepared a Regulatory Impact Analysis. The SBA received no comments on this analysis and continues to believe that the analysis was accurate. Notice of Final...to the Policy <span class="hlt">Directive</span>; <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Innovation Research Program...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ASSL..119..287Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selection <span class="hlt">effects</span> against <span class="hlt">small</span> comets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Everhart's (1967) formulation is used to determine the correlation between the probability of discovering a comet and the size of its nuclear radius. The analysis is concentrated on comets that are not more than two or three hundred meters in diameter; hence, heliocentric variations in cometary brightness can be neglected. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of cometary physical decay is also considered, and a strong observational bias against the detection of <span class="hlt">small</span> active comets is found. The following three factors are involved: (1) <span class="hlt">small</span> comets must pass closer to the earth than large comets in order to be detected, (2) the resulting higher angular velocity for nearby comets leads to a decrease in the time available to discover a <span class="hlt">small</span> comet, and (3) <span class="hlt">small</span> comets physically decay and vanish faster than do large comets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zook, H. A.; Fernandez, J. A.; Gruen, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jornada.nmsu.edu/bibliography/13-012.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Ruminant Research 112 (2013) 5668 Contents lists available at SciVerse Science<span class="hlt">Direct</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Ruminant Research 112 (2013) 56­68 Contents lists available at SciVerse Science<span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">Small</span> Ruminant Research journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/smallrumres <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of adding protein t The biochemical mechanisms that limit voluntary intake of one-seed juniper by brows- ing ruminants are not well</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21263483"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-signal analysis of OOFDM signal transmission with <span class="hlt">directly</span> modulated laser and <span class="hlt">direct</span> detection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work presents a <span class="hlt">small</span>-signal analysis for investigating the transmission performance of optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signals with a <span class="hlt">directly</span> modulated DFB laser (DML). The analysis shows the positive chirp of DMLs can intensify power fading after transmission with positive dispersion and provide power gain instead with negative dispersion. The power of subcarrier-to-subcarrier intermixing interference after square-law <span class="hlt">direct</span> detection, however, is independent on the sign of dispersion. PMID:21263483</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wei, Chia-Chien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030032199&hterms=Solidification&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DSolidification"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Directional</span> Solidification and Convection in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Diameter Crucibles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pb-2.2 wt% Sb alloy was <span class="hlt">directionally</span> solidified in 1, 2, 3 and 7 mm diameter crucibles. Pb-Sb alloy presents a solutally unstable case. Under plane-front conditions, the resulting macrosegregation along the solidified length indicates that convection persists even in the 1 mm diameter crucible. Al-2 wt% Cu alloy was <span class="hlt">directionally</span> solidified because this alloy was expected to be stable with respect to convection. Nevertheless, the resulting macrosegregation pattern and the microstructure in solidified examples indicated the presence of convection. Simulations performed for both alloys show that convection persists for crucibles as <span class="hlt">small</span> as 0.6 mm of diameter. For the solutally stable alloy, Al-2 wt% Cu, the simulations indicate that the convection arises from a lateral temperature gradient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, J.; Sung, P. K.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.; DeGroh, H. C., III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1570555"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel <span class="hlt">small</span>-size <span class="hlt">directional</span> antenna for UWB WBAN\\/WPAN applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a novel <span class="hlt">small</span>-size <span class="hlt">directional</span> antenna design for ultrawide-band wireless body area networks\\/wireless personal area networks applications. The design is based on a typical slot antenna structure with an added reflector in order to achieve <span class="hlt">directionality</span>. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of different antenna parameters and human body proximity on the radiation characteristics are analyzed. Antenna measurements with an optic RF</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maciej Klemm; I. z. Kovacs; Gert F. Pedersen; Gerhard Tröster</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-06/pdf/2012-18120.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 46855 - <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Technology Transfer Program Policy <span class="hlt">Directive</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Requiring <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses to certify they...during the life cycle of the funding...certification by the <span class="hlt">small</span> business during the life cycle of the funding...to as the life cycle certification...agreement, the <span class="hlt">small</span> business concern...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-06/pdf/2012-18119.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 46805 - <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Innovation Research Program Policy <span class="hlt">Directive</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Requiring <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses to certify they...during the life cycle of the funding...certification by the <span class="hlt">small</span> business during the life cycle of the funding...to as the life cycle certification...agreement, the <span class="hlt">small</span> business concern...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DPS....39.0502L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Detection of the Asteroidal YORP <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) <span class="hlt">effect</span> is a torque that can modify the rotation rates and obliquities of <span class="hlt">small</span> bodies in the solar system via the combined <span class="hlt">effects</span> of incident solar radiation pressure and the recoil <span class="hlt">effect</span> from anisotropic emission of thermal photons. The YORP <span class="hlt">effect</span> is the only realistic mechanism for explaining the intriguing spin-axis alignments within the Koronis asteroid family, and quite possibly explains the anomalous distribution of spin rates for <span class="hlt">small</span> asteroids. YORP is now thought to be an important mechanism in the formation of binary asteroid systems, and has a <span class="hlt">direct</span> bearing on the related Yarkovsky <span class="hlt">effect</span>, which affects the orbital motion of <span class="hlt">small</span> asteroids. Despite its importance, there exists only indirect evidence for the presence of YORP on solar system objects, until now. We conducted an optical-imaging monitoring campaign from 2001-2005 on a <span class="hlt">small</span> near-Earth asteroid, 2000 PH5, now known as asteroid (54509) YORP. We found that the asteroid has been continuously increasing its sidereal rotation rate by (2.0 ± 0.2)*10-4 deg./day2, over this 4-yr period (Lowry et al., 2007, Science 316, 272-274). The observed YORP strength is consistent with detailed shape-model-based theoretical calculations of the <span class="hlt">effect</span> (Taylor et al., 2007, Science 316, 274-277). We simulated the asteroid's close Earth approaches from 2001 to 2005, showing that gravitational torques cannot explain the observed spin rate increase. Dynamical simulations suggest that 2000 PH5 may reach a rotation period of just 20 seconds toward the end of its expected lifetime.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lowry, Stephen C.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Pravec, P.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Taylor, P. A.; Margot, J. L.; Galád, A.; Irwin, M.; Irwin, J.; Kusnirák, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6404758"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between <span class="hlt">direct</span> predation and risk <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">predation? Second, how are <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> and risk <span class="hlt">effects</span> correlated? If riskeffects aresmalland positively relatedto <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>, then measurements of <span class="hlt">direct</span> predation rates should provide a good estimate of the total <span class="hlt">effect</span> of pre- dators on prey. This is the assumption implicit in many studies of predation in natural systems. However, if risk <span class="hlt">effects</span> are large and negatively related to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scott Creel; David Christianson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a style="font-weight: bold;">1</a> <a 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showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981EOSTr..62S1162R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Salt disposal <span class="hlt">effects</span> found <span class="hlt">small</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brine discharges into the Gulf of Mexico averaging more than 600,000 barrels per day for the past year have had ‘few significant <span class="hlt">effects</span>‘ on the marine environment off the Texas coast, according to a preliminary analysis by scientists and engineers at the Texas A&M University. The brine, 8 times saltier than the surrounding seawater, is produced when salt from underground deposits on shore is dissolved and pumped into the Gulf as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program.Lead by Roy Hann, Jr., of the Texas Engineering Experiment Station, the team is analyzing discharge from Bryan Mound at Freeport, Tex., and from the West Hackberry site near Cameron, La. After a year of discharge off Freeport, the researchers found ‘no brine-caused differences in sediment temperatures and bottom-water dissolved-oxygen levels which accompany increased salinity,’ Hann said. In addition, overall compositions of fish and shrimp remained stable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richman, Barbara T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S23B1749K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Searching for evidence of a preferred rupture <span class="hlt">direction</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> earthquakes at Parkfield</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Theoretical modeling of strike-slip ruptures along a bimaterial interface suggests that the interface will have a preferred rupture <span class="hlt">direction</span> and will produce asymmetric ground motion (Shi and Ben-Zion, 2006). This could have widespread implications for earthquake source physics and for hazard analysis on mature faults because larger ground motions would be expected in the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of rupture propagation. Studies have shown that many large global earthquakes exhibit unilateral rupture, but a consistently preferred rupture <span class="hlt">direction</span> along faults has not been observed. Some researchers have argued that the bimaterial interface model does not apply to natural faults, noting that the rupture of the M 6 2004 Parkfield earthquake propagated in the opposite <span class="hlt">direction</span> from previous M 6 earthquakes along that section of the San Andreas Fault (Harris and Day, 2005). We analyze earthquake spectra from the Parkfield area to look for evidence of consistent rupture <span class="hlt">directivity</span> along the San Andreas Fault. We separate the earthquakes into spatially defined clusters and quantify the differences in high-frequency energy among earthquakes recorded at each station. Propagation path <span class="hlt">effects</span> are minimized in this analysis because we compare earthquakes located within a <span class="hlt">small</span> volume and recorded by the same stations. By considering a number of potential end-member models, we seek to determine if a preferred rupture <span class="hlt">direction</span> is present among <span class="hlt">small</span> earthquakes at Parkfield.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kane, D. L.; Shearer, P. M.; Allmann, B.; Vernon, F. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987thph.confS....D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">small</span> bipropellant engine internal flows by the <span class="hlt">direct</span> simulation Monte Carlo method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the first application of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> simulation Monte Carlo method to the calculation of the internal nozzle flow of a <span class="hlt">small</span> operational bipropellant thruster. Because of the <span class="hlt">smallness</span> of the engine, molecular simulation is necessary to capture thermal as well as velocity slip nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The present implementation of the Monte Carlo method includes several improvements on the usual computational techniques used. A finite-difference Navier-Stokes solution was also obtained for use both as the input and a comparison to the <span class="hlt">direct</span> simulation. The results are presented as contours of Mach numbers, densities, pressures, and temperatures. The trends of the contours obtained from the continuum calculation and those from the <span class="hlt">direct</span> simulation are similar, but the magnitudes of the flowfield properties differ by as much as a factor of two. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the nozzle area ratio were also investigated using the Monte Carlo method. These <span class="hlt">effects</span> are confined to the region near the nozzle exit where rarefaction <span class="hlt">effects</span> become important.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doo, Y. C.; Nelson, D. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6279E..3EL"> <span id="translatedtitle">An algorithm based on spatial filter for infrared <span class="hlt">small</span> target detection and its application to an all <span class="hlt">directional</span> IRST system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the <span class="hlt">small</span> targets detection in single frame infrared image, a spatial filter algorithm based on an adaptive smooth filter and the Robinson Guard spatial filter is proposed in the paper. The algorithm can detect the <span class="hlt">small</span> targets in the undulant background <span class="hlt">effectively</span> with little target information loss; it is implemented easily by digital processor ADSP-TS201S with high performance and successfully used in an all <span class="hlt">directional</span> IRST system. The experiments show the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the detection performance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luo, Jun-hui; Ji, Hong-bing; Liu, Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcSpe..73...26J"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a miniature argon flow rate on the spectral characteristics of a <span class="hlt">direct</span> current atmospheric pressure glow micro-discharge between an argon microjet and a <span class="hlt">small</span> sized flowing liquid cathode</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A stable <span class="hlt">direct</span> current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-?APGD) was generated between a miniature Ar flow microjet and a <span class="hlt">small</span> sized flowing liquid cathode. The microdischarge was operated in the open to air atmosphere. High energy species, including OH, NH, NO, N2, H, O and Ar were identified in the emission spectra of this microdischarge. Additionally, atomic lines of metals dissolved in water solutions were easily excited. The near cathode and the near anode zones of the microdischarge were investigated as a function of an Ar flow rate up to 300 sccm. The spectroscopic parameters, i.e., the excitation, the vibrational and the rotational temperatures as well as the electron number density, were determined in the near cathode and the near anode regions of the microdischarge. In the near cathode region, the rotational temperatures obtained for OH (2000-2600 K) and N2 bands (1600-1950 K) were significantly lower than the excitation temperatures of Ar (7400 K-7800 K) and H (11 000-15 500 K) atoms. Vibrational temperatures of N2, OH and NO varied from 3400 to 4000 K, from 2900 to 3400 K and from 2700 to 3000 K, respectively. In the near anode region, rotational temperatures of OH (350-1750 K) and N2 (400-1350 K) and excitation temperatures of Ar (5200-5500 K) and H (3600-12 600 K) atoms were lower than those measured in the near cathode region. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the introduction of a liquid sample on the microdischarge radiation and spectroscopic parameters was also investigated in the near cathode zone. The electron number density was calculated from the Stark broadening of the H? line and equals to (0.25-1.1) × 1015 cm- 3 and (0.68-1.2) × 1015 cm- 3 in the near cathode and the near anode zones, respectively. The intensity of the Na I emission line and the signal to background ratio (SBR) of this line were investigated in both zones to evaluate the excitation properties of the developed excitation microsource. The limit of detection for Na was determined at the level of 3 ng mL- 1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jamróz, Piotr; ?yrnicki, Wies?aw; Pohl, Pawe?</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sage&pg=7&id=EJ640898"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Class Size and Its <span class="hlt">Effects</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes several prominent early grades <span class="hlt">small</span>-class-size projects and their <span class="hlt">effects</span> on student achievement: Indiana's Project Prime Time, Tennessee's Project STAR (Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio), Wisconsin's SAGE (Student Achievement Guarantee in Education) Program, and the California class-size-reduction program. Lists several conclusions,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biddle, Bruce J.; Berliner, David C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29a0504Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Directed</span> Dynamic <span class="hlt">Small</span>-World Network Model for Worm Epidemics in Mobile ad hoc Networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the worm spreading process in mobile ad hoc networks with a susceptible-infected-recovered model on a two-dimensional plane. A medium access control mechanism operates within it, inhibiting transmission and relaying a message by using other nodes inside the node's transmitting circle during speaking. We measure the rewiring probability p with the transmitting range r and the average relative velocity v¯ of the moving nodes, and map the problem into a <span class="hlt">directed</span> dynamic <span class="hlt">small</span>-world network. A new scaling relation for the recovered portion of the nodes reveals the <span class="hlt">effect</span> caused by geometric distance, which has been ignored by previous models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Chen-Ping; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Yan, Zhi-Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://evolve.harvard.edu/17-PNAS.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Directed</span> evolution of ligand dependence: <span class="hlt">Small</span>-molecule-activated protein splicing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Directed</span> evolution of ligand dependence: <span class="hlt">Small</span>-molecule-activated protein splicing Allen R. Buskirk) are attractive starting points for the creation of such switches, because their insertion into a protein blocks <span class="hlt">directed</span>-evolution approach therefore evolved <span class="hlt">small</span>- molecule dependence in a protein and also created</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, David R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2828788"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Proctocolectomy with <span class="hlt">direct</span> ileoanastomosis and superimposed <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine pouch].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our experiences with 26 patients show that total proctocolectomy with <span class="hlt">direct</span> ileoanal pouch anastomosis and without maintenance of the rectal muscle cuff proves to be an excellent method for secure and lasting treatment of UC and ACR as well as of manifest cancer. The advantage of this method is the maintenance of normal continence function at a lower operative risk and few postoperative complications. Contraindication for this operative approach is still Crohn' disease. Furthermore the indication is limited by primary dysfunction of the anal sphincter. PMID:2828788</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raguse, T; Braun, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050506&hterms=Heinemann&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DHeinemann"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> observation of <span class="hlt">small</span> cluster mobility and ripening</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence is reported for the simultaneous occurrence of Ostwald ripening and short-distance cluster mobility during annealing of discontinuous metal films on clean amorphous substrates. The annealing characteristics of very thin particulate deposits of silver on amorphized clean surfaces of single-crystalline thin graphite substrates have been studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) under controlled environmental conditions in the temperature range from 25 to 450 C. It was possible to monitor all stages of the experiments by TEM observation of the same specimen area. Slow Ostwald ripening was found to occur over the entire temperature range, but the overriding surface transport mechanism was short-distance cluster mobility. This was concluded from in situ observations of individual particles during annealing and from measurements of cluster size distributions, cluster number densities, area coverages, and mean cluster diameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980228369&hterms=Charles+Goodwin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCharles%2BGoodwin"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">Directional</span> Stability Derivatives at <span class="hlt">Small</span> Angles and Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methods are presented for estimating the <span class="hlt">directional</span> stability derivative increments contributed by the stabilizing surfaces of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. These methods are strictly applicable at zero angle of attack and <span class="hlt">small</span> angles of sideslip. The procedure of totaling the incremental coefficients to obtain an estimation of the total empennage side-force and yawing-moment coefficient derivatives is also shown, together with numerical examples. A correlation is presented between estimated and experimental incremental coefficients which indicates that the methods of this report generally estimate the increment of side force gained by the addition of a panel to within +/-10 percent of the experimental value while the yawing-moment increment is generally estimated to within +/-20 percent. This is true for both subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers. An example application of the methods to one of the problems in <span class="hlt">directional</span> stability, that of minimizing the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of Mach number on the side-force coefficient derivative of the empennage, is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goodwin, Frederick K.; Kaattari, George E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1958-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3743174"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> connections assist neurons to detect correlation in <span class="hlt">small</span> amplitude noises</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We address a question on the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of common stochastic inputs on the correlation of the spike trains of two neurons when they are coupled through <span class="hlt">direct</span> connections. We show that the change in the correlation of <span class="hlt">small</span> amplitude stochastic inputs can be better detected when the neurons are connected by <span class="hlt">direct</span> excitatory couplings. Depending on whether intrinsic firing rate of the neurons is identical or slightly different, symmetric or asymmetric connections can increase the sensitivity of the system to the input correlation by changing the mean slope of the correlation transfer function over a given range of input correlation. In either case, there is also an optimum value for synaptic strength which maximizes the sensitivity of the system to the changes in input correlation. PMID:23966940</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bolhasani, E.; Azizi, Y.; Valizadeh, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED026027.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Learning and Student Interaction in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Self-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> College Groups. Final Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> student group, learning activities are controlled and <span class="hlt">directed</span> by the students themselves. This approach to learning was investigated at Hope College to: (1) explore the amount and patterns of interaction observable in <span class="hlt">small</span> self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> groups, (2) assess conditions and events in group interaction which enhance or inhibit…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beach, Leslie R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53278658"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biological <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Directed</span> Energy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Final Report summarizes the biological <span class="hlt">effects</span> research conducted by Veridian Engineering personnel under contract F41624-96-C-9009 in support of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Radio Frequency Radiation Branch from April 1997 to April 2002. Biological <span class="hlt">effects</span> research and consultation were provided in five major areas: Active Denial System (also known as Vehicle Mounted Active Denial System), radio frequency radiation (RFR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas Dayton; Charles Beason; M. K. Hitt; Walter Rogers; Michael Cook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5222341"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of roads on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(1) The study was designed to determine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of roads on the diversity, spatial distribution, and density of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals. (2) Forty species of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal (5859 individuals) were snap-trapped in the study. Data resulted from 144 360 trap-nights of effort for an average of 4.06 captures per 100 trap-nights. (3) <span class="hlt">Small</span> mammal community structure and density were both influenced by roads. Community structure in right-of-way (ROW) habitat was different from that in adjacent habitat. Five species did not prefer ROW habitat: the golden mouse, dusky-footed woodrat, brush mouse, pinon mouse, and California red-backed vole. However, there were more species present in ROW habitat than in adjacent habitat. Grassland species generally preferred ROW habitat and many less habitat-specific species were distributed in ROW and adjacent habitat. (4) <span class="hlt">Small</span> mammal density (all species combined) was greater in interstate ROW habitat than in adjacent habitat. This was also true individually for the eastern harvest mouse, white-footed mouse, meadow vole, prairie vole, vagrant shrew. Townsend's vole, and California vole. <span class="hlt">Small</span> mammal density was less in county road ROWs than in adjacent habitat, probably because of the <span class="hlt">small</span> size of these areas. The data indicate that ROW habitat and its accompanying edge are attractive no: only to grassland species but also to many less habitat-specific species that make use of the ROW-edge-adjacent habitat complex. (5) Mortality on interstate highways was greatest for those species with highest densities in ROW habitat, and did not appear to be detrimental to populations of these species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adams, L.W.; Geis, A.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021084"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells with high fill factors via pyrene-<span class="hlt">directed</span> molecular self-assembly.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are constructed by attaching completely planar, symmetric end-groups to donor-acceptor electroactive <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules. Appending C2-pyrene as the <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule end-group to a diketopyrrolopyrrole core leads to materials with a tight, aligned crystal packing and favorable morphology dictated by ?-? interactions, resulting in high power conversion efficiencies and high fill factors. The use of end-groups to <span class="hlt">direct</span> molecular self-assembly is an <span class="hlt">effective</span> strategy for designing high-performance <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule OPV devices. PMID:22021084</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Olivia P; Yiu, Alan T; Beaujuge, Pierre M; Woo, Claire H; Holcombe, Thomas W; Millstone, Jill E; Douglas, Jessica D; Chen, Mark S; Fréchet, Jean M J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481699.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction News: <span class="hlt">Effective</span> School Practices, 2002.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mission of the Association for <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction is to promote the improvement of <span class="hlt">effective</span> educational methods. This journal, "<span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction News," is their publication. The Spring 2002 issue (Volume 2, Number 1) contains the following articles: "Same? Different? Both Same and Different" (Sara G. Tarver); "Cookie Cutter Curricula" (Bob…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarver, Sara G., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481700.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction News: <span class="hlt">Effective</span> School Practices, 2003.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mission of the Association for <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction is to promote the improvement of <span class="hlt">effective</span> educational methods. This journal, "<span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction News," is their publication. The Spring 2003 (Volume 3, Number 1) contains the following articles: "Implementing DI Successfully" (Sara G. Tarver); "Textbooks: What?" (Bob Dixon); "Introduction to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarver, Sara G., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meat&pg=5&id=EJ813553"> <span id="translatedtitle">Process Evaluation Results from the Healthy <span class="hlt">Directions-Small</span> Business Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Healthy <span class="hlt">Directions-Small</span> Business randomized, controlled study aimed to reduce cancer risk among multiethnic workers in <span class="hlt">small</span> manufacturing businesses by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and daily multivitamin in take and decreasing consumption of red meat. The intervention incorporated participatory strategies…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hunt, Mary K.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Lederman, Ruth; Stoddard, Anne M.; Chetkovich, Carol; Goldman, Roberta; Wallace, Lorraine; Sorensen, Glorian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/5458"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">directional</span> epistasis on molecular evolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">THE <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF <span class="hlt">DIRECTIONAL</span> EPISTASIS ON MOLECULAR EVOLUTION BY Qin Qin Gong B. S., Shan Dong University, 1999 M. S., Graduate School of Academia Sinica (Beijing), 2003 Submitted to the Graduate Degree Program in Ecology... Date approved 24 April 2009 2 The Thesis Committee for Qin Qin Gong certifies that this is the approved version of the thesis: THE <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF <span class="hlt">DIRECTIONAL</span> EPISTASIS ON MOLECULAR EVOLUTION...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gong, Qin Qin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1820805"> <span id="translatedtitle">Big roles for <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases in the control of <span class="hlt">directed</span> cell movement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> GTPases are involved in the control of diverse cellular behaviours, including cellular growth, differentiation and motility. In addition, recent studies have revealed new roles for <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases in the regulation of eukaryotic chemotaxis. Efficient chemotaxis results from co-ordinated chemoattractant gradient sensing, cell polarization and cellular motility, and accumulating data suggest that <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPase signalling plays a central role in each of these processes as well as in signal relay. The present review summarizes these recent findings, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">small</span> GTPases control <span class="hlt">directed</span> cell migration. PMID:17173542</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charest, Pascale G.; Firtel, Richard A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850018398&hterms=inverse+diffusion+flames&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dinverse%2Bdiffusion%2Bflames"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical fuel property <span class="hlt">effects--small</span> combustors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The consequences of using broad-property fuels in both conventional and advanced state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">small</span> gas turbine combustors are assessed. Eight combustor concepts were selected for initial screening, of these, four final combustor concepts were chosen for further detailed analysis. These included the dual orifice injector baseline combustor (a current production 250-C30 engine combustor) two baseline airblast injected modifications, short and piloted prechamber combustors, and an advanced airblast injected, variable geometry air staged combustor. Final predictions employed the use of the STAC-I computer code. This quasi 2-D model includes real fuel properties, <span class="hlt">effects</span> of injector type on atomization, detailed droplet dynamics, and multistep chemical kinetics. In general, fuel property <span class="hlt">effects</span> on various combustor concepts can be classified as chemical or physical in nature. Predictions indicate that fuel chemistry has a significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on flame radiation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission. Fuel physical properties that govern atomization quality and evaporation rates are predicted to affect ignition and lean-blowout limits, combustion efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87l5108L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direction</span>-selective emission with <span class="hlt">small</span> angular divergence from a subwavelength aperture using radiative waveguide modes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate experimentally and theoretically the highly <span class="hlt">direction</span>-selective emission with <span class="hlt">small</span> angular divergence in a metal-dielectric-metal structure with a subwavelength metal aperture layer. The thicknesses of the dielectric layer and top metal layer play important roles in controlling the emission <span class="hlt">direction</span> and angular divergence, respectively. Dispersion curve calculations based on the transfer matrix method indicate that the <span class="hlt">directional</span> emission is mediated by radiative waveguide modes. We show that the <span class="hlt">directional</span> emission in a metal-dielectric-metal structure is independent of the polarization of the incident light in contrast to plasmonic beaming structures, such as a subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations with a strong polarization dependence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Wook-Jae; You, Jong-Bum; Kwon, Kyungmook; Park, Byounghun; Yu, Kyoungsik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanot..26e5306N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser <span class="hlt">direct</span> synthesis of silicon nanowire field <span class="hlt">effect</span> transistors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate a single-step, laser-based technique to fabricate silicon nanowire field <span class="hlt">effect</span> transistors. Boron-doped silicon nanowires are synthesized using a laser-<span class="hlt">direct</span>-write chemical vapor deposition process, which can produce nanowires as <span class="hlt">small</span> as 60 nm, far below the diffraction limit of the laser wavelength of 395 nm. In addition, the method has the advantages of in situ doping, catalyst-free growth, and precise control of nanowire position, orientation, and length. Silicon nanowires are <span class="hlt">directly</span> fabricated on an insulating surface and ready for subsequent device fabrication without the need for transfer and alignment, thus greatly simplifying device fabrication processes. Schottky barrier nanowire field <span class="hlt">effect</span> transistors with a back-gate configuration are fabricated from the laser-<span class="hlt">direct</span>-written Si nanowires and electrically characterized.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nam, Woongsik; Mitchell, James I.; Ye, Peide D.; Xu, Xianfan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25590692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser <span class="hlt">direct</span> synthesis of silicon nanowire field <span class="hlt">effect</span> transistors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate a single-step, laser-based technique to fabricate silicon nanowire field <span class="hlt">effect</span> transistors. Boron-doped silicon nanowires are synthesized using a laser-<span class="hlt">direct</span>-write chemical vapor deposition process, which can produce nanowires as <span class="hlt">small</span> as 60 nm, far below the diffraction limit of the laser wavelength of 395 nm. In addition, the method has the advantages of in situ doping, catalyst-free growth, and precise control of nanowire position, orientation, and length. Silicon nanowires are <span class="hlt">directly</span> fabricated on an insulating surface and ready for subsequent device fabrication without the need for transfer and alignment, thus greatly simplifying device fabrication processes. Schottky barrier nanowire field <span class="hlt">effect</span> transistors with a back-gate configuration are fabricated from the laser-<span class="hlt">direct</span>-written Si nanowires and electrically characterized. PMID:25590692</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nam, Woongsik; Mitchell, James I; Ye, Peide D; Xu, Xianfan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DDA....4410203F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Binary Asteroids with the Binary YORP <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): <span class="hlt">Small</span>, Near-Earth binaries are believed to be created following the fission of an asteroid spun up by the YORP <span class="hlt">effect</span>. It is then believed that the YORP <span class="hlt">effect</span> acting on the secondary (Binary YORP) increases or decreases the binary mutual distance on 10^5 yr timescales. How long this mechanism can apply is not yet fully understood. We investigate the binary orbital and rotational dynamics by using non-averaged, <span class="hlt">direct</span> numerical simulations, taking into account the relative motion of two ellipsoids (primary and secondary) and the solar perturbation. We add the YORP force and torque on the orbital and rotational motion of the secondary. As a check of our code we obtain a ~ 7.2 cm/yr drift in semi-major axis for 1999 KW4 beta, consistent with the values obtained with former analytical studies. The synchronous rotation of the secondary is required for the Binary YORP to be <span class="hlt">effective</span>. We investigate the synchronous lock of the secondary in function of different parameters ; mutual distance, shape of the secondary, and heliocentric orbit. For example we show that the secondary of 1999 KW4 can be synchronous only up to 7 Rp (primary radius), where the resonance becomes completely chaotic even for very <span class="hlt">small</span> eccentricities. We use Gaussian Random Spheres to obtain various secondary shapes, and check the evolution of the binaries with the Binary YORP <span class="hlt">effect</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frouard, Julien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51072338"> <span id="translatedtitle">A passive coupling matrix design for improved resolution <span class="hlt">small</span> aperture <span class="hlt">direction</span> finding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present an approach to design passive coupling matrix to overcome the performance limitation of <span class="hlt">direction</span> finding using <span class="hlt">small</span> aperture array. This approach is inspired by the sound localization acuity of a parasitic fly called Ormia ochracea. Motivated by the requirement from practical implementation that each element of the coupling matrix is realized as a passive analog</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guohua Wang; Joni Polili Lie; Chong-Meng Samson See</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3112458"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment by <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium sized enterprises: The theoretical background</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is an attempt to give a theoretical background to research on foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment by <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium sized enterprises. Section 2 examines alternative theoretical approaches to SMEs investing abroad. Section 3 outlines the special issues which arise from SME foreign ventures and ends with an attempted synthesis of the theoretical approaches. In Section 4, a brief discussion</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter J. Buckley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22290732"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> transfer patterning of electrically <span class="hlt">small</span> antennas onto three-dimensionally contoured substrates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">direct</span> transfer patterning process is presented that allows metallic patterns to be stamped onto a contoured substrate. This process was used to make some of the most efficient electrically <span class="hlt">small</span> antennas to date, while maintaining bandwidths approaching the physical limit. PMID:22290732</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pfeiffer, Carl; Xu, Xin; Forrest, Stephen R; Grbic, Anthony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5222337"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of tillage practices and carbofuran exposure on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compared population estimates, body mass, movement, and blood chemistry of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals between conventionally tilled and no-till cornfields in Maryland and Pennsylvania to evaluate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of tillage practices and carbofuran exposure on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Albers, P.H.; Linder, G.; Nichols, J.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1313..183K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Observation Of Nanoparticle-Surfactant Interactions Using <span class="hlt">Small</span> Angle Neutron Scattering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interactions of anionic silica nanoparticles with anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants have <span class="hlt">directly</span> been studied by contrast variation <span class="hlt">small</span> angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements are performed on 1 wt% of both silica nanoparticles and surfactants of anionic sodium dodecyle sulphate (SDS), cationic dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) and non-ionic polyoxyethylene 10 lauryl ether (C12E10) in aqueous solution. We show that there is no <span class="hlt">direct</span> interaction in the case of SDS with silica particles, whereas strong interaction for DTAB leads to the aggregation of silica particles. The interaction of C12E10 is found through the micelles adsorbed on the silica particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020087565&hterms=Novaya+Zemlya&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522Novaya%2BZemlya%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Impacts on Mars: Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objectives of this investigation were to study the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface of Mars through the impact of <span class="hlt">small</span> objects that would generate dust and set the dust into motion in the atmosphere. The approach involved numerical simulations of impacts and experiments under controlled conditions. Attachment: Atmospheric disturbances and radiation impulses caused by large-meteoroid impact in the surface of Mars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greeley, Ronald; Nemtchinov, Ivan V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=norm+AND+cycle&pg=2&id=EJ788122"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-Group Composition and Peer <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews research on grouping of students within classes and its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on learning. Primary consideration is given to grouping and mixing students by ability, though consideration is also given to grouping and mixing students by ethnicity and gender as well as to research on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of group size. Results of meta-analyses of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilkinson, Ian A. G.; Fung, Irene Y. Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255184"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of smoking on visual spatiotemporal processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nicotine is an important stimulant that is involved in modulating many neuronal processes, including those related to vision. Nicotine is also thought to play a key role in schizophrenia: A genetic variation of the cholinergic nicotine receptor gene, alpha-7 subunit (CHRNA7) has been shown to be associated with stronger backward masking deficits in schizophrenic patients. In this study, we tested visual backward masking in healthy smokers and non-smokers to further understand the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of nicotine on spatiotemporal vision. In the first study, we tested 48 participants, a group of non-smokers (n = 12) and three groups of regular smokers that were either nicotine deprived (n = 12), non-deprived (n = 12) or deprived but were allowed to smoke a cigarette <span class="hlt">directly</span> before the start of the experiment (n = 12). Performance was similar across groups, except for some <span class="hlt">small</span> negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> in nicotine-deprived participants. In the second study, we compared backward masking performance between regular smokers and non-smokers for older (n = 37, 13 smokers) and younger (n = 67, 21 smokers) adults. Older adults performed generally worse than younger adults but there were no significant differences in performance between smokers and non-smokers. Taken together, these findings indicate that nicotine has no long-term negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> on visual spatiotemporal processing as determined by visual backward masking. PMID:25471068</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kunchulia, Marina; Pilz, Karin S.; Herzog, Michael H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4316871"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capturing the complexity of first opinion <span class="hlt">small</span> animal consultations using <span class="hlt">direct</span> observation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various different methods are currently being used to capture data from <span class="hlt">small</span> animal consultations. The aim of this study was to develop a tool to record detailed data from consultations by <span class="hlt">direct</span> observation. A second aim was to investigate the complexity of the consultation by examining the number of problems discussed per patient. A data collection tool was developed and used during <span class="hlt">direct</span> observation of <span class="hlt">small</span> animal consultations in eight practices. Data were recorded on consultation type, patient signalment and number of problems discussed. During 16?weeks of data collection, 1901 patients were presented. Up to eight problems were discussed for some patients; more problems were discussed during preventive medicine consultations than during first consultations (P<0.001) or revisits (P<0.001). Fewer problems were discussed for rabbits than cats (P<0.001) or dogs (P<0.001). Age was positively correlated with discussion of specific health problems and negatively correlated with discussion of preventive medicine. Consultations are complex with multiple problems frequently discussed, suggesting comorbidity may be common. Future research utilising practice data should consider how much of this complexity needs to be captured, and use appropriate methods accordingly. The findings here have implications for <span class="hlt">directing</span> research and education as well as application in veterinary practice. PMID:25262057</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, N. J.; Brennan, M. L.; Cobb, M.; Dean, R. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25262057"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capturing the complexity of first opinion <span class="hlt">small</span> animal consultations using <span class="hlt">direct</span> observation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various different methods are currently being used to capture data from <span class="hlt">small</span> animal consultations. The aim of this study was to develop a tool to record detailed data from consultations by <span class="hlt">direct</span> observation. A second aim was to investigate the complexity of the consultation by examining the number of problems discussed per patient. A data collection tool was developed and used during <span class="hlt">direct</span> observation of <span class="hlt">small</span> animal consultations in eight practices. Data were recorded on consultation type, patient signalment and number of problems discussed. During 16?weeks of data collection, 1901 patients were presented. Up to eight problems were discussed for some patients; more problems were discussed during preventive medicine consultations than during first consultations (P<0.001) or revisits (P<0.001). Fewer problems were discussed for rabbits than cats (P<0.001) or dogs (P<0.001). Age was positively correlated with discussion of specific health problems and negatively correlated with discussion of preventive medicine. Consultations are complex with multiple problems frequently discussed, suggesting comorbidity may be common. Future research utilising practice data should consider how much of this complexity needs to be captured, and use appropriate methods accordingly. The findings here have implications for <span class="hlt">directing</span> research and education as well as application in veterinary practice. PMID:25262057</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, N J; Brennan, M L; Cobb, M; Dean, R S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4182540"> <span id="translatedtitle">Negative <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of an Exotic Grass Invasion on <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Mammal Communities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exotic invasive species can <span class="hlt">directly</span> and indirectly influence natural ecological communities. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is non-native to the western United States and has invaded large areas of the Great Basin. Changes to the structure and composition of plant communities invaded by cheatgrass likely have <span class="hlt">effects</span> at higher trophic levels. As a keystone guild in North American deserts, granivorous <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals drive and maintain plant diversity. Our objective was to assess potential <span class="hlt">effects</span> of invasion by cheatgrass on <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal communities. We sampled <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal and plant communities at 70 sites (Great Basin, Utah). We assessed abundance and diversity of the <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal community, diversity of the plant community, and the percentage of cheatgrass cover and shrub species. Abundance and diversity of the <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal community decreased with increasing abundance of cheatgrass. Similarly, cover of cheatgrass remained a significant predictor of <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal abundance even after accounting for the loss of the shrub layer and plant diversity, suggesting that there are <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of cheatgrass. The change in the <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal communities associated with invasion of cheatgrass likely has <span class="hlt">effects</span> through higher and lower trophic levels and has the potential to cause major changes in ecosystem structure and function. PMID:25269073</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Freeman, Eric D.; Sharp, Tiffanny R.; Larsen, Randy T.; Knight, Robert N.; Slater, Steven J.; McMillan, Brock R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25269073"> <span id="translatedtitle">Negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of an exotic grass invasion on <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal communities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exotic invasive species can <span class="hlt">directly</span> and indirectly influence natural ecological communities. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is non-native to the western United States and has invaded large areas of the Great Basin. Changes to the structure and composition of plant communities invaded by cheatgrass likely have <span class="hlt">effects</span> at higher trophic levels. As a keystone guild in North American deserts, granivorous <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals drive and maintain plant diversity. Our objective was to assess potential <span class="hlt">effects</span> of invasion by cheatgrass on <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal communities. We sampled <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal and plant communities at 70 sites (Great Basin, Utah). We assessed abundance and diversity of the <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal community, diversity of the plant community, and the percentage of cheatgrass cover and shrub species. Abundance and diversity of the <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal community decreased with increasing abundance of cheatgrass. Similarly, cover of cheatgrass remained a significant predictor of <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal abundance even after accounting for the loss of the shrub layer and plant diversity, suggesting that there are <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of cheatgrass. The change in the <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal communities associated with invasion of cheatgrass likely has <span class="hlt">effects</span> through higher and lower trophic levels and has the potential to cause major changes in ecosystem structure and function. PMID:25269073</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Freeman, Eric D; Sharp, Tiffanny R; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; Slater, Steven J; McMillan, Brock R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834551"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Drive Permanent Magnet Generator for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Wind Turbines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this program, TIAX performed the conceptual design and analysis of an innovative, modular, <span class="hlt">direct</span>-drive permanent magnet generator (PMG) for use in <span class="hlt">small</span> wind turbines that range in power rating from 25 kW to 100 kW. TIAX adapted an approach that has been successfully demonstrated in high volume consumer products such as <span class="hlt">direct</span>-drive washing machines and portable generators. An electromagnetic model was created and the modular PMG design was compared to an illustrative non-modular design. The resulting projections show that the modular design can achieve significant reductions in size, weight, and manufacturing cost without compromising efficiency. Reducing generator size and weight can also lower the size and weight of other wind turbine components and hence their manufacturing cost.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chertok, Allan; Hablanian, David; McTaggart, Paul; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024889"> <span id="translatedtitle">FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global and annual mean aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> are <span class="hlt">small</span> due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koch, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-08-8525"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of Leadership Development Programs on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Farm Producers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">the program participants to enhance their leadership skills and the ability to transform that motivation into <span class="hlt">effective</span> leadership. The group involved in this study is a convenience population of <span class="hlt">small</span> farmers and ranchers from across the Southern United...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malone, Allen A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861333"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wong's equations and the <span class="hlt">small</span> x <span class="hlt">effective</span> action in QCD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a new form for the <span class="hlt">small</span> x <span class="hlt">effective</span> action in QCD. This form of the <span class="hlt">effective</span> action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at <span class="hlt">small</span> x.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-07-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fds&pg=6&id=EJ094307"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Facilitator-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> and Self-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> Group Experiences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Compares the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of facilitator-<span class="hlt">directed</span> (FD) to self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> (SD) sensitivity training group experiences in a counselor education training program on the development of interpersonal perceptions of congruency and disclosure. (Author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conyne, Robert K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/89415"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting the <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> and <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative forcing of aerosols</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative forcing (DRF), which ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heald, Colette L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24531471"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-angle scattering gives <span class="hlt">direct</span> structural information about a membrane protein inside a lipid environment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monomeric bacteriorhodopsin (bR) reconstituted into POPC/POPG-containing nanodiscs was investigated by combined <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle neutron and X-ray scattering. A novel hybrid approach to <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle scattering data analysis was developed. In combination, these provided <span class="hlt">direct</span> structural insight into membrane-protein localization in the nanodisc and into the protein-lipid interactions. It was found that bR is laterally decentred in the plane of the disc and is slightly tilted in the phospholipid bilayer. The thickness of the bilayer is reduced in response to the incorporation of bR. The observed tilt of bR is in good accordance with previously performed theoretical predictions and computer simulations based on the bR crystal structure. The result is a significant and essential step on the way to developing a general <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle scattering-based method for determining the low-resolution structures of membrane proteins in physiologically relevant environments. PMID:24531471</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kynde, Søren A R; Skar-Gislinge, Nicholas; Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Simonsen, Jens Baek; Schweins, Ralf; Mortensen, Kell; Arleth, Lise</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED13B0786J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Demonstration of the Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Consider these three "theories:" climate change, evolution, and gravity. Why are two of them hotly debated by non-scientists, but not gravity? In part, the answer is that climate change and evolution are more complex processes and not readily observable over short time scales to most people. In contrast, the "theory of gravity" is tested every day by billions of people world-wide and is therefore not challenged. While there are numerous "demonstrations" of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> available online, unfortunately, many of them are based on poor understanding of the physical principles involved. For this reason, we sought to develop simple and <span class="hlt">direct</span> experiments that would demonstrate aspects of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> that would be suitable for museums, K-12, and/or college classrooms. We will describe two experiments. In the first, we use a simple plexiglass tube, approximately 12 cm long, with IR transparent windows. The tube is first filled with dry nitrogen and exposed to an IR heat lamp. Following this, the tube is filled with pure, dry CO2. Both tubes warm up, but the tube filled with CO2 ends up about 0.7 degrees C warmer. It is useful to compare this 12 cm column of CO2 to the column in the earth's atmosphere, which is equivalent to approximately 2.7 meters of pure CO2. This demonstration would be suitable for museum exhibits to demonstrate the physical basis of CO2 heating in the atmosphere. In the second experiment, we use FTIR spectroscopy to quantify the CO2 content of ambient air and indoor/classroom air. For this experiment, we use a commercial standard of 350 ppm CO2 to calibrate the absorption features. Once the CO2 content of ambient air is found, it is useful for students to compare their observed value to background data (e.g. NOAA site in Hawaii) and/or the "Keeling Curve". This leads into a discussion on causes for local variations and the long-term trends. This experiment is currently used in our general chemistry class but could be used in many other science classes. Both of the above experiments should lead to a greater understanding of the scientific basis for the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaffe, D. A.; Malashanka, S.; Call, K.; Bernays, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53267413"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scaling <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Shear Tests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laboratory experiments of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> shear test were performed on spherical particles of different materials and diameters. Results of the bulk friction vs. non-dimensional shear displacement are presented as a function of the non-dimensional particle diameter. Simulations of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> shear test were performed using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulation results show Considerable differences with the physical experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrés D. Orlando; Daniel M. Hanes; Hayley H. Shen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42705338"> <span id="translatedtitle">Children's Self-Regulatory Behaviors During Teacher-<span class="hlt">Directed</span>, SeatWork, and <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Group Instructional Contexts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors examined differences between children's self-regulatory behaviors in 3 instructional contexts: teacher <span class="hlt">directed</span>, seat work, and <span class="hlt">small</span> group. Fifty-one 3rd-grade students were observed throughout the school year during mathematics and science lessons. During teacher-<span class="hlt">directed</span> instruction, students were less likely to attend to instructions, monitor their work, and ask for help than during seat work or <span class="hlt">small</span>-group instruction. However, students</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anne Dopkins Stright; Lauren H. Supplee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3902291"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Molecule-Mediated <span class="hlt">Directed</span> Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toward Ventricular Cardiomyocytes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The generation of human ventricular cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells and/or induced pluripotent stem cells could fulfill the demand for therapeutic applications and in vitro pharmacological research; however, the production of a homogeneous population of ventricular cardiomyocytes remains a major limitation. By combining <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules and growth factors, we developed a fully chemically defined, <span class="hlt">directed</span> differentiation system to generate ventricular-like cardiomyocytes (VCMs) from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency and reproducibility. Molecular characterization revealed that the differentiation recapitulated the developmental steps of cardiovascular fate specification. Electrophysiological analyses further illustrated the generation of a highly enriched population of VCMs. These chemically induced VCMs exhibited the expected cardiac electrophysiological and calcium handling properties as well as the appropriate chronotropic responses to cardioactive compounds. In addition, using an integrated computational and experimental systems biology approach, we demonstrated that the modulation of the canonical Wnt pathway by the <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule IWR-1 plays a key role in cardiomyocyte subtype specification. In summary, we developed a reproducible and efficient experimental platform that facilitates a chemical genetics-based interrogation of signaling pathways during cardiogenesis that bypasses the limitations of genetic approaches and provides a valuable source of ventricular cardiomyocytes for pharmacological screenings as well as cell replacement therapies. PMID:24324277</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Senyei, Grant D.; Hansen, Jens; Kong, Chi-Wing; Azeloglu, Evren U.; Stillitano, Francesca; Lieu, Deborah K.; Wang, Jiaxian; Ren, Lihuan; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; Iyengar, Ravi; Li, Ronald A.; Hajjar, Roger J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biostat.harvard.edu/robins/publications/wp100.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alternative Graphical Causal Models and the Identification of <span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">conclude that the analysis provides strong evidence for "both an indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> of cigarette smoking on coronary artery disease through its <span class="hlt">effect</span> on blood pressure and a <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> not mediated by blood</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P41B1617C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Potential and Gravity on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Bodies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-scale topography is key to characterizing surface morphology and geological processes on <span class="hlt">small</span> bodies as well as planets. <span class="hlt">Small</span> bodies are typically irregular in shape, and numerical calculations of surface gravitational and centrifugal potential as well as surface <span class="hlt">effective</span> gravity are essential for studying the sedimentation and mass motion of surface materials. Evidence of such processes is found on all <span class="hlt">small</span> bodies observed to date at sufficient resolution. For Eros and Itokawa, the two objects studied from rendezvous, the measured gravity field is consistent with a body of constant density. Werner and Scheeres (1997) introduced an exact method for calculating the potential of constant-density, polyhedral bodies with a sum over surface polygon faces and another sum over polygon edges. For applications to Eros and Itokawa, we have used a simpler, approximate method for calculating the <span class="hlt">effective</span> potential and <span class="hlt">effective</span> gravity of a <span class="hlt">small</span> body, summing over facets of plate models in which the surface is tessellated into triangular plates (Cheng et al. 2001 and 2002). This calculation method approximates the potential recognizing that the actual surface is not polyhedral but is approximated as such. Here we use high-resolution shape models of an arbitrary ellipsoid, Eros, and Itokawa to make quantitative comparisons of the <span class="hlt">effective</span> potential and gravity calculated from the exact polyhedral method, the approximate method, and a spherical harmonic method applied outside the body.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, A. F.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Natur.504..437L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antidiabetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> of glucokinase regulatory protein <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule disruptors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic ?-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that <span class="hlt">directly</span> hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory <span class="hlt">effect</span> of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lloyd, David J.; St Jean, David J.; Kurzeja, Robert J. M.; Wahl, Robert C.; Michelsen, Klaus; Cupples, Rod; Chen, Michelle; Wu, John; Sivits, Glenn; Helmering, Joan; Komorowski, Renée; Ashton, Kate S.; Pennington, Lewis D.; Fotsch, Christopher; Vazir, Mukta; Chen, Kui; Chmait, Samer; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Longbin; Norman, Mark H.; Andrews, Kristin L.; Bartberger, Michael D.; van, Gwyneth; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Vonderfecht, Steven L.; Wang, Minghan; Jordan, Steven R.; Véniant, Murielle M.; Hale, Clarence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24226772"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antidiabetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> of glucokinase regulatory protein <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule disruptors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic ?-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that <span class="hlt">directly</span> hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory <span class="hlt">effect</span> of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:24226772</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lloyd, David J; St Jean, David J; Kurzeja, Robert J M; Wahl, Robert C; Michelsen, Klaus; Cupples, Rod; Chen, Michelle; Wu, John; Sivits, Glenn; Helmering, Joan; Komorowski, Renée; Ashton, Kate S; Pennington, Lewis D; Fotsch, Christopher; Vazir, Mukta; Chen, Kui; Chmait, Samer; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Longbin; Norman, Mark H; Andrews, Kristin L; Bartberger, Michael D; Van, Gwyneth; Galbreath, Elizabeth J; Vonderfecht, Steven L; Wang, Minghan; Jordan, Steven R; Véniant, Murielle M; Hale, Clarence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2613962"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel preparation with simethicone on capsule endoscopy*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Capsule endoscopy is a novel non-invasive method for visualization of the entire <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy depends on the quality of visualization of the <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel mucosa and its complete passage through the <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel. To date, there is no standardized protocol for bowel preparation before capsule endoscopy. The addition of simethicone in the bowel preparation for the purpose of reducing air bubbles in the intestinal lumen had only been studied by a few investigators. Methods: Sixty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups to receive a bowel preparation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (Group 1) and both PEG solution and simethicone (Group 2). The PEG solution and simethicone were taken the night before and 20 min prior to capsule endoscopy, respectively. Frames taken in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine were examined and scored for luminal bubbles by two professional capsule endoscopists. Gastric emptying time and <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel transit time were also recorded. Results: Simethicone significantly reduced luminal bubbles both in the proximal and distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestines. The mean time proportions with slight bubbles in the proximal and distal intestines in Group 2 were 97.1% and 99.0%, respectively, compared with 67.2% (P<0.001) and 68.8% (P<0.001) in Group 1. Simethicone had no <span class="hlt">effect</span> on mean gastric emptying time, 32.08 min in Group 2 compared with 30.88 min in Group 1 (P=0.868), but it did increase mean <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal transit time from 227.28 to 281.84 min (P=0.003). Conclusion: Bowel preparation with both PEG and simethicone significantly reduced bubbles in the intestinal lumen and improved the visualization of the <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel by capsule endoscopy without any side <span class="hlt">effects</span> observed. PMID:19198022</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fang, You-hong; Chen, Chun-xiao; Zhang, Bing-ling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanos...6.8704T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> formation of <span class="hlt">small</span> Cu2O nanocubes, octahedra, and octapods for efficient synthesis of triazoles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In most studies describing the preparation of Cu2O crystals of various morphologies, the particle sizes are normally hundreds of nanometers to micrometers due to rapid particle growth, so they are not exactly nanocrystals. Here we report surfactant-free formation of sub-100 nm Cu2O nanocrystals with systematic shape evolution from cubic to octahedral structures by preparing an aqueous mixture of Cu(OAc)2, NaOH, and N2H4 solution. Adjustment of the hydrazine volume enables the particle shape control. Uniform nanocubes and octahedra were synthesized with edge lengths of 37 and 67 nm, respectively. Novel Cu2O octapods with an edge length of 135 nm were also produced by mixing CuCl2 solution, SDS surfactant, NaOH solution, and NH2OH.HCl reductant solution. All of them are nearly the smallest Cu2O nanocrystals of the same shapes ever reported. These <span class="hlt">small</span> cubes, octahedra, and octapods were employed as catalysts in the <span class="hlt">direct</span> synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from the reaction of alkynes, organic halides, and NaN3 at 55 °C. All of them displayed high product yields in short reaction times. The octahedra enclosed by the {111} facets are the best catalysts, and can catalyze this cycloaddition reaction with high yields in just 2 h when different alkynes were used to make diverse triazole products. Hence, the <span class="hlt">small</span> Cu2O particles provide time-saving, energy-efficient, and high product yield benefits to organocatalysis.In most studies describing the preparation of Cu2O crystals of various morphologies, the particle sizes are normally hundreds of nanometers to micrometers due to rapid particle growth, so they are not exactly nanocrystals. Here we report surfactant-free formation of sub-100 nm Cu2O nanocrystals with systematic shape evolution from cubic to octahedral structures by preparing an aqueous mixture of Cu(OAc)2, NaOH, and N2H4 solution. Adjustment of the hydrazine volume enables the particle shape control. Uniform nanocubes and octahedra were synthesized with edge lengths of 37 and 67 nm, respectively. Novel Cu2O octapods with an edge length of 135 nm were also produced by mixing CuCl2 solution, SDS surfactant, NaOH solution, and NH2OH.HCl reductant solution. All of them are nearly the smallest Cu2O nanocrystals of the same shapes ever reported. These <span class="hlt">small</span> cubes, octahedra, and octapods were employed as catalysts in the <span class="hlt">direct</span> synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from the reaction of alkynes, organic halides, and NaN3 at 55 °C. All of them displayed high product yields in short reaction times. The octahedra enclosed by the {111} facets are the best catalysts, and can catalyze this cycloaddition reaction with high yields in just 2 h when different alkynes were used to make diverse triazole products. Hence, the <span class="hlt">small</span> Cu2O particles provide time-saving, energy-efficient, and high product yield benefits to organocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of Cu2O nanocrystals with shape evolution, XRD patterns, calculations for the determination of volumes needed for the catalysis experiment, spectral characterization of the triazole products synthesized and their NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02076f</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsai, Ya-Huei; Chanda, Kaushik; Chu, Yi-Ting; Chiu, Chun-Ya; Huang, Michael H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24947435"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> formation of <span class="hlt">small</span> Cu2O nanocubes, octahedra, and octapods for efficient synthesis of triazoles.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In most studies describing the preparation of Cu2O crystals of various morphologies, the particle sizes are normally hundreds of nanometers to micrometers due to rapid particle growth, so they are not exactly nanocrystals. Here we report surfactant-free formation of sub-100 nm Cu2O nanocrystals with systematic shape evolution from cubic to octahedral structures by preparing an aqueous mixture of Cu(OAc)2, NaOH, and N2H4 solution. Adjustment of the hydrazine volume enables the particle shape control. Uniform nanocubes and octahedra were synthesized with edge lengths of 37 and 67 nm, respectively. Novel Cu2O octapods with an edge length of 135 nm were also produced by mixing CuCl2 solution, SDS surfactant, NaOH solution, and NH2OH · HCl reductant solution. All of them are nearly the smallest Cu2O nanocrystals of the same shapes ever reported. These <span class="hlt">small</span> cubes, octahedra, and octapods were employed as catalysts in the <span class="hlt">direct</span> synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from the reaction of alkynes, organic halides, and NaN3 at 55 °C. All of them displayed high product yields in short reaction times. The octahedra enclosed by the {111} facets are the best catalysts, and can catalyze this cycloaddition reaction with high yields in just 2 h when different alkynes were used to make diverse triazole products. Hence, the <span class="hlt">small</span> Cu2O particles provide time-saving, energy-efficient, and high product yield benefits to organocatalysis. PMID:24947435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsai, Ya-Huei; Chanda, Kaushik; Chu, Yi-Ting; Chiu, Chun-Ya; Huang, Michael H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22704574"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> bowel endoscopy: cost-<span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the different approaches.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Obscure gastrointestinal haemorrhage is defined the presence of overt or occult bleeding in the setting of a normal endoscopic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts. While obscure bleeding is not common, the evaluation and management of these patients often incurs considerable expense. Potential options for <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel evaluation include traditional radiographic studies, push enteroscopy, video capsule endoscopy, deep enteroscopy, tagged red blood cell scans, angiography, and enterography examinations with either computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. The decision regarding which modality to employ depends on the cost of the procedure, its <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in rendering a diagnosis, and the potential for administration of therapy. This article will discuss determination of costs associated with technology for <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel imaging, quality of life data associated with chronic GI haemorrhage, and available cost-<span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> studies comparing the options for <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel exploration. PMID:22704574</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerson, Lauren B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1145..413O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scaling <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Shear Tests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laboratory experiments of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> shear test were performed on spherical particles of different materials and diameters. Results of the bulk friction vs. non-dimensional shear displacement are presented as a function of the non-dimensional particle diameter. Simulations of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> shear test were performed using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulation results show Considerable differences with the physical experiments. Particle level material properties, such as the coefficients of static friction, restitution and rolling friction need to be known a priori in order to guarantee that the simulation results are an accurate representation of the physical phenomenon. Furthermore, laboratory results show a clear size dependency on the results, with smaller particles having a higher bulk friction than larger ones.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orlando, Andrés D.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Shen, Hayley H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/vq218m65575681g7.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> mechanical <span class="hlt">effects</span> of wind on crops</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review describes those mechanisms by which wind <span class="hlt">directly</span> affects crop growth rates and hence yields. Wind-induced plant\\u000a movement is capable of altering growth rates and leaf morphology, although this is unlikely to be a major cause of growth\\u000a differences between sheltered and unsheltered crops grown outdoors. The wind's force can tear leaves or strip them from the\\u000a plant. Dense</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. A. Cleugh; J. M. Miller; M. Böhm</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7302537"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using the sensitive dependence of chaos (the butterfly <span class="hlt">effect</span>'') to <span class="hlt">direct</span> trajectories in an experimental chaotic system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we present the first experimental verification that the sensitivity of a chaotic system to <span class="hlt">small</span> perturbations (the butterfly <span class="hlt">effect</span>'') can be used to rapidly <span class="hlt">direct</span> orbits from an arbitrary initial state to an arbitrary accessible desired state.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shinbrot, T.; Ditto, W.; Grebogi, C.; Ott, E.; Spano, M.; Yorke, J.A. (University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States) Department of Physics, The College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio 44691 (United States) Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, Maryland 20902 (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-05-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042384"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Reactor Designs Suitable for <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Nuclear Thermal Propulsion: Interim Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests requires high performance propulsion systems to support missions beyond low Earth orbit. A robust space exploration program will include robotic outer planet and crewed missions to a variety of destinations including the moon, near Earth objects, and eventually Mars. Past studies, in particular those in support of both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. In NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option for the human exploration of Mars because of its high thrust and high specific impulse ({approx}900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. The recently announced national space policy2 supports the development and use of space nuclear power systems where such systems safely enable or significantly enhance space exploration or operational capabilities. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted under the Rover/NERVA, GE-710 and ANL nuclear rocket programs (1955-1973). Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. The primary and significantly larger Rover/NERVA program focused on graphite type fuels. Research, development, and testing of high temperature graphite fuels was conducted. Reactors and engines employing these fuels were designed, built, and ground tested. The GE-710 and ANL programs focused on an alternative ceramic-metallic 'cermet' fuel type consisting of UO2 (or UN) fuel embedded in a refractory metal matrix such as tungsten. The General Electric program examined closed loop concepts for space or terrestrial applications as well as open loop systems for <span class="hlt">direct</span> nuclear thermal propulsion. Although a number of fast spectrum reactor and engine designs suitable for <span class="hlt">direct</span> nuclear thermal propulsion were proposed and designed, none were built. This report summarizes status results of evaluations of <span class="hlt">small</span> nuclear reactor designs suitable for <span class="hlt">direct</span> nuclear thermal propulsion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce G. Schnitzler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/84/68/25/PDF/Effects_of_Foreign_Direct_Investment_FDI_in_the_Indian_Economy.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment (FDI) in the Indian Economy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment (FDI) in the Indian Economy Sourangsu Banerji Visiting study the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment (FDI) with respect to India and its economy. We try interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35041173"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of ephedrine isomers on human ?-adrenergic receptor subtypes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ephedrine and its alkaloids are used for the treatment of asthma, nasal congestion, and obesity. Ephedrine, with two chiral centers, exists as four isomers that exhibit <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on both ?- and ?-adrenergic receptors (AR). Our main goal was to study the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the ephedrine isomers on human ?1-, ?2-, and ?3-AR expressed in Chinese hamster</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandeep S Vansal; Dennis R Feller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047174"> <span id="translatedtitle">A study of some <span class="hlt">effects</span> of urbanization on storm runoff from a <span class="hlt">small</span> watershed</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The evaluation of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of urbanization on the runoff characteristics of a <span class="hlt">small</span> watershed is a problem that can be studied by either a short-range or a long-range investigation. Because the long-range type of investigation would require several years for hydrologic data accumulation, it cannot provide any immediate information on the changes in watershed behavior arising as a result of urbanization. A short-range investigation, however, based on synthetic evaluation of present data would provide immediate answers. It is in the realm of this short-range objective that this study of a <span class="hlt">small</span> urban watershed is <span class="hlt">directed</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Espey, William Howard, Jr.; Morgan, Carl W.; Masch, Frank D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12981022"> <span id="translatedtitle">XU, LIBAI. Prompt Gamma-ray Imaging for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Animals. (Under the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for <span class="hlt">small</span> animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current <span class="hlt">small</span> animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robin P. Gardner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2633771"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> RNA <span class="hlt">directed</span> heterochromatin formation in the context of development: what flies might learn from fission yeast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary A link between the RNAi system and heterochromatin formation has been established in several model organisms including S. pombe and A. thaliana. However, the data to support a role for <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs and the associated machinery in transcriptional gene silencing in animal systems is more tenuous. Using the S. pombe system as a model, we analyze the role of <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA pathway components and associated <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs in regulating transposable elements and potentially <span class="hlt">directing</span> heterochromatin formation at these elements in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:18789407</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huisinga, Kathryn L.; Elgin, Sarah C.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24762128"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reversible <span class="hlt">effects</span> of photodamage <span class="hlt">directed</span> toward mitochondria.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When the initial <span class="hlt">effect</span> of photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves mitochondrial photodamage, an early <span class="hlt">effect</span> is loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m ). Using murine hepatoma 1c1c7 cells and a photosensitizing agent known to target mitochondria, we examined loss of ??m , initiation of apoptosis and loss of viability as a function of time and light dose. There was a correlation between loss of viability and the rapid disappearance of ??m, as detected by the potential-sensitive probe Mitotracker Orange (MTO). Loss of ??m was, however, reversible even with a substantial loss of viability. Unless there was a supralethal level of photodamage, 1c1c7 cells recovered their mitochondrial membrane potential, even if the cell population was on the pathway to apoptosis and cell death. These results indicate that when mitochondria are the initial PDT target, a qualitative estimate of photokilling can be provided by assessing the initial loss of ??m. PMID:24762128</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kessel, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/919065"> <span id="translatedtitle">Colloidal Graphite-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization MS and MSn of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Molecules. 2. <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Profiling and MS Imaging of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Metabolites from Fruits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to a high background in the low-mass region, conventional MALDI is not as useful for detecting <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules (molecular masses <500 Da) as it is for large ones. Also, spatial inhomogeneity that is inherent to crystalline matrixes can degrade resolution in imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). In this study, colloidal graphite was investigated as an alternative matrix for laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in IMS. We demonstrate its advantages over conventional MALDI in the detection of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules such as organic acids, flavonoids, and oligosaccharides. GALDI provides good sensitivity for such <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules. The detection limit of fatty acids and flavonoids in the negative-ion mode are in the low-femtomole range. Molecules were detected <span class="hlt">directly</span> and identified by comparing the MS and MS/MS spectra with those of standards. Various fruits were chosen to evaluate the practical utility of GALDI since many types of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules are present in them. Distribution of these <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules in the fruit was investigated by using IMS and IMS/MS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hui Zhang; Sangwon Cha; Edward S. Yeung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890043028&hterms=crystal+nist&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcrystal%2Bnist"> <span id="translatedtitle">Buoyancy <span class="hlt">effects</span> on morphological instability during <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The onset of morphological instability during the <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification of a single-phase binary alloy at constant velocity vertically upwards is treated by a linear stability analysis. The case in which a heavier solute is rejected at the solidifying interface is considered, and the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of natural convection on the critical concentration for the onset of instability is studied. For tin containing lead, a <span class="hlt">small</span> destabilization of the system at low growth velocities, and a large increase in the wavelength of the instability at the onset are found. Calculations show that the destabilization is enhanced as the variation of density with solute concentration is reduced, and in the limit of neutrally-dense solute, there is a long wavelength instability for which the critical solute concentration is several orders of magnitude lower than that predicted by the Mullins and Sekerka (1964) analysis in the absence of convection. For the neutrally-dense solute, a simplified analysis indicates the roles played by the interface deformation and thermal convection in promoting the instability. In particular, the destabilization is very sensitive to the ratio of crystal and melt thermal conductivities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coriell, S. R.; Mcfadden, G. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58440621"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionary <span class="hlt">Directions</span> of the European Union Policy in favour of <span class="hlt">Small</span> and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Entrepreneurship</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the article is the presentation as well as the analysis of the most important <span class="hlt">directions</span> of the European Union activities in favour of entrepreneurship, especially <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The historical outline of SMEs’ community policy shaping was introduced. Analysing the importance and the role of SME sector in each economy as well as the community</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krzysztof Wach</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53147954"> <span id="translatedtitle">Loss and Periodic Coupling <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in Dielectric <span class="hlt">Directional</span> Couplers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This dissertation is concerned with understanding the causes and <span class="hlt">effects</span> of a new loss mechanism in dielectric <span class="hlt">directional</span> couplers, namely dissimilar normal mode loss, as well as introducing a new class of all-fiber devices based on the periodic coupling of fiber modes. A formal introduction to coupled mode theory is developed from which <span class="hlt">directional</span> couplers can be described by using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Carl Youngquist</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/86507"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">EFFECT</span> OF INCREASING TRANSPORTATION COST ON FOREIGN <span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> INVESTMENT.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by KIMBERLY GRESSLER THE <span class="hlt">EFFECT</span> OF INCREASING TRANSPORTATION COST ON FOREIGN <span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> INVESTMENT Approved by: Research Advisor: Joan Mileski... as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by KIMBERLY GRESSLER iii ABSTRACT The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Increasing Transportation Cost on Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment. (April 2008) Kimberly Gressler Department of Maritime Administration Texas...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gressler, Kimberly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.101d1102L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient <span class="hlt">directional</span> beaming from <span class="hlt">small</span> apertures using surface-plasmon diffraction gratings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate efficient optical <span class="hlt">directional</span> beaming using an array of sub-wavelength patterns on a metallic surface. Specifically, a sub-wavelength sized slit placed next to a periodic grating is designed and optimized to realize maximum coupling efficiency and <span class="hlt">directional</span> radiation into a leaky-wave plasmonic mode. Collective scattering from the corrugations forming the grating is synthesized to radiate towards the desired <span class="hlt">direction</span>, and efficient beaming is achieved through tailoring the design parameters with a simple analytical model. We also prove that <span class="hlt">directivity</span> can be further enhanced by improving the slit-grating coupling efficiency through efficient plasmon generation, showing improved angular response in far-field radiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Youngkyu; Hoshino, Kazunori; Alù, Andrea; Zhang, Xiaojing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20656692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment-<span class="hlt">effect</span> estimates adjusted for <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> via a limit meta-analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statistical heterogeneity and <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> are 2 major issues affecting the validity of meta-analysis. In this article, we introduce the concept of a limit meta-analysis, which leads to shrunken, empirical Bayes estimates of study <span class="hlt">effects</span> after allowing for <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span>. This in turn leads to 3 model-based adjusted pooled treatment-<span class="hlt">effect</span> estimators and associated confidence intervals. We show how visualizing our estimators using the radial plot indicates how they can be calculated using existing software. The concept of limit meta-analysis also gives rise to a new measure of heterogeneity, termed G(2), for heterogeneity that remains after <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> are accounted for. In a simulation study with binary data and <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span>, we compared our proposed estimators with those currently used together with a recent proposal by Moreno and others. Our criteria were bias, mean squared error (MSE), variance, and coverage of 95% confidence intervals. Only the estimators arising from the limit meta-analysis produced approximately unbiased treatment-<span class="hlt">effect</span> estimates in the presence of <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span>, while the MSE was acceptably <span class="hlt">small</span>, provided that the number of studies in the meta-analysis was not less than 10. These limit meta-analysis estimators were also relatively robust against heterogeneity and one of them had a relatively <span class="hlt">small</span> coverage error. PMID:20656692</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rücker, Gerta; Schwarzer, Guido; Carpenter, James R; Binder, Harald; Schumacher, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850010865&hterms=shale+gas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dshale%2Bgas"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical fuel property <span class="hlt">effects</span>: <span class="hlt">Small</span> combustors, phase 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of non-standard aviation fuels on a typical <span class="hlt">small</span> gas turbine combustor were studied and the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of design changes intended to counter the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of these fuels was evaluated. The T700/CT7 turboprop engine family was chosen as being representative of the class of aircraft power plants desired for this study. Fuel properties, as specified by NASA, are characterized by low hydrogen content and high aromatics levels. No. 2 diesel fuel was also evaluated in this program. Results demonstrated the anticipated higher than normal smoke output and flame radiation intensity with resulting increased metal temperatures on the baseline T700 combustor. Three new designs were evaluated using the non standard fuels. The three designs incorporated enhanced cooling features and smoke reduction features. All three designs, when burning the broad specification fuels, exhibited metal temperatures at or below the baseline combustor temperatures on JP-5. Smoke levels were acceptable but higher than predicted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hill, T. G.; Monty, J. D.; Morton, H. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21491675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiotherapy in <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Cell Lung Cancer: Lessons Learned and Future <span class="hlt">Directions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although chemotherapy is an essential component in the treatment of <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer, improvements in survival in the past two decades have been mainly achieved by the appropriate application of radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to review the key developments in thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy and to discuss the rationale behind key ongoing studies in <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Slotman, Ben J., E-mail: bj.slotman@vumc.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21127974"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of childhood adversity on adult depression.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exposure to adverse events in childhood is a predictor of subsequent exposure to adverse events in adulthood, and both are predictors of depression in adults. The degree to which adult depression has a <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of childhood adversity versus an indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> mediated by adult adversity has not previously been reported. We report data collected from 210 adult participants regarding childhood and adult adversity and current symptoms of depression. Mediation of the relationship between childhood adversity and adult depression by adult adversity was statistically assessed to evaluate the relative <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of childhood adversity on current depression levels in adults. Both the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of childhood adversity on adult depression and the indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span>, mediated by adulthood events, were significant. Therefore, partial mediation of the relationship between childhood adversity and adult symptoms of depression by adult adverse events was found in the sample. Implications for treatment are presented. PMID:21127974</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LaNoue, Marianna; Graeber, David; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Warner, Teddy D; Helitzer, Deborah L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034700"> <span id="translatedtitle">SUCCESSIVE SOLAR ERUPTIONS TRIGGERED BY THE COLLISION OF TWO <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> SUNSPOTS WITH OPPOSITE POLARITIES AND MOTIONAL <span class="hlt">DIRECTIONS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a study of the two successive M-class flares associated with two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) triggered by the collision of two <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspots with opposite magnetic polarities and motional <span class="hlt">directions</span> in NOAA active region (AR) 10484 on 2003 October 22. From the evolution of this AR in the TRACE white-light images and 96 minute line-of-sight magnetograms observed by the Michelson Doppler Imager on board SOHO, a large sunspot and a <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspot with negative polarity rotated clockwise about 33 Degree-Sign and 18 Degree-Sign , respectively, from the northeast of a quiescent sunspot with negative polarity to the southeast from 15:00 UT on October 21 to 16:24 UT on October 23. During the process of their motion, the <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspot with negative polarity collided with the <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspot with positive polarity and opposite motional <span class="hlt">direction</span>. In the collision, this AR produced two successive M-class flares and CMEs according to the observations of GOES and the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. By analyzing the magnetic fields at polarity inversion lines (PILs) between the two <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspot, it is found that a sudden squeeze occurred near the onset of the two M-class flares and then recovered itself after the flares. We ruled out the emergence of the magnetic fields near the PIL. According to the brightenings in TRACE 1600 A and the hard X-ray sources of the RHESSI of two M-class flares, we found that the locations of the two flares are almost situated in the same location at the PIL between the two <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspots. We suggest that the sudden squeeze between the opposite magnetic polarities is caused by the pressure of the collision of the two <span class="hlt">small</span> sunspots and resulted in the magnetic reconnection. These results could contribute to understanding the mechanism of flares and CMEs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Kong, D. F. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://digital.library.ucf.edu/cdm/ref/collection/ETD/id/4676"> <span id="translatedtitle">The relevance of time-to-digital converters to <span class="hlt">small</span> platform <span class="hlt">direction</span> finding systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">??This thesis explores a Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) approach to radio <span class="hlt">direction</span> finding, utilizing picosecond-resolution Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs). By measuring the relative time of arrival of a… (more)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, Paul Jeffrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13760223"> <span id="translatedtitle">Power-efficient <span class="hlt">directional</span> wireless communication on <span class="hlt">small</span> form-factor mobile devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wireless access is known to be power-hungry for mobile devices. A key reason is that devices radiate power in all <span class="hlt">directions</span> and much of this power will not reach the destination. To address this waste, we present BeamSwitch, a multi-antenna system designed to realize <span class="hlt">directional</span> communication efficiently. Unlike power-hungry and expensive beamforming, BeamSwitch requires only one transceiver. We provide an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ardalan Amiri Sani; Hasan Dumanli; Lin Zhong; Ashutosh Sabharwal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JChPh.121.2711N"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effective</span> fragment potential: <span class="hlt">Small</span> clusters and radial distribution functions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effective</span> fragment potential (EFP) method for treating solvent <span class="hlt">effects</span> provides relative energies and structures that are in excellent agreement with the analogous fully quantum [i.e., Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT), and second order perturbation theory (MP2)] results for <span class="hlt">small</span> water clusters. The ability of the method to predict bulk water properties with a comparable accuracy is assessed by performing EFP molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting radial distribution functions (RDF) suggest that as the underlying quantum method is improved from HF to DFT to MP2, the agreement with the experimental RDF also improves. The MP2-based EFP method yields a RDF that is in excellent agreement with experiment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Netzloff, Heather M.; Gordon, Mark S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90f2801S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simple, distance-dependent formulation of the Watts-Strogatz model for <span class="hlt">directed</span> and undirected <span class="hlt">small</span>-world networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-world networks—complex networks characterized by a combination of high clustering and short path lengths—are widely studied using the paradigmatic model of Watts and Strogatz (WS). Although the WS model is already quite minimal and intuitive, we describe an alternative formulation of the WS model in terms of a distance-dependent probability of connection that further simplifies, both practically and theoretically, the generation of <span class="hlt">directed</span> and undirected WS-type <span class="hlt">small</span>-world networks. In addition to highlighting an essential feature of the WS model that has previously been overlooked, namely the equivalence to a simple distance-dependent model, this alternative formulation makes it possible to derive exact expressions for quantities such as the degree and motif distributions and global clustering coefficient for both <span class="hlt">directed</span> and undirected networks in terms of model parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, H. Francis; Wang, Xiao-Jing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1101.2297v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> observation of stress accumulation and relaxation in <span class="hlt">small</span> bundles of superconducting vortices in tungsten thin-films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the behavior of bundles of superconducting vortices when increasing the magnetic field using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) at 100 mK. Pinning centers are given by features on the surface corrugation. We find strong net vortex motion in a bundle towards a well defined <span class="hlt">direction</span>. We observe continuos changes of the vortex arrangements, and identify <span class="hlt">small</span> displacements, which stress and deform the vortex bundle, separated by larger re-arrangements or avalanches, which release accumulated stress.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. Guillamon; H. Suderow; S. Vieira; J. Sese; R. Cordoba; J. M. De Teresa; M. R. Ibarra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15200341"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> peptides catalyze highly enantioselective <span class="hlt">direct</span> aldol reactions of aldehydes with hydroxyacetone: unprecedented regiocontrol in aqueous media.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">[reaction: see text] L-Proline-based <span class="hlt">small</span> peptides have been developed as efficient catalysts for the asymmetric <span class="hlt">direct</span> aldol reactions of hydroxyacetone with aldehydes. Chiral 1,4-diols 7, which are disfavored products in similar aldol reactions catalyzed by either aldolases or L-proline, were obtained in high yields and enantioselectivities of up to 96% ee with peptides 3 and 4 in aqueous media. PMID:15200341</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tang, Zhuo; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Cun, Lin-Feng; Gong, Liu-Zhu; Mi, Ai-Qiao; Jiang, Yao-Zhong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-06-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33026328"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diclofenac acyl glucuronide, a major biliary metabolite, is <span class="hlt">directly</span> involved in <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal injury in rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background & Aims: Enterohepatic recirculation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of intestinal injury, but the underlying mechanism of toxicity remains obscure. The aim of this study was to examine the role of diclofenac acyl glucuronide, which is the major biliary metabolite and is chemically reactive, in the precipitation of <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal ulceration. Methods: Hepatocanalicular</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sven Seitz; Urs A. Boelsterli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+behavior&pg=4&id=EJ1013637"> <span id="translatedtitle">Peer Modeling of Academic and Social Behaviors during <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Group <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors describe an intervention for 3 preschoolers with disabilities who had low peer-related social competence. The intervention taught academic skills tailored to the need of each target student in <span class="hlt">small</span> groups (triads) with two typically developing peers, using a progressive time delay procedure. Prior to instruction and separate from the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ledford, Jennifer R.; Wolery, Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4325200"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of Rebiopsy in Relapsed Non-<span class="hlt">Small</span> Cell Lung Cancer for <span class="hlt">Directing</span> Oncology Treatments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. Currently, few rebiopsies are performed in relapses of advanced non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer. They are not customary in clinical practice of lung cancer. However, it is not possible to properly target treatments in cases of relapse without knowing the nature of new lesions. Design. This paper comprehensively summarizes the available literature about rebiopsy and broadly discusses the importance of rebiopsy in advanced non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer. Results. Altogether 560 abstracts were used as material for further analysis. 19 articles were about clinical rebiopsy in lung cancer and were reviewed in detailed manner. Conclusions. This review shows that rebiopsy is feasible in non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer, and success rates can be high if rebiopsy is accompanied by adequate evaluation before biopsy. Its use may resolve the difficulties in sampling bias and detecting changes in cancer characteristics. In cases where treatment was selected based on tissue characteristics that then change, the treatment selection process must be repeated while considering new characteristics of the tumor. Rebiopsy may be used to predict therapeutic resistance and consequently redirect targeted therapies. Such knowledge may resolve the difficulties in sampling bias and also in selecting preexisting clones or formulating drug-resistant ones. Rebiopsy should be performed more often in non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jekunen, Antti P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Food+AND+Chemistry&pg=5&id=EJ1003236"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Direct</span>, Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a Quantitative Technique for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Molecules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used technique with applications in disease diagnosis, detection of contaminated foods, and screening for drugs of abuse or environmental contaminants. However, published protocols with a focus on quantitative detection of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules designed for teaching laboratories are limited. A…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Powers, Jennifer L.; Rippe, Karen Duda; Imarhia, Kelly; Swift, Aileen; Scholten, Melanie; Islam, Naina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CP....422...31N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass <span class="hlt">effect</span> on rotational diffusion of <span class="hlt">small</span> solutes in solution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rotational correlation times (?c) of two pairs of <span class="hlt">small</span> solutes, CpM(CO)3 and M2(CO)10 (M = Mn, Re), are determined in various viscous alkane solutions by narrow-band IR pump broad-band IR probe spectroscopy. By choosing these pairs of molecules, which are significantly different in mass but almost identical in volume, shape and in their expected interactions with solvents, we isolate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of mass on ?c. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of mass was observed clearly for these pairs of solute tracers, with heavier substitutions leading to larger ?c values. In the case of the CpM(CO)3 pair, in which the moments of inertia do not change much, the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of mass was seen in the ?c vs. solvent viscosity plot as result of larger slope for heavier substitution, with no clear change in the intercept. For the M2(CO)10 pair, in which the moments of inertia change significantly, this mass <span class="hlt">effect</span> can be observed through changes in both the slope and intercept.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nguyen, Son C.; Lomont, Justin P.; Harris, Charles B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29212436"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> vasopressor <span class="hlt">effect</span> of recombinant human erythropoietin on renal resistance vessels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> vasopressor <span class="hlt">effect</span> of recombinant human erythropoietin on renal resistance vessels. The contractile properties of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on isolated resistance vessels of renal and mesenteric vascular beds were studied in an in vitro model using a <span class="hlt">small</span> vessel myograph. Under isometric conditions, rHuEPO caused a contraction of this vasculature in a concentration range between 10 U\\/ml and 200</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stefan Heidenreich; Karl-Heinz Rahn; Walter Zidek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=FDI&pg=2&id=EJ808640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Outward Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment and Human Capital Development: A <span class="hlt">Small</span> Country Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McDonnell, Anthony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3765965"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> cardiovascular <span class="hlt">effects</span> of glucagon like peptide-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current gold standard therapeutic strategies for T2DM target insulin resistance or ? cell dysfunction as their core mechanisms of action. However, the use of traditional anti-diabetic drugs, in most cases, does not significantly reduce macrovascular morbidity and mortality. Among emerging anti-diabetic candidates, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) based therapies carry special cardiovascular implications, exerting both <span class="hlt">direct</span> as well as indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The <span class="hlt">direct</span> cardiovascular <span class="hlt">effects</span> of GLP-1 and its analogs remain the focus of this review. PMID:23988189</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10583827"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> <span class="hlt">effective</span> population size in the long-toed salamander.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effective</span> population sizes (Ne) of six populations of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) from Montana and Idaho, USA were estimated from allozyme data from samples collected in 1978, 1996 and 1997 using the temporal allele frequency method. Five of the six estimates ranged from 23 to 207 (mean = 123 +/- 79); one estimate was indistinguishable from infinity. In order to infer the actual Ne of salamander populations, we compared the frequency distribution of our observed Ne estimates with distributions obtained from simulated populations of known Ne. Our observed Ne estimate distribution was consistent with distributions from simulated populations with Ne values of 10, 25, and 50, suggesting an actual Ne for each of the six salamander populations of less than 100. This Ne estimate agrees with most other Ne estimates for amphibians. We conclude by discussing the conservation implications of <span class="hlt">small</span> Ne values in amphibians in the context of increasing isolation of populations due to habitat fragmentation. PMID:10583827</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Funk, W C; Tallmon, D A; Allendorf, F W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830015193&hterms=Venturi+fouling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DVenturi%2Bfouling"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical fuel property <span class="hlt">effects</span>, <span class="hlt">small</span> combustors, phase 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of nonstandard aviation fuels on a typical <span class="hlt">small</span> gas turbine combustor was analyzed. The T700/CT7 engine family was chosen as being representative of the class of aircraft power plants desired. Fuel properties, as specified by NASA, are characterized by low hydrogen content and high aromatics levels. Higher than normal smoke output and flame radiation intensity for the current T700 combustor which serves as a baseline were anticipated. It is, therefore, predicted that out of specification smoke visibility and higher than normal shell temperatures will exist when using NASA ERBS fuels with a consequence of severe reduction in cyclic life. Three new designs are proposed to compensate for the deficiencies expected with the existing design. They have emerged as the best of the eight originally proposed redesigns or combinations thereof. After the five choices that were originally made by NASA on the basis of competing performance factors, General Electric narrowed the field to the three proposed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cohen, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of illite particle thickness using a <span class="hlt">direct</span> Fourier transform of <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle X-ray scattering data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been suggested that interstratified illite-smectite (I-S) minerals are composed of aggregates of fundamental particles. Many attempts have been made to measure the thickness of such fundamental particles, but each of the methods used suffers from its own limitations and uncertainties. <span class="hlt">Small</span>-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can be used to measure the thickness of particles that scatter X-rays coherently. We used SAXS to study suspensions of Na-rectorite and other illites with varying proportions of smectite. The scattering intensity (I) was recorded as a function of the scattering vector, q = (4 ??/??) sin(??/2), where ?? is the X-ray wavelength and ?? is the scattering angle. The experimental data were treated with a <span class="hlt">direct</span> Fourier transform to obtain the pair distance distribution function (PDDF) that was then used to determine the thickness of illite particles. The Guinier and Porod extrapolation were used to obtain the scattering intensity beyond the experimental q, and the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of such extrapolations on the PDDF were examined. The thickness of independent rectorite particles (used as a reference mineral) is 18.3 A??. The SAXS results are compared with those obtained by X-ray diffraction peak broadening methods. It was found that the power-law exponent (??) obtained by fitting the data in the region of q = 0.1 -0.6 nm-1 to the power law (I = Ioq-??) is a linear function of illite particle thickness. Therefore, illite particle thickness could be predicted by the linear relationship as long as the thickness is within the limit where ?? <4.0.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shang, C.; Rice, J.A.; Eberl, D.D.; Lin, S.-J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24603636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of <span class="hlt">small</span> MEMS microphone array systems for <span class="hlt">direction</span> finding of outdoors moving vehicles.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, a MEMS microphone array system scheme is proposed which implements real-time <span class="hlt">direction</span> of arrival (DOA) estimation for moving vehicles. Wind noise is the primary source of unwanted noise on microphones outdoors. A multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is used in this paper for <span class="hlt">direction</span> finding associated with spatial coherence to discriminate between the wind noise and the acoustic signals of a vehicle. The method is implemented in a SHARC DSP processor and the real-time estimated DOA is uploaded through Bluetooth or a UART module. Experimental results in different places show the validity of the system and the deviation is no bigger than 6° in the presence of wind noise. PMID:24603636</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Xin; Huang, Jingchang; Song, Enliang; Liu, Huawei; Li, Baoqing; Yuan, Xiaobing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003948"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of <span class="hlt">Small</span> MEMS Microphone Array Systems for <span class="hlt">Direction</span> Finding of Outdoors Moving Vehicles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, a MEMS microphone array system scheme is proposed which implements real-time <span class="hlt">direction</span> of arrival (DOA) estimation for moving vehicles. Wind noise is the primary source of unwanted noise on microphones outdoors. A multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is used in this paper for <span class="hlt">direction</span> finding associated with spatial coherence to discriminate between the wind noise and the acoustic signals of a vehicle. The method is implemented in a SHARC DSP processor and the real-time estimated DOA is uploaded through Bluetooth or a UART module. Experimental results in different places show the validity of the system and the deviation is no bigger than 6° in the presence of wind noise. PMID:24603636</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Xin; Huang, Jingchang; Song, Enliang; Liu, Huawei; Li, Baoqing; Yuan, Xiaobing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPB.329...18E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> production of 99mTc at a <span class="hlt">small</span> cyclotron</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Usually 99mTc is produced indirectly through generator 99Mo/99mTc. In the present study, the <span class="hlt">direct</span> production of this radioisotope by charged particle irradiation was investigated using Monte Carlo method. After scouting of the reactions that produce 99mTc, excitation functions of these reactions were predicted by optical model components in the TALYS-1.6 code. Suitable energy range of projectile for this production was selected by spotting of maximum cross section and minimum impurity due to other emission channels. Then target geometry was designed based on stopping power calculation by the SRIM code. Thick target yield of 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc, 98Mo(p,?)99mTc and natMo(p,x)99mTc reactions was predicted by the result of excitation function and stopping power calculations. Finally, 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction was selected as a primary reaction for the <span class="hlt">direct</span> production of 99mTc and its process was simulated by employing the MCNPX code to calculate the energy distribution of proton in the 100Mo target body and estimation of residual nuclei during irradiation. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental, the theoretical, and the simulation-based (analytical and <span class="hlt">directly</span>) production yields. This study demonstrated that Monte Carlo provides a method for the design and optimization of targets for the radionuclide production purposes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eslami, M.; Kakavand, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1440..541A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of CNG <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in <span class="hlt">small</span> engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the <span class="hlt">direct</span> injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3691377"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> dose from <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect digital panoramic units</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the <span class="hlt">effective</span> dose from <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Materials and Methods Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two <span class="hlt">direct</span> and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. <span class="hlt">Effective</span> doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. Results The <span class="hlt">effective</span> doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 µSv and 37.8 µSv. By using the head phantom, the <span class="hlt">effective</span> doses from the <span class="hlt">direct</span> digital panoramic units (37.8 µSv, 27.6 µSv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 µSv, 15.9 µSv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in <span class="hlt">effective</span> doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. Conclusion To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the <span class="hlt">effective</span> doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the <span class="hlt">effective</span> doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom. PMID:23807930</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Gun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1159371"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> observations of sympathetic cholinergic vasodilatation of skeletal muscle <span class="hlt">small</span> arteries in the cat.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. The aim of this study was to examine the actual changes of the internal diameter (i.d.) of arterial vessels of skeletal muscle evoked by activation of sympathetic cholinergic nerve fibres during stimulation of the hypothalamic defence area in anaesthetized cats. 2. For this purpose, we have used our novel X-ray TV system for visualizing <span class="hlt">small</span> arteries (100-500 microm i.d.) of the triceps surae muscle and larger extramuscular arteries (500-1400 microm i.d.) of the hindlimb (the femoral (FA), popliteal (PA) and distal caudal femoral (DCFA) arteries). The passage of a contrast medium from the large extramuscular arteries to the smaller intramuscular arteries was serially measured before and during hypothalamic stimulation. 3. Hypothalamic stimulation increased mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and femoral vascular conductance. The i.d. of FA, PA, and DCFA did not change during the hypothalamic stimulation, whereas the i.d. of <span class="hlt">small</span> arteries in the triceps surae muscle increased by 48 +/- 2% (mean +/- S.E.M.) and the cross-sectional area increased concomitantly by 118%. The maximum increase in i.d. of 78 +/- 6%, was observed in arteries of 100-200 microm. These increases in diameter were markedly reduced by intra-arterial injection of atropine or by cutting the sciatic nerve, but not by phentolamine and propranolol given together. 4. The vasodilatation evoked by hypothalamic stimulation was seen in almost all the sections of the <span class="hlt">small</span> arteries observed under control conditions and was distributed along the entire length of the vessel. In addition, the number of arterial vessels that could be detected increased by 42% during hypothalamic stimulation. The newly detected arterial branches, which ranged from 100 to 300 microm in diameter, mostly arose from the branching points. 5. It is concluded that stimulation of sympathetic cholinergic nerve fibres dilates the <span class="hlt">small</span> arteries of skeletal muscle ranging from 100 to 500 microm, but not the larger extramuscular arteries. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 PMID:9097945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsukawa, K; Shindo, T; Shirai, M; Ninomiya, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850035406&hterms=Proportion&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DProportion"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early season spring <span class="hlt">small</span> grains <span class="hlt">direct</span> proportion estimation - Development and evaluation of a Landsat based methodology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Inventory Technology Development (ITD) project of the Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing (AgRISTARS) program has developed an accurate, automated technology for early season estimation of spring <span class="hlt">small</span> grains areal proportion from Landsat MSS data. The design criteria for an early season procedure included estimates available within the first 30 days of the growing season, low data processing/preprocessing requirements and no need for scene-to-scene registration. The prototype estimator which meets the design goals is based on a constrained linear model in which the observed spectral response of an entire scene is modeled as a linear combination of the major constituent elements in the scene. The procedure was evaluated over 100 sample segments collected for crop years 1976 through 1979 in the U.S. Northern Great Plains. Analysis of the test results indicated accuracy that compare favorably with both the automated at-harvest technologies tested during the FY81-82 AgRISTARS Spring <span class="hlt">Small</span> Grains Pilot experiments and earlier analyst-intensive at-harvest technologies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phinney, D. E.; Trichel, M. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.psy.tcu.edu/Current%20Webpage%202013/TenEycketal2008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Directed</span> Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Directed</span> Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness Laura L. Ten Eyck1 Children with solutions to improve our overall fitness and health. Television com- mercials hawk everything from special diets to exercise equipment as the ideal solution to being healthy. Used properly, many of the products</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, Brenton G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15154987"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Antidiabetic <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Leptin through Triglyceride Depletion of Tissues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Leptin is currently believed to control body composition largely, if not entirely, via hypothalamic receptors that regulate food intake and thermogenesis. Here we demonstrate <span class="hlt">direct</span> extraneural <span class="hlt">effects</span> of leptin to deplete fat content of both adipocytes and nonadipocytes to levels far below those of pairfed controls. In cultured pancreatic islets, leptin lowered triglyceride (TG) content by preventing TG formation from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michio Shimabukuro; Kazunori Koyama; Guoxun Chen; May-Yun Wang; Falguni Trieu; Young Lee; Christopher B. Newgard; Roger H. Unger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15016890"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Compositional Defects on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Polaron Hopping in Micas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hartree-Fock calculations and electron transfer (ET) theory were used to model the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of compositional defects on ET in the brucite-like octahedral sheet of mica. ET was modeled as a FeII/III valence interchange reaction across shared octahedral edges of the M2-M2 iron sublattice. The model entails the hopping of localized electrons and <span class="hlt">small</span> polaron behavior. Hartree-Fock calculations indicate that substitution of F for structural OH bridges increases the reorganization energy l, decreases the electronic coupling matrix element VAB, and thereby substantially decreases the hopping rate. The l increase arises from modification of the metal-ligand bond force constants, and the VAB decrease arises from reduction of superexchange interaction through anion bridges. Deprotonation of an OH bridge, consistent with a possible mechanism of maintaining charge neutrality during net oxidation, yields a net increase in the ET rate. Although substitution of Al or Mg for Fe in M1 sites distorts the structure of adjacent Fe-occupied M2 sites, the distortion has little net impact on ET rates through these M2 sites. Hence the main <span class="hlt">effect</span> of Al or Mg substitution for Fe, should it occur in the M2 sublattice, is to block ET pathways. Collectively, these findings pave the way for larger-scale oxidation/reduction models to be constructed for realistic, compositionally diverse micas</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosso, Kevin M.; Ilton, Eugene S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24018829"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of spine hardware on <span class="hlt">small</span> spinal stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of a 6 MV photon beam was used to study the dose perturbation from a titanium rod 5 mm in diameter in various <span class="hlt">small</span> fields range from 2 × 2 to 5 × 5 cm(2). The results showed that the rod increased the dose to water by ?6% at the water-rod interface because of electron backscattering and decreased the dose by ?7% in the shadow of the rod because of photon attenuation. The Pinnacle(3) treatment planning system calculations matched the MC results at the depths more than 1 cm past the rod when the correct titanium density of 4.5 g cm(-3) was used, but significantly underestimated the backscattering dose at the water-rod interface. A CT-density table with a top density of 1.82 g cm(-3) (cortical bone) is a practical way to reduce the dosimetric error from the artifacts by preventing high density assignment to them, but can underestimates the attenuation by the titanium rod by 6%. However, when multi-beam with intensity modulation is used in actual patient spinal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, the dosimetric <span class="hlt">effect</span> of assigning 4.5 instead of 1.82 g cm(-3) to titanium implants is complicated. It ranged from minimal <span class="hlt">effect</span> to 2% dose difference affecting 15% target volume in the study. When hardware is in the beam path, density override to the titanium hardware is recommended. PMID:24018829</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Xin; Yang, James N; Li, Xiaoqiang; Tailor, Ramesh; Vassilliev, Oleg; Brown, Paul; Rhines, Laurence; Chang, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8004E..1DX"> <span id="translatedtitle">A simple and efficient saliency extraction method based on multi-scale horizon-<span class="hlt">directional</span> filter for infrared dim <span class="hlt">small</span> target detection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a simple and computationally efficient saliency extraction method for detecting dim <span class="hlt">small</span> target from single frame in heterogeneous background. The proposed method is based on background subtraction (BS), which identifies targets from the portion of a image that differs significantly from a background model. A set of horizon-<span class="hlt">directional</span> filters (HDF) with multi-scales are first implemented to <span class="hlt">effectively</span> recover the background maps from the input image. As a result, the foreground maps are extracted by computing the absolute difference between the input image and the estimated background maps. Then the foreground maps are fused into the total saliency map using a simple scheme. Finally, the experimental results of various cluttered background images show that the proposed method is efficient and has an outstanding performance in dim <span class="hlt">small</span> target detection just by thresholding the saliency map.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xia, Renbo; Zhao, Jinbin; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng; Zhou, Guangchao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025887"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of desert wildfires on desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and other <span class="hlt">small</span> vertebrates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the results of standardized surveys to determine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of wildfires on desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and their habitats in the northeastern Mojave Desert and northeastern Sonoran Desert. Portions of 6 burned areas (118 to 1,750 ha) were examined for signs of mortality of vertebrates. <span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of fire in desert habitats included animal mortality and loss of vegetation cover. A range of 0 to 7 tortoises was encountered during surveys, and live tortoises were found on all transects. In addition to desert tortoises, only <span class="hlt">small</span> (<1 kg) mammals and reptiles (11 taxa) were found dead on the study areas. We hypothesize that indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of fire on desert habitats might result in changes in the composition of diets and loss of vegetation cover, resulting in an increase in predation and loss of protection from temperature extremes. These changes in habitat also might cause changes in vertebrate communities in burned areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Esque, T.C.; Schwalbe, C.R.; DeFalco, L.A.; Duncan, R.B.; Hughes, T.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A41D0743C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in Aerosol and Aerosol <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Radiative <span class="hlt">Effects</span> Near Clouds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aerosols and their radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> change in the vicinity of clouds. The high relative humidity (RH) of the environment near low-level clouds causes hygroscopic aerosols to swell, thereby changing their optical properties. Aircraft observations of relative humidity and particle concentrations taken during INDOEX are used to document the increases in RH and the changes in particle concentrations in the vicinity of clouds. These changes along with the chemical composition of the aerosol are used to estimate the changes in optical properties and the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of these changes on the aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> as a function of distance from low-level clouds. Observations from the multichannel cloud radiometer (MCR) during INDOEX are used to compare the calculated changes with those observed. Part of the changes in the observed radiances are due to changes in particle concentrations and to particle growth, but part is also due to the increased illumination of the cloud-free column as a result of radiation reflected by the sides and tops of nearby clouds. Visible and near infrared radiances from the MCR are used to estimate the relative magnitudes of the different contributions to the changes. As such <span class="hlt">effects</span> decrease with distance from cloud, daytime CALIPSO lidar observations are used to determine the sizes of cloud-free ocean regions in which low-level clouds reside. This distribution provides the probability of distances to cloud for aerosols in the cloud-free regions. The observed changes and the distribution of sizes for cloud-free ocean regions are used to estimate the contribution of the changes in the <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aerosol in the vicinity of low-level clouds to the total <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aerosols for oceans. These changes are estimated to be comparable to the ~1 Wm-2 uncertainty in the ~4.6 Wm-2 <span class="hlt">direct</span> aerosol <span class="hlt">effect</span> derived from CERES observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coakley, J. A.; Twohy, C. H.; Tahnk, W. R.; Hayes, C. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10161201"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other <span class="hlt">small</span> estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of <span class="hlt">effects</span> can be accounted for by <span class="hlt">direct</span> size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral <span class="hlt">effects</span> on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6181033"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other <span class="hlt">small</span> estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of <span class="hlt">effects</span> can be accounted for by <span class="hlt">direct</span> size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral <span class="hlt">effects</span> on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology); Rose, K.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21160594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design and Experimental Study for Development of Pb-Bi Cooled <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Contact Boiling Water <span class="hlt">Small</span> Fast Reactor (PBWFR)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A design concept of Pb-Bi cooled <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling water <span class="hlt">small</span> fast reactor (PBWFR) has been formulated with some design parameters identified. In the PBWFR, water is injected into hot Pb-Bi above the core, and <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling takes place in the chimney. The boiling two-phase flow in the chimney serves as a steam lift pump and a steam generator. A two-region core is designed. A decrease in reactivity was estimated to be 1.5 % dk/kk' for 15 years. A fuel assembly has 271 fuel rods with 12.0 mm in diameter and 15.9 mm in pitch in a hexagonal wrapper tube. The chimney, cyclone separators and chevron dryers, <span class="hlt">direct</span> heat exchangers (DHX), reactor vessel air cooling systems (RVACS) and guard vessel are designed. For the technical development of the PBWFR, experimental and analytical studies are performed for Pb-Bi <span class="hlt">direct</span> contact boiling two-phase flow, steel corrosion in Pb-Bi flow, oxygen control and oxygen sensor, and removal of polonium contamination. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takahashi, M.; Obara, T.; Iguchi, T.; Otsubo, A.; Kondo, M.; Qi, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Yusibani, E.; Akashi, T.; Yamada, A.; Nei, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, N1-18 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan); Hata, K.; Hara, K. [Nuclear Development Corporation, 622-12 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchida, S.; Osada, H.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuzawa, K.; Sawa, N.; Yamada, Y.; Kurome, K.; Okubo, Y. [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd., 2-16-5 Kohnan, Minatoku, Tokyo (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhPro...2...93C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> hydrogen generator testing for on-site <span class="hlt">small</span> engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a new concept of hydrogen generator testing for on-site <span class="hlt">small</span> engine. In general, there is a trade-off between simpler vehicle design and infrastructure issues, for instance, liquid fuels such as gasoline and methanol for <span class="hlt">small</span> engine use. In this article we compare the hydrogen gases combination the gasoline between normal systems (gasoline only) for <span class="hlt">small</span> engine. The advantage of the hydrogen combines gasoline for <span class="hlt">small</span> engine saving the gasoline 25%. Furthermore, the new concept of hydrogen combination for diesel engine, bio-diesel engine, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas vehicle (NGV), which is discussed in details.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chaiwongsa, Praitoon; Pornsuwancharoen, Nithiroth; Yupapin, Preecha P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6214490"> <span id="translatedtitle">The study of <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> perturbations on chaotic systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report discusses the following topics on <span class="hlt">small</span> perturbations on chaotic systems: controlling chaos; shadowing and noise reduction; chaotic scattering; random maps; magnetic dynamo; and aids transmission. (LSP)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grebogi, C. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA). Lab. for Plasma Research); Yorke, J.A. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA). Inst. for Physical Science and Technology)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750021842&hterms=gelatine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgelatine"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> observation of <span class="hlt">small</span> cluster mobility and ripening. [during annealing of metal films on amorphous substrates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence is reported for the simultaneous occurrence of Ostwald ripening and short-distance cluster mobility during annealing of discontinuous metal films on clean amorphous substrates. The annealing characteristics of very thin particulate deposits of silver on amorphized clean surfaces of single crystalline thin graphite substrates were studied by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) under controlled environmental conditions (residual gas pressure of 10 to the minus 9th power torr) in the temperature range from 25 to 450 C. Sputter cleaning of the substrate surface, metal deposition, and annealing were monitored by TEM observation. Pseudostereographic presentation of micrographs in different annealing stages, the observation of the annealing behavior at cast shadow edges, and measurements with an electronic image analyzing system were employed to aid the visual perception and the analysis of changes in deposit structure recorded during annealing. Slow Ostwald ripening was found to occur in the entire temperature range, but the overriding surface transport mechanism was short-distance cluster mobility.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApSS..290..240L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of stable ultra-<span class="hlt">small</span> Cu nanoparticles for <span class="hlt">direct</span> writing flexible electronics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, pure Cu nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized and the Cu nano-ink was prepared for <span class="hlt">direct</span> writing on photo paper using a roller pen. The tri-sodium citrate was used as initial reducing-cum-surfactant agent followed by hydrazine as a second massive reducing agent and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as extra surfactant agent. From the XRD, TEM, and HR-TEM analyses, the synthesized particles are confirmed to be Cu in spherical shape with sizes range of 2.5 ± 1.0 nm. By analyzing the FT-IR spectroscopy and TGA curves, it was found that the obtained particles capped with tri-sodium citrate and CTAB layers are stable to oxidation up to the temperature 228 °C. The reduced size and enhanced air-stability of the Cu NPs result in an improved particle density upon sintering, which is mainly responsible for the increased conductivity of the Cu patterns. The resistivity of Cu patterns sintered in Ar at 160 °C for 2 h is 7.2 ± 0.6 ?? cm, which is 4.40 times the bulk Cu resistivity. The drawn Cu lines exhibited excellent integrity and good conductivity, which were experimentally tested. Moreover, a Cu electrode and a sample RFID antenna were successfully made.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Wei; Chen, Minfang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.5513H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting the <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> and <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative forcing of aerosols</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative forcing (DRF), which is the change in DRE from pre-industrial to present-day (not including climate feedbacks). In this study we couple a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with a radiative transfer model (RRTMG) to contrast these concepts. We estimate a global mean all-sky aerosol DRF of -0.36 Wm-2 and a DRE of -1.83 Wm-2 for 2010. Therefore, natural sources of aerosol (here including fire) affect the global energy balance over four times more than do present-day anthropogenic aerosols. If global anthropogenic emissions of aerosols and their precursors continue to decline as projected in recent scenarios due to <span class="hlt">effective</span> pollution emission controls, the DRF will shrink (-0.22 Wm-2 for 2100). Secondary metrics, like DRE, that quantify temporal changes in both natural and anthropogenic aerosol burdens are therefore needed to quantify the total <span class="hlt">effect</span> of aerosols on climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heald, C. L.; Ridley, D. A.; Kroll, J. H.; Barrett, S. R. H.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Alvarado, M. J.; Holmes, C. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1332925H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative forcing: the case for characterizing the <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> of aerosols</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is often confused with the <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative forcing (DRF), which is the change in DRE from pre-industrial to present-day (not including climate feedbacks). We use here a coupled global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and radiative transfer model (RRTMG) to contrast these concepts. We estimate a global mean all-sky aerosol DRF of -0.36 Wm-2 and a DRE of -1.83 Wm-2 for 2010. Therefore, natural sources of aerosol (here including fire) affect the global energy balance over four times more than do present-day anthropogenic aerosols. If global anthropogenic emissions of aerosols and their precursors continue to decline as projected in recent scenarios due to <span class="hlt">effective</span> pollution emission controls, the DRF will shrink (-0.22 Wm-2 for 2100), while the climate feedbacks on aerosols under rising global temperatures will likely amplify. Secondary metrics, like DRE, that quantify temporal changes in both natural and anthropogenic aerosol burdens are therefore needed to quantify the total <span class="hlt">effect</span> of aerosols on climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heald, C. L.; Ridley, D. A.; Kroll, J. H.; Barrett, S. R. H.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Alvarado, M. J.; Holmes, C. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Add&pg=4&id=EJ949781"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brisk and <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Fluency Instruction for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Groups</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluency is known as the bridge between phonics and comprehension. Teachers of reading provide high-quality instruction in phonics and decoding strategies, usually in a <span class="hlt">small</span>-group format, but may be unsure how to insert fluency instruction into the <span class="hlt">small</span>-group lesson. This article presents key concepts in fluency instruction and a description of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilson, Judith K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003WRR....39.1168L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of wood on debris flow runout in <span class="hlt">small</span> mountain watersheds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Debris flows have typically been viewed as two-phase mixtures of sediment and water, but in forested mountain landscapes, wood can represent a sizable fraction of total flow volume. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of this third phase on flow behavior are poorly understood. To evaluate whether wood can have a significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on debris flow runout in <span class="hlt">small</span> mountainous watersheds, we used a landscape-scale model combining empirical, stochastic, and physical submodels of storms, fires, forest growth, tree fall, wood decay, soil production and diffusion, landslide initiation, debris flow runout, and fluvial sediment transport. We examined changes in the cumulative distribution function of debris flow runout lengths in a <span class="hlt">small</span> (2 km2) watershed in the Oregon Coast Range due to presence or absence of two hypothesized <span class="hlt">effects</span> of wood: (1) velocity reduction due to entrainment of wood in the runout path and (2) velocity reduction due to changes in flow <span class="hlt">direction</span> angle. The model was calibrated such that the distribution for simulations including both <span class="hlt">effects</span> was similar to that measured in the study basin, and amounts of wood in the simulation and the field, both fallen in <span class="hlt">small</span> valleys and incorporated by debris flows, were comparable. Removal of either <span class="hlt">effect</span>, or both, significantly shifted runout length distributions to longer lengths. Simulations and field observations indicate that with wood, fluvial transport is a significant source of sediment output, few debris flows reach the outlet, and debris flow deposits are widely distributed throughout the network. Simulations indicate that without wood, basin sediment yield greatly increases, that yield is dominated by longer-runout debris flows, and that debris flow deposits are concentrated in the low-gradient reach near the outlet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lancaster, Stephen T.; Hayes, Shannon K.; Grant, Gordon E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RJPCA..88.1790N"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> additions of carbon nanotubes on the electrical conductivity of polyurethane elastomer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> (0.002-0.018 wt %) additions of single-walled carbon nanotubes on the dielectric properties and electrical conductivity of crosslinked polyurethane elastomer is studied in the temperature range of 133-453 K and the 10-3 to 105 Hz range of electric field frequencies. It is shown that the dependence of <span class="hlt">direct</span> current conductivity ? dc on temperature deviates significantly from the Arrhenius dependence and is described by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation ? dc = ? dc0exp{- DT 0/( T - T 0)}, where T 0 is the Vogel temperature and D is the strength parameter. A correlation is found between the nonmonotonic dependences of the glass transition temperature ( T g), D parameter, and ? dc and the concentration of nanotubes with earlier results for their <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the physicomechanical characteristics (strength and Young's modulus) of these systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Novikov, G. F.; Rabenok, E. V.; Estrin, Ya. I.; Ol'hov, Yu. A.; Badamshina, E. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010091708&hterms=anal&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Danal"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Speed (Centrifugal Load) on Gear Crack Propagation <span class="hlt">Direction</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of rotational speed (centrifugal force) on gear crack propagation <span class="hlt">direction</span> was explored. Gears were analyzed using finite element analysis and linear elastic fracture mechanics. The analysis was validated with crack propagation experiments performed in a spur gear fatigue rig. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of speed, rim thickness, and initial crack location on gear crack propagation <span class="hlt">direction</span> were investigated. Crack paths from the finite element method correlated well with those deduced from gear experiments. For the test gear with a backup ratio (rim thickness divided by tooth height) of nib = 0.5, cracks initiating in the tooth fillet propagated to rim fractures when run at a speed of 10,000 rpm and became tooth fractures for speeds slower than 10,000 rpm for both the experiments and anal sis. From additional analysis, speed had little <span class="hlt">effect</span> on crack propagation <span class="hlt">direction</span> except when initial crack locations were near the tooth/rim fracture transition point for a given backup ratio. When at that point, higher speeds tended to promote rim fracture while lower speeds (or neglecting centrifugal force) produced tooth fractures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lewicki, David G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1406.6477v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> mapping of nuclear shell <span class="hlt">effects</span> in the heaviest elements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantum-mechanical shell <span class="hlt">effects</span> are expected to strongly enhance nuclear binding on an "island of stability" of superheavy elements. The predicted center at proton number $Z=114,120$, or $126$ and neutron number $N=184$ has been substantiated by the recent synthesis of new elements up to $Z=118$. However the location of the center and the extension of the island of stability remain vague. High-precision mass spectrometry allows the <span class="hlt">direct</span> measurement of nuclear binding energies and thus the determination of the strength of shell <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Here, we present such measurements for nobelium and lawrencium isotopes, which also pin down the deformed shell gap at $N=152$.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Minaya Ramirez; D. Ackermann; K. Blaum; M. Block; C. Droese; Ch. E. Düllmann; M. Dworschak; M. Eibach; S. Eliseev; E. Haettner; F. Herfurth; F. P. Heßberger; S. Hofmann; J. Ketelaer; G. Marx; M. Mazzocco; D. Nesterenko; Yu. N. Novikov; W. R. Plaß; D. Rodríguez; C. Scheidenberger; L. Schweikhard; P. G. Thirolf; C. Weber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1406.6477.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> mapping of nuclear shell <span class="hlt">effects</span> in the heaviest elements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantum-mechanical shell <span class="hlt">effects</span> are expected to strongly enhance nuclear binding on an "island of stability" of superheavy elements. The predicted center at proton number $Z=114,120$, or $126$ and neutron number $N=184$ has been substantiated by the recent synthesis of new elements up to $Z=118$. However the location of the center and the extension of the island of stability remain vague. High-precision mass spectrometry allows the <span class="hlt">direct</span> measurement of nuclear binding energies and thus the determination of the strength of shell <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Here, we present such measurements for nobelium and lawrencium isotopes, which also pin down the deformed shell gap at $N=152$.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramirez, E Minaya; Blaum, K; Block, M; Droese, C; Düllmann, Ch E; Dworschak, M; Eibach, M; Eliseev, S; Haettner, E; Herfurth, F; Heßberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Ketelaer, J; Marx, G; Mazzocco, M; Nesterenko, D; Novikov, Yu N; Plaß, W R; Rodríguez, D; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L; Thirolf, P G; Weber, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22878498"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> mapping of nuclear shell <span class="hlt">effects</span> in the heaviest elements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantum-mechanical shell <span class="hlt">effects</span> are expected to strongly enhance nuclear binding on an "island of stability" of superheavy elements. The predicted center at proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and neutron number N = 184 has been substantiated by the recent synthesis of new elements up to Z = 118. However, the location of the center and the extension of the island of stability remain vague. High-precision mass spectrometry allows the <span class="hlt">direct</span> measurement of nuclear binding energies and thus the determination of the strength of shell <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Here, we present such measurements for nobelium and lawrencium isotopes, which also pin down the deformed shell gap at N = 152. PMID:22878498</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minaya Ramirez, E; Ackermann, D; Blaum, K; Block, M; Droese, C; Düllmann, Ch E; Dworschak, M; Eibach, M; Eliseev, S; Haettner, E; Herfurth, F; Heßberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Ketelaer, J; Marx, G; Mazzocco, M; Nesterenko, D; Novikov, Yu N; Plaß, W R; Rodríguez, D; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L; Thirolf, P G; Weber, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3431951"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cost-<span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of Health Risk Reduction After Lifestyle Education in the <span class="hlt">Small</span> Workplace</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Investigations suggest that worksite health promotions in large companies decrease employer health costs and the risk for chronic disease. However, evidence of the success of such programs in <span class="hlt">small</span> organizations is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a worksite health promotion program improves health risk and is cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> for a <span class="hlt">small</span> employer. Methods Intervention (n = 29) and comparison (n = 31) participants from a 172-employee organization underwent health screening of risk factors for coronary heart disease at baseline (fall 2006) and at 12 months (fall 2007). The intervention group attended lifestyle education videoconferences and reported physical activity. We used the Framingham Risk Score to calculate risk of coronary heart disease. To calculate cost-<span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>, we used <span class="hlt">direct</span> employer costs of the program divided by either the relative reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or the absolute change in coronary heart disease risk. Results At 12 months, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and number of metabolic syndrome markers were significantly higher in the comparison group than in the intervention group. Total cholesterol was significantly lower at 12 months than at baseline in the intervention group. Waist circumference and number of metabolic syndrome markers increased significantly from baseline in the comparison group. Cost-<span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the intervention was $10.17 per percentage-point reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and $454.23 per point reduction in coronary heart disease risk. Conclusion This study demonstrated the cost-<span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in a <span class="hlt">small</span> organization of a worksite health promotion that improved low-density lipoproteins and coronary heart disease risk in participating employees. PMID:22575081</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allen, Jorie C.; Lewis, James B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22806785"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rapid and cost <span class="hlt">effective</span> method in purifying <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purification of RNA fragments from a complex mixture is a very common technique, and requires consideration of the time, cost, purity and yield of the purified RNA fragments. This study describes the fastest method of purifying <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA with the lowest cost possible, without compromizing the yield and purity. The technique describes the purification of <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA from polyacrylamide gel, resulting in a good yield of <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA with minimum experimental steps in avoiding degradation of the RNA, obviating the use of ethidium bromide and phenol-chloroform extraction, as well as siliconized glass wools to remove the polyacrylamide gel particles. The purified <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA is suitable for a wide variety of applications such as ligation, end labelling with radio isotope, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-PCR), Northern blotting, experimental RNomics study and also Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). PMID:22806785</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Citartan, Marimuthu; Tan, Soo-Choon; Tang, Thean-Hock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1667.6447C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient Calculation of <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Potential and Gravity on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Bodies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Cheng et al. (2002) plate model method for calculating gravity of <span class="hlt">small</span> bodies is compared quantitatively to the Werner and Scheeres (1997) method; the methods are comparably accurate but the former method is computationally simpler.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, A. F.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.; Kahn, E. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=midwest+AND+pressure&pg=2&id=ED233427"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Directions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To examine the current status of speech and theatre departments in <span class="hlt">small</span> (1000 to 3000 students) U.S. liberal arts colleges, 24 colleges in the Midwest and Great Lakes areas were surveyed. The survey revealed that the colleges organized speech and theatre in one of four ways; they either (1) combined departments, (2) split the two into separate…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manning, Helen H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3836834"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> and Implementation Research: <span class="hlt">Directions</span> for Neurology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is an enormous unmet need for knowledge about how new insights from discovery and translational research can yield measurable, population-level improvements in health and reduction in mortality among those having or at risk for neurological disease. Once several, well-conducted randomized controlled trials establish the efficacy of a given therapy, implementation research can generate new knowledge about barriers to uptake of the therapy into widespread clinical care, and what strategies are <span class="hlt">effective</span> in overcoming those barriers and in addressing health disparities. Comparative <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> research aims to elucidate the relative value (including clinical benefit, clinical harms, and/or costs) of alternative efficacious management approaches to a neurological disorder, generally through <span class="hlt">direct</span> comparisons, and may include comparisons of methodologies for implementation. Congress has recently appropriated resources and established an institute to prioritize funding for such research. Neurologists and neuroscientists should understand the scope and objectives of comparative <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and implementation research, their range of methodological approaches (formal literature syntheses, randomized trials, observational studies, modeling), and existing research resources (centers for literature synthesis, registries, practice networks) relevant to research for neurological conditions, in order to close the well-documented “evidence-to-practice gap.” Future <span class="hlt">directions</span> include building this research resource capacity, producing scientists trained to conduct rigorous comparative <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and implementation research, and embracing innovative strategies to set research priorities in these areas. PMID:22718542</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vickrey, Barbara G.; Hirtz, Deborah; Waddy, Salina; Cheng, Eric M.; Johnston, S. Claiborne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3304147"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Direction</span> on Cursor Moving Kinematics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There have been only few studies to substantiate the kinematic characteristics of cursor movement. In this study, a quantitative experimental research method was used to explore the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of moving <span class="hlt">direction</span> on the kinematics of cursor movement in 24 typical young persons using our previously developed computerized measuring program. The results of multiple one way repeated measures ANOVAs and post hoc LSD tests demonstrated that the moving <span class="hlt">direction</span> had <span class="hlt">effects</span> on average velocity, movement time, movement unit and peak velocity. Moving leftward showed better efficiency than moving rightward, upward and downward from the kinematic evidences such as velocity, movement unit and time. Moreover, the unique pattern of the power spectral density (PSD) of velocity (strategy for power application) explained why the smoothness was still maintained while moving leftward even under an unstable situation with larger momentum. Moreover, the information from this cursor moving study can guide us to relocate the toolbars and icons in the window interface, especially for individuals with physical disabilities whose performances are easily interrupted while controlling the cursor in specific <span class="hlt">directions</span>. PMID:22438745</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meng, Ling-Fu; Chen, Hsin-Yung; Lu, Chiu-Ping; Chen, Ming-Chung; Chu, Chi-Nung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22533631J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direction</span> Dependent <span class="hlt">Effects</span> In Widefield Wideband Full Stokes Radio Imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy is affected by instrumental and atmospheric <span class="hlt">effects</span> which introduce <span class="hlt">direction</span> dependent gains.The antenna power pattern varies both as a function of time and frequency. The broad band time varying nature of the antenna power pattern when not corrected leads to gross errors in full stokes imaging and flux estimation. In this poster we explore the errors that arise in image deconvolution while not accounting for the time and frequency dependence of the antenna power pattern. Simulations were conducted with the wideband full stokes power pattern of the Very Large Array(VLA) antennas to demonstrate the level of errors arising from <span class="hlt">direction</span>-dependent gains. Our estimate is that these errors will be significant in wide-band full-pol mosaic imaging as well and algorithms to correct these errors will be crucial for many up-coming large area surveys (e.g. VLASS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jagannathan, Preshanth; Bhatnagar, Sanjay; Rau, Urvashi; Taylor, Russ</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18630788"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span>-to-consumer advertising: its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on stakeholders.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The escalating growth in the development of pharmaceutical drugs has caused the pharmaceutical industry to market drugs <span class="hlt">directly</span> to consumers. <span class="hlt">Direct</span>-to-consumer (DTC) advertising has increased immensely in the past 15 years and continues to grow each year. The advantages of DTC advertising include an increase in consumer knowledge, patient autonomy, and possibly providing physicians and pharmacists with up-to-date information about the recent trends in the marketplace. However, there is also an equally notable list of disadvantages, which include concerns about the quality of information provided, loss in physician productivity due to time spent convincing patients that what they want is not in their best interest, and increases in the reimbursement expenditure of the insurers. Because of these conflicting outcomes, the issue of DTC advertising has become controversial. This report offers an overview of DTC advertising and focuses on its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on physicians, pharmacists, consumers, insurers, the government, and pharmaceutical manufacturers. PMID:18630788</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montoya, Isaac D; Lee-Dukes, Gwen; Shah, Dhvani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3314333"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> in a logit model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article discusses a method by Erikson et al. (2005) for decomposing a total <span class="hlt">effect</span> in a logit model into <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Moreover, this article extends this method in three ways. First, in the original method the variable through which the indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> occurs is assumed to be normally distributed. In this article the method is generalized by allowing this variable to have any distribution. Second, the original method did not provide standard errors for the estimates. In this article the bootstrap is proposed as a method of providing those. Third, I show how to include control variables in this decomposition, which was not allowed in the original method. The original method and these extensions are implemented in the ldecomp package. PMID:22468140</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buis, Maarten L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22468140"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> in a logit model.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article discusses a method by Erikson et al. (2005) for decomposing a total <span class="hlt">effect</span> in a logit model into <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Moreover, this article extends this method in three ways. First, in the original method the variable through which the indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> occurs is assumed to be normally distributed. In this article the method is generalized by allowing this variable to have any distribution. Second, the original method did not provide standard errors for the estimates. In this article the bootstrap is proposed as a method of providing those. Third, I show how to include control variables in this decomposition, which was not allowed in the original method. The original method and these extensions are implemented in the ldecomp package. PMID:22468140</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buis, Maarten L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19419927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacogenomic approaches to individualizing chemotherapy for non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer: current status and new <span class="hlt">directions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At present, selection of chemotherapy regimens for individual patients remains largely an empirical process. Nevertheless, developing pharmacogenomic approaches for selection of chemotherapy through predictive biomarkers now appears feasible because of improved understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms. Although diverse terminology has been applied to such pharmacogenomic approaches (individualizing, customizing, or personalizing therapy), all rely on commonly shared principles for assessing tumor- or host-related factors. Herein, we summarize emerging data regarding pharmacogenomic approaches to treatment selection for non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer, focusing primarily on biomarkers relevant to 2 important chemotherapeutic drug classes: platinum compounds and antimicrotubule agents. The results of pilot studies and the first randomized prospective trial testing this concept are described, including limitations in the clinical setting of advanced-stage disease. Methodologic and technical aspects of pharmacogenomic approaches are elucidated, recommendations for clinical application are provided, and new <span class="hlt">directions</span> in this field are projected. PMID:19419927</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gautschi, Oliver; Mack, Philip C; Davies, Angela M; Jablons, David M; Rosell, Rafael; Gandara, David R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21820369"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of body weight on adult wages.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is <span class="hlt">directly</span> associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a <span class="hlt">direct</span> nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total <span class="hlt">effect</span> of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:21820369</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4193744"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Pro-Inflammatory <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Prorenin on Microglia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neuroinflammation has been implicated in hypertension, and microglia have been proposed to play an important role in the progression of this disease. Here, we have studied whether microglia are activated within cardiovascular regulatory area(s) of the brain during hypertension, especially in high blood pressure that is associated with chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-system. In addition, we determined whether prorenin, an essential component of the renin-angiotensin-system, exerts <span class="hlt">direct</span> pro-inflammatory <span class="hlt">effects</span> on these microglia. Our data indicate that two rodent models which display neurogenic hypertension and over activation of the renin-angiotensin-system in the brain (sRA mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats) exhibit microglial activation, and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an area crucial for regulation of sympathetic outflow. Further, the renin-angiotensin-system component prorenin elicits <span class="hlt">direct</span> activation of hypothalamic microglia in culture and induction of pro-inflammatory mechanisms in these cells, <span class="hlt">effects</span> that involve prorenin receptor-induced NF?B activation. In addition, the prorenin-elicited increases in cytokine expression were fully abolished by microglial inhibitor minocycline, and were potentiated by pre-treatment of cells with angiotensin II. Taken together with our previous data which indicate that pro-inflammatory processes in the paraventricular nucleus are involved in the hypertensive action of renin-angiotensin-system, the novel discovery that prorenin exerts <span class="hlt">direct</span> stimulatory <span class="hlt">effects</span> on microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production provides support for the idea that renin-angiotensin-system -induced neurogenic hypertension is not restricted to actions of angiotensin II alone. PMID:25302502</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Peng; Grobe, Justin L.; Desland, Fiona A.; Zhou, Guannan; Shen, Xiao Z.; Shan, Zhiying; Liu, Meng; Raizada, Mohan K.; Sumners, Colin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.965G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> over Eastern Mediterranean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we present results from the QUADIEEMS project which is focused on the aerosol-cloud relations and the aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> over the region of Eastern Mediterranean. First, a gridded dataset at a resolution of 0.1x0.1 degrees (~10km) with aerosol and cloud related parameters was compiled, using level-2 satellite observations from MODIS TERRA (3/2000-12/2012) and AQUA (7/2002-12/2012). The aerosol gridded dataset has been validated against sunphotometric measurements from 12 AERONET ground stations, showing that generally MODIS overestimates aerosol optical depth (AOD550). Then, the AOD550 and fine mode ratio (FMR550) data from MODIS were combined with aerosol index (AI) data from the Earth Probe TOMS and OMI satellite sensors, wind field data from the ERA-interim reanalysis and AOD550 data for various aerosol types from the GOCART model and the MACC reanalysis to quantify the relative contribution of different aerosol types (marine, dust, anthropogenic, fine-mode natural) to the total AOD550. The aerosol-cloud relations over the region were investigated with the use of the joint high resolution aerosol-cloud gridded dataset. Specifically, we focused on the seasonal relations between the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and AOD550. The aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> and first indirect radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> was then calculated for each aerosol type separately making use of the aerosol relative contribution to the total AOD550, the CDND-AOD550 relations and satellite-based parameterizations. The <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> was also quantified using simulations from a regional climate model (REGCM4), simulations with a radiative transfer model (SBDART) and the three methods were finally intervalidated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georgoulias, Aristeidis; Alexandri, Georgia; Zanis, Prodromos; Ntogras, Christos; Poeschl, Ulrich; Kourtidis, Kostas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315028"> <span id="translatedtitle">The allele-frequency spectrum in a decoupled Moran model with mutation, drift, and <span class="hlt">directional</span> selection, assuming <span class="hlt">small</span> mutation rates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze a decoupled Moran model with haploid population size N, a biallelic locus under mutation and drift with scaled forward and backward mutation rates ?1=?1N and ?0=?0N, and <span class="hlt">directional</span> selection with scaled strength ?=sN. With <span class="hlt">small</span> scaled mutation rates ?0 and ?1, which is appropriate for single nucleotide polymorphism data in highly recombining regions, we derive a simple approximate equilibrium distribution for polymorphic alleles with a constant of proportionality. We also put forth an even simpler model, where all mutations originate from monomorphic states. Using this model we derive the sojourn times, conditional on the ancestral and fixed allele, and under equilibrium the distributions of fixed and polymorphic alleles and fixation rates. Furthermore, we also derive the distribution of <span class="hlt">small</span> samples in the diffusion limit and provide convenient recurrence relations for calculating this distribution. This enables us to give formulas analogous to the Ewens–Watterson estimator of ? for biased mutation rates and selection. We apply this theory to a polymorphism dataset of fourfold degenerate sites in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:22269092</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vogl, Claus; Clemente, Florian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24706613"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> coupling of annexin A5 to VSOP yields <span class="hlt">small</span>, protein-covered nanoprobes for MR imaging of apoptosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Annexin A5 (Anx) has been extensively used for imaging apoptosis by single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, optical imaging and MRI. Recently we introduced ultrasmall Anx-VSOP (very <span class="hlt">small</span> iron oxide particles)--the smallest high-relaxivity probe for MRI of apoptosis. Here we present a simplified method for the <span class="hlt">direct</span> coupling of Anx to VSOP, which resulted in nanoparticles that are nearly completely covered with human Anx. These superparamagnetic nanoparticles are only 14.4 ± 2.3 nm in diameter and have higher T2* relaxivity. Compared with existing probes, the <span class="hlt">small</span> size and the Anx shielding provide prerequisites for good biocompatibility and bioavailability in target tissues. In vitro characterization showed specific binding of Anx-VSOP to apoptotic cells, which led to a signal loss in T2*-weighted MR measurements, while control probe M1324-VSOP produced no such change. Exploratory MRI was done in vivo in a cardiac model of ischemia-reperfusion damage illustrating the potential of the probe for future studies. PMID:24706613</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Figge, Lena; Appler, Franziska; Chen, Howard H; Sosnovik, David E; Schnorr, Jörg; Seitz, Oliver; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Schellenberger, Eyk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/r405n5l5n860401k.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that <span class="hlt">small</span>-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been <span class="hlt">directly</span> documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/37g3n63603522742.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that <span class="hlt">small</span>-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been <span class="hlt">directly</span> documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20797868"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple <span class="hlt">direct</span> and sequential Auger <span class="hlt">effect</span> in the rare gases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of a magnetic bottle spectrometer with synchrotron radiation allows multi dimensional electron spectroscopy to be performed by detecting in coincidence all electrons (2, 3, 4) ejected in multiple ionization events. Multiple Auger <span class="hlt">effect</span> following inner-shell ionization can be investigated in this way. Application of the technique to rare gases (Xe 4d and Kr 3d) double Auger decay reveals all the energy pathways involved. The dominant decay path proceeds by Auger cascade through autoionizing states of the doubly charged ion. Processes where 3 electrons are involved are also observed as <span class="hlt">direct</span> double Auger and as involving precursor Rydberg series.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Palaudoux, J.; Andric, L. [LCP-MR, CNRS et UPMC, 11, rue P. and M. Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Aoto, T.; Ito, K. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Hikosaka, Y. [IMS, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Feifel, R.; Eland, J. H. D. [PTCL, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3134781"> <span id="translatedtitle">Demonstration of <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of estrogen on rat spermatogenesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence of an estrogen receptor in Leydig cell cytosol suggests that estrogen could have a <span class="hlt">direct</span> action on Leydig cell function. We have shown earlier the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of estradiol on testosterone biosynthesis. We report in this communication <span class="hlt">effect</span> of estradiol on spermatogenesis using hypophysectomized rats treated daily for four days with 400 IU hCG/Pregnyl) and 1 IU FSH (Pergonal), a model that eliminates the possibility of feedback <span class="hlt">effects</span> of estradiol on gonadotropin secretion. Estradiol was administered in subcutaneous silastic capsules. The control animals had empty capsules. The inhibition of spermatogenesis, after estradiol treatment, was marked by the presence of multinucleated giant cells, disorganization of the germinal elements, accumulation of cellular debris and the absence of late spermatid and spermatozoa. These changes in the histoarchitecture of testis were accompanied by the reduction in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the thickness of the basement membrane. Morphologically Leydig cells were, however, normal. Inhibition of spermatogenesis was in relation to the amount of estrogen available/administered as estradiol capsule of 0.25 cm did not evoke significant changes in the histology of the testis whereas estradiol capsule of 4 cm caused maximum damage to the spermatogenesis. Similarly progressive damage to the spermatogenesis was quite apparent as the number of days increased after estradiol capsule implantation. Neither high (1600 IU/day/4 days) nor low /5.25 IU/day) doses of hCG synergized the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of estradiol on spermatogenesis. Testis weight was significantly reduced after estradiol treatment but weight of the epididymis and accessory sex organs did not change. Body weight was also not <span class="hlt">effected</span> by estradiol treatment. PMID:3134781</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalla, N R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+technology&pg=2&id=ED524920"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Information Technology in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Businesses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information technology (IT) has become a strategic vehicle for <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses to achieve and sustain their competitive advantage. Prior research has suggested that information technology plays an important role in the decision-making process. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between organizational IT performance and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Newman, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhBio..10d5001Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">Folding free energy surfaces of three <span class="hlt">small</span> proteins under crowding: validation of the postprocessing method by <span class="hlt">direct</span> simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a ‘postprocessing’ method for modeling biochemical processes such as protein folding under crowded conditions (Qin and Zhou 2009 Biophys. J. 97 12-19). In contrast to the <span class="hlt">direct</span> simulation approach, in which the protein undergoing folding is simulated along with crowders, the postprocessing method requires only the folding simulation without crowders. The influence of the crowders is then obtained by taking conformations from the crowder-free simulation and calculating the free energies of transferring to the crowders. This postprocessing yields the folding free energy surface of the protein under crowding. Here the postprocessing results for the folding of three <span class="hlt">small</span> proteins under ‘repulsive’ crowding are validated by those obtained previously by the <span class="hlt">direct</span> simulation approach (Mittal and Best 2010 Biophys. J. 98 315-20). This validation confirms the accuracy of the postprocessing approach and highlights its distinct advantages in modeling biochemical processes under cell-like crowded conditions, such as enabling an atomistic representation of the test proteins.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qin, Sanbo; Mittal, Jeetain; Zhou, Huan-Xiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=283953"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span>-current bactericidal <span class="hlt">effect</span> on intact skin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Positive carbon-containing electrodes conveying 5 or more microA of constant <span class="hlt">direct</span> current per cm2 showed bactericidal activity on intact back skin of 13 human subjects. This <span class="hlt">effect</span> increased with the duration of stimulation up to a total surface bacterial kill at 20 h. When total current and current density were varied independently on 16 sites on the backs of eight subjects, the <span class="hlt">effect</span> was dependent on current density, not on total current. Electrodes driven by similar voltages but which removed the electrochemical reaction from inoculated sites on the backs of three subjects failed to reduce the numbers of colony-forming units as compared with those sampled from control sites. This showed the bactericidal <span class="hlt">effect</span> to be electrochemical in origin, probably mediated by local acidity generated at the surface of the positive carbon-containing electrodes. With an adhesive tape stripping technique on three sites on each of six subjects, it was determined that the <span class="hlt">effect</span> extended into the epidermis of the human back. No <span class="hlt">effect</span> was observed beneath negative or control electrodes under the same conditions. PMID:7416740</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bolton, L; Foleno, B; Means, B; Petrucelli, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23872985"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> magnetoelectric <span class="hlt">effect</span> in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic epitaxial heterostructures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) materials engineered in horizontal heterostructures allow interface-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. The so-called converse magnetoelectric <span class="hlt">effect</span> (CME) has been already demonstrated by electric-field poling of the ferroelectric layers and subsequent modification of the magnetic state of adjacent ferromagnetic layers by strain <span class="hlt">effects</span> and/or free-carrier density tuning. Here we focus on the <span class="hlt">direct</span> magnetoelectric <span class="hlt">effect</span> (DME) where the dielectric state of a ferroelectric thin film is modified by a magnetic field. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) and ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) oxide thin films have been used to create epitaxial FE/FM and FM/FE heterostructures on SrTiO3(001) substrates buffered with metallic SrRuO3. It will be shown that large ferroelectric polarization and DME can be obtained by appropriate selection of the stacking order of the FE and FM films and their relative thicknesses. The dielectric permittivity, at the structural transitions of BTO, is strongly modified (up to 36%) when measurements are performed under a magnetic field. Due to the insulating nature of the ferromagnetic layer and the concomitant absence of the electric-field <span class="hlt">effect</span>, the observed DME <span class="hlt">effect</span> solely results from the magnetostrictive response of CFO elastically coupled to the BTO layer. These findings show that appropriate architecture and materials selection allow overcoming substrate-induced clamping in multiferroic multi-layered films. PMID:23872985</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fina, I; Dix, N; Rebled, J M; Gemeiner, P; Martí, X; Peiró, F; Dkhil, B; Sánchez, F; Fàbrega, L; Fontcuberta, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lancs.ac.uk/~jonathan/OcnEng08.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical estimation of extreme ocean environments: The requirement for modelling <span class="hlt">directionality</span> and other covariate <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With increasing availability of good <span class="hlt">directional</span> data, provision of <span class="hlt">directional</span> estimates of extreme significant wave heights, in addition to the omni-<span class="hlt">directional</span> estimates, is more common. However, interpretation of <span class="hlt">directional</span> together with omni-<span class="hlt">directional</span> design criteria is subject to inconsistency, even in design guidelines. In particular, omni-<span class="hlt">directional</span> criteria are usually estimated ignoring <span class="hlt">directional</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>. In this article, for data which exhibit <span class="hlt">directional</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philip Jonathan; Kevin Ewans; George Forristall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4049579"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Sodium Iodate on Neurosensory Retina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose. To systematically characterize the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of NaIO3 on retinal morphology and function. Methods. NaIO3 at 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg was administered by retro-orbital injection into adult C57BL/6J mice. Phenotypic and functional changes of the retina were assessed at 1, 3, 5, and 8 days postinjection by fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), ERG, and histology. <span class="hlt">Direct</span> NaIO3 cytotoxicity on ARPE-19 and 661W cells was quantified using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) apoptosis assay. <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of NaIO3 on RPE and photoreceptor gene expression was assessed in vitro and in vivo by quantitative PCR. Results. While little to no change was observed in the 10 mg/kg NaIO3-injected group, significant retinal anomalies, such as RPE atrophy and retinal thinning, were observed in both 20 and 30 mg/kg NaIO3-injected groups. Gene expression analysis showed rapid downregulation of RPE-specific genes, increase in heme oxygenase 1 expression, and induction of the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. Electroretinographic response loss and photoreceptor gene repression preceded gross morphological changes. High NaIO3 toxicity on 661W cells was observed in vitro along with reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction. NaIO3 treatment also disrupted oxidative stress, phototransduction, and apoptosis gene expression in 661W cells. Exposure of ARPE-19 cells to NaIO3 increased expression of neurotrophins and protected photoreceptors from <span class="hlt">direct</span> NaIO3 cytotoxicity. Conclusions. Systematic characterization of changes associated with NaIO3 injection revealed a large variability in the severity of toxicity induced. Treatment with >20 mg/kg NaIO3 induced visual dysfunction associated with rapid suppression of phototransduction genes and induced oxidative stress in photoreceptors. These results suggest that NaIO3 can <span class="hlt">directly</span> alter photoreceptor function and survival. PMID:24481259</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Jinmei; Iacovelli, Jared; Spencer, Carrie; Saint-Geniez, Magali</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60221322"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of habitat on recapture probabilities of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> mammal populations occupying old-field (cheatgrass) and undisturbed sagebrush-bunchgrass communities in southcentral Washington were compared during 1979 and 1980. Seven species were captured. Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) were the dominant species in both habitats and were the only species with enough captures to validate abundance estimates. Overall, pocket mice were captured more frequently in the sagebrush\\/bunchgrass community. Capture</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. A. Gano; J. R. Skalski; J. L. Badden; L. E. Rogers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940029793&hterms=impact+toughness+other+Magnesium+alloys&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dimpact%2Btoughness%2Bother%2B....%2BMagnesium%2Balloys"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-crack <span class="hlt">effects</span> in high-strength aluminum alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Chinese Aeronautical Establishment participated in a Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Cooperative Program. The program objectives were to identify and characterize crack initiation and growth of <span class="hlt">small</span> cracks (10 microns to 2 mm long) in commonly used US and PRC aluminum alloys, to improve fracture mechanics analyses of surface- and corner-crack configurations, and to develop improved life-prediction methods. Fatigue and <span class="hlt">small</span>-crack tests were performed on single-edgenotch tension (SENT) specimens and large-crack tests were conducted on center-crack tension specimens for constant-amplitude (stress ratios of -1, 0, and 0.5) and Mini-TWIST spectrum loading. The plastic replica method was used to monitor the initiation and growth of <span class="hlt">small</span> fatigue cracks at the semicircular notch. Crack growth results from each laboratory on 7075-T6 bare and LC9cs clad aluminum alloys agreed well and showed that fatigue life was mostly crack propagation from a material defect (inclusion particles or void) or from the cladding layer. Finite-element and weight-function methods were used to determine stress intensity factors for surface and corner cracks in the SENT specimens. Equations were then developed and used in a crack growth and crack-closure model to correlate <span class="hlt">small</span>- and large-crack data and to make life predictions for various load histories. The cooperative program produced useful experimental data and efficient analysis methods for improving life predictions. The results should ultimately improve aircraft structural reliability and safety.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Newman, J. C., Jr.; Wu, X. R.; Venneri, S. L.; Li, C. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4858410"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photoacoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">Effect</span> from Flowing <span class="hlt">Small</span> Light-Absorbing Particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">From the flow of a suspension of micrometer-scale carbon particles, the photoacoustic Doppler shift is observed. As predicted theoretically, the observed Doppler shift equals half of that in Doppler ultrasound and does not depend on the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of laser illumination. This new physical phenomenon provides a basis for developing photoacoustic Doppler flowmetry, which can potentially be used for detecting fluid</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hui Fang; Konstantin Maslov; Lihong V. Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4308709"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence for kinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> associated with solar wind reconnection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> resulting from the two-fluid physics play a crucial role in the fast collisionless reconnection, which is a process to explosively release massive energy stored in magnetic fields in space and astrophysical plasmas. In-situ observations in the Earth's magnetosphere provide solid consistence with theoretical models on the point that kinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> are required in the collisionless reconnection. However, all the observations associated with solar wind reconnection have been analyzed in the context of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) although a lot of solar wind reconnection exhausts have been reported. Because of the absence of kinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> and substantial heating, whether the reconnections are still ongoing when they are detected in the solar wind remains unknown. Here, by dual-spacecraft observations, we report a solar wind reconnection with clear Hall magnetic fields. Its corresponding Alfvenic electron outflow jet, derived from the decouple between ions and electrons, is identified, showing <span class="hlt">direct</span> evidence for kinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> that dominate the collisionless reconnection. The turbulence associated with the exhaust is a kind of background solar wind turbulence, implying that the reconnection generated turbulence has not much developed. PMID:25628139</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Xiaojun; Wang, Yi; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Deng, Xiaohua; Ma, Yonghui; Zhou, Meng; Pang, Ye; Wong, Hon-Cheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25628139"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence for kinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> associated with solar wind reconnection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> resulting from the two-fluid physics play a crucial role in the fast collisionless reconnection, which is a process to explosively release massive energy stored in magnetic fields in space and astrophysical plasmas. In-situ observations in the Earth's magnetosphere provide solid consistence with theoretical models on the point that kinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> are required in the collisionless reconnection. However, all the observations associated with solar wind reconnection have been analyzed in the context of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) although a lot of solar wind reconnection exhausts have been reported. Because of the absence of kinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> and substantial heating, whether the reconnections are still ongoing when they are detected in the solar wind remains unknown. Here, by dual-spacecraft observations, we report a solar wind reconnection with clear Hall magnetic fields. Its corresponding Alfvenic electron outflow jet, derived from the decouple between ions and electrons, is identified, showing <span class="hlt">direct</span> evidence for kinetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> that dominate the collisionless reconnection. The turbulence associated with the exhaust is a kind of background solar wind turbulence, implying that the reconnection generated turbulence has not much developed. PMID:25628139</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Xiaojun; Wang, Yi; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Deng, Xiaohua; Ma, Yonghui; Zhou, Meng; Pang, Ye; Wong, Hon-Cheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49901380"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Space Nuclear Reactors, Closed Brayton Cycle and <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Moderators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Space nuclear power systems in the range of 10-30 kWe are concerned in this paper. It has been thought advisable to widen the basis for future technical choices within the French preliminary studies in this low power range. In addition to a reference Brayton cycle, NaK-cooled, fast spectrum, 930 K reactor system, a 1130 K, <span class="hlt">direct</span> cycle, gas-cooled, ZrH moderated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. P. Tilliette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/11038/1/carlson_p_140227.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Land Use <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Ecological Linkages between <span class="hlt">Small</span> Streams and their</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Land Use <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Ecological Linkages between <span class="hlt">Small</span> Streams and their Surrounding Terrestrial) #12;Land Use <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Ecological Linkages between <span class="hlt">Small</span> Streams and their Surrounding Terrestrial insects. Agricultural land use often results in the degradation of in-stream and riparian habitats which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/799708"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Sample Size <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in Statistical Pattern Recognition: Recommendations for Practitioners</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of sample size on feature selection and error estimation for several types of classifiers are discussed. The focus is on the two-class problem. Classifier design in the context of <span class="hlt">small</span> design sample size is explored. The estimation of error rates under <span class="hlt">small</span> test sample size is given. Sample size <span class="hlt">effects</span> in feature selection are discussed. Recommendations for the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarunas Raudys; Anil K. Jain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6112885"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of habitat on recapture probabilities of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> mammal populations occupying old-field (cheatgrass) and undisturbed sagebrush-bunchgrass communities in southcentral Washington were compared during 1979 and 1980. Seven species were captured. Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) were the dominant species in both habitats and were the only species with enough captures to validate abundance estimates. Overall, pocket mice were captured more frequently in the sagebrush/bunchgrass community. Capture probabilities for pocket mice were significantly different in the two habitats. Vegetative differences are suspected as the cause. 17 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gano, K.A.; Skalski, J.R.; Badden, J.L.; Rogers, L.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927023"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> management of acute deep vein thrombosis: <span class="hlt">direct</span> oral anticoagulants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and accounts for most venous thromboembolic events. Although DVT is not <span class="hlt">directly</span> life-threatening, thrombi in the proximal veins of the leg can embolize to the lungs to form a pulmonary embolism, which may prove rapidly fatal. If untreated, DVT can also lead to significant morbidity, including development of post-thrombotic syndrome. Among many risk factors, surgery, hospitalization, older age and active cancer increase the risk of VTE, and a previous event increases the risk of recurrence. Early detection and <span class="hlt">effective</span> clot resolution are vital in managing DVT. Conventional approaches to acute treatment of VTE involve initial fast-acting parenteral heparin overlapping with and followed by vitamin K antagonist therapy. However, vitamin K antagonists have a narrow therapeutic window, require regular monitoring, and have multiple food and drug interactions. Results from phase III clinical studies involving <span class="hlt">direct</span> Factor Xa and IIa inhibitors suggest that these agents provide an alternative therapeutic option that overcomes some of the complications associated with conventional treatment with predictable pharmacological properties and convenient dosing schedules. Analysis of data from the rivaroxaban EINSTEIN studies also suggests that these agents have the potential to improve patient-reported treatment satisfaction and reduce the length of hospital stay compared with conventional therapy. This review considers these treatment options, suitable treatment durations to prevent recurrence, and the management of DVT treatment in challenging patient groups. PMID:24927023</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roussin, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22491169"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of lubricants on binary <span class="hlt">direct</span> compression mixtures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of conventional lubricants including a new candidate lubricant on binary <span class="hlt">direct</span> compression mixtures. Magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), glyceryl behenate (COMP) and hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) were tested. The binary mixtures were 1:1 combinations of spray dried lactose (FlowLac 100), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (Emcompress), and modified starch (Starch 1500) with microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102). Tablets were manufactured on a single-station instrumented tablet press with and without lubricants. In the case of unlubricated granules, the modified starch-microcrystalline cellulose mixture provided the highest percent compressibility value at 8.25%, spray dried lactose-microcrystalline cellulose mixture was 7.33%, and the dialcium phosphate dihydrate-microcrystalline cellulose mixture was 5.79%. Their corresponding tablet crushing strength values were: 104 N, 117 N, and 61 N, respectively. The lubricant concentrations studied were 0.5, 1, 2, and 4%. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of lubricant type and lubricant concentration on crushing strength were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA model. It was found that the Avicel PH 102-Starch 1500 mixture showed the highest lubricant sensitivity (110 N vs. 9 N), the least affected formulation was FlowLac-Avicel PH 102 mixture (118 N vs. 62 N). The crushing strength vs. concentration curve for MGST showed a typical biphasic profile, a fast drop up to 1% and a slower decline between 1 and 4%. The STAC, COMP, and HBN for all formulations showed a shallow linear decline of tablet crushing strength with increasing lubricant concentration. The HBN was as <span class="hlt">effective</span> as MGST as a lubricant, and did not show a significant negative <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the crushing strength of the tablets. The COMP and STAC also did not interfere with the crushing strength, however, they were not as <span class="hlt">effective</span> lubricants as MGST or HBN. PMID:22491169</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U?urlu, T; Halaço?lu, M D; Türko?lu, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24617945"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of cattle on grassland birds in Canada.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of grazing on grassland birds are generally thought to be indirect, through alteration of vegetation structure; however, livestock can also affect nest survival <span class="hlt">directly</span> through trampling and other disturbances (e.g., livestock-induced abandonment). We extracted data on nest fates from 18 grazing studies conducted in Canada. We used these data to assess rates of nest destruction by cattle among 9 ecoregions and between seasonal and rotational grazing systems. Overall, few nests were destroyed by cattle (average 1.5% of 9132 nests). Nest destruction was positively correlated with grazing pressure (i.e., stocking rate or grazing intensity), but nest survival was higher in more heavily grazed areas for some species. Because rates of destruction of grassland bird nests by cattle are low in Canada, management efforts to reduce such destruction may not be of ecological or economic value in Canada. PMID:24617945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bleho, Barbara I; Koper, Nicola; Machtans, Craig S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70003606"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of climate change on amphibian populations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, climate change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. Climate change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. Climate change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in climate can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blaustein, Andrew R.; Walls, Susan C.; Bancroft, Betsy A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Searle, Catherine L.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20134516"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of changing canopy <span class="hlt">directional</span> reflectance on feature selection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Monte Carlo model was used to predict the mean apparent <span class="hlt">directional</span> reflectance of a simulated plant canopy and the covariance for seven wavelength channels in the visible portion of the spectrum. The non-Lambertian spectral response from Bouteloua gracilis canopies possessing two plant cover densities was simulated for two solar positions. The calculated spectral signatures as a function of look angle were then analyzed using the divergence criteria to select the best two wavelength channels for discrimination. These calculations indicate that different combinations of wavelength channels are appropriate for various sensor look angles, that target signatures have greater statistical separation for some scan angles than others, and that these <span class="hlt">effects</span> are time varying. PMID:20134516</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, J A; Oliver, R E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6239052"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of UVA on skin vessel leakiness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using the suction blister technique we have investigated the leakiness of skin vessels in healthy volunteers after whole-body suberythemogenic doses of UVA radiation (a quadrant on one side of the abdominal skin was shielded with lead-rubber). The accumulation of intravenously injected labeled albumin in blister fluid was slightly elevated 1 day after irradiation and increased significantly 2 days later. The blister concentrations of 4 endogenous plasma proteins (albumin, transferrin, IgG, and alpha 2-macroglobulin) were elevated 1 day after radiation exposure and normalized 2 days later. All changes were equal on irradiated and nonirradiated skin. It is concluded that UVA radiation can induce a continued or biphasic increased leakage of plasma proteins in the skin vessels, due to a humoral rather than to a <span class="hlt">direct</span> physical <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the radiation on the vessel walls. It is suggested that an increased microvascular leakiness in organs other than the skin might be present.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Staberg, B.; Worm, A.M.; Brodthagen, H.; Rossing, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvD..89l3521G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of nuclear response functions in dark matter <span class="hlt">direct</span> detection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of nuclear response functions, as laid out by Fitzpatrick et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 02 (2013) 004], on dark matter (DM) <span class="hlt">direct</span> detection in the context of well-motivated UV completions, including electric and magnetic dipoles, anapole, spin-orbit, and pseudoscalar-mediated DM. Together, these encompass five of the six nuclear responses extracted from the nonrelativistic <span class="hlt">effective</span> theory of Fitzpatrick et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 02 (2013) 004] (with the sixth difficult to UV complete), with two of the six combinations corresponding to standard spin-independent and spin-dependent responses. For constraints from existing <span class="hlt">direct</span> detection experiments, we find that only the COUPP constraint, due to its heavy iodine target with large angular momentum and an unpaired spin, and its large energy range sensitivity, is substantially modified by the new responses compared to what would be inferred using the standard form factors to model the energy dependence of the response. For heavy targets such as xenon and germanium, the behavior of the new nuclear responses as recoil energy increases can be substantially different from that of the standard responses, but this has almost no impact on the constraints derived from experiments such as LUX, XENON100, and CDMS since the maximum nuclear recoil energy detected in these experiments is relatively low. We simulate mock data for 80 and 250 GeV DM candidates utilizing the new nuclear responses to highlight how they might affect a putative signal, and find the new responses are most important for highly momentum-suppressed interactions such as the magnetic dipole or pseudoscalar-mediated interaction when the target is relatively heavy (such as xenon and iodine).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gresham, Moira I.; Zurek, Kathryn M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25632826"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> determination of a <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule drug, valproic Acid, by an electrically-detected microcantilever biosensor for personalized diagnostics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span>, <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule determination of the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid, was investigated by a label-free, nanomechanical biosensor. Valproic acid has long been used as an antiepileptic medication, which is administered through therapeutic drug monitoring and has a narrow therapeutic dosage range of 50-100 ?g·mL-1 in blood or serum. Unlike labeled and clinically-used measurement techniques, the label-free, electrical detection microcantilever biosensor can be miniaturized and simplified for use in portable or hand-held point-of-care platforms or personal diagnostic tools. A micromachined microcantilever sensor was packaged into the micro-channel of a fluidic system. The measurement of the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid, in phosphate-buffered saline and serum used a single free-standing, piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor in a thermally-controlled system. The measured surface stresses showed a profile over a concentration range of 50-500 ?g·mL-1, which covered the clinically therapeutic range of 50-100 ?g·mL-1. The estimated limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 45 ?g·mL-1, and the binding affinity between the drug and the antibody was measured at around 90 ± 21 ?g·mL-1. Lastly, the results of the proposed device showed a similar profile in valproic acid drug detection with those of the clinically-used fluorescence polarization immunoassay. PMID:25632826</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Long-Sun; Gunawan, Christian; Yen, Yi-Kuang; Chang, Kai-Fung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5955609"> <span id="translatedtitle">The study of <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> perturbations on chaotic systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report discusses the following topics: controlling chaotic dynamical systems; embedding of experimental data; <span class="hlt">effect</span> of noise on critical exponents of crises; transition to chaotic scattering; and distribution of floaters on a fluid surface. (LSP)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grebogi, C.; Yorke, J.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0610137v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local-time <span class="hlt">effect</span> on <span class="hlt">small</span> space-time scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper presents an investigation of local-time <span class="hlt">effect</span> - one of the manifestations of macroscopic fluctuations phenomena. Was shown the existence of the named <span class="hlt">effect</span> for longitudinal distance between locations of measurements up to 500 meters. Also a structure of intervals distribution in neighborhood of local-time peak was studied and splitting of the peak was found out. Obtained results lead to conclusion about sharp anisotropy of space-time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. A. Panchelyuga; V. A. Kolombet; M. S. Panchelyuga; S. E. Shnoll</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24938819"> <span id="translatedtitle">A review of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of neonicotinoids and fipronil on vertebrate wildlife.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concerns over the role of pesticides affecting vertebrate wildlife populations have recently focussed on systemic products which exert broad-spectrum toxicity. Given that the neonicotinoids have become the fastest-growing class of insecticides globally, we review here 150 studies of their <span class="hlt">direct</span> (toxic) and indirect (e.g. food chain) <span class="hlt">effects</span> on vertebrate wildlife-mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles. We focus on two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and a third insecticide, fipronil, which also acts in the same systemic manner. Imidacloprid and fipronil were found to be toxic to many birds and most fish, respectively. All three insecticides exert sub-lethal <span class="hlt">effects</span>, ranging from genotoxic and cytotoxic <span class="hlt">effects</span>, and impaired immune function, to reduced growth and reproductive success, often at concentrations well below those associated with mortality. Use of imidacloprid and clothianidin as seed treatments on some crops poses risks to <span class="hlt">small</span> birds, and ingestion of even a few treated seeds could cause mortality or reproductive impairment to sensitive bird species. In contrast, environmental concentrations of imidacloprid and clothianidin appear to be at levels below those which will cause mortality to freshwater vertebrates, although sub-lethal <span class="hlt">effects</span> may occur. Some recorded environmental concentrations of fipronil, however, may be sufficiently high to harm fish. Indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> are rarely considered in risk assessment processes and there is a paucity of data, despite the potential to exert population-level <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Our research revealed two field case studies of indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>. In one, reductions in invertebrate prey from both imidacloprid and fipronil uses led to impaired growth in a fish species, and in another, reductions in populations in two lizard species were linked to <span class="hlt">effects</span> of fipronil on termite prey. Evidence presented here suggests that the systemic insecticides, neonicotinoids and fipronil, are capable of exerting <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on terrestrial and aquatic vertebrate wildlife, thus warranting further review of their environmental safety. PMID:24938819</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gibbons, David; Morrissey, Christy; Mineau, Pierre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850039890&hterms=roos&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Droos"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of reabsorbed recombination radiation on the saturation current of <span class="hlt">direct</span> gap p-n junctions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of the radiative transfer theory for semiconductors to p-n homojunctions subject to low level injection conditions is discussed. By virtue of the interaction of the radiation field with free carriers across the depletion layer, the saturation current density in Shockley's expression for the diode current is reduced at high doping levels. The reduction, due to self-induced photon generation, is noticeable for n-type material owing to the <span class="hlt">small</span> electron <span class="hlt">effective</span> mass in <span class="hlt">direct</span> band-gap III-V compounds. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> is insignificant in p-type material. At an equilibrium electron concentration of 2 x 10 to the 18th/cu cm in GaAs, a reduction of the saturation current density by 15 percent is predicted. It is concluded that realistic GaAs p-n junctions possess a finite thickness.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Von Roos, O.; Mavromatis, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25536467"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effective</span> reference frame in perceptual judgments of motion <span class="hlt">direction</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The retinotopic projection of stimulus motion depends both on the motion of the stimulus and the movements of the observer. In this study, we aimed to quantify the contributions of endogenous (retinotopic) and exogenous (spatiotopic and motion-based) reference frames on judgments of motion <span class="hlt">direction</span>. We used a variant of the induced motion paradigm and we created different experimental conditions in which the predictions of each reference frame were different. Finally, assuming additive contributions from different reference frames, we used a linear model to account for the data. Our results suggest that the <span class="hlt">effective</span> reference frame for motion perception emerges from an amalgamation of motion-based, retinotopic and spatiotopic reference frames. In determining the percept, the influence of relative motion, defined by a motion-based reference frame, dominates those of retinotopic and spatiotopic motions within a finite region. We interpret these findings within the context of the Reference Frame Metric Field (RFMF) theory, which states that local motion vectors might have perceptual reference-frame fields associated with them, and interactions between these fields determine the selection of the <span class="hlt">effective</span> reference frame. PMID:25536467</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Agaoglu, Mehmet N; Herzog, Michael H; Ö?men, Haluk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45539355"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Classes on Academic Achievement: The Results of the Tennessee Class Size Experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of class size on academic achievement have been studied for decades. Although the results of <span class="hlt">small</span> scale randomized experiments and large-scale econometric studies point to positive <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> classes, some scholar have seen the evidence as ambiguous. This paper reports analyses of a 4-year, large-scale randomized experiment on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of class size, project STAR in Tennessee.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barbara Nye; Larry V. Hedges; Spyros Konstantopoulos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55066565"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of the polarization squint of <span class="hlt">small</span> horn antennas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Theoretical and experimental results are presented on polarization squint caused by polarization mismatch. It is shown that this squint is the result of polarization <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the antenna pattern measured at the particular polarization of the incident field. The squint appears at the nonzero elevation angles when the polarization is, as a rule, unmatched to the polarization of the incident</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Budin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=32251"> <span id="translatedtitle">FATE AND <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF ATRAZINE IN <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> AQUATIC MICROCOSMS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using continuous flow aquaria or static beakers and mixed biota communities, the fate and <span class="hlt">effects</span> of atrazine were determined and the resilience of the systems after the removal of the compound were evaluated. In addition, the response of the different test systems to the herbici...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921961"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dry paths <span class="hlt">effectively</span> reduce road mortality of <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildlife passages are widely used mitigation measures designed to reduce the adverse impacts of roads on animals. We investigated whether road kills of <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates can be reduced by constructing dry paths adjacent to streams that pass under road bridges. The study was carried out in southern Finland during the summer of 2008. We selected ten road bridges with dry paths and ten bridges without them, and an individual dry land reference site for each study bridge on the basis of landscape and traffic features. A total of 307 dead terrestrial vertebrates were identified during the ten-week study period. The presence of dry paths decreased the amount of road-killed terrestrial vertebrates (Poisson GLMM; p < 0.001). That was true also when considering amphibians alone (p < 0.001). The evidence on road-kills on mammals was not such clear. In the mammal model, a lack of dry paths increased the amount of carcasses (p = 0.001) whereas the number of casualties at dry path bridges was comparable with dry land reference sites. A <span class="hlt">direct</span> comparison of the dead ratios suggests an average efficiency of 79% for the dry paths. When considering amphibians and mammals alone, the computed <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> was 88 and 70%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that dry paths under road bridges can <span class="hlt">effectively</span> reduce road-kills of <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates, even without guiding fences. Dry paths seemed to especially benefit amphibians which are a threatened species group worldwide and known to suffer high traffic mortality. PMID:24921961</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niemi, Milla; Jääskeläinen, Niina C; Nummi, Petri; Mäkelä, Tiina; Norrdahl, Kai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2882097"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with interferon and <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule <span class="hlt">direct</span> antivirals: viral kinetics and modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a threat to global public health. Treatment with pegylated interferon (IFN) plus ribavirin leads to a sustained virologic response in about 50% of patients. New therapies using <span class="hlt">direct</span> antiviral agents have the potential to cure patients unresponsive to IFN-based therapies. Mathematical modeling has played an important role in studying HCV kinetics. Using models one can evaluate the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of new treatment agents, estimate important parameters that govern virus-host interactions, explore possible mechanisms of drug action against HCV, investigate the development of drug resistance and study quasispecies dynamics during therapy. Here we review our current knowledge of HCV kinetics under IFN-based therapy and newly developed antiviral agents specifically targeted to attack HCV, and show how mathematical models have helped improve our understanding of HCV infection and treatment. PMID:20370626</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rong, Libin; Perelson, Alan S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9288E..0ES"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the large and <span class="hlt">small</span> signal <span class="hlt">direct</span> current modulation response up to 60GHz of metal-clad nano-lasers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of metal clad nano-lasers to <span class="hlt">direct</span> current modulation has been analysed in both the <span class="hlt">small</span> signal and large signal regimes. Calculations have been performed using rate equations which include the Purcell cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission factor, F, and the spontaneous emission coupling factor ?. Calculations of both the <span class="hlt">small</span> signal and large signal <span class="hlt">direct</span> modulation response of nano-lasers indicate opportunities to achieve modulation bandwidth up to 60 GHz with peak responses at resonant frequencies of order 40 GHz and 30 GHz respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sattar, Z. A.; Shore, K. Alan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35582928"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Caloric Load and Nutrient Composition On Induction of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Intestinal Satiety in Dogs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geoghegan, J. G., C. A. Cheng, D. C. Lawson and T. N. Pappas. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of caloric load and nutrient composition on induction of <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal satiety in dogs. Physiol Behav 62(1) 39–42, 1997.—The influence of caloric load and nutrient composition on <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal satiety was investigated in six dogs with chronic esophageal fistulas. Dogs received <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel infusion of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Justin G Geoghegan; Christine A Cheng; Curtis Lawson; Theodore N Pappas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.sunyopt.edu/research/kruger/pdf/9.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> foveal targets for studies of accommodation and the Stiles–Crawford <span class="hlt">effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The properties of <span class="hlt">small</span> monochromatic targets as accommodative stimuli are not well understood. We used a dynamic optometer to record accommodation responses to monochromatic disc targets (1.0–27.3 minarc) and to a Maltese cross. Accommodation responded adequately to points as <span class="hlt">small</span> as 13.6 minarc. The response to these <span class="hlt">small</span> targets is relevant to the question of whether the Stiles–Crawford (SC) <span class="hlt">effect</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philip B. Kruger; Lawrence R. Stark; Hai Nhu Nguyen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.137e4712A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> cage guests on hydrogen bonding of tetrahydrofuran in binary structure II clathrate hydrates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular dynamics simulations of the pure structure II tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate and binary structure II tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate with CO2, CH4, H2S, and Xe <span class="hlt">small</span> cage guests are performed to study the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the shape, size, and intermolecular forces of the <span class="hlt">small</span> cages guests on the structure and dynamics of the hydrate. The simulations show that the number and nature of the guest in the <span class="hlt">small</span> cage affects the probability of hydrogen bonding of the tetrahydrofuran guest with the large cage water molecules. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> on hydrogen bonding of tetrahydrofuran occurs despite the fact that the guests in the <span class="hlt">small</span> cage do not themselves form hydrogen bonds with water. These results indicate that nearest neighbour guest-guest interactions (mediated through the water lattice framework) can affect the clathrate structure and stability. The implications of these subtle <span class="hlt">small</span> guest <span class="hlt">effects</span> on clathrate hydrate stability are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3918160"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biochemical studies of the multicopper oxidase (<span class="hlt">small</span> laccase) from Streptomyces coelicolor using bioactive phytochemicals and site-<span class="hlt">directed</span> mutagenesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Multicopper oxidases can act on a broad spectrum of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. These enzymes include laccases, which are widely distributed in plants and fungi, and were more recently identified in bacteria. Here, we present the results of biochemical and mutational studies of <span class="hlt">small</span> laccase (SLAC), a multicopper oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor (SCO6712). In addition to typical laccase substrates, SLAC was tested using phenolic compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity. SLAC showed oxidase activity against 12 of 23 substrates tested, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, morin, kaempferol and myricetin. The kinetic parameters of SLAC were determined for 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, quercetin, morin and myricetin, and maximum reaction rates were observed with myricetin, where kcat and Km values at 60°C were 8.1 (±?0.8) s?1 and 0.9 (±?0.3) mM respectively. SLAC had a broad pH optimum for activity (between pH?4 and 8) and temperature optimum at 60–70°C. It demonstrated remarkable thermostability with a half-life of over 10?h at 80°C and over 7?h at 90°C. Site-<span class="hlt">directed</span> mutagenesis revealed 17 amino acid residues important for SLAC activity including the 10 His residues involved in copper coordination. Most notably, the Y229A and Y230A mutant proteins showed over 10-fold increase in activity compared with the wild-type SLAC, which was correlated to higher copper incorporation, while kinetic analyses with S929A predicts localization of this residue near the meta-position of aromatic substrates. Funding Information Funding for this research was provided by the Government of Ontario for the project ‘FFABnet: Functionalized Fibre and Biochemicals’ (ORF-RE-05-005), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. PMID:23815400</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sherif, Mohammed; Waung, Debbie; Korbeci, Bihter; Mavisakalyan, Valentina; Flick, Robert; Brown, Greg; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; Yakunin, Alexander F; Master, Emma R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/7/66.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of bowel rehabilitative therapy on structural adaptation of remnant <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine: animal experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM To investigate the individual and the combined <span class="hlt">effects</span> of glutamine, dietary fiber, and growth hormone on the structural adaptation of the remnant <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel. METHODS Forty-two adult male Sprague- Dawley rats underwent 85% mid-<span class="hlt">small</span> bowel resection and received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support during the first three postoperational days. From the 4 th postoperational day, animals were randomly assigned</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xin Zhou; Yuan Xin Li; Ning Li; Jie Shou Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1647385"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> random perturbations on power systems dynamics and its reliability evaluation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> random perturbations on dynamic system modeling and its application to the reliability evaluation of a multimachine power system are studied. <span class="hlt">Small</span> perturbations in the operational characteristic of transmission lines and system loads are regarded as inputs to the system model, and a reliability measure that is based on the mean first passage time of the system</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Qui; S. M. Shahidehpour; Z. Schuss</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/90/09/17/PDF/hal-00900917.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF DIET ON THE MOTILITY OF THE <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> INTESTINE AND PLASMA INSULIN LEVELS IN SHEEP</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF DIET ON THE MOTILITY OF THE <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> INTESTINE AND PLASMA INSULIN LEVELS IN SHEEP L. BUENO monogastriques. Introduction In adult sheep a major pattern of electrical activity of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of hay in sheep (Grivel and Ruckebusch, 1972) or ruminant calves (Ruckebusch and Bueno, 1973). Recently</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Immunology&id=EJ887344"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Extra <span class="hlt">Small</span> Group Session during PBL Implementation on Student's Achievement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Problem based learning (PBL) started to spread in health professions in Saudi Arabia at the beginning of this century. There are several challenges facing its implementation such as defects on interpersonal communications and self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> learning. These challenges would affect students' performance in <span class="hlt">small</span> group discussions and their…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al Rukban, Mohammad Othman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47908695"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of cysteine modifications on the activity of the ‘<span class="hlt">small</span>’ Clostridium perfringens sialidase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ‘<span class="hlt">small</span>’ (43 kDa) sialidase of Clostridium perfringens is inhibited by low concentrations of mercury ions. For the investigation of possible functional roles of the enzyme's four cysteine residues at the amino acid positions 2, 282, 333 and 349, they were separately altered to serine by site-<span class="hlt">directed</span> mutagenesis. The four mutant sialidases expressed in E. coli and purified by metal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Susanne Kruses; Jorg Pommerencke; Reinhard G Kleineidam; Peter Roggentin; Roland Schauer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37..505C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> measurement of Lorentz transformation with Doppler <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For space science and astronomy the fundamentality of one-way velocity of light (OWVL) is selfevident. The measurement of OWVL (distance/interval) and the clock synchronization with light-signal transfer make a logical circulation. This means that OWVL could not be <span class="hlt">directly</span> measured but only come indirectly from astronomical method (Romer's Io eclipse and Bradley's sidereal aberration), furthermore, the light-year by definitional OWVL and the trigonometry distance with AU are also un-measurable. For to solve this problem two methods of clock synchronization were proposed: The <span class="hlt">direct</span> method is that at one end of dual-speed transmissionline with single clock measure the arriving-time difference of longitudinal wave and transverse wave or ordinary light and extraordinary light, again to calculate the collective sending-time of two wave with Yang's /shear elastic-modulus ratio (E/k) or extraordinary/ordinary light refractive-index ratio (ne/no), which work as one earthquake-station with single clock measures first-shake time and the distance to epicenter; The indirect method is that the one-way wavelength l is measured by dual-counters Ca and Cb and computer's real-time operation of reading difference (Nb - Na) of two counters, the frequency f is also simultaneously measured, then l f is just OWVL. Therefore, with classical Newtonian mechanics and ether wave optics, OWVL can be measured in the Galileo coordinate system with an isotropic length unit (1889 international meter definition). Without any hypotheses special relativity can entirely establish on the metrical results. When a certain wavelength l is defined as length unit, foregoing measurement of one-way wavelength l will become as the measurement of rod's length. Let a rigidity-rod connecting Ca and Cb moves relative to lamp-house with velocity v, rod's length L = (Nb - Na) l will change follow v by known Doppler <span class="hlt">effect</span>, i.e., L(q) =L0 (1+ (v/c) cos q), where L0 is the proper length when v= 0, v• r = v cos q, r is the unit vector from lamphouse point to counters. Or: L (0) L (pi) =L0 (1+(v/c)) L0 (1 - (v/c)) =L0 2 y2 =L2 Or: L ? [L(0)L(pi)]1/2 =L0 y , which y ? (1 - (v/c)2 )1/2 is just Fitzgerald-Lorentzian contraction-factor. Also, when a light-wave period p is defined as time unit, from Doppler's frequency-shift the count N with p of one period T of moving-clock is: T(q) = N(q) p = T0 /(1+(v/c) cos q) Or: T ? (T(0) T(pi))1/2 = T 0 /y , where T0 is the proper period when v = 0, which is just the moving-clock-slower <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Let r from clock point to lamp-house ((v/c) symbol reverse), Doppler formula in the usual form is: f (q) = 1/T(q) = f0 (1 - (v/c) cos q). Therefore, Lorentz transformation is the square root average of positive and negative <span class="hlt">directions</span> twice metrical results of Doppler's frequency-shift, which Doppler's once items ( positive and negative v/c ) are counteract only residual twice item (v/c)2 (relativity-factor). Then Lorentz transformation can be <span class="hlt">directly</span> measured by Doppler's frequency-shift method. The half-life of moving mu-meson is statistical average of many particles, the usual explanation using relativity-factor y is correct. An airship moving simultaneously along contrary <span class="hlt">directions</span> is impossible, which makes that the relativity-factor y and the twin-paradox are inexistent in the macroscopical movement. Thereby, in the navigations of airship or satellite only use the measurement of Doppler's frequency-shift but have no use for Lorentz transformation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Shao-Guang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11186094"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> dose of brotizolam on P300.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nine healthy men (mean age, 22.2 years) participated in two experimental sessions cross-overed randomly in a double blind manner; one with a placebo and the other with 0.125 mg of brotizolam (BTZ) administered in the morning. Resting electroencephalogram and event-related potential under oddball paradigm was recorded before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after the administration. Mean 30-msec bin amplitude from 240 msec to 450 msec after the stimulus was compared between placebo and drug sessions in order to observe P300. Brotizolam reduced the amplitude of P300 at 6 h after administration. It was noted that the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of BTZ were most marked at Fz. PMID:11186094</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayakawa, T; Uchiyama, M; Enomoto, T; Nakajima, T; Kim, K; Shibui, K; Kudo, Y; Ozaki, S; Nakajima, T; Suzuki, H; Urata, J; Okawa, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22158868"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> molecule structure correctors abolish detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span> of apolipoprotein E4 in cultured neurons.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the major genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer disease, assumes a pathological conformation, intramolecular domain interaction. ApoE4 domain interaction mediates the detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span> of apoE4, including decreased mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 levels, reduced mitochondrial motility, and reduced neurite outgrowth in vitro. Mutant apoE4 (apoE4-R61T) lacks domain interaction, behaves like apoE3, and does not cause detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span>. To identify <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules that inhibit domain interaction (i.e. structure correctors) and reverse the apoE4 detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span>, we established a high throughput cell-based FRET primary assay that determines apoE4 domain interaction and secondary cell- and function-based assays. Screening a ChemBridge library with the FRET assay identified CB9032258 (a phthalazinone derivative), which inhibits domain interaction in neuronal cells. In secondary functional assays, CB9032258 restored mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 levels and rescued impairments of mitochondrial motility and neurite outgrowth in apoE4-expressing neuronal cells. These benefits were apoE4-specific and dose-dependent. Modifying CB9032258 yielded well defined structure-activity relationships and more active compounds with enhanced potencies in the FRET assay (IC(50) of 23 and 116 nm, respectively). These compounds efficiently restored functional activities of apoE4-expressing cells in secondary assays. An EPR binding assay showed that the apoE4 structure correction resulted from <span class="hlt">direct</span> interaction of a phthalazinone. With these data, a six-feature pharmacophore model was constructed for future drug design. Our results serve as a proof of concept that pharmacological intervention with apoE4 structure correctors negates apoE4 detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span> in neuronal cells and could be further developed as an Alzheimer disease therapeutic. PMID:22158868</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Hung-Kai; Liu, Zhaoping; Meyer-Franke, Anke; Brodbeck, Jens; Miranda, Rene D; McGuire, James G; Pleiss, Michael A; Ji, Zhong-Sheng; Balestra, Maureen E; Walker, David W; Xu, Qin; Jeong, Dah-eun; Budamagunta, Madhu S; Voss, John C; Freedman, Stephen B; Weisgraber, Karl H; Huang, Yadong; Mahley, Robert W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3285306"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> Molecule Structure Correctors Abolish Detrimental <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Apolipoprotein E4 in Cultured Neurons*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the major genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer disease, assumes a pathological conformation, intramolecular domain interaction. ApoE4 domain interaction mediates the detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span> of apoE4, including decreased mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 levels, reduced mitochondrial motility, and reduced neurite outgrowth in vitro. Mutant apoE4 (apoE4-R61T) lacks domain interaction, behaves like apoE3, and does not cause detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span>. To identify <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules that inhibit domain interaction (i.e. structure correctors) and reverse the apoE4 detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span>, we established a high throughput cell-based FRET primary assay that determines apoE4 domain interaction and secondary cell- and function-based assays. Screening a ChemBridge library with the FRET assay identified CB9032258 (a phthalazinone derivative), which inhibits domain interaction in neuronal cells. In secondary functional assays, CB9032258 restored mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 levels and rescued impairments of mitochondrial motility and neurite outgrowth in apoE4-expressing neuronal cells. These benefits were apoE4-specific and dose-dependent. Modifying CB9032258 yielded well defined structure-activity relationships and more active compounds with enhanced potencies in the FRET assay (IC50 of 23 and 116 nm, respectively). These compounds efficiently restored functional activities of apoE4-expressing cells in secondary assays. An EPR binding assay showed that the apoE4 structure correction resulted from <span class="hlt">direct</span> interaction of a phthalazinone. With these data, a six-feature pharmacophore model was constructed for future drug design. Our results serve as a proof of concept that pharmacological intervention with apoE4 structure correctors negates apoE4 detrimental <span class="hlt">effects</span> in neuronal cells and could be further developed as an Alzheimer disease therapeutic. PMID:22158868</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Hung-Kai; Liu, Zhaoping; Meyer-Franke, Anke; Brodbeck, Jens; Miranda, Rene D.; McGuire, James G.; Pleiss, Michael A.; Ji, Zhong-Sheng; Balestra, Maureen E.; Walker, David W.; Xu, Qin; Jeong, Dah-eun; Budamagunta, Madhu S.; Voss, John C.; Freedman, Stephen B.; Weisgraber, Karl H.; Huang, Yadong; Mahley, Robert W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol3-sec431-446.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 431.446 - <span class="hlt">Small</span> electric motors energy conservation standards and their <span class="hlt">effective</span> dates. [Reserved</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Small</span> electric motors energy conservation standards and their <span class="hlt">effective</span> dates. [Reserved] 431.446 Section 431.446 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610587S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">small</span> scale turbulent structures and the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of spatial scales on gas transfer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The exchange of gases through the air-sea interface strongly depends on environmental conditions such as wind stress and waves which in turn generate near surface turbulence. Near surface turbulence is a main driver of surface divergence which has been shown to cause highly variable transfer rates on relatively <span class="hlt">small</span> spatial scales. Due to the cool skin of the ocean, heat can be used as a tracer to detect areas of surface convergence and thus gather information about size and intensity of a turbulent process. We use infrared imagery to visualize near surface aqueous turbulence and determine the impact of turbulent scales on exchange rates. Through the high temporal and spatial resolution of these types of measurements spatial scales as well as surface dynamics can be captured. The surface heat pattern is formed by distinct structures on two scales - <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale short lived structures termed fish scales and larger scale cold streaks that are consistent with the footprints of Langmuir Circulations. There are two key characteristics of the observed surface heat patterns: 1. The surface heat patterns show characteristic features of scales. 2. The structure of these patterns change with increasing wind stress and surface conditions. In [2] turbulent cell sizes have been shown to systematically decrease with increasing wind speed until a saturation at u* = 0.7 cm/s is reached. Results suggest a saturation in the tangential stress. Similar behaviour has been observed by [1] for gas transfer measurements at higher wind speeds. In this contribution a new model to estimate the heat flux is applied which is based on the measured turbulent cell size und surface velocities. This approach allows the <span class="hlt">direct</span> comparison of the net <span class="hlt">effect</span> on heat flux of eddies of different sizes and a comparison to gas transfer measurements. Linking transport models with thermographic measurements, transfer velocities can be computed. In this contribution, we will quantify the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> scale processes on interfacial transport and relate it to gas transfer. References [1] T. G. Bell, W. De Bruyn, S. D. Miller, B. Ward, K. Christensen, and E. S. Saltzman. Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) gas transfer in the North Atlantic: evidence for limited interfacial gas exchange at high wind speed. Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 13:11073-11087, 2013. [2] J Schnieders, C. S. Garbe, W.L. Peirson, and C. J. Zappa. Analyzing the footprints of near surface aqueous turbulence - an image processing based approach. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 2013.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schnieders, Jana; Garbe, Christoph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25655181"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synergistic <span class="hlt">effect</span> of polymer and <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules for high-performance ternary organic solar cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A ternary blend system with two donors and one acceptor provides an <span class="hlt">effective</span> route to improve the performance of organic solar cells. A synergistic <span class="hlt">effect</span> of polymer and <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules is observed in ternary solar cells, and the power conversion effi ciency (PCE) of the ternary system (8.40%) is higher than those of binary systems based on <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules (7.48%) or polymers (6.85%). PMID:25655181</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Yajie; Deng, Dan; Lu, Kun; Zhang, Jianqi; Xia, Benzheng; Zhao, Yifan; Fang, Jin; Wei, Zhixiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uofaweb.ualberta.ca/ccg/pdfs/2004%20104-direct%20lognormal%20simulation.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A New Approach to <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Sequential Simulation that Accounts for the Proportional <span class="hlt">Effect</span>: <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Lognormal Simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> kriging and simulation avoids the common Gaussian transform and permits unbiased integration of multiscale data. Currently, kriging is performed on Gaussian data since all conditional distributions are Gaussian and fully described by the kriging estimate and homoscedastic kriging variance. Application of kriging to data in original units will almost certainly lead to a variance that is incorrect since real</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John Manchuk; Oy Leuangthong; Clayton Deutsch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40877556"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delving into the carbon footprints of Singapore—comparing <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect greenhouse gas emissions of a <span class="hlt">small</span> and open economic system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> and open economic systems like cities face specific challenges for greenhouse gas accounting. They typically import most of their energy requirements as secondary energy products based on conversion processes which caused emissions elsewhere. Emission estimates therefore already require attention not only to <span class="hlt">direct</span> on-site activities. Moreover, for a comprehensive approach it is suggested to include upstream and downstream processes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niels B. Schulz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22deepwater+horizon%22+OR+%22BP+Oil+Spill%22+OR+%22Gulf+Oil+Spill%22+OR+DWH+OR+%22Gulf+of+Mexico+oil+spill%22+OR+MC252+OR+MC-252+OR+%22MC+252%22+OR+Macondo+OR+%22deepwater+horizon%22+OR+%22BP+Oil+Spill%22+OR+%22Gulf+Oil+Spill%22+OR+DWH+OR+%22Gulf+of+Mexico+oil+spill%22+OR+MC252+OR+MC-252+OR+%22MC+252%22+OR+Macondo&pg=7&id=EJ294189"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Requests <span class="hlt">Effectively</span> in Peer-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> Instructional Groups.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Primary grade students of varying mathematics and reading abilities were assessed with appropriate standardized measures. Peer-<span class="hlt">directed</span> activities were recorded. Results indicated ability groups differed in achievement and use of requests and responses. The implications for children's acquisition of skills in peer-<span class="hlt">directed</span> instructional groups are…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilkinson, Louise Cherry; Spinelli, Francesca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26602743"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">directionality</span> on extreme wave design criteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sea state design criteria for offshore facilities are frequently provided by <span class="hlt">direction</span>. For example, it is typical for return-period values of the significant wave height to be specified for each of eight 45° sectors in addition to the omni-<span class="hlt">directional</span> case. However, it is important that these criteria be consistent so that the probability of exceedance of a given wave height</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philip Jonathan; Kevin Ewans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=direct+AND+instruction&pg=3&id=EJ755186"> <span id="translatedtitle">Special Education and <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction: An <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Combination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper considers the unique and successful combination of using <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction programs with special education populations. The introduction establishes the need for valid, scientifically based materials. Next is a description of studies using <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction with students who have high-incidence disabilities. Thirty-seven studies were…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinder, Diane; Kubina, Richard; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......153C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical and chemical <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span> aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall <span class="hlt">effects</span> of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these <span class="hlt">effects</span> are not well understood. This research examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of bench-scale <span class="hlt">direct</span> aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to <span class="hlt">effectively</span> separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more <span class="hlt">effective</span> than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in <span class="hlt">small</span> particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the surface charge of the <span class="hlt">small</span> clay particles upon AO treatment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clobes, Jason Kenneth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920061581&hterms=morphological&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmorphological"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of compositionally-generated elastic stresses on morphological instability during <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of compositionally-generated elastic stresses on the conditions for morphological instability during <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification of a dilute, ideal binary alloy is investigated using the Gibbs-Thomson equations for an elastically-stressed solid with zero surface stress in equilibrium with a liquid. It is found that these stresses lead to a <span class="hlt">small</span> stabilization of the Mullins and Sekerka cellular mode of instability. The steady mode is stabilized by a stress-induced modification to the interfacial concentration of the solid, which in turn alters the amount of solute rejected to inhibit the growth of perturbations. The presence of elastic stresses could generate a new oscillatory instability which is most likely to be found in experiments near absolute stability for materials with segregation coefficients near unity and large solute expansion coefficients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spencer, B. J.; Voorhees, P. W.; Davis, S. H.; Mcfadden, G. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040086840&hterms=Brooks+Marcolini&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBrooks%2BMarcolini"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Directional</span> Array Size on the Measurement of Airframe Noise Components</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was conducted to examine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of overall size of <span class="hlt">directional</span> (or phased) arrays on the measurement of aeroacoustic components. An airframe model was mounted in the potential core of an open-jet windtunnel, with the <span class="hlt">directional</span> arrays located outside the flow in an anechoic environment. Two array systems were used; one with a solid measurement angle that encompasses 31.6 deg.of source <span class="hlt">directivity</span> and a smaller one that encompasses 7.2 deg. The arrays, and sub-arrays of various sizes, measured noise from a calibrator source and flap edge model setups. In these cases, noise was emitted from relatively <span class="hlt">small</span>, but finite size source regions, with intense levels compared to other sources. Although the larger arrays revealed much more source region detail, the measured source levels were substantially reduced due to finer resolution compared to that of the smaller arrays. To better understand the measurements quantitatively, an analytical model was used to define the basic relationships between array to source region sizes and measured output level. Also, the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of noise scattering by shear layer turbulence was examined using the present data and those of previous studies. Taken together, the two <span class="hlt">effects</span> were sufficient to explain spectral level differences between arrays of different sizes. An important result of this study is that total (integrated) noise source levels are retrievable and the levels are independent of the array size as long as certain experimental and processing criteria are met. The criteria for both open and closed tunnels are discussed. The success of special purpose diagonal-removal processing in obtaining integrated results is apparently dependent in part on source distribution. Also discussed is the fact that extended sources are subject to substantial measurement error, especially for large arrays.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22b5105L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> numerical simulation of hypersonic boundary layer transition over a blunt cone with a <span class="hlt">small</span> angle of attack</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> numerical simulation of boundary layer transition over a 5° half-cone-angle blunt cone is performed. The free-stream Mach number is 6 and the angle of attack is 1°. Random wall blow-and-suction perturbations are used to trigger the transition. Different from the authors' previous work [Li et al., AIAA J. 46, 2899 (2008)], the whole boundary layer flow over the cone is simulated (while in the author's previous work, only two 45° regions around the leeward and the windward sections are simulated). The transition location on the cone surface is determined through the rapid increase in skin fraction coefficient (Cf). The transition line on the cone surface shows a nonmonotonic curve and the transition is delayed in the range of 20°???30° (? =0° is the leeward section). The mechanism of the delayed transition is studied by using joint frequency spectrum analysis and linear stability theory (LST). It is shown that the growth rates of unstable waves of the second mode are suppressed in the range of 20°???30°, which leads to the delayed transition location. Very low frequency waves (VLFWs) are found in the time series recorded just before the transition location, and the periodic times of VLFWs are about one order larger than those of ordinary Mack second mode waves. Band-pass filter is used to analyze the low frequency waves, and they are deemed as the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of large scale nonlinear perturbations triggered by LST waves when they are strong enough.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Xinliang; Fu, Dexun; Ma, Yanwen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12655026"> <span id="translatedtitle">A simple and cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> method for producing <span class="hlt">small</span> interfering RNAs with high efficacy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are powerful RNA interference (RNAi) reagents for <span class="hlt">directed</span> post- transcriptional gene silencing. Exogenous siRNA is frequently used in RNAi studies. However, due to profound differences in the activity of siRNAs targeted to different regions of a gene, several reagents may have to be screened for optimal activity. This approach is expensive due to the cost of chemical synthesis of RNAs. We report a technically simple, quick and cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> method for the production of siRNAs that makes use of in vitro transcription and deoxyribozyme digestion of the transcripts to produce the desired sequence and length. The method allows for several siRNAs to be produced in parallel at much reduced costs. The siRNAs produced with this method were tested in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells for efficacy against the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) mRNA and they caused dose-dependent inhibition of IGF1R expression comparable to that induced by chemically synthesised siRNAs of the same sequence. This method is also useful for producing long RNA fragments of defined length and sequence that may be difficult to synthesise chemically, and also for producing large quantities of RNAs for applications including structural studies and the study of interactions between RNA and other molecules, such as proteins, other nucleic acids and drugs. PMID:12655026</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sohail, Muhammad; Doran, Graeme; Riedemann, Johann; Macaulay, Val; Southern, Edwin M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3364914"> <span id="translatedtitle">Palms, peccaries and perturbations: widespread <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale disturbance in tropical forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Disturbance is an important process structuring ecosystems worldwide and has long been thought to be a significant driver of diversity and dynamics. In forests, most studies of disturbance have focused on large-scale disturbance such as hurricanes or tree-falls. However, smaller sub-canopy disturbances could also have significant impacts on community structure. One such sub-canopy disturbance in tropical forests is abscising leaves of large arborescent palm (Arececeae) trees. These leaves can weigh up to 15 kg and cause physical damage and mortality to juvenile plants. Previous studies examining this question suffered from the use of static data at <span class="hlt">small</span> spatial scales. Here we use data from a large permanent forest plot combined with dynamic data on the survival and growth of > 66,000 individuals over a seven-year period to address whether falling palm fronds do impact neighboring seedling and sapling communities, or whether there is an interaction between the palms and peccaries rooting for fallen palm fruit in the same area as falling leaves. We tested the wider generalisation of these hypotheses by comparing seedling and sapling survival under fruiting and non-fruiting trees in another family, the Myristicaceae. Results We found a spatially-restricted but significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> of large arborescent fruiting palms on the spatial structure, population dynamics and species diversity of neighbouring sapling and seedling communities. However, these <span class="hlt">effects</span> were not found around slightly smaller non-fruiting palm trees, suggesting it is seed predators such as peccaries rather than falling leaves that impact on the communities around palm trees. Conversely, this hypothesis was not supported in data from other edible species, such as those in the family Myristicaceae. Conclusions Given the abundance of arborescent palm trees in Amazonian forests, it is reasonable to conclude that their presence does have a significant, if spatially-restricted, impact on juvenile plants, most likely on the survival and growth of seedlings and saplings damaged by foraging peccaries. Given the abundance of fruit produced by each palm, the widespread <span class="hlt">effects</span> of these <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale disturbances appear, over long time-scales, to cause <span class="hlt">directional</span> changes in community structure at larger scales. PMID:22429883</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/34439"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of alpha-particle irradiations of human prostate tumor cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this project is to establish a model system to study the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span>, the bystander <span class="hlt">effect</span> and the combinational <span class="hlt">effect</span> of alpha-particle irradiations of human prostate tumor cells, toward the goal of ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004MeScT..15.2157R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> number of resolution bits in <span class="hlt">direct</span> sensor-to-microcontroller interfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microcontrollers with embedded timers can <span class="hlt">directly</span> measure resistive and capacitive sensors by determining the charging or discharging time of an RC circuit that includes the sensor. This time-to-digital conversion is affected by the quantization of the timer and the trigger noise, which limit the resolution to an <span class="hlt">effective</span> number of bits (ENOB). This paper analyses the standard uncertainty and the ENOB of that time-to-digital conversion. When interfacing resistive sensors and the capacitor C is <span class="hlt">small</span>, quantization <span class="hlt">effects</span> predominate over trigger noise <span class="hlt">effects</span>, and ENOB increases for increasing C. But, for capacitor values larger than a given C, trigger noise <span class="hlt">effects</span> predominate and the ENOB remains constant regardless of C. Therefore, an optimal time constant yields the best speed-ENOB trade-off. This type of sensor interface was implemented by using an AVR microcontroller with an embedded 16-bit timer connected to a resistor simulating a Pt1000-type temperature sensor. The experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. If the time was determined from a single observation, the optimal time constant was about 2-3 ms and the ENOB was about 11.5 b, which corresponds to a 0.22 OHgr resolution. By averaging ten observations, that resolution improved to 13.5 b (0.05 OHgr).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reverter, Ferran; Pallàs-Areny, Ramon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47903728"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Use of Owner Resources in <span class="hlt">Small</span> and Family Owned Businesses: Literature Review and Future Research <span class="hlt">Directions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper integrates relevant literature and the Sustainable Family Business Model regarding interchange of financial resources\\u000a between family and business. Two distinct literatures on the use of owner resources in <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses are examined: the\\u000a intermingling of business and household resources from the family firm literature and financial bootstrapping studies from\\u000a the <span class="hlt">small</span> business finance literature. What has not been</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tansel Yilmazer; Holly Schrank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9226E..07J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of asteroid rotation on <span class="hlt">directed</span> energy deflection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Asteroids that threaten Earth could be deflected from their orbits using laser <span class="hlt">directed</span> energy or concentrated solar energy to vaporize the surface; the ejected plume would create a reaction thrust that pushes the object away from its collision course with Earth. One concern regarding <span class="hlt">directed</span> energy deflection approaches is that asteroids rotate as they orbit the Sun. Asteroid rotation reduces the average thrust and changes the thrust vector imparting a time profile to the thrust. A <span class="hlt">directed</span> energy system must deliver sufficient flux to evaporate surface material even when the asteroid is rotating. Required flux levels depend on surface material composition and albedo, thermal and bulk mechanical properties of the asteroid, and asteroid rotation rate. In the present work we present results of simulations for <span class="hlt">directed</span> energy ejecta-plume asteroid threat mitigation. We use the observed distribution of asteroid rotational rates, along with a range of material and mechanical properties, as input to a thermal-physical model of plume generation. We calculate the expected thrust profile for rotating objects. Standoff <span class="hlt">directed</span> energy schemes that deliver at least 10 MW/m2 generate significant thrust for all but the highest conceivable rotation rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johansson, Isabella E.; Tsareva, Tatiana; Griswold, Janelle; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Zhang, Qicheng; Riley, Jordan; Melis, Carl; Walsh, Kevin; Brashears, Travis; Bollag, Justin; Mathew, Shana; Bible, Johanna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51895464"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of ion drift on <span class="hlt">small</span>-amplitude ion-acoustic solitons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some properties of <span class="hlt">small</span>-amplitude ion-acoustic solitons in a plasma consisting of nondrifting electrons and drifting ions are investigated. Electron inertia <span class="hlt">effects</span> are shown to be considerably more important than relativistic <span class="hlt">effects</span>. It is also shown that ion-acoustic soliton solutions exist only if the ion drift velocity is less than the electron thermal velocity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. H. Kuehl; C. Y. Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kinds+AND+stars&pg=2&id=EJ620776"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Classes on Academic Achievement: The Results of the Tennessee Class Size Experiment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analyzed results from a 4-year large-scale randomized experiment on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of class size, project STAR in Tennessee. Analyses suggest class size <span class="hlt">effects</span> that are large enough to be important for educational policy and that are quite consistent across schools. <span class="hlt">Small</span> classes appear to benefit all kinds of students. (SLD)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cals.arizona.edu/~jfehmi/pdfs/fehmi_etal2001_smallgaps.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> gaps in California annual grassland on above-ground biomass production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> gaps in California annual grassland on above-ground biomass production J. S- mon in grasslands. In California annual grasslands, pat- ches of Lolium multi¯orum Lam. and Bromus resource use of these grasslands. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> that differences in spatial aggre- gation, gap distribution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fehmi, Jeffrey S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2155407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intelligent approach for <span class="hlt">effective</span> management of governmental funds for <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium enterprises</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, various kinds of governmental funds have been committed to <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium enterprises in Korea, but their <span class="hlt">effects</span> have been reported to be quite controversial. In order to manage such governmental funds <span class="hlt">effectively</span>, feedback information obtained from the rigorous evaluation procedure of government investments needs to be utilized for future selection of new projects. In this paper we provide</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tae Hee Moon; So Young Sohn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.science.siu.edu/zoology/schauber/pdfs/schauber%20edge%2099%20power.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical power to detect main and interactive <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the attributes of <span class="hlt">small</span>-mammal populations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statistical power is an important consideration in the design of experiments, because resources invested in an experiment may be wasted if it is unlikely to produce statistically significant results when real <span class="hlt">effects</span> or differences exist. Using data from toxicological experiments on seminatural populations of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals, we examined the power of statistical tests for main and interactive <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Our objectives</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric M. Schauber; W. Daniel Edge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://epaper.kek.jp/c04/data/cyc2004_papers/21a2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">STUDY OF SPACE CHARGE <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> USING A <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> STORAGE RING THAT WORKS IN THE ISOCHRONOUS REGIME</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Small</span> Isochronous Ring (SIR) is a storage ring designed to study space charge <span class="hlt">effects</span> in the isochronous regime. The purpose of the studies is to validate computer codes that predict space charge <span class="hlt">effects</span>. SIR accelerates hydrogen ions and molecules to energies of approximately 20 keV. The bunches are stored for up to 200 coasting turns. With DC currents of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Marti; E. Pozdeyev; J. Rodriguez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10827"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> radiation divergence on measurements of the source size.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Third-generation storage rings have <span class="hlt">small</span> particle beam emittances. The size of the particle beam can be determined from the measured image size of the focused radiation source. Undulators are preferred as radiation sources at third-generation storage rings, the radiation emitted by an undulator has both <span class="hlt">small</span> size and divergence. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the <span class="hlt">small</span> beam divergence on determination of the source size is discussed here. The analysis is performed in an approximation of a Gaussian distribution of the radiation intensity. The partial approximation and matrix methods were also used for this derivation. It was found that the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the <span class="hlt">small</span> beam divergence depends on the ratio of the angular acceptance of the source to the divergence of the emitted radiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ilinski, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.533a2004A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> processes <span class="hlt">effects</span> on deuteron activation cross sections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An extended analysis of reaction mechanisms involved in deuterons interaction with target nuclei from 27Al till 231Pa, at incident energies up to 60 MeV, is presented. Increased attention is devoted to <span class="hlt">direct</span> processes, concerning the breakup, stripping, and pickup contributions to the deuteron activation cross sections. Finally, the pre-equilibrium and evaporation cross sections, corrected for the initial flux leakage towards <span class="hlt">direct</span> processes, have completed the deuteron interaction analysis. The overall agreement of the measured data and model calculations proves the correctness of nuclear mechanism description.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945068"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disentangling <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of experimental grassland management and plant functional-group manipulation on plant and leafhopper diversity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Plant biodiversity can affect trophic interactions in many ways, including <span class="hlt">direct</span> bottom-up <span class="hlt">effects</span> on insects, but is negatively affected by agricultural intensification. Grassland intensification promotes plant productivity, resulting in changes in plant community composition, and impacts on higher trophic levels. Here, we use a novel grassland management experiment combining manipulations of cutting and fertilization with experimental changes in plant functional group composition (independent of management <span class="hlt">effects</span>) to disentangle the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of agricultural management on insect herbivore diversity and abundance. We used leafhoppers as model organisms as they are a key insect taxon in grasslands and react rapidly to management changes. Leafhoppers were sampled between May and September 2010 using standardized sweep netting and pan traps. Results Plant diversity, functional group composition and management regime in grasslands affected leafhopper species richness and abundance. Higher cutting frequencies <span class="hlt">directly</span> led to decreasing leafhopper species richness, presumably due to the higher disturbance frequency and the reduction in food-resource heterogeneity. In contrast, fertilizer application had only a <span class="hlt">small</span> indirect negative <span class="hlt">effect</span> via enhanced aboveground plant biomass, reduced plant diversity and changes in functional group composition. The manipulated increase in grass cover had contrasting <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on leafhopper species richness: grass cover <span class="hlt">directly</span> increased leafhopper species richness, but negatively affected plant diversity, which in turn was positively related to leafhopper species richness. In conclusion, insect diversity is driven in complex <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect ways by grassland management, including changes in functional group composition. Conclusions The availability of preferred food sources and the frequency of disturbance are important <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect drivers of leafhopper species richness, interacting in complex ways with plant diversity and food resource heterogeneity. PMID:24438134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3990882"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Sided Handball Games</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0–1.4 m·s-1; 1.4–3.4 m·s-1; 3.4–5.2 m·s-1; >5.2 m·s-1) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of <span class="hlt">direction</span>, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher during the drill with the 32×16m court compared with the 24×12m one (p < 0.05; ES = 2.34). Our findings indicate that changing court dimensions during <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided handball games can be used to manipulate both external and internal loads on the players. Key points To cover the specific game demands, more specific training methodologies have been developed in many sport games. Specific game exercises may provide a useful conditioning stimulus, together with technical and tactical training components. Changing court dimensions during <span class="hlt">small</span>-sided handball games can be used to manipulate both external and internal loads on the players. The high ratio of cyclic activity per minute and the high HR values recorded during SSHGs make this type of drills extremely useful for aerobic power training. PMID:24790482</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IEITC..92.1020O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Transmission Delay on Human Behavior in Audio Communication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transmission delay in audio communications is a well-known obstacle to achieving smooth communication. However, it is not known what kinds of <span class="hlt">effects</span> are caused by <span class="hlt">small</span> delays. We hypothesized that the <span class="hlt">small</span> delay in the listener's responses disturbs the speaker's “verbal conditioning, ” where the verbal behavior of the speaker varies in accordance with the listener's responses. We examined whether the <span class="hlt">small</span> delays in the listener's responses disturb the speaker's verbal conditioning using an artificial-grammar learning task. The results suggested that a 300-ms delay disturbed the participants' verbal conditioning although they were not adequately aware of the delay.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Mochizuki, Kaname</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45208921"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of a Multistate Model to Estimate Culvert <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Movement of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Fishes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">While it is widely acknowledged that culverted road-stream crossings may impede fish passage, <span class="hlt">effects</span> of culverts on movement of nongame and <span class="hlt">small</span>-bodied fishes have not been extensively studied and studies generally have not accounted for spatial variation in capture probabilities. We estimated probabilities for upstream and downstream movement of <span class="hlt">small</span> (30-120 mm standard length) benthic and water column fishes across</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James R. Norman; Megan M. Hagler; Mary C. Freeman; Byron J. Freeman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/e177647377120p02.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Portal Hypertension in the <span class="hlt">Small</span> Bowel: An Endoscopic Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and aim The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of portal hypertension in the <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel are largely unknown. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess\\u000a portal hypertension manifestations in the <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel. Methods We compared, by performing enteroscopy with capsule endoscopy, the endoscopic findings of 36 patients with portal hypertension,\\u000a 25 cirrhotic and 11 non-cirrhotic, with 30 controls. Results Varices, defined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pedro Figueiredo; Nuno Almeida; Clotilde Lérias; Sandra Lopes; Hermano Gouveia; Maximino C. Leitão; Diniz Freitas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40914148"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stand scale <span class="hlt">effects</span> of partial harvesting and clearcutting on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals and forest structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Documenting responses of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals to alternative forestry practices (e.g., clearcutting versus partial harvesting versus no management) facilitates inferences about <span class="hlt">effects</span> on wildlife communities. We compared abundances of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals (voles, mice, and shrews) during four summers among partially harvested mixed coniferous–deciduous stands (52–59% basal area removal, 15m2\\/ha live-tree residual basal area), regenerating commercial clearcuts (11–20-year-old), mature (>12m tree height)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Angela K Fuller; Daniel J Harrison; Henry J Lachowski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22199805"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, <span class="hlt">small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effects</span> are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the <span class="hlt">small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the <span class="hlt">small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effect</span>. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the <span class="hlt">small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effect</span>. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the <span class="hlt">small</span> scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lei, Fang-Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57503777"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Directional</span> Speech Warnings on Road Hazard Detection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: In the last 2 decades, cognitive science and the transportation psychology field have dedicated a lot of effort to designing advanced driver support systems. Verbal warning systems are increasingly being implemented in modern automobiles in an effort to increase road safety.Objective: The study presented here investigated the impact of <span class="hlt">directional</span> speech alert messages on the participants’ speed to judge</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jesús Serrano; Leandro L. Di Stasi; Alberto MegíAs; Andrés Catena</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2006_koprowski_j001.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF FIRE ON ENDANGERED MOUNT GRAHAM RED SQUIRRELS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> mortality of forest wildlife due to fire is rarely documented. In June and July 2004, the Nuttall Complex Fire burned 11,898 ha in the Pinaleno Mountains, southeastern Ari- zona. Portions of these mountains serve as the only habitat of endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis). Survival of radio-collared red squirrels over a pe- riod that included the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John L. Koprowski; Katherine M. Leonard; Claire A. Zugmeyer; Julia L. Jolley; Cody W. Edwards</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nuclear&pg=2&id=EJ843322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Goal <span class="hlt">Direction</span> and <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>, Emotional Maturity, and Nuclear Family Functioning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal <span class="hlt">direction</span> and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klever, Phillip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cat+AND+oral&id=EJ777519"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Object Predictability: <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Young Children's Imitation of Sentences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We hypothesize that the conceptual relation between a verb and its <span class="hlt">direct</span> object can make a sentence easier ("the cat is eating some food") or harder ("the cat is eating a sock") to parse and understand. If children's limited performance systems contribute to the ungrammatical brevity of their speech, they should perform better on sentences that…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valian, Virginia; Prasada, Sandeep; Scarpa, Jodi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/78314"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy on <span class="hlt">small</span> objects using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and bilayer cantilever probes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A measurement platform is introduced that combines a bilayer cantilever probe with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure absolute spectral absorptance between wavelengths of 3??m and 18??m <span class="hlt">directly</span> and ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hsu, Wei-Chun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23536544"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of different treatment plans on irradiated <span class="hlt">small</span>-bowel volume in gynecologic patients undergoing whole-pelvic irradiation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To evaluate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of different treatment plans for whole-pelvic irradiation on <span class="hlt">small</span>-bowel volumes (SBVs) in patients with gynecologic malignancies, 40 patients were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography (CT) simulations were performed, and the <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel of each patient was outlined manually. Treatment plans with equal-weighted (EW) and non-equal-weighted (NEW) (70% in bilateral <span class="hlt">directions</span>) techniques of four-field and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were performed. The V10-V100 represented the volume (cm³) at different levels of the prescribed doses (10-100%). The V10-V100 was compared among the different treatment planning techniques, and patients who were suitable for IMRT or NEW were identified. IMRT and NEW significantly reduced the V50-V100 and V40-V60 levels compared with EW, respectively. NEW caused a significant reduction in the V30-V60 levels in patients with a BMI ?26 kg/m². Patients with IMRT demonstrated lower V70-V100 levels compared with those with NEW. In patients with a BMI ?26 kg/m² or an age ?55 years, lower V20-V50 levels were noted using NEW compared with IMRT. Treatment planning with larger weighting in the bilateral <span class="hlt">directions</span> in four-field radiotherapy reduces the low-dose SBV in patients with gynecologic malignancies, especially in those with a high BMI or the elderly. IMRT <span class="hlt">effectively</span> reduces high-dose SBV, especially in patients with a low BMI. PMID:23536544</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Shih-Chen; Lee, Hsiao-Fei; Ting, Hui-Min; Pan, Tzu-Chao; Liu, Shu-Yu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Wang, Teng-Yi; Juan, Kuo-Jung; Liao, Tsung-I; Huang, Eng-Yen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12020012"> <span id="translatedtitle">A simple and cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> method for producing <span class="hlt">small</span> interfering RNAs with high efficacy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are powerful RNA interference (RNAi) reagents for <span class="hlt">directed</span> post- transcriptional gene silencing. Exogenous siRNA is frequently used in RNAi studies. However, due to profound differences in the activity of siRNAs targeted to different regions of a gene, several reagents may have to be screened for optimal activity. This approach is expensive due to the cost of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muhammad Sohail; Graeme Doran; Johann Riedemann; Val Macaulay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27203114"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of nozzle characteristics on the performance of a <span class="hlt">small</span>-bore high-speed <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection diesel engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As Co2 emissions from vehicles are gaining global attention, the low fuel consuming powertrain is in much greater demand than before. Some alternatives are suggested but the high-speed <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection (HSDI) diesel engine would be the most realistic solution. Vehicle simulation shows that a car with low fuel consumption can be realized by applying a 1–1.2 L high-speed <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M-S Lyu; B-S Shin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4105889"> <span id="translatedtitle">miRNA-200c inhibits invasion and metastasis of human non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer by <span class="hlt">directly</span> targeting ubiquitin specific peptidase 25</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Growing evidence indicates that miR-200c is involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its precise biological role remains largely elusive. Methods The functions of miR-200c and USP25 in migration/invasion and lung metastasis formation were determined by transwell and tail vein injection assays, respectively. The potential regulatory targets of miR-200c were determined by prediction tools, correlation with target protein expression, and luciferase reporter assay. The mRNA expression levels of miR-200c and USP25 were examined in NSCLC cell lines and patient specimens using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The protein expression levels of USP25 were examined in NSCLC cell lines and patient specimens using western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Results We demonstrated that over-expression of miR-200c inhibited NSCLC cells migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and lung metastasis formation in vivo. Further studies revealed that USP25 was a downstream target of miR-200c in NSCLC cells as miR-200c bound <span class="hlt">directly</span> to the 3’-untranslated region of USP25, thus reducing both the messenger RNA and protein levels of USP25. Silencing of the USP25 gene recapitulated the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of miR-200c over-expression. Clinical analysis indicated that miR-200c was negatively correlated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients. Moreover, USP25 protein and mRNA level expressions were higher in NSCLC patients, compared to healthy control, and correlated with clinical stage and lymphatic node metastasis. Conclusions These findings indicate that miR-200c exerts tumor-suppressive <span class="hlt">effects</span> for NSCLC through the suppression of USP25 expression and suggests a new therapeutic application of miR-200c in the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:24997798</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23057609"> <span id="translatedtitle">Judgements of relative <span class="hlt">direction</span>: the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of task instructions on spatial recall.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the most widely used tasks in the spatial memory literature is the judgement of relative <span class="hlt">direction</span> (JRD) test. The present investigation examined the hypothesis that standard JRD task demands bias spatial recall. In two experiments, participants' recall of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale layouts as measured by standard JRD tests (in which the relationship between objects was employed to establish imagined orientations within the learned scene) was compared with recall as measured by novel JRD tasks. The novel tasks emphasized either the internal front/back and left/right axes of individual objects (Experiment 1) or extrinsic spatial cues (Experiment 2). Spatial recall was found to reflect the reference cues emphasized by the JRD task in Experiment 1 and by the novel task in Experiment 2. The finding that <span class="hlt">directional</span> judgements tended to reflect a frame of reference aligned with the set of cues emphasized by task demands suggests that the nature of the task employed to test knowledge can have an <span class="hlt">effect</span> on spatial recall. PMID:23057609</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donaldson, Phillip; Tlauka, Michael; Robertson, Caitlin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24677405"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms underpinning climatic impacts on natural populations: altered species interactions are more important than <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shifts in species' distribution and abundance in response to climate change have been well documented, but the underpinning processes are still poorly understood. We present the results of a systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigating the frequency and importance of different mechanisms by which climate has impacted natural populations. Most studies were from temperate latitudes of North America and Europe; almost half investigated bird populations. We found significantly greater support for indirect, biotic mechanisms than <span class="hlt">direct</span>, abiotic mechanisms as mediators of the impact of climate on populations. In addition, biotic <span class="hlt">effects</span> tended to have greater support than abiotic factors in studies of species from higher trophic levels. For primary consumers, the impact of climate was equally mediated by biotic and abiotic mechanisms, whereas for higher level consumers the mechanisms were most frequently biotic, such as predation or food availability. Biotic mechanisms were more frequently supported in studies that reported a <span class="hlt">directional</span> trend in climate than in studies with no such climatic change, although sample sizes for this comparison were <span class="hlt">small</span>. We call for more mechanistic studies of climate change impacts on populations, particularly in tropical systems. PMID:24677405</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ockendon, Nancy; Baker, David J; Carr, Jamie A; White, Elizabeth C; Almond, Rosamunde E A; Amano, Tatsuya; Bertram, Esther; Bradbury, Richard B; Bradley, Cassie; Butchart, Stuart H M; Doswald, Nathalie; Foden, Wendy; Gill, David J C; Green, Rhys E; Sutherland, William J; Tanner, Edmund V J; Pearce-Higgins, James W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhFl...20d5108D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dissipation and enstrophy in isotropic turbulence: Resolution <span class="hlt">effects</span> and scaling in <span class="hlt">direct</span> numerical simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Existing experimental and numerical data suggest that the turbulence energy dissipation and enstrophy (i.e., the square of vorticity) possess different scaling properties, while available theory suggests that there should be no differences at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. We have performed a series of <span class="hlt">direct</span> numerical simulations with up to 20483 grid points where advanced computational power is used to increase the Reynolds number (up to 650 on the Taylor scale) or to resolve the <span class="hlt">small</span> scales better (down to 1/4 of a Kolmogorov scale). Our primary goal is to assess the differences and similarities between dissipation and enstrophy. Special attention is paid to the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale resolution on the quality and reliability of the data, in view of recent theoretical work [V. Yakhot and K. R. Sreenivasan, "Anomalous scaling of structure functions and dynamic constraints on turbulence simulations," J. Stat. Phys. 121, 823 (2005)] which stipulates the resolution needed to obtain a moment of a given order. We also provide error estimates as a function of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale resolution. Probability density functions of dissipation and enstrophy at high Reynolds number reveal the presence of extreme events several thousands times of the mean. The extreme events in dissipation and enstrophy fields appear to scale alike, substantially overlap in space, and are nearly statistically isotropic, while fluctuations of moderate amplitudes, at least for the present Reynolds numbers, show persistent differences. Conditional sampling shows that intense dissipation is likely to be accompanied by similarly intense enstrophy, but intense enstrophy is not always accompanied by intense dissipation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donzis, D. A.; Yeung, P. K.; Sreenivasan, K. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JFST....4..468A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Side Walls on Pipe Inlet Flow(Drag Reduction by Separated Flow Control Using Ring Shaped <span class="hlt">Small</span> Obstacle)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The flow from a wide space into a pipe has a large annular separated vortex region just after the inlet corner. This vortex region produces large flow resistance, or drag, in this kind of flow. To reduce the drag, a means to control flow in order to suppress the vortex region is needed. In this study, a simple method to reduce the drag of the pipe inlet flow by mounting a <span class="hlt">small</span> ring-shaped obstacle instead of a bell-mouth has been proposed and examined. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the side-walls and their offset distance on drag reduction were also examined. The <span class="hlt">small</span> offset distance corresponds to the case in which the pipe inlet is placed near the bottom or corner of the tank. The distributions of pressure and velocity components in the axial <span class="hlt">direction</span> at several cross-sections were measured, and a visualized flow pattern of the water flow just after the pipe inlet was examined. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the <span class="hlt">small</span> ring-shaped obstacle on drag reduction were also examined. It was clarified that the inlet loss (drag) coefficient was reduced by a maximum of about 90 percent by mounting the ring-shaped obstacle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ando, Toshitake; Shakouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Koichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37845130"> <span id="translatedtitle">Online purchase determinants : Is their <span class="hlt">effect</span> moderated by <span class="hlt">direct</span> experience?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating influence of <span class="hlt">direct</span> online shopping experience in an e-commerce context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The conceptual framework links attitudinal constructs such as price attractiveness, merchandise quality, service quality, time\\/effort costs, risk and enjoyment to future online purchase intentions. Purchasers and inquirers of a car insurance comparison website were approached by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thijs Broekhuizen; Eelko K. R. E. Huizingh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.psychol.ucl.ac.uk/vision/Lab_Site/Publications_files/science-11.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two mechanisms underlying the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of angle of motion <span class="hlt">direction</span> change on colourmotion asynchrony</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">; Colour; Binding; Temporal perception; Reaction time 1. General introduction The human sensory system <span class="hlt">direction</span> changes. The degree of <span class="hlt">direction</span> change also affected reaction times, but the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of apparent rapid alternations of colour and motion <span class="hlt">direction</span> imply a large apparent delay of motion perception</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnston, Alan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51010116"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">directed</span> forgetting on post traumatic stress disorder peddlers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traumatic memory of post traumatic stress disorder peddlers can affect competition performance, and even avoid competition. The paper explored the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">directed</span> forgetting on post traumatic stress disorder peddlers. The results showed that:(1) <span class="hlt">directed</span> forgetting affected explicit and implicit memory of post traumatic stress disorder peddlers whose remember items were better than forget items. The findings showed <span class="hlt">directed</span> forgetting</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fenghai Cai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25130052"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacodynamic <span class="hlt">effects</span> of oral oxymorphone: abuse liability, analgesic profile and <span class="hlt">direct</span> physiologic <span class="hlt">effects</span> in humans.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oxymorphone is a semisynthetic ?-opioid agonist, marketed as a prescription analgesic purported to be twice as potent as oxycodone for pain relief. Oral formulations of oxymorphone were reintroduced in the United States in 2006 and reports of abuse ensued; however, there are limited data available on its pharmacodynamic <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The current study aimed to examine the <span class="hlt">direct</span> physiologic <span class="hlt">effects</span>, relative abuse liability, analgesic profile and overall pharmacodynamic potency of oxymorphone in comparison with identical doses of oxycodone. Healthy, non-dependent opioid abusers (n?=?9) were enrolled in this within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-week inpatient study. Seven experimental sessions (6.5 hours) were conducted, during which an oral dose of immediate-release formulations of oxymorphone (10, 20 and 40?mg), oxycodone (10, 20 and 40?mg) or placebo was administered. An array of physiologic, abuse liability and experimental pain measures was collected. At identical doses, oxymorphone produced approximately twofold less potent <span class="hlt">effects</span> on miosis, compared with oxycodone. Oxymorphone also produced lesser magnitude <span class="hlt">effects</span> on measures of respiratory depression, two experimental pain models and observer-rated agonist <span class="hlt">effects</span>. However, 40?mg of oxymorphone was similar to 40?mg of oxycodone on several abuse-related subjective ratings. Formal relative potency analyses were largely invalid because of the substantially greater <span class="hlt">effects</span> of oxycodone. Overall, oxymorphone is less potent on most pharmacodynamic measures, although at higher doses, its abuse liability is similar to oxycodone. These data suggest that the published clinical equianalgesic estimates may not be consistent with the observed <span class="hlt">direct</span> physiologic <span class="hlt">effects</span> of opioids, results of experimental pain models or abuse liability measures, as assessed in the human laboratory. PMID:25130052</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Babalonis, Shanna; Lofwall, Michelle R; Nuzzo, Paul A; Walsh, Sharon L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020166&hterms=dispersion+coefficient+river&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddispersion%2Bcoefficient%2Briver"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> flares in the neutral component of secondary cosmic radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results are presented of an investigation of the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> flares, scale divisions 1 and 1(+), in the neutron component of secondary cosmic radiation from the data of neutron supermonitors at the stations of Kiev, Bukhta Tiksi, and Deep River. It is shown that flares of scale divisions 1 and 1(+) are accompanied by an <span class="hlt">effect</span> in the neutron component amounting to about 0.4%. A mechanism is presented for calculating the outflow of particles accelerated in <span class="hlt">small</span> flares, owing to diffusion across the magnetic field of a trap.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bondarenko, V. I.; Raychenko, L. V.; Yukhimuk, A. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/835048"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-04-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22915413"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of hydrophilic room-temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate on <span class="hlt">direct</span> electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis of heme proteins entrapped in agarose hydrogel films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]) on <span class="hlt">direct</span> electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis of hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin (Mb), and catalase (Cat) entrapped in agarose hydrogel films were investigated. A <span class="hlt">small</span> amount of water in [bmim][BF4] is necessary to maintain the electrochemical activities of these heme proteins. The <span class="hlt">direct</span> electron transfer between heme proteins and glassy carbon electrode (GC) is a surface-confined quasi-reversible</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheng-Fu Wang; Ting Chen; Zhi-Ling Zhang; Dai-Wen Pang; Kwok-Yin Wong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9870352"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of cysteine modifications on the activity of the '<span class="hlt">small</span>' Clostridium perfringens sialidase.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The '<span class="hlt">small</span>' (43 kDa) sialidase of Clostridium perfringens is inhibited by low concentrations of mercury ions. For the investigation of possible functional roles of the enzyme's four cysteine residues at the amino acid positions 2, 282, 333 and 349, they were separately altered to serine by site-<span class="hlt">directed</span> mutagenesis. The four mutant sialidases expressed in E. coli and purified by metal chelate chromatography were markedly reduced in specific activity when compared to the wild-type enzyme but with the exception of C282S exhibited similar K(M)-values indicating an unchanged mode of substrate binding. The substrate specificity was also conserved for C2S, C282S, and C333S. Only the C349S sialidase exhibited a higher relative activity with colominic acid and the alpha2,6-linked sialic acid of sialyllactose compared to the alpha2,3-linked isomer than the other mutants. Chemical modifications with the thiol-blocking reagents N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB) and HgCl2 had little <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the C282S sialidase, e.g., 6% inhibition by 5 mM NEM compared to reductions in activity between 65 and 90% for the wild-type and other mutant enzymes, supporting the idea that among the enzyme's cysteines, Cys-282 has the highest structural or functional significance. The results also explain the higher mercury tolerance of Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium tertium sialidases, which have the positions equivalent to Cys-282 altered to Val and Thr, respectively, indicating that the thiol group of Cys-282, despite being situated near the active site, is not involved in catalysis. PMID:9870352</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kruse, S; Pommerencke, J; Kleineidam, R G; Roggentin, P; Schauer, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oregonstate.edu/~shellk/2006JD007197.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> of mineral dust and volcanic aerosols in a simple aerosol climate model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">to the green- house <span class="hlt">effect</span>. However, the current net <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> of dust is unclear because. This reduced shortwave usually dominates the increased longwave, lead- ing to a net cooling of the column. Over</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shell, Karen M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24907451"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine heterogeneity on irreversible electroporation treatment planning.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonthermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is an ablation modality that utilizes microsecond electric fields to produce nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. This results in selective cell death while preserving all other molecules, including the extracellular matrix. Here, finite element analysis and experimental results are utilized to examine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of NTIRE on the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine due to concern over collateral damage to this organ during NTIRE treatment of abdominal cancers. During previous studies, the electrical treatment parameters were chosen based on a simplified homogeneous tissue model. The <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, however, has very distinct layers, and a more realistic model is needed to further develop this technology for precise clinical applications. This study uses a two-dimensional finite element solution of the Laplace and heat conduction equations to investigate how <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine heterogeneities affect the electric field and temperature distribution. Experimental results obtained by applying NTIRE to the rat <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine in vivo support the heterogeneous <span class="hlt">effect</span> of NTIRE on the tissue. The numerical modeling indicates that the electroporation parameters chosen for this study avoid thermal damage to the tissue. This is supported by histology obtained from the in vivo study, which showed preservation of extracellular structures. The finite element model also indicates that the heterogeneous structure of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine has a significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the electric field and volume of cell ablation during electroporation and could have a large impact on the extent of treatment. The heterogeneous nature of the tissue should be accounted for in clinical treatment planning. PMID:24907451</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phillips, Mary</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40188356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flexural properties of black locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia L.) <span class="hlt">small</span> clear wood specimens in relation to the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of load application</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">LR  , GLT) were calculated in juvenile and mature black locust defect-free <span class="hlt">small</span> wood specimens after loading in static bending alternately\\u000a on true radial and tangential surfaces. For both juvenile and mature specimens, no significant differences (t-test, 95% probability\\u000a level) were found between the radial and tangential moduli of elasticity and rigidity. Values of PMOE were found to be 27–32%\\u000a higher</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Adamopoulos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49445548"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> seeding for riparian tree re-vegetation: <span class="hlt">Small</span>-scale field study of seeding methods and irrigation techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Restoration of wetland and associated ecosystems is a major goal of land management agencies throughout the world. On the lower Colorado River, creation of riparian forests is planned to mitigate riparian habitat degradation by historic land-use conversions and river management. Current restoration practices use propagated plant stock. If <span class="hlt">direct</span> seeding can be implemented, genetic and structural diversity could be enhanced</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matthew R. Grabau; Michael A. Milczarek; Martin M. Karpiscak; Barbara E. Raulston; Gregg N. Garnett; Daniel P. Bunting</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://globalchange.mit.edu/files/document/MITJPSPGC_Rpt210.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Potential <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26944647"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Area of the Human Body with Respect to <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Solar Radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methods of determining the <span class="hlt">effective</span> radiation area for <span class="hlt">direct</span> solar radiation have been compared. It was shown that the ratio of <span class="hlt">effective</span> area to total surface area is <span class="hlt">directly</span> proportional to the cosine of solar altitude for all the methods considered. The photographic method of Underwood and Ward (1961) and the shadow method of Chrenko and Pugh (1961) gave lower</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. G. C. E. PUGH; F. A. CHRENKO</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/29/23/56/PDF/Ranouxetalrevised.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">BOTULINUM TOXIN A INDUCES <span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> ANALGESIC <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> IN CHRONIC NEUROPATHIC PAIN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BOTULINUM TOXIN A INDUCES <span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> ANALGESIC <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> IN CHRONIC NEUROPATHIC PAIN D. Ranoux1 , N. Such mechanism may be involved in peripheral neuropathic pain. Methods: A possible <span class="hlt">direct</span> analgesic <span class="hlt">effect</span> of BTX-A pain processing was investigated in 29 patients with focal painful neuropathies and mechanical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=top+AND+down+AND+bottom+AND+up+AND+approaches&pg=5&id=EJ723345"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Directive</span> Versus Participative Leadership: Two Complementary Approaches to Managing School <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The educational literature reflects the widely shared belief that participative leadership has an overwhelming advantage over the contrasting style of <span class="hlt">directive</span> leadership in organizational and team <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a <span class="hlt">directive</span> leadership approach as compared with a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Somech, Anit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://climate.atmos.uiuc.edu/atuljain/publications/2005GL022818.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection for ocean carbon sequestration under the influence of climate change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assessing the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection for ocean carbon sequestration under the influence, ISAM-2.5D. Following the OCMIP carbon sequestration protocol, we carried out a series of carbon., and L. Cao (2005), Assessing the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span> injection for ocean carbon sequestration under</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jain, Atul K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=behaviour&pg=7&id=EJ867565"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Longitudinal Twin Study of the <span class="hlt">Direction</span> of <span class="hlt">Effects</span> between Psychopathic Personality and Antisocial Behaviour</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Antisocial behaviour may partly develop as a consequence of psychopathic personality. However, neither the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of <span class="hlt">effects</span> nor the aetiology of the association has previously been clarified. The aim in this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of <span class="hlt">effects</span> between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour, and to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forsman, Mats; Lichtenstein, Paul; Andershed, Henrik; Larsson, Henrik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5440881"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our completed research program concentrated on the <span class="hlt">direct</span> in vivo <span class="hlt">effects</span> of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. <span class="hlt">Direct</span> air pollution <span class="hlt">effects</span> on plant sexual reproduction have been studied for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, two of the three major air pollutants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-12-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ideomotor&id=EJ993412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Target- and <span class="hlt">Effect-Directed</span> Actions towards Temporal Goals: Similar Mechanisms?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an <span class="hlt">effect</span>) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">effect-directed</span> and target-<span class="hlt">directed</span> action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=direct+AND+instruction&pg=2&id=EJ864620"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Autism and Developmental Disabilities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated <span class="hlt">effects</span> of a <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction reading comprehension program implemented with students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental disabilities (DD). There is little research in the area of reading comprehension for students with ASD and no research as to the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of reading comprehension <span class="hlt">Direct</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flores, Margaret M.; Ganz, Jennifer B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hybro.com/downloads/1/p0291273.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and maternal genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> for ascites-related traits in broilers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities for ascites-related traits in broilers and to assess the importance of maternal genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> for these traits. Several traits related to ascites were measured on more than 4,000 broilers kept under cold conditions. Heritabilities were estimated using an animal model with a <span class="hlt">direct</span> genetic <span class="hlt">effect</span> and a model with <span class="hlt">direct</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Pakdel; Arendonk van J. A. M; A. L. J. Vereijken; H. Bovenhuis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/55/34/25/PDF/NEUROCOMP2010_0028_788d9552821a1eedf5fb67bd5ff045a8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF TRANSCRANIAL <span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> CURRENT STIMULATION (tDCS) ON SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS: A COMPUTATIONAL MODELING</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF TRANSCRANIAL <span class="hlt">DIRECT</span> CURRENT STIMULATION (tDCS) ON SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS/computational modeling approach aimed at studying the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of transcranial <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Current Stimulation (tDCS (EPs) recorded from the somatosensory cortex of the rabbit under tDCS. Results showed that the model</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10125840"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consumer-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> Health Care: Early Evidence About <span class="hlt">Effects</span> On Cost And Quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Demand for consumer-<span class="hlt">directed</span> health care (CDHC) is growing among purchas- ers of care, and early evidence about its <span class="hlt">effects</span> is beginning to emerge. Studies to date are consistent with <span class="hlt">effects</span> predicted by earlier literature: There is evidence of modest favorable health selection and early reports that consumer-<span class="hlt">directed</span> plans are associated with both lower costs and lower cost increases. The early</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melinda Beeuwkes Buntin; Cheryl Damberg; Amelia Haviland; Kanika Kapur; Nicole Lurie; Roland McDevitt; M. S. Marquis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy..tmp..182N"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span> aerosol radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the Mediterranean climate variability using a coupled regional climate system model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fully coupled regional climate system model (CNRM-RCSM4) has been used over the Mediterranean region to investigate the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aerosols, but also their role in the radiation-atmosphere-ocean interactions through multi-annual ensemble simulations (2003-2009) with and without aerosols and ocean-atmosphere coupling. Aerosols have been taken into account in CNRM-RCSM4 through realistic interannual monthly AOD climatologies. An evaluation of the model has been achieved, against various observations for meteorological parameters, and has shown the ability of CNRM-RCSM4 to reproduce the main patterns of the Mediterranean climate despite some biases in sea surface temperature (SST), radiation and cloud cover. The results concerning the aerosol radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> show a negative surface forcing on average because of the absorption and scattering of the incident radiation. The SW surface <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> is on average -20.9 Wm-2 over the Mediterranean Sea, -14.7 Wm-2 over Europe and -19.7 Wm-2 over northern Africa. The LW surface <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> is weaker as only dust aerosols contribute (+4.8 Wm-2 over northern Africa). This <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> is partly counterbalanced by a positive semi-<span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> over the Mediterranean Sea (+5.7 Wm-2 on average) and Europe (+5.0 Wm-2) due to changes in cloud cover and atmospheric circulation. The total aerosol <span class="hlt">effect</span> is consequently negative at the surface and responsible for a decrease in land (on average -0.4 °C over Europe, and -0.5 °C over northern Africa) and sea surface temperature (on average -0.5 °C for the Mediterranean SST). In addition, the latent heat loss is shown to be weaker (-11.0 Wm-2) in the presence of aerosols, resulting in a decrease in specific humidity in the lower troposphere, and a reduction in cloud cover and precipitation. Simulations also indicate that dust aerosols warm the troposphere by absorbing solar radiation, and prevent radiation from reaching the surface, thus stabilizing the troposphere. The comparison with the model response in atmosphere-only simulations shows that these feedbacks are attenuated if SST cannot be modified by aerosols, highlighting the importance of using coupled regional models over the Mediterranean. Oceanic convection is also strengthened by aerosols, which tends to reinforce the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. In parallel, two case studies are presented to illustrate positive feedbacks between dust aerosols and regional climate. First, the eastern Mediterranean was subject to high dust aerosol loads in June 2007 which reduce land and sea surface temperature, as well as air-sea humidity fluxes. Because of northern wind over the eastern Mediterranean, drier and cooler air has been consequently advected from the sea to the African continent, reinforcing the <span class="hlt">direct</span> dust <span class="hlt">effect</span> over land. On the contrary, during the western European heat wave in June 2006, dust aerosols have contributed to reinforcing an important ridge responsible for dry and warm air advection over western Europe, and thus to increasing lower troposphere (+0.8 °C) and surface temperature (+0.5 °C), namely about 15 % of this heat wave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nabat, Pierre; Somot, Samuel; Mallet, Marc; Sevault, Florence; Chiacchio, Marc; Wild, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010061363&hterms=Solidification&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DSolidification"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of g-jitter on <span class="hlt">Directional</span> Solidification of a Binary Alloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study of <span class="hlt">directional</span> solidification of a weak binary alloy (specifically, Bi - 1 at% Sn) based on the fixed grid single domain approach is being undertaken. The enthalpy method is used to solve for the temperature field over the computational domain including both the solid and liquid phases; latent heat evolution is treated with the aid of an <span class="hlt">effective</span> specific heat coefficient. A source term accounting for the release of solute into the liquid during solidification has been incorporated into the solute transport equation. The vorticity-stream function formulation is used to describe thermosolutal convection in the liquid region. In this paper we present a numerical simulation of g-jitter: the <span class="hlt">small</span>, rapid fluctuations in gravitational acceleration which may be experienced in an orbiting space vehicle. A background gravity of 1 micro-g has been assumed, and new results for the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of orientation angle of the periodic disturbances over a range of amplitudes and frequencies on solute field and segregation have been presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santiviriyapanich, P.; Benjapiyaporn, C.; Timchenko, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.; deGroh, H. C., III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubstorage.sdstate.edu/wfs/480-W.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 85 (2006) 113 <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF GRAZING ON <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> MAMMAL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, prairie voles, <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal abundance, South Dakota. INTRODUCTION In the Midwest, cattle production pressure, and the <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal community itself. The purpose of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">effects</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24821332"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">Small</span> Intensive Case Management Teams be as <span class="hlt">Effective</span> as Large Teams?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2007, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) implemented a program to deliver the full array of Assertive Community Treatment services in areas with low population density using teams with <span class="hlt">small</span> staffs. VHA administrative data were used to compare treatment and outcomes of veterans who received services from teams with only two or three staff (N = 805) and veterans served by teams with ten or more staff (N = 861). After adjusting for baseline difference, smaller teams had statistically significantly less symptom improvement and smaller declines in suicidality indices but <span class="hlt">effect</span> sizes were <span class="hlt">small</span> and there were no differences on 11 other outcomes. These data demonstrate the clinical need, practical feasibility and potential <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of providing intensive case management through <span class="hlt">small</span> teams. PMID:24821332</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohamed, Somaia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117b4305P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transverse wave propagation in viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes with <span class="hlt">small</span> scale and surface <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The general governing equation of transverse wave motion in a viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) adhered by surface material is formulated on the basis of the nonlocal elasticity theory and the Kelvin model. The properties of transverse wave propagation in the SWCNT are investigated. The explicit expressions are derived for the frequency and phase velocity of the wave motion. The <span class="hlt">small</span> scale and surface <span class="hlt">effects</span> and the influences of structural damping on the properties of wave propagation are elucidated. It is concluded that the frequency and phase velocity of transverse wave propagation in the viscoelastic SWCNT are related to the <span class="hlt">small</span> scale, surface elasticity, residual surface tension, and structural damping. The <span class="hlt">small</span> scale and surface <span class="hlt">effects</span> and the impact of structural damping on the properties of transverse wave propagation are dependent upon the wave number and tube diameter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pang, M.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Chen, W. Q.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005WRR....4104018I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Type curve analyses of pneumatic single-hole tests in unsaturated fractured tuff: <span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence for a porosity scale <span class="hlt">effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A large number of single- and cross-hole pneumatic injection tests have been conducted in shallow vertical and inclined boreholes in unsaturated fractured tuff at the Apache Leap Research Site (ALRS) near Superior, Arizona. Previously, <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect evidence for a permeability scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> was provided through the analysis of these tests. <span class="hlt">Direct</span> evidence was based on the comparison of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale single-hole and larger-scale cross-hole test results obtained through the type curve and steady state analysis of these data separately. Indirect evidence was provided by comparing cross-hole test analyses conducted at fine and coarse scales of resolution by means of a three-dimensional numerical inverse model. The latter study also provided indirect evidence for a porosity scale <span class="hlt">effect</span>. However, there were no <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale porosity data from single-hole tests to <span class="hlt">directly</span> verify this indirect evidence. This paper presents such data generated through the type curve interpretation of the recovery phase of the single-hole tests conducted at a nominal 1-m scale providing <span class="hlt">direct</span> evidence for a porosity scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> at the site. Statistical analysis of results revealed a strong porosity scale <span class="hlt">effect</span> confirming an earlier finding obtained indirectly. These results also showed that (1) the injection phase of the pneumatic single-hole tests do not yield reliable estimates of porosity but the recovery phase are amenable to type curve interpretation, (2) flow dimensionality of single-hole tests at 1-m scale are three-dimensional across the site except for a few tests which exhibited two-dimensional and fracture flow behavior, (3) there is a very weak correlation between permeability and porosity, and (4) there is a lack of correlation between fracture density and both permeability and porosity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Illman, Walter A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3992470"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> group <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in a Caribbean medical school’s problem-based learning sessions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The Tutorial Group <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Instrument was developed to provide objective information on the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> groups. Student perception of <span class="hlt">small</span> group <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> during the problem base learning (PBL) process has not been previously studied in Xavier University School of Medicine (Aruba, Kingdom of the Netherlands); hence, the present study was carried out. Methods: The study was conducted among second and third semester undergraduate medical students during the last week of September 2013, at Xavier University School of Medicine of the Netherlands. Students were informed about the objectives of the study and invited to participate after obtaining written, informed consent. Demographic information like gender, age, nationality, and whether the respondent had been exposed to PBL before joining the institution was noted. Student perception about <span class="hlt">small</span> group <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> was studied by noting their degree of agreement with a set of 19 statements using a Likert-type scale. Results: Thirty-four of the 37 (91.9%) second and third semester medical students participated in the study. The mean cognitive score was 3.76 while the mean motivational and de-motivational scores were 3.65 and 2.51, respectively. The median cognitive category score was 27 (maximum score 35) while the motivation score was 26 (maximum score 35) and the de-motivational score was 12 (maximum score25). There was no significant difference in scores according to respondents’ demographic characteristics. Conclusion: Student perception about <span class="hlt">small</span> group <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> was positive. Since most medical schools worldwide already have or are introducing PBL as a learning modality, the Tutorial Group <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Instrument can provide valuable information about <span class="hlt">small</span> group functioning during PBL sessions. PMID:24699510</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740042671&hterms=Feature+selection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DFeature%2Bselection"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of changing canopy <span class="hlt">directional</span> reflectance on feature selection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of a Monte Carlo model for generating sample <span class="hlt">directional</span> reflectance data for two simplified target canopies at two different solar positions is reported. Successive iterations through the model permit the calculation of a mean vector and covariance matrix for canopy reflectance for varied sensor view angles. These data may then be used to calculate the divergence between the target distributions for various wavelength combinations and for these view angles. Results of a feature selection analysis indicate that different sets of wavelengths are optimum for target discrimination depending on sensor view angle and that the targets may be more easily discriminated for some scan angles than others. The time-varying behavior of these results is also pointed out.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, J. A.; Oliver, R. E.; Kilpela, O. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23E0282M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative analysis of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of aerosols over decadal scale by using ECHAM6-standalone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of aerosols on climate is an important but still highly uncertain aspect in climate research. By using atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6 our objective is to quantify the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of aerosols over decadal time scale in comparison to the variability induced by the varying sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) taken by the AMIP-II data base and the inevitable internal and unpredictable climate noise. We integrated the model with prescribed SST/SIC along with observed green house gases and aerosols concentrations for ten year period 1995-2004. Two ensembles with sample size ten, each have been created by starting the integrations on January 1st, 1995 with ten different initial conditions derived from two control runs over 15-years. These ensembles differ for tropospheric aerosols (TA): the non-aerosol case (NAC) is without any TA and aerosol case (AC) is utilizing a time variable data set of aerosols optical properties for input into the solar part of the ECHAM6 radiation code (Kinne et al, 2006). This set-up allows for a quantitative estimation and separation of the stationary and transient aerosol <span class="hlt">effects</span>, the SST/SIC induced variability and the internal variability due to large scale atmospheric instabilities and non-linearities with the help of a two-way analysis of variance. We analyzed ensemble data for top of atmosphere (TOA) energy balance and temperature at 850 hPa. In the NAC, the ensemble exhibits a global and annual mean 3 W/m2 imbalance of the TOA radiation balance whereas the AC shows only 0.6 W/m2 being much closer in radiative balance over ten year period. The aerosols increase global planetary albedo from 0.29 (non-aerosol) to 0.30 for aerosol case. Extending the analysis to regional values of annual mean TOA radiation balance components, we find that the changes in TOA solar radiation budget are highly significant for static <span class="hlt">direct</span> aerosol <span class="hlt">effect</span> with local contributions to the total variability of up to 80% especially in North African-tropical Atlantic region. Transient aerosol and SST/SIC contributions to solar TOA radiative fluxes are of the order of 10%. Major contributor to the variability of TOA solar fluxes especially at mid-latitudes is internal variability also up to 80-90% outside the above mentioned regions. The results show that the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of (prescribed) aerosols are clearly detectable even on a regional scale on decadal time scale if solar radiative fluxes are analyzed. The annual mean temperature at 850 hPa (dynamical variable) shows contrasting results. Major contributions of its variability at low latitudes come from SST (60-80% at tropical/subtropical latitudes) while the static aerosol <span class="hlt">effects</span> are <span class="hlt">small</span> (< 10% except in central equatorial Africa) and transient aerosol <span class="hlt">effects</span> contribute up to 10% also at higher latitudes with the remaining part (locally 80-90%) coming from internal climate noise. In summary this analysis of variance of radiative fluxes and dynamical variables allows to draw objectively conclusions about the need to include (<span class="hlt">direct</span>) aerosol <span class="hlt">effects</span> into decadal climate forecasts. __________________________________________ Kinne. S and M. Schulz (2006). An AeroCom initial assessment-optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models: Atmos. Chem. Phys.,6,1815-1834</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muhammad, K.; Bott, A.; Hense, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=laboratory+AND+smalls&pg=4&id=EJ749824"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Entrance and Exit <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Electrochemical Filter-Press Reactors Used in the Laboratory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A laboratory experiment designed to examine the entrance and exit <span class="hlt">effects</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> electrochemical filter-press reactors used in the laboratory is presented. The single compartment of the filter-press reactor is filled with different turbulence promoters to study their influence as compared to the empty configuration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frias-Ferrer, Angel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Jose; Saez, Veronica; Exposito, Eduardo; Sanchez-Sanchez, Carlos M.; Mantiel, Vicente; Walsh, Frank C.; Aldaz, Antonio; Walsh, Frank C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/e777743728665kg8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Variation in Fish Assemblages across <span class="hlt">small</span> Mediterranean Drainages: <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Habitat and Landscape Context</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much debate about assemblage organization in stream fish may stem from analysing the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of both local and large-scale processes on assemblage attributes over whole geographic regions. This study addresses this issue, by examining the contribution of local habitat attributes and landscape context to fish assemblage variation across <span class="hlt">small</span> Mediterranean drainages in southern Portugal. Fish abundance and species composition was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Natacha Mesquita; M. Manuela Coelho; M. Magalhães Filomena</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57992140"> <span id="translatedtitle">Market and Welfare <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of GMO Introduction in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Exporting Countries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper analyzes the market and welfare <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the introduction of GM products in <span class="hlt">small</span> open developing economies that, prior to the adoption of GM crops, were net exporters of non-GM products. It explicitly accounts for differences in consumer attitudes towards GM products and producer agronomic characteristics as well as for the structure and conduct of the GM seed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alejandro S. Plastina; Konstantinos Giannakas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p79420t365nx4g02.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of forest fragmentation on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals in an Atlantic Forest landscape</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of tropical forest fragmentation indicate that fragmented landscapes are complex and heterogeneous systems influenced by factors other than the size or degree of isolation of forest remnants: of particular importance are the quality of the matrix and the edge-induced habitat changes. In order to investigate the influence of these factors, <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals were surveyed in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Renata Pardini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://filebox.vt.edu/users/midavis1/documents/mammals.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disturbance <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Mammal Species in a Managed Appalachian Forest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forestry practices result in a range of levels of disturbance to forest ecosystems, from clearcutting and deferment (high disturbance) to single-tree selection cutting and unharvested forests (low disturbance). We investigated the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of timber harvest and disturbance on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. In 2003 and 2004, mammals were captured using Sherman box traps, individually</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JEFFREY A. KAMINSKI; MICHELLE L. DAVIS; MARCELLA KELLY; PATRICK D. KEYSER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51020231"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combination muffler is more <span class="hlt">effective</span> than reactive muffler even in <span class="hlt">small</span> size</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Insertion loss of muffler mainly depends on proper selection of muffler volume which is proportional to Engine Swept volume. Thus, use of combination muffler is exceptionally rare in car segments (i.e. - low specific output engines) though it is more <span class="hlt">effective</span> than other two main categories of mufflers namely Reactive and absorptive respectively. Perhaps configure the <span class="hlt">small</span> volume is difficult</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Biswas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39248903"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Gene Selection Method With <span class="hlt">Small</span> Sample Sets Using Gradient-Based and Point Injection Techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microarray gene expression data usually consist of a large amount of genes. Among these genes, only a <span class="hlt">small</span> fraction is informative for performing cancer diagnostic test. This paper focuses on <span class="hlt">effective</span> identification of informative genes. We analyze gene selection models from the perspective of optimization theory. As a result, a new strategy is designed to modify conventional search engines. Also,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Huang; Tommy Chow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59508866"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of parasitic diseases on nutrient metabolism and productivity in <span class="hlt">small</span> ruminants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><strong>INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigation of voluntary feed intake (VFI) and nitrogen retention (NRET) during parasitic infections in <span class="hlt">small</span> ruminants is the central theme of this thesis. An attempt was made to examine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of trypanosomiasis on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen retention and animal products. In addition, a similar investigation was conducted during a low to medium level fascioliasis infection in Menz</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. O. Akinbamijo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mta.ca/faculty/socsci/geograph/Walters/ecology_of_cutting_forest_ecology_&_management.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecological <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecological <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests Bradley B. Walters of mangrove forests in the Philippines. Information for the study was obtained through the application of extensive bio-ecological assessments of forests and interviews of forest users. Cut mangrove forests were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walters, Bradley B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mae.buffalo.edu/people/full_time/hchopra/J.%20Appl.%20Phys.%2093,%208415%20(2003).pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Highly deleterious role of <span class="hlt">small</span> amounts of carbon on the giant magnetoresistance <span class="hlt">effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highly deleterious role of <span class="hlt">small</span> amounts of carbon on the giant magnetoresistance <span class="hlt">effect</span> David X (2011) Sign change of tunnel magnetoresistance ratio with temperature in epitaxial Fe/MgO/Co2MnSn magnetic tunnel junctions J. Appl. Phys. 110, 073905 (2011) Enhancement of magnetoresistance by ultra</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chopra, Harsh Deep</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/01/00/35/30/PDF/hal-01003530.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Marking <span class="hlt">small</span> hive beetles with thoracic notching: <span class="hlt">effects</span> on longevity, flight ability and fecundity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marking <span class="hlt">small</span> hive beetles with thoracic notching: <span class="hlt">effects</span> on longevity, flight ability beetles (SHB): dusting and thoracic notching. The use of blue and red chalk dusts to mark beetles, respectively. In contrast, notched beetles survived longer (mean=353.6±5.3 days) with the last beetle dying</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lost+AND+words&id=EJ1023470"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Supplemental <span class="hlt">Small</span> Group Phonics Instruction on Kindergartners' Word Recognition Performance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of a phonics supplemental <span class="hlt">small</span> group instructional approach for improving kindergartners' word reading skills. Six kindergarten students from one primary school were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Each group participated in a phonics condition as well as a control condition. Data were examined using…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Kunesh, Claire E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1170146"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cooperative Learning in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Groups: Recent Methods and <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three peer tutoring methods and two group investigation approaches are examined for <span class="hlt">effects</span> on academic achievement, students' attitudes, and ethnic relations. The five methods are: Jigsaw classroom (Aronson), Teams-Games-Tournaments (DeVries), Student Teams and Academic Division (Slavin), cooperative learning approach (Johnson), and <span class="hlt">small</span>-group teaching method (Sharan).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharan, Shlomo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=devries&pg=3&id=EJ229098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cooperative Learning in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Groups: Recent Methods and <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three peer tutoring methods and two group investigation approaches are examined for <span class="hlt">effects</span> on academic achievement, students' attitudes, and ethnic relations. The five methods are: Jigsaw classroom (Aronson), Teams-Games-Tournaments (DeVries), Student Teams and Academic Division (Slavin), cooperative learning approach (Johnson), and <span class="hlt">small</span>-group…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharan, Shlomo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RJPCA..89..168A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> additions of silicon on the amorphization of Zr-Cu-Nb-Fe alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> additions of silicon on the glass-forming ability and thermal stability of Zr-Cu-Nb-Fe amorphous alloys is studied. It is found that adding 0.5 at % silicon has a positive <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the alloys' tendency toward amorphization. The possibility of using the region of thermal stability of amorphous alloys as a criterion of glass-forming ability is analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arutyunyan, N. A.; Zaitsev, A. I.; Dunaev, S. F.; Fedotova, N. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140017090&hterms=libradtran+cloud+simulation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlibradtran%2Bcloud%2Bsimulation"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Observed Diurnal Cycles of Aerosol Optical Depth on Aerosol <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Radiative <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be significant, depending on location and dominant aerosol type. However, these diurnal cycles have rarely been taken into account in measurement-based estimates of aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative forcing (ADRF) or aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> (ADRE). The objective of our study was to estimate the influence of diurnal aerosol variability at the top of the atmosphere ADRE estimates. By including all the possible AERONET sites, we wanted to assess the influence on global ADRE estimates. While focusing also in more detail on some selected sites of strongest impact, our goal was to also see the possible impact regionally.We calculated ADRE with different assumptions about the daily AOD variability: taking the observed daily AOD cycle into account and assuming diurnally constant AOD. Moreover, we estimated the corresponding differences in ADREs, if the single AOD value for the daily mean was taken from the the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra or Aqua overpass times, instead of accounting for the true observed daily variability. The mean impact of diurnal AOD variability on 24 h ADRE estimates, averaged over all AERONET sites, was rather <span class="hlt">small</span> and it was relatively <span class="hlt">small</span> even for the cases when AOD was chosen to correspond to the Terra or Aqua overpass time. This was true on average over all AERONET sites, while clearly there can be much stronger impact in individual sites. Examples of some selected sites demonstrated that the strongest observed AOD variability (the strongest morning afternoon contrast) does not typically result in a significant impact on 24 h ADRE. In those cases, the morning and afternoon AOD patterns are opposite and thus the impact on 24 h ADRE, when integrated over all solar zenith angles, is reduced. The most significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on daily ADRE was induced by AOD cycles with either maximum or minimum AOD close to local noon. In these cases, the impact on 24 h ADRE was typically around 0.1-0.2W/sq m (both positive and negative) in absolute values, 5-10% in relative ones.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arola, A.; Eck, T. F.; Huttunen, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Lindfors, A. V.; Myhre, G.; Smirinov, A.; Tripathi, S. N.; Yu, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncsu.edu/crsc/reports/ftp/pdf/crsc-tr05-31.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Homogenized Energy Model for the <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Magnetomechanical <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">as well as actuators operating in high stress regimes [12­14,22]. The coupling between the two <span class="hlt">effects</span>) asymmetric magnetization response to compressive and tensile stresses, and (iii) decay of the magnetization M and little pre-remanence switching. For large compressive stresses, however, HI is sufficiently large</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/fs20103017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate change and wildlife health: <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change will have significant <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans, according to scientists. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that unprecedented rates of climate change will result in increasing average global temperatures; rising sea levels; changing global precipitation patterns, including increasing amounts and variability; and increasing midcontinental summer drought (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Increasing temperatures, combined with changes in rainfall and humidity, may have significant impacts on wildlife, domestic animal, and human health and diseases. When combined with expanding human populations, these changes could increase demand on limited water resources, lead to more habitat destruction, and provide yet more opportunities for infectious diseases to cross from one species to another. Awareness has been growing in recent years about zoonotic diseases— that is, diseases that are transmissible between animals and humans, such as Lyme disease and West Nile virus. The rise of such diseases results from closer relationships among wildlife, domestic animals, and people, allowing more contact with diseased animals, organisms that carry and transmit a disease from one animal to another (vectors), and people. Disease vectors include insects, such as mosquitoes, and arachnids, such as ticks. Thus, it is impossible to separate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of global warming on wildlife from its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the health of domestic animals or people. Climate change, habitat destruction and urbanization, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and pollution—all affect ecosystem and human health. Climate change can also be viewed within the context of other physical and climate cycles, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (El Niño), the North Atlantic Oscillation, and cycles in solar radiation that have profound <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the Earth’s climate. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of climate change on wildlife disease are summarized in several areas of scientific study discussed briefly below: geographic range and distribution of wildlife diseases, plant and animal phenology (Walther and others, 2002), and patterns of wildlife disease, community and ecosystem composition, and habitat degradation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hofmeister, Erik; Rogall, Gail Moede; eWsenberg, Kathy; Abbott, Rachel; Work, Thierry; Schuler, Krysten; Sleeman, Jonathan; Winton, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5666534"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of hypocholesterolemia on cholesterol synthesis in <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of diabetic rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies by our and other laboratories have demonstrated that cholesterol synthesis is increased in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of insulinopenic diabetic animals. In normal animals, many factors have been shown to regulate cholesterol synthesis in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, including changes in plasma cholesterol levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of lowering plasma cholesterol levels on <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine cholesterol synthesis in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, 4-aminopyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine (4-APP)-induced hypocholesterolemia (plasma cholesterol levels less than 20 mg/dl) resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine cholesterol synthesis, which was most marked in the distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, decreasing proximally. In the distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine the incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into cholesterol was 0.28 +/- 0.04 mumol.h-1.g-1 in diabetic rats versus 1.60 +/- 0.38 in diabetic rats administered 4-APP (P less than .01). This stimulation of cholesterol synthesis occurred in the upper villus, middle villus, and crypt cells isolated from the middle intestine of the 4-APP-treated diabetic animals. In agreement with these observations, functional hypocholesterolemia due to Triton WR-1339 administration also stimulated cholesterol synthesis 2.5-fold in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of normal and diabetic animals. In the distal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, cholesterol synthesis was 0.43 +/- 0.10 mumol.h-1.g-1 in the diabetic rats versus 1.08 +/- 0.21 in diabetic rats treated with Triton WR-1339 (P less than .05). In both the 4-APP and Triton WR-1339 experiments, the response of the diabetic rats was similar to that observed in normal rats.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feingold, K.R.; Moser, A.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4298903"> <span id="translatedtitle">Onsite-<span class="hlt">effects</span> of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation. Voxel counts and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensities in the right primary sensorimotor cortex regions were estimated and compared between the two transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation conditions. Our results showed that dual-hemispheric transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation induced greater cortical activities than single-hemispheric transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation. These findings suggest that dual-hemispheric transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation may provide more <span class="hlt">effective</span> cortical stimulation than single-hemispheric transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25460615"> <span id="translatedtitle">The matrix influences <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of an anthropogenic disturbance on marine organisms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude and <span class="hlt">direction</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of disturbances can be context-dependent, with the matrix (surrounding habitat) in which populations are embedded either mitigating or worsening the impacts of disturbances. Chemical disturbances are particularly harmful and can affect organisms <span class="hlt">directly</span> or indirectly. We used bleach, a common stressor in marine systems, to test hypotheses about <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of anthropogenic disturbances on intertidal grazers and the influence of the surrounding macro-algal matrix on such <span class="hlt">effects</span>. We manipulated the contaminant, food (biofilm) and surrounding macro-algal matrix. Fewer limpets were found in contaminated areas. Bleach had a strong <span class="hlt">direct</span> negative <span class="hlt">effect</span> on limpets and caused a reduction in biofilm food, indirectly affecting limpets. This <span class="hlt">effect</span> was strongest in the presence of macro-algal matrix. Anthropogenic disturbances can have major consequences via <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on key interacting species. We showed that such <span class="hlt">effects</span> are, however, context-dependent. Capsule: Pollution is a major driver of biodiversity declines. We show that <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of contaminants on organisms depend on the context in which they occur. PMID:25460615</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mayer-Pinto, Mariana; Underwood, Antony J; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S43A1056H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rupture Dynamics: <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Size Strength Heterogeneity on Earthquake Size, Slip Distribution and Rupture Velocity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geological data and kinematic inversions of seismological data show that the overall shapes of slip profile along strike present long linear slopes (Manighetti et al., J. Geophys. R, 2005). Rupture dynamics of a homogeneous friction properties fault do not lead to such slip distribution. We tried to retrieve this feature using a <span class="hlt">direct</span> modelling of earthquake rupture, performing 3D simulations with spontaneous rupture initiation, dynamic rupture propagation, and finally, self rupture arrest (without a priori knowledge of the final size of the event). This last characteristic was obtained by imposing fault resistance to be infinite on some randomly sized and localized <span class="hlt">small</span> patches. We found that <span class="hlt">small</span> size heterogeneities, which cannot be identified by kinematic inversions using low frequency signal and hence only describing large-scale properties of earthquakes, might have a great influence on the characteristics of the rupture: -For statistically identical random realizations of barrier distribution, we obtain a great variability of event size, with a majority of <span class="hlt">small</span> events and a few realizations leading to the entire fault rupture. -The arrest of the rupture by the distributed barrier leads, in general, final slip distribution to decay almost linearly from the zone of maximum slip. -Whereas, on an homogeneous model, one could observe a jump from subshear to supershear rupture propagation velocity, with <span class="hlt">small</span> barriers but the same slip-weakening law parameters (stress drop, strength excess & Dc), the rupture can keep propagating at subshear velocities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hok, S.; Campillo, M.; Cotton, F.; Manighetti, I.; Favreau, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24353692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basic steps in establishing <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">small</span> group teaching sessions in medical schools.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span>-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of <span class="hlt">small</span> group teaching are active involvement of the learners in entire learning cycle and well defined task orientation with achievable specific aims and objectives in a given time period. The essential components in the development of an ideal <span class="hlt">small</span> group teaching and learning sessions are preliminary considerations at departmental and institutional level including educational strategies, group composition, physical environment, existing resources, diagnosis of the needs, formulation of the objectives and suitable teaching outline. <span class="hlt">Small</span> group teaching increases the student interest, teamwork ability, retention of knowledge and skills, enhance transfer of concepts to innovative issues, and improve the self-<span class="hlt">directed</span> learning. It develops self-motivation, investigating the issues, allows the student to test their thinking and higher-order activities. It also facilitates an adult style of learning, acceptance of personal responsibility for own progress. Moreover, it enhances student-faculty and peer-peer interaction, improves communication skills and provides opportunity to share the responsibility and clarify the points of bafflement. PMID:24353692</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meo, Sultan Ayoub</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..117R2467B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of sweep <span class="hlt">direction</span> on avian auditory brainstem responses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In mammals, brief rising frequency sweeps result in increased amplitudes for both auditory brainstem response (ABR) and compound action potential (CAP) recordings (Dau, 2000; Shore and Nuttall, 1985). The rising sweep is thought to result in increased synchronous activity. Changing the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of the sweep exaggerated the delay of processing along the basilar membrane and decreased synchrony of neural responses. Here we recorded ABRs from budgerigars, canaries, and zebra finches to a variety of stimulus parameters, including rising and falling sweeps with different sweep rates, determined by changing duration and frequency range. Both linear and nonlinear sweeps in frequency over time were tested. Results show that rising sweeps produce larger peak amplitudes, shorter latencies and changes in wave morphology such as a narrower wave 1 width than falling sweeps, suggesting greater synchrony of response to sweeps moving from low to high frequency. These data are consistent with mammalian results, but with a different time scale related to temporal characteristics of cochlear stimulation on the short basilar papilla in birds. [Work supported by NIH DC00198, DC001372, DC04664.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth; Lauer, Amanda; Callahan, Julia; Dooling, Robert; Leek, Marjorie; Gleich, Otto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3167631"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> in the regulation of overlapping promoters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optimal response to environmental stimuli often requires activation of certain genes and repression of others. Dual function regulatory proteins play a key role in the differential regulation of gene expression. While repression can be achieved by any DNA binding protein through steric occlusion of RNA polymerase in the promoter region, activation often requires a surface on the regulatory protein to contact RNAP and thus facilitate transcription initiation. RNAP itself is also a DNA binding protein, therefore it can function as a transcriptional repressor. Searching the Escherichia coli promoter database we found that ?14% of the identified ‘forward’ promoters overlap with a promoter oriented in the opposite <span class="hlt">direction</span>. In this article we combine a mathematical model with experimental analysis of synthetic regulatory regions to investigate interference of overlapping promoters. We find that promoter interference depends on the characteristics of overlapping promoters. The model predicts that promoter strength and interference can be regulated separately, which provides unique opportunities for regulation. Our experimental data suggest that in principle any DNA binding protein can be used for both activation and repression of promoter transcription, depending on the context. These findings can be exploited in the construction of synthetic networks. PMID:21609952</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Erd?ssy, János; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Svenningsen, Sine Lo; Sneppen, Kim; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4305729"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of psychological stress on <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal motility and bacteria and mucosa in mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To investigate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of psychological stress on <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal motility and bacteria and mucosa in mice, and to explore the relationship between <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal dysfunction and <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal motility and bacteria and mucosa under psychological stress. METHODS: Sixty mice were randomly divided into psychological stress group and control group. Each group were subdivided into <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal motility group (n = 10), bacteria group (n = 10), and D-xylose administered to stomach group (n = 10). An animal model with psychological stress was established housing the mice with a hungry cat in separate layers of a two-layer cage. A semi-solid colored marker (carbon-ink) was used for monitoring <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal transit. The proximal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine was harvested under sterile condition and processed for quantitation for aerobes (Escherichia coli) and anaerobes (Lactobacilli). The quantitation of bacteria was expressed as log10(colony forming units/g). D-xylose levels in plasma were measured for estimating the damage of <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: <span class="hlt">Small</span> intestinal transit was inhibited (39.80±9.50% vs 58.79±11.47%, P<0.01) in mice after psychological stress, compared with the controls. Psychological stress resulted in quantitative alterations in the aerobes (E. coli). There was an increase in the number of E. coli in the proximal <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal flora (1.78±0.30 log10(CFU/g) vs 1.37±0.21 log10(CFU/g), P<0.01), and there was decrease in relative proportion of Lactobacilli and E. coli of stressed mice (0.53±0.63 vs 1.14±1.07, P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the anaerobes (Lactobacilli) between the two groups (2.31±0.70 log10(CFU/g) vs 2.44±0.37 log10(CFU/g), P>0.05). D-xylose concentrations in plasma in psychological stress mice were significantly higher than those in the control group (2.90±0.89 mmol/L vs 0.97±0.33 mmol/L, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: <span class="hlt">Small</span> intestinal dysfunction under psychological stress may be related to the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal motility disorder and dysbacteriosis and the damage of mucosa probably caused by psychological stress. PMID:15800998</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Shao-Xuan; Wu, Wan-Chun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800019538&hterms=restriction+enzyme&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drestriction%2Benzyme"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of hypokinesia on invertase activity of the mucosa of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of prolonged hypokinesia on the enzyme activity of the middle portion of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine was investigated. Eighty-four mongrel white male rats weighing 170-180 g were divided into two equal groups. The experimental group were maintained in single cages under 30 days of hypokinetic conditions and the control animals were maintained under ordinary laboratory conditions. It is concluded that rates of invertase formation and its inclusion in the composition if the cellular membrane, if judged by the enzyme activity studied in sections of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine, are subject to phase changes in the course of prolonged hypokinesia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abdusattarov, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1401.1102.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">How to enhance <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Attack Judo throws</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper is performed an appraisal of the Olympic Sport Judo <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in the optics of Biomechanics. To broaden the classical view,the field of experimentation is obviously the high level competition in which most of rotational application can be found applied more or less instinctively by high level Athletes. Considering the two biomechanical tools that are the physical basis of judo throws it is possible to obtain such results from the analysis of high competition application:Lever Techniques are enhanced in their <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in three ways: The rotational movements, strictly connected to the Lever techniques mechanics achieving victory in competition, can be extended to the unbalance phase. The rotational movements can be applied in a totally new way putting away even the unbalance that is basic in the Lever techniques. The Lever tool can be hybridized with the Couple tool to lower the energy consumption. Couple Techniques are enhanced in their <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> also in three ways: The Couple tool t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sacripanti, Attilio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30389348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radical cyberknife radiosurgery with tumor tracking: an <span class="hlt">effective</span> treatment for inoperable <span class="hlt">small</span> peripheral stage I non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE: Curative surgery is not an option for many patients with clinical stage I non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), but radical radiosurgery may be <span class="hlt">effective</span>. METHODS: Inoperable patients with <span class="hlt">small</span> peripheral clinical stage I NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Three-to-five fiducial markers were implanted in or near tumors under CT guidance. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured using lung windows.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brian T Collins; Saloomeh Vahdat; Kelly Erickson; Sean P Collins; Simeng Suy; Xia Yu; Ying Zhang; Deepa Subramaniam; Cristina A Reichner; Ismet Sarikaya; Giuseppe Esposito; Shadi Yousefi; Carlos Jamis-Dow; Filip Banovac; Eric D Anderson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009TrSpT...7..Pt1K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Project Management of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Satellite Projects from the System Engineer's Point of View, An Example of the <span class="hlt">Small</span> Satellite Flying Laptop Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The number of the <span class="hlt">small</span> satellite projects is recently dramatically increasing and there are great demands for <span class="hlt">effective</span> project management methods for them. The goal of this paper is to propose <span class="hlt">effective</span> project management methods for <span class="hlt">small</span> satellite projects, which are obtained through the real-life experience of the <span class="hlt">small</span> satellite Flying Laptop project. The project management methods implemented in this project maximize the advantages of rapid and cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">small</span> satellite approaches. The management of the project is based on project breakdown structures, which are derived from a combination of several existing standards and empirical methods. These management methods use a product tree as the backbone of the management architecture. The project management activities, such as the establishment of a work breakdown structure, drawing and documentation management structures, time scheduling, and cost management is described with real-life examples. Applications of project management tools, including open source software, which play important roles in cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">small</span> satellite approaches, are also summarized and examples of them are illustrated. Finally, further possibilities of <span class="hlt">effective</span> project management with up-coming new management tools are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuwahara, Toshinori; Falke, Albert; Röser, Hans-Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870009451&hterms=radius+curvature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dradius%2Bcurvature"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a <span class="hlt">small</span> initial curvature on the free vibration of clamped, rectangular plates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analytical method of obtaining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of clamped, rectangular plates having a <span class="hlt">small</span> initial curvature is presented. Specifically, the singular perturbation technique is used to reduce the fourth-order plate vibration problem to the simpler membrane problem with modified boundary conditions that account for the bending <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The eigenfrequencies for plates with inverse aspect ratios varying between 0.1 and 1.0 and for the dimensionless normal prestress between 0.1 and 1.0 have been presented for values of epsilon, the normalized bending rigidity, ranging between 0.0010 and 0.2500. It is established that a <span class="hlt">small</span> initial curvature has no <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the frequency of vibration of the plate. However, its <span class="hlt">effect</span> is manifested in the eigenmodes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adeniji-Fashola, A. A.; Oyediran, A. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970003326&hterms=inverse+diffusion+flames&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dinverse%2Bdiffusion%2Bflames"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theory of the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Gravitational Levels on Droplet Gasification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mathematical model taking into account <span class="hlt">small</span> (and constant) gravitational levels is developed for vaporization of an isolated liquid droplet suspended in a stagnant atmosphere. A goal of the present analysis is to see how <span class="hlt">small</span> gravitational levels affect droplet gasification characteristics. Attention is focused upon determining the <span class="hlt">effects</span> on gas-phase phenomena. The conservation equations arc normalized and nondimensionalized, and a <span class="hlt">small</span> parameter that accounts for the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of gravity is identified. This parameter is the square of the inverse of a Froude number based on the gravitational acceleration, the droplet radius, and a characteristic gas-phase velocity at the droplet surface. Asymptotic analyses are developed in terms of this parameter. In the analyses, different spatial regions are identified. Near a droplet, gravitational <span class="hlt">effects</span> are negligible in the first approximation, and the flowfield is spherically symmetric to the leading order. Analysis shows, however, that outer zones exist where gravitational <span class="hlt">effects</span> cannot be neglected; it is expected that a stagnation point will be present in an outer zone that is not present when gravity is totally absent. The leading order and higher-order differential equations for each zone are derived and solved. The solutions allow the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of gravity on vaporization rates and temperature, velocity and species fields to be determined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beitelmal, A.; Shaw, B. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/605785"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatigue-crack growth of <span class="hlt">small</span> cracks in a <span class="hlt">directionally</span>-solidified nickel aluminide with molybdenum additions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent years, aluminide intermetallic compounds, such as NiAl and TiAl, have been contemplated for potential high-temperature structural use in aero-engine applications as possible replacement for the nickel-base superalloys. However, like many intermetallics, its application is severely compromised by its very low ductility and toughness properties at ambient temperatures; moreover, NiAl displays lower strength at elevated temperatures. Accordingly, much alloy design and microstructure research on NiAl has been focused on attempts to improve the low-temperature ductility, fracture toughness and high-temperature strength of this intermetallic. However, despite progress in the toughening of NiAl-based materials under monotonic loading, nothing is known about their fatigue-crack growth properties under cyclic loads. This is important since it is known from studies on other ductile-phase toughened intermetallics ({gamma}-TiAl, Nb{sub 3}Al, MoSi{sub 2}) that extrinsic toughening (crack-tip shielding) mechanisms such as crack bridging are far less potent, and indeed degrade substantially, under cyclic loading due to premature fatigue failure of the ductile phase. Moreover, for many engine applications such as turbine blades, it is the fatigue properties of <span class="hlt">small</span> flaws (typically below {approximately} 500 {micro}m in size), especially at near-threshold stress intensities, that are limiting with respect to lifetime considerations. Accordingly, it is the objective of the current note to present the first results on the fatigue behavior of NiAl aligned-eutectic composites. Specifically, the near-threshold fatigue-crack propagation properties of physically-<span class="hlt">small</span> (< 400 {micro}m) surface cracks in one such alloy, namely a DS NiAl-9Mo (at.%), are examined as a function of the load ratio, with the objective of discerning the salient mechanisms affecting crack-growth behavior.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hong, M.H.; McNaney, J.M.; Ritchie, R.O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3416944"> <span id="translatedtitle">Future <span class="hlt">Directions</span> for Cardiovascular Disease Comparative <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Research</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Comparative <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> research (CER) aims to provide decision-makers the evidence needed to evaluate the benefits and harms of alternative clinical management strategies. CER has become a national priority, with considerable new research funding allocated. Cardiovascular disease is a priority area for CER. This workshop report provides an overview of CER methods, with an emphasis on practical clinical trials and observational treatment comparisons. The report also details recommendations to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute for a new framework for evidence development to foster cardiovascular CER, and specific studies to address eight clinical issues identified by the Institute of Medicine as high priorities for cardiovascular CER. PMID:22796257</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hlatky, Mark A; Douglas, Pamela S; Cook, Nakela L; Wells, Barbara; Benjamin, Emelia J; Dickersin, Kay; Goff, David C; Hirsch, Alan T; Hylek, Elaine M; Peterson, Eric; Roger, Véronique L; Selby, Joseph V; Udelson, James E; Lauer, Michael S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22307563"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">directions</span> in reducing stress <span class="hlt">effects</span> on cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A growing body of evidence is now connecting neuroendocrine mediators of the stress response to cancer biology. Al-Wadei and colleagues report a study in this issue of the journal (beginning on page 189) that provides a new piece of this evidence, adding the inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid to this intricate pathway. Their mouse model study supports the hypothesis that stress mediators contribute to lung cancer progression and that known inhibitors of the stress pathway might block such <span class="hlt">effects</span>, thus adding to the impetus for studying cancer prevention strategies targeting the stress pathway. PMID:22307563</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melhem-Bertrandt, Amal; Sood, Anil K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21276794"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aminoguanidine Alleviates Radiation-Induced <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Bowel Damage Through Its Antioxidant <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To evaluate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> and its mechanism of aminoguanidine (AG) on <span class="hlt">small</span>-bowel protection after whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI) in rats. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) subjected to 12 Gy WAI were used for the study. Aminoguanidine at a dose of 50-800 mg/kg was administered by the gavage route 2 h before WAI. Mucosal damage of <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel was evaluated by the grade of diarrhea and crypt survival; oxidative stress was determined by the level of 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Nitrosative stress was evaluated by the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) with IHC, and systemic and portal vein NOx (nitrite + nitrate) levels were measured and compared with and without AG treatment after WAI. Results: Aminoguanidine showed a dose-dependent <span class="hlt">effect</span> against WAI-induced diarrhea. Aminoguanidine at a dose of 400 mg/kg had the best protective <span class="hlt">effect</span>, from 92% to 17% (p = 0.002). Aminoguanidine increased crypt survival from 23% to 46% (p = 0.003). It also significantly attenuated 8-OHdG expression but not 3-NT and iNOS expression at both 4 and 8 h after 12-Gy WAI. Aminoguanidine did not alter the portal vein NOx levels 4 and 8 h after 12-Gy WAI. Conclusion: Aminoguanidine has a radioprotective <span class="hlt">effect</span> against radiation-induced <span class="hlt">small</span>-bowel damage due to its antioxidant <span class="hlt">effect</span> but not inhibition of nitric oxide production. Dietary AG may have a potentially protective <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of patients subjected to pelvic and abdominal radiotherapies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, E.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wang, F.-S. [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, I-H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yang, Kuender D. [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: yangkd@adm.cgmh.org.tw</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70003342"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal trends in marine reserves reveal differential rates of change in <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Decadal-scale observations of marine reserves suggest that indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on taxa that occur through cascading trophic interactions take longer to develop than <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on target species. Combining and analyzing a unique set of long-term time series of ecologic data in and out of fisheries closures from disparate regions, we found that the time to initial detection of <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on target species (+ or -SE) was 5.13 + or - 1.9 years, whereas initial detection of indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on other taxa, which were often trait mediated, took significantly longer (13.1 + or - 2.0 years). Most target species showed initial <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>, but their trajectories over time were highly variable. Many target species continued to increase, some leveled off, and others decreased. Decreases were due to natural fluctuations, fishing impacts from outside reserves, or indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> from target species at higher trophic levels. The average duration of stable periods for <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> was 6.2 + or - 1.2 years, even in studies of more than 15 years. For indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>, stable periods averaged 9.1 + or - 1.6 years, although this was not significantly different from <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Populations of <span class="hlt">directly</span> targeted species were more stable in reserves than in fished areas, suggesting increased ecologic resilience. This is an important benefit of marine reserves with respect to their function as a tool for conservation and restoration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Babcock, R.C.; Shears, N.T.; Alcala, A.C.; Barrett, N.S.; Edgar, G.J.; Lafferty, K.D.; McClanahan, T.R.; Russ, G.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSV...330.3883Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> time-delays on dynamic output feedback control of offshore steel jacket structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a <span class="hlt">small</span> time-delay on dynamic output feedback control of an offshore steel jacket structure subject to a nonlinear wave-induced force. First, a conventional dynamic output feedback controller is designed to reduce the internal oscillations of the offshore structure. It is found that the designed controller is of a larger gain in the sense of Euclidean norm, which demands a larger control force. Second, a <span class="hlt">small</span> time-delay is introduced intentionally to design a new dynamic output feedback controller such that (i) the controller is of a <span class="hlt">small</span> gain in the sense of Euclidean norm and (ii) the internal oscillations of the offshore structure can be dramatically reduced. It is shown through simulation results that purposefully introducing time-delays can be used to improve control performance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Xian-Ming; Han, Qing-Long; Han, Dongsheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhyA..389.5515S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of avoidance and vaccination in disease spread on a dynamic <span class="hlt">small</span>-world network</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dynamic <span class="hlt">small</span>-world contact networks have fixed short range links and time-varying stochastic long range links. They are used to model mobile populations or as minimal models for traditional <span class="hlt">small</span>-world networks. Here we study the relative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of vaccinations and avoidance of infected individuals in a susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model on a dynamic <span class="hlt">small</span>-world network. We derive the critical mobility required for an outbreak to occur as a function of the disease’s infectivity, recovery rate, avoidance rate, and vaccination rate. We also derive an expression that allows us to calculate the amount of vaccination and/or avoidance necessary to prevent an epidemic. Calculated quantities show excellent agreement with simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stone, Thomas E.; Jones, Matthew M.; McKay, Susan R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...796..108A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of <span class="hlt">Small</span>-scale Anisotropy in the Arrival <span class="hlt">Direction</span> Distribution of TeV Cosmic Rays with HAWC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is sensitive to gamma rays and charged cosmic rays at TeV energies. The detector is still under construction, but data acquisition with the partially deployed detector started in 2013. An analysis of the cosmic-ray arrival <span class="hlt">direction</span> distribution based on 4.9 × 1010 events recorded between 2013 June and 2014 February shows anisotropy at the 10–4 level on angular scales of about 10°. The HAWC cosmic-ray sky map exhibits three regions of significantly enhanced cosmic-ray flux; two of these regions were first reported by the Milagro experiment. A third region coincides with an excess recently reported by the ARGO-YBJ experiment. An angular power spectrum analysis of the sky shows that all terms up to l = 15 contribute significantly to the excesses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Baughman, B. M.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Belmont, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bonilla Rosales, M.; Braun, J.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carramiñana, A.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; de la Fuente, E.; De León, C.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; Galindo, A.; Garfias, F.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Gussert, M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Hui, C. M.; Imran, A.; Iriarte, A.; Karn, P.; Kieda, D.; Kunde, G. J.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longo, M.; Luna-García, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, A.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, O.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; McEnery, J.; Mendoza Torres, E.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Oceguera-Becerra, T.; Patricelli, B.; Pelayo, R.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Ryan, J.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Sparks Woodle, K.; Springer, R. W.; Taboada, I.; Toale, P. A.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zaborov, D.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; The HAWC Collaboration</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859803"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of voxel size when calculating patient specific radionuclide dosimetry estimates using <span class="hlt">direct</span> Monte Carlo simulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The scalable XCAT voxelised phantom was used with the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit to investigate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of voxel size on dosimetry estimates of internally distributed radionuclide calculated using <span class="hlt">direct</span> Monte Carlo simulation. A uniformly distributed Fluorine-18 source was simulated in the Kidneys of the XCAT phantom with the organ self dose (kidney ? kidney) and organ cross dose (liver ? kidney) being calculated for a number of organ and voxel sizes. Patient specific dose factors (DF) from a clinically acquired FDG PET/CT study have also been calculated for kidney self dose and liver ? kidney cross dose. Using the XCAT phantom it was found that significantly <span class="hlt">small</span> voxel sizes are required to achieve accurate calculation of organ self dose. It has also been used to show that a voxel size of 2 mm or less is suitable for accurate calculations of organ cross dose. To compensate for insufficient voxel sampling a correction factor is proposed. This correction factor is applied to the patient specific dose factors calculated with the native voxel size of the PET/CT study. PMID:24859803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hickson, Kevin J; O'Keefe, Graeme J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22369271"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and contextual <span class="hlt">effects</span> of individual values on organizational citizenship behavior in teams.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors use Schwartz's values theory as an integrative framework for testing the relationship between individual values and peer-reported organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in teams, controlling for sex, satisfaction, and personality traits. Using hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 582 students distributed across 135 class project teams, the authors find positive, <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> for achievement on citizenship behaviors <span class="hlt">directed</span> toward individuals (OCB-I), for benevolence on citizenship behaviors <span class="hlt">directed</span> toward the group (OCB-O), and for self-<span class="hlt">direction</span> on both OCB-I and OCB-O. Applying relational demography techniques to test for contextual <span class="hlt">effects</span>, the authors find that group mean power scores negatively moderate the relationship between individual power and OCB-I, whereas group mean self-<span class="hlt">direction</span> scores positively moderate the relationship between self-<span class="hlt">direction</span> and both OCB-I and OCB-O. PMID:22369271</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arthaud-Day, Marne L; Rode, Joseph C; Turnley, William H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1030959"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of downed woody debris on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal anti-predator behavior.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anti-predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent <span class="hlt">effects</span> in food webs. <span class="hlt">Small</span> mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs,but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used givingup densities to quantify the degree to which downed woody debris alters perceived predation risk by <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals in southeastern pineforests. We placed 14 foraging trays next to large downed woody debris,shrubs, and in open areas for 12 consecutive nights. Moon illumination, a common indicator of predation risk, led to a similar reduction in <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal foraging in all three microhabitats (open, downed woody debris,and shrub). <span class="hlt">Small</span> mammals perceived open microhabitats as riskier than shrub microhabitats, with downed woody debris habitats perceived as being of intermediate risk between shrub and open microhabitats. Despite the presumed benefits of the protective cover of downed woody debris, <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals may perceive downed woody debris as a relatively risky foraging site in southeastern pine forests where the high diversity and abundance of rodent-eating snakes may provide a primary predatory threat.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hinkleman, Travis, M.; Orrock, John, L.; Loeb, Susan, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21374698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detecting and adjusting for <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> in meta-analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Publication bias and related types of <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> threaten the validity of systematic reviews. The existence of <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> has been demonstrated in empirical studies. <span class="hlt">Small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> are graphically diagnosed by inspection of the funnel plot. Though observed funnel plot asymmetry cannot be easily linked to a specific reason, tests based on funnel plot asymmetry have been proposed. Beyond a vast range of funnel plot tests, there exist several methods for adjusting treatment <span class="hlt">effect</span> estimates for these biases. In this article, we consider the trim-and-fill method, the Copas selection model, and more recent regression-based approaches. The methods are exemplified using a meta-analysis from the literature and compared in a simulation study, based on binary response data. They are also applied to a large set of meta-analyses. Some fundamental differences between the approaches are discussed. An assumption common to the trim-and-fill method and the Copas selection model is that the <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effect</span> is caused by selection. The trim-and-fill method corresponds to an unknown implicit model generated by the symmetry assumption, whereas the Copas selection model is a parametric statistical model. However, it requires a sensitivity analysis. Regression-based approaches are easier to implement and not based on a specific selection model. Both simulations and applications suggest that in the presence of strong selection both the trim-and-fill method and the Copas selection model may not fully eliminate bias, while regression-based approaches seem to be a promising alternative. PMID:21374698</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rücker, Gerta; Carpenter, James R; Schwarzer, Guido</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4102365"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-contact <span class="hlt">small</span> animal fluorescence imaging system for simultaneous multi-<span class="hlt">directional</span> angular-dependent data acquisition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a novel non-contact <span class="hlt">small</span> animal fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) imaging system. At the heart of the system is a new mirror-based imaging head that was designed to provide 360-degree measurement data from an entire animal surface in one step. This imaging head consists of two conical mirrors, which considerably reduce multiple back reflections between the animal and mirror surfaces. These back reflections are common in existing mirror-based imaging heads and tend to degrade the quality of raw measurement data. In addition, the introduction of a novel ray-transfer operator allows for the inclusion of the angular dependent data in the image reconstruction process, which results in higher image resolution. We describe in detail the system design and implementation of the hardware components as well as the transport-theory-based image reconstruction algorithm. Using numerical simulations, measurements on a well-defined phantom and a live animal, we evaluate the system performance and show the advantages of our approach. PMID:25071965</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Keol; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Lee, Francis Young-In; Hielscher, Andreas H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://people.biology.ufl.edu/rdholt/holtpublications/275supp.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Table 1: Examples of <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of parasites in biological invasions. Host(s)Parasite(s) system <span class="hlt">Direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of parasite on</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">trematode exposure Poulin et al. 2011 H: Invasive Mediterranean marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis; Borer et al. 2007 #12;4 H: Invasive weed, Chromolaena odorata and native plants P: Fungal pathogen1 Table 1: Examples of <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of parasites in biological invasions. Host</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holt, Robert D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IAUJD...7E..20B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced dynamical models for very well observed asteroids : perturbations from <span class="hlt">small</span> bodies, relativity, non - gravitational <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The availability of radar data and high precision optical observations has increased the number of objects with a very well constrained orbit, especially for those objects with a long observed arc. In these cases, the uncertainty of orbital predictions is often dominated by the inaccuracy of the dynamical model. However, the motion of <span class="hlt">small</span> solar system bodies poses a serious challenge in modeling their dynamics. In particular, for those objects with a chaotic motion <span class="hlt">small</span> differences in the model are amplified with propagation. Thus, we need to take into account <span class="hlt">small</span> perturbations too, especially for long - term prediction. An improved dynamical model is relevant in several applications such as assessing the risk of an impact between an asteroid and the Earth. The N - body model describing the motion of a <span class="hlt">small</span> solar system body includes the Newtonian attraction of the planets. The contribution o f other perturbing bodies has to be taken into account. We propose to include the Moon, two dwarf planets (Ceres and Pluto) and fifteen asteroids (Pallas, Vesta, Juno, Metis, Hygiea, Eunomia, Psyche, Amphitrite, Euphrosyne, Europa, Cybele, Sylvia, Davida, Herculina, Interamnia). The next step is the introduction of the relativity terms due to both the Sun and the planets . Despite their <span class="hlt">small</span> magnitude, planetary relativistic terms turn out to be relevant for objects experiencing close approaches with a planet. Finally, we discuss non - gravitational <span class="hlt">effects</span> such as solar radiation pressure and the Yarkovsky <span class="hlt">effect</span>. In particular, the latter acts as a tiny but secular semimajor axis drift that may decisively drive long - term predictions. These non - gravitational <span class="hlt">effects</span> are difficult to model as they depend on object ’ s physical properties that are typically unknown. However, a very well observed object can have an orbit precise enough to allow the determination of the parameters defining a non - gravitational perturbation and thus the modeling of the corresponding acceleration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernardi, Fabrizio; Farnocchia, Davide; Milani, Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..419..335Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation model of bi-<span class="hlt">directional</span> pedestrian considering potential <span class="hlt">effect</span> ahead and behind</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a simulation model for bi-<span class="hlt">directional</span> pedestrian behavior. Guide <span class="hlt">effect</span> and press <span class="hlt">effect</span> performed by pedestrians with same <span class="hlt">direction</span>, and contain <span class="hlt">effect</span> performed by opposite pedestrians were considered as potential <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Potential field was defined to simulate the complex interactions, which provided an <span class="hlt">effective</span> and integrated approach to depict the immediate <span class="hlt">effects</span> imposed by individuals ahead and behind, with different <span class="hlt">directions</span>. The number of following pedestrians was regarded as a factor for lane change decision. Experiments ran for the model validation and coefficient performance verification. Preventative steering behavior and congestion unlock phenomenon were observed in the simulation. Velocity-density and flow rate-density curves with different coefficients show the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the presented model to capture self-organization phenomenon in counter flow. Coefficient performance reveals the flexibility and controllability of the model to apply on various circumstances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Qi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3820616"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathology-Dependent <span class="hlt">Effects</span> Linked to <span class="hlt">Small</span> Heat Shock Proteins Expression: An Update</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Small</span> heat shock proteins (<span class="hlt">small</span> Hsps) are stress-induced molecular chaperones that act as holdases towards polypeptides that have lost their folding in stress conditions or consequently of mutations in their coding sequence. A cellular protection against the deleterious <span class="hlt">effects</span> mediated by damaged proteins is thus provided to cells. These chaperones are also highly expressed in response to protein conformational and inflammatory diseases and cancer pathologies. Through specific and reversible modifications in their phospho-oligomeric organization, <span class="hlt">small</span> Hsps can chaperone appropriate client proteins in order to provide cells with resistance to different types of injuries or pathological conditions. By helping cells to better cope with their pathological status, their expression can be either beneficial, such as in diseases characterized by pathological cell degeneration, or deleterious when they are required for tumor cell survival. Moreover, <span class="hlt">small</span> Hsps are actively released by cells and can act as immunogenic molecules that have dual <span class="hlt">effects</span> depending on the pathology. The cellular consequences linked to their expression levels and relationships with other Hsps as well as therapeutic strategies are discussed in view of their dynamic structural organization required to interact with specific client polypeptides. PMID:24278676</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arrigo, A.-P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MAR.D2005D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Directly</span> probing the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of strain on magnetic exchange interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thin films of transition metal oxides of the perovskite type ABO3 (B = 3d or 4d metal) have revealed abundant examples for strain-driven changes of magnetic ordering. One most popular is the strain-induced ferromagnetic ferroelectric state of otherwise antiferromagnetic paraelectric EuTiO3. Another promising example is the strain control of orbital occupation and magnetic coupling at oxide interfaces of SrRuO3 with manganites. In spite of strong efforts, the theoretical treatment of magnetic exchange in complex oxides has remained a challenge, and experiments continue to show unpredicted / unexplained large <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the epitaxial strains in films. In order to provide meaningful experimental data on strain dependences, epitaxial thin films should be grown in various coherent strain states on different substrates without changing anything but the strain. This is inherently difficult: possible problems may arise from a strain-dependent oxidation level or microstructure. As a complementary approach, the in-plane strain of epitaxial oxide films can be controlled reversibly using a piezoelectric substrate, even though the accessible reversible strain of 0.1 -- 0.2% is an order of magnitude smaller. In my talk, I will address reversible-strain studies on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3, La1-xSrxCoO3 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3) und SrRuO3 films, showing the strain response of the magnetic Curie temperature, the magnetization and the electrical resistance and discussing the current understanding of the strain <span class="hlt">effects</span> on magnetic ordering. In La0.8Sr0.2CoO3, a strain-driven phase transition between ferromagnetic and spin-glass-like could be established by combining the piezoelectric substrate with a tuned buffer system providing varied as-grown strain states. In SrRuO3, a tetragonal tensile strain state shows a suppression of the ordered magnetic moment. Lattice parameters and symmetries of the films were determined by x-ray diffraction. It is noted that the atomic displacements (bond lengths and angles) under strain in these compounds are yet essentially unknown and subject to present research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dorr, Kathrin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612176M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of rainfall distribution on a <span class="hlt">small</span> catchment for the evaluation of canopy interception <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variability of rainfall and throughfall is an essential characteristic of the water balance at spatial scales ranging from meters to hundreds of meters or even kilometers. The amount of throughfall is governed by the characteristics of the vegetation canopy and the involved interception and stemflow <span class="hlt">effects</span>. In initial, developing ecosystems, distinct patterns of the growing vegetation (e.g. patchiness) supposedly govern the spatial distribution of water in the system, thereby initiating and supporting hydro-ecological feedback processes. Questions are i) is the spatial variability of vegetation relevant for the system as a whole, and ii) how does the distribution of the <span class="hlt">effective</span> precipitation (i.e. the infiltration) change over time in dependency of vegetation succession? We present the first results of a spatially distributed measurement approach of surface-near precipitation on the constructed catchment "Hühnerwasser" ("Chicken Creek"). The 6-ha site is located in the recultivation area of the lignite open-cast mine "Welzow-Süd" in Lower Lusatia, Brandenburg, Germany. Here, the free development of an initial ecosystem is investigated since September 2005. After eight years of succession, the spatial distribution of plant species is highly heterogeneous, and gains increasing influence on throughfall patterns, thus impacting the distribution of soil humidity and possibly even surface runoff. For spatially distributed precipitation measurement, 47 tipping bucket rain gauges were installed in heights of 0.5 m and 1.0 m along two transects on the catchment. Rain gauge data were collected by a wireless sensor node network provided by the Sens4U joint research project. The transects run NW-SE and NE-SW and cover the range of plant communities presently existing in the ecosystem: locust copses, dense sallow thorn bushes and reeds, base herbaceous and medium-rise <span class="hlt">small</span>-reed vegetation, and open areas covered by moss and lichens. The raw measurement data were temporally aggregated using a VBA script in order to characterize interception for various types of precipitation events on different time scales. First results from the measurement period 17th July - 3rd September 2013 widely exhibit a good accordance with reference data from on-site weather stations for sites on open ground, while canopy sites show more heterogeneous values, either due to interception or due to canopy collection <span class="hlt">effects</span>. However, it was found that the explanation of the differences between comparable sites requires an additional inclusion of other relevant parameters, e.g. wind speed and <span class="hlt">direction</span>, screening <span class="hlt">effects</span>, and specific canopy characteristics. Moreover, extreme precipitation events sometimes seemed to lead to incorrect measurements either by the sensor and / or node, which required supplementary quality controls of equipment and data. Results from future long-term measurements on the "Hühnerwasser" catchment will be used to identify possible plant-soil feedback mechanisms and to parameterize models that simulate the behavior of initial eco-hydrological systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maurer, Thomas; Schapp, Andrea; Büchner, Steffen; Menzel, Hannes; Hinz, Christoph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.........9F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigations of surface-tension <span class="hlt">effects</span> due to <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale complex boundaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this Ph.D. dissertation, we have investigated some important surface-tension phenomena including capillarity, wetting, and wicking. We mainly focus on the geometric aspects of these problems, and to learn about how structures affect properties. . In the first project (Chapter 2), we used numerical simulations and experiments to study the meniscus of a fluid confined in capillaries with complicated cross-sectional geometries. In the simulations, we computed the three-dimensional shapes of the menisci formed in polygonal and star-shaped capillaries with sharp or rounded corners. Height variations across the menisci were used to quantify the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of surface tension. Analytical solutions were derived for all the cases where the cross-sectional geometry was a regular polygon or a regular star-shape. Power indices that characterize the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of corner rounding were extracted from simulation results. These findings can serve as guide for fabrications of unconventional three-dimensional structures in Capillary Force Lithography experiments. Experimental demonstrations of the working principle was also performed. Although quantitative matching between simulation and experimental results was not achieved due to the limitation of material properties, clear qualitative trends were observed and interesting three-dimensional nano-structures were produced. A second project (Chapter 3) focused on developing techniques to produce three-dimensional hierarchically structured superhydrophobic surfaces with high aspect ratios. We experimented with two different high-throughput electron-beam-lithography processes featuring single and dual electron-beam exposures. After a surface modification procedure with a hydrophobic silane, the structured surfaces exhibited two distinct superhydrophobic behaviors---high and low adhesion. While both types of superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited very high (approximately 160° water advancing contact angles, the water receding contact angles on these two different types of surfaces differed by about 50° ˜ 60°, with the low-adhesion surfaces at about 120° ˜ 130° and the high-adhesion surfaces at about 70° ˜ 80°. Characterizations of both the microscopic structures and macroscopic wetting properties of these product surfaces allowed us to pinpoint the structural features responsible for specific wetting properties. It is found that the advancing contact angle was mainly determined by the primary structures while the receding contact angle is largely affected by the side-wall slope of the secondary features. This study established a platform for further exploration of the structure aspects of surface wettability. In the third and final project (Chapter 4), we demonstrated a new type of microfluidic channel that enable asymmetric wicking of wetting fluids based on structure-induced <span class="hlt">direction</span>-dependent surface-tension <span class="hlt">effect</span>. By decorating the side-walls of open microfluidic channels with tilted fins, we were able to experimentally demonstrate preferential wicking behaviors of various IPA-water mixtures with a range of contact angles in these channels. A simplified 2D model was established to explain the wicking asymmetry, and a complete 3D model was developed to provide more accurate quantitative predictions. The design principles developed in this study provide an additional scheme for controlling the spreading of fluids. The research presented in this dissertation spreads out across a wide range of physical phenomena (wicking, wetting, and capillarity), and involves a number of computational and experimental techniques, yet all of these projects are intrinsically united under a common theme: we want to better understand how simple fluids respond to <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale complex surface structures as manifestations of surface-tension <span class="hlt">effects</span>. We hope our findings can serve as building blocks for a larger scale endeavor of scientific research and engineering development. After all, the pursue of knowledge is most meaningful if the results improve the well-being of the society and the advancement of humanity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feng, Jiansheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20728309"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term horizontal vocal <span class="hlt">directivity</span> of opera singers: <span class="hlt">effects</span> of singing projection and acoustic environment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vocal <span class="hlt">directivity</span> refers to how <span class="hlt">directional</span> the sound is that comes from a singer's mouth, that is, whether the sound is focused into a narrow stream of sound projecting in front of the singers or whether it is spread out all around the singer. This study investigates the long-term vocal <span class="hlt">directivity</span> and acoustic power of professional opera singers and how these vary among subjects, among singing projections, and among vastly different acoustic environments. The vocal sound of eight professional opera singers (six females and two males) was measured in anechoic and reverberant rooms and in a recital hall. Subjects sang in four different ways: (1) paying great attention to intonation; (2) singing as in performance, with all the emotional connection intended by the composer; (3) imagining a large auditorium; and (4) imagining a <span class="hlt">small</span> theatre. The same song was sung by all singers in all conditions. A head and torso simulator (HATS), radiating sound from its mouth, was used for comparison in all situations. Results show that individual singers have quite consistent long-term average <span class="hlt">directivity</span>, even across conditions. <span class="hlt">Directivity</span> varies substantially among singers. Singers are more <span class="hlt">directional</span> than the standard HATS (which is a physical model of a talking person). The singer's formant region of the spectrum exhibits greater <span class="hlt">directivity</span> than the lower-frequency range, and results indicate that singers control <span class="hlt">directivity</span> (at least, incidentally) for different singing conditions as they adjust the spectral emphasis of their voices through their formants. PMID:20728309</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cabrera, Densil; Davis, Pamela J; Connolly, Anna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3766295"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of different treatment plans on irradiated <span class="hlt">small</span>-bowel volume in gynecologic patients undergoing whole-pelvic irradiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To evaluate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of different treatment plans for whole-pelvic irradiation on <span class="hlt">small</span>-bowel volumes (SBVs) in patients with gynecologic malignancies, 40 patients were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography (CT) simulations were performed, and the <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel of each patient was outlined manually. Treatment plans with equal-weighted (EW) and non-equal-weighted (NEW) (70% in bilateral <span class="hlt">directions</span>) techniques of four-field and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were performed. The V10–V100 represented the volume (cm3) at different levels of the prescribed doses (10–100%). The V10–V100 was compared among the different treatment planning techniques, and patients who were suitable for IMRT or NEW were identified. IMRT and NEW significantly reduced the V50–V100 and V40–V60 levels compared with EW, respectively. NEW caused a significant reduction in the V30–V60 levels in patients with a BMI ?26 kg/m2. Patients with IMRT demonstrated lower V70–V100 levels compared with those with NEW. In patients with a BMI ?26 kg/m2 or an age ?55 years, lower V20–V50 levels were noted using NEW compared with IMRT. Treatment planning with larger weighting in the bilateral <span class="hlt">directions</span> in four-field radiotherapy reduces the low-dose SBV in patients with gynecologic malignancies, especially in those with a high BMI or the elderly. IMRT <span class="hlt">effectively</span> reduces high-dose SBV, especially in patients with a low BMI. PMID:23536544</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Shih-Chen; Lee, Hsiao-Fei; Ting, Hui-Min; Pan, Tzu-Chao; Liu, Shu-Yu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Wang, Teng-Yi; Juan, Kuo-Jung; Liao, Tsung-I; Huang, Eng-Yen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.isid.ac.in/~epu/acegd2014/papers/GunjaBaranwal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment and Human capital formation on labour markets in India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment and Human capital formation on labour markets in India Gunja@gmail.com +91-7890059582 #12;Abstract Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment (FDI) and human capital formation's interaction between FDI and human capital raises wage inequality, though human capital itself is negatively associated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bandyopadhyay, Antar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=69775"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EFFECT</span> OF <span class="hlt">DIRECTIONAL</span> SWITCHING FREQUENCY ON TOLUENE DEGRADATION IN A VAPOR-PHASE BIOREACTOR. (R826168)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A potential method to improve biomass distribution and the stability of vapor-phase bioreactors is to operate them in a <span class="hlt">directionally</span> switching mode such that the contaminant air stream <span class="hlt">direction</span> is periodically reversed through the reactor. In this study, the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of switching...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37376037"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Inflation and Exchange Rate Policies on <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment to Developing Countries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study focuses on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of inflation and exchange rate policy on <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment flows to developing countries. We find that inflation does have a substantial negative <span class="hlt">effect</span> on capital inflows. Our estimates indicate that this <span class="hlt">effect</span> can be significantly reduced, but not eliminated, by following exchange rate policies which avoid substantial overvaluation of the currency. [F 30</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young Seok Ahn; Slamet Seno Adji; THOMAS D. WILLETT</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.chem.utah.edu/_documents/anderson_research_group/dd-H2CO-CD4-JACS04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Dynamics Trajectory Study of Vibrational <span class="hlt">Effects</span>: Can Polanyi Rules Be Generalized to a Polyatomic System?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Dynamics Trajectory Study of Vibrational <span class="hlt">Effects</span>: Can Polanyi Rules Be Generalized of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of CD4 distortion vibrations on this reaction that, for the first time, shows how vibrational for the reaction. To explore the origins of the vibrational <span class="hlt">effects</span>, we focus on correlations between reactivity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, Scott L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OptEn..52b5006C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transient <span class="hlt">effect</span> to <span class="hlt">small</span> duty-cycle pulse in cascaded erbium-doped fiber amplifier system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Factors that affect the transient <span class="hlt">effect</span> on <span class="hlt">small</span> duty-cycle pulse in a cascaded erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) system are studied in simulation and experiment. The considered factors consist of the numbers of cascaded EDFAs, the peak power and the extinction ratio of optical pulse, with results showing that the optical pulse will be severely distorted by the transient <span class="hlt">effect</span> of EDFA. The distortion becomes more serious with the increase of the three parameters. To avoid or mitigate the transient <span class="hlt">effect</span>, a method of adding another optical signal with a different wavelength to the objective pulse is employed in the experiment. The experimental results show that this method could <span class="hlt">effectively</span> restrain the transient <span class="hlt">effect</span> in a cascaded EDFA system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Mengmeng; Song, Yuejiang; Zhang, Xuping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25501550"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of gap junction inhibition on contraction waves in the murine <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine in relation to coupled oscillator theory.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Waves of contraction in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine correlate with slow waves generated by the myenteric network of interstitial cells of Cajal. Coupled oscillator theory has been used to explain steplike gradients in the frequency (frequency plateaux) of contraction waves along the length of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. Inhibition of gap junction coupling between oscillators should lead to predictable <span class="hlt">effects</span> on these plateaux and the wave dislocation (wave drop) phenomena associated with their boundaries. It is these predictions that we wished to test. We used a novel multicamera diameter-mapping system to measure contraction along 25- to 30-cm lengths of murine <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. There were typically two to three plateaux per length of intestine. Dislocations could be limited to the wavefronts immediately about the terminated wave, giving the appearance of a three-pronged fork, i.e., a fork dislocation; additionally, localized decreases in velocity developed across a number of wavefronts, ending with the terminated wave, which could appear as a fork, i.e., slip dislocations. The gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone increased the number of plateaux and dislocations and decreased contraction wave velocity. In some cases, the usual frequency gradient was reversed, with a plateau at a higher frequency than its proximal neighbor; thus fork dislocations were inverted, and the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of propagation was reversed. Heptanol had no <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the frequency or velocity of contractions but did reduce their amplitude. To understand intestinal motor patterns, the pacemaker network of the interstitial cells of Cajal is best evaluated as a system of coupled oscillators. PMID:25501550</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parsons, Sean P; Huizinga, Jan D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37410161"> <span id="translatedtitle">‘Turn-of the-month’ return <span class="hlt">effects</span> for <span class="hlt">small</span> cap Hong Kong stocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intra-month returns for a liquid pool of <span class="hlt">small</span>-cap stocks in Hong Kong are analysed over the period January 2000 to June 2005. A strong and persistent ‘turn-of-the-month’ <span class="hlt">effect</span> is apparent where returns, measured between the close of trading on the penultimate day of business in a calendar month and the subsequent close five business days later, are recorded at levels</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul B. McGuinness</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26483307"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vibration <span class="hlt">effects</span> on boil-off rate from a <span class="hlt">small</span> liquid hydrogen tank</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of an investigation of the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of vibrations on the thermal performance of a cryogenic tank are presented. The experimental hydrogen tank is a <span class="hlt">small</span> unit with a maximum capacity of 1101 of liquid hydrogen. During the experiments the tank was subjected to a range of low frequency (0-4 Hz), high amplitude (0.01-0.05 m) vertical harmonic oscillations. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Rotenberg; M. Burrows; R. McNeil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-12-8995"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Intensive Agriculture on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Mammal Communities in and Adjacent to Conservation Areas in Swaziland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of sugarcane plantations on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal communities at 3 sites in the Lowveld of Swaziland during the dry and wet seasons of 2008. I evaluated changes in species abundance and community parameters in relation to distance to the interface... geographic ranges appeared to select areas within 75 m of the interface. Four species with restricted habitat tolerances or diets were negatively affected by sugarcane, as was 1 species that selects for low ground cover. Two species may have avoided...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hurst, Zachary Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26962026"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Scale Obstructions and Surface Textures on Particle Deposition from Natural Convection Flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To increase knowledge of particle dynamics in indoor environments, we have conducted experiments on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> surface discontinuities and roughness on deposition from natural convection flow. Measurements were made in a half-height (1.22 m) aluminum test chamber and in a full-scale experimental room. In the test chamber, air flow was induced by uniformly heating the floor and one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. L. Thatcher; W. W. Nazaroff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156294"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of the concentration of inhomogeneities on the multiple <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle neutron scattering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interference <span class="hlt">effects</span> manifested during multiple <span class="hlt">small</span>-angle neutron scattering (MSANS) on a chaotically arranged close-packed ensemble of scatterers have been studied. MSANS measurements have been performed for mixtures of Al and Ti-Zr alloy powders. It is shown that the results can be satisfactorily described based on a theory that takes into account spatial correlations in the arrangement of powder grains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abov, Yu. G.; Dzheparov, F. S.; Elyutin, N. O.; Lvov, D. V., E-mail: lvov@itep.ru; Tyulyusov, A. N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)] [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5173590"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of cholera enterotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal mucosa of rabbits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of cholera enterotoxin injected in vivo on glucose formation from alanine, and also on glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver and mucosa of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine was studied. L-(2,3-/sup 3/H)-alanine was added to the incubation medium. Chromatograms were developed with 5% AgNO/sub 3/ with the addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia. The quantity of radioactive glucose was determined in a scintillation counter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vengrov, P.R.; Cherkasova, T.D.; Yurkiv, V.A.; Pokrovskii, V.I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sfefs.ethz.ch/pdf/Schutz_350_article_OH_SFEFS.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of a <span class="hlt">Small</span> Dose of Alcohol on the Endurance Performance of Trained Cyclists</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of an acute <span class="hlt">small</span> ethanol (EtOH) dose (0.5 ml EtOH\\/kg fat-free mass, combined with carbohydrate) in a drink on endurance performance of trained cyclists. Methods: Thirteen well-trained male cyclists took part in this study. A 60-min cycling endurance performance test (time trial) was performed in a calorimetric chamber after</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Virgile Lecoultre; Yves Schutz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26350877"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drill geometry and operating <span class="hlt">effects</span> when cutting <span class="hlt">small</span> diameter holes in CFRP</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper details experimental results when drilling <span class="hlt">small</span> holes (1.5mm diameter cemented carbide drills with varying end point and helix geometry) in thin quasi-isotropic, unbacked carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate (typical cutting time ?0.4s\\/hole). The study utilised an L12 Taguchi fractional factorial orthogonal array with analysis of variance (ANOVA) employed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of drill geometry and drilling</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. S. Shyha; D. K. Aspinwall; S. L. Soo; S. Bradley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251489"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the <span class="hlt">small</span>-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The thermodynamics of hydration is expected to change gradually from entropic for <span class="hlt">small</span> solutes to enthalpic for large ones. The <span class="hlt">small</span>-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration depends on the thermodynamic conditions of the solvent such as temperature, pressure, presence of additives, etc. We attempt to shed some light on the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale by using a probabilistic approach to water hydrogen bonding that allows one to obtain an analytic expression for the number of bonds per water molecule as a function of both its distance to a solute and solute radius. Incorporating that approach into the density functional theory, one can examine the solute size <span class="hlt">effects</span> on its hydration over the entire <span class="hlt">small</span>-to-large lengthscale range at a series of different temperatures. Knowing the dependence of the hydration free energy on the temperature and solute size, one can also obtain its enthalpic and entropic contributions as functions of both temperature and solute size. These functions can provide some interesting insight into the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration. The model was applied to the hydration of spherical particles of various radii in water in the temperature range from T = 293.15 K to T = 333.15 K. The model predictions for the temperature dependence of the hydration free energy of <span class="hlt">small</span> hydrophobes are consistent with the experimental and simulational data on the hydration of simple molecular solutes. Three alternative definitions for the <span class="hlt">small</span>-to-large crossover length-scale of hydrophobic hydration are proposed, and their temperature dependence is obtained. Depending on the definition and temperature, the <span class="hlt">small</span>-to-large crossover in the hydration mechanism is predicted to occur for hydrophobes of radii from one to several nanometers. Independent of its definition, the crossover length-scale is predicted to decrease with increasing temperature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Djikaev, Y. S., E-mail: idjikaev@buffalo.edu; Ruckenstein, E. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57863717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Right-Wing Authoritarianism via Personality and Dangerous World Beliefs: <span class="hlt">Direct</span>, Indirect, and Interactive <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an Italian sample (N?=?483, 78.23% women, mean age = 27.61 years old), we used structural equation modeling with latent variables and interactions to analyze the <span class="hlt">direct</span>, indirect, and interactive <span class="hlt">effects</span> exerted on right-wing authoritarianism by the Big Five factors of personality and by dangerous world beliefs. Openness, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness exerted <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on right-wing authoritarianism; the first two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francesca Dallago; Alberto Mirisola; Michele Roccato</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57856761"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Right-Wing Authoritarianism via Personality and Dangerous World Beliefs: <span class="hlt">Direct</span>, Indirect, and Interactive <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an Italian sample (N?=?483, 78.23% women, mean age = 27.61 years old), we used structural equation modeling with latent variables and interactions to analyze the <span class="hlt">direct</span>, indirect, and interactive <span class="hlt">effects</span> exerted on right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) by the Big Five factors of personality and by dangerous world beliefs (DWB). Openness, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness exerted <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on RWA; the first</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francesca Dallago; Alberto Mirisola; Michele Roccato</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42496358"> <span id="translatedtitle">Firm-specific <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Location Decisions of Foreign <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Investment in China's Logistics Industry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hong J. (2007) Firm-specific <span class="hlt">effects</span> on location decisions of foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment in China's logistics industry, Regional Studies41, 673–683. This paper uses conditional logit models to investigate firms-specific <span class="hlt">effects</span> on location decisions of foreign <span class="hlt">direct</span> investment in China's logistics industry. Based on a recent census database, the empirical results indicate that the importance of some location factors varies with firm</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Junjie Hong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20975147"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> amplitude solitons in a warm plasma with smaller and higher order relativistic <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solitons have been investigated in a warm plasma through the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, considering a smaller relativistic <span class="hlt">effect</span> for {gamma}{approx_equal}O(v{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) and {gamma}{sub e}{approx_equal}O(u{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) and higher relativistic <span class="hlt">effects</span> for {gamma}{approx_equal}O(v{sup 4}/c{sup 4}) and {gamma}{sub e}{approx_equal}O(u{sup 4/}c{sup 4}). Compressive fast ion-acoustic solitons are observed to exist in the entire range (u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}) subject to a suitable mathematical condition satisfied by the initial streaming velocities u{sub 0},v{sub 0} of the electrons and the ions, respectively, electron to ion mass ratio Q(=m{sub e}/m{sub i}) and ion to electron temperature ratio {sigma}(=T{sub i}/T{sub e}). Further, rarefactive solitons of pretty <span class="hlt">small</span> amplitudes are observed in the <span class="hlt">small</span> upper range of |u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}| for higher order relativistic <span class="hlt">effect</span> which are found to change parabolically. It is essentially important to report in our model of plasma, that the higher order relativistic <span class="hlt">effect</span> slows down the soliton speed to V{<=}0.10 for all temperature ratios {sigma} for <span class="hlt">small</span> amplitude waves. On the other hand, the smaller order relativistic <span class="hlt">effect</span> permits the soliton to exist even at a relatively much higher speed V<0.30. Solitons of high (negligible) amplitudes are found to generate at the smaller (greater) difference of initial streamings (u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}) corresponding to both the relativistic <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalita, B. C.; Das, R. [Department of Mathematics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam (India); Department of Mathematics, Arya Vidyapeeth College, Guwahati-781016, Assam (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25304967"> <span id="translatedtitle">Edaravone ameliorates the adverse <span class="hlt">effects</span> of valproic acid toxicity in <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Valproic acid (VPA) is a drug used for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar psychiatric disorders, and migraine. Previous studies have reported an increased generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the toxic mechanism of VPA. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger for clinical use, can quench free radical reaction by trapping a variety of free radical species. In this study, <span class="hlt">effect</span> of edaravone on some <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine biochemical parameters in VPA-induced toxicity was investigated. Thirty seven Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into four groups. The groups include control group, edaravone (30 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)) given group, VPA (0.5 g(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)) given group, VPA + edaravone (in same dose) given group. Edaravone and VPA were given intraperitoneally for 7 days. Biochemical parameters such as malondialdehyde, as an index of lipid peroxidation(LPO), sialic acid (SA), glutathione levels and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tissue factor (TF) activities were determined in <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine samples by colorimetric methods. Decreased <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine antioxidant enzyme activities, increased LPO and SA levels, and increased activities of ALP and TF were detected in the VPA group. Based on our results edaravone may be suggested to reverse the oxidative stress and inflammation due to VPA-induced <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine toxicity. PMID:25304967</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oktay, S; Alev, B; Tunali, S; Emekli-Alturfan, E; Tunali-Akbay, T; Koc-Ozturk, L; Yanardag, R; Yarat, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mysite.science.uottawa.ca/gblouin/theses/thesis_2014_Zabihi-Seissan.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Food supplementation leads to increases in large mammal diversity and abundance, but no carry over <span class="hlt">effect</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Food supplementation leads to increases in large mammal diversity and abundance, but no carry over <span class="hlt">effect</span> in <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals Sana Zabihi-Seissan 5990458 BIO4009 ­ Honours Project Supervisors: Julie Morand sometimes impacts <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal abundance and diversity. In this study, we looked at the carry-over <span class="hlt">effects</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blouin-Demers, Gabriel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/67/7/1855.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EFFECT</span> OF DIETARY SOYBEAN MEAL ON THE MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> INTESTINE IN THE EARLY-WEANED PIG 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two experiments were conducted to determine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of soybean meal in post- weaning diets on villus height (VH), villus shape and lamina propria depth (LPD) in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. Intestinal samples were taken at 25, 50 and 75% of the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine's length. The first experiment determined the normal <span class="hlt">effects</span> of age on these structures in nursing pigs from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. R. Dunsford; D. A. Knabe; W. E. Haensly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40328842"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimated inbreeding in a <span class="hlt">small</span>, wild muskox Ovibos moschatus population and its possible <span class="hlt">effects</span> on population reproduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Knowledge of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of inbreeding in natural animal populations is limited. Although inbreeding depression is well documented in wild animals bred in captivity, it has been suggested that the phenomenon does not occur in nature. The potentially negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of inbreeding may be of great importance for the survival of <span class="hlt">small</span>, wild populations.In a <span class="hlt">small</span> free-living population of muskox</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linda Laikre; Nils Ryman; Nils G. Lundh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20955011"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution in response to <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect ecological <span class="hlt">effects</span> in pitcher plant inquiline communities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecologists have long recognized the importance of indirect ecological <span class="hlt">effects</span> on species abundances, coexistence, and diversity. However, the evolutionary consequences of indirect interactions are rarely considered. Here I conduct selection experiments and examine the evolutionary response of Colpoda sp., a ciliated protozoan, to other members of the inquiline community of purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea). I measured the evolution of six traits in response to (1) predation by mosquito larvae, (2) competition from other ciliated protozoans, and (3) simultaneous predation and competition. The latter treatment incorporated both <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> due to interactions between predators and competitors. Population growth rate and cell size evolved in response to <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of predators and competitors. However, trait values in the multispecies treatment were similar to those in the monoculture treatment, indicating that <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> were offset by strong indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the evolution of traits. For most of the traits measured, indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> were opposed to, and often stronger than, <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>. These indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> occurred as a result of behavioral changes of the predator in the presence of competitors and as a result of reduced densities of competitors in the presence of predators. Incorporating indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> provides a more realistic description of how species evolve in complex natural communities. PMID:20955011</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">terHorst, Casey P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3767635"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Edge <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Mammal Communities across a Conservation-Agricultural Interface in Swaziland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Such <span class="hlt">effects</span>, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge <span class="hlt">effects</span> to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge <span class="hlt">effects</span> on communities across sites and seasons. Using <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that <span class="hlt">effects</span> can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics. PMID:24040269</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hurst, Zachary M.; McCleery, Robert A.; Collier, Bret A.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Silvy, Nova J.; Taylor, Peter J.; Monadjem, Ara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25583875"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moderate acute alcohol intoxication has minimal <span class="hlt">effect</span> on surround suppression measured with a motion <span class="hlt">direction</span> discrimination task.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A well-studied paradox of motion perception is that, in order to correctly judge <span class="hlt">direction</span> in high-contrast stimuli, subjects need to observe motion for longer in large stimuli than in <span class="hlt">small</span> stimuli. This <span class="hlt">effect</span> is one of several perceptual <span class="hlt">effects</span> known generally as "surround suppression." It is usually attributed to center-surround antagonism between neurons in visual cortex, believed to be mediated by GABA-ergic inhibition. Accordingly, several studies have reported that this index of surround suppression is reduced in groups known to have reduced GABA-ergic inhibition, including older people and people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. In this study, we examined the <span class="hlt">effect</span> on this index of moderate amounts of ethanol alcohol. Among its many <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the nervous system, alcohol potentiates GABA-ergic transmission. We therefore hypothesized that it should further impair the perception of motion in large stimuli, resulting in a stronger surround-suppression index. This prediction was not borne out. Alcohol consumption slightly worsened duration thresholds for both large and <span class="hlt">small</span> stimuli, but their ratio did not change significantly. PMID:25583875</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Read, Jenny C A; Georgiou, Renos; Brash, Claire; Yazdani, Partow; Whittaker, Roger; Trevelyan, Andrew J; Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......123C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Setting the question for inquiry: The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of whole class vs <span class="hlt">small</span> group on student achievement in elementary science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted to determine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of two different student-centered approaches to setting the question for inquiry. The first approach (whole class) consisted of students setting a single question for inquiry after which students worked in <span class="hlt">small</span> groups during an investigation phase of the activity with all groups exploring the same question. The second approach (<span class="hlt">small</span> group) consisted of each group of students setting a question resulting in numerous questions being explored per class. A mixed method quasi-experimental design was utilized. Two grade five teachers from a <span class="hlt">small</span> rural school district in the Midwestern United States participated, each teaching two sections of science (approximately 25 students per section). Results indicate three major findings. Instructional approach (whole class vs. <span class="hlt">small</span> group) did not <span class="hlt">effect</span> student achievement in science or language arts. Observational data indicated the actions and skills teachers utilized to implement the approaches were similar. Specifically, the pedagogical skills of dialogical interaction (which was found to be influenced by teacher level of control of learning and teacher content knowledge) and <span class="hlt">effective</span> rather than efficient use of time were identified as key factors in teachers' progression toward a student-centered, teacher-managed instructional approach. Unit exams along with qualitative and quantitative teacher observation data indicated that these factors do have an impact on student achievement. Specifically increased dialogical interaction in the forms of greater student voice, and increased cognitive demands placed on students by embedding and emphasizing science argument within the student inquiry corresponded to positive gains in student achievement. Additionally, teacher's perception of student abilities was also found to influence professional growth. Finally, allowing students to set the questions for inquiry and design the experiments impact the classroom environment as teacher talk changed from giving <span class="hlt">directions</span> toward scaffolding student thought. These results have implications for professional development and teacher education as they suggest that more time should be spent on challenging teachers to align their pedagogy with how students learn rather than simply providing strategies and lesson plans for teachers to use in the classrooms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cavagnetto, Andy Roy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22deepwater+horizon%22+OR+%22BP+Oil+Spill%22+OR+%22Gulf+Oil+Spill%22+OR+DWH+OR+%22Gulf+of+Mexico+oil+spill%22+OR+MC252+OR+MC-252+OR+%22MC+252%22+OR+Macondo+OR+%22deepwater+horizon%22+OR+%22BP+Oil+Spill%22+OR+%22Gulf+Oil+Spill%22+OR+DWH+OR+%22Gulf+of+Mexico+oil+spill%22+OR+MC252+OR+MC-252+OR+%22MC+252%22+OR+Macondo&pg=7&id=EJ294195"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of Self-<span class="hlt">Directed</span> and Lecture/Discussion Stress Management Approaches and the Locus of Control of Teachers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interaction <span class="hlt">effects</span> of two stress management strategies, the <span class="hlt">directed</span> lecture discussion versus self-<span class="hlt">directed</span>, and locus of control of teachers were examined. Results indicated <span class="hlt">directed</span> and self-<span class="hlt">directive</span> programs were <span class="hlt">effective</span> in reducing stress. Locus of control was not an important factor. (Author/DWH)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Friedman, Gail H.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22973942"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near-field scanning optical microscopy enables <span class="hlt">direct</span> observation of Moiré <span class="hlt">effects</span> at the nanometer scale.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work reports probing the Moiré <span class="hlt">effect</span> <span class="hlt">directly</span> at the nanometer scale via near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). Periodic metal nanostructures of Au and Cu have been produced sequentially using particle lithography, and the overlapped regions serve as Moiré patterns at nanometer scale. The Moiré <span class="hlt">effect</span> in these regions can be <span class="hlt">directly</span> visualized from NSOM images, from which periodicity and structural details are accurately determined. In addition, the near-field Moiré <span class="hlt">effect</span> was found to be very sensitive to structural changes, such as lateral displacement and/or rotations of the two basic arrays with respect to each other. Further, nanostructures of Cu exhibited higher photon transmission than Au from NSOM images. Collectively, NSOM enables <span class="hlt">direct</span> visualization of the Moiré <span class="hlt">effect</span> at nanoscale levels, from optical read out, and without enhancements or modification of the structures. The results demonstrate the feasibility to extend applications of the Moiré <span class="hlt">effect</span>-based techniques to nanometer levels. PMID:22973942</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Wei-feng; Li, Jie-Ren; Liu, Gang-yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://caliber.ucpress.net/doi/abs/10.1525/bio.2010.60.8.5"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Terrestrial Vegetation-mediated <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Environmental Change on Aquatic Ecosystem Processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global environmental changes have <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on aquatic ecosystems, as well as indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> through alterations of adjacent terrestrial ecosystem structure and functioning. For example, shifts in terrestrial vegetation communities resulting from global changes can affect the quantity and quality of water, organic matter, and nutrient inputs to aquatic ecosystems. The relative importance of these <span class="hlt">direct</span> and terrestrial-vegetation-mediated <span class="hlt">effects</span> is largely unknown, but understanding them is essential to our ability to predict the consequences of global changes for aquatic ecosystems. Here, we present a conceptual framework for considering the relative strengths of these <span class="hlt">effects</span> and use case studies from xeric, wet and temperate, and boreal ecosystems to demonstrate that the responses of aquatic ecosystems to drivers of global changes may not be evident when the pathways are studied separately. Future studies examining changes in aquatic ecosystem structure and functioning should consider the relative contributions of both <span class="hlt">direct</span> and terrestrial-vegetation-mediated <span class="hlt">effects</span> of global changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Becky Ball (Dartmouth College;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25454235"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretically exploring <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect chemical <span class="hlt">effects</span> across ecological and exposure scenarios using mechanistic fate and <span class="hlt">effects</span> modelling.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predicting ecosystem response to chemicals is a complex problem in ecotoxicology and a challenge for risk assessors. The variables potentially influencing chemical fate and exposure define the exposure scenario while the variables determining <span class="hlt">effects</span> at the ecosystem level define the ecological scenario. In absence of any empirical data, the objective of this paper is to present simulations by a fugacity-based fate model and a differential equation-based ecosystem model to theoretically explore how <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> on invertebrate shallow pond communities vary with changing ecological and exposure scenarios. These simulations suggest that <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> are larger in mesotrophic systems than in oligotrophic systems. In both trophic states, interaction strength (quantified using grazing rates) was suggested a more important driver for the size and recovery from <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> than immigration rate. In general, weak interactions led to smaller <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>. For chemicals targeting mesozooplankton only, indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> were common in (simple) food-chains but rare in (complex) food-webs. For chemicals <span class="hlt">directly</span> affecting microzooplankton, the dominant zooplankton group in the modelled community, indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> occurred both in food-chains and food-webs. We conclude that the choice of the ecological and exposure scenarios in ecotoxicological modelling efforts needs to be justified because of its influence on the prevalence and magnitude of the predicted <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Overall, more work needs to be done to empirically test the theoretical expectations formulated here. PMID:25454235</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Laender, F; Morselli, M; Baveco, H; Van den Brink, P J; Di Guardo, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12269603"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and maternal genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> for ascites-related traits in broilers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities for ascites-related traits in broilers and to assess the importance of maternal genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> for these traits. Several traits related to ascites were measured on more than 4,000 broilers kept under cold conditions. Heritabilities were estimated using an animal model with a <span class="hlt">direct</span> genetic <span class="hlt">effect</span> and a model with <span class="hlt">direct</span> and maternal genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Estimated heritabilities from the <span class="hlt">direct</span> genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> model were 0.46 for hematocrit value, 0.42 for BW, 0.47 for right ventricular weight, 0.46 for total ventricular weight, 0.45 for ratio of right ventricular weight to the total ventricular weight, 0.32 for total mortality, and 0.18 for fluid accumulation in the heart sac. Maternal <span class="hlt">effects</span> significantly influenced the traits BW, total ventricular weight, and total mortality. <span class="hlt">Direct</span> and maternal heritabilities, respectively, for BW were 0.21 and 0.04, for total ventricular weights were 0.29 and 0.03, and for total mortality were 0.16 and 0.05. The heritability estimates for ascites-related traits and the significance of maternal genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> for most of these traits indicate that <span class="hlt">direct</span> and maternal genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> play an important role in the development of the ascites syndrome. PMID:12269603</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pakdel, A; Van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.499M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The potential for studying the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of microgravity on connective tissue by <span class="hlt">small</span> angle light scattering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to address the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of microgravity on living tissue, we must examine and understand tissue response on a molecular level. Doing so requires the development of quantitative techniques for characterizing tissue behavior on the micrometer scale under both normal and reduced gravitational fields. It has been demonstrated that <span class="hlt">small</span> angle light scattering holds great promise in this regard. <span class="hlt">Small</span> angle light scattering (SALS) has been used to probe tissue microstructure on the micron and sub-micron length scales. Quantitative information on feature geometry, dimension and orientation was obtained. Here, we discuss the application of <span class="hlt">small</span> angle light scattering techniques to the study of connective tissue. Two terrestrial situations relevant to future microgravity studies were considered: the anisotropic behavior of collagen fibers in rabbit tendon in response to increasing load; and, the variation in collagen structure in healthy and arthritic human cartilage. SALS allowed quantitative determination of both fiber diameter and degree of orientation, providing a level of information beyond that obtainable by light and electron microscopies. The primary advantages of SALS over these techniques lies in its quantitative nature and reduced sample preparation requirements. SALS requires neither vacuum or the use of dyes, eliminating important potential sources of artifacts. Results from these studies compare favorably with microscopy studies and demonstrate the importance of the quantitative nature of the technique. In addition, these results also demonstrate the potential of SALS for providing quantitative analysis of <span class="hlt">effects</span> of microgravity on structural and connective tissue.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McNamara, K.; Bellare, A.; Shortkroff, S.; Dahlgren, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4207569"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparing the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span>-particle versus large-particle inhaled corticosteroid in COPD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose <span class="hlt">Small</span> airway changes and dysfunction contribute importantly to airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is currently treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators at Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grades 2–4. This retrospective matched cohort analysis compared <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of a representative <span class="hlt">small</span>-particle ICS (extrafine beclomethasone) and larger-particle ICS (fluticasone) in primary care patients with COPD. Patients and methods Smokers and ex-smokers with COPD ?40 years old initiating or stepping-up their dose of extrafine beclomethasone or fluticasone were matched 1:1 for demographic characteristics, index prescription year, concomitant therapies, and disease severity during 1 baseline year. During 2 subsequent years, we evaluated treatment change and COPD exacerbations, defined as emergency care/hospitalization for COPD, acute oral corticosteroids, or antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection. Results Mean patient age was 67 years, 57%–60% being male. For both initiation (n=334:334) and step-up (n=189:189) patients, exacerbation rates were comparable between extrafine beclomethasone and fluticasone cohorts during the 2 year outcome period. Odds of treatment stability (no exacerbation or treatment change) were significantly greater for patients initiating extrafine beclomethasone compared with fluticasone (adjusted odds ratio 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.32–4.73). Median ICS dose exposure during 2 outcome years was significantly lower (P<0.001) for extrafine beclomethasone than fluticasone cohorts (315 ?g/day versus 436 ?g/day for initiation, 438 ?g/day versus 534 ?g/day for step-up patients). Conclusion We observed that <span class="hlt">small</span>-particle ICS at significantly lower doses had comparable <span class="hlt">effects</span> on exacerbation rates as larger-particle ICS at higher doses, whereas initiation of <span class="hlt">small</span>-particle ICS was associated with better odds of treatment stability during 2-years’ follow-up. PMID:25378918</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Postma, Dirkje S; Roche, Nicolas; Colice, Gene; Israel, Elliot; Martin, Richard J; van Aalderen, Willem MC; Grigg, Jonathan; Burden, Anne; Hillyer, Elizabeth V; von Ziegenweidt, Julie; Gopalan, Gokul; Price, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22405445"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of disturbance on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal community structure in the New Jersey Pinelands, USA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compared <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal community composition among undisturbed habitats and habitats disturbed by military operations on Warren Grove Gunnery Range (WGR) in the New Jersey Pinelands. WGR is one of the largest tracts of protected land within this globally rare ecosystem. Disturbance in the form of fire, mowing, soil disruption and logging has had a large <span class="hlt">effect</span> on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal occurrence and distribution. Of the 14 <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species that occur in the Pinelands, 9 live on WGR, including large populations of the southern bog lemming (Synaptomys cooperi Baird, 1858) and meadow jumping mouse [Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780)]. Simpson's Index of Diversity was 0 for most disturbed sites and was generally greater in wetlands than in uplands. White-footed mouse [Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque, 1818)] was the most common species on WGR and had a dominant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on species diversity and community similarity indices. It dominated upland habitats and was the only species to occur in several disturbed habitats, whereas all 9 species occurred in wetlands. Principal components analysis indicated that most variation in species diversity was explained by disturbance and differences between upland and wetland habitats, due to presence of white-footed mice in disturbed and upland sites. Meadow jumping mice, southern bog lemmings and red-back voles [Myodes gapperi (Vigors, 1830)] were positively correlated with wetland habitats, and pine voles [Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte, 1830)], short-tail shrews [Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1823)] and eastern chipmunks [Tamias striatus (Linnaeus, 1758)] were associated with uplands. Habitat heterogeneity at WGR, including extensive undisturbed wetlands and uplands supported a rich diversity of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species. PMID:22405445</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shenko, Alicia N; Bien, Walter F; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1939747"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of corticosterone on standard metabolic rates of <span class="hlt">small</span> passerine birds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Resting metabolic rates of Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) and pine siskins (Carduelis pinus) were evaluated at thermoneutral temperatures before and after administration of corticosterone (B) at physiological doses. There was no <span class="hlt">effect</span> of B on basal metabolic rate of either species, but nocturnal metabolic rate varied significantly less over the 3-h period of measurement in B-treated sparrows and siskins than in control birds. These results, coupled with observations of caged birds, suggest that corticosterone has no <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> on avian resting metabolism but does reduce the responsiveness of birds to external stimuli and thus promotes nocturnal restfulness. PMID:1939747</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buttemer, W A; Astheimer, L B; Wingfield, J C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PlST...15..852Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ion-Banana-Orbit-Width <span class="hlt">Effect</span> on Bootstrap Current for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Magnetic Islands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple and <span class="hlt">direct</span> theoretical method has been proposed to investigate the so-called ion-banana-orbit-width (IBW) <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the bootstrap current in the region of magnetic islands generated by the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM). The result shows that, when the IBW approaches the island width, the (ion) bootstrap current can be partly restored inside the island while the pressure profile is flattened. This can lead to the reduction of the bootstrap current drive on the NTM. The strength of the IBW <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the NTM is related to the safety factor and the inverse aspect ratio on the rational surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qu, Hongpeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.giss.nasa.gov/docs/2013/2013_Tsigaridis_etal_1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainties and importance of sea spray composition on aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uncertainties and importance of sea spray composition on aerosol <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> Kostas for model calculations. A recent overview of uncertainties in sea spray aerosol mass production fluxes, including the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of differ- ent sea spray aerosol source functions, was given in de Leeuw et al. [2011</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23958602"> <span id="translatedtitle">Viral hepatitis: Cost-<span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">direct</span>-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new study has reported the long-term <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and cost-<span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the <span class="hlt">direct</span>-acting antivirals telaprevir and boceprevir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. These findings have the potential to be used to guide clinical and reimbursement decisions for treating populations with a high prevalence of HCV infection. PMID:23958602</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sroczynski, Gaby; Siebert, Uwe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42427392"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of advertising on materialism of college students in China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we propose a theoretical framework through which we examine the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and the indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of advertising on college students’ materialistic attitudes in China. The framework is built on the influence-of-presumed-influence model, which allows us to examine how advertising and peer influence interact with each other and exert joint <span class="hlt">effects</span>. We conducted a survey of 210 undergraduate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ranxi Jiang; Stella C. Chia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=norton+AND+literature&pg=4&id=ED505551"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of BMI on wages and the indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=direct+AND+instruction&pg=2&id=EJ895096"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Instruction Model on Intermediate Class Achievement and Attitudes toward English Grammar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was aimed at investigating the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> instruction model on intermediate class achievement and attitudes toward English grammar. It was an experimental study and the purpose was to explore the relative <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of instructional methodology (independent variable) on students' achievement and attitude (dependent…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kousar, Rubina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tDCS&id=EJ948542"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Transcranial <span class="hlt">Direct</span> Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Behaviour and Electrophysiology of Language Production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Excitatory anodal transcranial <span class="hlt">direct</span> current stimulation (A-tDCS) over the left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) has been shown to improve language production. The present study examined neurophysiological underpinnings of this <span class="hlt">effect</span>. In a single-blinded within-subject design, we traced <span class="hlt">effects</span> of A-tDCS compared to sham stimulation over the left…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wirth, Miranka; Rahman, Rasha Abdel; Kuenecke, Janina; Koenig, Thomas; Horn, Helge; Sommer, Werner; Dierks, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029068"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term <span class="hlt">effects</span> of precommercial thinning on <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals in northern Maine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precommercial thinning (PCT) is being practiced increasingly throughout the Acadian forest of eastern North America to meet silvicultural objectives; however, <span class="hlt">effects</span> of this practice on wildlife, both immediately and several years post-treatment are not well understood. Forest dependent <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals have ecological roles as prey for numerous avian and mammalian predators, dispersers of seeds, fruit, and spores, and contribute to nutrient cycling. Researchers in the northwestern USA have suggested that thinning of young, regenerating clearcuts may increase the abundance and diversity of some forest-dependent <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals by increasing rates of forest development and enhancing the ecological representation of mid-successional stands across managed landscapes. We examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of PCT within conifer-dominated forest stands 1-, 6-, 11-, and 16-years post-treatment, on abundances of mice, voles, and shrews, and on within-stand structure in the commercially managed, Acadian forests of northern Maine. We live-trapped <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals on 24 herbicide-treated clearcuts treated with PCT and on 13 similar, unthinned stands during summers of 2000 and 2001. Thinning of mid-successional conifer stands resulted in increased abundances, (red-backed voles, Clethrionomys gapperi, P = 0.008; masked shrews, Sorex cinereus, P < 0.001) or had no detectable <span class="hlt">effect</span> on (deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, P = 0.544; short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, P = 0.517) the 4 most common species of Muridae and Soricidae in northern Maine. In general, abundance of deer mice responded more positively to increasing development class and to the number of years since thinning than other species of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals. Several within-stand habitat characteristics associated with stand maturity, such as larger stem diameters and a partially open canopy, occurred in thinned stands. Thus, PCT may accelerate the development of habitat attributes typical of mid-successional conifer stands in intensively managed stands within the Acadian Forest. PCT may increase abundances of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species associated with mid-seral forest conditions at the scale of the forest stand. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Homyack, J.A.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3158225"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of biological factors on extinction risk in fossil bivalves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biological factors, such as abundance and body size, may contribute <span class="hlt">directly</span> to extinction risk and indirectly through their influence on other biological characteristics, such as geographic range size. Paleontological data can be used to explicitly test many of these hypothesized relationships, and general patterns revealed through analysis of the fossil record can help refine predictive models of extinction risk developed for extant species. Here, I use structural equation modeling to tease apart the contributions of three canonical predictors of extinction—abundance, body size, and geographic range size—to the duration of bivalve species in the early Cenozoic marine fossil record of the eastern United States. I find that geographic range size has a strong <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> on extinction risk and that an apparent <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of abundance can be explained entirely by its covariation with geographic range. The influence of geographic range on extinction risk is manifest across three ecologically disparate bivalve clades. Body size also has strong <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on extinction risk but operates in opposing <span class="hlt">directions</span> in different clades, and thus, it seems to be decoupled from extinction risk in bivalves as a whole. Although abundance does not <span class="hlt">directly</span> predict extinction risk, I reveal weak indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of both abundance and body size through their positive influence on geographic range size. Multivariate models that account for the pervasive covariation between biological factors and extinction are necessary for assessing causality in evolutionary processes and making informed predictions in applied conservation efforts. PMID:21808004</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harnik, Paul G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24189420"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of diffusive <span class="hlt">direction</span> across the skin on the penetration profile of chemicals in vitro.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Skin has various types of transporters and is a biochemically active organ. These aspects of skin influence the distribution of chemicals in skin and their elimination from skin. The biochemical and histological variations of the skin must be taken into account when conducting transdermal penetration research. Here we used hairless mouse skin to investigate the percutaneous absorption of chemicals in vitro from the stratum corneum (SC) side to the viable skin (VS) side (forward <span class="hlt">direction</span>) and from the VS side to the SC side (backward <span class="hlt">direction</span>). We examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of molecular weight, lipophilicity (Log?K?o/w), electric charge, and the molecular structure of penetrants. The penetration flux of verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) for the backward <span class="hlt">direction</span> was 3.2 times larger than that for the forward <span class="hlt">direction</span>. The flux values of benzoic acid (BA) and para-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) for the forward <span class="hlt">direction</span> were 2.1 and 4.6 times larger than those for the backward <span class="hlt">direction</span>, respectively. This <span class="hlt">directional</span> difference was caused by the active transporter for VRP, the histological distribution of BA solubility, and the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between pHBA and skin tissue in the stripped skin. Across intact skin, in contrast, there was no difference in the skin penetration profile between the forward <span class="hlt">direction</span> and backward <span class="hlt">directions</span>. PMID:24189420</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morofuji, Ryo; Hikima, Tomohiro; Tojo, Kakuji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25620325"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule phenotypic <span class="hlt">effects</span> using mitochondrial morpho-functional fingerprinting and machine learning.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In primary fibroblasts from Leigh Syndrome (LS) patients, isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency is associated with increased reactive oxygen species levels and mitochondrial morpho-functional changes. Empirical evidence suggests these aberrations constitute linked therapeutic targets for <span class="hlt">small</span> chemical molecules. However, the latter generally induce multiple subtle <span class="hlt">effects</span>, meaning that in vitro potency analysis or single-parameter high-throughput cell screening are of limited use to identify these molecules. We combine automated image quantification and artificial intelligence to discriminate between primary fibroblasts of a healthy individual and a LS patient based upon their mitochondrial morpho-functional phenotype. We then evaluate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of newly developed Trolox variants in LS patient cells. This revealed that Trolox ornithylamide hydrochloride best counterbalanced mitochondrial morpho-functional aberrations, <span class="hlt">effectively</span> scavenged ROS and increased the maximal activity of mitochondrial complexes I, IV and citrate synthase. Our results suggest that Trolox-derived antioxidants are promising candidates in therapy development for human mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25620325</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blanchet, Lionel; Smeitink, Jan A M; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; Vogels, Caroline; Pellegrini, Mina; Jonckheere, An I; Rodenburg, Richard J T; Buydens, Lutgarde M C; Beyrath, Julien; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306129"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule phenotypic <span class="hlt">effects</span> using mitochondrial morpho-functional fingerprinting and machine learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In primary fibroblasts from Leigh Syndrome (LS) patients, isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency is associated with increased reactive oxygen species levels and mitochondrial morpho-functional changes. Empirical evidence suggests these aberrations constitute linked therapeutic targets for <span class="hlt">small</span> chemical molecules. However, the latter generally induce multiple subtle <span class="hlt">effects</span>, meaning that in vitro potency analysis or single-parameter high-throughput cell screening are of limited use to identify these molecules. We combine automated image quantification and artificial intelligence to discriminate between primary fibroblasts of a healthy individual and a LS patient based upon their mitochondrial morpho-functional phenotype. We then evaluate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of newly developed Trolox variants in LS patient cells. This revealed that Trolox ornithylamide hydrochloride best counterbalanced mitochondrial morpho-functional aberrations, <span class="hlt">effectively</span> scavenged ROS and increased the maximal activity of mitochondrial complexes I, IV and citrate synthase. Our results suggest that Trolox-derived antioxidants are promising candidates in therapy development for human mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25620325</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blanchet, Lionel; Smeitink, Jan A. M.; van Emst - de Vries, Sjenet E.; Vogels, Caroline; Pellegrini, Mina; Jonckheere, An I.; Rodenburg, Richard J. T.; Buydens, Lutgarde M. C.; Beyrath, Julien; Willems, Peter H. G. M.; Koopman, Werner J. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20204166"> <span id="translatedtitle">Looking the Other Way: The Role of Gaze <span class="hlt">Direction</span> in the Cross-race Memory <span class="hlt">Effect</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the most replicable findings reported in the social psychological literature is the cross-race memory <span class="hlt">effect</span>. We argue this <span class="hlt">effect</span> derives from higher-order interactions among social cues that determine the perceived relevance of a face to an observer. The current research tested this hypothesis by examining the combined influences of eye gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> and race on face memory. The physical subtlety of eye gaze belies its powerful influence on social perception, and in this case helps specify the relevance of same- versus other-race faces. We found that only in faces making <span class="hlt">direct</span> eye contact-not those displaying averted eye gaze-was the cross-race memory <span class="hlt">effect</span> evident. Likewise, only in same-race faces did <span class="hlt">direct</span> relative to averted gaze enhance face memory. These findings have implications for our general understanding of the combinatorial nature of social perception and help clarify the underlying cause of the cross-race memory <span class="hlt">effect</span>. PMID:20204166</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adams, Reginald B; Pauker, Kristin; Weisbuch, Max</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25371549"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complementary <span class="hlt">effects</span> of gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> and early saliency in guiding fixations during free viewing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> provides an important and ubiquitous communication channel in daily behavior and social interaction of humans and some animals. While several studies have addressed gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> in synthesized simple scenes, few have examined how it can bias observer attention and how it might interact with early saliency during free viewing of natural and realistic scenes. Experiment 1 used a controlled, staged setting in which an actor was asked to look at two different objects in turn, yielding two images that differed only by the actor's gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span>, to causally assess the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of actor gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span>. Over all scenes, the median probability of following an actor's gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> was higher than the median probability of looking toward the single most salient location, and higher than chance. Experiment 2 confirmed these findings over a larger set of unconstrained scenes collected from the Web and containing people looking at objects and/or other people. To further compare the strength of saliency versus gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> cues, we computed gaze maps by drawing a cone in the <span class="hlt">direction</span> of gaze of the actors present in the images. Gaze maps predicted observers' fixation locations significantly above chance, although below saliency. Finally, to gauge the relative importance of actor face and eye <span class="hlt">directions</span> in guiding observer's fixations, in Experiment 3, observers were asked to guess the gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> from only an actor's face region (with the rest of the scene masked), in two conditions: actor eyes visible or masked. Median probability of guessing the true gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> within ±9° was significantly higher when eyes were visible, suggesting that the eyes contribute significantly to gaze estimation, in addition to face region. Our results highlight that gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> is a strong attentional cue in guiding eye movements, complementing low-level saliency cues, and derived from both face and eyes of actors in the scene. Thus gaze <span class="hlt">direction</span> should be considered in constructing more predictive visual attention models in the future. PMID:25371549</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borji, Ali; Parks, Daniel; Itti, Laurent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPS...153...29Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the <span class="hlt">small</span> angle X-ray scattering study of sulfonated poly(etheretherketone) and Nafion membranes for <span class="hlt">direct</span> methanol fuel cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The microstructural evolution and swelling behaviors of sulfonated poly(etheretherketone) (SPEEK) and Nafion polymer membranes have been investigated by <span class="hlt">small</span> angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) after equilibrating them in 2 M methanol solution at various temperatures, which is relevant for their use in <span class="hlt">direct</span> methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The relationships among Bragg distance, sulfonation levels of the membrane, equilibrating temperature and transport properties are discussed. The proton conduction properties of the SPEEK and Nafion membranes have been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The network cluster model is employed to retrieve the structural information from the scattering and proton conductivity data. While the SPEEK membranes have narrower pathways for methanol/water permeation at T < 70 °C, the Nafion membranes have a wider channel even at lower temperatures, resulting in a higher methanol permeability in the latter. Based on the differences in the structural/cluster evolutions, the advantages and limitations of the two polymer membranes for use in DMFC are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, B.; Manthiram, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306256"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protective <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Sodium Nitroprusside on the Rat <span class="hlt">Small</span> Intestine Transplanted Mucosa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The intestinal mucosal epithelium is extremely susceptible to even brief periods of ischemia. Mucosal barrier damage, which is associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and consequently bacterial translocation, remains a major obstacle for clinically successful <span class="hlt">small</span> bowel transplantation (SBT). Previous studies have demonstrated a protective <span class="hlt">effect</span> of nitric oxide (NO) on other transplanted organs and NO mediated intestinal protection has also been reported in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), NO donor, on graft mucosal histology and molecular markers of function after SBT in rats. We used SNP in different period of heterotopic SBT rats. The groups consisted of SBT, pre-SNP group, and post-SNP group. Interestingly, the pre-SNP graft samples exhibited less damage compared to the SBT and post-SNP samples. In addition, mucosal samples from the pre-SNP group showed higher Na+-K+-ATPase activity and higher levels of laminin expression compared to the SBT and post-SNP samples. The findings of the present study reveal that SNP given before graft ischemia/reperfusion injury has a protective <span class="hlt">effect</span> on mucosal histology and molecular markers of function in the transplanted <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine. PMID:25650248</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yin, Lu; Yan, Zhao-Wen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25269556"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interband ? plasmon of graphene: strong <span class="hlt">small</span>-size and field-enhancement <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interband ? plasmon of graphene has energy corresponding to the ultraviolet (UV) wave band, and hence is promising for UV nanophotonics and nanooptoelectronics. However, its special size <span class="hlt">effect</span> and electric field-enhancement <span class="hlt">effect</span> have not been well understood. Here, we have investigated the far-field optical extinction and near-field enhancement features of the interband ? plasmon in a graphene nanodisk using discrete dipole approximation and finite-difference time-domain methods. Very interestingly, it has been found that the in-plane (transverse mode) optical extinction peak of monolayer graphene firstly significantly red shifts with increasing diameter, but then tends to a saturation value when the diameter is above 20 nm, showing a strong <span class="hlt">small</span>-size-sensitive <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Furthermore, the transverse mode optical extinction peak obviously blue shifts with increasing thickness when the thickness is relatively <span class="hlt">small</span>. Significantly, the corresponding local electric field enhancement factor produced by the plasmon, which can be found to be as large as several tens, firstly increases with the increase of the size and then reaches a maximum value at only several nanometers in size. Such an ultrasmall-size-sensitive plasmon in the UV region endows graphene dots with new promising potential uses in ultrasmall photo-electric devices and nanoantennas, and in UV enhancers. PMID:25269556</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Jinlian; Zeng, Haibo; Wang, Cong; Li, Zhigang; Kan, Caixia; Liu, Youwen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL1..293M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Spatial Resolution for <span class="hlt">Small</span> Landslide Susceptibility and Hazard Mapping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial resolution plays an important role in remote sensing technology as it defines the smallest scale at which surface features may be extracted, identified, and mapped. Remote sensing technology has become a vital component in recent developments for landslide susceptibility mapping. The spatial resolution is essential, especially when landslides are <span class="hlt">small</span> and the dimensions of slope failures vary. If the spatial resolution is relevant to the surface features found in the landslide morphology, it will help improve the extraction, identification and mapping of landslide surface features. Although, the spatial resolution is a well-known issue, few studies have demonstrated the potential <span class="hlt">effects</span> it may have on <span class="hlt">small</span> landslide susceptibility mapping. For these reasons, an evaluation to assess the impact of spatial resolution was performed using data acquired along a transportation corridor in Zanesville, Ohio. Using a landslide susceptibility mapping algorithm, landslide surface features were extracted and identified on a cell-by-cell basis from Digital Elevation Models (DEM) generated at 50, 100, 200 and 400 cm spatial resolution. The performance of the landslide surface feature extraction algorithm was then evaluated using an inventory map and a confusion matrix to assess the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of spatial resolution. In addition to assessing the performance of the algorithm, we statistically analyzed the surface features and their relevant patterns. The results from this evaluation reveal patterns caused by the varying spatial resolution. From this study we can conclude that the spatial resolution has an <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the accuracy and surface features extracted for <span class="hlt">small</span> landslide susceptibility mapping, as the performance is dependent on the scale of the landslide morphology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mora, O. E.; Lenzano, M. G.; Toth, C. K.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25590370"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antispasmodic <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Myrrh due to Calcium Antagonistic <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in Inflamed Rat <span class="hlt">Small</span> Intestinal Preparations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myrrh is the oleo-gum resin of mainly Commiphora molmol and as a powdered substance, one compound in the traditional medicinal product Myrrhinil-Intest®, which has been used for the treatment of unspecific, inflammatory intestinal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antispasmodic <span class="hlt">effect</span> of myrrh under healthy and inflamed conditions, and to evaluate a calcium-antagonistic <span class="hlt">effect</span> as a possible mode of action. Therefore, an ethanolic myrrh extract was tested for its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on muscle tone and acetylcholine-induced contractions in untreated and inflamed rat ileum/jejunum preparations. Inflammation was experimentally induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (10?mM, 30?min). Additionally, the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the calcium channel agonist Bay K8644 in the presence of varying myrrh extract concentrations was examined. Myrrh extract (0.99?mg/mL) suppressed the acetylcholine-induced contraction down to 25.8?% in untreated and 15.2?% in inflamed preparations. Myrrh extract (0.15; 0.25 and 0.35?mg/mL) induced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the Bay K8644 concentration-response curve in untreated and inflamed preparations with a significant EC50 shift. Schild analysis resulted in a pA2 value of 0.93 for untreated preparations. Increasing myrrh extract concentrations induced a concentration-dependent decrease of the agonistic maximum <span class="hlt">effect</span> in untreated and inflamed preparations down to 15.8?% and 25.8?%, respectively, for the highest concentration leading to a pD2 value of 0.58. Myrrh extract reduced intestinal muscle tone and acetylcholine-induced contraction of untreated and inflamed ileum/jejunum preparations based on dual calcium antagonism characterized by a right shift of the agonistic dose-response curve and a depression of the maximum <span class="hlt">effect</span>. The resulting reduction of intestinal motility and spasmolytic <span class="hlt">effects</span> provide a rationale for the symptom treatment of intestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:25590370</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vissiennon, Cica; Goos, Karl-Heinz; Goos, Ole; Nieber, Karen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25039213"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of warming on aphids, their predators, and ant mutualists.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Species exist within communities of other interacting species, so an exogenous force that <span class="hlt">directly</span> affects one species can indirectly affect all other members of the community. In the case of climate change, many species may be affected <span class="hlt">directly</span> and subsequently initiate numerous indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> that propagate throughout the community. Therefore, the net <span class="hlt">effect</span> of climate change on any one species is a function of the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>. We investigated the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of climate warming on corn leaf aphids, a pest of corn and other grasses, by performing an experimental manipulation of temperature, predators, and two common aphid-tending ants. Although warming had a positive <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> on aphid population growth rate, warming reduced aphid abundance when ants and predators were present. This occurred because winter ants, which aggressively defend aphids from predators under control temperatures, were less aggressive toward predators and less abundant when temperatures were increased. In contrast, warming increased the abundance of cornfield ants, but they did not protect aphids from predators with the same vigor as winter ants. Thus, warming broke down the ant-aphid mutualism and counterintuitively reduced the abundance of this agricultural pest. PMID:25039213</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barton, Brandon T; Ives, Anthony R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JThSc..22...92K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of a curved duct upstream on performance of <span class="hlt">small</span> centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since the automobile turbochargers are installed in an engine compartment with limited space, the ducts upstream of the turbocharger compressor may be curved in a complex manner. In the present paper, the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a curved duct upstream on performance of <span class="hlt">small</span> centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers is discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a turbocharger compressor validated for the compressor model with the straight pipe applied to the compressor with the curved pipe are executed, and the deterioration of the performance for the curved pipe is confirmed. It is also found that the deterioration of compressor performance is caused by the interaction of the secondary flow and the impeller.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kikuchi, Shigeta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002MMTA...33.2667T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of au plating on <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale resistance spot welding of thin-sheet nickel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of Au plating on joint formation and joint strength in <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets have been investigated using tensile-shear testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the mechanisms of the joint formation during the welding of Au-plated Ni sheets involve solid-state bonding, brazing, and fusion welding. The comparison between SSRSW of Au-plated Ni and bare Ni sheets and large-scale resistance spot welding (LSRSW) of Zn-coated steels is also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tan, W.; Zhou, Y.; Kerr, H. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800065213&hterms=Solid-state+Physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2522Solid-state%2BPhysics%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of three-body interactions on the structure of <span class="hlt">small</span> clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Minimum energy configurations of microclusters (up to six atoms) have been calculated using two- and three-body interactions. Structural changes were parametrically analyzed as a function of the intensity of three-body forces. The results are qualitative in nature; they indicate, however, that three-body interactions play an important role in the equilibrium structure of microclusters. The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the intensity of the three-body interactions on the structure of <span class="hlt">small</span> clusters is not manifested in a continuous manner. Rather, changes in the energetically most stable structure occur abruptly. The results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations as well as other calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Halicioglu, T.; White, P. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22595954"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical analysis of cooperative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule activation by frustrated Lewis pairs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The energy profiles of the activation reaction of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules (H(2), Br(2) and CO(2)) with boron/phosphorus frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) have been calculated with dispersion corrected DFT (TPSS-D3). We have investigated the cooperative nature of the reactions by analyzing interaction energies in the ternary system and for reactant pairs. The non-additive contributions to the total interaction energy add to the driving force of the activation reaction, even at early stages of the process. We propose the isosurface representation of the many-body deformation density ??(mb) as a qualitative tool to visualize cooperative, non-additive <span class="hlt">effects</span> in complex chemical systems. PMID:22595954</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mück-Lichtenfeld, Christian; Grimme, Stefan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23556965"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of time delay on the stochastic resonance in <span class="hlt">small</span>-world neuronal networks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of time delay on stochastic resonance in <span class="hlt">small</span>-world neuronal networks are investigated. Without delay, an intermediate intensity of additive noise is able to optimize the temporal response of the neural system to the subthreshold periodic signal imposed on all neurons constituting the network. The time delay in the coupling process can either enhance or destroy stochastic resonance of neuronal activity in the <span class="hlt">small</span>-world network. In particular, appropriately tuned delays can induce multiple stochastic resonances, which appear intermittently at integer multiples of the oscillation period of weak external forcing. It is found that the delay-induced multiple stochastic resonances are most efficient when the forcing frequency is close to the global-resonance frequency of each individual neuron. Furthermore, the impact of time delay on stochastic resonance is largely independent of the <span class="hlt">small</span>-world topology, except for resonance peaks. Considering that information transmission delays are inevitable in intra- and inter-neuronal communication, the presented results could have important implications for the weak signal detection and information propagation in neural systems. PMID:23556965</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Du, Jiwei; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Liu, Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25499616"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fencing and mowing as <span class="hlt">effective</span> methods for reducing tick abundance on very <span class="hlt">small</span>, infested plots.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) transmits a large variety of pathogens to humans and is therefore a matter of concern for public health. Different strategies for reducing the risk of tick bite, and thus of infection, have been developed and vary according to the kind of exposure (occupational, recreational, peridomestic). The present study (carried out in an endemic region for both Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis) aimed to assess the efficacy of two simple and cheap interventions for reducing I. ricinus abundance around residential properties surrounded by wooded areas. The immediate impact of exclosures (host-targeted control methods) and mowing (vegetation management) on very <span class="hlt">small</span> surfaces (<1ha) were evaluated both alone and in combination. Results suggest that fencing (even if applied on very <span class="hlt">small</span> surfaces), by preventing the entrance of tick reproductive hosts, can decrease the abundance of parasites in a short time, and that mowing can contribute to reach the goal. This control method could be of great value in <span class="hlt">small</span> portions of heavily infested areas that have to be kept tick-free to reduce the risk of peridomestic exposure or to permit their recreational use (e.g. picnic areas within natural parks). Benefits appear even greater when considering that these interventions are environmental safe, cheap, technically simple and <span class="hlt">effective</span> even in close proximity to heavy infested woodlands. PMID:25499616</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Del Fabbro, Simone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.4440H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> discharge in <span class="hlt">small</span> formerly glaciated mountain streams of British Columbia: Limitations and implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">sediment supply, past glaciation, and slow responses to disturbance make <span class="hlt">small</span> mountain streams transitional alluvial regimes in which nonequilibrium conditions are common. Bed load <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge in these streams is on average a low-magnitude, high-frequency event, but is highly variable. Using a two-phase sediment transport model and long-term discharge records, we distinguish between three types of streams; streams in which gravel (sediment > 8 mm diameter) moves frequently and <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge occurs during gravel transport (Frequently Mobile Gravel (FMG)), streams in which gravel moves infrequently but <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge nonetheless occurs during gravel transport (Infrequently Mobile Gravel (IMG)), and streams in which sand (sediment < 8 mm diameter) moves over largely immobile gravel and <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge occurs frequently during sand-phase transport (Sand over Immobile Gravel (SG)). Using only <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge frequency or magnitude to characterize a stream, without information on mobile sediment type, is insufficient to distinguish between FMG and SG streams. Only the IMG streams have large, rare <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharges that approximate the bankfull discharge; in FMG and SG streams the <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge is much more frequent and smaller than the bankfull. Only in the IMG streams does the <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge approximate a channel-forming discharge. In FMG and SG streams, the <span class="hlt">effective</span> discharge bears little relation to the size or dimensions of the channel and is at best a channel-maintaining flow; at worst it is geomorphically meaningless. <span class="hlt">Effective</span> discharge should not therefore be used in isolation as a proxy for channel-forming discharge for mountain stream channel design or management.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hassan, Marwan A.; Brayshaw, Drew; Alila, Younes; Andrews, Edmund</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37025596"> <span id="translatedtitle">The soothing <span class="hlt">effect</span> of rocking as determined by the <span class="hlt">direction</span> and frequency of movement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent research has revealed that rocking is a potent soother of infant distress, the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of which is a <span class="hlt">direct</span> function of frequency and amplitude. The present 2 experiments with a total of 112 2-mo-old infants were conducted because previous studies have not examined the influence of <span class="hlt">direction</span> per se. In Exp I, Ss were rocked in an up-and-down, side-to-side,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David R. Pederson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25124528"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cost-<span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of using <span class="hlt">small</span> vertebrates as indicators of disturbance.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In species-rich tropical forests, <span class="hlt">effective</span> biodiversity management demands measures of progress, yet budgetary limitations typically constrain capacity of decision makers to assess response of biological communities to habitat change. One approach is to identify ecological-disturbance indicator species (EDIS) whose monitoring is also monetarily cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span>. These species can be identified by determining individual species' responses to disturbance across a gradient; however, such responses may be confounded by factors other than disturbance. For example, in mountain environments the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of anthropogenic habitat alteration are commonly confounded by elevation. EDIS have been identified with the indicator value (IndVal) metric, but there are weaknesses in the application of this approach in complex montane systems. We surveyed birds, <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals, bats, and leaf-litter lizards in differentially disturbed cloud forest of the Ecuadorian Andes. We then incorporated elevation in generalized linear (mixed) models (GL(M)M) to screen for EDIS in the data set. Finally, we used rarefaction of species accumulation data to compare relative monetary costs of identifying and monitoring EDIS at equal sampling effort, based on species richness. Our GL(M)M generated greater numbers of EDIS but fewer characteristic species relative to IndVal. In absolute terms birds were the most cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> of the 4 taxa surveyed. We found one low-cost bird EDIS. In terms of the number of indicators generated as a proportion of species richness, EDIS of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals were the most cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span>. Our approach has the potential to be a useful tool for facilitating more sustainable management of Andean forest systems. PMID:25124528</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peck, Mika Robert; Maddock, Simon T; Morales, Jorge Noe; Oñate, Hugolino; Mafla-Endara, Paola; Peñafiel, Vanessa Aguirre; Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Pozo-Rivera, Wilmer E; Cueva-Arroyo, Xavier A; Tolhurst, Bryony A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4097624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synergistic <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin and Beta Toxin in Rabbit <span class="hlt">Small</span> Intestinal Loops</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability of Clostridium perfringens type C to cause human enteritis necroticans (EN) is attributed to beta toxin (CPB). However, many EN strains also express C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), suggesting that CPE could be another contributor to EN. Supporting this possibility, lysate supernatants from modified Duncan-Strong sporulation (MDS) medium cultures of three CPE-positive type C EN strains caused enteropathogenic <span class="hlt">effects</span> in rabbit <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal loops, which is significant since CPE is produced only during sporulation and since C. perfringens can sporulate in the intestines. Consequently, CPE and CPB contributions to the enteropathogenic <span class="hlt">effects</span> of MDS lysate supernatants of CPE-positive type C EN strain CN3758 were evaluated using isogenic cpb and cpe null mutants. While supernatants of wild-type CN3758 MDS lysates induced significant hemorrhagic lesions and luminal fluid accumulation, MDS lysate supernatants of the cpb and cpe mutants caused neither significant damage nor fluid accumulation. This attenuation was attributable to inactivating these toxin genes since complementing the cpe mutant or reversing the cpb mutation restored the enteropathogenic <span class="hlt">effects</span> of MDS lysate supernatants. Confirming that both CPB and CPE are needed for the enteropathogenic <span class="hlt">effects</span> of CN3758 MDS lysate supernatants, purified CPB and CPE at the same concentrations found in CN3758 MDS lysates also acted together synergistically in rabbit <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal loops; however, only higher doses of either purified toxin independently caused enteropathogenic <span class="hlt">effects</span>. These findings provide the first evidence for potential synergistic toxin interactions during C. perfringens intestinal infections and support a possible role for CPE, as well as CPB, in some EN cases. PMID:24778117</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ma, Menglin; Gurjar, Abhijit; Theoret, James R.; Garcia, Jorge P.; Beingesser, Juliann; Freedman, John C.; Fisher, Derek J.; McClane, Bruce A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2816985"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of treatment planning variables in <span class="hlt">small</span> animal radiotherapy dose distributions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Methods used for <span class="hlt">small</span> animal radiation treatment have yet to achieve the same dose targeting as in clinical radiation therapy. Toward understanding how to better plan <span class="hlt">small</span> animal radiation using a system recently developed for this purpose, the authors characterized dose distributions produced from conformal radiotherapy of <span class="hlt">small</span> animals in a microCT scanner equipped with a variable-aperture collimator. Methods: Dose distributions delivered to a cylindrical solid water phantom were simulated using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Phase-space files for 120 kVp x-ray beams and collimator widths of 1–10 mm at isocenter were generated using BEAMnrc software, and dose distributions for evenly spaced beams numbered from 5 to 80 were generated in DOSXYZnrc for a variety of targets, including centered spherical targets in a range of sizes, spherical targets offset from centered by various distances, and various ellipsoidal targets. Dose distributions were analyzed using dose volume histograms. The dose delivered to a mouse bearing a spontaneous lung tumor was also simulated, and dose volume histograms were generated for the tumor, heart, left lung, right lung, and spinal cord. Results: Results indicated that for centered, symmetric targets, the number of beams required to achieve a smooth dose volume histogram decreased with increased target size. Dose distributions for noncentered, symmetric targets did not exhibit any significant loss of conformality with increasing offset from the phantom center, indicating sufficient beam penetration through the phantom for targeting superficial targets from all angles. Even with variable collimator widths, targeting of asymmetric targets was found to have less conformality than that of spherical targets. Irradiation of a mouse lung tumor with multiple beam widths was found to <span class="hlt">effectively</span> deliver dose to the tumor volume while minimizing dose to other critical structures. Conclusions: Overall, this method of generating and analyzing dose distributions provides a quantitative method for developing practical guidelines for <span class="hlt">small</span> animal radiotherapy treatment planning. Future work should address methods to improve conformality in asymmetric targets. PMID:20229867</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Motomura, Amy R.; Bazalova, Magdalena; Zhou, Hu; Keall, Paul J.; Graves, Edward E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-25/pdf/2011-7135.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 16703 - <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an <span class="hlt">Effect</span> on Government Contracting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...and exceed their <span class="hlt">small</span> business contracting goals. Accordingly, SBA will conduct a <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Jobs Act Tour that will...subcategories of <span class="hlt">small</span> business concerns * * * (2...title 10, United States Code, and section...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15599726"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">directional</span> compatibility on the response latencies of ocular and manual movements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Visuomotor coordination is essential for the successful performance of everyday activities, and it could be affected by the <span class="hlt">directional</span> compatibility between ocular and manual movements. Many tasks, such as driving or operating devices in the workplace, require a variety of coordination patterns with different levels of compatibility between the eyes and the hand. For example, the movement of the eyes and the arm can be coupled when both effectors point towards the same <span class="hlt">direction</span> whereas in other tasks the movement of the eyes and the arm can be dissociated, for instance when a peripheral object is foveated while a button press response is executed concurrently. The objective of this study was to examine the latency of ocular and manual movements in tasks characterized by variations in <span class="hlt">directional</span> compatibility. Four tasks were used to manipulate compatibility: 1. point and look at a peripheral stimulus (POINT AND LOOK)--high <span class="hlt">directional</span> compatibility; 2. point to a peripheral stimulus while fixating in the center (POINT AND FIXATE)--low <span class="hlt">directional</span> compatibility; 3. press a button while looking at a peripheral stimulus (PRESS AND LOOK)--low <span class="hlt">directional</span> compatibility; and 4. press a button while fixating in the center (PRESS AND FIXATE)--no <span class="hlt">directional</span> motor requirement. We hypothesized that the latency of (1) manual and (2) ocular responses would be faster in the task with high <span class="hlt">directional</span> compatibility compared with the tasks with low compatibility or the task with no <span class="hlt">directional</span> motor component. Ten healthy participants executed pointing and pressing movements with and without concurrent eye movement to randomly presented visual stimuli. In agreement with the first hypothesis, results showed that in a task with high <span class="hlt">directional</span> compatibility, manual responses were initiated significantly faster when compared with the tasks with low compatibility or a task with no <span class="hlt">directional</span> motor component: 1. pointing while looking was initiated 22 ms faster on average than pointing while fixating; 2. pointing while looking was initiated 91 ms faster than pressing accompanied by an eye movement; and 3. pointing while looking was initiated 102 ms faster than pressing while fixating. The second hypothesis was partially supported by data which showed that eye movements <span class="hlt">directed</span> toward peripheral stimuli were initiated significantly more slowly (30 ms on average) when accompanied by pressing in comparison with the latency of eye movements in the high-compatibility task. In contrast with the hypothesis, eye movements that were accompanied by pointing were not initiated faster than those in a task which required looking without pointing. In summary, these data suggest that <span class="hlt">directional</span> compatibility is an important aspect of motor control. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">directional</span> compatibility are discussed in a conceptual framework that considers the neurophysiological substrates that might be involved in mediating these <span class="hlt">effects</span>. PMID:15599726</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niechwiej-Szwedo, E; McIlroy, W E; Green, R; Verrier, M C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2034011"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of a human <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer cell line resistant to the DNA topoisomerase I-<span class="hlt">directed</span> drug topotecan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Camptothecins are DNA topoisomerase I-<span class="hlt">directed</span> anti-tumour drugs with a novel mechanism of action. Topotecan (TPT), a hydrophilic derivative of camptothecin, is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials in <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Human SCLC OC-NYH cells were made more than 6-fold resistant to topotecan by stepwise drug exposure and resistance was stable for 70 passages without drug. NYH/TPT cells had half the topoisomerase I level and activity of wild-type cells. However, no difference in camptothecin or topotecan inhibition of topoisomerase I-mediated DNA relaxation was found, indicating that the enzyme itself was unchanged in the resistant cell. In NYH/TPT cells, topoisomerase II alpha and beta levels were increased approximately 2-fold. Accordingly, the topoisomerase II-<span class="hlt">directed</span> drug etoposide (VP-16) induced an increased number of DNA single-strand breaks in NYH/TPT cells. However, sensitivity to different topoisomerase II-targeting agents in NYH/TPT cells varied from increased to decreased, indicating a role for as yet unidentified factors acting on the pathway to cell death after topoisomerase II-induced DNA damage has occurred. Of 20 anti-cancer agents tested, only hydroxyurea showed marked collateral hypersensitivity in NYH/TPT cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7640225</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sorensen, M.; Sehested, M.; Jensen, P. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49450937"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of the structure of imidazolium cations in [BF 4] ?-type ionic liquids on <span class="hlt">direct</span> electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase in Nafion films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in Nafion films at glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was investigated in three [BF4]?-type room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) to understand the structural <span class="hlt">effect</span> of imidazolium cations. The three ILs are 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Emim][BF4]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]) and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Hmim][BF4]). A <span class="hlt">small</span> amount of water in the three ILs is indispensable for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu Lu; Xirong Huang; Yinbo Qu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/20000976"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> Observation of Channel-Doping-Dependent Reverse Short Channel <span class="hlt">Effect</span> Using Decoupled CV Technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A non-destructive high resolution ``Decoupled C-V Technique'' for <span class="hlt">small</span> geometry devices has been developed and demonstrated to successfully extract the intrinsic channel capacitance of submicron metal-oxide-semiconductor field <span class="hlt">effect</span> transistors (MOSFET's). The <span class="hlt">effective</span> channel doping concentration calculated from the extracted intrinsic gate capacitance presents an obvious dopant concentration enhancement in the intrinsic channel region of submicron devices compared to that of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jyh-Chyurn Guo; Charles Ching-Hsiang Hsu; Steve Shao-Shiun Chung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.4537P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global modelling of <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of sea spray aerosol using a source function encapsulating wave state</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently developed parameterizations for the sea spray aerosol source flux, encapsulating wave state, and its organic fraction were incorporated into the aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ to investigate the <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of sea spray aerosol particles. Our simulated global sea salt emission of 805 Tg yr-1 (uncertainty range 378-1233 Tg yr-1) was much lower than typically found in previous studies. Modelled sea salt and sodium ion concentrations agreed relatively well with measurements in the smaller size ranges at Mace Head (annual normalized mean model bias -13% for particles with vacuum aerodynamic diameter Dva < 1 ?m), Point Reyes (-29% for particles with aerodynamic diameter Da < 2.5 ?m) and Amsterdam Island (-52% for particles with Da < 1 ?m) but the larger sizes were overestimated (899% for particles with 2.5 ?m <Da < 10 ?m) in Amsterdam Island. This suggests that at least the high end of the previous estimates of sea spray mass emissions is unrealistic. On the other hand, the model clearly underestimated the observed concentrations of organic or total carbonaceous aerosol at Mace Head (-82%) and Amsterdam Island (-68%). The large overestimation (212%) of organic matter at Point Reyes was due to the contribution of continental sources. At the remote Amsterdam Island site, the organic concentration was underestimated especially in the biologically active months, suggesting a need to improve the parameterization of the organic sea spray fraction. Globally, the satellite-retrieved AOD over the oceans, using PARASOL data, was underestimated by the model (means over ocean 0.16 and 0.10, respectively); however, in the pristine region around Amsterdam Island the measured AOD fell well within the simulated uncertainty range. The simulated sea spray aerosol contribution to the indirect radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> was positive (0.3 W m-2), in contrast to previous studies. This positive <span class="hlt">effect</span> was ascribed to the tendency of sea salt aerosol to suppress both the in-cloud supersaturation and the formation of cloud condensation nuclei from sulphate. These <span class="hlt">effects</span> can be accounted for only in models with sufficiently detailed aerosol microphysics and physics-based parameterizations of cloud activation. However, due to a strong negative <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span>, the simulated <span class="hlt">effective</span> radiative forcing (total radiative) <span class="hlt">effect</span> was -0.2 W m-2. The simulated radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the primary marine organic emissions were <span class="hlt">small</span>, with a~<span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of 0.03 W m-2 and an indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> of -0.07 W m-2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Partanen, A.-I.; Dunne, E. M.; Bergman, T.; Laakso, A.; Kokkola, H.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Sogacheva, L.; Baisnée, D.; Sciare, J.; Manders, A.; O'Dowd, C.; de Leeuw, G.; Korhonen, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22351645"> <span id="translatedtitle">A generalized weighting regression-derived meta-analysis estimator robust to <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> and heterogeneity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heterogeneity and <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> are major concerns for the validity of meta-analysis. Although random <span class="hlt">effects</span> meta-analysis provides a partial solution to heterogeneity, neither takes into account the presence of <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span>, although they can rarely be ruled out with certainty. In this paper, we facilitate a better understanding of the properties of a recently described regression-based approach to deriving a meta-analysis estimator robust to <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> and unexplainable heterogeneity. The weightings of studies in the meta-analysis are derived algebraically for the regression model and compared with the weightings allocated to studies by fixed and random <span class="hlt">effects</span> models. These weightings are compared in case studies with and without <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The presence of <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span> causes pooled estimates from fixed and random <span class="hlt">effects</span> meta-analyses to differ, potentially markedly, as a result of the different weights allocated to individual studies. Because random <span class="hlt">effects</span> meta-analysis gives more weight to smaller studies, it becomes more vulnerable to the <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The regression approach gives heavier weight to the larger studies than either the fixed or random <span class="hlt">effects</span> models, leading to its dominance in the estimated pooled <span class="hlt">effect</span>. The weighting properties of the proposed regression-derived meta-analysis estimator are presented and compared with those of the standard meta-analytic estimators. We propose that there is much to recommend the routine use of this model as a reliable way to derive a pooled meta-analysis estimate that is robust to potential <span class="hlt">small</span>-study <span class="hlt">effects</span>, while still accommodating heterogeneity, even though uncertainty will often be considerably larger than for standard estimators. PMID:22351645</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moreno, Santiago G; Sutton, Alex J; Thompson, John R; Ades, A E; Abrams, Keith R; Cooper, Nicola J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315224"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Small</span> RNA Destruction by the Expression of a Short Tandem Target Mimic in Arabidopsis[C][W</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other endogenous <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs act as sequence-specific regulators of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome in eukaryotes. The interrogation of <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA functions requires an <span class="hlt">effective</span>, widely applicable method to specifically block <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA function. Here, we report the development of a highly <span class="hlt">effective</span> technology that targets specific endogenous miRNAs or <span class="hlt">small</span> interfering RNAs for destruction in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that the expression of a short tandem target mimic (STTM), which is composed of two short sequences mimicking <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA target sites, separated by a linker of an empirically determined optimal size, leads to the degradation of targeted <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs by <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA degrading nucleases. The efficacy of the technology was demonstrated by the strong and specific developmental defects triggered by STTMs targeting three miRNAs and an endogenous siRNA. In summary, we developed an <span class="hlt">effective</span> approach for the destruction of endogenous <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs, thereby providing a powerful tool for functional genomics of <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA molecules in plants and potentially animals. PMID:22345490</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yan, Jun; Gu, Yiyou; Jia, Xiaoyun; Kang, Wenjun; Pan, Shangjin; Tang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xuemei; Tang, Guiliang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1262120"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> release on force during sarcomere-isometric tetani in frog muscle fibers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">small</span> shortening imposed on frog muscle fibers during sarcomere-isometric tetani. Sarcomere length was initially kept constant, then slightly shortened (1%-5% of initial length) and clamped again for the remainder of the tetanus. Force level after the shortening was higher than the force level preceding the release. The size of the increase was larger than that predicted by the descending limb of the linear force-length relation. The difference between measured and predicted force levels increased with sarcomere length. At a sarcomere length of 3.2 microns, the force level after the shortening was higher by 50% than the force level expected from the linear descending limb. Dispersion of sarcomere-length within the sampled region was measured by two independent methods: striation imaging and analysis of the intensity profile of the first diffraction order. Sarcomere-length inhomogeneity in the sampled region was too <span class="hlt">small</span> (standard deviation from the average sarcomere-length was +/- 0.03 microns) to account for the size of the increase in force. We studied the dependence of increase in tetanic force level after <span class="hlt">small</span> sarcomere-length release on the size, velocity and timing of the release, as well as on initial sarcomere-length. Release size was the major determinant of the amount of increase in force. Release of 20 nm per half sarcomere was sufficient to produce an almost full force increase. Larger releases increased the force only moderately. Over the range studied, release velocity and timing had little or no <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:1420874</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horowitz, A; Wussling, H P; Pollack, G H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22941923"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of temporally varying inlet conditions on flow and particle deposition in the <span class="hlt">small</span> bronchial tubes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The laminar flow in the <span class="hlt">small</span> bronchial tubes is quite complex because of the presence of vortex-dominated, secondary flows. Factors contributing to this complexity are the unsteady nature of the inhale-exhale breathing cycle and the geometrical characteristics of the bronchial tubes. To investigate unsteady <span class="hlt">effects</span> on flows and particle transport, unsteady inhalation flows at a 30-respiration-per-minute frequency, corresponding to a moderate activity level, were simulated for a three-generation, asymmetric, planar bronchial tube model. Ten-micron diameter water droplets were introduced at the inlet at different times during inhalation to develop particle destination maps. The differences in the flow fields and destination maps obtained at the unsteady peak flow and the comparable steady-state inflow condition were minimal. However, particles released at equivalent instantaneous off-peak inflow conditions produced different destination maps. The differences were attributed to the temporal variations of the fluid velocities and history <span class="hlt">effects</span>. PMID:22941923</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soni, Bela; Thompson, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7192009"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of raw legume diets on disaccharidase activity in the <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine of chicks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of four raw legume diets: field beans (Vicia faba) (RFB), navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (RNB), soybeans (Glycine soja) (RSB) and bitter vetch (VICIA ervilia) (RBV), on disaccharidase activities in chick <span class="hlt">small</span> intestine have been studied. Maltase and sucrase activities, which vary with age, were determined in 1 to 60 day old animals, RFB and RBV diets had no <span class="hlt">effect</span> on maltase activity and only increased sucrase activity in 60 day old chicks. Both maltase and sucrase activities decreased in chicks on RSB diet, regardless of their age, and the decrease was even more pronounced in chicks on RNB diet. Contrarywise, chicks fed on autoclaved navy beans and soybeans showed a considerably higher activity of these disaccharidases. PMID:7192009</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lasheras, B; Cenarruzabeitia, M N; Fontán, J; Lluch, M; Larralde, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20728645"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of corruption on motor vehicle crash deaths.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent empirical research has found that there is an inverted U-shaped or Kuznets relationship between income and motor vehicle crash (MVC) deaths, such that MVC deaths increase as national income increases and decrease after reaching a critical level. Corruption has been identified as one of the underlying factors that could affect this relationship, primarily by undermining institutional development and <span class="hlt">effective</span> enforcement schemes. The total <span class="hlt">effect</span> of corruption can be decomposed into two components, a <span class="hlt">direct</span> and an indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span>. The <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> measures the immediate impact of corruption on MVC deaths by undermining <span class="hlt">effective</span> enforcement and regulations, while the indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> captures the impact of corruption on hindering increases in per capita income and the consequent impact of reduced income on MVC deaths. By influencing economic growth, corruption can lead to an increase or decrease in MVC deaths depending on the income level. Using data from 60 countries between 1982 and 2003, these <span class="hlt">effects</span> are estimated using linear panel and fixed <span class="hlt">effects</span> negative binomial models. The estimation results suggest that corruption has different <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> for less developed and highly developed countries. It has a negative (decreasing) <span class="hlt">effect</span> on MVC deaths for less developed countries and a positive (increasing) <span class="hlt">effect</span> on MVC deaths for highly developed countries. For highly developed countries, the total <span class="hlt">effect</span> is positive at lower per capita income levels, but decreases with per capita income and becomes negative at per capita income levels of about US$ 38,248. For less developed countries, the total <span class="hlt">effect</span> is negative within the sample range and decreases with increased per capita income. In summary, the results of this study suggest that reduction of corruption is likely a necessary condition to <span class="hlt">effectively</span> tackle road safety problems. PMID:20728645</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hua, Law Teik; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031552&hterms=pearson&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpearson"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Variable End of Charge Battery Management on <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Cell Batteries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSL Space Products is the world leading supplier of Lithium-ion batteries for space applications and has pioneered the use of <span class="hlt">small</span> capacity COTS cells within large arrays. This <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell approach has provided many benefits to space application designers through increased flexibility and reliability over more traditional battery designs. The ABSL 18650HC cell has been used in most ABSL space battery applications to date and has a recommended End Of Charge Voltage (EOCV) of 4.2V per cell. For all space applications using the ABSL 18650HC so far, this EOCV has been used at all stages of battery life from ground checkout to in orbit operations. ABSL and NASA have identified that, by using a lower EOCV for the same equivalent Depth Of Discharge (DOD), battery capacity fade could be reduced. The intention of this paper is to compare battery performance for systems with fixed and variable EOCV. In particular, the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of employing the blanket value of 4.2V per cell versus utilizing a lower EOCV at Beginning Of Life (BOL) before gradually increasing it (as the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of capacity fade drive the End Of Discharge Voltage closer to the acceptable system level minimum) is analyzed. Data is compared from ABSL in-house and NASA GRC tests that have been run under fixed and variable EOCV conditions. Differences in capacity fade are discussed and projections are made as to potential life extension capability by utilizing a variable EOCV strategy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neubauer, Jeremy; Simmons, Nick; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Reid, Concha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4287172"> <span id="translatedtitle">A single-cell imaging screen reveals multiple <span class="hlt">effects</span> of secreted <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules on bacteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacteria cells exist in close proximity to other cells of both the same and different species. Bacteria secrete a large number of different chemical species, and the local concentrations of these compounds at the surfaces of nearby cells may reach very high levels. It is fascinating to imagine how individual cells might sense and respond to the complex mix of signals at their surface. However, it is difficult to measure exactly what the local environmental composition looks like, or what the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of individual compounds on nearby cells are. Here, an electron microscopy imaging screen was designed that would detect morphological changes induced by secreted <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules. This differs from conventional approaches by detecting structural changes in individual cells rather than gene expression or growth rate changes at the population level. For example, one of the changes detected here was an increase in outer membrane vesicle production, which does not necessarily correspond to a change in gene expression. This initial study focussed on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Burkholderia dolosa, and revealed an intriguing range of <span class="hlt">effects</span> of secreted <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules on cells both within and between species. PMID:24910069</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salje, Jeanne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742773"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Direct</span> and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of mood on risk decision making in safety-critical workers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study aimed to examine the <span class="hlt">direct</span> influence of specific moods (fatigue, anxiety, happiness) on risk in safety-critical decision making. It further aimed to explore indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>, specifically, the potential mediating <span class="hlt">effects</span> of information processing assessed using a goodness-of-simulation task. Trait fatigue and anxiety were associated with an increase in risk taking on the Safety-Critical Personal Risk Inventory (S-CPRI), however the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of fatigue was partialled out by anxiety. Trait happiness, in contrast was related to less risky decision making. Findings concerning the ability to simulate suggest that better simulators made less risky decisions. Anxious workers were generally less able to simulate. It is suggested that in this safety-critical environment happiness had a <span class="hlt">direct</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> on risk decision making while the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of trait anxiety was mediated by goodness-of-simulation. PMID:22742773</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, James I; Jones, Fiona A; Harris, Peter R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25294938"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Small</span> molecule-<span class="hlt">directed</span> specification of sclerotome-like chondroprogenitors and induction of a somitic chondrogenesis program from embryonic stem cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generate rostral paraxial mesoderm-like progeny in 5-6?days of differentiation induced by Wnt3a and Noggin (Nog). We report that canonical Wnt signaling introduced either by forced expression of activated ?-catenin, or the <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule inhibitor of Gsk3, CHIR99021, satisfied the need for Wnt3a signaling, and that the <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule inhibitor of BMP type I receptors, LDN193189, was able to replace Nog. Mesodermal progeny generated using such <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules were chondrogenic in vitro, and expressed trunk paraxial mesoderm markers such as Tcf15 and Meox1, and somite markers such as Uncx, but failed to express sclerotome markers such as Pax1. Induction of the osteochondrogenically committed sclerotome from somite requires sonic hedgehog and Nog. Consistently, Pax1 and Bapx1 expression was induced when the isolated paraxial mesodermal progeny were treated with SAG1 (a hedgehog receptor agonist) and LDN193189, then Sox9 expression was induced, leading to cartilaginous nodules and particles in the presence of BMP, indicative of chondrogenesis via sclerotome specification. By contrast, treatment with TGF? also supported chondrogenesis and stimulated Sox9 expression, but failed to induce the expression of Pax1 and Bapx1. On ectopic transplantation to immunocompromised mice, the cartilage particles developed under either condition became similarly mineralized and formed pieces of bone with marrow. Thus, the use of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules led to the <span class="hlt">effective</span> generation from ESCs of paraxial mesodermal progeny, and to their further differentiation in vitro through sclerotome specification into growth plate-like chondrocytes, a mechanism resembling in vivo somitic chondrogenesis that is not recapitulated with TGF?. PMID:25294938</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Jiangang; Li, Songhui; Trilok, Suprita; Tanaka, Makoto; Jokubaitis-Jameson, Vanta; Wang, Bei; Niwa, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Naoki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://rivers.bee.oregonstate.edu/sites/default/files/kibler_et_al_2011.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A <span class="hlt">SMALL</span>, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A <span class="hlt">SMALL</span>, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1 Kelly Kibler, Desiree Tullos, and Mathias Kondolf 2 ABSTRACT: Dam removal is a promising river restoration technique, particularly for the vast number of rivers impounded by <span class="hlt">small</span> dams</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tullos, Desiree</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cccma.ec.gc.ca/papers/jli/pdf/jclim2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Sensitivity of the Radiation Budget in a Climate Simulation to Neglecting the <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Ice Particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sensitivity of the atmospheric radiation budget to ignoring <span class="hlt">small</span> ice particles (D 100 m) in parameterization of the mean <span class="hlt">effective</span> size of ice particles was investigated by using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) third-generation general atmospheric circulation model (AGCM3). The results indicate that <span class="hlt">small</span> ice particles play two crucial roles in the radiative transfer that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faisal S. Boudala; George A. Isaac; N. A. McFarlane; J. Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930092093&hterms=H6c&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DH6c"> <span id="translatedtitle">Some <span class="hlt">effects</span> of nonlinear variation in the <span class="hlt">directional</span>-stability and damping-in-yawing derivatives on the lateral stability of an airplane</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theoretical investigation has been made to determine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of nonlinear stability derivatives on the l