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1

Direct contractile effect of motilin on isolated smooth muscle cells of guinea pig small intestine.  

PubMed

We examined the direct effect of motilin on longitudinal and circular smooth muscle cells isolated from the guinea pig small intestine. In addition, the effects of 8-(N,N-diethylamino)-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzoate hydrochloride (TMB-8, an inhibitor of intracellular Ca(2+)-release), verapamil (a voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-channel blocker), and removal of extracellular Ca2+ were investigated to evaluate the role of intracellular Ca2+ stores and extracellular Ca2+ on the muscle contraction induced by motilin. The effects of atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), spantide (a substance P receptor antagonist) and loxiglumide (a CCK-receptor antagonist) were also examined to determine whether the motilin-induced contraction was independent of those receptors. Motilin induced a contraction of the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner with the maximal effect attained after 30 seconds of incubation. The ED50 values were 0.3 nM and 0.05 nM, respectively. TMB-8 suppressed completely the motilin-induced contraction of both types of smooth muscle cells. Verapamil had only a slight suppressive effect. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ did not have any significant influence on motilin-induced contraction. The contractile response to motilin was not affected by atropine, spantide or loxiglumide. Our findings showed that:1) motilin has a direct contractile effect on both longitudinal and circular smooth muscle cells; 2) this contractile effect is not evoked via muscarinic, substance P or CCK receptors, and 3) the intracellular release of Ca2+ plays an important role in the contractile response to motilin on both types of smooth muscle cells. PMID:1383665

Harada, N; Chijiiwa, Y; Misawa, T; Yoshinaga, M; Nawata, H

1992-01-01

2

Effects of small-sided game and change-of-direction training on reactive agility and change-of-direction speed.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training change-of-direction speed and small-sided games on performance in the Planned-AFL agility test and reactive agility. Twenty-five elite-standard U-18 Australian Rules football players were randomly allocated either to a change-of-direction group or a small-sided games group. Players participated in one or two 15-min sessions per week with 11 sessions conducted over a 7-week period during the season. Tests conducted immediately before and after the training period included the Planned-AFL agility test and a video-based reactive agility test specific to Australian Rules football. The reactive agility test variables were total time, decision time and movement response time. The small-sided games group improved total time (P = 0.008, effect size = 0.93), which was entirely attributable to a very large reduction in decision time (P < 0.001, effect size = 2.32). Small-sided games produced a trivial change in movement response time as well as in the Planned-AFL agility test (P > 0.05). The change-of-direction training produced small to trivial changes in all of the test variables (P > 0.05, effect size = 0-0.2). The results suggest that small-sided games improve agility performance by enhancing the speed of decision-making rather than movement speed. The change-of-direction training was not effective for developing either change-of-direction speed as measured by the Planned-AFL test or reactive agility. PMID:24016360

Young, Warren; Rogers, Nathan

2014-01-01

3

Effect of Stepwise Pressure Change on Porosity Evolution during Directional Solidification in Small Cylindrical Channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled directional solidification experiments were performed in capillary channels, using nitrogen-saturated succinonitrile, to examine the effect of an in-situ stepwise processing pressure increase on an isolated pore evolution. Two experiments were performed using different processing pressure input profiles. The results indicate that a processing pressure increase has a transient effect on pore growth geometry characterized by an initial phase of decreasing pore diameter, followed by a recovery phase of increasing pore diameter. The experimental results also show that processing pressure can be used as a control parameter to either increase or terminate porosity formation. A theoretical model is introduced which indicates that the pore formation process is limited by the diffusion of solute-gas through the melt, and that the observed response toa pressure increase is attributed to the re-equilibration of solute concentration in the melt associated with the increased melt pressure.

Grugel, R.N.; Lee, C.P.; Cox, M.C.; Blandford, B.T.; Anilkumar, A.V.

2008-01-01

4

Multidirectional sprints and small-sided games training effect on agility and change of direction abilities in youth soccer.  

PubMed

Chaouachi, A, Chtara, M, Hammami, R, Chtara, H, Turki, O, and Castagna, C. Multidirectional sprints and small-sided games training effect on agility and change of direction abilities in youth soccer. J Strength Cond Res 28(11): 3126-3132, 2014-The aim of this study was to compare the training effects of a small-sided game (SSG) and multidirectional sprint intervention on agility and change of direction (COD) ability in young male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 14.2 ± 0.9 years; height: 167.2 ± 5.7 cm; body mass: 54.1 ± 6.3 kg, body fat: 12.5 ± 2.2%) participated in a short-term (6 weeks) randomized parallel fully controlled training study, with pre-to-post measurements. Players were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups: training with preplanned COD drills (CODG, n = 12) or using SSGs (SSGG, n = 12) and to a control group (CONG, n = 12). Pre- and post-training players completed a test battery involving linear sprinting (15- and 30-m sprint), COD sprinting (COD: 15 m, ball: 15 m, 10-8-8-10 m, zigzag: 20 m), reactive agility test (RAT, RAT-ball), and vertical and horizontal jumping (countermovement jump and 5-jump, respectively). A significant (p ? 0.05) group × time effect was detected for all variables in CODG and SSGG. Improvements in sprint, agility without ball, COD, and jumping performances, were higher in CODG than in the other groups. The SSGG improved significantly more (p ? 0.05) than other groups in agility tests with the ball. The CONG showed significant improvements (p ? 0.05) on linear sprinting over a distance longer than 10 m and in all the agility and COD tests used in this study. It is concluded that in young male soccer players, agility can be improved either using purpose-built SSG or preplanned COD sprints. However, the use of specifically designed SSG may provide superior results in match-relevant variables. PMID:25148467

Chaouachi, Anis; Chtara, Moktar; Hammami, Raouf; Chtara, Hichem; Turki, Olfa; Castagna, Carlo

2014-11-01

5

Ebolavirus proteins suppress the effects of small interfering RNA by direct interaction with the mammalian RNA interference pathway.  

PubMed

Cellular RNA interference (RNAi) provides a natural response against viral infection, but some viruses have evolved mechanisms to antagonize this form of antiviral immunity. To determine whether Ebolavirus (EBOV) counters RNAi by encoding suppressors of RNA silencing (SRSs), we screened all EBOV proteins using an RNAi assay initiated by exogenously delivered small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against either an EBOV or a reporter gene. In addition to viral protein 35 (VP35), we found that VP30 and VP40 independently act as SRSs. Here, we present the molecular mechanisms of VP30 and VP35. VP30 interacts with Dicer independently of siRNA and with one Dicer partner, TRBP, only in the presence of siRNA. VP35 directly interacts with Dicer partners TRBP and PACT in an siRNA-independent fashion and in the absence of effects on interferon (IFN). Taken together, our findings elucidate a new mechanism of RNAi suppression that extends beyond the role of SRSs in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding and IFN antagonism. The presence of three suppressors highlights the relevance of host RNAi-dependent antiviral immunity in EBOV infection and illustrates the importance of RNAi in shaping the evolution of RNA viruses. PMID:21228243

Fabozzi, Giulia; Nabel, Christopher S; Dolan, Michael A; Sullivan, Nancy J

2011-03-01

6

The direct and indirect effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrients on Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from small wetlands.  

PubMed

Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative effects on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination with fertilizers on the emergence patterns of chironomids from wetlands. Using a replicated, split-wetland experiment, the authors examined the effects of 2 nominal concentrations (2.88?mg acid equivalents/L and 0.21?mg acid equivalents/L) of the glyphosate herbicide Roundup WeatherMax, alone or in combination with nutrient additions, on the emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) before and after herbicide-induced damage to macrophytes. There were no direct effects of treatment on the structure of the Chironomidae community or on the overall emergence rates. However, after macrophyte cover declined as a result of herbicide application, there were statistically significant increases in emergence in all but the highest herbicide treatment, which had also received no nutrients. There was a negative relationship between chironomid abundance and macrophyte cover on the treated sides of wetlands. Fertilizer application did not appear to compound the effects of the herbicide treatments. Although direct toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax was not apparent, the authors observed longer-term impacts, suggesting that the indirect effects of this herbicide deserve more consideration when assessing the ecological risk of using herbicides in proximity to wetlands. PMID:24899169

Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Houlahan, Jeff E; Thompson, Dean G; Kidd, Karen A

2014-09-01

7

Small Changes in pH Have Direct Effects on Marine Bacterial Community Composition: A Microcosm Approach  

PubMed Central

As the atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, more CO2 will dissolve in the oceans, leading to a reduction in pH. Effects of ocean acidification on bacterial communities have mainly been studied in biologically complex systems, in which indirect effects, mediated through food web interactions, come into play. These approaches come close to nature but suffer from low replication and neglect seasonality. To comprehensively investigate direct pH effects, we conducted highly-replicated laboratory acidification experiments with the natural bacterial community from Helgoland Roads (North Sea). Seasonal variability was accounted for by repeating the experiment four times (spring, summer, autumn, winter). Three dilution approaches were used to select for different ecological strategies, i.e. fast-growing or low-nutrient adapted bacteria. The pH levels investigated were in situ seawater pH (8.15–8.22), pH 7.82 and pH 7.67, representing the present-day situation and two acidification scenarios projected for the North Sea for the year 2100. In all seasons, both automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S ribosomal amplicon pyrosequencing revealed pH-dependent community shifts for two of the dilution approaches. Bacteria susceptible to changes in pH were different members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae and further less abundant groups. Their specific response to reduced pH was often context-dependent. Bacterial abundance was not influenced by pH. Our findings suggest that already moderate changes in pH have the potential to cause compositional shifts, depending on the community assembly and environmental factors. By identifying pH-susceptible groups, this study provides insights for more directed, in-depth community analyses in large-scale and long-term experiments. PMID:23071704

Krause, Evamaria; Wichels, Antje; Gimenez, Luis; Lunau, Mirko; Schilhabel, Markus B.; Gerdts, Gunnar

2012-01-01

8

75 FR 15756 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SBA prepared a Regulatory Impact Analysis. The SBA received no comments on this analysis and continues to believe that the analysis was accurate. Notice of Final...to the Policy Directive; Small Business Innovation Research Program...

2010-03-30

9

Turbulence Effects at Small Scales  

E-print Network

It is most natural to assume that mysterious Small Ionized and Neutral Structures (SINS) indiffuse ISM arise from turbulence. There are two obvious problem with such an explanation, however. First of all, it is generally believed that at the small scales turbulence should be damped. Second, turbulence with Kolmogorov spectrum cannot be the responsible for the SINS. We consider, however, effects, that provide spectral index flatter than the Kolmogorov one and allow action at very small scales. These are the shocks that arise in high Mach number turbulence and transfer of energy to small scales by instabilities in cosmic rays. Our examples indicate that the origin of SINS may be discovered through systematic studies of astrophysical turbulence.

A. Beresnyak; A. Lazarian

2006-10-26

10

Directional Solidification and Convection in Small Diameter Crucibles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pb-2.2 wt% Sb alloy was directionally solidified in 1, 2, 3 and 7 mm diameter crucibles. Pb-Sb alloy presents a solutally unstable case. Under plane-front conditions, the resulting macrosegregation along the solidified length indicates that convection persists even in the 1 mm diameter crucible. Al-2 wt% Cu alloy was directionally solidified because this alloy was expected to be stable with respect to convection. Nevertheless, the resulting macrosegregation pattern and the microstructure in solidified examples indicated the presence of convection. Simulations performed for both alloys show that convection persists for crucibles as small as 0.6 mm of diameter. For the solutally stable alloy, Al-2 wt% Cu, the simulations indicate that the convection arises from a lateral temperature gradient.

Chen, J.; Sung, P. K.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.; DeGroh, H. C., III

2003-01-01

11

An Automated Directed Spectral Search Methodology for Small Target Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the current efforts in remote sensing tackle macro-level problems such as determining the extent of wheat in a field, the general health of vegetation or the extent of mineral deposits in an area. However, for many of the remaining remote sensing challenges being studied currently, such as border protection, drug smuggling, treaty verification, and the war on terror, most targets are very small in nature - a vehicle or even a person. While in typical macro-level problems the objective vegetation is in the scene, for small target detection problems it is not usually known if the desired small target even exists in the scene, never mind finding it in abundance. The ability to find specific small targets, such as vehicles, typifies this problem. Complicating the analyst's life, the growing number of available sensors is generating mountains of imagery outstripping the analysts' ability to visually peruse them. This work presents the important factors influencing spectral exploitation using multispectral data and suggests a different approach to small target detection. The methodology of directed search is presented, including the use of scene-modeled spectral libraries, various search algorithms, and traditional statistical and ROC curve analysis. The work suggests a new metric to calibrate analysis labeled the analytic sweet spot as well as an estimation method for identifying the sweet spot threshold for an image. It also suggests a new visualization aid for highlighting the target in its entirety called nearest neighbor inflation (NNI). It brings these all together to propose that these additions to the target detection arena allow for the construction of a fully automated target detection scheme. This dissertation next details experiments to support the hypothesis that the optimum detection threshold is the analytic sweet spot and that the estimation method adequately predicts it. Experimental results and analysis are presented for the proposed directed search techniques of spectral image based small target detection. It offers evidence of the functionality of the NNI visualization and also provides evidence that the increased spectral dimensionality of the 8-band Worldview-2 datasets provides noteworthy improvement in results over traditional 4-band multispectral datasets. The final experiment presents the results from a prototype fully automated target detection scheme in support of the overarching premise. This work establishes the analytic sweet spot as the optimum threshold defined as the point where error detection rate curves -- false detections vs. missing detections -- cross. At this point the errors are minimized while the detection rate is maximized. It then demonstrates that taking the first moment statistic of the histogram of calculated target detection values from a detection search with test threshold set arbitrarily high will estimate the analytic sweet spot for that image. It also demonstrates that directed search techniques -- when utilized with appropriate scene-specific modeled signatures and atmospheric compensations -- perform at least as well as in-scene search techniques 88% of the time and grossly under-performing only 11% of the time; the in-scene only performs as well or better 50% of the time. It further demonstrates the clear advantage increased multispectral dimensionality brings to detection searches improving performance in 50% of the cases while performing at least as well 72% of the time. Lastly, it presents evidence that a fully automated prototype performs as anticipated laying the groundwork for further research into fully automated processes for small target detection.

Grossman, Stanley I.

12

Foreign Direct Investments in Small Business of Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public notion usually attributes superior qualities to foreign direct investments in transition economies. According to a common belief they are equipped with modern technology, possess up-to-date managerial capacities, use state-of-the-art management practices, are more effective than local companies and show better financial performances. These qualities clearly distinguish foreign ventures from domestic ones. There is an empirical evidence that proves existence

Miklos Szanyi

1998-01-01

13

Novel small-size directional antenna for UWB WBAN\\/WPAN applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel small-size directional antenna design for ultrawide-band wireless body area networks\\/wireless personal area networks applications. The design is based on a typical slot antenna structure with an added reflector in order to achieve directionality. The effects of different antenna parameters and human body proximity on the radiation characteristics are analyzed. Antenna measurements with an optic RF

Maciej Klemm; I. z. Kovacs; Gert F. Pedersen; Gerhard Tröster

2005-01-01

14

EFFECTIVE FILTRATION METHODS FOR SMALL WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A 2-year study was conducted of various simple water filtration systems potentially appropriate for high-quality surface waters serving small systems. A slow sand filter without coagulant and a direct, rapid filter with coagulant were operated in parallel. Direct filtration with ...

15

Diverse small RNA-directed silencing pathways in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small silencing RNAs of 21- to 24-nucleotide (nt) in length are essential regulatory components expressed in most eukaryotic organisms. These regulatory small RNAs are produced through pathways that involve several evolutionarily conserved protein families, including DICER (DCR) or DICER-LIKE (DCL), ARGONAUTE (AGO), and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE (RDR). Plants possess multiple functional DCL, RDR, and AGO proteins. Genetic analyses in the

Zhixin Xie; Xiaopeng Qi

2008-01-01

16

Salt disposal effects found small  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brine discharges into the Gulf of Mexico averaging more than 600,000 barrels per day for the past year have had `few significant effects` on the marine environment off the Texas coast, according to a preliminary analysis by scientists and engineers at the Texas A&M University. The brine, 8 times saltier than the surrounding seawater, is produced when salt from underground

Barbara T. Richman

1981-01-01

17

77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...businesses (SDBs) and women-owned small businesses...with its OIG, uses a commercial software that searches...must still evaluate the commercial potential of the specific...Is a WOSB or has a woman as a principal investigator...established for the commercial application of a...

2012-08-06

18

Salt disposal effects found small  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brine discharges into the Gulf of Mexico averaging more than 600,000 barrels per day for the past year have had ‘few significant effects‘ on the marine environment off the Texas coast, according to a preliminary analysis by scientists and engineers at the Texas A&M University. The brine, 8 times saltier than the surrounding seawater, is produced when salt from underground deposits on shore is dissolved and pumped into the Gulf as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program.Lead by Roy Hann, Jr., of the Texas Engineering Experiment Station, the team is analyzing discharge from Bryan Mound at Freeport, Tex., and from the West Hackberry site near Cameron, La. After a year of discharge off Freeport, the researchers found ‘no brine-caused differences in sediment temperatures and bottom-water dissolved-oxygen levels which accompany increased salinity,’ Hann said. In addition, overall compositions of fish and shrimp remained stable.

Richman, Barbara T.

19

EFFECTS OF WATERSHED DISTURBANCE ON SMALL STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation presents the effects of watershed disturbance on small streams. The South Fork Broad River Watershed was studied to evaluate the use of landscape indicators to predict pollutant loading at small spatial scales and to develop indicators of pollutants. Also studie...

20

The effect of a miniature argon flow rate on the spectral characteristics of a direct current atmospheric pressure glow micro-discharge between an argon microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stable direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-?APGD) was generated between a miniature Ar flow microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode. The microdischarge was operated in the open to air atmosphere. High energy species, including OH, NH, NO, N2, H, O and Ar were identified in the emission spectra of this microdischarge. Additionally, atomic lines of metals dissolved in water solutions were easily excited. The near cathode and the near anode zones of the microdischarge were investigated as a function of an Ar flow rate up to 300 sccm. The spectroscopic parameters, i.e., the excitation, the vibrational and the rotational temperatures as well as the electron number density, were determined in the near cathode and the near anode regions of the microdischarge. In the near cathode region, the rotational temperatures obtained for OH (2000-2600 K) and N2 bands (1600-1950 K) were significantly lower than the excitation temperatures of Ar (7400 K-7800 K) and H (11 000-15 500 K) atoms. Vibrational temperatures of N2, OH and NO varied from 3400 to 4000 K, from 2900 to 3400 K and from 2700 to 3000 K, respectively. In the near anode region, rotational temperatures of OH (350-1750 K) and N2 (400-1350 K) and excitation temperatures of Ar (5200-5500 K) and H (3600-12 600 K) atoms were lower than those measured in the near cathode region. The effect of the introduction of a liquid sample on the microdischarge radiation and spectroscopic parameters was also investigated in the near cathode zone. The electron number density was calculated from the Stark broadening of the H? line and equals to (0.25-1.1) × 1015 cm- 3 and (0.68-1.2) × 1015 cm- 3 in the near cathode and the near anode zones, respectively. The intensity of the Na I emission line and the signal to background ratio (SBR) of this line were investigated in both zones to evaluate the excitation properties of the developed excitation microsource. The limit of detection for Na was determined at the level of 3 ng mL- 1.

Jamróz, Piotr; ?yrnicki, Wies?aw; Pohl, Pawe?

2012-07-01

21

Human Interaction with Small Haptic Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the ability of subjects to detect small haptic effects and the associated gains in task performance with various configurations of haptic stimuli. Variations in force amplitude, shape, and pulse duration used to create the effects are studied. An adaptive-threshold method is used to obtain subjects' detection thresholds for actively explored haptic icons ranging in size from 3

Jesse Dosher; Blake Hannaford

2005-01-01

22

Relationships between direct predation and risk effects.  

PubMed

Risk effects arise when prey alter their behavior in response to predators, and these responses carry costs. Empirical studies have found that risk effects can be large. Nonetheless, studies of predation in vertebrate conservation and management usually consider only direct predation. Given the ubiquity and strength of behavioral responses to predators by vertebrate prey, it is not safe to assume that risk effects on dynamics can be ignored. Risk effects can be larger than direct effects. Risk effects can exist even when the direct rate of predation is zero. Risk effects and direct effects do not necessarily change in parallel. When risk effects reduce reproduction rather than survival, they are easily mistaken for limitation by food supply. PMID:18308423

Creel, Scott; Christianson, David

2008-04-01

23

Brightness of the Sun's small scale magnetic field: proximity effects  

E-print Network

The net effect of the small scale magnetic field on the Sun's (bolometric) brightness is studied with realistic 3D MHD simulations. The direct effect of brightening within the magnetic field itself is consistent with measurements in high-resolution observations. The high 'photometric accuracy' of the simulations, however, reveal compensating brightness effects that are hard to detect observationally. The influence of magnetic concentrations on the surrounding nonmagnetic convective flows (a 'proximity effect') reduces the brightness by an amount exceeding the brightening by the magnetic concentrations themselves. The net photospheric effect of the small scale field (~ -0.34% at a mean flux density of 50 G) is thus negative. We conclude that the main contribution to the observed positive correlation between the magnetic field and total solar irradiance must be magnetic dissipation in layers around the temperature minimum and above (not included in the simulations). This agrees with existing inferences from obs...

Thaler, I

2014-01-01

24

Process Evaluation Results from the Healthy Directions-Small Business Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Healthy Directions-Small Business randomized, controlled study aimed to reduce cancer risk among multiethnic workers in small manufacturing businesses by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and daily multivitamin in take and decreasing consumption of red meat. The intervention incorporated participatory strategies…

Hunt, Mary K.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Lederman, Ruth; Stoddard, Anne M.; Chetkovich, Carol; Goldman, Roberta; Wallace, Lorraine; Sorensen, Glorian

2007-01-01

25

Mapping Small DNA Sequences by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Directly on Banded Metaphase Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for mapping small DNA probes directly on banded human chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization has been developed. This procedure allows for the simultaneous visualization of banded chromosomes and hybridization signal without overlaying two separate photo-graphic images. This method is simple and rapid, requires only a typical fluorescence microscope, has proven successful with DNA probes as small as

Yao-Shan Fan; Lisa M. Davis; Thomas B. Shows

1990-01-01

26

Direct Instruction News: Effective School Practices, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of the Association for Direct Instruction is to promote the improvement of effective educational methods. This journal, "Direct Instruction News," is their publication. The Spring 2003 (Volume 3, Number 1) contains the following articles: "Implementing DI Successfully" (Sara G. Tarver); "Textbooks: What?" (Bob Dixon); "Introduction to…

Tarver, Sara G., Ed.

2003-01-01

27

The direct carbon dioxide effect on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide may affect plants by changing the climate, but it can have another more subtle and quite separate influence,\\u000a through its direct effects on plant physiology. Since CO2 is fundamental to photosynthesis, it makes sense that increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will tend to allow plants to photosynthesize faster. This then is one-half of the direct

Jonathan Adams

28

Ising model on directed small-world Voronoi Delaunay random lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the critical properties of the Ising model in two dimensions on directed small-world lattice with quenched connectivity disorder. The disordered system is simulated by applying the Monte Carlo update heat bath algorithm. We calculate the critical temperature, as well as the critical exponents ?/ ?, ?/ ?, and 1/ ? for several values of the rewiring probability p . We find that this disorder system does not belong to the same universality class as the regular two-dimensional ferromagnetic model. The Ising model on directed small-world lattices presents in fact a second-order phase transition with new critical exponents which do not depend on p (0 < p < 1), but are identical to the exponents of the Ising model and the spin-1 Blume-Capel model on directed small-world network.

Sousa, Ediones M.; Lima, F. W. S.

2013-12-01

29

Development of a Direct Drive Permanent Magnet Generator for Small Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this program, TIAX performed the conceptual design and analysis of an innovative, modular, direct-drive permanent magnet generator (PMG) for use in small wind turbines that range in power rating from 25 kW to 100 kW. TIAX adapted an approach that has been successfully demonstrated in high volume consumer products such as direct-drive washing machines and portable generators. An electromagnetic

Allan Chertok; David Hablanian; Paul McTaggart; DOE Project Officer

2004-01-01

30

A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

Lee, Ty Davis

31

Small world effects in networks: an engineering interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an engineering interpretation of small world effects in networks is given. After briefly summarizing the main features of small world networks, an attempt is made to investigate the relevance that small world effects can have in communication networks. The aim is that of investigating the relationship between small world behaviour and some of the characteristic parameters associated

Sabato Manfredi; Mario Di Bernardo; Franco Garofalo

2004-01-01

32

Direct-Care Staff Stability in a National Sample of Small Group Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This national study of direct-care staff members working in 101 small community homes for people with mental retardation found an annual staff turnover rate of 57 percent and staff plans to remain in the care-provider position for an average of 5.4 years. Variables associated with both staff turnover rate and intended length of stay are…

Larson, Sheryl A.; Lakin, K. Charlie

1992-01-01

33

Direct and correlated responses to selection for large and small 6-week body weight in mice  

E-print Network

Direct and correlated responses to selection for large and small 6-week body weight in mice Yolanda.01 for divergence. Correlated responses for 3-week body weight did not show asymmetry, the corresponding values and the total number of young born in the first 3 births (TNY-3). Key words : Mice, body weight, selection

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

Effects of Small Oscillations on the Effective Area  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the effective area of the Simbol-X mirrors as a function of the off-axis angle for small oscillations. A reduction is expected due to: 1) geometrical effects, because some of the photons miss the secondary mirror surface; 2) reflectivity effects, caused by the variation of the coating reflectivity with the incidence angle. The former are related to the length of the two mirror surfaces, and can be reduced by making the secondary mirror longer. The second ones are energy-dependent, and strongly related to the characteristics of the reflecting coating. These effects are analyzed by means of ray-tracing simulations in order to optimize the mirror and coating design, aiming to improve the effective area stability.

Cotroneo, V. [Brera Astronomical Observatory/INAF (Italy); Universita degli Studi Milano (Italy); Conconi, P.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G. [Brera Astronomical Observatory/INAF (Italy); Cusumano, G. [IASF-Pa Palermo (Italy)

2009-05-11

35

An incrementally non-linear model for clays with directional stiffness and a small strain emphasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to construction activities and loads from permanent structures, soil generally is subjected to a variety of loading modes varying both in time and location. It also has been increasingly appreciated that the strains around well-designed foundations, excavations and tunnels are mostly small, with soil responses at this strain level generally being non-linear and anisotropic. To make accurate prediction of the performance of a geo-system, it is highly desirable to understand soil behavior at small strains along multiple loading directions, and accordingly to incorporate these responses in an appropriate constitutive model implemented in a finite element analysis. This dissertation presents a model based on a series of stress probe tests with small strain measurements performed on compressible Chicago glacial clays. The proposed model is formulated in an original constitutive framework, in which the tangent stiffness matrix is constructed in accordance with the mechanical nature of frictional materials and the tangent moduli therein are described explicitly. The stiffness description includes evolution relations with regard to length of stress path, and directionality relations in terms of stress path direction. The former relations provide distinctive definitions for small-strain and large-strain behaviors, and distinguish soil responses in shearing and compression. The latter relations make this model incrementally non-linear and thus capable of modeling inelastic behavior. A new algorithm based on a classical substepping scheme is developed to numerically integrate this model. A consistent tangent matrix is derived for the proposed model with the upgraded substepping scheme. The code is written in FORTRAN and implemented in FEM via UMAT of ABAQUS. The model is exercised in a variety of applications ranging from oedometer, triaxial and biaxial test simulations to a C-class prediction for a well-instrumented excavation. The computed results indicate that this model is successful in reproducing soil responses in both laboratory and field situations.

Tu, Xuxin

36

Experimental demonstration of small-angle bending in an active direct-coupled chain of spherical microcavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate collective amplified modes along bent chains of directly coupled, amplifying spherical microdroplet resonators. The chains, comprising ˜40 non-contacting resonators, were bent through angles up to ˜25°. The modal probability of the system shows a sharp drop upon bending through small angles (˜10°), and thereafter changes minimally under further bending. The frequency response is significantly maintained under bending. We numerically study the transmittance of a chain of non-contacting amplifying resonators using finite-difference-time-domain calculations, and observe that nanojet filamentation influences coupling at the bend. A self-correcting mechanism of propagation is observed, originating from the lensing effect of the spherical resonator.

Kumar Tiwari, Anjani; Uppu, Ravitej; Mujumdar, Sushil

2013-10-01

37

The small-island effect: fact or artefact?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive relationships between species richness and sampling area are perhaps the most pervasive patterns in nature. However, the shape of speciesarea relationships is often highly variable, for reasons that are poorly understood. One such source of variability is the ''small-island effect'', which refers to a decrease in the capacity of sampling area to predict species richness on small islands. Small-island

Kevin C. Burns; R. Paul McHardy; Shirley Pledger

2009-01-01

38

Small Impacts on Mars: Atmospheric Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this investigation were to study the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface of Mars through the impact of small objects that would generate dust and set the dust into motion in the atmosphere. The approach involved numerical simulations of impacts and experiments under controlled conditions. Attachment: Atmospheric disturbances and radiation impulses caused by large-meteoroid impact in the surface of Mars.

Greeley, Ronald; Nemtchinov, Ivan V.

2002-01-01

39

Characterizing spatial crosstalk effects in small pixel image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The popularity of miniaturized CMOS image sensors in embedded platforms, such as mobile telephones, is driving the move to increasingly small pixel pitches. The resulting pixels suffer from increased sensitivity to microlens misalignment and degradation in crosstalk performance, as a direct result of their reduced pixel size. This paper presents a novel application of pixel scan techniques to characterize microlens misalignment, the effect of microlens misalignment on crosstalk, and crosstalk performance in general. Pixel scans are performed on 2.2?m pitch sensors, under monochromatic light. A series of scans are taken for each device under test, sweeping the incident light across and beyond the visible spectrum. The captured data is remapped from the image space into a pixel space. Analysis of how the scans develop over the course of the spectral sweep provides insight into the primary directional sources of crosstalk. Further processing derives approximations of pixel spectral responses at various microlens misalignments. It is likely that the device under test has its microlens layer misaligned by an unknown amount, which must be corrected for. This misalignment is characterized by identifying common positional offsets between the peaks of in-band channels in the recorded scans. The spectral responses can be then used to estimate the effects of microlens misalignment on colour and crosstalk performance across the imaging array. The techniques detailed in the paper are designed to be run on unmodified product dice and do not require expensive test devices.

Nicol, Robert L.; Leahy, Charles P.; Renshaw, David

2008-04-01

40

Contrasting the direct radiative effect and direct radiative forcing of aerosols  

E-print Network

The direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the direct radiative forcing (DRF), which ...

Heald, Colette L.

41

Detection thresholds for small haptic effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are interested in finding out whether or not haptic interfaces will be useful in portable and hand held devices. Such systems will have severe constraints on force output. Our first step is to investigate the lower limits at which haptic effects can be perceived. In this paper we report on experiments studying the effects of varying the amplitude, size, shape, and pulse-duration of a haptic feature. Using a specific haptic device we measure the smallest detectable haptics effects, with active exploration of saw-tooth shaped icons sized 3, 4 and 5 mm, a sine-shaped icon 5 mm wide, and static pulses 50, 100, and 150 ms in width. Smooth shaped icons resulted in a detection threshold of approximately 55 mN, almost twice that of saw-tooth shaped icons which had a threshold of 31 mN.

Dosher, Jesse A.; Hannaford, Blake

2002-02-01

42

Direct Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider these three "theories:" climate change, evolution, and gravity. Why are two of them hotly debated by non-scientists, but not gravity? In part, the answer is that climate change and evolution are more complex processes and not readily observable over short time scales to most people. In contrast, the "theory of gravity" is tested every day by billions of people world-wide and is therefore not challenged. While there are numerous "demonstrations" of the greenhouse effect available online, unfortunately, many of them are based on poor understanding of the physical principles involved. For this reason, we sought to develop simple and direct experiments that would demonstrate aspects of the greenhouse effect that would be suitable for museums, K-12, and/or college classrooms. We will describe two experiments. In the first, we use a simple plexiglass tube, approximately 12 cm long, with IR transparent windows. The tube is first filled with dry nitrogen and exposed to an IR heat lamp. Following this, the tube is filled with pure, dry CO2. Both tubes warm up, but the tube filled with CO2 ends up about 0.7 degrees C warmer. It is useful to compare this 12 cm column of CO2 to the column in the earth's atmosphere, which is equivalent to approximately 2.7 meters of pure CO2. This demonstration would be suitable for museum exhibits to demonstrate the physical basis of CO2 heating in the atmosphere. In the second experiment, we use FTIR spectroscopy to quantify the CO2 content of ambient air and indoor/classroom air. For this experiment, we use a commercial standard of 350 ppm CO2 to calibrate the absorption features. Once the CO2 content of ambient air is found, it is useful for students to compare their observed value to background data (e.g. NOAA site in Hawaii) and/or the "Keeling Curve". This leads into a discussion on causes for local variations and the long-term trends. This experiment is currently used in our general chemistry class but could be used in many other science classes. Both of the above experiments should lead to a greater understanding of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect.

Jaffe, D. A.; Malashanka, S.; Call, K.; Bernays, N.

2012-12-01

43

Gravitational maneuvers as a way to direct small asteroids to trajectory of a rendezvous with dangerous near-Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possibility to prevent collisions with the Earth of dangerous celestial bodies by directing at them small asteroids is considered.\\u000a It is proposed to solve this problem using a gravitational maneuver near the Earth.

R. R. Nazirov; N. A. Eismont

2010-01-01

44

Gravitational maneuvers as a way to direct small asteroids to trajectory of a rendezvous with dangerous near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possibility to prevent collisions with the Earth of dangerous celestial bodies by directing at them small asteroids is considered. It is proposed to solve this problem using a gravitational maneuver near the Earth.

Nazirov, R. R.; Eismont, N. A.

2010-10-01

45

Small Molecule-Mediated Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toward Ventricular Cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

The generation of human ventricular cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells and/or induced pluripotent stem cells could fulfill the demand for therapeutic applications and in vitro pharmacological research; however, the production of a homogeneous population of ventricular cardiomyocytes remains a major limitation. By combining small molecules and growth factors, we developed a fully chemically defined, directed differentiation system to generate ventricular-like cardiomyocytes (VCMs) from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency and reproducibility. Molecular characterization revealed that the differentiation recapitulated the developmental steps of cardiovascular fate specification. Electrophysiological analyses further illustrated the generation of a highly enriched population of VCMs. These chemically induced VCMs exhibited the expected cardiac electrophysiological and calcium handling properties as well as the appropriate chronotropic responses to cardioactive compounds. In addition, using an integrated computational and experimental systems biology approach, we demonstrated that the modulation of the canonical Wnt pathway by the small molecule IWR-1 plays a key role in cardiomyocyte subtype specification. In summary, we developed a reproducible and efficient experimental platform that facilitates a chemical genetics-based interrogation of signaling pathways during cardiogenesis that bypasses the limitations of genetic approaches and provides a valuable source of ventricular cardiomyocytes for pharmacological screenings as well as cell replacement therapies. PMID:24324277

Senyei, Grant D.; Hansen, Jens; Kong, Chi-Wing; Azeloglu, Evren U.; Stillitano, Francesca; Lieu, Deborah K.; Wang, Jiaxian; Ren, Lihuan; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; Iyengar, Ravi; Li, Ronald A.; Hajjar, Roger J.

2014-01-01

46

Small molecule-mediated directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells toward ventricular cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

The generation of human ventricular cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells and/or induced pluripotent stem cells could fulfill the demand for therapeutic applications and in vitro pharmacological research; however, the production of a homogeneous population of ventricular cardiomyocytes remains a major limitation. By combining small molecules and growth factors, we developed a fully chemically defined, directed differentiation system to generate ventricular-like cardiomyocytes (VCMs) from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency and reproducibility. Molecular characterization revealed that the differentiation recapitulated the developmental steps of cardiovascular fate specification. Electrophysiological analyses further illustrated the generation of a highly enriched population of VCMs. These chemically induced VCMs exhibited the expected cardiac electrophysiological and calcium handling properties as well as the appropriate chronotropic responses to cardioactive compounds. In addition, using an integrated computational and experimental systems biology approach, we demonstrated that the modulation of the canonical Wnt pathway by the small molecule IWR-1 plays a key role in cardiomyocyte subtype specification. In summary, we developed a reproducible and efficient experimental platform that facilitates a chemical genetics-based interrogation of signaling pathways during cardiogenesis that bypasses the limitations of genetic approaches and provides a valuable source of ventricular cardiomyocytes for pharmacological screenings as well as cell replacement therapies. PMID:24324277

Karakikes, Ioannis; Senyei, Grant D; Hansen, Jens; Kong, Chi-Wing; Azeloglu, Evren U; Stillitano, Francesca; Lieu, Deborah K; Wang, Jiaxian; Ren, Lihuan; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; Iyengar, Ravi; Li, Ronald A; Hajjar, Roger J

2014-01-01

47

Effectiveness of Small Group Social Skills Lessons with Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research study (ARS) describes the effectiveness of small group social skills lessons with elementary students, using "Too Good for Violence: A Curriculum for Non-violent Living" by the Mendez Foundation. The school counselor and school social worker taught the curriculum in a structured small group of 4th grade students in 8 weekly…

Chupp, Amy I.; Boes, Susan R.

2012-01-01

48

Negative Effects of an Exotic Grass Invasion on Small-Mammal Communities  

PubMed Central

Exotic invasive species can directly and indirectly influence natural ecological communities. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is non-native to the western United States and has invaded large areas of the Great Basin. Changes to the structure and composition of plant communities invaded by cheatgrass likely have effects at higher trophic levels. As a keystone guild in North American deserts, granivorous small mammals drive and maintain plant diversity. Our objective was to assess potential effects of invasion by cheatgrass on small-mammal communities. We sampled small-mammal and plant communities at 70 sites (Great Basin, Utah). We assessed abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community, diversity of the plant community, and the percentage of cheatgrass cover and shrub species. Abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community decreased with increasing abundance of cheatgrass. Similarly, cover of cheatgrass remained a significant predictor of small-mammal abundance even after accounting for the loss of the shrub layer and plant diversity, suggesting that there are direct and indirect effects of cheatgrass. The change in the small-mammal communities associated with invasion of cheatgrass likely has effects through higher and lower trophic levels and has the potential to cause major changes in ecosystem structure and function. PMID:25269073

Freeman, Eric D.; Sharp, Tiffanny R.; Larsen, Randy T.; Knight, Robert N.; Slater, Steven J.; McMillan, Brock R.

2014-01-01

49

Effective small group learning: AMEE Guide No. 48.  

PubMed

The objective of this educational guide is to outline the major facets of effective small group learning, particularly applied to medicine. These are discussion skills, methods, the roles and responsibilities of tutors and students, the dynamics of groups and the effects of individuals. It is argued that the bases of effective small group learning are discussion skills such as listening, questioning and responding. These skills are the platform for the methods of facilitating discussion and thinking. The facilitating methods strengthen the generic methods, such as tutorials, seminars and electronic tutorials. However, the success of these methods is dependent in part upon the roles and responsibilities taken by students and tutors and the consequent group dynamic. The group dynamic can be adversely affected by individuals. Evaluation of the processes of small group learning can provide diagnoses of the behaviour of difficult individuals. More importantly, studies of the processes can help to develop more effective small group learning. PMID:20795801

Edmunds, Sarah; Brown, George

2010-01-01

50

Road zone effects in small-mammal communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

Bissonette, J.A.; Rosa, S.A.

2009-01-01

51

kt Effects in Direct-Photon Production  

E-print Network

We discuss the phenomenology of initial-state parton-kt broadening in direct-photon production and related processes in hadron collisions. After a brief summary of the theoretical basis for a Gaussian-smearing approach, we present a systematic study of recent results on fixed-target and collider direct-photon production, using complementary data on diphoton and pion production to provide empirical guidance on the required amount of kt broadening. This approach provides a consistent description of the observed pattern of deviation of next-to-leading order QCD calculations relative to the direct-photon data, and accounts for the shape and normalization difference between fixed-order perturbative calculations and the data. We also discuss the uncertainties in this phenomenological approach, the implications of these results on the extraction of the gluon distribution of the nucleon, and the comparison of our findings to recent related work.

L. Apanasevich; C. Balazs; C. Bromberg; J. Huston; A. Maul; W. K. Tung; S. Kuhlmann; J. Owens; M. Begel; T. Ferbel; G. Ginther; P. Slattery; M. Zielinski

1998-08-28

52

Direct formation of small Cu2O nanocubes, octahedra, and octapods for efficient synthesis of triazoles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most studies describing the preparation of Cu2O crystals of various morphologies, the particle sizes are normally hundreds of nanometers to micrometers due to rapid particle growth, so they are not exactly nanocrystals. Here we report surfactant-free formation of sub-100 nm Cu2O nanocrystals with systematic shape evolution from cubic to octahedral structures by preparing an aqueous mixture of Cu(OAc)2, NaOH, and N2H4 solution. Adjustment of the hydrazine volume enables the particle shape control. Uniform nanocubes and octahedra were synthesized with edge lengths of 37 and 67 nm, respectively. Novel Cu2O octapods with an edge length of 135 nm were also produced by mixing CuCl2 solution, SDS surfactant, NaOH solution, and NH2OH.HCl reductant solution. All of them are nearly the smallest Cu2O nanocrystals of the same shapes ever reported. These small cubes, octahedra, and octapods were employed as catalysts in the direct synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from the reaction of alkynes, organic halides, and NaN3 at 55 °C. All of them displayed high product yields in short reaction times. The octahedra enclosed by the {111} facets are the best catalysts, and can catalyze this cycloaddition reaction with high yields in just 2 h when different alkynes were used to make diverse triazole products. Hence, the small Cu2O particles provide time-saving, energy-efficient, and high product yield benefits to organocatalysis.In most studies describing the preparation of Cu2O crystals of various morphologies, the particle sizes are normally hundreds of nanometers to micrometers due to rapid particle growth, so they are not exactly nanocrystals. Here we report surfactant-free formation of sub-100 nm Cu2O nanocrystals with systematic shape evolution from cubic to octahedral structures by preparing an aqueous mixture of Cu(OAc)2, NaOH, and N2H4 solution. Adjustment of the hydrazine volume enables the particle shape control. Uniform nanocubes and octahedra were synthesized with edge lengths of 37 and 67 nm, respectively. Novel Cu2O octapods with an edge length of 135 nm were also produced by mixing CuCl2 solution, SDS surfactant, NaOH solution, and NH2OH.HCl reductant solution. All of them are nearly the smallest Cu2O nanocrystals of the same shapes ever reported. These small cubes, octahedra, and octapods were employed as catalysts in the direct synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from the reaction of alkynes, organic halides, and NaN3 at 55 °C. All of them displayed high product yields in short reaction times. The octahedra enclosed by the {111} facets are the best catalysts, and can catalyze this cycloaddition reaction with high yields in just 2 h when different alkynes were used to make diverse triazole products. Hence, the small Cu2O particles provide time-saving, energy-efficient, and high product yield benefits to organocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of Cu2O nanocrystals with shape evolution, XRD patterns, calculations for the determination of volumes needed for the catalysis experiment, spectral characterization of the triazole products synthesized and their NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02076f

Tsai, Ya-Huei; Chanda, Kaushik; Chu, Yi-Ting; Chiu, Chun-Ya; Huang, Michael H.

2014-07-01

53

Direct formation of small Cu2O nanocubes, octahedra, and octapods for efficient synthesis of triazoles.  

PubMed

In most studies describing the preparation of Cu2O crystals of various morphologies, the particle sizes are normally hundreds of nanometers to micrometers due to rapid particle growth, so they are not exactly nanocrystals. Here we report surfactant-free formation of sub-100 nm Cu2O nanocrystals with systematic shape evolution from cubic to octahedral structures by preparing an aqueous mixture of Cu(OAc)2, NaOH, and N2H4 solution. Adjustment of the hydrazine volume enables the particle shape control. Uniform nanocubes and octahedra were synthesized with edge lengths of 37 and 67 nm, respectively. Novel Cu2O octapods with an edge length of 135 nm were also produced by mixing CuCl2 solution, SDS surfactant, NaOH solution, and NH2OH · HCl reductant solution. All of them are nearly the smallest Cu2O nanocrystals of the same shapes ever reported. These small cubes, octahedra, and octapods were employed as catalysts in the direct synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from the reaction of alkynes, organic halides, and NaN3 at 55 °C. All of them displayed high product yields in short reaction times. The octahedra enclosed by the {111} facets are the best catalysts, and can catalyze this cycloaddition reaction with high yields in just 2 h when different alkynes were used to make diverse triazole products. Hence, the small Cu2O particles provide time-saving, energy-efficient, and high product yield benefits to organocatalysis. PMID:24947435

Tsai, Ya-Huei; Chanda, Kaushik; Chu, Yi-Ting; Chiu, Chun-Ya; Huang, Michael H

2014-08-01

54

Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase Accounts for the Direct Vascular Effects of Hydrochlorothiazide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrochlorothiazide has been shown to exert direct vasodilator effects by activation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels in human and guinea pig isolated resistance arteries. Since hydrochlorothiazide binds to and inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase and because KCa channel activation is pH sensitive, we investigated the role of intracellular and extracellular carbonic anhydrase in the vascular effects of thiazide diuretics. Small

Peter Pickkers; Robinder S. Garcha; Michael Schachter; Paul Smits; Alun D. Hughes

55

First report of a direct surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for a small molecule seafood toxin.  

PubMed

Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a small molecular weight neurotoxin, is responsible for poisoning events that traditionally occur from consumption of contaminated puffer fish. Recent studies have shown a growing number of foods contaminated with TTX and a larger number of waters and associated countries where the toxin may occur. The apparent expanding prevalence of TTX supports a growing need for screening assays that can be used to detect potentially harmful food. In the past few years, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have been developed for rapid, robust detection of TTX; however, these assays focus on detection of unbound antibody from an inhibition reaction with the toxin. This manuscript introduces the first direct immunoassay for a seafood toxin, specifically TTX. Major advantages of this assay compared to indirect assays include increased speed of analysis, decreased use of biological reagents, and improved confidence in the detection of the toxin, along with the ability to characterize the antibody/toxin interaction. The analytical method introduced in this paper could be applied to other seafood toxins, as well as to a wide range of low molecular weight targets. PMID:25117539

Yakes, Betsy Jean; Kanyuck, Kelsey M; DeGrasse, Stacey L

2014-09-16

56

Effect of effective tissue conductivity on thermal dose distributions of living tissue with directional blood flow during thermal therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a modified transient bioheat transfer equation based on combing the porous medium property and the scalar effective thermal conductivity equation in order to include the directional effect of blood flow. By applying the porous medium model to describe the collective behavior of the heat transfer in living tissue with many small blood vessels, an analytical solution can

Tzu-Ching Shih; Hong-Sen Kou; Win-Li Lin

2002-01-01

57

E-Mentoring for Small Business: An Examination of Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: While information and communications technology provides new opportunities for supporting mentoring, there is a need to explore how effectively these potential benefits are being realized. This paper seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of a program in the small business context as a basis for proposing determinants of e-mentoring…

Rickard, Kim; Rickard, Alex

2009-01-01

58

XU, LIBAI. Prompt Gamma-ray Imaging for Small Animals. (Under the direction of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for small animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current small animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging

Robin P. Gardner

59

The effect of morphine in rat small mesenteric arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of morphine in phenylephrine (PE)- or KCl-precontracted rat small mesenteric arteries. Morphine (10?6–10?4 M) administration caused concentration-dependent relaxation responses in small mesenteric arteries precontracted by PE or KCl. Removal of endothelium did not significantly alter the relaxation responses to morphine. The relaxant responses to morphine were partially inhibited by pre-treatment of tissues with naloxone (NAL, 10?5

Sadi S. Ozdem; Ozlem Batu; Fatma Tayfun; Ozlem Yalcin; Herbert J. Meiselman; Oguz K. Baskurt

2005-01-01

60

Measuring Bi-Directional Reflectance with a Constellation of SmallSats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

: The "missing carbon" problem has plagued the carbon cycle field for over 30 years. A newly proposed constellation of satellites promises to finally close the gap and find the missing carbon. This constellation would measure vegetation from multiple angles at solar wavelengths, essentially measuring the bidirectional reflectance (BRDF), and from this retrieve the Gross Primary Productivity, something that has eluded space remote sensing up until now. The science value of such an approach is demonstrated by using multi-angle, multi-spectral measurements from various deployments of the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) as the 'gold standard' data for BRDF estimation. CAR is an airborne instrument operated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. CAR data are used to estimate the parameters of the widely-used Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (RPV) and RossThin-LiSparseReciprocal (RTnLS) BRDF models. While CAR reflectance data is obtained at 360 view-azimuth directions and 90 view-zenith directions, satellite clusters will be able to sample only a part of this angular space. To make best use of the satellite-cluster BRDF data, a heuristic optimization method is used to find the best angular sub-sampling. Also, different closed loop formation-flying geometries are considered. We will show the effect of these formation-flying architectures on BRDF estimation errors and identify an optimal baseline architecture that will reduce errors when compared to existing spaceborne instruments like MODIS and MISR.

Nag, S.; Gatebe, C. K.; Wiscombe, W. J.; de Weck, O. L.

2013-12-01

61

Management and future directions in non-small cell lung cancer with known activating mutations.  

PubMed

Lung cancer accounts for a quarter of all cancer deaths. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is currently segregated by the presence of actionable driver oncogenes. This review will provide an overview of molecular subsets of lung cancer, including descriptions of the defining oncogenes (EGFR, ALK, KRAS, ROS1, RET, BRAF, ERBB2, NTRK1, FGFR, among others) and how these predict for response to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that are either clinically available or in clinical trial development for advanced NSCLC. Particular focus will be placed on subsets with EGFR mutated and ALK rearranged NSCLC. Somatic TKI-sensitizing EGFR mutations (such as exon 19 deletions and L858R substitutions) are the most robust predictive biomarker for symptom improvement, radiographic response, and increment in progression-free survival (PFS) when EGFR TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib) are used for patients with advanced NSCLC. However, the palliative benefits that EGFR TKIs afford are limited by multiple biologic mechanisms of tumor adaptation/resistance (such as the EGFR-T790M mutation and oncogene bypass tracks), and future efforts toward delaying, preventing, and treating resistance are underway. Similar to EGFR mutations, ALK rearrangements exemplify an oncogene-driven NSCLC that can be effectively palliated with a precision TKI therapy (the multitargeted ALK/MET/ROS1 TKI crizotinib). When resistance to first-line crizotinib therapy occurs, multiple second generation ALK TKIs have demonstrated impressive rates of disease control in clinical trials, and these may modify long-term outcomes for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. The development of TKIs for other oncogene-driven NSCLCs may expand the portfolio of precision therapies for this recalcitrant cancer. PMID:24857124

Gerber, David E; Gandhi, Leena; Costa, Daniel B

2014-01-01

62

Collision Recognition and Direction Changes Using Fuzzy Logic for Small Scale Fish Robots by Acceleration Sensor Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For natural and smooth movement of small scale fish robots, collision detection and direction changes are important. Typical\\u000a obstacles are walls, rocks, water plants and other nearby robots for a group of small scale fish robots and submersibles that\\u000a have been constructed in our lab. Two of 2-axes acceleration sensors are employed to measure the three components of collision\\u000a angles,

Seung You Na; Daejung Shin; Jin Young Kim; Su-il Choi

2005-01-01

63

Calculation of Effective Potential and Gravity on Small Bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-scale topography is key to characterizing surface morphology and geological processes on small bodies as well as planets. Small bodies are typically irregular in shape, and numerical calculations of surface gravitational and centrifugal potential as well as surface effective gravity are essential for studying the sedimentation and mass motion of surface materials. Evidence of such processes is found on all small bodies observed to date at sufficient resolution. For Eros and Itokawa, the two objects studied from rendezvous, the measured gravity field is consistent with a body of constant density. Werner and Scheeres (1997) introduced an exact method for calculating the potential of constant-density, polyhedral bodies with a sum over surface polygon faces and another sum over polygon edges. For applications to Eros and Itokawa, we have used a simpler, approximate method for calculating the effective potential and effective gravity of a small body, summing over facets of plate models in which the surface is tessellated into triangular plates (Cheng et al. 2001 and 2002). This calculation method approximates the potential recognizing that the actual surface is not polyhedral but is approximated as such. Here we use high-resolution shape models of an arbitrary ellipsoid, Eros, and Itokawa to make quantitative comparisons of the effective potential and gravity calculated from the exact polyhedral method, the approximate method, and a spherical harmonic method applied outside the body.

Cheng, A. F.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.

2011-12-01

64

Derivative expansion at small mass for the spinor effective action  

SciTech Connect

We study the small-mass limit of the one-loop spinor effective action, comparing the derivative expansion approximation with exact numerical results that are obtained from an extension to spinor theories of the partial-wave cutoff method. In this approach, one can compute numerically the renormalized one-loop effective action for radially separable gauge field background fields in spinor QED. We highlight an important difference between the small-mass limit of the derivative expansion for spinor and scalar theories.

Dunne, Gerald V. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3046 (United States); Huet, Adolfo [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3046 (United States); Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan 58040 (Mexico); Hur, Jin [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-012 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Hyunsoo [Department of Physics, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

65

Effects-Directed Studies of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The history of effects-directed investigations of pulp and paper mill effluents has been driven primarily by the environmental\\u000a effects associated with mill discharges. The first effect to confront the industry was acute toxicity to aquatic biota. Through\\u000a a series of effects-directed studies in the 1970s and 1980s the causative agents were elucidated, subsequent regulations enacted,\\u000a and effluent treatment technologies implemented

Mark Hewitt

66

Is direction position? Position and direction-based correspondence effects in tasks with moving stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were carried out to test whether (task-irrelevant) motion information provided by a stimulus changing its position over time would affect manual left–right responses. So far, some studies reported direction-based Simon effects whereas others did not. In Experiment 1a, a reliable direction-based effect occurred, which was not modulated by the response mode—that is, by whether participants responded by pressing

Simone Bosbach; Wolfgang Prinz; Dirk Kerzel

2005-01-01

67

Direct effects of ephedrine isomers on human ?-adrenergic receptor subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ephedrine and its alkaloids are used for the treatment of asthma, nasal congestion, and obesity. Ephedrine, with two chiral centers, exists as four isomers that exhibit direct and indirect effects on both ?- and ?-adrenergic receptors (AR). Our main goal was to study the direct effects of the ephedrine isomers on human ?1-, ?2-, and ?3-AR expressed in Chinese hamster

Sandeep S Vansal; Dennis R Feller

1999-01-01

68

DIRECT BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INCREASED ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report assesses the likely biological nonclimatic, direct effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and on human health. It summarizes the current literature on the direct effects of rising CO2 levels on the biosphere and identifies technical info...

69

Effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Indian Economy  

E-print Network

1 Effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Indian Economy Sourangsu Banerji Visiting study the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) with respect to India and its economy. We try interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic ?-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that directly hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent small-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory effect of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

Lloyd, David J.; St Jean, David J.; Kurzeja, Robert J. M.; Wahl, Robert C.; Michelsen, Klaus; Cupples, Rod; Chen, Michelle; Wu, John; Sivits, Glenn; Helmering, Joan; Komorowski, Renée; Ashton, Kate S.; Pennington, Lewis D.; Fotsch, Christopher; Vazir, Mukta; Chen, Kui; Chmait, Samer; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Longbin; Norman, Mark H.; Andrews, Kristin L.; Bartberger, Michael D.; van, Gwyneth; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Vonderfecht, Steven L.; Wang, Minghan; Jordan, Steven R.; Véniant, Murielle M.; Hale, Clarence

2013-12-01

71

Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors.  

PubMed

Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic ?-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that directly hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent small-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory effect of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:24226772

Lloyd, David J; St Jean, David J; Kurzeja, Robert J M; Wahl, Robert C; Michelsen, Klaus; Cupples, Rod; Chen, Michelle; Wu, John; Sivits, Glenn; Helmering, Joan; Komorowski, Renée; Ashton, Kate S; Pennington, Lewis D; Fotsch, Christopher; Vazir, Mukta; Chen, Kui; Chmait, Samer; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Longbin; Norman, Mark H; Andrews, Kristin L; Bartberger, Michael D; Van, Gwyneth; Galbreath, Elizabeth J; Vonderfecht, Steven L; Wang, Minghan; Jordan, Steven R; Véniant, Murielle M; Hale, Clarence

2013-12-19

72

Changing Effects of Direct-to-Consumer Broadcast Drug Advertising Information Sources on Prescription Drug Requests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tracks the changes of the effects of 4 information sources for direct-to-consumer drug advertising on patients' requests for prescription drugs from physicians since the inception of the “Guidance for Industry about Consumer-directed Broadcast Advertisements.” The Guidance advises pharmaceuticals to use four information sources for consumers to seek further information to supplement broadcast drug advertisements: small-print information, the Internet,

Annisa Lai Lee

2009-01-01

73

Design spectra including effect of rupture directivity in near-fault region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to propose a seismic design spectrum that includes the effect of rupture directivity in the near-fault region, this\\u000a study investigates the application of equivalent pulses to the parameter attenuation relationships developed for near-fault,\\u000a forward-directivity motions. Near-fault ground motions are represented by equivalent pulses with different waveforms defined\\u000a by a small number of parameters (peak acceleration, A, and velocity

Longjun Xu; Adrian Rodriguez-Marek; Lili Xie

2006-01-01

74

Cooperative group research endeavors in small-cell lung cancer: current and future directions.  

PubMed

The International Lung Cancer Congress (ILCC), now in its ninth year, is a key forum for representatives of cooperative groups in North America, Europe, and Japan to discuss ongoing and planned clinical trials in lung cancer. Many of the significant strides in lung cancer treatment often originate from investigations designed within the cooperative group system and were a feature of the 2008 ILCC. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents 15% of all lung cancers diagnosed annually and is characterized by rapid growth kinetics, disseminated metastases, and development of chemotherapy resistance. Many questions remain regarding the optimal use of radiation therapy and approaches for enhancing the effects of chemotherapy to improve clinical outcomes. Herein, we explore and outline the scientific vision of each cooperative group's SCLC research portfolio, as presented at the 2008 ILCC. Highlights include an ongoing Intergroup phase III study exploring differing radiation therapy schemes for limited-stage SCLC and a Southwest Oncology Group 0124 trial establishing platinum/etoposide as the standard of care for untreated extensive-stage SCLC in North America. Continued research efforts sponsored by these groups will represent the future of SCLC diagnosis and management. PMID:19808190

Sangha, Randeep; Lara, Primo N; Adjei, Alex A; Baas, Paul; Choy, Hak; Gaspar, Laurie E; Goss, Glenwood; Saijo, Nagahiro; Schiller, Joan H; Vokes, Everett E; Gandara, David R

2009-09-01

75

Colloidal Graphite-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization MS and MSn of Small Molecules. 2. Direct Profiling and MS Imaging of Small Metabolites from Fruits  

SciTech Connect

Due to a high background in the low-mass region, conventional MALDI is not as useful for detecting small molecules (molecular masses <500 Da) as it is for large ones. Also, spatial inhomogeneity that is inherent to crystalline matrixes can degrade resolution in imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). In this study, colloidal graphite was investigated as an alternative matrix for laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in IMS. We demonstrate its advantages over conventional MALDI in the detection of small molecules such as organic acids, flavonoids, and oligosaccharides. GALDI provides good sensitivity for such small molecules. The detection limit of fatty acids and flavonoids in the negative-ion mode are in the low-femtomole range. Molecules were detected directly and identified by comparing the MS and MS/MS spectra with those of standards. Various fruits were chosen to evaluate the practical utility of GALDI since many types of small molecules are present in them. Distribution of these small molecules in the fruit was investigated by using IMS and IMS/MS.

Hui Zhang; Sangwon Cha; Edward S. Yeung

2007-09-01

76

Recognition Effectiveness of Comic Strip Advertising for Small Retail Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs toward comic strip advertising and recognition of a comic strip were investigated to examine the effectiveness of this medium for small retail firms in general and retail clothing stores in particular. In addition, the relationship between beliefs toward comic strip advertising and an individual's characteristics was examined. A questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected households in Grand Forks, North

Rennae Daneshvary

1991-01-01

77

Evaluation of antitumor drug side effects in small animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an initial report on the development of screening tests for side effects of antitumor drugs, with small amounts of compound and short time intervals. These tests are based on acute dosing of mice and various blood or serum measurements: (a) total white blood cell count for leukopenia; (b) BUN for kidney toxicity; (c) SGPT for liver toxicity; and

W. T. Bradner; J. E. Schurig; J. B. Huftalen; G. J. Doyle

1980-01-01

78

Ethical Unit Trust Financial Performance: Small Company Effects and Fund Size Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent papers which have examined unit trusts have controlled either for a 'fund size effect' or for the 'small firms effect' in the investment portfolio. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of the 'small firms effect' whilst simultaneously controlling for the 'fund size effect'. We show that the ethical unit trusts have significantly greater exposure than general unit

Alan Gregory; John Matatko; Robert Luther

1997-01-01

79

Direct measurements of fluorine atom concentration, gain length and small signal gain in an hydrogen fluoride overtone laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental techniques have been developed to directly measure the concentration of fluorine atoms, the gain length and the small signal gain in a hydrogen fluoride 5 cm slit nozzle laser. A gas phase titration technique was utilized to measure the fluorine atom concentration using HCl as the titrant. The gain length was measured using a pitot probe to locate the

Charles F Wisniewski; Kevin B Hewett; Gerald C Manke II; C Randall Truman; Gordon D Hager

2003-01-01

80

Empirical Analysis of Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on Small Business Lending in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mergers and acquisitions are the major instruments of the recent banking reforms in Nigeria.The effects and the implications of the reforms on the lending practices of merged banks to small businesses were considered in this study. These effects were divided into static and dynamic effects (restructuring, direct and external). Data were collected by cross-sectional research design and were subsequently analyzed by the ordinary least square (OLS) method.The analyses show that bank size, financial characteristics and deposit of non-merged banks are positively related to small business lending. While for the merged banks, the reverse is the case. From the above result, it is evident that merger and acquisition have not only static effect on small business lending but also dynamic effect, therefore, given the central position of small businesses in the current government policy on industrialization in Nigeria, policy makers in Nigeria, should consider both the static and dynamic effects of merger and acquisition on small business lending in their policy thrust.

Ita, Asuquo Akabom

2012-11-01

81

CellFateScout - a bioinformatics tool for elucidating small molecule signaling pathways that drive cells in a specific direction  

PubMed Central

Background Small molecule effects can be represented by active signaling pathways within functional networks. Identifying these can help to design new strategies to utilize known small molecules, e.g. to trigger specific cellular transformations or to reposition known drugs. Results We developed CellFateScout that uses the method of Latent Variables to turn differential high-throughput expression data and a functional network into a list of active signaling pathways. Applying it to Connectivity Map data, i.e., differential expression data describing small molecule effects, we then generated a Human Small Molecule Mechanisms Database. Finally, using a list of active signaling pathways as query, a similarity search can identify small molecules from the database that may trigger these pathways. We validated our approach systematically, using expression data of small molecule perturbations, yielding better predictions than popular bioinformatics tools. Conclusions CellFateScout can be used to select small molecules for their desired effects. The CellFateScout Cytoscape plugin, a tutorial and the Human Small Molecule Mechanisms Database are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/cellfatescout/ under LGPLv2 license. PMID:24206562

2013-01-01

82

Radiotherapy in small-cell lung cancer: lessons learned and future directions.  

PubMed

Although chemotherapy is an essential component in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer, improvements in survival in the past two decades have been mainly achieved by the appropriate application of radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to review the key developments in thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy and to discuss the rationale behind key ongoing studies in small-cell lung cancer. PMID:21353159

Slotman, Ben J; Senan, Suresh

2011-03-15

83

Directional Site Amplification Effect on Tarzana Hill, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significantly amplified ground accelerations at the Tarzana Hill station were recorded during the 1987 Mw 5.9 Whittier Narrows and the 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. Peak horizontal ground acceleration at the Tarzana station during the 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake was almost twice as large as the accelerations recorded at nearby stations. The Tarzana site was drilled to a depth of 100 m. A low shear-wave velocity near the surface of 100 m/sec increasing to near 750 m/sec at 100 m depth was measured. The 20 m high hill was found to be well drained with a water table near 17 m. Modelo formation (extremely weathered at the surface to fresh at depth) underlies the hill. The subsurface geology and velocities obtained allow classification of this location as a soft-rock site. After the Northridge earthquake the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program significantly increased instrumentation at Tarzana to study the unusual site amplification effect. Current instrumentation at Tarzana consists of an accelerograph at the top of Tarzana hill (Tarzana - Cedar Hill B), a downhole instrument at 60 m depth, and an accelerograph at the foot of the hill (Tarzana - Clubhouse), 180 m from the Cedar Hill B station. The original station, Tarzana - Cedar Hill Nursery A, was lost in 1999 due to construction. More than twenty events, including the Hector Mine earthquake, were recorded by all these instruments at Tarzana. Comparison of recordings and response spectra demonstrates strong directional resonance on the top of the hill in a direction perpendicular to the strike of the hill in the period range from 0.04 to 0.8 sec (1.2 to 25 Hz). There is practically no amplification from the bottom to the top of the hill for the component parallel to the strike of the hill. In contrast to accelerations recorded during the Hector Mine earthquake (high frequency part of seismic signal), displacements (relatively low frequency part of seismic signal) demonstrate almost no site amplification from the bottom of the hole to the surface at periods greater than 1.5 sec, in either direction. The directional effect at Tarzana hill seems to be azimuth dependent. Relatively higher amplification at the perpendicular component is produced for the earthquake sources located north of the station. We were not able to see any differences in hill response before and after development (a relatively small part of the hill was developed). The source of the site amplification that produces large motions at Tarzana is still under investigation with "the usual suspects" like topography and shear wave velocity profile not providing the explanation. New data recorded at Tarzana in recent years clearly show that the Tarzana effect is a very localized high-frequency effect observed only at the top of the hill. Drilling at Tarzana was co-funded by CSMIP and by the National Science Foundation through the Resolution of Site Response Issues from the Northridge Earthquake Project (ROSRINE).

Graizer, V.; Shakal, A.

2003-12-01

84

CATALYST: Planning Layer Directives for Effective Design Closure  

E-print Network

CATALYST: Planning Layer Directives for Effective Design Closure Yaoguang Wei1 , Zhuo Li2 , Cliff, CATALYST, to perform congestion- and timing-aware layer directive assignment. Our flow balances routing-routing timing degradation. Fig. 1. Assigning the same net to thicker layers improves timing and buffering

Sapatnekar, Sachin

85

Instructional Wording and Its Effect on Direction-Giving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of instructional wording on preferences for different types of direction-giving information was examined. Researchers often use instructions that are awkwardly worded in an effort to avoid biasing subjects toward a particular type of information (e.g. “where?” eliciting location information), yet there is little empirical evidence that shows how instructions will bias subjects’ directions. Four groups received differing instructions

Amanda Oke

2009-01-01

86

EFFECTS OF SELF-DIRECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING ON THERAPISTS ANXIETY.  

E-print Network

??This mixed-method study investigated the effects of self-directed physiological monitoring on therapists anxiety. Ten therapists participated in a10-week physiological monitoring training sessions while monitoring respiratory… (more)

Dalton, Melissa D.

2012-01-01

87

Numerical study on the effect of electrode force in small-scale resistance spot welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since electrode force is an important process parameter in small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW), its effects on the electrical, thermal and mechanical behavior of the welding process when using direct current have been studied numerically in the present paper using the finite element method. The variations of contact radius, current density distribution and temperature profile at the sheet\\/sheet (S\\/S) and

B. H. Chang; Y. Zhou

2003-01-01

88

SUCCESSIVE SOLAR ERUPTIONS TRIGGERED BY THE COLLISION OF TWO SMALL SUNSPOTS WITH OPPOSITE POLARITIES AND MOTIONAL DIRECTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of the two successive M-class flares associated with two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) triggered by the collision of two small sunspots with opposite magnetic polarities and motional directions in NOAA active region (AR) 10484 on 2003 October 22. From the evolution of this AR in the TRACE white-light images and 96 minute line-of-sight magnetograms observed by the Michelson Doppler Imager on board SOHO, a large sunspot and a small sunspot with negative polarity rotated clockwise about 33 Degree-Sign and 18 Degree-Sign , respectively, from the northeast of a quiescent sunspot with negative polarity to the southeast from 15:00 UT on October 21 to 16:24 UT on October 23. During the process of their motion, the small sunspot with negative polarity collided with the small sunspot with positive polarity and opposite motional direction. In the collision, this AR produced two successive M-class flares and CMEs according to the observations of GOES and the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. By analyzing the magnetic fields at polarity inversion lines (PILs) between the two small sunspot, it is found that a sudden squeeze occurred near the onset of the two M-class flares and then recovered itself after the flares. We ruled out the emergence of the magnetic fields near the PIL. According to the brightenings in TRACE 1600 A and the hard X-ray sources of the RHESSI of two M-class flares, we found that the locations of the two flares are almost situated in the same location at the PIL between the two small sunspots. We suggest that the sudden squeeze between the opposite magnetic polarities is caused by the pressure of the collision of the two small sunspots and resulted in the magnetic reconnection. These results could contribute to understanding the mechanism of flares and CMEs.

Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Kong, D. F. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China)

2012-03-15

89

Effects of ethanol on small engines and the environment  

SciTech Connect

With the support of the Missouri Corn Merchandising Council and the Department of Energy, Northwest Missouri State University conducted an applied research project to investigate the effects of the commercially available ethanol/gasoline fuel blend on small engines. The study attempted to identify any problems when using the 10% ethanol/gasoline blend in engines designed for gasoline and provide solutions to the problems identified. Fuel economy, maximum power, internal component wear, exhaust emissions and engine efficiency were studied.

Bettis, M.D.

1995-01-09

90

Non-additive effects in small gold clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A post-Hartree–Fock second-order perturbational Møller–Plesset method was used to determine the many-body contributions in the interaction energy of Aun(n=3–6), clusters. Non-additive effects in these clusters were studied by decomposing the cluster binding energy in their n-body energy terms. It was found that the non-additive forces in small gold clusters are larger than the additive 2-body interactions and are the main

G. Bravo-Pérez; I. L. Garzón; O. Novaro

1999-01-01

91

Driving and Driven Architectures of Directed Small-World Human Brain Functional Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the investigation of the human brain connectome that describes the patterns of structural and functional connectivity networks of the human brain. Many studies of the human connectome have demonstrated that the brain network follows a small-world topology with an intrinsically cohesive modular structure and includes several network hubs in the medial parietal regions.

Chaogan Yan; Yong He

2011-01-01

92

An incrementally non-linear model for clays with directional stiffness and a small strain emphasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to construction activities and loads from permanent structures, soil generally is subjected to a variety of loading modes varying both in time and location. It also has been increasingly appreciated that the strains around well-designed foundations, excavations and tunnels are mostly small, with soil responses at this strain level generally being non-linear and anisotropic. To make accurate prediction

Xuxin Tu

2007-01-01

93

A Direct, Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a Quantitative Technique for Small Molecules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used technique with applications in disease diagnosis, detection of contaminated foods, and screening for drugs of abuse or environmental contaminants. However, published protocols with a focus on quantitative detection of small molecules designed for teaching laboratories are limited. A…

Powers, Jennifer L.; Rippe, Karen Duda; Imarhia, Kelly; Swift, Aileen; Scholten, Melanie; Islam, Naina

2012-01-01

94

New Directions in Solar System Small Body Science with the TMT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key goals of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey includes using primitive bodies to provide information about the epochs and processes in the early solar system and to understand the role that primitive bodies played in creating habitable worlds. Recent in-situ small body space missions (EPOXI, NEOWISE) have changed our understanding of the distribution of major volatiles in primitive bodies, in particular shedding light on the importance of CO2. At the same time there has been a revolution both in the dynamical models that describe how our solar system was assembled, and in the chemistry of the disk of material out of which the planetesimals formed. Observations of small bodies provide the links that will enable us to tie together the early solar system dynamical and chemical models. Because they are small and faint, we have been very limited in optical and near-IR spectroscopic follow up. I will present some of the recent breakthroughs, and what access to the TMT can contribute to understanding the early solar system, in combination with information that will be possible to get from JWST and ALMA.

Meech, Karen; Meech, K. J.

2014-07-01

95

Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Human Capital Development: A Small Country Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…

McDonnell, Anthony

2008-01-01

96

Outward foreign direct investment and human capital development : A small country perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of succession planning, use of formal development programmes

Anthony McDonnell

2008-01-01

97

Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials  

SciTech Connect

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

Cha, Sangwon

2008-05-15

98

Small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in a turbulent convection  

E-print Network

We determine the nonlinear drift velocities of the mean magnetic field and nonlinear turbulent magnetic diffusion in a turbulent convection. We show that the nonlinear drift velocities are caused by the three kinds of the inhomogeneities, i.e., inhomogeneous turbulence; the nonuniform fluid density and the nonuniform turbulent heat flux. The inhomogeneous turbulence results in the well-known turbulent diamagnetic and paramagnetic velocities. The nonlinear drift velocities of the mean magnetic field cause the small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in the turbulent convection. These phenomena are different from the large-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects which are due to the effect of the mean magnetic field on the large-scale density stratified fluid flow. The small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping can be stronger than these large-scale effects when the mean magnetic field is smaller than the equipartition field. We discuss the small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in the context of the solar and stellar turbulent convection. We demonstrate also that the nonlinear turbulent magnetic diffusion in the turbulent convection is anisotropic even for a weak mean magnetic field. In particular, it is enhanced in the radial direction. The magnetic fluctuations due to the small-scale dynamo increase the turbulent magnetic diffusion of the toroidal component of the mean magnetic field, while they do not affect the turbulent magnetic diffusion of the poloidal field.

I. Rogachevskii; N. Kleeorin

2006-05-18

99

Effects of directed and kinetic energy weapons on spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the various directed energy beams are reviewed, and their damaging effects on typical materials are examined for a wide range of energy pulse intensities and durations. Representative cases are surveyed, and charts are presented to indicate regions in which damage to spacecraft structures, particularly radiators for power plants, would be likely. The effects of kinetic energy weapons,

Fraas

1986-01-01

100

Simulation-based comparison of noise effects in wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption TDLAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulative investigation of noise effects in wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) and direct absorption diode laser absorption spectroscopy is presented. Special attention is paid to the impact of quantization noise of the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) of the photodetector signal in the two detection schemes with the goal of estimating the necessary ADC resolution for each technique. With laser relative intensity noise (RIN), photodetector shot noise and thermal amplifier noise included, the strategies used for noise reduction in direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy are compared by simulating two respective systems. Results show that because of the combined effects of dithering by RIN and signal averaging, the resolutions required for the direct absorption setup are only slightly higher than for the WMS setup. Only for small contributions of RIN an increase in resolution will significantly improve signal quality in the direct scheme.

Lins, B.; Zinn, P.; Engelbrecht, R.; Schmauss, B.

2010-08-01

101

Design of small MEMS microphone array systems for direction finding of outdoors moving vehicles.  

PubMed

In this paper, a MEMS microphone array system scheme is proposed which implements real-time direction of arrival (DOA) estimation for moving vehicles. Wind noise is the primary source of unwanted noise on microphones outdoors. A multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is used in this paper for direction finding associated with spatial coherence to discriminate between the wind noise and the acoustic signals of a vehicle. The method is implemented in a SHARC DSP processor and the real-time estimated DOA is uploaded through Bluetooth or a UART module. Experimental results in different places show the validity of the system and the deviation is no bigger than 6° in the presence of wind noise. PMID:24603636

Zhang, Xin; Huang, Jingchang; Song, Enliang; Liu, Huawei; Li, Baoqing; Yuan, Xiaobing

2014-01-01

102

Health and environmental effects profile for Direct Blue 6  

SciTech Connect

The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Direct Blue 6 was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Direct Blue 6 has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for Direct Blue 6 is 8.1 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for Direct Blue 6 is 100.

Not Available

1987-01-01

103

Changing effects of direct-to-consumer broadcast drug advertising information sources on prescription drug requests.  

PubMed

This study tracks the changes of the effects of 4 information sources for direct-to-consumer drug advertising on patients' requests for prescription drugs from physicians since the inception of the "Guidance for Industry about Consumer-directed Broadcast Advertisements." The Guidance advises pharmaceuticals to use four information sources for consumers to seek further information to supplement broadcast drug advertisements: small-print information, the Internet, a toll-free number, and health-care providers (nurses, doctors, and pharmacists). Logistic models were created by using survey data collected by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and 2002. Results show that throughout the years, health-care providers remain the most used and strongest means associated with patients' direct requests for nonspecific and specific prescription drugs from doctors. The small-print information source gains power and changes from an indirect means associated with patients' discussing drugs with health-care providers to a direct means associated with patients' asking about nonspecific and specific drugs from their doctors. The Internet is not directly related to drug requests, but the effect of its association with patients seeking information from health-care providers grew 11-fold over the course of the study. The toll-free number lost its power altogether for both direct request for a prescription drug and further discussion with health-care providers. Patient demographics will be considered for specific policy implications. PMID:19499430

Lee, Annisa Lai

2009-06-01

104

Analytical fuel property effects: Small combustors, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of non-standard aviation fuels on a typical small gas turbine combustor were studied and the effectiveness of design changes intended to counter the effects of these fuels was evaluated. The T700/CT7 turboprop engine family was chosen as being representative of the class of aircraft power plants desired for this study. Fuel properties, as specified by NASA, are characterized by low hydrogen content and high aromatics levels. No. 2 diesel fuel was also evaluated in this program. Results demonstrated the anticipated higher than normal smoke output and flame radiation intensity with resulting increased metal temperatures on the baseline T700 combustor. Three new designs were evaluated using the non standard fuels. The three designs incorporated enhanced cooling features and smoke reduction features. All three designs, when burning the broad specification fuels, exhibited metal temperatures at or below the baseline combustor temperatures on JP-5. Smoke levels were acceptable but higher than predicted.

Hill, T. G.; Monty, J. D.; Morton, H. L.

1985-01-01

105

Measurement of illite particle thickness using a direct Fourier transform of small-angle X-ray scattering data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has been suggested that interstratified illite-smectite (I-S) minerals are composed of aggregates of fundamental particles. Many attempts have been made to measure the thickness of such fundamental particles, but each of the methods used suffers from its own limitations and uncertainties. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can be used to measure the thickness of particles that scatter X-rays coherently. We used SAXS to study suspensions of Na-rectorite and other illites with varying proportions of smectite. The scattering intensity (I) was recorded as a function of the scattering vector, q = (4 ??/??) sin(??/2), where ?? is the X-ray wavelength and ?? is the scattering angle. The experimental data were treated with a direct Fourier transform to obtain the pair distance distribution function (PDDF) that was then used to determine the thickness of illite particles. The Guinier and Porod extrapolation were used to obtain the scattering intensity beyond the experimental q, and the effects of such extrapolations on the PDDF were examined. The thickness of independent rectorite particles (used as a reference mineral) is 18.3 A??. The SAXS results are compared with those obtained by X-ray diffraction peak broadening methods. It was found that the power-law exponent (??) obtained by fitting the data in the region of q = 0.1 -0.6 nm-1 to the power law (I = Ioq-??) is a linear function of illite particle thickness. Therefore, illite particle thickness could be predicted by the linear relationship as long as the thickness is within the limit where ?? <4.0.

Shang, C.; Rice, J.A.; Eberl, D.D.; Lin, S.-J.

2003-01-01

106

Towards Small-Sized Long Tail Business with the Dual-Directed Recommendation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel architecture to promote retail businesses using information recommendation systems. The main features of the architecture are 1) Dual-directed Recommendation system, 2) Portal site for three kinds of users: Producers, Retailers, and Consumers, which are considered to be Prosumers, and 3) Agent-based implementation. We have developed a web-based system DAIKOC (Dynamic Advisor for Information and Knowledge Oriented Communities) with the above architecture. In this paper, we focus on the recommendation functions to extract the items that will achieve the large sales in the future from the ID (IDentification)-POS (Point-Of-Sales) data.

Takahashi, Masakazu; Yamada, Takashi; Tsuda, Kazuhiko; Terano, Takao

107

Investigation of small motors operating under the Huber effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Huber effect is an interesting and potential useful means for creating extremely small and simple motors. It is based on the observation that torque is produced when current is passed through a rotating ball bearing. This paper reviews the alternative explanations for its operation and describes the design, construction and characterization of two prototype ball-bearing motors based on high precision miniature ball bearings. A key limitation of earlier work has been difficulties in repeatability due to rapid wear of the motor. This was overcome by using a data acquisition system to record the dynamic acceleration characteristics and hence predict acceleration torque versus speed characteristics.

Lauterbach, Adam P.; Soong, Wen L.; Abbott, Derek

2001-03-01

108

Specific microbiota direct the differentiation of Th17 cells in the mucosa of the small intestine  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY IL-17-producing T-helper cells (Th17) are potent effectors of inflammation, but little is known about the requirements for their differentiation in vivo at steady state. We found that specific commensal microbiota are required for Th17 cell differentiation in the lamina propria (LP) of the small intestine. Differentiation of Th17 cells correlated with presence of Cytophaga-Flavobacter-Bacteroidetes bacteria in the intestine, was independent of TLR, IL-21 or IL-23 signaling, but required appropriate activation of TGF-?. Absence of Th17 cell-inducing bacteria was accompanied by increased Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the LP. Our results suggest that the composition of the microbiota regulates the Th17:Treg balance in the lamina propria and may thus influence intestinal immunity, tolerance, and susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:18854238

Ivanov, Ivaylo Ivanov; de Llanos Frutos, Rosa; Manel, Nicolas; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Sartor, R. Balfour; Finlay, B. Brett; Littman, Dan R.

2008-01-01

109

Improving image contrast for the direct detection of exoplanets at small inner working angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of extrasolar planets, using both space- and ground-based telescopes, is one of the most exciting fields in astronomy today, with the ultimate goal of the direct direction of earth-like planets in the habitable zone. It is with this vision that the explorer mission EXCEDE selected by NASA for technology development, is designed. EXCEDE (Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environment and Disk Explorer) is composed of a 0.7 m telescope equipped with a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Coronagraph (PIAA-C) and a 2000-element MEMS deformable mirror, capable of raw contrasts of 10-6 at 1.2 ?/D and 10-7 above 2 ?/D. Obtaining these contrasts requires precise wavefront control algorithms used in conjuncture with deformable mirrors. Unlike other optical systems, where the goal is to obtain the best wavefront, we aim at canceling the diffracted light coming from the parent star in a specific region to increase signal-to-noise of the planet. To do so, we use wavefront control techniques, such as Electric Field Conjugation (EFC) and speckle nulling, already developed and soon to be operational on 8-m class telescopes. One caveat is that the demonstration was done at moderate separations (r> 3?/D).In this paper, we present tricks and techniques to perform high-contrast imaging at 1.2 ?/d using the NASA Ames Coronagraph Experiment testbed.

Thomas, Sandrine; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Lozi, Julien; Belikov, Rusland; Witteborn, Fred; Greene, Thomas; Schneider, Glenn; Guyon, Olivier

2013-09-01

110

Direct cardiovascular effects of glucagon like peptide-1  

PubMed Central

Current gold standard therapeutic strategies for T2DM target insulin resistance or ? cell dysfunction as their core mechanisms of action. However, the use of traditional anti-diabetic drugs, in most cases, does not significantly reduce macrovascular morbidity and mortality. Among emerging anti-diabetic candidates, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) based therapies carry special cardiovascular implications, exerting both direct as well as indirect effects. The direct cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 and its analogs remain the focus of this review. PMID:23988189

2013-01-01

111

Direct and Indirect Effects of PM on the Cardiovascular System  

PubMed Central

Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. PMID:22119171

Nelin, Timothy D.; Joseph, Allan M.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

2011-01-01

112

Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Materials and Methods Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two direct and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. Effective doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. Results The effective doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 µSv and 37.8 µSv. By using the head phantom, the effective doses from the direct digital panoramic units (37.8 µSv, 27.6 µSv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 µSv, 15.9 µSv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in effective doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. Conclusion To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the effective doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the effective doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom. PMID:23807930

Lee, Gun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob

2013-01-01

113

Health and environmental effects profile for Direct Brown 95  

SciTech Connect

The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Direct Brown 95 was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for Direct Brown 95 is 9.3 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for Direct Brown 95 is 100.

Not Available

1987-03-01

114

Small power plants; Seminar on Small Power Plants - Technology and Cost Effectiveness, Technische Universitaet Wien, Vienna, Austria, January 15, 16, 1981, Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in the production of small power plants is discussed. The topics considered include small power plants in Switzerland, the BRD, and Hungary, and the use of nontraditional energy sources in the USSR. The economic aspects of small power plants are examined, and direct and indirect means of producing solar energy are studied. The direct forms include the Austrian 10-kW

L. Bauer

1981-01-01

115

New multi-target-directed small molecules against Alzheimer's disease: a combination of resveratrol and clioquinol.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently one of the most difficult and challenging diseases to treat. Based on the ‘multi-target-directed ligands’ (MTDLs) strategy, we designed and synthesised a series of new compounds against AD by combining the pharmacophores of resveratrol and clioquinol. The results of biological activity tests showed that the hybrids exhibited excellent MTDL properties: a significant ability to inhibit self-induced ?-amyloid (A?) aggregation and copper(II)-induced A? aggregation, potential antioxidant behaviour (ORAC-FL value of 0.9–3.2 Trolox equivalents) and biometal chelation. Among these compounds, (E)-5-(4-hydroxystyryl)quinoline-8-ol (10c) showed the most potent ability to inhibit self-induced A? aggregation (IC50 = 8.50 ?M) and copper(II)-induced A? aggregation and to disassemble the well-structured A? fibrils generated by self- and copper(II)-induced A? aggregation. Note that 10c could also control Cu(I/II)-triggered hydroxyl radical (OH?) production by halting copper redox cycling via metal complexation, as confirmed by a Cu–ascorbate redox system assay. Importantly, 10c did not show acute toxicity in mice at doses of up to 2000 mg kg?1 and was able to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), according to a parallel artificial membrane permeation assay. These results indicate that compound 10c is a promising multifunctional compound for the development of novel drugs for AD. PMID:24986600

Mao, Fei; Yan, Jun; Li, Jianheng; Jia, Xian; Miao, Hui; Sun, Yang; Huang, Ling; Li, Xingshu

2014-08-21

116

Small Molecule-directed Immunotherapy against Recurrent Infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis*  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis remains the biggest infectious threat to humanity with one-third of the population infected and 1.4 million deaths and 8.7 million new cases annually. Current tuberculosis therapy is lengthy and consists of multiple antimicrobials, which causes poor compliance and high treatment dropout, resulting in the development of drug-resistant variants of tuberculosis. Therefore, alternate methods to treat tuberculosis are urgently needed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades host immune responses by inducing T helper (Th)2 and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses, which diminish protective Th1 responses. Here, we show that animals (Stat-6?/?CD4-TGF?RIIDN mice) that are unable to generate both Th2 cells and Tregs are highly resistant to M. tuberculosis infection. Furthermore, simultaneous inhibition of these two subsets of Th cells by therapeutic compounds dramatically reduced bacterial burden in different organs. This treatment was associated with the generation of protective Th1 immune responses. As these therapeutic agents are not directed to the harbored organisms, they should avoid the risk of promoting the development of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis variants. PMID:24711459

Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Maiga, Mamoudou; Maiga, Mariama; Van Kaer, Luc; Bishai, William R.; Das, Gobardhan

2014-01-01

117

Small molecule-directed immunotherapy against recurrent infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis remains the biggest infectious threat to humanity with one-third of the population infected and 1.4 million deaths and 8.7 million new cases annually. Current tuberculosis therapy is lengthy and consists of multiple antimicrobials, which causes poor compliance and high treatment dropout, resulting in the development of drug-resistant variants of tuberculosis. Therefore, alternate methods to treat tuberculosis are urgently needed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades host immune responses by inducing T helper (Th)2 and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses, which diminish protective Th1 responses. Here, we show that animals (Stat-6(-/-)CD4-TGF?RIIDN mice) that are unable to generate both Th2 cells and Tregs are highly resistant to M. tuberculosis infection. Furthermore, simultaneous inhibition of these two subsets of Th cells by therapeutic compounds dramatically reduced bacterial burden in different organs. This treatment was associated with the generation of protective Th1 immune responses. As these therapeutic agents are not directed to the harbored organisms, they should avoid the risk of promoting the development of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis variants. PMID:24711459

Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Maiga, Mamoudou; Maiga, Mariama; Van Kaer, Luc; Bishai, William R; Das, Gobardhan

2014-06-01

118

Synthesis of stable ultra-small Cu nanoparticles for direct writing flexible electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, pure Cu nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized and the Cu nano-ink was prepared for direct writing on photo paper using a roller pen. The tri-sodium citrate was used as initial reducing-cum-surfactant agent followed by hydrazine as a second massive reducing agent and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as extra surfactant agent. From the XRD, TEM, and HR-TEM analyses, the synthesized particles are confirmed to be Cu in spherical shape with sizes range of 2.5 ± 1.0 nm. By analyzing the FT-IR spectroscopy and TGA curves, it was found that the obtained particles capped with tri-sodium citrate and CTAB layers are stable to oxidation up to the temperature 228 °C. The reduced size and enhanced air-stability of the Cu NPs result in an improved particle density upon sintering, which is mainly responsible for the increased conductivity of the Cu patterns. The resistivity of Cu patterns sintered in Ar at 160 °C for 2 h is 7.2 ± 0.6 ?? cm, which is 4.40 times the bulk Cu resistivity. The drawn Cu lines exhibited excellent integrity and good conductivity, which were experimentally tested. Moreover, a Cu electrode and a sample RFID antenna were successfully made.

Li, Wei; Chen, Minfang

2014-01-01

119

Effect-Directed Analysis of Mutagens in Ambient Airborne Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the major advances and challenges in effect-directed analysis (EDA) of mutagenic chemicals in ambient\\u000a airborne particles. Mutagens are chemicals that can cause mutations – inheritable changes in the genetic code that can give\\u000a rise to adverse health effects. The majority of studies dealing with EDA of mutagens in airborne particles combine liquid\\u000a chromatographic fractionation of particle extracts

John L. Durant; Arthur L. Lafleur

120

Effects of Directed Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness  

E-print Network

Effects of Directed Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness Laura L. Ten Eyck1 Children engaged in regular physical activity during 2005. As consumers, we are inundated with advertising, news Preven- tion Program, Children's Medical Center Dallas, 1935 Medical District Drive, Dallas, TX 75235. E

Cooper, Brenton G.

121

Religion and Euroscepticism: Direct, Indirect or No Effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking as starting points the (growing) political significance of religion and increasing scepticism towards European integration, this study sets out to investigate the impact of religious divides and religiosity on attitudes towards the EU, both on the micro and on the macro level. In addition to considering direct effects, it focuses on the mediated nature of relationships between religion and

Hajo G. Boomgaarden; André Freire

2009-01-01

122

Changing Directions: Young People and Effective Work against Racism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores effective approaches against racism in work with young people, and the relevance of new policy agendas in the UK. Since the 2001 disturbances, the UK has controversially prioritised "Community Cohesion", with the accusation that this new direction represents the "death of multiculturalism". Drawing on empirical evidence from…

Thomas, Paul; Henri, Tom

2011-01-01

123

Direct Antidiabetic Effect of Leptin through Triglyceride Depletion of Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is currently believed to control body composition largely, if not entirely, via hypothalamic receptors that regulate food intake and thermogenesis. Here we demonstrate direct extraneural effects of leptin to deplete fat content of both adipocytes and nonadipocytes to levels far below those of pairfed controls. In cultured pancreatic islets, leptin lowered triglyceride (TG) content by preventing TG formation from

Michio Shimabukuro; Kazunori Koyama; Guoxun Chen; May-Yun Wang; Falguni Trieu; Young Lee; Christopher B. Newgard; Roger H. Unger

1997-01-01

124

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by initial receptive vocabulary knowledge measured at pretest. In

Michael D. Coyne; D. Betsy McCoach; Susan Loftus; Richard Zipoli Jr; Maureen Ruby; Yvel C. Crevecoeur; Sharon Kapp

2010-01-01

125

Mood influences on helping: Direct effects or side effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature concerning the promotive influence of experimentally generated happiness and sadness on helping suggests that (a) increased helping among saddened Ss is an instrumental response designed to dispel the helper's negative mood state, and (b) increased helping among elated Ss is not an instrumental response to (maintain) the heightened effect but is a concomitant of elevated

Gloria K. Manucia; Donald J. Baumann; Robert B. Cialdini

1984-01-01

126

Are Small Schools the Answer? Cost Effective Strategies for Rural School Provision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book compares small schools in various countries with large ones and offers cost effective strategies for small schools. Part I focuses on social, economic, and educational issues related to small schools. Small schools are beneficial to their communities as centers of social development. In addition, small schools have a more cooperative…

Bray, Mark

127

Catchment scale analysis of the effect of topography, tillage direction and unpaved roads on ephemeral gully incision  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution airphotographs and digital elevation models (DEMs) were used to study areas prone to gully incision in a small agricultural catchment in northern Israel. Data are analyzed to understand better the integrated effect of environmental and human factors on gully incision. The effect of fl ow accumulation, slope, unpaved roads density and tillage direction on gully width and length is

Tal Svoray; Hila Markovitch

2009-01-01

128

Aerosol direct radiative effect over China estimated with visibility measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a short-lived climate forcer, aerosols exhibit strong radiative effects that vary significantly across the space and time. Current understanding of the long-term variability of aerosol climate forcings is however very poor due to lack of relevant atmospheric measurements. Historic records for visibility measurements from thousands of ground meteorological stations offer a plausible tool to study the decadal and multi-decadal variability of aerosol radiative effects. As a first step, this study presents a method to estimate aerosol direct radiative effect over China based on visibility data for 2006. Visibility data from about 400 ground stations are converted to near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients, which are converted then to aerosol optical depth (AOD) based on spatially and temporally varying vertical distributions of aerosol optical properties simulated by the widely used chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. The resulting AOD data are consistent with direct measurements from the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) in regions where visibility and AOD measurement sites are close in distance. Next, the visibility-derived AOD data are combined with other aerosol optical properties adopted from GEOS-Chem, cloud data from ground stations and surface albedo data from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) to derive the direct radiative effect, by employing the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model (SBDART). Spatial and monthly variations of aerosol radiative effects are examined.

Ye, K.; Lin, J.

2012-12-01

129

Direct experimental determination of the anisotropic magnetoresistive effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an experimental study devoted to determine the magnetoresistive signals as imposed by the system magnetic anisotropy and applied current direction in a model ferromagnetic system. By having direct experimental access to the magnetization vector during the reversal (measured through angular- and field-dependent vectorial-resolved magnetization loops), we can predict both longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistive signals, i.e., anisotropic magnetoresistance and planar Hall effect. This has been done by experimentally disclosing the resistance changes occurring during (and simultaneously to) the magnetization reversal processes.

Perna, P.; Maccariello, D.; Rodrigo, C.; Cuñado, J. L. F.; Muñoz, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Niño, M. A.; Bollero, A.; Camarero, J.; Miranda, R.

2014-05-01

130

Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.  

PubMed

In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned. PMID:22897089

Sorkhabi, Nadia

2012-06-01

131

Small effective population size in the long-toed salamander.  

PubMed

The effective population sizes (Ne) of six populations of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) from Montana and Idaho, USA were estimated from allozyme data from samples collected in 1978, 1996 and 1997 using the temporal allele frequency method. Five of the six estimates ranged from 23 to 207 (mean = 123 +/- 79); one estimate was indistinguishable from infinity. In order to infer the actual Ne of salamander populations, we compared the frequency distribution of our observed Ne estimates with distributions obtained from simulated populations of known Ne. Our observed Ne estimate distribution was consistent with distributions from simulated populations with Ne values of 10, 25, and 50, suggesting an actual Ne for each of the six salamander populations of less than 100. This Ne estimate agrees with most other Ne estimates for amphibians. We conclude by discussing the conservation implications of small Ne values in amphibians in the context of increasing isolation of populations due to habitat fragmentation. PMID:10583827

Funk, W C; Tallmon, D A; Allendorf, F W

1999-10-01

132

Analytical fuel property effects, small combustors, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of nonstandard aviation fuels on a typical small gas turbine combustor was analyzed. The T700/CT7 engine family was chosen as being representative of the class of aircraft power plants desired. Fuel properties, as specified by NASA, are characterized by low hydrogen content and high aromatics levels. Higher than normal smoke output and flame radiation intensity for the current T700 combustor which serves as a baseline were anticipated. It is, therefore, predicted that out of specification smoke visibility and higher than normal shell temperatures will exist when using NASA ERBS fuels with a consequence of severe reduction in cyclic life. Three new designs are proposed to compensate for the deficiencies expected with the existing design. They have emerged as the best of the eight originally proposed redesigns or combinations thereof. After the five choices that were originally made by NASA on the basis of competing performance factors, General Electric narrowed the field to the three proposed.

Cohen, J. D.

1983-01-01

133

1Direct comparison of a genetically encoded sensor and small molecule indicator: implications for quantification of cytosolic Zn2+  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent sensors are powerful tools for visualizing and quantifying molecules and ions in living cells. A variety of small molecule and genetically encoded sensors have been developed for studying intracellular Zn2+ homeostasis and signaling, but no direct comparisons exist making it challenging for researchers to identify the appropriate sensor for a given application. Here we directly compare the widely used small molecule probe FluoZin-3 and a genetically encoded sensor, ZapCY2. We demonstrate that, in contrast to FluoZin-3, ZapCY2 exhibits a well defined cytosolic localization, provides estimates of Zn2+ concentration with little variability, does not perturb cytosolic Zn2+ levels, and exhibits rapid Zn2+ response dynamics. ZapCY2 was used to measure Zn2+ concentrations in 5 different cell types, revealing higher cytosolic Zn2+ levels in prostate cancer cells compared to normal prostate cells (although the total zinc is reduced in prostate cancer cells) , suggesting distinct regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23992616

Qin, Yan; Miranda, Jose G.; Stoddard, Caitlin I.; Dean, Kevin M.; Galati, Domenico F.; Palmer, Amy E.

2014-01-01

134

The Effectiveness of Leadership Development Programs on Small Farm Producers  

E-print Network

Although there were numerous leadership development programs throughout the country, most ignored the small producers located throughout the south. In order to address the needs of these traditionally underserved individuals, the “National Small...

Malone, Allen A.

2011-10-21

135

Effects of Interstate Banking on Small Business Lending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study investigates how bank acquisitions influence the willingness of a banking organization to lend to small businesses. The concern that bank consolidation may reduce credit availability to small businesses is related to several factors. First, duri...

J. Peek

1997-01-01

136

Direct Radiative Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Indian Summer Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies presented that direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, particularly absorbing aerosols, can affect pre-monsoon seasonal climate and hydrology. Such effect can be implemented through perturbation to the large-scale atmospheric stability by persistent aerosol forcing. Due to the population growth and industrialization, anthropogenic aerosols have markedly increased over South Asia. Using a coupled climate model, we have further analyzed the direct radiative effects of aerosols on South Asian monsoon system, especially the aerosol effects on the onset, distribution, and strength of Indian summer monsoon rainfall. With the model, several sets of 30 to 100 year-long simulations were carried out. Paired simulations including absorbing aerosols' direct radiative effects respectively with atmospheric heating, surface cooling and the total heat forcing are designed to isolate climate responses to absorbing aerosols. As relatively coarse spatial model resolution and simulation bias being considered, a new estimation method for Indian summer monsoon onset was proposed and compared with observational data. When included the total heat forcing, our model simulated the monsoon with a broader period of the onset period making the onset less predictable. The monsoon rainfall with low intensity (8 mm/day) was increased by about 0.5 mm/day and the rainfall with high intensity (10 mm/day) appeared less frequently. Forcing due to aerosols at the right place and time can alter the behavior of the monsoon system.

Shin, H.; Wang, C.

2011-12-01

137

Effective hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new concept of hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine. In general, there is a trade-off between simpler vehicle design and infrastructure issues, for instance, liquid fuels such as gasoline and methanol for small engine use. In this article we compare the hydrogen gases combination the gasoline between normal systems (gasoline only) for small engine. The advantage

Praitoon Chaiwongsa; Nithiroth Pornsuwancharoen; Preecha P. Yupapin

2009-01-01

138

Effects of Compositional Defects on Small Polaron Hopping in Micas  

SciTech Connect

Hartree-Fock calculations and electron transfer (ET) theory were used to model the effects of compositional defects on ET in the brucite-like octahedral sheet of mica. ET was modeled as a FeII/III valence interchange reaction across shared octahedral edges of the M2-M2 iron sublattice. The model entails the hopping of localized electrons and small polaron behavior. Hartree-Fock calculations indicate that substitution of F for structural OH bridges increases the reorganization energy l, decreases the electronic coupling matrix element VAB, and thereby substantially decreases the hopping rate. The l increase arises from modification of the metal-ligand bond force constants, and the VAB decrease arises from reduction of superexchange interaction through anion bridges. Deprotonation of an OH bridge, consistent with a possible mechanism of maintaining charge neutrality during net oxidation, yields a net increase in the ET rate. Although substitution of Al or Mg for Fe in M1 sites distorts the structure of adjacent Fe-occupied M2 sites, the distortion has little net impact on ET rates through these M2 sites. Hence the main effect of Al or Mg substitution for Fe, should it occur in the M2 sublattice, is to block ET pathways. Collectively, these findings pave the way for larger-scale oxidation/reduction models to be constructed for realistic, compositionally diverse micas

Rosso, Kevin M.; Ilton, Eugene S.

2005-06-01

139

Effects of compositional defects on small polaron hopping in micas.  

PubMed

Hartree-Fock calculations and electron transfer (ET) theory were used to model the effects of compositional defects on ET in the brucite-like octahedral sheet of mica. ET was modeled as an Fe(IIIII) valence interchange reaction across shared octahedral edges of the M2-M2 iron sublattice. The model entails the hopping of localized electrons and small polaron behavior. Hartree-Fock calculations indicate that substitution of F for structural OH bridges increases the reorganization energy lambda, decreases the electronic coupling matrix element V(AB), and thereby substantially decreases the hopping rate. The lambda increase arises from modification of the metal-ligand bond force constants, and the V(AB) decrease arises from reduction of superexchange interaction through anion bridges. Deprotonation of an OH bridge, consistent with a possible mechanism of maintaining charge neutrality during net oxidation, yields a net increase in the ET rate. Although substitution of Al or Mg for Fe in M1 sites distorts the structure of adjacent Fe-occupied M2 sites, the distortion has little net impact on ET rates through these M2 sites. Hence the main effect of Al or Mg substitution for Fe, should it occur in the M2 sublattice, is to block ET pathways. Collectively, these findings pave the way for larger-scale oxidation/reduction models to be constructed for realistic, compositionally diverse micas. PMID:16035795

Rosso, Kevin M; Ilton, Eugene S

2005-06-22

140

Effect of spine hardware on small spinal stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of a 6 MV photon beam was used to study the dose perturbation from a titanium rod 5 mm in diameter in various small fields range from 2 × 2 to 5 × 5 cm2. The results showed that the rod increased the dose to water by ˜6% at the water-rod interface because of electron backscattering and decreased the dose by ˜7% in the shadow of the rod because of photon attenuation. The Pinnacle3 treatment planning system calculations matched the MC results at the depths more than 1 cm past the rod when the correct titanium density of 4.5 g cm-3 was used, but significantly underestimated the backscattering dose at the water-rod interface. A CT-density table with a top density of 1.82 g cm-3 (cortical bone) is a practical way to reduce the dosimetric error from the artifacts by preventing high density assignment to them, but can underestimates the attenuation by the titanium rod by 6%. However, when multi-beam with intensity modulation is used in actual patient spinal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, the dosimetric effect of assigning 4.5 instead of 1.82 g cm-3 to titanium implants is complicated. It ranged from minimal effect to 2% dose difference affecting 15% target volume in the study. When hardware is in the beam path, density override to the titanium hardware is recommended.

Wang, Xin; Yang, James N.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Tailor, Ramesh; Vassilliev, Oleg; Brown, Paul; Rhines, Laurence; Chang, Eric

2013-10-01

141

Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses  

SciTech Connect

We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-12-31

142

Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses  

SciTech Connect

We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology); Rose, K.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-01-01

143

Effect of Speed (Centrifugal Load) on Gear Crack Propagation Direction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of rotational speed (centrifugal force) on gear crack propagation direction was explored. Gears were analyzed using finite element analysis and linear elastic fracture mechanics. The analysis was validated with crack propagation experiments performed in a spur gear fatigue rig. The effects of speed, rim thickness, and initial crack location on gear crack propagation direction were investigated. Crack paths from the finite element method correlated well with those deduced from gear experiments. For the test gear with a backup ratio (rim thickness divided by tooth height) of nib = 0.5, cracks initiating in the tooth fillet propagated to rim fractures when run at a speed of 10,000 rpm and became tooth fractures for speeds slower than 10,000 rpm for both the experiments and anal sis. From additional analysis, speed had little effect on crack propagation direction except when initial crack locations were near the tooth/rim fracture transition point for a given backup ratio. When at that point, higher speeds tended to promote rim fracture while lower speeds (or neglecting centrifugal force) produced tooth fractures.

Lewicki, David G.

2001-01-01

144

Direct and indirect effects of the glyphosate formulation Glifosato Atanor® on freshwater microbial communities.  

PubMed

Glyphosate-based formulations are among the most widely used herbicides in the world. The effect of the formulation Glifosato Atanor(®) on freshwater microbial communities (phytoplankton, bacterioplankton, periphyton and zooplankton) was assessed through a manipulative experiment using six small outdoor microcosms of small volume. Three of the microcosms were added with 3.5 mg l(-1) of glyphosate whereas the other three were left as controls without the herbicide. The treated microcosms showed a significant increase in total phosphorus, not fully explained by the glyphosate present in the Glifosato Atanor(®). Therefore, part of the phosphorus should have come from the surfactants of the formulation. The results showed significant direct and indirect effects of Glifosato Atanor(®) on the microbial communities. A single application of the herbicide caused a fast increase both in the abundance of bacterioplankton and planktonic picocyanobacteria and in chlorophyll a concentration in the water column. Although metabolic alterations related to oxidative stress were induced in the periphyton community, the herbicide favored its development, with a large contribution of filamentous algae typical of nutrient-rich systems, with shallow and calm waters. An indirect effect of the herbicide on the zooplankton was observed due to the increase in the abundance of the rotifer Lecane spp. as a consequence of the improved food availability given by picocyanobacteria and bacteria. The formulation affected directly a fraction of copepods as a target. It was concluded that the Glifosato Atanor(®) accelerates the deterioration of the water quality, especially when considering small-volume water systems. PMID:22539117

Vera, María Solange; Di Fiori, Eugenia; Lagomarsino, Leonardo; Sinistro, Rodrigo; Escaray, Roberto; Iummato, María Mercedes; Juárez, Angela; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen; Tell, Guillermo; Pizarro, Haydée

2012-10-01

145

Direct mapping of nuclear shell effects in the heaviest elements  

E-print Network

Quantum-mechanical shell effects are expected to strongly enhance nuclear binding on an "island of stability" of superheavy elements. The predicted center at proton number $Z=114,120$, or $126$ and neutron number $N=184$ has been substantiated by the recent synthesis of new elements up to $Z=118$. However the location of the center and the extension of the island of stability remain vague. High-precision mass spectrometry allows the direct measurement of nuclear binding energies and thus the determination of the strength of shell effects. Here, we present such measurements for nobelium and lawrencium isotopes, which also pin down the deformed shell gap at $N=152$.

E. Minaya Ramirez; D. Ackermann; K. Blaum; M. Block; C. Droese; Ch. E. Düllmann; M. Dworschak; M. Eibach; S. Eliseev; E. Haettner; F. Herfurth; F. P. Heßberger; S. Hofmann; J. Ketelaer; G. Marx; M. Mazzocco; D. Nesterenko; Yu. N. Novikov; W. R. Plaß; D. Rodríguez; C. Scheidenberger; L. Schweikhard; P. G. Thirolf; C. Weber

2014-06-25

146

Direct mapping of nuclear shell effects in the heaviest elements  

E-print Network

Quantum-mechanical shell effects are expected to strongly enhance nuclear binding on an "island of stability" of superheavy elements. The predicted center at proton number $Z=114,120$, or $126$ and neutron number $N=184$ has been substantiated by the recent synthesis of new elements up to $Z=118$. However the location of the center and the extension of the island of stability remain vague. High-precision mass spectrometry allows the direct measurement of nuclear binding energies and thus the determination of the strength of shell effects. Here, we present such measurements for nobelium and lawrencium isotopes, which also pin down the deformed shell gap at $N=152$.

Ramirez, E Minaya; Blaum, K; Block, M; Droese, C; Düllmann, Ch E; Dworschak, M; Eibach, M; Eliseev, S; Haettner, E; Herfurth, F; Heßberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Ketelaer, J; Marx, G; Mazzocco, M; Nesterenko, D; Novikov, Yu N; Plaß, W R; Rodríguez, D; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L; Thirolf, P G; Weber, C

2014-01-01

147

Direct mapping of nuclear shell effects in the heaviest elements.  

PubMed

Quantum-mechanical shell effects are expected to strongly enhance nuclear binding on an "island of stability" of superheavy elements. The predicted center at proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and neutron number N = 184 has been substantiated by the recent synthesis of new elements up to Z = 118. However, the location of the center and the extension of the island of stability remain vague. High-precision mass spectrometry allows the direct measurement of nuclear binding energies and thus the determination of the strength of shell effects. Here, we present such measurements for nobelium and lawrencium isotopes, which also pin down the deformed shell gap at N = 152. PMID:22878498

Minaya Ramirez, E; Ackermann, D; Blaum, K; Block, M; Droese, C; Düllmann, Ch E; Dworschak, M; Eibach, M; Eliseev, S; Haettner, E; Herfurth, F; Heßberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Ketelaer, J; Marx, G; Mazzocco, M; Nesterenko, D; Novikov, Yu N; Plaß, W R; Rodríguez, D; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L; Thirolf, P G; Weber, C

2012-09-01

148

Effects of ADARs on small RNA processing pathways in C. elegans.  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are RNA editing enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). To evaluate effects of ADARs on small RNAs that derive from dsRNA precursors, we performed deep-sequencing, comparing small RNAs from wild-type and ADAR mutant Caenorhabditis elegans. While editing in small RNAs was rare, at least 40% of microRNAs had altered levels in at least one ADAR mutant strain, and miRNAs with significantly altered levels had mRNA targets with correspondingly affected levels. About 40% of siRNAs derived from endogenous genes (endo-siRNAs) also had altered levels in at least one mutant strain, including 63% of Dicer-dependent endo-siRNAs. The 26G class of endo-siRNAs was significantly affected by ADARs, and many altered 26G loci had intronic reads and histone modifications associated with transcriptional silencing. Our data indicate that ADARs, through both direct and indirect mechanisms, are important for maintaining wild-type levels of many small RNAs in C. elegans. PMID:22673872

Warf, M Bryan; Shepherd, Brent A; Johnson, W Evan; Bass, Brenda L

2012-08-01

149

Effects of desert wildfires on desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and other small vertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report the results of standardized surveys to determine the effects of wildfires on desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and their habitats in the northeastern Mojave Desert and northeastern Sonoran Desert. Portions of 6 burned areas (118 to 1,750 ha) were examined for signs of mortality of vertebrates. Direct effects of fire in desert habitats included animal mortality and loss of vegetation cover. A range of 0 to 7 tortoises was encountered during surveys, and live tortoises were found on all transects. In addition to desert tortoises, only small (<1 kg) mammals and reptiles (11 taxa) were found dead on the study areas. We hypothesize that indirect effects of fire on desert habitats might result in changes in the composition of diets and loss of vegetation cover, resulting in an increase in predation and loss of protection from temperature extremes. These changes in habitat also might cause changes in vertebrate communities in burned areas.

Esque, T. C.; Schwalbe, C. R.; Defalco, L. A.; Duncan, R. B.; Hughes, T. J.

2003-01-01

150

The study of effects of small perturbations on chaotic systems  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics on small perturbations on chaotic systems: controlling chaos; shadowing and noise reduction; chaotic scattering; random maps; magnetic dynamo; and aids transmission. (LSP)

Grebogi, C. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA). Lab. for Plasma Research); Yorke, J.A. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA). Inst. for Physical Science and Technology)

1990-12-01

151

Effective hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new concept of hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine. In general, there is a trade-off between simpler vehicle design and infrastructure issues, for instance, liquid fuels such as gasoline and methanol for small engine use. In this article we compare the hydrogen gases combination the gasoline between normal systems (gasoline only) for small engine. The advantage of the hydrogen combines gasoline for small engine saving the gasoline 25%. Furthermore, the new concept of hydrogen combination for diesel engine, bio-diesel engine, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas vehicle (NGV), which is discussed in details.

Chaiwongsa, Praitoon; Pornsuwancharoen, Nithiroth; Yupapin, Preecha P.

152

Small Heteroborane Cluster Systems. 6. Mössbauer Effect Study of Iron Substituted Small Metallaborane Clusters.  

PubMed

The Mössbauer effect spectra for a series of small [Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(x)()] substituted metallaborane complexes are reported, where x = 1 or 2. The pentaborane cage in compounds [Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2)B(5)H(7)P(C(6)H(5))(2)] (1), [Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2)B(5)H(8)] (2), and [(Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2))(2)B(5)H(7)] (3) was found to act as a significantly better donor ligand than the ligands in a comparison group of previously reported [Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)LX] complexes, where L = CO or PPh(3) and X = halide, pseudohalide, or alkyl ligands. These metallaborane complexes were found to most resemble their silyl analogues in Mössbauer spectral parameters and the electronic distribution around the iron centers. In addition, the Mössbauer data showed that the [&mgr;-2,3-(P(C(6)H(5))(2)B(5)H(7)](-) ligand was a superior donor to the corresponding unsubstituted [B(5)H(8)](-) ligand. The Mössbauer spectral results for the metallaborane complexes studied were found to be in general agreement with the anticipated donor and accepting bonding considerations for the cage ligands based upon their infrared and (11)B NMR spectra and X-ray structural features. The Mössbauer data for the [Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)B(4)H(6)(P(C(6)H(5))(2))] (4) and [Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)B(3)H(7)(P(C(6)H(5))(2))] (5) complexes, in comparison with compound 1, showed that as the borane cage becomes progressively smaller, it becomes a poorer donor ligand. A qualitative relationship was found between the observed Mössbauer isomer shift data and the number of boron cage vertices for the structurally related [Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(x)B(y)H(z)P(C(6)H(5))(2)] complexes, where x = 1 or 2, y = 3-5, and z = 6 or 7. The X-ray crystallographic data for compounds 1, 2, 5, and [Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)B(5)H(8)] (6) were also found to agree with the trends observed in the Mössbauer spectra which showed that the s-electron density on the iron nucleus increases in the order 5 < 6 < 2 < 1. The X-ray crystal structure of complex 2 is also reported. Crystallographic data for 2: space group P2(1)/c (No. 14, monoclinic), a = 6.084(3) Å, b = 15.045(8) Å, c = 13.449(7) Å, beta = 99.69(5) degrees, V = 1213(1) Å(3), Z = 4 molecules/cell. PMID:11666807

Goodreau, Bruce H.; Orlando, Lianna R.; Long, Gary J.; Spencer, James T.

1996-10-23

153

Direct coupling of annexin A5 to VSOP yields small, protein-covered nanoprobes for MR imaging of apoptosis.  

PubMed

Annexin A5 (Anx) has been extensively used for imaging apoptosis by single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, optical imaging and MRI. Recently we introduced ultrasmall Anx-VSOP (very small iron oxide particles)--the smallest high-relaxivity probe for MRI of apoptosis. Here we present a simplified method for the direct coupling of Anx to VSOP, which resulted in nanoparticles that are nearly completely covered with human Anx. These superparamagnetic nanoparticles are only 14.4 ± 2.3 nm in diameter and have higher T2* relaxivity. Compared with existing probes, the small size and the Anx shielding provide prerequisites for good biocompatibility and bioavailability in target tissues. In vitro characterization showed specific binding of Anx-VSOP to apoptotic cells, which led to a signal loss in T2*-weighted MR measurements, while control probe M1324-VSOP produced no such change. Exploratory MRI was done in vivo in a cardiac model of ischemia-reperfusion damage illustrating the potential of the probe for future studies. PMID:24706613

Figge, Lena; Appler, Franziska; Chen, Howard H; Sosnovik, David E; Schnorr, Jörg; Seitz, Oliver; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Schellenberger, Eyk

2014-01-01

154

Stochastic Control Problems where Small Intervention Costs Have Big Effects  

SciTech Connect

We study an impulse control problem where the cost of interfering in a stochastic system with an impulse of size {zeta} element of R is given by c+{lambda} vertical bar {zeta} vertical bar , where c and {lambda} are positive constants. We call {lambda} the proportional cost coefficient and c the intervention cost . We find the value/cost function V{sub c} for this problem for each c>0 and we show that lim{sub c{sup yields}{sub 0}+}V{sub c}=W , where W is the value function for the corresponding singular stochastic control problem. Our main result is that dV{sub c}/dc = {infinity} at c=0. This illustrates that the introduction of an intervention cost c>0 , however small, into a system can have a big effect on the value function: the increase in the value function is in no proportion to the increase in c (from c=0 )

Oksendal, B. [Department of Mathematics, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1053, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway) and Institute of Finance and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Helleveien 30, N-5035 Bergen-Sandviken (Norway)

1999-11-15

155

A Flexible Stent with Small Intestinal Submucosa Covering for Direct Intrahepatic Portocaval Shunt: Experimental Pilot Study in Swine  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of the flexible sandwich Zilver stent-graft (SZSG) with a biologically active tissue layer (small intestinal submucosa) for creation of the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided direct intrahepatic portocaval shunt (DIPS) was explored in six young swine in a search for a flexible system to replace the rigid polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stent originally used by this group with limited success. The portal vein was punctured from the inferior vena cava through the caudate lobe of the liver using IVUS guidance. After balloon dilation of the puncture tract, DIPS was successfully created in all animals with use of an SZSG 9 mm in diameter and 6 cm or 8 cm long. Only one DIPS remained well patent at 14 days when the animal had to be killed because of encephalopathy. DIPS in the other five animals were found to be either severely stenosed (3 animals) or occluded (2 animals) at 4 weeks due to accelerated formation of neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) in the liver parenchymal portion of the shunt and superimposed thrombosis. The lack of high pressure in the portal system contributed to early endograft closure. The flexible stent and the covering fail badly. The reason for this could be due to either component. More work is required to find a reliable flexible system with long-term patency. Exploration of the IVUS-guided direct extrahepatic portocaval shunt is suggested.

Niyyati, Mahtab; Petersen, Bryan D.; Pavcnik, Dusan, E-mail: pavcnikd@ohsu.edu; Uchida, Barry T.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Hiraki, Takao; Wu Renghong; Brountzos, Elias; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef [Oregon Health and Science University, Dotter Interventional Institute (United States)

2005-04-15

156

Folding free energy surfaces of three small proteins under crowding: validation of the postprocessing method by direct simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a ‘postprocessing’ method for modeling biochemical processes such as protein folding under crowded conditions (Qin and Zhou 2009 Biophys. J. 97 12-19). In contrast to the direct simulation approach, in which the protein undergoing folding is simulated along with crowders, the postprocessing method requires only the folding simulation without crowders. The influence of the crowders is then obtained by taking conformations from the crowder-free simulation and calculating the free energies of transferring to the crowders. This postprocessing yields the folding free energy surface of the protein under crowding. Here the postprocessing results for the folding of three small proteins under ‘repulsive’ crowding are validated by those obtained previously by the direct simulation approach (Mittal and Best 2010 Biophys. J. 98 315-20). This validation confirms the accuracy of the postprocessing approach and highlights its distinct advantages in modeling biochemical processes under cell-like crowded conditions, such as enabling an atomistic representation of the test proteins.

Qin, Sanbo; Mittal, Jeetain; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

2013-08-01

157

Small- and Large-Effect Quantitative Trait Locus Interactions Underlie Variation in Yeast Sporulation Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) with small effects on phenotypic variation can be difficult to detect and analyze. Because of this a large fraction of the genetic architecture of many complex traits is not well understood. Here we use sporulation efficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model complex trait to identify and study small-effect QTL. In crosses where the large-effect quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) have been genetically fixed we identify small-effect QTL that explain approximately half of the remaining variation not explained by the major effects. We find that small-effect QTL are often physically linked to large-effect QTL and that there are extensive genetic interactions between small- and large-effect QTL. A more complete understanding of quantitative traits will require a better understanding of the numbers, effect sizes, and genetic interactions of small-effect QTL. PMID:22942125

Lorenz, Kim; Cohen, Barak A.

2012-01-01

158

The effect of directivity in a PSHA framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to introduce a refined representation of the ground motion in the framework of the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). This study is especially oriented to the incorporation of a priori information about source parameters, by focusing on the directivity effect and its influence on seismic hazard maps. Two strategies have been followed. One considers the seismic source as an extended source, and it is valid when the PSHA seismogenetic sources are represented as fault segments. We show that the incorporation of variables related to the directivity effect can lead to variations up to 20 per cent of the hazard level in case of dip-slip faults with uniform distribution of hypocentre location, in terms of spectral acceleration response at 5 s, exceeding probability of 10 per cent in 50 yr. The second one concerns the more general problem of the seismogenetic areas, where each point is a seismogenetic source having the same chance of enucleate a seismic event. In our proposition the point source is associated to the rupture-related parameters, defined using a statistical description. As an example, we consider a source point of an area characterized by strike-slip faulting style. With the introduction of the directivity correction the modulation of the hazard map reaches values up to 100 per cent (for strike-slip, unilateral faults). The introduction of directivity does not increase uniformly the hazard level, but acts more like a redistribution of the estimation that is consistent with the fault orientation. A general increase appears only when no a priori information is available. However, nowadays good a priori knowledge exists on style of faulting, dip and orientation of faults associated to the majority of the seismogenetic zones of the present seismic hazard maps. The percentage of variation obtained is strongly dependent on the type of model chosen to represent analytically the directivity effect. Therefore, it is our aim to emphasize more on the methodology following which, all the information collected may be easily converted to obtain a more comprehensive and meaningful probabilistic seismic hazard formulation.

Spagnuolo, E.; Herrero, A.; Cultrera, G.

2012-09-01

159

Direct Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Prorenin on Microglia  

PubMed Central

Neuroinflammation has been implicated in hypertension, and microglia have been proposed to play an important role in the progression of this disease. Here, we have studied whether microglia are activated within cardiovascular regulatory area(s) of the brain during hypertension, especially in high blood pressure that is associated with chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-system. In addition, we determined whether prorenin, an essential component of the renin-angiotensin-system, exerts direct pro-inflammatory effects on these microglia. Our data indicate that two rodent models which display neurogenic hypertension and over activation of the renin-angiotensin-system in the brain (sRA mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats) exhibit microglial activation, and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an area crucial for regulation of sympathetic outflow. Further, the renin-angiotensin-system component prorenin elicits direct activation of hypothalamic microglia in culture and induction of pro-inflammatory mechanisms in these cells, effects that involve prorenin receptor-induced NF?B activation. In addition, the prorenin-elicited increases in cytokine expression were fully abolished by microglial inhibitor minocycline, and were potentiated by pre-treatment of cells with angiotensin II. Taken together with our previous data which indicate that pro-inflammatory processes in the paraventricular nucleus are involved in the hypertensive action of renin-angiotensin-system, the novel discovery that prorenin exerts direct stimulatory effects on microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production provides support for the idea that renin-angiotensin-system -induced neurogenic hypertension is not restricted to actions of angiotensin II alone. PMID:25302502

Shi, Peng; Grobe, Justin L.; Desland, Fiona A.; Zhou, Guannan; Shen, Xiao Z.; Shan, Zhiying; Liu, Meng; Raizada, Mohan K.; Sumners, Colin

2014-01-01

160

Aerosol direct and indirect radiative effect over Eastern Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present results from the QUADIEEMS project which is focused on the aerosol-cloud relations and the aerosol direct and indirect radiative effect over the region of Eastern Mediterranean. First, a gridded dataset at a resolution of 0.1x0.1 degrees (~10km) with aerosol and cloud related parameters was compiled, using level-2 satellite observations from MODIS TERRA (3/2000-12/2012) and AQUA (7/2002-12/2012). The aerosol gridded dataset has been validated against sunphotometric measurements from 12 AERONET ground stations, showing that generally MODIS overestimates aerosol optical depth (AOD550). Then, the AOD550 and fine mode ratio (FMR550) data from MODIS were combined with aerosol index (AI) data from the Earth Probe TOMS and OMI satellite sensors, wind field data from the ERA-interim reanalysis and AOD550 data for various aerosol types from the GOCART model and the MACC reanalysis to quantify the relative contribution of different aerosol types (marine, dust, anthropogenic, fine-mode natural) to the total AOD550. The aerosol-cloud relations over the region were investigated with the use of the joint high resolution aerosol-cloud gridded dataset. Specifically, we focused on the seasonal relations between the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and AOD550. The aerosol direct and first indirect radiative effect was then calculated for each aerosol type separately making use of the aerosol relative contribution to the total AOD550, the CDND-AOD550 relations and satellite-based parameterizations. The direct radiative effect was also quantified using simulations from a regional climate model (REGCM4), simulations with a radiative transfer model (SBDART) and the three methods were finally intervalidated.

Georgoulias, Aristeidis; Alexandri, Georgia; Zanis, Prodromos; Ntogras, Christos; Poeschl, Ulrich; Kourtidis, Kostas

161

Experimental studies of the direct flexoelectric effect in bone materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric effect in biological tissues has been attracting research interest due to the hypothesis that it may behave as a biological transducer, which can convert external stimuli into biologically-recognizable signals capable of controlling growth or resorptive processes. The piezoelectric effect in dried bone materials was first observed in 1957 [1]. A link between the effect and the adaptive response of bone cells was proposed in 1970 [2]. In this paper, we report our recent measurements on the direct flexoelectric effect in bone materials. Our specimens are both dried and wet bones. The origin of both piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity in bone may be ascribed to the crystalline alignment of the micelle of collagen molecules. The Curie group symmetries of the configuration of collagen fibres in the bone texture demonstrate the existence of both effects. However, our experimental results show that the piezoelectric responses in bone materials may be dominated by flexoelectricity at the micro and nano scales. Finally, we propose a link between the flexoelectric effect and bone spur (osteophyte). [1] E. Fukada and I. Yasuda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 1158 (1957). [2] A. Marino and R. Becker, Nature 228, 78 (1970).

Fu, John

2010-03-01

162

A Three-way Decomposition of a Total Effect into Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects  

PubMed Central

Recent theory in causal inference has provided concepts for mediation analysis and effect decomposition that allow one to decompose a total effect into a direct and an indirect effect. Here, it is shown that what is often taken as an indirect effect can in fact be further decomposed into a “pure” indirect effect and a mediated interactive effect, thus yielding a three-way decomposition of a total effect (direct, indirect, and interactive). This three-way decomposition applies to difference scales and also to additive ratio scales and additive hazard scales. Assumptions needed for the identification of each of these three effects are discussed and simple formulae are given for each when regression models allowing for interaction are used. The three-way decomposition is illustrated by examples from genetic and perinatal epidemiology, and discussion is given to what is gained over the traditional two-way decomposition into simply a direct and an indirect effect. PMID:23354283

VanderWeele, Tyler J.

2013-01-01

163

A rapid and cost effective method in purifying small RNA.  

PubMed

Purification of RNA fragments from a complex mixture is a very common technique, and requires consideration of the time, cost, purity and yield of the purified RNA fragments. This study describes the fastest method of purifying small RNA with the lowest cost possible, without compromizing the yield and purity. The technique describes the purification of small RNA from polyacrylamide gel, resulting in a good yield of small RNA with minimum experimental steps in avoiding degradation of the RNA, obviating the use of ethidium bromide and phenol-chloroform extraction, as well as siliconized glass wools to remove the polyacrylamide gel particles. The purified small RNA is suitable for a wide variety of applications such as ligation, end labelling with radio isotope, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-PCR), Northern blotting, experimental RNomics study and also Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). PMID:22806785

Citartan, Marimuthu; Tan, Soo-Choon; Tang, Thean-Hock

2012-01-01

164

Effect of small additions of carbon nanotubes on the electrical conductivity of polyurethane elastomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of small (0.002-0.018 wt %) additions of single-walled carbon nanotubes on the dielectric properties and electrical conductivity of crosslinked polyurethane elastomer is studied in the temperature range of 133-453 K and the 10-3 to 105 Hz range of electric field frequencies. It is shown that the dependence of direct current conductivity ? dc on temperature deviates significantly from the Arrhenius dependence and is described by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation ? dc = ? dc0exp{- DT 0/( T - T 0)}, where T 0 is the Vogel temperature and D is the strength parameter. A correlation is found between the nonmonotonic dependences of the glass transition temperature ( T g), D parameter, and ? dc and the concentration of nanotubes with earlier results for their effects on the physicomechanical characteristics (strength and Young's modulus) of these systems.

Novikov, G. F.; Rabenok, E. V.; Estrin, Ya. I.; Ol'hov, Yu. A.; Badamshina, E. R.

2014-10-01

165

Test Report: Direct and Indirect Lightning Effects on Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightning tests were performed on composite materials as a part of an investigation of electromagnetic effects on the materials. Samples were subjected to direct and remote simulated lightning strikes. Samples included various thicknesses of graphite filament reinforced plastic (GFRP), material enhanced by expanded aluminum foil layers, and material with an aluminum honeycomb core. Shielding properties of the material and damage to the sample surfaces and joints were investigated. Adding expanded aluminum foil layers and increasing the thickness of GFRP improves the shielding effectiveness against lightning induced fields and the ability to withstand lightning strikes. A report describing the lightning strike tests performed by the U.S. Army Redstone Technical Test Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL, STERT-TE-E-EM, is included as an appendix.

Evans, R. W.

1997-01-01

166

Direct Effect of Sodium Iodate on Neurosensory Retina  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To systematically characterize the effects of NaIO3 on retinal morphology and function. Methods. NaIO3 at 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg was administered by retro-orbital injection into adult C57BL/6J mice. Phenotypic and functional changes of the retina were assessed at 1, 3, 5, and 8 days postinjection by fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), ERG, and histology. Direct NaIO3 cytotoxicity on ARPE-19 and 661W cells was quantified using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) apoptosis assay. Effect of NaIO3 on RPE and photoreceptor gene expression was assessed in vitro and in vivo by quantitative PCR. Results. While little to no change was observed in the 10 mg/kg NaIO3-injected group, significant retinal anomalies, such as RPE atrophy and retinal thinning, were observed in both 20 and 30 mg/kg NaIO3-injected groups. Gene expression analysis showed rapid downregulation of RPE-specific genes, increase in heme oxygenase 1 expression, and induction of the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. Electroretinographic response loss and photoreceptor gene repression preceded gross morphological changes. High NaIO3 toxicity on 661W cells was observed in vitro along with reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction. NaIO3 treatment also disrupted oxidative stress, phototransduction, and apoptosis gene expression in 661W cells. Exposure of ARPE-19 cells to NaIO3 increased expression of neurotrophins and protected photoreceptors from direct NaIO3 cytotoxicity. Conclusions. Systematic characterization of changes associated with NaIO3 injection revealed a large variability in the severity of toxicity induced. Treatment with >20 mg/kg NaIO3 induced visual dysfunction associated with rapid suppression of phototransduction genes and induced oxidative stress in photoreceptors. These results suggest that NaIO3 can directly alter photoreceptor function and survival. PMID:24481259

Wang, Jinmei; Iacovelli, Jared; Spencer, Carrie; Saint-Geniez, Magali

2014-01-01

167

Direct and indirect effects of leptin on adipocyte metabolism.  

PubMed

Leptin is hypothesized to function as a negative feedback signal in the regulation of energy balance. It is produced primarily by adipose tissue and circulating concentrations correlate with the size of body fat stores. Administration of exogenous leptin to normal weight, leptin responsive animals inhibits food intake and reduces the size of body fat stores whereas mice that are deficient in either leptin or functional leptin receptors are hyperphagic and obese, consistent with a role for leptin in the control of body weight. This review discusses the effect of leptin on adipocyte metabolism. Because adipocytes express leptin receptors there is the potential for leptin to influence adipocyte metabolism directly. Adipocytes also are insulin responsive and receive sympathetic innervation, therefore leptin can also modify adipocyte metabolism indirectly. Studies published to date suggest that direct activation of adipocyte leptin receptors has little effect on cell metabolism in vivo, but that leptin modifies adipocyte sensitivity to insulin to inhibit lipid accumulation. In vivo administration of leptin leads to a suppression of lipogenesis, an increase in triglyceride hydrolysis and an increase in fatty acid and glucose oxidation. Activation of central leptin receptors also contributes to the development of a catabolic state in adipocytes, but this may vary between different fat depots. Leptin reduces the size of white fat depots by inhibiting cell proliferation both through induction of inhibitory circulating factors and by contributing to sympathetic tone which suppresses adipocyte proliferation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease. PMID:23685313

Harris, Ruth B S

2014-03-01

168

A direct arylation-derived DPP-based small molecule for solution-processed organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole (DPP) oligomer containing three DPP cores (Ph4Th4(DPP)3) was synthesized via direct arylation of C-H bonds (DACH). Ph4Th4(DPP)3 has good solubility in many organic solvents, and shows a broad absorption band from the visible to near-infrared region as well as a field-effect hole mobility as high as 0.006 cm2 V-1 s-1. Solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on blends of Ph4Th4(DPP)3 as electron donor and fullerene derivative as electron acceptor were fabricated. An optimized power conversion efficiency of 3.76% with a high open-circuit voltage of 0.85 V was achieved after finely tuning the morphology by changing the blend ratio and by adding additives. These results indicate that DACH is an effective way to produce ?-conjugated oligomers for organic solar cells.

Liu, Shi-Yong; Fu, Wei-Fei; Xu, Jing-Qi; Fan, Cong-Cheng; Jiang, Hao; Shi, Minmin; Li, Han-Ying; Chen, Jun-Wu; Cao, Yong; Chen, Hong-Zheng

2014-01-01

169

Statistical estimation of extreme ocean environments: The requirement for modelling directionality and other covariate effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing availability of good directional data, provision of directional estimates of extreme significant wave heights, in addition to the omni-directional estimates, is more common. However, interpretation of directional together with omni-directional design criteria is subject to inconsistency, even in design guidelines. In particular, omni-directional criteria are usually estimated ignoring directional effects. In this article, for data which exhibit directional

Philip Jonathan; Kevin Ewans; George Forristall

2008-01-01

170

Uptake and effects of dichlobenil in a small pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Dichlobenil, when applied as a wettable powder at a concentration of one p. p. m., eliminated allP. pectinatus and about 80% of theChara from a small pond. As benthic plants died, blooms of phytoplankton and zooplankton occurred, presumably because nutrients were released from dead and dying plants. No change was observed in water chemistry at any time during the

Gerald E. Walsh; Charles W. Miller; P. T. Heitmuller

1971-01-01

171

Evaluating the Effect of Information Technology in Small Businesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information technology (IT) has become a strategic vehicle for small businesses to achieve and sustain their competitive advantage. Prior research has suggested that information technology plays an important role in the decision-making process. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between organizational IT performance and…

Newman, Peter

2010-01-01

172

Management effects on colostrogenesis in small ruminants: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum feeding in small ruminants is crucial during the first hours after birth due to the lack of Ig transfer during pregnancy via the placenta. In addition the immature immune system of the neonate is slow to produce its own Ig during the first weeks of life. Colostrogenesis, i.e. the transfer of Ig from blood into mammary secretions, starts several

N. Castro; J. Capote; R. M. Bruckmaier; A. Argüello

2011-01-01

173

A requiem for the USA Is small shareholder monitoring effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1986 to 1993, the United Shareholders Association (USA) provided a conduit through which small shareholders could unite and attempt to influence the governance of large US corporations. We show that the USA targeted large firms that underperformed the market, that its influence increased from 1990 to 1993, and that USA-Sponsored proposals were more successful when the target firm was

Deon Strickland; Kenneth W. Wiles; Marc Zenner

1996-01-01

174

Effects of Small Business Lending on Bank Profits and Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drawing on data called from the 'call reports' that banks file with federal regulators, this study compares the profitability of more active small business lenders to that of less active banks. The analysis shows that banks earn higher profit rates on sma...

J. Kolari, R. Berney, C. Ou

1995-01-01

175

Directed phenotype switching as an effective antimelanoma strategy.  

PubMed

Therapeutic resistance in melanoma and other cancers arises via irreversible genetic, and dynamic phenotypic, heterogeneity. Here, we use directed phenotype switching in melanoma to sensitize melanoma cells to lineage-specific therapy. We show that methotrexate (MTX) induces microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression to inhibit invasiveness and promote differentiation-associated expression of the melanocyte-specific Tyrosinase gene. Consequently, MTX sensitizes melanomas to a tyrosinase-processed antifolate prodrug 3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-(-)-epicatechin (TMECG), that inhibits the essential enzyme DHFR with high affinity. The combination of MTX and TMECG leads to depletion of thymidine pools, double-strand DNA breaks, and highly efficient E2F1-mediated apoptosis in culture and in vivo. Importantly, this drug combination delivers an effective and tissue-restricted antimelanoma therapy in vitro and in vivo irrespective of BRAF, MEK, or p53 status. PMID:23792190

Sáez-Ayala, Magalí; Montenegro, María F; Sánchez-Del-Campo, Luis; Fernández-Pérez, María Piedad; Chazarra, Soledad; Freter, Rasmus; Middleton, Mark; Piñero-Madrona, Antonio; Cabezas-Herrera, Juan; Goding, Colin R; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno

2013-07-01

176

Direct effects of cattle on grassland birds in Canada.  

PubMed

Effects of grazing on grassland birds are generally thought to be indirect, through alteration of vegetation structure; however, livestock can also affect nest survival directly through trampling and other disturbances (e.g., livestock-induced abandonment). We extracted data on nest fates from 18 grazing studies conducted in Canada. We used these data to assess rates of nest destruction by cattle among 9 ecoregions and between seasonal and rotational grazing systems. Overall, few nests were destroyed by cattle (average 1.5% of 9132 nests). Nest destruction was positively correlated with grazing pressure (i.e., stocking rate or grazing intensity), but nest survival was higher in more heavily grazed areas for some species. Because rates of destruction of grassland bird nests by cattle are low in Canada, management efforts to reduce such destruction may not be of ecological or economic value in Canada. PMID:24617945

Bleho, Barbara I; Koper, Nicola; Machtans, Craig S

2014-06-01

177

Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibian populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, climate change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. Climate change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. Climate change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in climate can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.

Blaustein, Andrew R.; Walls, Susan C.; Bancroft, Betsy A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Searle, Catherine L.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.

2010-01-01

178

Of beauty, sex, and power: Statistical challenges in estimating small effects  

E-print Network

(boy births)? Race, parental age, birth order, maternal weight, season of birth: effects of about 1 in estimating small effects #12;Background on sex ratios Pr (boy birth) 51.5% Boys die at a higher rate thanOf beauty, sex, and power: Statistical challenges in estimating small effects Andrew Gelman1

Gelman, Andrew

179

Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that small-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the effects of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been directly documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow

Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

2006-01-01

180

Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that small-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the effects of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been directly documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow

Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

181

Effects of habitat on recapture probabilities of small mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small mammal populations occupying old-field (cheatgrass) and undisturbed sagebrush-bunchgrass communities in southcentral Washington were compared during 1979 and 1980. Seven species were captured. Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) were the dominant species in both habitats and were the only species with enough captures to validate abundance estimates. Overall, pocket mice were captured more frequently in the sagebrush\\/bunchgrass community. Capture

K. A. Gano; J. R. Skalski; J. L. Badden; L. E. Rogers

1983-01-01

182

Small-crack effects in high-strength aluminum alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Chinese Aeronautical Establishment participated in a Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Cooperative Program. The program objectives were to identify and characterize crack initiation and growth of small cracks (10 microns to 2 mm long) in commonly used US and PRC aluminum alloys, to improve fracture mechanics analyses of surface- and corner-crack configurations, and to develop improved life-prediction methods. Fatigue and small-crack tests were performed on single-edgenotch tension (SENT) specimens and large-crack tests were conducted on center-crack tension specimens for constant-amplitude (stress ratios of -1, 0, and 0.5) and Mini-TWIST spectrum loading. The plastic replica method was used to monitor the initiation and growth of small fatigue cracks at the semicircular notch. Crack growth results from each laboratory on 7075-T6 bare and LC9cs clad aluminum alloys agreed well and showed that fatigue life was mostly crack propagation from a material defect (inclusion particles or void) or from the cladding layer. Finite-element and weight-function methods were used to determine stress intensity factors for surface and corner cracks in the SENT specimens. Equations were then developed and used in a crack growth and crack-closure model to correlate small- and large-crack data and to make life predictions for various load histories. The cooperative program produced useful experimental data and efficient analysis methods for improving life predictions. The results should ultimately improve aircraft structural reliability and safety.

Newman, J. C., Jr.; Wu, X. R.; Venneri, S. L.; Li, C. G.

1994-01-01

183

Procedural and Agenda Effects on Political Decisions by Small Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many if not most political decisions are made by groups. Small group caucuses often help to choose political candidates, legislative\\u000a bodies (e.g., Congress) decide which laws to enact, and leaders with their advisors (e.g., U.S. Security Council) make strategic\\u000a and military decisions. Although some groups are just advisory, where responsibility for the final decision falls on a single\\u000a individual (leader),

Tatsuya Kameda; Lorne Hulbert; R. Scott Tindale

184

Small nucleolar RNA host genes and long non-coding RNA responses in directly irradiated and bystander cells.  

PubMed

The irradiated cells communicate with unirradiated cells and induce changes in them through a phenomenon known as the bystander effect. The nature of the bystander signal and how it impacts unirradiated cells remains to be discovered. Examination of molecular changes could lead to the identification of pathways underlying the bystander effect. Apart from microRNAs, little is known about the regulation of other non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) in irradiated or bystander cells. In this study we monitored the transcriptional changes of several small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) host genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are known to participate in a variety of cellular functions, in irradiated and bystander cells to gain insight into the molecular pathways affected in these cells. We used human lymphoblasts TK6 cells in a medium exchanged bystander effect model system to examine ncRNA expression alterations. The snoRNA host genes SNHG1 and SNHG4 were upregulated in irradiated TK6 cells but were repressed in bystander cells. The SNHG5 and SNHG11 were downregulated in irradiated and bystander cells and the expression levels of these ncRNA were significantly lower in bystander cells. The lncRNA MALAT1, MATR3, SRA1, and SOX2OT were induced in irradiated TK6 cells and their expression levels were repressed in bystander cells. The lncRNA RMST was induced in both irradiated and bystander cells. Taken together, these results indicate that expression levels of ncRNA are modulated in irradiated and bystander cells and these transcriptional changes could be associated with the bystander effect. PMID:24502193

Chaudhry, M Ahmad

2014-04-01

185

Transcranial direct current stimulation's effect on novice versus experienced learning.  

PubMed

Transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation applied via a weak electrical current passed between electrodes on the scalp. In recent studies, TDCS has been shown to improve learning when applied to the prefrontal cortex (e.g., Kincses et al. in Neuropsychologia 42:113-117, 2003; Clark et al. Neuroimage in 2010). The present study examined the effects of TDCS delivered at the beginning of training (novice) or after an hour of training (experienced) on participants' ability to detect cues indicative of covert threats. Participants completed two 1-h training sessions. During the first 30 min of each training session, either 0.1 mA or 2.0 mA of anodal TDCS was delivered to the participant. The anode was positioned near F8, and the cathode was placed on the upper left arm. Testing trials immediately followed training. Accuracy in classification of images containing and not-containing threat stimuli during the testing sessions indicated: (1) that mastery of threat detection significantly increased with training, (2) that anodal TDCS at 2 mA significantly enhanced learning, and (3) TDCS was significantly more effective in enhancing test performance when applied in novice learners than in experienced learners. The enhanced performance following training with TDCS persisted into the second session when TDCS was delivered early in training. PMID:21706300

Bullard, L M; Browning, E S; Clark, V P; Coffman, B A; Garcia, C M; Jung, R E; van der Merwe, A J; Paulson, K M; Vakhtin, A A; Wootton, C L; Weisend, M P

2011-08-01

186

The effect of small-scale forcing on large-scale structures in two-dimensional flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of small-scale forcing on large-scale structures in ?-plane two-dimensional (2D) turbulence is studied using long-term direct numerical simulations (DNS). We find that nonlinear effects remain strong at all times and for all scales and establish an inverse energy cascade that extends to the largest scales available in the system. The large-scale flow develops strong spectral anisotropy: k - {5}/{3} Kolmogorov scaling holds for almost all ?, ? = arctan( {k y}/{k x}) except in the small vicinity of kx = 0, where Rhines's k-5 scaling prevails. Due to the k-5 scaling, the spectral evolution of ?-plane turbulence becomes extremely slow which, perhaps, explains why this scaling law has never before been observed in DNS. Simulations with different values of ? indicate that the ?-effect diminishes at small scales where the flow is nearly isotropic. Thus, for simulations of ?-plane turbulence forced at small scales sufficiently removed from the scales where ?-effect is strong, large eddy simulation (LES) can be used. A subgrid scale (SGS) parameterization for such LES must account for the small-scale forcing that is not explicitly resolved and correctly accommodate two inviscid conservation laws, viz. energy and enstrophy. This requirement gives rise to a new anisotropic stabilized negative viscosity (SNV) SGS representation which is discussed in the context of LES of isotropic 2D turbulence.

Chekhlov, Alexei; Orszag, Steven A.; Sukoriansky, Semion; Galperin, Boris; Staroselsky, Ilya

187

Biochemical studies of the multicopper oxidase (small laccase) from Streptomyces coelicolor using bioactive phytochemicals and site-directed mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Multicopper oxidases can act on a broad spectrum of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. These enzymes include laccases, which are widely distributed in plants and fungi, and were more recently identified in bacteria. Here, we present the results of biochemical and mutational studies of small laccase (SLAC), a multicopper oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor (SCO6712). In addition to typical laccase substrates, SLAC was tested using phenolic compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity. SLAC showed oxidase activity against 12 of 23 substrates tested, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, morin, kaempferol and myricetin. The kinetic parameters of SLAC were determined for 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, quercetin, morin and myricetin, and maximum reaction rates were observed with myricetin, where kcat and Km values at 60°C were 8.1 (±?0.8) s?1 and 0.9 (±?0.3) mM respectively. SLAC had a broad pH optimum for activity (between pH?4 and 8) and temperature optimum at 60–70°C. It demonstrated remarkable thermostability with a half-life of over 10?h at 80°C and over 7?h at 90°C. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed 17 amino acid residues important for SLAC activity including the 10 His residues involved in copper coordination. Most notably, the Y229A and Y230A mutant proteins showed over 10-fold increase in activity compared with the wild-type SLAC, which was correlated to higher copper incorporation, while kinetic analyses with S929A predicts localization of this residue near the meta-position of aromatic substrates. Funding Information Funding for this research was provided by the Government of Ontario for the project ‘FFABnet: Functionalized Fibre and Biochemicals’ (ORF-RE-05-005), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. PMID:23815400

Sherif, Mohammed; Waung, Debbie; Korbeci, Bihter; Mavisakalyan, Valentina; Flick, Robert; Brown, Greg; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; Yakunin, Alexander F; Master, Emma R

2013-01-01

188

Renoprotective effects of direct Renin inhibition in glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

: The development of glomerulonephritis causes glomerular injury and renal dysfunction and is thought to increase renin release, thus activating the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The aims of this study were to demonstrate activation of the intrarenal RAS and determine the effects of direct renin inhibition (DRI) on the progression of glomerulonephritis. Rats were treated with anti-Thy1.1 antibody with or without DRI, aliskiren (30 mg/kg/d). In the glomerulonephritic rats, protein, microalbumin excretion levels, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, glomerular expansion score and intrarenal transforming growth factor-? and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA levels were augmented compared with control rats; however, hypertension was not observed in the glomerulonephritic rats, and aliskiren treatment did not modify their blood pressure. The increases in urinary protein (94.7 ± 13.0 mg/d) and microalbumin (7.52 ± 2.6 mg/d) excretion were reduced by aliskiren (43.6 ± 4.5 mg/d of protein and 2.57 ± 0.7 mg/d of microalbumin). Furthermore, the progression of glomerular expansion and elevation of intrarenal transforming growth factor-? and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were prevented by aliskiren. Importantly, aliskiren suppressed the augmentation of urinary angiotensinogen levels, the increased angiotensinogen expression in the kidneys and the increases in Ang II levels in renal medulla induced by the anti-Thy1.1 antibody. These results suggest that DRI with aliskiren prevents intrarenal RAS activation leading to mitigation of the development of glomerulonephritis. In addition, the renoprotective effects of DRI on glomerulonephritis occur in a blood pressure-independent manner. Accordingly, treatment with aliskiren may be an effective approach to treat glomerulonephritis and other intrarenal RAS-associated kidney diseases. PMID:24165783

Miyata, Kayoko; Satou, Ryousuke; Inui, Daisuke; Katsurada, Akemi; Seth, Dale; Davis, Allison; Urushihara, Maki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

2014-10-01

189

Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics  

PubMed Central

In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical “leadership” pattern, and in “cognitive” terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves “as if” it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical setting. PMID:25071665

Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

2014-01-01

190

Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics.  

PubMed

In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical "leadership" pattern, and in "cognitive" terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves "as if" it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical setting. PMID:25071665

Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

2014-01-01

191

Effects of habitat on recapture probabilities of small mammals  

SciTech Connect

Small mammal populations occupying old-field (cheatgrass) and undisturbed sagebrush-bunchgrass communities in southcentral Washington were compared during 1979 and 1980. Seven species were captured. Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) were the dominant species in both habitats and were the only species with enough captures to validate abundance estimates. Overall, pocket mice were captured more frequently in the sagebrush/bunchgrass community. Capture probabilities for pocket mice were significantly different in the two habitats. Vegetative differences are suspected as the cause. 17 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

Gano, K.A.; Skalski, J.R.; Badden, J.L.; Rogers, L.E.

1983-11-01

192

On some thermodynamic effects in small molecular systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of a gas-liquid system in a small volume has been studied. In the absence of the thermodynamic limit, the problem has been examined by methods of statistical physics. This allows the use of new mathematical methods previously applied in nuclear physics. Within the modified droplet model of a real gas sandwiched between two extended plates, an additional component of the pressure, which was previously discussed and exhibits characteristic oscillations at change in the volume, has been found. Qualitative coincidence with the previously reported molecular dynamics simulations has been found.

Aslyamov, T. F.; Dinariev, O. Yu.

2014-06-01

193

Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant and Direct-Use Geothermal Application at AmeriCulture Inc., Cotton City, NM  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the Small-Scale Power Plant and Direct-Use Application at AmeriCulture, Inc. to evaluate potential impacts of construction and operations that would be funded in part by DOE. Small geothermal power plants have the potential for widespread application, but achieving cost-effectiveness in small plant sizes presents a number of challenges. To address these challenges, DOE is supporting the small-scale field verification projects to (1) determine and validate the economics, performance, and operational characteristics of small-scale geothermal electric power plants in different regions. and (2) determine their ability to provide distributed power in order to facilitate their increased use in the western United States. Through the Geothermal Energy Program, DOE is considering providing financial assistance to Exergy, Inc., of Hayward, California, for the development and field verification of a small-scale, approximately 1 megawatt (MVV), geothermal power plant. The proposed power plant would be located upstream of an existing geothermally-heated fish hatchery owned by AmeriCulture, Inc., of Cotton City, NM. DOE is also considering partially funding AmeriCulture, Inc., for a direct-use geothermal application using fluid discharged from the proposed power plant to heat water for the hatchery. The EA addresses the construction and operation of the small-scale, geothermal power plant and the direct use of geothermal fluid exhausted from the geothermal power plant as a heating source for the hatchery. Two system concepts were investigated. The preferred concept involves cascading the spent geothermal fluid from the proposed geothermal power plant to various thermal processes used for fish production. In the second concept, the proposed power plant would not be built, and the fluid from the existing geothermal well would be used for all direct-use operations associated with the project. DOE/NREL will take this opportunity to monitor and evaluate the technical and economic performance of the proposed power plant and the direct-use project. This information will be used to advance the design and use of small-scale geothermal technologies. The funding decision of the DOE is whether or not to partially fund the Proposed Action. The proposed power plant project would be administered and managed by the DOE Golden Field Office. Partial funding for the direct-use application project would be provided through a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract with AmeriCulture, Inc. The direct-use application would be managed by NREL.

N /A

2002-08-27

194

Direct and Indirect Effects of UV-B Exposure on Litter Decomposition: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure in the course of litter decomposition may have a direct effect on decomposition rates via changing states of photodegradation or decomposer constitution in litter while UV-B exposure during growth periods may alter chemical compositions and physical properties of plants. Consequently, these changes will indirectly affect subsequent litter decomposition processes in soil. Although studies are available on both the positive and negative effects (including no observable effects) of UV-B exposure on litter decomposition, a comprehensive analysis leading to an adequate understanding remains unresolved. Using data from 93 studies across six biomes, this introductory meta-analysis found that elevated UV-B directly increased litter decomposition rates by 7% and indirectly by 12% while attenuated UV-B directly decreased litter decomposition rates by 23% and indirectly increased litter decomposition rates by 7%. However, neither positive nor negative effects were statistically significant. Woody plant litter decomposition seemed more sensitive to UV-B than herbaceous plant litter except under conditions of indirect effects of elevated UV-B. Furthermore, levels of UV-B intensity significantly affected litter decomposition response to UV-B (P<0.05). UV-B effects on litter decomposition were to a large degree compounded by climatic factors (e.g., MAP and MAT) (P<0.05) and litter chemistry (e.g., lignin content) (P<0.01). Results suggest these factors likely have a bearing on masking the important role of UV-B on litter decomposition. No significant differences in UV-B effects on litter decomposition were found between study types (field experiment vs. laboratory incubation), litter forms (leaf vs. needle), and decay duration. Indirect effects of elevated UV-B on litter decomposition significantly increased with decay duration (P<0.001). Additionally, relatively small changes in UV-B exposure intensity (30%) had significant direct effects on litter decomposition (P<0.05). The intent of this meta-analysis was to improve our understanding of the overall effects of UV-B on litter decomposition. PMID:23818993

Song, Xinzhang; Peng, Changhui; Jiang, Hong; Zhu, Qiuan; Wang, Weifeng

2013-01-01

195

Effect of reorganization actions on the financial performance of small entrepreneurial distressed firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of different reorganization actions on long-term financial performance of reorganizing small entrepreneurial firms in Finland. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An structural equation model estimated by partial least squares is applied to survey data from 98 reorganizing very small firms to analyze the effect of organizational change (OC), financial reorganization, management

Erkki K. Laitinen

2011-01-01

196

Health and environmental effects document for direct coal liquefaction - 1981.  

SciTech Connect

This document presents initial estimates of potential human health effects from inhalation of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) that may be released from a future hypothetical industry producing about 600,000 bb1/day of synthetic fuel by direct liquefaction of coal. The assessment approach starts wth general assumptions that are then refined in a tiered sequence that considers available epidemiological, environmental and chemical data. The uncertainties involved in such an evaluation have been quantified where possible at this early stage of health risk analysis. Many surrogate data bases were considered for application to coal liquefaction including coke oven, British gas retort, roofing tar and asphalts, and cigarette smoke. The coke oven data base was selected for this assessment because the chemical and physical nature of coke oven emissions are judged to more closely approximate potential coal liquefaction emissions. Utilizing the extensive epidemiological data base for coke oven workers as a surrogate model, health effects from release of coal liquefaction NMHC may be quantified. This method results in estimates of about 1 x 10/sup -3/ excess cancer deaths/yr to an industrial work force of 7800 persons and 5 x 10/sup -2/ excess cancer deaths/yr in the U.S. population as a whole from NMHC that boil above 600/sup 0/F. Sources of uncertainty in the estimates are listed. Using these uncertainties, it is estimated that from 2 x 10/sup -4/ to 5 x 10/sup -3/ lung cancer deaths/yr may occur in the industrial work force and from 1 x 10/sup -2/ to 2.5 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancer deaths/yr in the U.S. population as a whole. On an individual basis, the excess lifetime risk to occupationally exposed workers is estimated to be 500 times greater than to members of the U.S. public.

Mellinger, P.J.; Wilson, B.W.; Mahlum, D.D.; Sever, L.E.; Olsen, A.R.

1982-09-01

197

Effect of small ionospheric irregularities on radio wave absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ionospheric absorption of a radio wave caused by small-scale irregularities with a gaussian autocorrelation function is calculated for various values of the linear scale height, the radio frequency, the scale size of the irregularities, and the mean-square fractional electron density fluctuations. The absorption is due to scattering of the radio wave into plasma oscillations by the irregularities. It is concluded that the absorption due to such irregularities with a mean-square fractional electron density deviation greater than about 0.000001 exceeds the normal collisional height-integrated absorption. Absorption of this type could play a significant part in heating experiments or in an ionosphere containing naturally occurring irregularities.

Chen, H. C.; Fejer, J. A.

1975-01-01

198

Direct measurement of Lorentz transformation with Doppler effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For space science and astronomy the fundamentality of one-way velocity of light (OWVL) is selfevident. The measurement of OWVL (distance/interval) and the clock synchronization with light-signal transfer make a logical circulation. This means that OWVL could not be directly measured but only come indirectly from astronomical method (Romer's Io eclipse and Bradley's sidereal aberration), furthermore, the light-year by definitional OWVL and the trigonometry distance with AU are also un-measurable. For to solve this problem two methods of clock synchronization were proposed: The direct method is that at one end of dual-speed transmissionline with single clock measure the arriving-time difference of longitudinal wave and transverse wave or ordinary light and extraordinary light, again to calculate the collective sending-time of two wave with Yang's /shear elastic-modulus ratio (E/k) or extraordinary/ordinary light refractive-index ratio (ne/no), which work as one earthquake-station with single clock measures first-shake time and the distance to epicenter; The indirect method is that the one-way wavelength l is measured by dual-counters Ca and Cb and computer's real-time operation of reading difference (Nb - Na) of two counters, the frequency f is also simultaneously measured, then l f is just OWVL. Therefore, with classical Newtonian mechanics and ether wave optics, OWVL can be measured in the Galileo coordinate system with an isotropic length unit (1889 international meter definition). Without any hypotheses special relativity can entirely establish on the metrical results. When a certain wavelength l is defined as length unit, foregoing measurement of one-way wavelength l will become as the measurement of rod's length. Let a rigidity-rod connecting Ca and Cb moves relative to lamp-house with velocity v, rod's length L = (Nb - Na) l will change follow v by known Doppler effect, i.e., L(q) =L0 (1+ (v/c) cos q), where L0 is the proper length when v= 0, v• r = v cos q, r is the unit vector from lamphouse point to counters. Or: L (0) L (pi) =L0 (1+(v/c)) L0 (1 - (v/c)) =L0 2 y2 =L2 Or: L ? [L(0)L(pi)]1/2 =L0 y , which y ? (1 - (v/c)2 )1/2 is just Fitzgerald-Lorentzian contraction-factor. Also, when a light-wave period p is defined as time unit, from Doppler's frequency-shift the count N with p of one period T of moving-clock is: T(q) = N(q) p = T0 /(1+(v/c) cos q) Or: T ? (T(0) T(pi))1/2 = T 0 /y , where T0 is the proper period when v = 0, which is just the moving-clock-slower effect. Let r from clock point to lamp-house ((v/c) symbol reverse), Doppler formula in the usual form is: f (q) = 1/T(q) = f0 (1 - (v/c) cos q). Therefore, Lorentz transformation is the square root average of positive and negative directions twice metrical results of Doppler's frequency-shift, which Doppler's once items ( positive and negative v/c ) are counteract only residual twice item (v/c)2 (relativity-factor). Then Lorentz transformation can be directly measured by Doppler's frequency-shift method. The half-life of moving mu-meson is statistical average of many particles, the usual explanation using relativity-factor y is correct. An airship moving simultaneously along contrary directions is impossible, which makes that the relativity-factor y and the twin-paradox are inexistent in the macroscopical movement. Thereby, in the navigations of airship or satellite only use the measurement of Doppler's frequency-shift but have no use for Lorentz transformation.

Chen, Shao-Guang

199

Local-time effect on small space-time scale  

E-print Network

The paper presents an investigation of local-time effect - one of the manifestations of macroscopic fluctuations phenomena. Was shown the existence of the named effect for longitudinal distance between locations of measurements up to 500 meters. Also a structure of intervals distribution in neighborhood of local-time peak was studied and splitting of the peak was found out. Obtained results lead to conclusion about sharp anisotropy of space-time.

V. A. Panchelyuga; V. A. Kolombet; M. S. Panchelyuga; S. E. Shnoll

2006-10-18

200

Delving into the carbon footprints of Singapore—comparing direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions of a small and open economic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and open economic systems like cities face specific challenges for greenhouse gas accounting. They typically import most of their energy requirements as secondary energy products based on conversion processes which caused emissions elsewhere. Emission estimates therefore already require attention not only to direct on-site activities. Moreover, for a comprehensive approach it is suggested to include upstream and downstream processes

Niels B. Schulz

2010-01-01

201

Longitudinal study of effects of patient characteristics on direct  

E-print Network

also controlled for patients' sex, age, and living arrangements. Results: Total direct cost increased.3%. Total direct cost was 20.8% lower for patients living at home compared with those living States.1 Average annual costs of caring for patients with AD have been esti- mated at $80 billion to $100

202

The effect of directionality on extreme wave design criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea state design criteria for offshore facilities are frequently provided by direction. For example, it is typical for return-period values of the significant wave height to be specified for each of eight 45° sectors in addition to the omni-directional case. However, it is important that these criteria be consistent so that the probability of exceedance of a given wave height

Philip Jonathan; Kevin Ewans

2007-01-01

203

Using Requests Effectively in Peer-Directed Instructional Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary grade students of varying mathematics and reading abilities were assessed with appropriate standardized measures. Peer-directed activities were recorded. Results indicated ability groups differed in achievement and use of requests and responses. The implications for children's acquisition of skills in peer-directed instructional groups are…

Wilkinson, Louise Cherry; Spinelli, Francesca

1983-01-01

204

Functional Nanostructures for Effective Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has proved to be a powerful tool for target-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi). Its ability to control targeted gene expression gives new hope to gene therapy as a treatment for cancers and genetic diseases. However, siRNA shows poor pharmacological properties, such as low serum stability, off-targeting, and innate immune responses, which present a significant challenge for clinical applications. In addition, siRNA cannot cross the cell membrane for RNAi activity because of its anionic property and stiff structure. Therefore, the development of a safe, stable, and efficient system for the delivery of siRNA therapeutics into the cytoplasm of targeted cells is crucial. Several nanoparticle platforms for siRNA delivery have been developed to overcome the major hurdles facing the therapeutic uses of siRNA. This review covers a broad spectrum of non-viral siRNA delivery systems developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and discusses their characteristics and opportunities for clinical applications of therapeutic siRNA.

Hong, Cheol Am; Nam, Yoon Sung

2014-01-01

205

Microplasticity of surfaces and small volumes: Microstructural and environmental effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study utilizes contact mechanics techniques to address several critical aspects of micro/nanotribology. An emphasis is placed on scale, structure and environmental effects. Scale effects refer to the earliest stages of plastic deformation where continuum laws are no longer applicable. Structure effects involve complex relationships between microstructure and mechanical behavior. Environmental effects are manifested in changes of deformation and fracture under exposure to aggressive environments. Scale effect studies involved evaluation of the plasticity initiation in MgO and W single crystal materials utilizing AE monitored nanoindentation. Newly developed AE sensors incorporated into indenter tips (Hysitron, Inc.) provided greatly enhanced resolution and sensitivity to localized plasticity and fracture events at submicron indentation depths. Based on the analysis of indentation curves and AE waveforms associated with the yield initiation events, new insights into yield point phenomenon were gained. Microstructure effects were addressed with a newly developed mechanical property evaluation method. With this method, mechanical properties of brittle porous nanocrystalline SiC film on Mo substrate were derived from the complex indentation response involving densification and fracture. Evaluation of environmental effects involved deformation and fracture of bulk materials and interfaces. Indentation curve analysis combined with the AFM imaging of tested areas provided quantitative measures of hydrogen induced hardening and plastic strain localization in 316 stainless steel. A newly developed indentation based experimental procedure allowed quantitative evaluation of hydrogen effects for Cu/SiO2 interfaces with and without several nm thick Ti interlayers. Up to 50% reduction of the apparent practical work of adhesion was observed in Cu/Ti/SiO 2 films as revealed by indentation testing immediately after hydrogen charging. Finally, a novel approach for the in-situ evaluation of passive film stresses and growth kinetics was developed. It was demonstrated that the evolution of passive films and the stress acting in these films can be followed using a depth sensing continuous indentation into surfaces under potentiostatic control. Based on the recorded indenter tip displacement, time-dependent passive film thickness and stress can be determined with the proposed theoretical model.

Tymiak, Natalia Igorivna

206

DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the nature of DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation. The yields of single- (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB), base lesions and clustered damage were measured using the agarose gel electrophoresis method after exposing to various kinds of radiations to a simple model DNA molecule, fully hydrated closed-circular plasmid DNA (pUC18). The yield of SSB does not show significant dependence on linear energy transfer (LET) values. On the other hand, the yields of base lesions revealed by enzymatic probes, endonuclease III (Nth) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which excise base lesions and leave a nick at the damage site, strongly depend on LET values. Soft X-ray photon (150 kVp) irradiation gives a maximum yield of the base lesions detected by the enzymatic probes as SSB and clustered damage, which is composed of one base lesion and proximate other base lesions or SSBs. The clustered damage is visualized as an enzymatically induced DSB. The yields of the enzymatically additional damages strikingly decrease with increasing levels of LET. These results suggest that in higher LET regions, the repair enzymes used as probes are compromised because of the dense damage clustering. The studies using simple plasmid DNA as a irradiation sample, however, have a technical difficulty to detect multiple SSBs in a plasmid DNA. To detect the additional SSBs induced in opposite strand of the first SSB, we have also developed a novel technique of DNA-denaturation assay. This allows us to detect multiply induced SSBs in both strand of DNA, but not induced DSB.

Yokoya, A.; Shikazono, N.; Fujii, K.; Urushibara, A.; Akamatsu, K.; Watanabe, R.

2008-10-01

207

Small effective population size in the long-toed salamander  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective population sizes ( N e ) of six populations of the long-toed salamander ( Ambystoma macrodactylum ) from Montana and Idaho, USA were estimated from allozyme data from samples collected in 1978, 1996 and 1997 using the temporal allele frequency method. Five of the six estimates ranged from 23 to 207 (mean = 123 ? ? ? ?

W. Chris Funk; David A. Tallmon; Fred W. Allendorf

1999-01-01

208

Direct and residual effects of manure on soil chemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beneficial effects of manure recycling in cropland on soil fertility are well documented. Nowadays it can help sequestrate C in the soil organic matter, advocated to mitigate the atmospheric CO2 increase. Because of the gradual disappearance of conventional livestock farming in Western Europe, the study of the persistence of the positive effects of manuring after its interruption can be interesting. Any research on soil fertility dynamic, however, requires long-term experiments because it is quite slow and greatly influenced by weather. A field trial, started in 1966 and still in progress in the Experimental Farm of Bologna University, compares 5 crop rotations (a 9-year course: corn-wheat-corn-wheat-corn-wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-alfalfa, corn-wheat and sugarbeet-wheat, continuous corn and continuous wheat), at 3 levels of cattle manure supply combined with 3 inorganic NP fertilizers rates in a split-split plot replicated twice. The soil is an alluvial silty loam, fertile but low in organic matter (13.3 g kg-1). Manure is spread before corn, sugarbeet and alfalfa, at a mean yearly rate of 0 (M0), 20 (M1) and 40 (M2) t ha-1 of fresh material. Since 1984 M2 has been interrupted to evaluate residual effects. Regarding mineral fertilizer rates, for this study we considered only the unfertilized control (N0P0) and N1P1 level, corresponding to a mean yearly application of 220 kg N ha-1 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Each year, since 1972 till now, we have sampled soil in the ploughed layer (0-0.4 m) to assess its pH (in water) and its content of organic carbon (SOC, Lotti method), total nitrogen (TN, Kjeldahl) and available phosphorus (P2O5, Olsen). To reduce the influence of crops and weather, statistical analyses were conducted on the averages of data obtained in the 4-year periods at the end of four 9-year cycles (1972-75, 81-84, 90-93 and 99-02). In 30 years, the continuous M1 supply without any inorganic integration increased SOC, TN and P2O5 by +3.6 t ha-1 (+11%), +1.09 t ha-1 (+ 29%) and + 166 kg ha-1 (+107%), respectively, compared to the control. These significant increments were obtained linearly, at mean annual rates of: 0.15 t ha-1 year-1 for SOC, 20 kg ha-1 for TN and 4.18 kg ha-1 for P2O5. During the first 18 years, doubling the manure supply (M2) caused further increments (72%, 76% and 112% increases for SOC, TN and P2O5, respectively, compared to M1). The complete interruption of M2 application, from 1984 onward, gradually decreased the positive effects. In the 1990-93 period, no differences between M1 and M2 were detected. After 18 years all the amounts were lower in M2 than in M1. However, a residual effect of the double manuring was still evident: M2 plots had higher SOC, TN and P2O5, contents compared to the unfertilized control (+3.1 t ha-1, +0.21 t ha-1 and +88 kg ha-1, respectively). Inorganic fertilization, in the absence of manure, did not affect SOC dynamic, whereas it had significant cumulative effects on TN (+0.94 t ha-1 (+26%) increase in the '99-02 period compared to the initial contents) and P2O5, with 223 kg ha-1 (+160%) increment. Treatments slightly influenced pH (6.43, on average): compared to the unfertilized control, manure increased it a little (+2.7%), while mineral fertilization had an opposite effect (-2.7%). In conclusion, the direct influences of manure on main components of soil fertility appeared cumulative with time and proportional to the application rates, at least up to 40 t ha-1 year-1 of fresh material. Residual effects gradually disappeared, but at low speed, thus their study requires really long experiments, lasting more than 20-years. Inorganic fertilization could increase nitrogen and, even more, available phosphorus content in the soil, but, in our research where crop residues are always removed, it had a null effect on SOC.

Nastri, A.; Triberti, L.; Giordani, G.; Comellini, F.; Baldoni, G.

2009-04-01

209

Effect of Health Literacy on the Utilization of Advance Directives Based on the Health Belief Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has demonstrated that only a small proportion of individuals in the United States complete advance directives as part of their planning for end-of-life care. This study sought to determine if health literacy is a significant factor in advance directive completion as has been posited by previous researchers. Analysis of the data collected…

Henkelman, Wallace J.

2010-01-01

210

The Use of Owner Resources in Small and Family Owned Businesses: Literature Review and Future Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper integrates relevant literature and the Sustainable Family Business Model regarding interchange of financial resources\\u000a between family and business. Two distinct literatures on the use of owner resources in small businesses are examined: the\\u000a intermingling of business and household resources from the family firm literature and financial bootstrapping studies from\\u000a the small business finance literature. What has not been

Tansel Yilmazer; Holly Schrank

2010-01-01

211

The Decision to Direct Market: An Analysis of Small Fruit and Specialty-Product Markets in Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers are increasingly interested in high-value alternatives to commodity production. Direct marketing is a potentially attractive marketing alternative, having been shown to offer increased net incomes to farmers. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of literature on the determinants of the decision to direct market. This paper uses an ordered logit regression to analyze how farm size, the importance of high-value

Joseph Monson; Denise Y. Mainville; Nicolai V. Kuminoff

2008-01-01

212

The direct way of indirect bonding--the combined effect.  

PubMed

The placement of orthodontic bonded brackets may be accomplished by either a direct or indirect technique. Most orthodontists will agree that brackets can be positioned more accurately on study casts than directly on teeth in the mouth. And, also direct bonding is more demanding to the orthodontist. Yet, very few orthodontists routinely use an indirect bonding technique. The reasons commonly given for not using the indirect method are difficulty in achieving consistent and predictable adhesion to the teeth, excess of composite around the bracket margins, failure to get all the brackets to adhere to the teeth e the expense of the materials. These disadvantages can be overcome by a new simplified method of bonding outlined in this article; additionally it has advantages of direct bonding also. PMID:24358650

Gayake, Prasad Vinayakrao; Chitko, Shrikant S; Sutrave, Nagdeepak; Gaikwad, Pallavi M

2013-01-01

213

Investigating the Combined Effects of Gravity and Rotation on Small-Body Surface Terrains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2010, the Deep Impact spacecraft flew by comet Hartley 2 as part of its extended (EPOXI) mission. The flyby revealed a nucleus comprised of two, relatively coarse-terrained lobes connected by a smooth, neck region (A'Hearn et al., Science, 2011). If we assume that this smooth neck formed via some type of fluidized particulate flow, then it should lie roughly coincident with an equipotential surface with respect to the combined forces of gravity and rotation. Utilizing a Hartley 2 shape model and measured rotation state, we tested this idea by varying the model bulk density to find the gravity field wherein the potential variation across the neck region was at a minimum, yielding a best-fit bulk density of 220 (140-520) kg/m^3. Curiously, this same potential variance minimization technique applied to the entire shape model yields a bulk density of 200 (140-350) kg/m^3. At first glance, this similar global result seems to invalidate the regional result. However, the same global exercise performed for asteroids 243 Ida and 433 Eros does yield densities close to the measured densities for those objects. For 433 Eros, the technique yields a best-fit density of 2200 (1400-4000) kg/m^3, within 18% of the measured density of 2670 +/- 30 kg/m^3. For 243 Ida, the technique yields a best-fit density of 2300 (1500-4800) kg/m^3, within 12% of the measured density of 2600 +/- 500 kg/m^3. Clearly, there is some mechanism that causes the topography of some small, rotating bodies to move toward as small a potential energy variance over the surface as possible. We hypothesize that the above phenomena can be explained by the effect that disturbance-driven slope degradation processes have on the topography of a small body, given a mobile regolith layer on its surface. The first key factor in this explanation involves the exponential increase in the downslope flow/creep rate that occurs when the slope is increased toward the critical angle for that material (Roerring, Water Resources Res., 35, 1999). The second key factor occurs when rotational forces on the surface of a body represent a significant fraction of the total force, such that the rotational force has a significant effect on surface slope magnitude (what direction is "up") at a given location. Initially, it would seem that if the rotation rate of a body is changed, some slopes will increase and some decrease, with an overall rough cancellation. However, when 433 Eros is considered, either increasing or decreasing the rotation rate will cause an increase in the slope distribution. That is, the current surface shape of 433 Eros appears to rest in an 'erosional saddle-point', wherein changing the rotation rate of the body in either direction will cause an overall increase in surface slopes, with a corresponding, non-linear increase in downslope erosion rates, which push the surface back towards a low overall slope distribution again. This dynamic thus creates a self-correcting system in which disturbance-driven slope degradation is constantly working to push the topography towards that of a flat, equipotential surface. In this work, we explore this phenomena within a study that includes seven small objects for which detailed shape models exist (four asteroids, two comets, and one small martian moon).

Richardson, J. E.; Bowling, T. J.

2011-12-01

214

Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the surface charge of the small clay particles upon AO treatment.

Clobes, Jason Kenneth

215

The shielding effect of small-scale martian surface geometry on ultraviolet flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere of Mars does little to attenuate incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Large amounts of UV radiation sterilize the hardiest of terrestrial organisms within minutes, and chemically alter the soil such that organic molecules at or near the surface are rapidly destroyed. Thus the survival of any putative martian life near the surface depends to a large extent on how much UV radiation it receives. Variations in small-scale geometry of the surface such as pits, trenches, flat faces and overhangs can have a significant effect on the incident UV flux and may create "safe havens" for organisms and organic molecules. In order to examine this effect, a 1-D radiative transfer sky model with 836 meshed points (plus the Sun) was developed which includes both diffuse and direct components of the surface irradiance. This model derives the variation of UV flux with latitude and an object's Geometric Shielding Ratio (a ratio which describes the geometry of each situation). The best protection is offered by overhangs with flux reduced to a factor of 1.8±0.2×10 of the unprotected value, a reduction which does not vary significantly by latitude. Pits and cracks are less effective with a reduction in UV flux of only up to 4.5±0.5×10 for the modeled scenarios; however, they are more effective for the same geometric shielding ratio than overhangs at high latitudes due to the low height of the Sun in the sky. Lastly, polar faces of rocks have the least effective shielding geometry with at most a 1.1±0.1×10 reduction in UV flux. Polar faces of rocks are most effective at mid latitudes where the Sun is never directly overhead, as at tropical latitudes, and never exposes the back of the rock, as at polar latitudes. In the most favorable cases, UV flux is sufficiently reduced such that organic in-fall could accumulate beneath overhanging surfaces and in pits and cracks. As well, hardy terrestrial microorganisms such as Bacillus pumilus could persist for up to 100 sols on the outer surfaces of typical spacecraft or several tens of martian years in the most shielded surface niches.

Moores, J. E.; Smith, P. H.; Tanner, R.; Schuerger, A. C.; Venkateswaran, K. J.

2007-12-01

216

Robust Altitude Control for a Small Helicopter by Considering the Ground Effect Compensation  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION Among the variety of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), unmanned autonomous helicopters constitute oneRobust Altitude Control for a Small Helicopter by Considering the Ground Effect Compensation Tushar to control the altitude of a small helicopter for hover as well as vertically take-off/landing near ground

Pota, Himanshu Roy

217

Effects of Glucocorticoid Receptor Small Interfering RNA Delivered Using Poly Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Microparticles  

E-print Network

receptor (GR) small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivered using biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acidEffects of Glucocorticoid Receptor Small Interfering RNA Delivered Using Poly Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Microparticles on Proliferation and Differentiation Capabilities of Human Mesenchymal Stromal

Salem, Aliasger K.

218

Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

2013-01-01

219

Battery Voltage Stability Effects on Small Wind Turbine Energy Capture: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous papers on small wind turbines have shown that the ratio of battery capacity to wind capacity (known as battery-wind capacity ratio) for small wind systems with battery storage has an important effect on wind turbine energy output. Data analysis from pilot project performance monitoring has revealed shortcomings in wind turbine energy output up to 75% of expected due to

D. Corbus; C. Newcomb; E. I. Baring-Gould; S. Friedly

2002-01-01

220

Effect of cysteine modifications on the activity of the ‘small’ Clostridium perfringens sialidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘small’ (43 kDa) sialidase of Clostridium perfringens is inhibited by low concentrations of mercury ions. For the investigation of possible functional roles of the enzyme's four cysteine residues at the amino acid positions 2, 282, 333 and 349, they were separately altered to serine by site-directed mutagenesis. The four mutant sialidases expressed in E. coli and purified by metal

Susanne Kruses; Jorg Pommerencke; Reinhard G Kleineidam; Peter Roggentin; Roland Schauer

1998-01-01

221

The Effect of Extra Small Group Session during PBL Implementation on Student's Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem based learning (PBL) started to spread in health professions in Saudi Arabia at the beginning of this century. There are several challenges facing its implementation such as defects on interpersonal communications and self-directed learning. These challenges would affect students' performance in small group discussions and their…

Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al Rukban, Mohammad Othman

2010-01-01

222

Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy for Direct Observation of Polymer and Small-Molecule Materials and Structures in Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) in the study of molecular self-assembly of amphiphilic macromolecules, lipid\\/surfactants, peptides, and other hybrid material systems is quickly growing in popularity as a standard characterization technique. Cryo-TEM allows the direct visualization of nanostructures and microstructures embedded in a thin film of vitrified solvent at liquid nitrogen temperature. This direct observation technique provides

Sheng Zhong; Darrin J. Pochan

2010-01-01

223

Location and direction dependent effects in collider physics from noncommutativity  

SciTech Connect

We examine the leading order noncommutative corrections to the differential and total cross sections for e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}qq. After averaging over the Earth's rotation, the results depend on the latitude for the collider, as well as the direction of the incoming beam. They also depend on the scale and direction of the noncommutativity. Using data from LEP, we exclude regions in the parameter space spanned by the noncommutative scale and angle relative to the Earth's axis. We also investigate possible implications for phenomenology at the future International Linear Collider.

Haghighat, Mansour [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Okada, Nobuchika; Stern, Allen [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States)

2010-07-01

224

Direct processes effects on deuteron activation cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extended analysis of reaction mechanisms involved in deuterons interaction with target nuclei from 27Al till 231Pa, at incident energies up to 60 MeV, is presented. Increased attention is devoted to direct processes, concerning the breakup, stripping, and pickup contributions to the deuteron activation cross sections. Finally, the pre-equilibrium and evaporation cross sections, corrected for the initial flux leakage towards direct processes, have completed the deuteron interaction analysis. The overall agreement of the measured data and model calculations proves the correctness of nuclear mechanism description.

Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

2014-09-01

225

Directed percolation effects emerging from superadditivity of quantum networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement-induced nonadditivity of classical communication capacity in networks consisting of quantum channels is considered. Communication lattices consisting of butterfly-type entanglement-breaking channels augmented, with some probability, by identity channels are analyzed. The capacity superadditivity in the network is manifested in directed correlated bond percolation which we consider in two flavors: simply directed and randomly oriented. The obtained percolation properties show that high-capacity information transfer sets in much faster in the regime of superadditive communication capacity than otherwise possible. As a by-product, this sheds light on a type of entanglement-based quantum capacity percolation phenomenon.

Czekaj, L.; Chhajlany, R. W.; Horodecki, P.

2012-03-01

226

Long-range correlation effects in directional living polymers.  

PubMed

The statistics of (equilibrium) living polymers including both linear chains and rings are considered theoretically. Particular attention is addressed to directional polymers characterized by an arrow along the backbone defined by its chemical structure. Thermodynamic and correlation properties of living polymers are studied both in the mean-field and in the critical scaling regimes. It is shown that living polymers with no rings, classical living polymers with rings, and directional living polymers with rings form three distinct classes characterized by different critical exponents and qualitatively different long-range correlation functions. PMID:25354201

Semenov, A N

2014-12-21

227

Comparison of the orientation of small-scale electron density irregularities and F region plasma ow direction  

E-print Network

Comparison of the orientation of small-scale electron density irregularities and F region plasma-aligned irregularities are determined from amplitude scintillation using a method based on the variance of the relative irregularities) 1 Introduction Investigation of the anisotropy of the F layer irregular- ities is of great

Boyer, Edmond

228

DIRECT EFFECTS OF FIRE ON ENDANGERED MOUNT GRAHAM RED SQUIRRELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct mortality of forest wildlife due to fire is rarely documented. In June and July 2004, the Nuttall Complex Fire burned 11,898 ha in the Pinaleno Mountains, southeastern Ari- zona. Portions of these mountains serve as the only habitat of endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis). Survival of radio-collared red squirrels over a pe- riod that included the

John L. Koprowski; Katherine M. Leonard; Claire A. Zugmeyer; Julia L. Jolley; Cody W. Edwards

2006-01-01

229

Direct Object Predictability: Effects on Young Children's Imitation of Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We hypothesize that the conceptual relation between a verb and its direct object can make a sentence easier ("the cat is eating some food") or harder ("the cat is eating a sock") to parse and understand. If children's limited performance systems contribute to the ungrammatical brevity of their speech, they should perform better on sentences that…

Valian, Virginia; Prasada, Sandeep; Scarpa, Jodi

2006-01-01

230

Analysis of small scale turbulent structures and the effect of spatial scales on gas transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exchange of gases through the air-sea interface strongly depends on environmental conditions such as wind stress and waves which in turn generate near surface turbulence. Near surface turbulence is a main driver of surface divergence which has been shown to cause highly variable transfer rates on relatively small spatial scales. Due to the cool skin of the ocean, heat can be used as a tracer to detect areas of surface convergence and thus gather information about size and intensity of a turbulent process. We use infrared imagery to visualize near surface aqueous turbulence and determine the impact of turbulent scales on exchange rates. Through the high temporal and spatial resolution of these types of measurements spatial scales as well as surface dynamics can be captured. The surface heat pattern is formed by distinct structures on two scales - small-scale short lived structures termed fish scales and larger scale cold streaks that are consistent with the footprints of Langmuir Circulations. There are two key characteristics of the observed surface heat patterns: 1. The surface heat patterns show characteristic features of scales. 2. The structure of these patterns change with increasing wind stress and surface conditions. In [2] turbulent cell sizes have been shown to systematically decrease with increasing wind speed until a saturation at u* = 0.7 cm/s is reached. Results suggest a saturation in the tangential stress. Similar behaviour has been observed by [1] for gas transfer measurements at higher wind speeds. In this contribution a new model to estimate the heat flux is applied which is based on the measured turbulent cell size und surface velocities. This approach allows the direct comparison of the net effect on heat flux of eddies of different sizes and a comparison to gas transfer measurements. Linking transport models with thermographic measurements, transfer velocities can be computed. In this contribution, we will quantify the effect of small scale processes on interfacial transport and relate it to gas transfer. References [1] T. G. Bell, W. De Bruyn, S. D. Miller, B. Ward, K. Christensen, and E. S. Saltzman. Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) gas transfer in the North Atlantic: evidence for limited interfacial gas exchange at high wind speed. Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 13:11073-11087, 2013. [2] J Schnieders, C. S. Garbe, W.L. Peirson, and C. J. Zappa. Analyzing the footprints of near surface aqueous turbulence - an image processing based approach. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 2013.

Schnieders, Jana; Garbe, Christoph

2014-05-01

231

Are tropical small mammals physiologically vulnerable to Arrhenius effects and climate change?  

PubMed

There is some urgency in the necessity to incorporate physiological data into mechanistic, trait-based, demographic climate change models. Physiological responses at the individual level provide the mechanistic link between environmental changes and individual performances and hence population dynamics. Here we consider the causal relationship between ambient temperature (Ta) and metabolic rate (MR), namely, the Arrhenius effect, which is directly affected by global warming through increases in average global air temperatures and the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events. We measured and collated data for several small, free-ranging tropical arboreal mammals and evaluated their vulnerability to Arrhenius effects and putative heat stress associated with climate change. Skin temperatures (Tskin) were obtained from free-ranging tarsiers (Tarsius syrichta) on Bohol Island, Philippines. Core body temperature (Tb) was obtained from the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus) and the gray brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis) from Ankarafantsika, Madagascar. Tskin for another mouse lemur, Microcebus griseorufus, was obtained from the literature. All four species showed evidence of hyperthermia during the daytime rest phase in the form of either Tskin or Tb that was higher than the normothermic Tb during the nighttime active phase. Potentially, tropical arboreal mammals with the lowest MRs and Tb, such as tarsiers, are the most vulnerable to sustained heat stress because their Tb is already close to Ta. Climate change may involve increases in MRs due to Arrhenius effects, especially during the rest phase or during torpor and hibernation. The most likely outcome of increased Arrhenius effects with climate change will be an increase in energy expenditure at the expense of other critical functions such as reproduction or growth and will thus affect fitness. However, we propose that these hypothetical Arrhenius costs can be, and in some species probably are, offset by the use of hyperthermic daily torpor, that is, hypometabolism at high Ta. PMID:24457919

Lovegrove, Barry G; Canale, Cindy; Levesque, Danielle; Fluch, Gerhard; Reháková-Petr?, Milada; Ruf, Thomas

2014-01-01

232

Small Molecule Structure Correctors Abolish Detrimental Effects of Apolipoprotein E4 in Cultured Neurons*  

PubMed Central

Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the major genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer disease, assumes a pathological conformation, intramolecular domain interaction. ApoE4 domain interaction mediates the detrimental effects of apoE4, including decreased mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 levels, reduced mitochondrial motility, and reduced neurite outgrowth in vitro. Mutant apoE4 (apoE4-R61T) lacks domain interaction, behaves like apoE3, and does not cause detrimental effects. To identify small molecules that inhibit domain interaction (i.e. structure correctors) and reverse the apoE4 detrimental effects, we established a high throughput cell-based FRET primary assay that determines apoE4 domain interaction and secondary cell- and function-based assays. Screening a ChemBridge library with the FRET assay identified CB9032258 (a phthalazinone derivative), which inhibits domain interaction in neuronal cells. In secondary functional assays, CB9032258 restored mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 levels and rescued impairments of mitochondrial motility and neurite outgrowth in apoE4-expressing neuronal cells. These benefits were apoE4-specific and dose-dependent. Modifying CB9032258 yielded well defined structure-activity relationships and more active compounds with enhanced potencies in the FRET assay (IC50 of 23 and 116 nm, respectively). These compounds efficiently restored functional activities of apoE4-expressing cells in secondary assays. An EPR binding assay showed that the apoE4 structure correction resulted from direct interaction of a phthalazinone. With these data, a six-feature pharmacophore model was constructed for future drug design. Our results serve as a proof of concept that pharmacological intervention with apoE4 structure correctors negates apoE4 detrimental effects in neuronal cells and could be further developed as an Alzheimer disease therapeutic. PMID:22158868

Chen, Hung-Kai; Liu, Zhaoping; Meyer-Franke, Anke; Brodbeck, Jens; Miranda, Rene D.; McGuire, James G.; Pleiss, Michael A.; Ji, Zhong-Sheng; Balestra, Maureen E.; Walker, David W.; Xu, Qin; Jeong, Dah-eun; Budamagunta, Madhu S.; Voss, John C.; Freedman, Stephen B.; Weisgraber, Karl H.; Huang, Yadong; Mahley, Robert W.

2012-01-01

233

10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved] 431.446 Section 431.446 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION...

2010-01-01

234

Experimental search of parametric X-ray radiation in a silicon crystal at a small angle near the velocity direction of relativistic electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Tomsk synchrotron measurements of X-ray yield for the energies ?=29-53 keV emitted in the forward direction from a perfect silicon crystal bombarded by 500-MeV relativistic electrons have been carried out. The contribution of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) at a small angle near the velocity direction of electrons has not been observed. The possible maximum value of this radiation is smaller than 2% of the total intensity of bremsstrahlung and transition radiation.

Kalinin, B. N.; Naumenko, G. A.; Padalko, D. V.; Potylitsyn, A. P.; Vnukov, I. E.

2001-01-01

235

The Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on Small Business Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of bank M&As on small business lending. Our methodology permits empirical analysis of the vast majority of U.S. bank M&As since the late 1970s -- over 6,000 M&As involving over 10,000 banks (some active banks are counted multiple times). We are the first to decompose the impact of M&As on small business lending into static effects

Allen N. Berger; Anthony Saunders; Joseph M. Scalise; Gregory F. Udell

1997-01-01

236

Direct and indirect effects of alpha-particle irradiations of human prostate tumor cells  

E-print Network

The objective of this project is to establish a model system to study the direct effect, the bystander effect and the combinational effect of alpha-particle irradiations of human prostate tumor cells, toward the goal of ...

Wang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

237

Effects of scatter modeling on time-activity curves estimated directly from dynamic SPECT projections  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative analysis of uptake and washout of cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiopharmaceuticals has the potential to provide better contrast between healthy and diseased tissue, compared to conventional reconstruction of static images. Previously, we used B-splines to model time-activity curves (TACs) for segmented volumes of interest and developed fast least-squares algorithms to estimate spline TAC coefficients and their statistical uncertainties directly from dynamic SPECT projection data. This previous work incorporated physical effects of attenuation and depth-dependent collimator response. In the present work, we incorporate scatter and use a computer simulation to study how scatter modeling affects directly estimated TACs and subsequent estimates of compartmental model parameters. An idealized single-slice emission phantom was used to simulate a 15 min dynamic {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime cardiac patient study in which 500,000 events containing scatter were detected from the slice. When scatter was modeled, unweighted least-squares estimates of TACs had root mean square (RMS) error that was less than 0.6% for normal left ventricular myocardium, blood pool, liver, and background tissue volumes and averaged 3% for two small myocardial defects. When scatter was not modeled, RMS error increased to average values of 16% for the four larger volumes and 35% for the small defects. Noise-to-signal ratios (NSRs) for TACs ranged between 1-18% for the larger volumes and averaged 110% for the small defects when scatter was modeled. When scatter was not modeled, NSR improved by average factors of 1.04 for the larger volumes and 1.25 for the small defects, as a result of the better-posed (though more biased) inverse problem. Weighted least-squares estimates of TACs had slightly better NSR and worse RMS error, compared to unweighted least-squares estimates. Compartmental model uptake and washout parameter estimates obtained from the TACs were less sensitive to whether or not scatter was modeled, compared to the TACs themselves.

Reutter, Bryan W.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Huesman, Ronald H.

2003-10-29

238

Direct and indirect aerosol effects on the Indian monsoon in the CMIP5 integrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Asian monsoon represents one of the most dramatic components of the global climate system and the summer season provides around 80% of annual rainfall to over a billion people in India and surrounding regions. Future climate change projections of the South Asian monsoon based on increased concentrations of greenhouse gases generally suggest small increases in seasonal mean rainfall, due to enhanced availability of moisture from the warmer Indian Ocean. However, rapid population growth and increasing industrialisation in India has led to massive sources of anthropogenic aerosol emission both as sulphate and black carbon (from cooking fires). This is particularly focused on the densely-populated Indo-Gangetic Plains region in northern India, where aerosols accumulate against the Himalayan foothills. In this study we use 20th century historical integrations of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Firstly we compare the subset of models in which greenhouse gases-only and aerosols-only experiments have been performed with the all-forcings integrations. We analyse the spatial pattern of rainfall change from the pre-industrial period to the present day as well as time series of rainfall over South Asia during summer, and show that the aerosol-only experiments more closely match the changes occurring in the all-forcings experiment. This suggests that at their late 20th century concentrations, aerosols play a dominant role over South Asian monsoon rainfall. Next, we examine the all-forcing simulations and compare those models that feature some representation of aerosol indirect effects with those models that consider aerosol direct effects only. In the direct effects-only models, the precipitation change from the pre-industrial period to the present day is shown to be positive over South Asia. However in the indirect effect models, the signal is negative, suggesting the importance of sulphate interactions with low cloud. We also discuss implications for future projections of monsoon rainfall using representative concentration pathways (RCP) of CMIP5.

Guo, L.; Highwood, E.; Turner, A. G.

2013-12-01

239

Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile.  

PubMed

In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO(2) and O(2) ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2. PMID:17888646

Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

2008-01-01

240

Direct fabrication of integrated 3D epitaxial functional transition metal oxide nanostructures using extremely small hollow nanopillar nano-imprint metal masks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel nanofabrication technique is developed for functional oxides. Combining nano-imprint lithography, sidewall-etching and sidewall-deposition processes enables us to prepare Mo hollow nanopillar masks with 100 and 60 nm window sizes, which is smaller than the original nano-imprint mold size of 250 nm. Using this Mo nanomask, extremely small epitaxial ferromagnetic oxide (Fe2.5Mn0.5O4) nanostructures can be directly grown on sapphire

Nam-Goo Cha; Teruo Kanki; Hidekazu Tanaka

2011-01-01

241

Consumer opinion and effectiveness of direct-to-consumer advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to look at the relationship between attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising and its impact on consumer requests for a particular drug. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of 154 consumers completed the survey on-site at a pharmacy while waiting for their prescription(s) to be filled. Based on exploratory research (focus groups), survey items were

Deborah F. Spake; Mathew Joseph

2007-01-01

242

The Effects of Outward Foreign Direct Investment on Domestic Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between outward foreign direct investments and domestic investments. It has been argued in the literature that such analysis should make a distinc- tion between R&D intensive (Schumpeterian) and traditional (Heckscher-Ohlin) type of industries. In line with this argument, two types of domestic investments have been distinguished: invest- ments in R&D and capital investments (equipment; machinery).

R. V. Goedegebuure

2006-01-01

243

First Isolation and Direct Evidence for the Existence of Large Small-Mammal Reservoirs of Leptospira sp. in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLeptospirosis has long been a major public health concern in the southwestern Indian Ocean. However, in Madagascar, only a few, old studies have provided indirect serological evidence of the disease in humans or animals.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe conducted a large animal study focusing on small-mammal populations. Five field trapping surveys were carried out at five sites, from April 2008 to August 2009.

Soanandrasana Rahelinirina; Albertine Léon; Rudy A. Harstskeerl; Natacha Sertour; Ahmed Ahmed; Claudine Raharimanana; Elisabeth Ferquel; Martine Garnier; Loïc Chartier; Jean-Marc Duplantier; Lila Rahalison; Muriel Cornet; Igor Mokrousov

2010-01-01

244

Direct seeding for riparian tree re-vegetation: Small-scale field study of seeding methods and irrigation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of wetland and associated ecosystems is a major goal of land management agencies throughout the world. On the lower Colorado River, creation of riparian forests is planned to mitigate riparian habitat degradation by historic land-use conversions and river management. Current restoration practices use propagated plant stock. If direct seeding can be implemented, genetic and structural diversity could be enhanced

Matthew R. Grabau; Michael A. Milczarek; Martin M. Karpiscak; Barbara E. Raulston; Gregg N. Garnett; Daniel P. Bunting

2011-01-01

245

Effect of knowledge and networking on relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and performance of small and medium agrobased enterprises (SMAEs): The impact of technology, strategy and perceived environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and medium agro-based enterprises (SMAEs) in Malaysia is progressing parallel with the developed nations' direction in 2020. The progress in this sector could be enhanced with the support of strategic entrepreneurship variables. Entrepreneurial orientation, knowledge, business network, technology, strategy and perceived environmental factors showed significant impact on growth, efficiency and effectiveness of the SMAEs. A total of 615 observations

Amran Awang; Zainal Ariffin Ahmad; Abdul Rashid Said Asghar; Khairul Anwar Subari; Shamsul Anaz Kassim

2010-01-01

246

Direct and Market Effects of Enforcing Emissions Trading Programs: An Experimental Analysis  

E-print Network

changes in permit prices. This paper uses laboratory experiments to test for these direct and indirect, there is no direct effect of enforcement on the emissions choices of firms, only a negative price effect that affects compliance decisions will in turn impact the permit market, which has its own indirect effect

Murphy, James J.

247

Survival after total-body irradiation. I. Effects of partial small bowel shielding  

SciTech Connect

The small intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedures 80, 40, 20, or 10 cm, or none of the proximal or distal small intestine were temporarily exteriorized and shielded during irradiation with photons from an 18 MeV linear accelerator. Less than 17% of the dose was delivered to the shielded intestines. In unshielded animals deaths occurred from Days 4 to 6 with 13, 15, or 17 Gy and from Days 8 to 30 with 9, 11, and 12 Gy. However, in all animals exposed to 15 Gy with all or part of the small intestine shielded, survival was increased to between 5 and 9 days. Shielding of the distal small intestine was more effective in prolonging survival than shielding of the proximal small intestine. The previously identified target of radiation damage in the small intestine is the crypt stem cell. In this study, the analysis of histological specimens of shielded and irradiated small intestine suggested that humoral factors also influence intestinal histology and survival after irradiation. These humoral factors are thought to originate from the irradiated body tissues, the shielded proximal intestine, and the shielded distal intestine. Further studies are required to identify these factors and to determine their mode of action and their therapeutic potential after radiation damage to the small intestine.

Vigneulle, R.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Taylor, P.; Burns, W.; Pelkey, T. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-08-01

248

Disentangling direct and indirect effects of experimental grassland management and plant functional-group manipulation on plant and leafhopper diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant biodiversity can affect trophic interactions in many ways, including direct bottom-up effects on insects, but is negatively affected by agricultural intensification. Grassland intensification promotes plant productivity, resulting in changes in plant community composition, and impacts on higher trophic levels. Here, we use a novel grassland management experiment combining manipulations of cutting and fertilization with experimental changes in plant functional group composition (independent of management effects) to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of agricultural management on insect herbivore diversity and abundance. We used leafhoppers as model organisms as they are a key insect taxon in grasslands and react rapidly to management changes. Leafhoppers were sampled between May and September 2010 using standardized sweep netting and pan traps. Results Plant diversity, functional group composition and management regime in grasslands affected leafhopper species richness and abundance. Higher cutting frequencies directly led to decreasing leafhopper species richness, presumably due to the higher disturbance frequency and the reduction in food-resource heterogeneity. In contrast, fertilizer application had only a small indirect negative effect via enhanced aboveground plant biomass, reduced plant diversity and changes in functional group composition. The manipulated increase in grass cover had contrasting direct and indirect effects on leafhopper species richness: grass cover directly increased leafhopper species richness, but negatively affected plant diversity, which in turn was positively related to leafhopper species richness. In conclusion, insect diversity is driven in complex direct and indirect ways by grassland management, including changes in functional group composition. Conclusions The availability of preferred food sources and the frequency of disturbance are important direct and indirect drivers of leafhopper species richness, interacting in complex ways with plant diversity and food resource heterogeneity. PMID:24438134

2014-01-01

249

The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space.  

PubMed

An achromatic stimulus is defined as a patch of light that is devoid of any hue. This is usually achieved by asking observers to adjust the stimulus such that it looks neither red nor green and at the same time neither yellow nor blue. Despite the theoretical and practical importance of the achromatic locus, little is known about the variability in these settings. The main purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether achromatic settings were dependent on the task of the observers, namely the navigation direction in color space. Observers could either adjust the test patch along the two chromatic axes in the CIE u*v* diagram or, alternatively, navigate along the unique-hue lines. Our main result is that the navigation method affects the reliability of these achromatic settings. Observers are able to make more reliable achromatic settings when adjusting the test patch along the directions defined by the four unique hues as opposed to navigating along the main axes in the commonly used CIE u*v* chromaticity plane. This result holds across different ambient viewing conditions (Dark, Daylight, Cool White Fluorescent) and different test luminance levels (5, 20, and 50 cd/m(2)). The reduced variability in the achromatic settings is consistent with the idea that internal color representations are more aligned with the unique-hue lines than the u* and v* axes. PMID:24464164

Chauhan, Tushar; Perales, Esther; Xiao, Kaida; Hird, Emily; Karatzas, Dimosthenis; Wuerger, Sophie

2014-01-01

250

The achromatic locus: Effect of navigation direction in color space  

PubMed Central

An achromatic stimulus is defined as a patch of light that is devoid of any hue. This is usually achieved by asking observers to adjust the stimulus such that it looks neither red nor green and at the same time neither yellow nor blue. Despite the theoretical and practical importance of the achromatic locus, little is known about the variability in these settings. The main purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether achromatic settings were dependent on the task of the observers, namely the navigation direction in color space. Observers could either adjust the test patch along the two chromatic axes in the CIE u*v* diagram or, alternatively, navigate along the unique-hue lines. Our main result is that the navigation method affects the reliability of these achromatic settings. Observers are able to make more reliable achromatic settings when adjusting the test patch along the directions defined by the four unique hues as opposed to navigating along the main axes in the commonly used CIE u*v* chromaticity plane. This result holds across different ambient viewing conditions (Dark, Daylight, Cool White Fluorescent) and different test luminance levels (5, 20, and 50 cd/m2). The reduced variability in the achromatic settings is consistent with the idea that internal color representations are more aligned with the unique-hue lines than the u* and v* axes. PMID:24464164

Chauhan, Tushar; Perales, Esther; Xiao, Kaida; Hird, Emily; Karatzas, Dimosthenis; Wuerger, Sophie

2014-01-01

251

Direct method for detecting small quantities of hepatitis B virus DNA in serum and plasma using the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed Central

Serum components inhibit DNA polymerase, thereby obviating direct detection of serum viral DNA sequences by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This has necessitated extraction of nucleic acid from sera before performing PCR and has resulted in loss of sensitivity. By adsorbing virus to a solid surface (microcentrifuge tubes or antibody coated microparticles) followed by proteinase K digestion, as little as three viruses per 200 microliters serum may be directly detected by PCR without nucleic acid extraction. The sensitivity is dependent on the surface area of the adsorptive surface and is increased by having antibodies on the adsorptive surface. The nucleic acid sequence of the amplified DNA fragments may be directly determined by the dideoxy method. Of 24 plasma samples from HBsAg+ volunteer blood donors, HBV DNA was detected in 7 by dot blot assay, 7 by liquid hybridization, and 9 by PCR. PCR detected DNA in every sample that was positive by another assay. Analysis of serial samples of two patients with acute self-limited hepatitis B found detectable HBsAg and pre-S2 antigenemia before HBV DNA by the PCR method. These results suggest that surface antigenemia may precede viremia during acute hepatitis. Images PMID:2808703

Zeldis, J B; Lee, J H; Mamish, D; Finegold, D J; Sircar, R; Ling, Q; Knudsen, P J; Kuramoto, I K; Mimms, L T

1989-01-01

252

Effects of cholera toxin on villous tissue osmolality and fluid and electrolyte transport in the small intestine of the cat.  

PubMed

The effects of cholera toxin on tissue osmolality and on net transport rates of water, sodium, chloride and potassium as well as on unidirectional fluxes of water and sodium were studied in vivo. In all experiments the toxin caused a net secretion of water, sodium, chloride and potassium. The unidirectional sodium transport from tissue to lumen was increased while the flux in the opposite direction was reduced 180 min after cholera toxin instillation. Cholera toxin produced only a small reduction in the villous tissue hyperosmolality, created by the intestinal countercurrent exchanger. This reduction was far too small to explain the observed net secretion of fluid and solutes induced by the cholera toxin. Other mechanisms underlying the cholera secretion are discussed. PMID:539454

Hallbäck, D A; Jodal, M; Lundgren, O

1979-11-01

253

The effect of dissipation in direct communication scheme  

E-print Network

The effect of the dissipation and finite number of beam splitters are discussed. A method using balanced dissipation to improve the communication for finite beam splitters, which greatly increases communication reliability with an expense of decreasing communication efficiency.

Fu Li; Jun-Xiang Zhang; Shi-Yao Zhu

2014-10-11

254

Thermal effects in rapid directional solidification - Linear theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We study the morphological instability of the planar solid/liquid interface for a unidirectionally-solidified dilute binary mixture. We use a model developed by Boettinger et al. (1985, 1986), Aziz (1982), and Jackson et al. (1980), which allows for nonequilibrium effects on the interface through velocity-dependent segregation and attachment kinetics. Two types of instabilities are found in the linear stability analysis: (1) a cellular instability, and (2) an oscillatory instability driven by disequilibrium effects. Merchant and Davis (1990) characterized these instabilities subject to the frozen-temperature approximation (FTA). The present work relaxes the FTA by including the effects of latent heat and the full temperature distribution. Thermal effects slightly postpone the onset of the cellular instability but dramatically postpone the onset of the oscillatory instability; however, the absolute-stability conditions, at which at high speed the cellular and oscillatory instabilities are suppressed, remain unchanged from the FTA.

Huntley, D. A.; Davis, S. H.

1993-01-01

255

Alternative Graphical Causal Models and the Identification of Direct Effects  

E-print Network

effects. This paper will appear in Causality and psychopathology: finding the determinants of disor- ders' outcomes for each unit under different possible joint treatments or exposures. The second approach posits

256

Fibroblast growth factor-223 binds directly to the survival of motoneuron protein and is associated with small nuclear RNAs  

PubMed Central

The SMN (survival of motoneuron) protein is mutated in patients with the neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy. We have shown previously that a high-molecular-mass isoform of FGF (fibroblast growth factor) 2 (FGF-223) is in a complex with SMN [Claus, Döring, Gringel, Müller-Ostermeyer, Fuhlrott, Kraft and Grothe (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 479–485]. FGF-2 is a neurotrophic factor for motoneurons, and is known not only as a classical extracellular growth factor, but also as a nuclear protein. In the present study, we demonstrate that SMN binds to the arginine-rich N-terminus of FGF-223. In turn, FGF-223 interacts with amino acid residues 1–90 of the human SMN protein. This sequence displays nucleic-acid-binding capacity and overlaps partially with known binding sites for Gemin2/SIP1 (SMN-interacting protein 1) and p53. Finally, as a functional consequence of FGF-223 binding to SMN, FGF-223 is in a complex with the small nuclear RNAs U2 and U4. Since SMN functions as an assembly factor for snRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles), these results suggest binding of FGF-223 to snRNPs. PMID:15222879

2004-01-01

257

A bandwidth-optimized WENO scheme for the effective direct numerical simulation of compressible turbulence  

E-print Network

A bandwidth-optimized WENO scheme for the effective direct numerical simulation of compressible for the direct numerical simulation of compressible turbulence are presented. The schemes are designed of the bandwidth-optimized schemes for direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows is assessed in decaying

Martín, Pino

258

The effect of directed forgetting on post traumatic stress disorder peddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic memory of post traumatic stress disorder peddlers can affect competition performance, and even avoid competition. The paper explored the effect of directed forgetting on post traumatic stress disorder peddlers. The results showed that:(1) directed forgetting affected explicit and implicit memory of post traumatic stress disorder peddlers whose remember items were better than forget items. The findings showed directed forgetting

Fenghai Cai

2010-01-01

259

Effects of Direct and Averted Gaze on the Perception of Facially Communicated Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has largely neglected the effects of gaze direction cues on the perception of facial expressions of emotion. It was hypothesized that when gaze direction matches the underlying behavioral intent (approach-avoidance) communicated by an emotional expression, the perception of that emotion would be enhanced (i.e., shared signal hypothesis). Specifically, the authors expected that (a) direct gaze would enhance the perception

Robert E. Kleck

2005-01-01

260

Effects of Directed Written Disclosure on Grief and Distress Symptoms among Bereaved Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bereavement-specific written disclosure trials have generally demonstrated null effects, but these studies have not directed the focus of writing. This randomized controlled trial compared directed writing that focused on either sense-making or benefit-finding, both associated with adjustment to loss, to traditional, non-directed emotional…

Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Cruess, Dean G.

2010-01-01

261

Direct and semi-direct aerosol radiative effect on the Mediterranean climate variability using a coupled regional climate system model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully coupled regional climate system model (CNRM-RCSM4) has been used over the Mediterranean region to investigate the direct and semi-direct effects of aerosols, but also their role in the radiation-atmosphere-ocean interactions through multi-annual ensemble simulations (2003-2009) with and without aerosols and ocean-atmosphere coupling. Aerosols have been taken into account in CNRM-RCSM4 through realistic interannual monthly AOD climatologies. An evaluation of the model has been achieved, against various observations for meteorological parameters, and has shown the ability of CNRM-RCSM4 to reproduce the main patterns of the Mediterranean climate despite some biases in sea surface temperature (SST), radiation and cloud cover. The results concerning the aerosol radiative effects show a negative surface forcing on average because of the absorption and scattering of the incident radiation. The SW surface direct effect is on average -20.9 Wm-2 over the Mediterranean Sea, -14.7 Wm-2 over Europe and -19.7 Wm-2 over northern Africa. The LW surface direct effect is weaker as only dust aerosols contribute (+4.8 Wm-2 over northern Africa). This direct effect is partly counterbalanced by a positive semi-direct radiative effect over the Mediterranean Sea (+5.7 Wm-2 on average) and Europe (+5.0 Wm-2) due to changes in cloud cover and atmospheric circulation. The total aerosol effect is consequently negative at the surface and responsible for a decrease in land (on average -0.4 °C over Europe, and -0.5 °C over northern Africa) and sea surface temperature (on average -0.5 °C for the Mediterranean SST). In addition, the latent heat loss is shown to be weaker (-11.0 Wm-2) in the presence of aerosols, resulting in a decrease in specific humidity in the lower troposphere, and a reduction in cloud cover and precipitation. Simulations also indicate that dust aerosols warm the troposphere by absorbing solar radiation, and prevent radiation from reaching the surface, thus stabilizing the troposphere. The comparison with the model response in atmosphere-only simulations shows that these feedbacks are attenuated if SST cannot be modified by aerosols, highlighting the importance of using coupled regional models over the Mediterranean. Oceanic convection is also strengthened by aerosols, which tends to reinforce the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. In parallel, two case studies are presented to illustrate positive feedbacks between dust aerosols and regional climate. First, the eastern Mediterranean was subject to high dust aerosol loads in June 2007 which reduce land and sea surface temperature, as well as air-sea humidity fluxes. Because of northern wind over the eastern Mediterranean, drier and cooler air has been consequently advected from the sea to the African continent, reinforcing the direct dust effect over land. On the contrary, during the western European heat wave in June 2006, dust aerosols have contributed to reinforcing an important ridge responsible for dry and warm air advection over western Europe, and thus to increasing lower troposphere (+0.8 °C) and surface temperature (+0.5 °C), namely about 15 % of this heat wave.

Nabat, Pierre; Somot, Samuel; Mallet, Marc; Sevault, Florence; Chiacchio, Marc; Wild, Martin

2014-06-01

262

Effects of Immersed Surfaces on the Combustor Efficiency of Small Scale Fluidized Beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, effects of the different types of heat exchanger surfaces on the second law efficiency of a small-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor are analyzed and the results are compared with the bubbling fluidized bed coal combustor effectiveness values. Using a previously developed simulation program, combustor efficiency and entropy generation values are obtained at different operation velocities at

Afsin GUNGOR; Nurdil ESKIN

263

Effects of ion drift on small-amplitude ion-acoustic solitons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some properties of small-amplitude ion-acoustic solitons in a plasma consisting of nondrifting electrons and drifting ions are investigated. Electron inertia effects are shown to be considerably more important than relativistic effects. It is also shown that ion-acoustic soliton solutions exist only if the ion drift velocity is less than the electron thermal velocity.

H. H. Kuehl; C. Y. Zhang

1991-01-01

264

Cost-effective small-scale crown-of-thorns starfish eradication procedures using acid injections  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was undertaken to determine the most effective method of controlling the crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) on small patch reefs. Two acid injection regimes were trialled over an eight month period and both significantly reduced the densities and size classes of COTS on isolated patch reefs. The frequent injection regime (approximately 2 person hours effort per week) was more effective

David Fisk; Lyle Vail; Anne Hoggett

265

Effects of Cocaine on Performance under Fixed-Interval Schedules with a Small Tandem Ratio Requirement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however,…

Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

2004-01-01

266

Oxygen in GaAs - Direct and indirect effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen has profound effects on the key electronic properties and point defects of GaAs crystals. Thus, when added in the growth system, it decreases the free electron concentration and enhances the concentration of deep donors in the resulting crystals. Both of these effects are highly beneficial for achieving semi-insulating material and have been utilized for that purpose. They have been attributed to the tendency of oxygen to getter silicon impurities during crystal growth. Only recently, it has been found that oxygen in GaAs introduces also a midgap level, ELO, with essentially the same activation energy as EL2 but with four times greater electron capture cross section. The present report reassesses the electrical and optical properties of the midgap levels in GaAs crystals grown by the horizontal Bridgman (HB) and the Czochralski-LEC techniques. Emphasis is placed on the identification of the specific effects of ELO.

Gatos, H. C.; Skowronski, M.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.

1984-01-01

267

Effect of Court Dimensions on Players' External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0-1.4 m·s(-1); 1.4-3.4 m·s(-1); 3.4-5.2 m·s(-1); >5.2 m·s(-1)) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher during the drill with the 32×16m court compared with the 24×12m one (p < 0.05; ES = 2.34). Our findings indicate that changing court dimensions during small-sided handball games can be used to manipulate both external and internal loads on the players. Key pointsTo cover the specific game demands, more specific training methodologies have been developed in many sport games.Specific game exercises may provide a useful conditioning stimulus, together with technical and tactical training components.Changing court dimensions during small-sided handball games can be used to manipulate both external and internal loads on the players.The high ratio of cyclic activity per minute and the high HR values recorded during SSHGs make this type of drills extremely useful for aerobic power training. PMID:24790482

Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

2014-05-01

268

Effects of small-sided games on physical conditioning and performance in young soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3

Athanasios Katis; Eleftherios Kellis

2009-01-01

269

Stand scale effects of partial harvesting and clearcutting on small mammals and forest structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documenting responses of small mammals to alternative forestry practices (e.g., clearcutting versus partial harvesting versus no management) facilitates inferences about effects on wildlife communities. We compared abundances of small mammals (voles, mice, and shrews) during four summers among partially harvested mixed coniferous–deciduous stands (52–59% basal area removal, 15m2\\/ha live-tree residual basal area), regenerating commercial clearcuts (11–20-year-old), mature (>12m tree height)

Angela K Fuller; Daniel J Harrison; Henry J Lachowski

2004-01-01

270

Small scale effects on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory  

SciTech Connect

Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, small scale effects are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the small scale effect. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the small scale effect of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules.

Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lei, Fang-Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2009-09-25

271

Direct and Collateral Effects of Restraints and Restraint Fading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of three individuals with self-injurious behavior (SIB) evaluated a device designed for restraint fading with individuals who display hand-to-head SIB. Results demonstrated that stimulus control of SIB occurred in all individuals subsequent to restraint fading. The study also examined the effects of the rigid arm sleeves and restraint…

Fisher, Wayne W.; And Others

1997-01-01

272

Effectiveness of lethal, directed wolf-depredation control in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolf (Canis lupus) depredations on livestock in Minnesota, USA, are an economic problem for many livestock producers, and depredating wolves are lethally controlled. We sought to determine the effectiveness of lethal control through the analysis of data from 923 government-verified wolf depredations from 1979 to 1998. We analyzed the data by 1) assessing the correlations between the number of wolves killed in response to depredations with number of depredations the following year at state and local levels, and 2) the time to the next depredation. No analysis indicated that trapping wolves substantially reduced the following year's depredations at state or local levels. However, more specific analyses indicated that in certain situations, killing wolves was more effective than no action (i.e., not trapping). For example, trapping and killing adult males decreased the re-depredation risk. At sheep farms, killing wolves was generally effective. Attempting to trap, regardless of the results, seemed more effective at reducing depredations than not trapping, suggesting that mere human activity near depredation sites might deter future depredations.

Harper, E. K.; Paul, W. J.; Mech, L. D.; Weisberg, S.

2008-01-01

273

Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

274

Observe how the Coriolis effect influences wind direction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated series of satellite images shows Earth science students how the Coriolis effect causes winds in the Northern Hemisphere to veer to the right of their predicted course. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

275

Climate change and wildlife health: direct and indirect effects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate change will have significant effects on the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans, according to scientists. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that unprecedented rates of climate change will result in increasing average global temperatures; rising sea levels; changing global precipitation patterns, including increasing amounts and variability; and increasing midcontinental summer drought (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Increasing temperatures, combined with changes in rainfall and humidity, may have significant impacts on wildlife, domestic animal, and human health and diseases. When combined with expanding human populations, these changes could increase demand on limited water resources, lead to more habitat destruction, and provide yet more opportunities for infectious diseases to cross from one species to another. Awareness has been growing in recent years about zoonotic diseases— that is, diseases that are transmissible between animals and humans, such as Lyme disease and West Nile virus. The rise of such diseases results from closer relationships among wildlife, domestic animals, and people, allowing more contact with diseased animals, organisms that carry and transmit a disease from one animal to another (vectors), and people. Disease vectors include insects, such as mosquitoes, and arachnids, such as ticks. Thus, it is impossible to separate the effects of global warming on wildlife from its effects on the health of domestic animals or people. Climate change, habitat destruction and urbanization, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and pollution—all affect ecosystem and human health. Climate change can also be viewed within the context of other physical and climate cycles, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (El Niño), the North Atlantic Oscillation, and cycles in solar radiation that have profound effects on the Earth’s climate. The effects of climate change on wildlife disease are summarized in several areas of scientific study discussed briefly below: geographic range and distribution of wildlife diseases, plant and animal phenology (Walther and others, 2002), and patterns of wildlife disease, community and ecosystem composition, and habitat degradation.

Hofmeister, Erik; Rogall, Gail Moede; Wesenberg, Kathy; Abbott, Rachel; Work, Thierry; Schuler, Krysten; Sleeman, Jonathan; Winton, James

2010-01-01

276

Direct Evidence for Natural Transmission of Small-Ruminant Lentiviruses of Subtype A4 from Goats to Sheep and Vice Versa  

PubMed Central

Small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), which include the caprine arthritis-encephalitis and the maedi-visna virus, cause persistent inflammatory infections in goats and sheep. SRLV are mainly transmitted from mother to offspring through milk. Transmission after prolonged contact between adult animals has also been observed. The observation that certain SRLV subtypes are found in both goats and sheep suggests that interspecies transmission has occurred on several occasions in the past. We investigated seropositive goats and sheep that were kept together in small mixed herds. Phylogenetic analysis of long proviral sequences in gag and pol, combined with epidemiologic information, demonstrated natural sheep-to-goat transmission of the recently identified SRLV subtype A4 in two instances and goat-to-sheep transmission of the same subtype in one instance. In a further mixed cluster, the direction of the interspecies transmission could not be determined. These findings present for the first time direct evidence that natural interspecies transmission of SRLV is ongoing in both directions. The findings are of relevance to virus eradication programs in both species. PMID:15220425

Shah, Cyril; Huder, Jon B.; Boni, Jurg; Schonmann, Marietta; Muhlherr, Janine; Lutz, Hans; Schupbach, Jorg

2004-01-01

277

Direct cardiotoxic effects of cocaine and cocaethylene on isolated cardiomyocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the cardiotoxic effects of cocaine and cocaethylene on the Ca2+ flux responsible for excitation-contraction coupling in isolated ventricular rat myocytes. We simultaneously measured intracellular Ca2+ transients and cell length in isolated cardiac myocytes loaded with a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, indo-1, during electrical field stimulation at 1 Hz. The cell length was estimated by video dimension analysis. We also

Hongcheng Bai; Kinya Otsu; Mohammed Nasimul Islam; Hisanaga Kuroki; Masaru Terada; Michihiko Tada; Choei Wakasugi

1996-01-01

278

Effects of Direct and Indirect Bleach on Dentin Fracture Toughness  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are concerns that tooth-whitening procedures irreversibly damage tooth structure. We investigated the hypothesis that dental bleaches significantly affect dentin structural integrity. The objective was to evaluate the effects of peroxide bleaches on dentin fracture toughness. Compact test specimens, composed of human dentin, were used (n = 10\\/group). Bleach (16% or 10% carbamide peroxide or 3% hydrogen peroxide) or control

L. E. Tam; A. Noroozi

2007-01-01

279

The effect of the euro on foreign direct investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the recent effect of the European Monetary Union on inward FDI-flows is examined using a difference-in-differences approach. The estimated results show that the introduction of the euro raised inward FDI flows by approximately 16% within the euro area, by approximately 11% to non-members and weakly by around 8% from non-member countries into the euro area. Moreover, the

Pavlos Petroulas

2007-01-01

280

Similar Mechanisms of Movement Control in Target- and Effect-Directed Actions toward Spatial Goals?  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that actions conducted toward temporal targets and temporal effects are controlled in a similar way. To investigate whether these findings also apply to spatially restricted movements we analyzed movement kinematics of continuous reversal movements toward given spatial targets and toward self-produced spatial effects in two experiments. In Experiment 1 target- and effect-directed movements were investigated in three different goal constellations. A spatial target/effect was always presented/produced on one movement side, on the other side either (a) no target/effect, (b) the same target/effect, or (c) a more difficult target/effect was presented/produced. Results showed that both target-directed and effect-directed movements have a typical spatial kinematic pattern and that both can be equally well described by linear functions as suggested by Fitts’ Law. However, effect-directed movements have longer movement times. In Experiment 2 participants performed target-directed movements to the one side and effect-directed movements to the other side of a reversal movement. More pronounced spatial kinematics were observed in effect-directed than in target-directed movements. Together, the results suggest that actions conducted toward spatial targets and spatial effects are controlled in a similar manner. Gradual differences in the kinematic patterns may arise because effects are cognitively more demanding. They may therefore be represented less accurately than targets. However, there was no indication of qualitative differences in the cognitive representations of effects and targets. This strengthens our assumption that both targets and effects play a comparable role in action control: they can both be viewed as goals of an action. Thus, ideomotor theories of action control should incorporate action targets as goals similar to action effects. PMID:23230426

Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

2012-01-01

281

Observation of Small-scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Direction Distribution of TeV Cosmic Rays with HAWC  

E-print Network

The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is sensitive to gamma rays and charged cosmic rays at TeV energies. The detector is still under construction, but data acquisition with the partially deployed detector started in 2013. An analysis of the cosmic-ray arrival direction distribution based on $4.9\\times 10^{10}$ events recorded between June 2013 and February 2014 shows anisotropy at the $10^{-4}$ level on angular scales of about $10^\\circ$. The HAWC cosmic-ray sky map exhibits three regions of significantly enhanced cosmic-ray flux; two of these regions were first reported by the Milagro experiment. A third region coincides with an excess recently reported by the ARGO-YBJ experiment. An angular power spectrum analysis of the sky shows that all terms up to $\\ell=15$ contribute significantly to the excesses.

Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De Leó, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Harding, J P; Hüntemeyer, P; Hui, C M; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-García, R; Malone, K; Marinelli, A; Marinelli, S S; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; McEnery, J; Torres, E Mendoza; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Riviére, C; Rosa-González, D; Ruiz-Velasco, E; Ryan, J; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Sandoval, A; Schneider, M; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Woodle, K Sparks; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

2014-01-01

282

Observation of Small-scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Direction Distribution of TeV Cosmic Rays with HAWC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is sensitive to gamma rays and charged cosmic rays at TeV energies. The detector is still under construction, but data acquisition with the partially deployed detector started in 2013. An analysis of the cosmic-ray arrival direction distribution based on 4.9 × 1010 events recorded between 2013 June and 2014 February shows anisotropy at the 10–4 level on angular scales of about 10°. The HAWC cosmic-ray sky map exhibits three regions of significantly enhanced cosmic-ray flux; two of these regions were first reported by the Milagro experiment. A third region coincides with an excess recently reported by the ARGO-YBJ experiment. An angular power spectrum analysis of the sky shows that all terms up to l = 15 contribute significantly to the excesses.

Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Baughman, B. M.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Belmont, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bonilla Rosales, M.; Braun, J.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carramiñana, A.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; de la Fuente, E.; De León, C.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; Galindo, A.; Garfias, F.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Gussert, M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Hui, C. M.; Imran, A.; Iriarte, A.; Karn, P.; Kieda, D.; Kunde, G. J.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longo, M.; Luna-García, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, A.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, O.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; McEnery, J.; Mendoza Torres, E.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Oceguera-Becerra, T.; Patricelli, B.; Pelayo, R.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Ryan, J.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Sparks Woodle, K.; Springer, R. W.; Taboada, I.; Toale, P. A.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zaborov, D.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; The HAWC Collaboration

2014-12-01

283

A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between Psychopathic Personality and Antisocial Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Antisocial behaviour may partly develop as a consequence of psychopathic personality. However, neither the direction of effects nor the aetiology of the association has previously been clarified. The aim in this study was to investigate the direction of effects between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour, and to…

Forsman, Mats; Lichtenstein, Paul; Andershed, Henrik; Larsson, Henrik

2010-01-01

284

Assessing the effectiveness of direct injection for ocean carbon sequestration under the influence of climate change  

E-print Network

Assessing the effectiveness of direct injection for ocean carbon sequestration under the influence, ISAM-2.5D. Following the OCMIP carbon sequestration protocol, we carried out a series of carbon., and L. Cao (2005), Assessing the effectiveness of direct injection for ocean carbon sequestration under

Jain, Atul K.

285

Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse  

E-print Network

Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

286

Target- and Effect-Directed Actions towards Temporal Goals: Similar Mechanisms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an effect) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of effect-directed and target-directed action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They…

Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

2012-01-01

287

Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

2012-01-01

288

Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Influence Upon Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model incorporating the direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring on adolescent alcohol use was evaluated by applying structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to data on 4,765 tenth-graders in the 2001 Monitoring the Future Study. Analyses indicated good fit of hypothesized measurement and structural models. Analyses supported both direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring on adolescent alcohol use.

Young-Mi Kim; James Alan Neff

2010-01-01

289

A PROBABILISTIC FRAMEWORK TO INCLUDE THE EFFECTS OF NEAR-FAULT DIRECTIVITY IN SEISMIC HAZARD  

E-print Network

earthquake striking close to a big city in the near future. This, coupled with the fact that near-faultA PROBABILISTIC FRAMEWORK TO INCLUDE THE EFFECTS OF NEAR-FAULT DIRECTIVITY IN SEISMIC HAZARD, makes the quantitative study of near-fault seismic hazard and risk important. Directivity effects cause

Baker, Jack W.

290

OIKOS 104: 1526, 2004 Direct and indirect effects of pollinators and seed predators to  

E-print Network

OIKOS 104: 15­26, 2004 Direct and indirect effects of pollinators and seed predators to selection. 2004. Direct and indirect effects of pollinators and seed predators to selection on plant and floral, ultimately shape the evolution of floral and flowering traits. We examined the importance of pollination vs

Irwin, Rebecca E.

291

Spatial Variation in Top-down Direct and Indirect Effects on White Oak (Quercus alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent attention has been paid to spatial variation in the direct and indirect effects of trophic interactions. Because abundances of predators and prey vary naturally through space, their interactions and the effects of these interactions may vary as well. We conducted a bird exclosure experiment on white oak (Quercus albaL.) using a randomized block design to assess how the direct

Nicholas A. Barber; Robert J. Marquis

2009-01-01

292

Age and Directed-Participation Variables Influencing the Effectiveness of Televised Instruction in Concrete Operational Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Head Start preschoolers on a Papago reservation in Arizona were subjects of two studies of the effects of televised instruction and directed participation on teaching enumeration and conservation skills. Television instruction was most effective when used with active directed participation and corrective feedback. (Author/JEG)

Henderson, Ronald W.; Swanson, Rosemary A.

1978-01-01

293

How to enhance effectiveness of Direct Attack Judo throws  

E-print Network

In this paper is performed an appraisal of the Olympic Sport Judo effectiveness in the optics of Biomechanics. To broaden the classical view,the field of experimentation is obviously the high level competition in which most of rotational application can be found applied more or less instinctively by high level Athletes. Considering the two biomechanical tools that are the physical basis of judo throws it is possible to obtain such results from the analysis of high competition application:Lever Techniques are enhanced in their effectiveness in three ways: The rotational movements, strictly connected to the Lever techniques mechanics achieving victory in competition, can be extended to the unbalance phase. The rotational movements can be applied in a totally new way putting away even the unbalance that is basic in the Lever techniques. The Lever tool can be hybridized with the Couple tool to lower the energy consumption. Couple Techniques are enhanced in their effectiveness also in three ways: The Couple tool t...

Sacripanti, Attilio

2014-01-01

294

Direct electrochemistry of heme proteins: effect of electrode surface modification by neutral surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct electrochemical studies on horse heart myoglobin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) have been carried out using tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and surfactant modified glassy carbon working electrodes. These proteins show very slow electron transfer kinetics at metal or untreated electrodes. Moreover, small amounts of surface-active impurity were drastically affects the electrode reaction of these proteins. The results showed that modification

Krishnananda Chattopadhyay; Shyamalava Mazumdar

2001-01-01

295

Quantitative analysis of the direct effect of aerosols over decadal scale by using ECHAM6-standalone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of aerosols on climate is an important but still highly uncertain aspect in climate research. By using atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6 our objective is to quantify the direct effect of aerosols over decadal time scale in comparison to the variability induced by the varying sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea ice concentrations (SIC) taken by the AMIP-II data base and the inevitable internal and unpredictable climate noise. We integrated the model with prescribed SST/SIC along with observed green house gases and aerosols concentrations for ten year period 1995-2004. Two ensembles with sample size ten, each have been created by starting the integrations on January 1st, 1995 with ten different initial conditions derived from two control runs over 15-years. These ensembles differ for tropospheric aerosols (TA): the non-aerosol case (NAC) is without any TA and aerosol case (AC) is utilizing a time variable data set of aerosols optical properties for input into the solar part of the ECHAM6 radiation code (Kinne et al, 2006). This set-up allows for a quantitative estimation and separation of the stationary and transient aerosol effects, the SST/SIC induced variability and the internal variability due to large scale atmospheric instabilities and non-linearities with the help of a two-way analysis of variance. We analyzed ensemble data for top of atmosphere (TOA) energy balance and temperature at 850 hPa. In the NAC, the ensemble exhibits a global and annual mean 3 W/m2 imbalance of the TOA radiation balance whereas the AC shows only 0.6 W/m2 being much closer in radiative balance over ten year period. The aerosols increase global planetary albedo from 0.29 (non-aerosol) to 0.30 for aerosol case. Extending the analysis to regional values of annual mean TOA radiation balance components, we find that the changes in TOA solar radiation budget are highly significant for static direct aerosol effect with local contributions to the total variability of up to 80% especially in North African-tropical Atlantic region. Transient aerosol and SST/SIC contributions to solar TOA radiative fluxes are of the order of 10%. Major contributor to the variability of TOA solar fluxes especially at mid-latitudes is internal variability also up to 80-90% outside the above mentioned regions. The results show that the direct effect of (prescribed) aerosols are clearly detectable even on a regional scale on decadal time scale if solar radiative fluxes are analyzed. The annual mean temperature at 850 hPa (dynamical variable) shows contrasting results. Major contributions of its variability at low latitudes come from SST (60-80% at tropical/subtropical latitudes) while the static aerosol effects are small (< 10% except in central equatorial Africa) and transient aerosol effects contribute up to 10% also at higher latitudes with the remaining part (locally 80-90%) coming from internal climate noise. In summary this analysis of variance of radiative fluxes and dynamical variables allows to draw objectively conclusions about the need to include (direct) aerosol effects into decadal climate forecasts. __________________________________________ Kinne. S and M. Schulz (2006). An AeroCom initial assessment-optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models: Atmos. Chem. Phys.,6,1815-1834

Muhammad, K.; Bott, A.; Hense, A.

2013-12-01

296

Future Directions for Cardiovascular Disease Comparative Effectiveness Research  

PubMed Central

Comparative effectiveness research (CER) aims to provide decision-makers the evidence needed to evaluate the benefits and harms of alternative clinical management strategies. CER has become a national priority, with considerable new research funding allocated. Cardiovascular disease is a priority area for CER. This workshop report provides an overview of CER methods, with an emphasis on practical clinical trials and observational treatment comparisons. The report also details recommendations to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute for a new framework for evidence development to foster cardiovascular CER, and specific studies to address eight clinical issues identified by the Institute of Medicine as high priorities for cardiovascular CER. PMID:22796257

Hlatky, Mark A; Douglas, Pamela S; Cook, Nakela L; Wells, Barbara; Benjamin, Emelia J; Dickersin, Kay; Goff, David C; Hirsch, Alan T; Hylek, Elaine M; Peterson, Eric; Roger, Veronique L; Selby, Joseph V; Udelson, James E; Lauer, Michael S

2012-01-01

297

Small effective population sizes of two remnant ocelot populations ( Leopardus pardalis albescens ) in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threatened populations are vulnerable to the effects of genetic drift and inbreeding, particularly when gene flow is low and\\u000a the effective population size is small. Estimates of effective population size (N\\u000a \\u000a e\\u000a ) provide important information on the status of endangered populations that have experienced severe fragmentation and serve\\u000a as indicators of genetic viability. Genetic data from microsatellite loci were

Jan E. Jane?ka; M. E. Tewes; L. L. Laack; L. I. Grassman; A. M. Haines; R. L. Honeycutt

2008-01-01

298

Survival after total-body irradiation. 1. Effects of partial small bowel shielding  

SciTech Connect

The small intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedures 80, 40, 20, or 10 cm, or none of the proximal or distal small intestine were temporarily exteriorized and shielded during irradiation with photons from an 18-MeV linear accelerator. Less than 17% of the dose was delivered to the shielded intestines. In unshielded animals deaths occurred from Days 4 to 6 with 13, 15, or 17 Gy and from Days 8 to 30 with 9, 11, and 12 Gy. However, in all animals exposed to 15 Gy with all or part of the small intestine shielded, survival was increased to between 5 and 9 days. Shielding of the distal small intestine. The previously identified target of radiation damage in the small intestine is the crypt stem cell. In this study, the analysis of histological specimens of shielded and irradiated small intestine suggested that humoral factors also influence intestinal histology and survival after irradiation. These humoral factors are thought to originate from the irradiated body tissues, the shielded proximal intestine, and the shielded distal intestine. Further studies are required to identify these factors and to determine their mode of action and their therapeutic potential after radiation damage to the small intestine.

Vigneulle, R.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Taylor, P.; Burns, W.; Pelkey, T.

1989-01-01

299

Effect of furosemide and dietary sodium on kidney and plasma big and small renin  

SciTech Connect

Renin was found in mouse plasma in high-molecular-weight forms (big big renin, big renin) and a low-molecular-weight form (small renin). They were measuerd by a radioimmunoassay procedure for the direct measurement of renin. In the kidney, 89% of total renin was small renin and the rest was big big and big renin. This distribution pattern of renins was not changed when the kideny tissue was homogenized in the presence of protease inhibitors. Low-sodium or high-sodium diets changed renal renin content, but not the distribution pattern of renins in the kidney. Acute stimulation of renin release by furosemide increased small renin but not big big and big renin in plasma. However, dietary sodium depletion for 2 weeks significantly increased big big, big, and small renin in plasma of mice with or without submaxillary glands. In contrast, high-sodium intake significantly decreased big big, big, and small renin in plasma of mice with or without submaxillary glands.

Iwao, H.; Michelakis, A.M.

1981-12-01

300

Effect of small flares in the neutral component of secondary cosmic radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of an investigation of the effect of small flares, scale divisions 1 and 1(+), in the neutron component of secondary cosmic radiation from the data of neutron supermonitors at the stations of Kiev, Bukhta Tiksi, and Deep River. It is shown that flares of scale divisions 1 and 1(+) are accompanied by an effect in the neutron component amounting to about 0.4%. A mechanism is presented for calculating the outflow of particles accelerated in small flares, owing to diffusion across the magnetic field of a trap.

Bondarenko, V. I.; Raychenko, L. V.; Yukhimuk, A. K.

1974-01-01

301

Force Spectroscopy with a Small Dithering of AFM Tip: A Method of Direct and Continuous Measurement of the Spring Constant of Single Molecules and Molecular Complexes  

PubMed Central

A new method of direct and continuous measurement of the spring constant of single molecule or molecular complex is elaborated. To that end the standard force spectroscopy technique with functionalized tips and samples is combined with a small dithering of the tip. The change of the dithering amplitude as a function of the pulling force is measured to extract the spring constant of the complex. The potentialities of this method are illustrated for the experiments with single bovine serum albumin—its polyclonal antibody (Ab-BSA) and fibrinogen—fibrinogen complexes. PMID:14747352

Chtcheglova, Lilia A.; Shubeita, George T.; Sekatskii, Sergey K.; Dietler, Giovanni

2004-01-01

302

The direct effects of manipulating body checking in men.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to examine how body checking affects men's state body image and state muscle dissatisfaction using an experimental design. Male undergraduates (N=234) were randomly assigned to a high body checking group, in which they were asked to focus their attention on typically disliked body parts, and a low body checking group, in which they were asked to focus on their bodies as a whole and describe themselves using neutral, nonjudgmental terms. Contrary to initial hypotheses, regardless of condition, participants' body image satisfaction decreased significantly following the body checking procedure and did not change significantly after a 10-min delay. Additionally, in both conditions, participants' muscle dissatisfaction did not immediately change, but muscle dissatisfaction increased significantly following the 10-min delay. One mirror exposure session had similar effects on men's body image and muscle dissatisfaction regardless of how they were asked to examine their bodies. PMID:22770996

Walker, D Catherine; Murray, Andrea D; Lavender, Jason M; Anderson, Drew A

2012-09-01

303

Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.  

SciTech Connect

Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

2002-04-30

304

Relative effects of environment and direct species interactions on the population growth rate of an exotic ascidian.  

PubMed

The success of exotic species can be influenced by both the abiotic environment and species interactions. Many studies have demonstrated significant effects of either type of factor on aspects of exotic success, but few have considered their relative effects on population growth rate, a more holistic measure of success. To quantify the relative effects of environment and direct competition on an exotic ascidian, Botrylloides violaceus, I manipulated direct contact interactions at four sites with different abiotic environments and tracked individual colonies over 3 years. I tested site and contact treatment effects on survival, growth and fecundity, and then conducted a life table response experiment on a periodic, size-structured population matrix model to test their effects on population growth rate. Both site and contact interaction were important to explaining variation in survival and growth. Contact interactions decreased the survival and growth of larger colonies but unexpectedly increased the survival of small colonies at some sites, which led to relatively weaker and spatially variable effects on overall population growth rates. Site effects on population growth rates were an order of magnitude larger than contact effects, and site variation in winter vital rates made the largest contributions to changes in population growth rate. The results of this study suggest that the abiotic environment plays a larger role in the success of B. violaceus. Thus, environmental variables, such as temperature and salinity, could be used to predict this exotic species' success under different environmental scenarios, including global climate change. PMID:21344258

Grey, Erin K

2011-08-01

305

Effect of cysteine modifications on the activity of the 'small' Clostridium perfringens sialidase.  

PubMed

The 'small' (43 kDa) sialidase of Clostridium perfringens is inhibited by low concentrations of mercury ions. For the investigation of possible functional roles of the enzyme's four cysteine residues at the amino acid positions 2, 282, 333 and 349, they were separately altered to serine by site-directed mutagenesis. The four mutant sialidases expressed in E. coli and purified by metal chelate chromatography were markedly reduced in specific activity when compared to the wild-type enzyme but with the exception of C282S exhibited similar K(M)-values indicating an unchanged mode of substrate binding. The substrate specificity was also conserved for C2S, C282S, and C333S. Only the C349S sialidase exhibited a higher relative activity with colominic acid and the alpha2,6-linked sialic acid of sialyllactose compared to the alpha2,3-linked isomer than the other mutants. Chemical modifications with the thiol-blocking reagents N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB) and HgCl2 had little effect on the C282S sialidase, e.g., 6% inhibition by 5 mM NEM compared to reductions in activity between 65 and 90% for the wild-type and other mutant enzymes, supporting the idea that among the enzyme's cysteines, Cys-282 has the highest structural or functional significance. The results also explain the higher mercury tolerance of Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium tertium sialidases, which have the positions equivalent to Cys-282 altered to Val and Thr, respectively, indicating that the thiol group of Cys-282, despite being situated near the active site, is not involved in catalysis. PMID:9870352

Kruse, S; Pommerencke, J; Kleineidam, R G; Roggentin, P; Schauer, R

1998-08-01

306

Aerosol direct effect retrieval over clouds from space-borne passive hyperspectral measurements (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach for the retrieval of the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds will be presented, which is independent of aerosol parameters estimates. The direct effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) of aerosols over clouds can be estimated using hyperspectral reflectance measurements from space-borne spectrometers, when the equivalent aerosol-unpolluted cloud scene reflectance spectrum is known. For smoke over clouds the cloud parameters can be estimated from the shortwave infrared (SWIR), where the absorption of the small smoke particles becomes sufficiently small. Using precomputed tables of cloud reflectance spectra, the unpolluted cloud scene spectrum can then be simulated and compared to the real measured polluted cloud scene reflectance spectrum. The UV-radiation absorption by the smoke will lead to a difference between the measured and simulated spectra, which is proportional to the aerosol DRE at TOA. Aerosol microphysical assumptions and retrievals are avoided by modeling only the aerosol-free scene spectra, all the aerosol effects are in the reflectance measurements. The method works especially well for cloud scenes, which can be simulated relatively accurately. An algorithm was developed to derive the aerosol DRE over marine clouds, using the space-borne spectrometer SCIAMACHY, which produced shortwave reflectance spectra (from 240 to 1700 nm contiguously) from 2002 till 2012. These are ideally suited to study the effect of aerosols on the shortwave spectrum. However, since aerosols in general do not have high resolution spectral features, the algorithm can be adapted to suit data from any combination of instruments that measures UV, visible and SWIR reflectances simultaneously. Examples include OMI and MODIS, flying in the A-Train constellation, and TROPOMI, on the future Sentinel 5 precursor mission, combined with NOAA's NPP VIIRS. This would produce aerosol DRE estimates with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution. The aerosol DRE was studied over the southeast Atlantic Ocean (seAO), where smoke over clouds occurs during the dry season in southern Africa, one of the major sources for biomass burning aerosols. The smoke is episodically advected away from the continent in a westerly direction to the seAO, where it overlies a semi-permanent stratocumulus deck at altitudes between about 2 - 5 km, absorbing UV radiation. The aerosol DRE over clouds over the seAO averaged through August 2006 was found to be 23 × 8 Wm-2 with a mean variation over the region in this month of 22 Wm-2. Locally the aerosol DRE over clouds in that month was as high as 132 × 8 Wm-2, absorbing about 10% of the local incoming solar radiation. SCIAMACHY measured (black) and simulated aerosol-free cloud spectra for 10 Aug. 2006, 9:13:51 UTC over the southeast Atlantic

de Graaf, M.; Tilstra, L.; Stammes, P.

2013-12-01

307

The effect of small intestine heterogeneity on irreversible electroporation treatment planning.  

PubMed

Nonthermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is an ablation modality that utilizes microsecond electric fields to produce nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. This results in selective cell death while preserving all other molecules, including the extracellular matrix. Here, finite element analysis and experimental results are utilized to examine the effect of NTIRE on the small intestine due to concern over collateral damage to this organ during NTIRE treatment of abdominal cancers. During previous studies, the electrical treatment parameters were chosen based on a simplified homogeneous tissue model. The small intestine, however, has very distinct layers, and a more realistic model is needed to further develop this technology for precise clinical applications. This study uses a two-dimensional finite element solution of the Laplace and heat conduction equations to investigate how small intestine heterogeneities affect the electric field and temperature distribution. Experimental results obtained by applying NTIRE to the rat small intestine in vivo support the heterogeneous effect of NTIRE on the tissue. The numerical modeling indicates that the electroporation parameters chosen for this study avoid thermal damage to the tissue. This is supported by histology obtained from the in vivo study, which showed preservation of extracellular structures. The finite element model also indicates that the heterogeneous structure of the small intestine has a significant effect on the electric field and volume of cell ablation during electroporation and could have a large impact on the extent of treatment. The heterogeneous nature of the tissue should be accounted for in clinical treatment planning. PMID:24907451

Phillips, Mary

2014-09-01

308

An effective method to improve the robustness of small-world networks under attack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the robustness of small-world networks to three types of attack is investigated. Global efficiency is introduced as the network coefficient to measure the robustness of a small-world network. The simulation results prove that an increase in rewiring probability or average degree can enhance the robustness of the small-world network under all three types of attack. The effectiveness of simultaneously increasing both rewiring probability and average degree is also studied, and the combined increase is found to significantly improve the robustness of the small-world network. Furthermore, the combined effect of rewiring probability and average degree on network robustness is shown to be several times greater than that of rewiring probability or average degree individually. This means that small-world networks with a relatively high rewiring probability and average degree have advantages both in network communications and in good robustness to attacks. Therefore, simultaneously increasing rewiring probability and average degree is an effective method of constructing realistic networks. Consequently, the proposed method is useful to construct efficient and robust networks in a realistic scenario.

Zhang, Zheng-Zhen; Xu, Wen-Jun; Zeng, Shang-You; Lin, Jia-Ru

2014-08-01

309

Personality, Problem Drinking, and Drunk Driving: Mediating, Moderating, and Direct-Effect Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different general explanations of the effect of personality on problems from drinking alcohol were investigated. One general explanation involved mediating effects. The 2nd explanation involved direct effects of personality. The 3rd general personality process held that alcohol consumption and personality interact as moderating effects on drinking problems. Results provided support for each of the 3 general explanations of personality

Alan W. Stacy; Michael D. Newcomb; Peter M. Bentler

1991-01-01

310

Direct numerical simulation of two-phase flow: Effective rheology and flow patterns of particle suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the mechanical behavior of a two-phase system consisting of rigid grains and an interconnected pore fluid. For this purpose we use 2D direct numerical simulations on the spatial scale of individual grains for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid rheology. By using the stress-strain rate relation we derive scaling laws for effective viscosity of two-phase particle suspensions. We demonstrate that the effective rheology of the assemblage is non-Newtonian only if the fluid has a non-Newtonian rheology. At small fluid fraction, inter-granular strain rates are up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the applied background strain rate. We suggest that this effect explains the experimentally observed change at higher strain rates in rheology, from Newtonian to non-Newtonian aggregate rheology. To establish the conditions at which the fluid-solid aggregate deforms coherently as a consequence of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities we studied flow patterns of particle suspensions and characterized them as a function of fluid fraction, viscosity, density, shape and size of the grains. From initial conditions with homogeneously distributed grains and interstitial fluid above a layer of pure fluid, our results show that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability dominates for moderate to large fluid fractions. At large fluid fractions, we observed a transition to a Stokes suspension mode, in which grains do not interact but sink independently. An analytical expression is derived that predicts the transition from Rayleigh-Taylor instability to Stokes suspension mode. The transition is a function of fluid fraction, radius of the grains, height of the interface and initial amplitude. Systematic numerical simulations are in good agreement with the analytical predictions.

Deubelbeiss, Y.; Kaus, B. J. P.; Connolly, J. A. D.

2010-02-01

311

Decadal trends in marine reserves reveal differential rates of change in direct and indirect effects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Decadal-scale observations of marine reserves suggest that indirect effects on taxa that occur through cascading trophic interactions take longer to develop than direct effects on target species. Combining and analyzing a unique set of long-term time series of ecologic data in and out of fisheries closures from disparate regions, we found that the time to initial detection of direct effects on target species (+ or -SE) was 5.13 + or - 1.9 years, whereas initial detection of indirect effects on other taxa, which were often trait mediated, took significantly longer (13.1 + or - 2.0 years). Most target species showed initial direct effects, but their trajectories over time were highly variable. Many target species continued to increase, some leveled off, and others decreased. Decreases were due to natural fluctuations, fishing impacts from outside reserves, or indirect effects from target species at higher trophic levels. The average duration of stable periods for direct effects was 6.2 + or - 1.2 years, even in studies of more than 15 years. For indirect effects, stable periods averaged 9.1 + or - 1.6 years, although this was not significantly different from direct effects. Populations of directly targeted species were more stable in reserves than in fished areas, suggesting increased ecologic resilience. This is an important benefit of marine reserves with respect to their function as a tool for conservation and restoration.

Babcock, R.C.; Shears, N.T.; Alcala, A.C.; Barrett, N.S.; Edgar, G.J.; Lafferty, K.D.; McClanahan, T.R.; Russ, G.R.

2010-01-01

312

Small group effectiveness in a Caribbean medical school's problem-based learning sessions  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument was developed to provide objective information on the effectiveness of small groups. Student perception of small group effectiveness during the problem base learning (PBL) process has not been previously studied in Xavier University School of Medicine (Aruba, Kingdom of the Netherlands); hence, the present study was carried out. Methods: The study was conducted among second and third semester undergraduate medical students during the last week of September 2013, at Xavier University School of Medicine of the Netherlands. Students were informed about the objectives of the study and invited to participate after obtaining written, informed consent. Demographic information like gender, age, nationality, and whether the respondent had been exposed to PBL before joining the institution was noted. Student perception about small group effectiveness was studied by noting their degree of agreement with a set of 19 statements using a Likert-type scale. Results: Thirty-four of the 37 (91.9%) second and third semester medical students participated in the study. The mean cognitive score was 3.76 while the mean motivational and de-motivational scores were 3.65 and 2.51, respectively. The median cognitive category score was 27 (maximum score 35) while the motivation score was 26 (maximum score 35) and the de-motivational score was 12 (maximum score25). There was no significant difference in scores according to respondents’ demographic characteristics. Conclusion: Student perception about small group effectiveness was positive. Since most medical schools worldwide already have or are introducing PBL as a learning modality, the Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument can provide valuable information about small group functioning during PBL sessions. PMID:24699510

2014-01-01

313

New framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the shortwave approximation, which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric, but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and has positive energy density-corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Under various assumptions concerning the absence of gravitational radiation and the nonrelativistic behavior of the matter, we argue that the short-wavelength deviations of the metric from the background metric near a point x should be accurately described by Newtonian gravity, taking into account only the matter lying within a homogeneity length scale of x. Finally, we argue that our framework should provide an accurate description of the actual universe.

Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M. [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2011-04-15

314

New framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett’s formulation of the shortwave approximation, which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric, but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and has positive energy density—corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Under various assumptions concerning the absence of gravitational radiation and the nonrelativistic behavior of the matter, we argue that the short-wavelength deviations of the metric from the background metric near a point x should be accurately described by Newtonian gravity, taking into account only the matter lying within a homogeneity length scale of x. Finally, we argue that our framework should provide an accurate description of the actual universe.

Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

2011-04-01

315

Market and Welfare Effects of GMO Introduction in Small Exporting Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the market and welfare effects of the introduction of GM products in small open developing economies that, prior to the adoption of GM crops, were net exporters of non-GM products. It explicitly accounts for differences in consumer attitudes towards GM products and producer agronomic characteristics as well as for the structure and conduct of the GM seed

Alejandro S. Plastina; Konstantinos Giannakas

2005-01-01

316

Tumor-Suppressive Effects of MBP1 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women. Only f15% of people diagnosed with non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)survive this disease beyond 5 years. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the clinical management of this devastating disease. We have previously shown the antiproliferative effect of MBP-1 on several human cancer

Asish K. Ghosh; Robert Steele; Jan Ryerse; Ratna B. Ray

2006-01-01

317

Effects of predator removal on vertebrate prey populations: birds of prey and small mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of removal of breeding nomadic avian predators (the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus and Tengmalm's owl, Aegolius funereus) on small mammals (voles of the genera Microtus and Clethrionomys and the common shrew, Sorex araneus) during 1989–1992 in western Finland to find out if these predators have a regulating or limiting impact on their prey populations. We removed potential

Kai Norrdahl; Erkki Korpimäki

1995-01-01

318

The Lack of Small Craters on Eros is not due to the Yarkovsky Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eros approaches saturation for craters larger than 200 m in diameter, but is significantly depleted in smaller craters [1]. It has been suggested that this could reflect a paucity of small impactors in the main belt, due to their removal by the Yarkovsky effect [1,2]. Here we present the results of a self-consistent collisional and dynamical evolution model for the

David P. O'Brien; R. Greenberg

2007-01-01

319

Personalizing Group Environments: A Conceptual Approach Toward More Effective Small Group Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual approach toward more effective small group functioning is undertaken in this paper to provide a basis from which empirically relevant hypotheses can be drawn and tested. This analysis views actualizing individuals as possessing the unique ability to perceive and utilize the types of behaviors which are conducive to personalizing group…

Beach, Wayne A.

320

Unforeseen effects of ecosystem restoration on yellow-legged gulls in a small western Mediterranean island  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A conservation project aimed at ecosystem restoration had several unforeseen effects on a colony of the yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis in a small western Mediterranean island (Benidorm Island). The project included regulation of massive tourist visits to help restore the soil and autochthonous vegetation. However, gulls habituated rapidly to regulation of tourist activities, as nests located either close to

A. MARTÍNEZ-ABRAÍN; B. SARZO; E. VILLUENDAS; M. A. BARTOLOMÉ; E. MÍNGUEZ; D. ORO

2004-01-01

321

Effects of Seating Distance and Room Illumination on the Affective Outcomes of Small Group Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments explored the effects of variation in room illumination and in seating distance between members of a small group on moods, evaluations, attraction, and opinion expression. The results indicate that interaction distance is not per se a very powerful variable. (Author)

Giesen, Martin; Hendrick, Clyde

1974-01-01

322

Effects of group support system and task type on social influences in small groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of an empirical research on the effect of group support system (GSS) and task type on social influences in small groups. It examines the task type with an intellective task and a preference task, and analyzes social influences in terms of informational and normative influence. The main findings are: (1) informational influence dominated in intellective

Wei Huang; K. S. Raman; Kwok-Kee Wei

1997-01-01

323

Effects of a community restoration fire on small mammals and herpetofauna in the southern Appalachians  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Wine Spring Creek ecosystem management project on the Nantahala National forest, North Carolina, we assessed effects of a community restoration fire on small mammals and herpetofauna in the upper slope pitch pine (Pinus rigida) stands, neighboring midslope oak (Quercus spp.) stands and rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) dominated riparian areas during 1995 and 1996. Using drift-fence arrays with

William M. Ford; M. Alex Menzel; David W. McGill; Joshua Laerm; Timothy S. McCay

1999-01-01

324

Long-term effects of precommercial thinning on small mammals in northern Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precommercial thinning (PCT) is being practiced increasingly throughout the Acadian forest of eastern North America to meet silvicultural objectives; however, effects of this practice on wildlife, both immediately and several years post-treatment are not well understood. Forest dependent small mammals have ecological roles as prey for numerous avian and mammalian predators, dispersers of seeds, fruit, and spores, and contribute to

Jessica A. Homyack; Daniel J. Harrison; William B. Krohn

2005-01-01

325

The effect of parasitic diseases on nutrient metabolism and productivity in small ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigation of voluntary feed intake (VFI) and nitrogen retention (NRET) during parasitic infections in small ruminants is the central theme of this thesis. An attempt was made to examine the effects of trypanosomiasis on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen retention and animal products. In addition, a similar investigation was conducted during a low to medium level fascioliasis infection in Menz

O. O. Akinbamijo

1994-01-01

326

Effects of Calcium Magnesium Acetate Deicer on Small Ponds in Interior Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-lake experiments were conducted on three ponds in interior Alaska to test the effects of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), an experimental road deicer, on aquatic organisms. The CMA added to the test ponds equalled approximately one chemical application applied to 0.4 km of a typical section of road (one lane) draining entirely to a small pond. Calcium elevation did not

Jacqueline D. LaPerriere; Caryn L. Rea

1989-01-01

327

The Entrance and Exit Effects in Small Electrochemical Filter-Press Reactors Used in the Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment designed to examine the entrance and exit effects in small electrochemical filter-press reactors used in the laboratory is presented. The single compartment of the filter-press reactor is filled with different turbulence promoters to study their influence as compared to the empty configuration.

Frias-Ferrer, Angel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Jose; Saez, Veronica; Exposito, Eduardo; Sanchez-Sanchez, Carlos M.; Mantiel, Vicente; Walsh, Frank C.; Aldaz, Antonio; Walsh, Frank C.

2005-01-01

328

Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three peer tutoring methods and two group investigation approaches are examined for effects on academic achievement, students' attitudes, and ethnic relations. The five methods are: Jigsaw classroom (Aronson), Teams-Games-Tournaments (DeVries), Student Teams and Academic Division (Slavin), cooperative learning approach (Johnson), and small-group teaching method (Sharan).

Sharan, Shlomo

2006-12-07

329

Pool boiling heat transfer on small heaters: effect of gravity and subcooling  

E-print Network

in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 3919­3932 www hydrody- namics, heat transfer, mass transfer, and interfacial phenomena are tightly interwovenPool boiling heat transfer on small heaters: effect of gravity and subcooling Jungho Kim a,*, John

Kim, Jungho

330

Disturbance Effects on Small Mammal Species in a Managed Appalachian Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forestry practices result in a range of levels of disturbance to forest ecosystems, from clearcutting and deferment (high disturbance) to single-tree selection cutting and unharvested forests (low disturbance). We investigated the effects of timber harvest and disturbance on small mammal species in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. In 2003 and 2004, mammals were captured using Sherman box traps, individually

JEFFREY A. KAMINSKI; MICHELLE L. DAVIS; MARCELLA KELLY; PATRICK D. KEYSER

2007-01-01

331

Effect of Beach Slope on the Fresh Water Lens in Small Oceanic Landmasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of a study undertaken to evaluate the combined boundary effect of beach slope, tides, and waves on the fresh water lens configuration in small oceanic landmasses. The study site is identified as a three-mile barrier beach on the sout...

D. W. Urish

1982-01-01

332

The Effect of Fuel Quantity and Location on Small Enclosure Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from an experimental program undertaken to study the effect of fuel quantity and location on ethanol pool fires in the open and in a small enclosure (an ISO 9705 room) are compared with simulations using the Fire Dynamics Simulator version 4.03 (FDS4). The fuel in trays is placed at three locations (front, back, and center) within the room enclosure

Ian R. Thomas; Khalid A. M. Moinuddin; Ian D. Bennetts

2007-01-01

333

Direct and contextual effects of individual values on organizational citizenship behavior in teams.  

PubMed

The authors use Schwartz's values theory as an integrative framework for testing the relationship between individual values and peer-reported organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in teams, controlling for sex, satisfaction, and personality traits. Using hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 582 students distributed across 135 class project teams, the authors find positive, direct effects for achievement on citizenship behaviors directed toward individuals (OCB-I), for benevolence on citizenship behaviors directed toward the group (OCB-O), and for self-direction on both OCB-I and OCB-O. Applying relational demography techniques to test for contextual effects, the authors find that group mean power scores negatively moderate the relationship between individual power and OCB-I, whereas group mean self-direction scores positively moderate the relationship between self-direction and both OCB-I and OCB-O. PMID:22369271

Arthaud-Day, Marne L; Rode, Joseph C; Turnley, William H

2012-07-01

334

Direct and indirect effects for neighborhood-based clustered and longitudinal data  

PubMed Central

Definitions of direct and indirect effects are given for settings in which individuals are clustered in groups or neighborhoods and in which treatments are administered at the group level. A particular intervention may affect individual outcomes both through its effect on the individual and by changing the group or neighborhood itself. Identification conditions are given for controlled direct effects and for natural direct and indirect effects. The interpretation of these identification conditions are discussed within the context of neighborhood research and multilevel modeling. Interventions at a single point in time and time-varying interventions are both considered. The definition of direct and indirect effects requires certain stability or no-interference conditions; some discussion is given as to how these no-interference conditions can be relaxed.

VanderWeele, T.J.

2014-01-01

335

Eye remember you: the effects of gaze direction on face recognition in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children and adults were tested on a forced-choice face recognition task in which the direction of eye gaze was manipulated over the course of the initial presentation and subsequent test phase of the experiment. To establish the effects of gaze direction on the encoding process, participants were presented with to-be-studied faces displaying either direct or deviated gaze (i.e. encoding manipulation).

Bruce M. Hood; C. Neil Macrae; Victoria Cole-Davies; Melanie Dias

2003-01-01

336

Basic steps in establishing effective small group teaching sessions in medical schools.  

PubMed

Small-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of small group teaching are active involvement of the learners in entire learning cycle and well defined task orientation with achievable specific aims and objectives in a given time period. The essential components in the development of an ideal small group teaching and learning sessions are preliminary considerations at departmental and institutional level including educational strategies, group composition, physical environment, existing resources, diagnosis of the needs, formulation of the objectives and suitable teaching outline. Small group teaching increases the student interest, teamwork ability, retention of knowledge and skills, enhance transfer of concepts to innovative issues, and improve the self-directed learning. It develops self-motivation, investigating the issues, allows the student to test their thinking and higher-order activities. It also facilitates an adult style of learning, acceptance of personal responsibility for own progress. Moreover, it enhances student-faculty and peer-peer interaction, improves communication skills and provides opportunity to share the responsibility and clarify the points of bafflement. PMID:24353692

Meo, Sultan Ayoub

2013-07-01

337

Radical cyberknife radiosurgery with tumor tracking: an effective treatment for inoperable small peripheral stage I non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Curative surgery is not an option for many patients with clinical stage I non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), but radical radiosurgery may be effective. METHODS: Inoperable patients with small peripheral clinical stage I NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Three-to-five fiducial markers were implanted in or near tumors under CT guidance. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured using lung windows.

Brian T Collins; Saloomeh Vahdat; Kelly Erickson; Sean P Collins; Simeng Suy; Xia Yu; Ying Zhang; Deepa Subramaniam; Cristina A Reichner; Ismet Sarikaya; Giuseppe Esposito; Shadi Yousefi; Carlos Jamis-Dow; Filip Banovac; Eric D Anderson

2009-01-01

338

Separating Emotion and Motivational Direction in Fear and Anger: Effects on Frontal Asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

State effects on frontal alpha electroencephalograph asymmetry (ASY) are thought to reflect approach and withdrawal motivational tendencies. Although this motivational direction model has inspired a large body of research, efforts to disentangle influences of emotion (EMO) and motivational direction (MOT) on ASY are rare. The authors independently manipulated EMO (fear and anger) and MOT (approach and withdrawal) in a between-subjects

Jan Wacker; Marcus Heldmann; Gerhard Stemmler

2003-01-01

339

Effects of Direct and Indirect Instruction on Fostering Decision-Making Competence in Socioscientific Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the effects of different learning environments on the promotion of decision-making competence for the socioscientific issue of genetically modified crops is investigated. The comparison focuses on direct vs. indirect instructions. Therefore on the one hand a sophisticated decision-making strategy was presented to the directly

Bottcher, Florian; Meisert, Anke

2013-01-01

340

Glucocorticoid signalling affects pancreatic development through both direct and indirect effects  

E-print Network

beta cell mass expansion at later fetal stages, presumably through direct effects. Keywords Development1 06/0508 Article Glucocorticoid signalling affects pancreatic development through both direct(12): 2939-2947 #12;2 Abstract Aims/hypothesis Beta cell development is sensitive to glucocorticoid levels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

341

A Variable Syntax of Speech, Gesture, and Sound Effect: Direct Quotations in Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variationist account of how direct quotations are framed in spoken Spanish requires definition of variable and envelope of variation followed by investigation of linguistic, stylistic, and social constraints. Variable is defined as set of three strategies for directly quoting speech, gestures, and sound effects of people, animals, or things in…

Cameron, Richard

1998-01-01

342

Unsteady effects in direct steam generation in the CLFR John D. Pye1  

E-print Network

is generated directly in pipes rather than through the use of solar- heated oil and a heat exchanger. OpticallyUnsteady effects in direct steam generation in the CLFR John D. Pye1 , Graham L. Morrison2 an elevated linear absorber containing a bank of high-pressure water pipes onto which the solar radiation

343

Effects of uncertain geoacoustic parameters and coastal shipping densities on shipping noise directionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bearing-elevation directionality of low-frequency shipping noise is influenced both by the sediment geoacoustic parameters and by the coastal shipping density. This study examines the effects of geoacoustic parameter and shipping density uncertainties on noise directionality through simulations for a North Pacific site. The simulations are based in part on stochastic models of the spatial variations of geoacoustic parameters that

Thomas J. Hayward; Richard M. Heitmeyer

2005-01-01

344

Effect of hypokinesia on invertase activity of the mucosa of the small intestine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of prolonged hypokinesia on the enzyme activity of the middle portion of the small intestine was investigated. Eighty-four mongrel white male rats weighing 170-180 g were divided into two equal groups. The experimental group were maintained in single cages under 30 days of hypokinetic conditions and the control animals were maintained under ordinary laboratory conditions. It is concluded that rates of invertase formation and its inclusion in the composition if the cellular membrane, if judged by the enzyme activity studied in sections of the small intestine, are subject to phase changes in the course of prolonged hypokinesia.

Abdusattarov, A.

1980-01-01

345

Direct and indirect effects of dragonfly ( Anax imperator ) nymphs on green toad ( Bufo viridis ) tadpoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an artificial pond experiment to assess the direct and indirect effects of predation on Bufo viridis tadpoles. We ran three treatments: free Anax (unrestrained predatory dragonfly nymph Anax imperator), caged Anax (non-consumptive effects), and control (no Anax). Anax showed both strong consumptive and non-consumptive effects on Bufo tadpoles. Free Anax eliminated all of the tadpoles within six days.

Gil Stav; Burt P. Kotler; Leon Blaustein

2007-01-01

346

Quantitative and site-directed chemical modification of hypocrellins toward direct drug delivery and effective photodynamic activity.  

PubMed

For photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment of microvascular diseases, drugs are delivered via blood circulation and the targets are vasculature endothelial cells, for which the contradictory requirements of hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of the drugs have been achieved by liposome preparations. Herein, it is demonstrated that the drug delivery and target affinity are achieved by a single chemical compound, hypocrellin B (HB) derivative 6 selected from three novel aminoalkanesulfonic acid HB derivatives, 5-7. 6 exhibits a much higher PDT activity (IC(50) = 22 nM) on human gastric carcinoma BGC823 cells than HB, while it has no cellular toxicity in the dark. On the basis of estimation of the clinically required concentration according to relative PDT activity and clinical criteria, it can be predicted that 6 is directly deliverable to and PDT effective on target cells. The enhanced red absorption and superhigh photoactivity suggest that 6 is more powerful for PDT of tumors than HB. PMID:22352922

Deng, Hong; Liu, Xin; Xie, Jie; Yin, Rong; Huang, Naiyan; Gu, Ying; Zhao, Jingquan

2012-03-01

347

Direct investment by stepfathers can mitigate effects on educational outcomes but does not improve behavioural difficulties  

PubMed Central

In contemporary developed populations, stepfather presence has been associated with detrimental effects on child development. However, the proximate mechanisms behind such effects are yet to be fully explored. From a behavioural ecological perspective, the negative effects associated with stepfathers may be due to the reduced quantity and quality of investments children receive within stepfather households. Here, we build on previous studies by investigating whether the effects of stepfather presence on child outcomes are driven by differences in maternal and partner (i.e., father or stepfather) direct investments. We use data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to explore stepfather effects on children’s educational achievement and behavioural difficulties at age 7. Our results indicate that, for educational achievement, stepfather effects are due to the lower levels of direct investments children receive. For behavioural difficulty, stepfather effects are due to multiple factors whereby stepfather presence is associated with greater difficulties independent of investment levels, and direct investments from stepfathers are ineffective. Our results suggest that the negative effects of stepfathers on child outcomes can be explained, in part, by the reduced quantity and the ineffectiveness of direct investments children receive from stepfathers. Furthermore, the effects of stepfather direct investments seem to vary between child outcomes. PMID:25214758

Emmott, Emily H.; Mace, Ruth

2014-01-01

348

Unsteady transonic small-disturbance theory including entropy and vorticity effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications to unsteady transonic small-disturbance theory to include entropy and vorticity effects are presented. The modifications have been implemented in the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code developed recently at the NASA Langley Research Center. The code permits the aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations in the flutter critical transonic speed range. Entropy and vorticity effects have been incorporated within the solution procedure to more accurately analyze flows with strong shock waves. The modified code includes these effects while retaining the relative simplicity and cost efficiency of the TSD formulation. The paper presents detailed descriptions of the entropy and vorticity modifications along with calculated results and comparisons which assess the modified theory. These results are in good agreement with parallel Euler calculations and with experimental data. Therefore, the present method now provides the aeroelastician with an affordable capability to analyze relatively difficult transonic flows without having to solve the computationally more expensive Euler equations.

Batina, John T.

1988-01-01

349

Unsteady transonic small-disturbance theory including entropy and vorticity effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications to unsteady transonic small disturbance theory to include entropy and vorticity effects are presented. The modifications were implemented in the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code. The code permits the aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations in the flutter critical transonic speed range. Entropy and vorticity effects were incorporated within the solution procedure to more accurately analyze flows with strong shock waves. The modified code includes these effects while retaining the relative simplicity and cost efficiency of the TSD formulation. Detailed descriptions are presented of the entropy and vorticity modifications along with calculated results and comparisons which assess the modified theory. These results are in good agreement with parallel Euler calculations and with experimental data. Therefore, the present method now provides the aeroelastician with an affordable capability to analyze relatively difficult transonic flows without having to solve the computationally more expensive Euler equations.

Batina, John T.

1988-01-01

350

Interferons Direct an Effective Innate Response to Legionella pneumophila Infection*S  

E-print Network

Interferons Direct an Effective Innate Response to Legionella pneumophila Infection*S Received Vienna, Austria Legionella pneumophila remains an important opportunistic pathogen of human macrophages with the polarization of macrophages toward the M1 or classically activated phenotype. Legionella pneumophila

Symington, Lorraine S.

351

Seagrass response to CO2 contingent on epiphytic algae: indirect effects can overwhelm direct effects.  

PubMed

Increased availability of dissolved CO2 in the ocean can enhance the productivity and growth of marine plants such as seagrasses and algae, but realised benefits may be contingent on additional conditions (e.g. light) that modify biotic interactions between these plant groups. The combined effects of future CO2 and differing light on the growth of seagrass and their algal epiphytes were tested by maintaining juvenile seagrasses Amphibolis antarctica under three different CO2 concentrations representing ambient, moderate future and high future forecasts (i.e. 390, 650 vs. 900 µl l(-1)) and two light levels representing low and high PAR (i.e. 43 vs. 167 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). Aboveground and belowground biomass, leaf growth, epiphyte cover, tissue chemistry and photosynthetic parameters of seagrasses were measured. At low light, there was a neutral to positive effect of elevated CO2 on seagrass biomass and growth; at high light, this effect of CO2 switched toward negative, as growth and biomass decreased at the highest CO2 level. These opposing responses to CO2 appeared to be closely linked to the overgrowth of seagrass by filamentous algal epiphytes when high light and CO2 were combined. Importantly, all seagrass plants maintained positive leaf growth throughout the experiment, indicating that growth was inhibited by some experimental conditions but not arrested entirely. Therefore, while greater light or elevated CO2 provided direct physiological benefits for seagrasses, such benefits were likely negated by overgrowth of epiphytic algae when greater light and CO2 were combined. This result demonstrates how indirect ecological effects from epiphytes can modify independent physiological predictions for seagrass associated with global change. PMID:25193313

Burnell, Owen W; Russell, Bayden D; Irving, Andrew D; Connell, Sean D

2014-11-01

352

Comparative effects of avoidance and vaccination in disease spread on a dynamic small-world network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic small-world contact networks have fixed short range links and time-varying stochastic long range links. They are used to model mobile populations or as minimal models for traditional small-world networks. Here we study the relative effects of vaccinations and avoidance of infected individuals in a susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model on a dynamic small-world network. We derive the critical mobility required for an outbreak to occur as a function of the disease’s infectivity, recovery rate, avoidance rate, and vaccination rate. We also derive an expression that allows us to calculate the amount of vaccination and/or avoidance necessary to prevent an epidemic. Calculated quantities show excellent agreement with simulations.

Stone, Thomas E.; Jones, Matthew M.; McKay, Susan R.

2010-12-01

353

First direct observation of self-imaging effect in active multimode-interference semiconductor laser diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first direct observation of the self-imaging effect in active multimode-interference semiconductor laser diodes (MMI-SLDs). Interference patterns inside laser diode waveguides were obtained by using the electroluminescence (EL) method. To the best of our knowledge, this result is the first direct observation of the self-imaging effect in self-photon-emitting active waveguides such as laser diodes. The observed EL pattern

Syogo Shimizu; Mohd Dannial Bin Razali; Kenichi Kasahara; Kiichi Hamamoto; Masaki Ohya

2006-01-01

354

Measurements of Siple transmitter signals on the DE 1 satellite - Wave normal direction and antenna effective length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new experimental technique is developed to simultaneously measure the wave propagation direction and the effective length of a small (L value much smaller than wavelength) electric dipole antenna on a spin-stabilized satellite in the magnetosphere. The technique relies on the near simultaneous measurement of single components of the electric and magnetic fields of a coherent VLF signal injected into the medium from a ground-based source. The spin fading characteristics of the signal received by the electric dipole and the magnetic loop antenna permit the measurement of the wave normal direction assuming whistler-mode propagation. In-situ and remote measurements of the local cold plasma density are used to determine the refractive index. The wave electric field is then inferred from the wave magnetic field as measured on the loop antenna, the refractive index and the direction of propagation. Comparing this electric field with the measured voltage across the dipole antenna leads to the determination of the effective length of the receiving electric dipole. The technique is applied to data from the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite observations of whistler mode signals injected into the magnetosphere from the Siple, Antarctica, VLF transmitter. In one case, with the measured background cold plasma density being 15 el/cu cm, the effective length of the 200 m-long electric dipole antenna is found to be 222 + or - 56 m, i.e., about twice the conventional value.

Sonwalker, V. S.; Inan, U. S.

1986-01-01

355

Enhanced brain small-worldness after sleep deprivation: a compensatory effect.  

PubMed

Sleep deprivation has a variable impact on extrinsic activities during multiple cognitive tasks, especially on mood and emotion processing. There is also a trait-like individual vulnerability or compensatory effect in cognition. Previous studies have elucidated the altered functional connectivity after sleep deprivation. However, it remains unclear whether the small-world properties of resting-state network are sensitive to sleep deprivation. A small-world network is a type of graph that combines a high local connectivity as well as a few long-range connections, which ensures a higher information-processing efficiency at a low cost. The complex network of the brain can be described as a small-world network, in which a node is a brain region and an edge is present when there is a functional correlation between two nodes. Here, we investigated the topological properties of the human brain networks of 22 healthy subjects under sufficient sleep and sleep-deprived conditions. Specifically, small-worldness is utilized to quantify the small-world property, by comparing the clustering coefficient and path length of a given network to an equivalent random network with same degree distribution. After sufficient sleep, the brain networks showed the property of small-worldness. Compared with the resting state under sufficient sleep, the small-world property was significantly enhanced in the sleep deprivation condition, suggesting a possible compensatory adaptation of the human brain. Specifically, the altered measurements were correlated with the neuroticism of subjects, indicating that individuals with low-levels of neuroticism are more resilient to sleep deprivation. PMID:24673840

Liu, Huan; Li, Hong; Wang, Yulin; Lei, Xu

2014-10-01

356

Effect of downed woody debris on small mammal anti-predator behavior.  

SciTech Connect

Anti-predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs,but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used givingup densities to quantify the degree to which downed woody debris alters perceived predation risk by small mammals in southeastern pineforests. We placed 14 foraging trays next to large downed woody debris,shrubs, and in open areas for 12 consecutive nights. Moon illumination, a common indicator of predation risk, led to a similar reduction in small mammal foraging in all three microhabitats (open, downed woody debris,and shrub). Small mammals perceived open microhabitats as riskier than shrub microhabitats, with downed woody debris habitats perceived as being of intermediate risk between shrub and open microhabitats. Despite the presumed benefits of the protective cover of downed woody debris, small mammals may perceive downed woody debris as a relatively risky foraging site in southeastern pine forests where the high diversity and abundance of rodent-eating snakes may provide a primary predatory threat.

Hinkleman, Travis, M.; Orrock, John, L.; Loeb, Susan, C.

2011-10-01

357

Small high directivity ferrite antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A centimeter-wavelength antenna of millimetric dimensions, which uses the intrinsic angular sensitivity of ferrites, is described, with an emphasis on the modification of the material's permeability. The construction of both the ferrite film lens antenna and the ferrite film cassegrain antenna are detailed; both can be devised in a number of configurations for appropriate beam positioning and rf filtering. The antenna design, discussed primarily in the context of smart missiles, electronic warfare, and satellite systems, presents the possibility of magnetically switching between the transmit and receive modes within the antenna structure itself. Finally, it is noted that for a simple 2-dipole array the angular resolution can be two orders of magnitude higher than with the conventional techniques.

Wright, T. M. B.

358

A Review on the Effects of Soccer Small-Sided Games  

PubMed Central

Over the last years there has been a substantial growth in research related to specific training methods in soccer with a strong emphasis on the effects of small-sided games. The increase of research in this topic is coincident with the increase of popularity obtained by specific soccer conditioning, which involves training players to deal with soccer match situations. Given the limited time available for fitness training in soccer, the effectiveness of small-sided games as a conditioning stimulus needs to be optimized to allow players to compete at the highest level. Available studies indicate that physiological responses (e.g. heart rate, blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion), tactical and technical skill requirements can be modified during small-sided games by altering factors such as the number of players, the size of the pitch, the rules of the game, and coach encouragement. However, because of the lack of consistency in small-sided games design, player fitness, age, ability, level of coach encouragement, and playing rules in each of these studies, it is difficult to make accurate conclusions on the influence of each of these factors separately. PMID:23486554

Aguiar, Marco; Botelho, Goreti; Lago, Carlos; Macas, Victor; Sampaio, Jaime

2012-01-01

359

Interpolated task effects on direct and mediated false recognition: effects of initial recall, recognition, and the ironic effect of guessing.  

PubMed

In two experiments, participants studied two types of word lists. Direct lists were taken from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (e.g., water, bridge, run) and contained words directly related to a nonpresented critical item (CI; e.g., river, Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Mediated lists (e.g., faucet, London, jog) contained words related to the CI through a nonpresented mediator. After each study list, participants completed either a recall test, a recall test with a warning about the CI, arithmetic problems, or a recognition test, or they guessed the CI. On a final recognition test, both warning and guessing decreased direct false recognition but increased mediated false recognition, an ironic effect of guessing. An initial recognition test also increased final mediated false recognition. We argue that warning and guessing tasks strengthened associative pathways to the CI, increased the accessibility of associated mediators, and increased monitoring for the CI at test. Increased monitoring was able to reduce CIs from direct, but not mediated, lists. PMID:22642236

Huff, Mark J; Coane, Jennifer H; Hutchison, Keith A; Grasser, Elisabeth B; Blais, Jessica E

2012-11-01

360

A multicenter randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of small stitches on the incidence of incisional hernia in midline incisions  

PubMed Central

Background The median laparotomy is frequently used by abdominal surgeons to gain rapid and wide access to the abdominal cavity with minimal damage to nerves, vascular structures and muscles of the abdominal wall. However, incisional hernia remains the most common complication after median laparotomy, with reported incidences varying between 2-20%. Recent clinical and experimental data showed a continuous suture technique with many small tissue bites in the aponeurosis only, is possibly more effective in the prevention of incisional hernia when compared to the common used large bite technique or mass closure. Methods/Design The STITCH trial is a double-blinded multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to compare a standardized large bite technique with a standardized small bites technique. The main objective is to compare both suture techniques for incidence of incisional hernia after one year. Secondary outcomes will include postoperative complications, direct costs, indirect costs and quality of life. A total of 576 patients will be randomized between a standardized small bites or large bites technique. At least 10 departments of general surgery and two departments of oncological gynaecology will participate in this trial. Both techniques have a standardized amount of stitches per cm wound length and suture length wound length ratio's are calculated in each patient. Follow up will be at 1 month for wound infection and 1 year for incisional hernia. Ultrasound examinations will be performed at both time points to measure the distance between the rectus muscles (at 3 points) and to objectify presence or absence of incisional hernia. Patients, investigators and radiologists will be blinded during follow up, although the surgeon can not be blinded during the surgical procedure. Conclusion The STITCH trial will provide level 1b evidence to support the preference for either a continuous suture technique with many small tissue bites in the aponeurosis only or for the commonly used large bites technique. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01132209 PMID:21871072

2011-01-01

361

Observational Evidence for the "Hot Wall" Effect in Small Magnetic Flux Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: When lacking polarimetric observations, the Bright Points (BPs) visible in the G-band at 430 nm are commonly used as tracers for magnetic fields. Methods: Observations presented in this paper were taken on October 11, 2005 at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope and involved the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at 1.5 micron, the Telecentric Etalon Solar Spectrometer (TESOS) in the Fe I spectral line at 557.6 nm, and a speckle setup in G-band. The area scanned by TIP was 75''x33'' and covered a pore surrounded by network. The TIP spectra were inverted with the SIR (Stokes Inversion based on Response functions) code to retrieve the magnetic field vector. Results: We find that G-band BPs are not cospatial with the central part of the flux concentrations. Even at the small heliocentric angle of 12 degree, the BPs appear projected on the limb side walls of the granules (Fig. 1), whereas the fields are concentrated in the intergranular lanes. Discussion: Our findings indicate that the G-band Bright Points are a result of the "hot wall effect". The downward shift of the optical depth scale in the presence of magnetic fields allows to see deeper and hotter layers, where CH dissociates, in the granules next to the field concentrations. Thus, information drawn from the observations of BPs cannot be used to conclude on the actual variation of the magnetic field structure, as only the outer parts of the flux concentrations are seen in the BPs. Figure 1. Non-cospatiality of BPs and field concentrations. Top row, left to right: line-core intensity, LOS velocity (range =+/- 1 km/s), magnetic flux , polarity, LOS velocity from the inversion (range =+/- 1.5 km/s), field azimuth. Bottom row, left to right: polarization degree, G-band intensity, continuum intensity at 1.5 micron, BP mask, field strength, field inclination. The white arrow in the G-band image denotes the limb direction, the cross marks the center of the 6.7 x 6.7 Mm field-of-view shown.

Mikurda, K.; Beck, C.

2006-08-01

362

Measurement of rainfall distribution on a small catchment for the evaluation of canopy interception effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability of rainfall and throughfall is an essential characteristic of the water balance at spatial scales ranging from meters to hundreds of meters or even kilometers. The amount of throughfall is governed by the characteristics of the vegetation canopy and the involved interception and stemflow effects. In initial, developing ecosystems, distinct patterns of the growing vegetation (e.g. patchiness) supposedly govern the spatial distribution of water in the system, thereby initiating and supporting hydro-ecological feedback processes. Questions are i) is the spatial variability of vegetation relevant for the system as a whole, and ii) how does the distribution of the effective precipitation (i.e. the infiltration) change over time in dependency of vegetation succession? We present the first results of a spatially distributed measurement approach of surface-near precipitation on the constructed catchment "Hühnerwasser" ("Chicken Creek"). The 6-ha site is located in the recultivation area of the lignite open-cast mine "Welzow-Süd" in Lower Lusatia, Brandenburg, Germany. Here, the free development of an initial ecosystem is investigated since September 2005. After eight years of succession, the spatial distribution of plant species is highly heterogeneous, and gains increasing influence on throughfall patterns, thus impacting the distribution of soil humidity and possibly even surface runoff. For spatially distributed precipitation measurement, 47 tipping bucket rain gauges were installed in heights of 0.5 m and 1.0 m along two transects on the catchment. Rain gauge data were collected by a wireless sensor node network provided by the Sens4U joint research project. The transects run NW-SE and NE-SW and cover the range of plant communities presently existing in the ecosystem: locust copses, dense sallow thorn bushes and reeds, base herbaceous and medium-rise small-reed vegetation, and open areas covered by moss and lichens. The raw measurement data were temporally aggregated using a VBA script in order to characterize interception for various types of precipitation events on different time scales. First results from the measurement period 17th July - 3rd September 2013 widely exhibit a good accordance with reference data from on-site weather stations for sites on open ground, while canopy sites show more heterogeneous values, either due to interception or due to canopy collection effects. However, it was found that the explanation of the differences between comparable sites requires an additional inclusion of other relevant parameters, e.g. wind speed and direction, screening effects, and specific canopy characteristics. Moreover, extreme precipitation events sometimes seemed to lead to incorrect measurements either by the sensor and / or node, which required supplementary quality controls of equipment and data. Results from future long-term measurements on the "Hühnerwasser" catchment will be used to identify possible plant-soil feedback mechanisms and to parameterize models that simulate the behavior of initial eco-hydrological systems.

Maurer, Thomas; Schapp, Andrea; Büchner, Steffen; Menzel, Hannes; Hinz, Christoph

2014-05-01

363

Investigations of surface-tension effects due to small-scale complex boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Ph.D. dissertation, we have investigated some important surface-tension phenomena including capillarity, wetting, and wicking. We mainly focus on the geometric aspects of these problems, and to learn about how structures affect properties. . In the first project (Chapter 2), we used numerical simulations and experiments to study the meniscus of a fluid confined in capillaries with complicated cross-sectional geometries. In the simulations, we computed the three-dimensional shapes of the menisci formed in polygonal and star-shaped capillaries with sharp or rounded corners. Height variations across the menisci were used to quantify the effect of surface tension. Analytical solutions were derived for all the cases where the cross-sectional geometry was a regular polygon or a regular star-shape. Power indices that characterize the effects of corner rounding were extracted from simulation results. These findings can serve as guide for fabrications of unconventional three-dimensional structures in Capillary Force Lithography experiments. Experimental demonstrations of the working principle was also performed. Although quantitative matching between simulation and experimental results was not achieved due to the limitation of material properties, clear qualitative trends were observed and interesting three-dimensional nano-structures were produced. A second project (Chapter 3) focused on developing techniques to produce three-dimensional hierarchically structured superhydrophobic surfaces with high aspect ratios. We experimented with two different high-throughput electron-beam-lithography processes featuring single and dual electron-beam exposures. After a surface modification procedure with a hydrophobic silane, the structured surfaces exhibited two distinct superhydrophobic behaviors---high and low adhesion. While both types of superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited very high (approximately 160° water advancing contact angles, the water receding contact angles on these two different types of surfaces differed by about 50° ˜ 60°, with the low-adhesion surfaces at about 120° ˜ 130° and the high-adhesion surfaces at about 70° ˜ 80°. Characterizations of both the microscopic structures and macroscopic wetting properties of these product surfaces allowed us to pinpoint the structural features responsible for specific wetting properties. It is found that the advancing contact angle was mainly determined by the primary structures while the receding contact angle is largely affected by the side-wall slope of the secondary features. This study established a platform for further exploration of the structure aspects of surface wettability. In the third and final project (Chapter 4), we demonstrated a new type of microfluidic channel that enable asymmetric wicking of wetting fluids based on structure-induced direction-dependent surface-tension effect. By decorating the side-walls of open microfluidic channels with tilted fins, we were able to experimentally demonstrate preferential wicking behaviors of various IPA-water mixtures with a range of contact angles in these channels. A simplified 2D model was established to explain the wicking asymmetry, and a complete 3D model was developed to provide more accurate quantitative predictions. The design principles developed in this study provide an additional scheme for controlling the spreading of fluids. The research presented in this dissertation spreads out across a wide range of physical phenomena (wicking, wetting, and capillarity), and involves a number of computational and experimental techniques, yet all of these projects are intrinsically united under a common theme: we want to better understand how simple fluids respond to small-scale complex surface structures as manifestations of surface-tension effects. We hope our findings can serve as building blocks for a larger scale endeavor of scientific research and engineering development. After all, the pursue of knowledge is most meaningful if the results improve the well-being of the society and the advancement of humanity

Feng, Jiansheng

364

New technique for the direct analysis of food powders confined in a small hole using transversely excited atmospheric CO(2) laser-induced gas plasma.  

PubMed

Taking advantage of the differences between the interactions of transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO(2) lasers with metal and with organic powder, a new technique for the direct analysis of food powder samples has been developed. In this technique, the powder samples were placed into a small hole with a diameter of 2 mm and a depth of 3 mm and covered by a metal mesh. The TEA CO(2) laser (1500 mJ, 200 ns) was focused on the powder sample surfaces, passing through the metal mesh, at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen gas. It is hypothesized that the small hole functions to confine the powder particles and suppresses the blowing-off of sample, while the metal mesh works as the source of electrons to initiate the strong gas breakdown plasma. The confined powder particles are then ablated by laser irradiation and the ablated particles move into the strong gas breakdown plasma region to be atomized and excited; this method cannot be applied for the case of Nd:YAG lasers because in such case the metal mesh itself was ablated by the laser irradiation. A quantitative analysis of a milk powder sample containing different concentrations of Ca was successfully demonstrated, resulting in a good linear calibration curve with high precision. PMID:19094393

Khumaeni, Ali; Ramli, Muliadi; Deguchi, Yoji; Lee, Yong Inn; Idris, Nasrullah; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Lie, Tjung Jie; Kagawa, Kiichiro

2008-12-01

365

Phenotypic and Evolutionary Consequences of Social Behaviours: Interactions among Individuals Affect Direct Genetic Effects  

PubMed Central

Traditional quantitative genetics assumes that an individual's phenotype is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. For many animals, part of the environment is social and provided by parents and other interacting partners. When expression of genes in social partners affects trait expression in a focal individual, indirect genetic effects occur. In this study, we explore the effects of indirect genetic effects on the magnitude and range of phenotypic values in a focal individual in a multi-member model analyzing three possible classes of interactions between individuals. We show that social interactions may not only cause indirect genetic effects but can also modify direct genetic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both direct and indirect genetic effects substantially alter the range of phenotypic values, particularly when a focal trait can influence its own expression via interactions with traits in other individuals. We derive a function predicting the relative importance of direct versus indirect genetic effects. Our model reveals that both direct and indirect genetic effects can depend to a large extent on both group size and interaction strength, altering group mean phenotype and variance. This may lead to scenarios where between group variation is much higher than within group variation despite similar underlying genetic properties, potentially affecting the level of selection. Our analysis highlights key properties of indirect genetic effects with important consequences for trait evolution, the level of selection and potentially speciation. PMID:23226195

Trubenova, Barbora; Hager, Reinmar

2012-01-01

366

Effect of the concentration of inhomogeneities on the multiple small-angle neutron scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interference effects manifested during multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS) on a chaotically arranged close-packed ensemble of scatterers have been studied. MSANS measurements have been performed for mixtures of Al and Ti-Zr alloy powders. It is shown that the results can be satisfactorily described based on a theory that takes into account spatial correlations in the arrangement of powder grains.

Abov, Yu. G.; Dzheparov, F. S.; Elyutin, N. O.; Lvov, D. V.; Tyulyusov, A. N.

2013-03-01

367

Prediciting Size Effects and Determing Length Scales in Small Scale Metaliic Volumes  

E-print Network

of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub Committee Members, Xin-Lin Gao Eyad Masad Head of Department, John Niedzwecki May 2010 Major Subject: Civil Engineering iii ABSTRACT... Predicting Size Effects and Determining Length Scales in Small Scale Metallic Volumes. (May 2010) Abu Nayeem Md. Faruk, B.Sc., Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub The purpose...

Faruk, Abu N.

2011-08-08

368

Effect of Small-Scale Obstructions and Surface Textures on Particle Deposition from Natural Convection Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase knowledge of particle dynamics in indoor environments, we have conducted experiments on the effects of small surface discontinuities and roughness on deposition from natural convection flow. Measurements were made in a half-height (1.22 m) aluminum test chamber and in a full-scale experimental room. In the test chamber, air flow was induced by uniformly heating the floor and one

T. L. Thatcher; W. W. Nazaroff

1997-01-01

369

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of the Small Business Institute Case Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceived effectiveness of the Small Business Institute (S.B.I.) case approach to teaching business was compared to that of three traditional methods of instruction. The S.B.I. approach was judged to teach in the greatest depth, provide the best chance to use what has been learned, provide the best opportunity for individualized instruction, and require the most self-motivation. The students with

John C. Hafer

1984-01-01

370

Effect of shock pulse width on the shock response of small form factor disk drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the effect of varying the shock pulse width on the shock response of small form factor hard disk drives.\\u000a We develop a new shock simulator for hard disk drives which simulates the structural as well as the air bearing dynamics of\\u000a the disk drive simultaneously. We observe that the response of the disk to the shock pulse

Puneet Bhargava; David B. Bogy

2007-01-01

371

Effects of methylenedioxymethamphetamine on noradrenaline-evoked contractions of rat right ventricle and small mesenteric artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the effects of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cocaine on contractions to noradrenaline in 1 Hz paced rat right ventricular strips, and in rat small mesenteric artery and aorta. Noradrenaline increased the force of contraction of 1 Hz paced ventricular strips with a pD2 (?log EC50) of 5.64±0.07. Both cocaine (10 ?M) and MDMA (10 ?M) significantly increased the

Wissam Al-Sahli; Husaimah Ahmad; Farhad Kheradmand; Claire Connolly; James R Docherty

2001-01-01

372

Effects of au plating on small-scale resistance spot welding of thin-sheet nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Au plating on joint formation and joint strength in small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets\\u000a have been investigated using tensile-shear testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive\\u000a X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the mechanisms of the joint formation during the welding of Au-plated Ni sheets\\u000a involve solid-state bonding, brazing, and fusion

W. Tan; Y. Zhou; H. W. Kerr

2002-01-01

373

The Effectiveness of Self-Directed and Lecture/Discussion Stress Management Approaches and the Locus of Control of Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interaction effects of two stress management strategies, the directed lecture discussion versus self-directed, and locus of control of teachers were examined. Results indicated directed and self-directive programs were effective in reducing stress. Locus of control was not an important factor. (Author/DWH)

Friedman, Gail H.; And Others

1983-01-01

374

Transient effect to small duty-cycle pulse in cascaded erbium-doped fiber amplifier system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors that affect the transient effect on small duty-cycle pulse in a cascaded erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) system are studied in simulation and experiment. The considered factors consist of the numbers of cascaded EDFAs, the peak power and the extinction ratio of optical pulse, with results showing that the optical pulse will be severely distorted by the transient effect of EDFA. The distortion becomes more serious with the increase of the three parameters. To avoid or mitigate the transient effect, a method of adding another optical signal with a different wavelength to the objective pulse is employed in the experiment. The experimental results show that this method could effectively restrain the transient effect in a cascaded EDFA system.

Chen, Mengmeng; Song, Yuejiang; Zhang, Xuping

2013-02-01

375

Comparing Direct versus Indirect Measures of the Pedagogical Effectiveness of Team Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct measures (tests) of the pedagogical effectiveness of team testing and indirect measures (student surveys) of pedagogical effectiveness of team testing were collected in several sections of an undergraduate marketing course with varying levels of the use of team testing. The results indicate that although students perceived team testing to…

Bacon, Donald R.

2011-01-01

376

Direct and indirect effects of E. Coli lipopolysaccharide on isolated human polymorphonuclear granulocytes and mixed leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) may contribute to the lung injury induced by nonpulmonary infections with gram-negative bacteria. The direct effect ofE. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on isolated human PMN or mixed leukocytes (ML), as well as the priming effect of preincubating cells with LPS, was examined in assays measuring the maximal rate of oxygen consumption (OC), cell chemiluminescence (CHML), and aggregation

Helge Opdahl

1993-01-01

377

A comparison of media factors that influence the effectiveness of direct response television advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct responsive television (DRITV) commercials provide a unique opportunity for assessing advertising effectiveness, since responses are tangible and can be immediately measured. In this study we examine media factors, such as day-part and program type, that influence the effectiveness of DRTV commercials. Over 700 commercial spots covering 12 campaigns are analyzed with a Tobit regression model. We find that the

Peter J. Danaher; Benjamin J. Green

1997-01-01

378

It Investment and its Productivity Effects: An Organizational Sociologist's Perspective on Directions for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the empirical evidence on the contribution of IT investments to economic growth and discusses the need for further research to explain the chain of causation linking the cumulative effects of IT expenditures on vertical and horizontal market structures within specific industries and the factors which influence or mediate the direction and magnitude of these effects. Two hypotheses

Diane D. Wilson

1995-01-01

379

The direct and indirect effects of advertising on materialism of college students in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we propose a theoretical framework through which we examine the direct and the indirect effects of advertising on college students’ materialistic attitudes in China. The framework is built on the influence-of-presumed-influence model, which allows us to examine how advertising and peer influence interact with each other and exert joint effects. We conducted a survey of 210 undergraduate

Ranxi Jiang; Stella C. Chia

2009-01-01

380

FUTURE DIRECTIONS No. 6 Seed survival in soil: interacting effects of predation,  

E-print Network

FUTURE DIRECTIONS No. 6 Seed survival in soil: interacting effects of predation, dormancy microbes in soil also have large effects on seed survival, particularly for plants that recruit from soil, and lack obvious chemical and physical defences. These seeds may be especially dependent upon protection

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

381

An empirically calibrated framework for including the effects of near-fault directivity in Probabilistic Seismic  

E-print Network

An empirically calibrated framework for including the effects of near-fault directivity are known to cause "pulse-like" ground motions at near- fault sites. We propose a comprehensive framework to incorporate the effects of near-fault pulse-like ground motions in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA

Baker, Jack W.

382

Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…

Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.

2009-01-01

383

Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Behaviour and Electrophysiology of Language Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) over the left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) has been shown to improve language production. The present study examined neurophysiological underpinnings of this effect. In a single-blinded within-subject design, we traced effects of A-tDCS compared to sham stimulation over the left…

Wirth, Miranka; Rahman, Rasha Abdel; Kuenecke, Janina; Koenig, Thomas; Horn, Helge; Sommer, Werner; Dierks, Thomas

2011-01-01

384

Complementary effects of gaze direction and early saliency in guiding fixations during free viewing.  

PubMed

Gaze direction provides an important and ubiquitous communication channel in daily behavior and social interaction of humans and some animals. While several studies have addressed gaze direction in synthesized simple scenes, few have examined how it can bias observer attention and how it might interact with early saliency during free viewing of natural and realistic scenes. Experiment 1 used a controlled, staged setting in which an actor was asked to look at two different objects in turn, yielding two images that differed only by the actor's gaze direction, to causally assess the effects of actor gaze direction. Over all scenes, the median probability of following an actor's gaze direction was higher than the median probability of looking toward the single most salient location, and higher than chance. Experiment 2 confirmed these findings over a larger set of unconstrained scenes collected from the Web and containing people looking at objects and/or other people. To further compare the strength of saliency versus gaze direction cues, we computed gaze maps by drawing a cone in the direction of gaze of the actors present in the images. Gaze maps predicted observers' fixation locations significantly above chance, although below saliency. Finally, to gauge the relative importance of actor face and eye directions in guiding observer's fixations, in Experiment 3, observers were asked to guess the gaze direction from only an actor's face region (with the rest of the scene masked), in two conditions: actor eyes visible or masked. Median probability of guessing the true gaze direction within ±9° was significantly higher when eyes were visible, suggesting that the eyes contribute significantly to gaze estimation, in addition to face region. Our results highlight that gaze direction is a strong attentional cue in guiding eye movements, complementing low-level saliency cues, and derived from both face and eyes of actors in the scene. Thus gaze direction should be considered in constructing more predictive visual attention models in the future. PMID:25371549

Borji, Ali; Parks, Daniel; Itti, Laurent

2014-01-01

385

Effect of Chirality of Small Molecule Organofluorine Inhibitors of Amyloid Self-Assembly on Inhibitor Potency  

PubMed Central

The effect of enantiomeric trifluromethyl-indolyl-acetic acid ethyl esters on the fibrillogenesis of Alzheimer's amyloid ? (A?) peptide is described. These compounds have been previously identified as effective inhibitors of the A? self-assembly in their racemic form. Thioflavin-T Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy were applied to assess the potency of the chiral target compounds. Both enantiomers showed significant inhibition in the in vitro assays. The potency of the enantiomeric inhibitors appeared to be very similar to each other suggesting the lack of the stereospecific binding interactions between these small molecule inhibitors and the A? peptide. PMID:19880318

Sood, Abha; Abid, Mohammed; Hailemichael, Samson; Foster, Michelle; Torok, Bela

2009-01-01

386

Looking the Other Way: The Role of Gaze Direction in the Cross-race Memory Effect.  

PubMed

One of the most replicable findings reported in the social psychological literature is the cross-race memory effect. We argue this effect derives from higher-order interactions among social cues that determine the perceived relevance of a face to an observer. The current research tested this hypothesis by examining the combined influences of eye gaze direction and race on face memory. The physical subtlety of eye gaze belies its powerful influence on social perception, and in this case helps specify the relevance of same- versus other-race faces. We found that only in faces making direct eye contact-not those displaying averted eye gaze-was the cross-race memory effect evident. Likewise, only in same-race faces did direct relative to averted gaze enhance face memory. These findings have implications for our general understanding of the combinatorial nature of social perception and help clarify the underlying cause of the cross-race memory effect. PMID:20204166

Adams, Reginald B; Pauker, Kristin; Weisbuch, Max

2010-03-01

387

P-32effects of intestinal motility on ethanol absorption in small intestine.  

PubMed

Administration of caffeine and Ryokucha Saponin markedly decreases the metabolic rate of ethanol. The effect of caffeine and Ryokucha Saponin on ethanol absorption in small intestine was investigated. Sample animals were used male Wistar rats (6 week). The rate of intestinal absorption of ethanol was measured using the small intestine of rats according to Creine and Wilson method (J Appl Physiol 12: : 145-146, 1958). The solution which transmitted small intestine was measured for ethanol levels at 0 to 30 minutes in presence or absence of caffeine or Ryokucha Saponin with ethanol solution. Contractile activity of the intestine was investigated by Magnus apparatus. A small intestine was removed from rats and were placed in a Tyrode solution. The opposite end of the tissue was secured to a sensitive strain gauge and tension measurement were recorded on a kymographion. The rate of intestinal absorption of ethanol was found that the increase in the ethanol absorption is depending on time. In the presence of caffeine and Ryokucha Saponin reduced ethanol absorption about over 10% of control. Caffeine and Ryokucha Saponin inhibits intestinal motility. Based on these results, we speculate that intestinal motility by increase and decrease were augment and suppres s alcohol absorption. PMID:25221263

Isobe, E; Taniguchi, Y; Uchigasaki, S

2014-09-01

388

Small molecule-directed specification of sclerotome-like chondroprogenitors and induction of a somitic chondrogenesis program from embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generate rostral paraxial mesoderm-like progeny in 5-6?days of differentiation induced by Wnt3a and Noggin (Nog). We report that canonical Wnt signaling introduced either by forced expression of activated ?-catenin, or the small-molecule inhibitor of Gsk3, CHIR99021, satisfied the need for Wnt3a signaling, and that the small-molecule inhibitor of BMP type I receptors, LDN193189, was able to replace Nog. Mesodermal progeny generated using such small molecules were chondrogenic in vitro, and expressed trunk paraxial mesoderm markers such as Tcf15 and Meox1, and somite markers such as Uncx, but failed to express sclerotome markers such as Pax1. Induction of the osteochondrogenically committed sclerotome from somite requires sonic hedgehog and Nog. Consistently, Pax1 and Bapx1 expression was induced when the isolated paraxial mesodermal progeny were treated with SAG1 (a hedgehog receptor agonist) and LDN193189, then Sox9 expression was induced, leading to cartilaginous nodules and particles in the presence of BMP, indicative of chondrogenesis via sclerotome specification. By contrast, treatment with TGF? also supported chondrogenesis and stimulated Sox9 expression, but failed to induce the expression of Pax1 and Bapx1. On ectopic transplantation to immunocompromised mice, the cartilage particles developed under either condition became similarly mineralized and formed pieces of bone with marrow. Thus, the use of small molecules led to the effective generation from ESCs of paraxial mesodermal progeny, and to their further differentiation in vitro through sclerotome specification into growth plate-like chondrocytes, a mechanism resembling in vivo somitic chondrogenesis that is not recapitulated with TGF?. PMID:25294938

Zhao, Jiangang; Li, Songhui; Trilok, Suprita; Tanaka, Makoto; Jokubaitis-Jameson, Vanta; Wang, Bei; Niwa, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Naoki

2014-10-01

389

Offensive Sequences in Youth Soccer: Effects of Experience and Small-Sided Games  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to analyze the interaction and main effects of deliberate practice experience and small-sided game format (3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 plus goalkeepers) on the offensive performance of young soccer players. Twenty-eight U-15 male players were divided into 2 groups according to their deliberate practice experience in soccer (i.e., years of experience in federation soccer): Non-Experienced (age: 12.84 ± 0.63 years) and Experienced (age: 12.91 ± 0.59 years; experience: 3.93 ± 1.00 years). The experimental protocol consisted of 3 independent sessions separated by one-week intervals. In each session both groups performed each small-sided game during 10 minutes interspersed with 5 minutes of passive recovery. To characterize the recorded offensive sequences we used the Offensive Sequences Characterization System, which includes performance indicators previous applied in other studies. No interaction effects on the offensive performance were found between both factors. Non-parametric MANOVA revealed that the factor “experience level” had a significant effect (p<0.05) on performance indicators that characterize the development of offensive sequences, especially in 6 vs. 6 + GKs. While experienced players produced longer offensive sequences with greater ball circulation between them, the non-experienced participants performed faster offensive sequences with a predominance of individual actions. Furthermore, significant differences were observed (p<0.05) in the development and finalization of offensive sequences within each group, when comparing small-sided game formats. Evidence supports that small-sided games can serve several purposes as specific means of training. However, the manipulation of game format should always consider the players’ individual constraints. PMID:23717359

Almeida, Carlos Humberto; Ferreira, Antonio Paulo; Volossovitch, Anna

2013-01-01

390

The effect of abdominal kinematic directives on respiratory behaviour in female classical singing.  

PubMed

Breathing instruction for classical singing is becoming more physiologically focused, yet the effect of chest-wall kinematic directives on breathing behaviour is largely unexplored. Five female classical singers sang Caccini's Ave Maria without directive and under two directives: 'steadily pull the abdomen inward' and 'steadily expand the abdomen' through each phrase. The directives had a statistically significant effect on chest-wall dimension at initiation of phrase and on excursion, but dimension at termination of each phrase reverted to habitual behaviour. Rib-cage dimensional change counteracted abdominal change so that lung volume measures were consistent within singer across all breathing conditions. The results have implications for the distinction between consciously controlled and innate respiratory behaviours in singing. Implications for singing pedagogy are discussed. PMID:19479619

Collyer, Sally; Kenny, Dianna T; Archer, Michaele

2009-01-01

391

Direct and indirect effects of warming on aphids, their predators, and ant mutualists.  

PubMed

Species exist within communities of other interacting species, so an exogenous force that directly affects one species can indirectly affect all other members of the community. In the case of climate change, many species may be affected directly and subsequently initiate numerous indirect effects that propagate throughout the community. Therefore, the net effect of climate change on any one species is a function of the direct and indirect effects. We investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate warming on corn leaf aphids, a pest of corn and other grasses, by performing an experimental manipulation of temperature, predators, and two common aphid-tending ants. Although warming had a positive direct effect on aphid population growth rate, warming reduced aphid abundance when ants and predators were present. This occurred because winter ants, which aggressively defend aphids from predators under control temperatures, were less aggressive toward predators and less abundant when temperatures were increased. In contrast, warming increased the abundance of cornfield ants, but they did not protect aphids from predators with the same vigor as winter ants. Thus, warming broke down the ant-aphid mutualism and counterintuitively reduced the abundance of this agricultural pest. PMID:25039213

Barton, Brandon T; Ives, Anthony R

2014-06-01

392

Mediation misgivings: ambiguous clinical and public health interpretations of natural direct and indirect effects.  

PubMed

Recent methodological innovation is giving rise to an increasing number of applied papers in medical and epidemiological journals in which natural direct and indirect effects are estimated. However, there is a longstanding debate on whether such effects are relevant targets of inference in population health. In light of the repeated calls for a more pragmatic and consequential epidemiology, we review three issues often raised in this debate: (i) the use of composite cross-world counterfactuals and the need for cross-world independence assumptions; (ii) interventional vs non-interventional identifiability; and (iii) the interpretational ambiguity of natural direct and indirect effect estimates. We use potential outcomes notation and directed acyclic graphs to explain 'cross-world' assumptions, illustrate implications of this assumption via regression models and discuss ensuing issues of interpretation. We argue that the debate on the relevance of natural direct and indirect effects rests on whether one takes as a target of inference the mathematical object per se, or the change in the world that the mathematical object represents. We further note that public health questions may be better served by estimating controlled direct effects. PMID:24860122

Naimi, Ashley I; Kaufman, Jay S; MacLehose, Richard F

2014-10-01

393

Placental abruption and perinatal mortality with preterm delivery as a mediator: disentangling direct and indirect effects.  

PubMed

The authors use recent methodology in causal inference to disentangle the direct and indirect effects that operate through a mediator in an exposure-response association paradigm. They demonstrate how total effects can be partitioned into direct and indirect effects even when the exposure and mediator interact. The impact of bias due to unmeasured confounding on the exposure-response association is assessed through a series of sensitivity analyses. These methods are applied to a problem in perinatal epidemiology to examine the extent to which the effect of abruption on perinatal mortality is mediated through preterm delivery. Data on over 26 million US singleton births (1995-2002) were utilized. Risks of mortality among abruption and nonabruption births were 102.7 and 6.2 per 1,000 births, respectively. Risk ratios of the natural direct and indirect (preterm delivery-mediated) effects of abruption on mortality were 10.18 (95% confidence interval: 9.80, 10.58) and 1.35 (95% confidence interval: 1.33, 1.38), respectively. The proportion of increased mortality risk mediated through preterm delivery was 28.1%, with even higher proportions associated with deliveries at earlier gestational ages. Sensitivity analyses underscore that the qualitative conclusions of some mediated effects and substantial direct effects are reasonably robust to unmeasured confounding of a fairly considerable magnitude. PMID:21430195

Ananth, Cande V; VanderWeele, Tyler J

2011-07-01

394

Effects of cell size, directional antennas, diversity and shadowing on indoor radio CDMA capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the effects of directional antennas, cell size, diversity reception, log-normal shadowing, and path loss exponent on the reverse-link operated CDMA capacity. The simulation results show that a CDMA system with the directional antennas associated with smaller cell architecture suppresses the outside cell co-channel interference, resulting in significant capacity improvement. It is also found that two-branch antenna diversity

Akihiro Kajiwara

1994-01-01

395

Effects of meniscus on the directional growth of potassium niobate single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of meniscus effects on the directional growth of single crystals of potassium niobate (KNbO3) with a [110]pc oriented seed by the top-seeded-solution-growth technique has been described. The directional growth of KNbO3 single crystals has been illustrated for different crystallographic orientations of the crystal. Experimental results show that the shape of the solution flux meniscus, which is determined by

H. C. Zeng; T. C. Chong; L. C. Lim; H. Kumagai; M. Hirano

1996-01-01

396

Pages 41-52 Short-term effects of small dam removal on a freshwater mussel assemblage.  

E-print Network

Pages 41-52 Short-term effects of small dam removal on a freshwater mussel assemblage. Ryan J 1053-637X EDITORIAL REVIEW BOARD #12;SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF SMALL DAM REMOVAL ON A FRESHWATER MUSSEL 27606 U.S.A. chris_eads@ncsu.edu 1 Corresponding Author ABSTRACT Dam removal is increasingly used

Kwak, Thomas J.

397

Self-insurance and the potential effects of health reform on the small-group market.  

PubMed

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) as amended by the Health Care Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 makes landmark changes to health insurance markets. Individual and small-group insurance plans and markets will see the biggest changes, but PPACA also affects large employer and self-insured plans by imposing rules for benefit design and health plan practices. Over half of workers--most often those in very large firms--are covered by self-insured health plans in which employers (or employee groups) bear all or some of the risk of providing insurance coverage to a defined population of workers and their dependents. As PPACA provisions become effective, some have argued that smaller firms that offer insurance may opt to self-insure their health benefits because of new small-group market rules. Such a shift could affect risk pooling in the small-group market. This paper examines the definition and prevalence of self-insured health plans, the application of PPACA provisions to these plans, and the possible effects on the broader health insurance market, should many more employers decide to self-insure. PMID:21192488

Linehan, Kathryn

2010-12-21

398

Setting the question for inquiry: The effects of whole class vs small group on student achievement in elementary science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to determine the effects of two different student-centered approaches to setting the question for inquiry. The first approach (whole class) consisted of students setting a single question for inquiry after which students worked in small groups during an investigation phase of the activity with all groups exploring the same question. The second approach (small group) consisted of each group of students setting a question resulting in numerous questions being explored per class. A mixed method quasi-experimental design was utilized. Two grade five teachers from a small rural school district in the Midwestern United States participated, each teaching two sections of science (approximately 25 students per section). Results indicate three major findings. Instructional approach (whole class vs. small group) did not effect student achievement in science or language arts. Observational data indicated the actions and skills teachers utilized to implement the approaches were similar. Specifically, the pedagogical skills of dialogical interaction (which was found to be influenced by teacher level of control of learning and teacher content knowledge) and effective rather than efficient use of time were identified as key factors in teachers' progression toward a student-centered, teacher-managed instructional approach. Unit exams along with qualitative and quantitative teacher observation data indicated that these factors do have an impact on student achievement. Specifically increased dialogical interaction in the forms of greater student voice, and increased cognitive demands placed on students by embedding and emphasizing science argument within the student inquiry corresponded to positive gains in student achievement. Additionally, teacher's perception of student abilities was also found to influence professional growth. Finally, allowing students to set the questions for inquiry and design the experiments impact the classroom environment as teacher talk changed from giving directions toward scaffolding student thought. These results have implications for professional development and teacher education as they suggest that more time should be spent on challenging teachers to align their pedagogy with how students learn rather than simply providing strategies and lesson plans for teachers to use in the classrooms.

Cavagnetto, Andy Roy

399

Observations of nonlinear effects in directional spectra of shoaling gravity waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial evolution of a directionally spread wave field on a near-planar natural beach is examined using data from longshore arrays of pressure sensors and wave staffs at 10.3 m and 4.1 m depth. High-resolution frequency-directional spectra from the deeper array are used to initialize a linear refraction model, and the resulting model predictions are compared with frequency-directional measurements at the shallow array. Linear theory inaccurately predicts both the shapes of directional spectra in shallow water and the total variances in some frequency bands. The discrepancies are largest for frequencies associated with maxima in the bicoherence spectrum, suggesting the importance of nonlinear effects. Furthermore, the measured directional spectrum at energetic low frequencies (0.05-0.11 Hz) and the vector resonance conditions for triads of long waves can be used to predict accurately the directions of observed peaks in directional spectra at higher frequencies (0.12-0.21 Hz). Prominent features in the measured directional spectra at the shallow array are thus consistent with energy transfers resulting from near-resonant triad interactions in the shoaling wave field.

Freilich, M. H.; Guza, R. T.; Elgar, S. L.

1990-06-01

400

A comparative study of small x Monte Carlos with and without QCD coherence effects  

E-print Network

We compare two Monte Carlo implementations of resummation schemes for the description of parton evolution at small values of Bjorken x. One of them is based on the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) evolution equation and generates fully differential parton distributions in momentum space making use of reggeized gluons. The other one is based on the Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) partonic kernel where QCD coherence effects are introduced. It has been argued that both approaches agree with each other in the x -> 0 limit. We show that this is not the case for azimuthal angle dependent quantities since at high energies the BFKL approach is dominated by its zero conformal spin component while the CCFM gluon Green function receives contributions from all conformal spins even at very small x.

G. Chachamis; M. Deak; A. Sabio Vera; P. Stephens

2011-02-09

401

The Effect of Adding Small Percentages of Finely Ground Metals to Enamels  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF ADDING SMALL PERCENTAGES OF FINELY GROUND METALS TO ENAMELS GLENN L. PYLE 1 9 1 2 THB OTKCT OP ADDING SMALL PERCENTAGES OF FINELY GROUND EETAL8 TO ENAKBLS. L a w r e n c e , K a n s a s , Hay 1 5 , 1 9 X 2 . P r o f e s s o r H. P... s u p e r v i s i o n . Y o u r s s i n c e r e l y , RD0107 110131 M 2 . BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1 . T e c h n i c a l methods o f Chemical A n a l y s i s , G. Lunge , C. A. Keane . V o l . I , P a r t I I , Gurney & J a c k s o n , 10 P a t e r m o...

Pyle, Glenn L.

1912-05-15

402

Dose-dependent effects of small-molecule antagonists on the genomic landscape of androgen receptor binding  

PubMed Central

Background The androgen receptor plays a critical role throughout the progression of prostate cancer and is an important drug target for this disease. While chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is becoming an essential tool for studying transcription and chromatin modification factors, it has rarely been employed in the context of drug discovery. Results Here we report changes in the genome-wide AR binding landscape due to dose-dependent inhibition by drug-like small molecules using ChIP-Seq. Integration of sequence analysis, transcriptome profiling, cell viability assays and xenograft tumor growth inhibition studies enabled us to establish a direct cistrome-activity relationship for two novel potent AR antagonists. By selectively occupying the strongest binding sites, AR signaling remains active even when androgen levels are low, as is characteristic of first-line androgen ablation therapy. Coupled cistrome and transcriptome profiling upon small molecule antagonism led to the identification of a core set of AR direct effector genes that are most likely to mediate the activities of targeted agents: unbiased pathway mapping revealed that AR is a key modulator of steroid metabolism by forming a tightly controlled feedback loop with other nuclear receptor family members and this oncogenic effect can be relieved by antagonist treatment. Furthermore, we found that AR also has an extensive role in negative gene regulation, with estrogen (related) receptor likely mediating its function as a transcriptional repressor. Conclusions Our study provides a global and dynamic view of AR’s regulatory program upon antagonism, which may serve as a molecular basis for deciphering and developing AR therapeutics. PMID:22849360

2012-01-01

403

Comparing the effectiveness of small-particle versus large-particle inhaled corticosteroid in COPD  

PubMed Central

Purpose Small airway changes and dysfunction contribute importantly to airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is currently treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators at Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grades 2–4. This retrospective matched cohort analysis compared effectiveness of a representative small-particle ICS (extrafine beclomethasone) and larger-particle ICS (fluticasone) in primary care patients with COPD. Patients and methods Smokers and ex-smokers with COPD ?40 years old initiating or stepping-up their dose of extrafine beclomethasone or fluticasone were matched 1:1 for demographic characteristics, index prescription year, concomitant therapies, and disease severity during 1 baseline year. During 2 subsequent years, we evaluated treatment change and COPD exacerbations, defined as emergency care/hospitalization for COPD, acute oral corticosteroids, or antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection. Results Mean patient age was 67 years, 57%–60% being male. For both initiation (n=334:334) and step-up (n=189:189) patients, exacerbation rates were comparable between extrafine beclomethasone and fluticasone cohorts during the 2 year outcome period. Odds of treatment stability (no exacerbation or treatment change) were significantly greater for patients initiating extrafine beclomethasone compared with fluticasone (adjusted odds ratio 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.32–4.73). Median ICS dose exposure during 2 outcome years was significantly lower (P<0.001) for extrafine beclomethasone than fluticasone cohorts (315 ?g/day versus 436 ?g/day for initiation, 438 ?g/day versus 534 ?g/day for step-up patients). Conclusion We observed that small-particle ICS at significantly lower doses had comparable effects on exacerbation rates as larger-particle ICS at higher doses, whereas initiation of small-particle ICS was associated with better odds of treatment stability during 2-years’ follow-up. PMID:25378918

Postma, Dirkje S; Roche, Nicolas; Colice, Gene; Israel, Elliot; Martin, Richard J; van Aalderen, Willem MC; Grigg, Jonathan; Burden, Anne; Hillyer, Elizabeth V; von Ziegenweidt, Julie; Gopalan, Gokul; Price, David

2014-01-01

404

Effects of disturbance on small mammal community structure in the New Jersey Pinelands, USA.  

PubMed

We compared small mammal community composition among undisturbed habitats and habitats disturbed by military operations on Warren Grove Gunnery Range (WGR) in the New Jersey Pinelands. WGR is one of the largest tracts of protected land within this globally rare ecosystem. Disturbance in the form of fire, mowing, soil disruption and logging has had a large effect on small mammal occurrence and distribution. Of the 14 small mammal species that occur in the Pinelands, 9 live on WGR, including large populations of the southern bog lemming (Synaptomys cooperi Baird, 1858) and meadow jumping mouse [Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780)]. Simpson's Index of Diversity was 0 for most disturbed sites and was generally greater in wetlands than in uplands. White-footed mouse [Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque, 1818)] was the most common species on WGR and had a dominant effect on species diversity and community similarity indices. It dominated upland habitats and was the only species to occur in several disturbed habitats, whereas all 9 species occurred in wetlands. Principal components analysis indicated that most variation in species diversity was explained by disturbance and differences between upland and wetland habitats, due to presence of white-footed mice in disturbed and upland sites. Meadow jumping mice, southern bog lemmings and red-back voles [Myodes gapperi (Vigors, 1830)] were positively correlated with wetland habitats, and pine voles [Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte, 1830)], short-tail shrews [Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1823)] and eastern chipmunks [Tamias striatus (Linnaeus, 1758)] were associated with uplands. Habitat heterogeneity at WGR, including extensive undisturbed wetlands and uplands supported a rich diversity of small mammal species. PMID:22405445

Shenko, Alicia N; Bien, Walter F; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W

2012-03-01

405

Effect of Small Molecule Modification on Single Cell Pharmacokinetics of PARP Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The heterogeneous delivery of drugs in tumors is an established process contributing to variability in treatment outcome. Despite the general acceptance of variable delivery, the study of the underlying causes is challenging given the complex tumor microenvironment including intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity. The difficulty in studying this distribution is even more significant for small molecule drugs where radiolabeled compounds or mass spectrometry detection lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to quantify the kinetics of drug distribution in vivo. In this work, we take advantage of the synthesis of fluorescent drug conjugates that retain their target binding but are designed with different physiochemical and thus pharmacokinetic properties. Using these probes, we followed the drug distribution in cell culture and tumor xenografts with temporal resolution of seconds and subcellular spatial resolution. These measurements, including in vivo permeability of small molecule drugs, can be used directly in predictive pharmacokinetic models for the design of therapeutics and companion imaging agents as demonstrated by a finite element model. PMID:24552776

Thurber, Greg M.; Reiner, Thomas; Yang, Katherine S; Kohler, Rainer; Weissleder, Ralph

2014-01-01

406

The direct and indirect effects of corruption on motor vehicle crash deaths.  

PubMed

Recent empirical research has found that there is an inverted U-shaped or Kuznets relationship between income and motor vehicle crash (MVC) deaths, such that MVC deaths increase as national income increases and decrease after reaching a critical level. Corruption has been identified as one of the underlying factors that could affect this relationship, primarily by undermining institutional development and effective enforcement schemes. The total effect of corruption can be decomposed into two components, a direct and an indirect effect. The direct effect measures the immediate impact of corruption on MVC deaths by undermining effective enforcement and regulations, while the indirect effect captures the impact of corruption on hindering increases in per capita income and the consequent impact of reduced income on MVC deaths. By influencing economic growth, corruption can lead to an increase or decrease in MVC deaths depending on the income level. Using data from 60 countries between 1982 and 2003, these effects are estimated using linear panel and fixed effects negative binomial models. The estimation results suggest that corruption has different direct effects for less developed and highly developed countries. It has a negative (decreasing) effect on MVC deaths for less developed countries and a positive (increasing) effect on MVC deaths for highly developed countries. For highly developed countries, the total effect is positive at lower per capita income levels, but decreases with per capita income and becomes negative at per capita income levels of about US$ 38,248. For less developed countries, the total effect is negative within the sample range and decreases with increased per capita income. In summary, the results of this study suggest that reduction of corruption is likely a necessary condition to effectively tackle road safety problems. PMID:20728645

Hua, Law Teik; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

2010-11-01

407

Ion-Banana-Orbit-Width Effect on Bootstrap Current for Small Magnetic Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and direct theoretical method has been proposed to investigate the so-called ion-banana-orbit-width (IBW) effect on the bootstrap current in the region of magnetic islands generated by the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM). The result shows that, when the IBW approaches the island width, the (ion) bootstrap current can be partly restored inside the island while the pressure profile is flattened. This can lead to the reduction of the bootstrap current drive on the NTM. The strength of the IBW effect on the NTM is related to the safety factor and the inverse aspect ratio on the rational surface.

Qu, Hongpeng

2013-09-01

408

The effect of corticosterone on standard metabolic rates of small passerine birds.  

PubMed

Resting metabolic rates of Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) and pine siskins (Carduelis pinus) were evaluated at thermoneutral temperatures before and after administration of corticosterone (B) at physiological doses. There was no effect of B on basal metabolic rate of either species, but nocturnal metabolic rate varied significantly less over the 3-h period of measurement in B-treated sparrows and siskins than in control birds. These results, coupled with observations of caged birds, suggest that corticosterone has no direct effect on avian resting metabolism but does reduce the responsiveness of birds to external stimuli and thus promotes nocturnal restfulness. PMID:1939747

Buttemer, W A; Astheimer, L B; Wingfield, J C

1991-01-01

409

Direct and indirect effects of mood on risk decision making in safety-critical workers.  

PubMed

The study aimed to examine the direct influence of specific moods (fatigue, anxiety, happiness) on risk in safety-critical decision making. It further aimed to explore indirect effects, specifically, the potential mediating effects of information processing assessed using a goodness-of-simulation task. Trait fatigue and anxiety were associated with an increase in risk taking on the Safety-Critical Personal Risk Inventory (S-CPRI), however the effect of fatigue was partialled out by anxiety. Trait happiness, in contrast was related to less risky decision making. Findings concerning the ability to simulate suggest that better simulators made less risky decisions. Anxious workers were generally less able to simulate. It is suggested that in this safety-critical environment happiness had a direct effect on risk decision making while the effect of trait anxiety was mediated by goodness-of-simulation. PMID:22742773

Morgan, James I; Jones, Fiona A; Harris, Peter R

2013-01-01

410

Effect of gravity on coupled convective and interfacial instabilities during directional solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instabilities occurring during the directional constant-rate solidification of a dilute solution of tin in lead are investigated as a function of gravity with particular emphasis on small constant gravitational accelerations. Two types of instabilities have been identified: (1) convective type that corresponds to long wavelengths, and (2) morphological type that corresponds to short wavelengths. These instabilities are coupled but while the convective instabilities depend strongly on gravity, the morphological instabilities are practically independent of gravity. For low velocities, the convective instabilities occur at much lower solute concentrations than the morphological instabilities, whereas at high velocities the reverse is true.

Coriell, S. R.; Boettinger, W. J.; Cordes, M. R.; Sekerka, R. F.

1981-01-01

411

Radiation dose effect in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Radiation is the foundation of treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and as such, optimal radiation dose is essential for successful treatment. This article will briefly review biological considerations of radiation dose and their effect in the context of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) including intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for NSCLC. It will focus on literature review and discussions regarding radiation dose effect in locally advanced NSCLC including potential severe and lethal toxicities of high dose radiation given with concurrent chemotherapy. Potential new approaches for delivering safe and effective doses by individualizing treatment based on functional imaging are being applied in studies such as the PET boost trial and RTOG1106. The RTOG concept of delivering high dose radiation to the more resistant tumors with the use of isotoxic dose prescription and adaptive planning will also be discussed in detail. PMID:24688778

Zhao, Jing; Wang, Jingbo; Faivre-Finn, Corrine

2014-01-01

412

Atmospheric Dynamics of Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Giant Planets: Emergence of Zonal Jets and Eddies from Small-Scale Convective Perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of observations now provide evidence for vigorous motion in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets; these observations include spectral evidence for clouds, disequilibrium chemistry, lightcurve variability, and maps of surface patchiness. These observations raise major questions about the nature of the atmospheric circulation on these exotic worlds, which resemble high-heat-flux, high-gravity, rapidly rotating versions of Jupiter. Although brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets generally lack the strong external stellar irradiation that causes the atmospheric circulation on most solar system planets, the vigorous convection in their interiors will drive a wealth of waves and perhaps a coherent large-scale circulation in their overlying stably stratified atmospheres. Here, we investigate this process using state-of-the-art, global 3D simulations of the atmospheric circulation using the MITgcm. We parameterize convective perturbations near the radiative-convective boundary using a spatially and temporally random, isotropic, small-scale thermal forcing at the bottom of the domain. Radiation is parameterized with an idealized Newtonian cooling scheme. Clouds and condensates are neglected. Our simulations show that brown dwarfs can in many cases develop large-scale atmospheric circulations comprising banded flow patterns, zonal jets, turbulence, and in some cases stable vortices. We will describe how the amplitude, length scales, and fundamental nature of the circulation -- in particular, the tendency to favor zonal jets versus quasi-isotropic turbulence -- depends on the radiative time constant, the convective forcing amplitude and timescale, gravity, and other parameters. The simulations provide a foundation for understanding observed lightcurves and surface maps of brown dwarfs, and moreover illuminate the continuum of atmospheric-dynamics processes between brown dwarfs and Jupiter itself.

Showman, Adam P.; Zhang, Xi; Tan, Xianyu; Lewis, Nikole K.

2014-11-01

413

Risk of Ocular Exposure to Biologically Effective UV Radiation in Different Geographical Directions.  

PubMed

To quantify ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and to assess the risk of eye damage in different geographical directions due to UVR exposure, we used a spectrometer and a manikin to measure horizontal ambient and ocular exposure UVR in different geographical directions at four different locations at the Northern Hemisphere. Describing the relationship of exposure to risk of eye damage requires the availability of UV hazard weighting function. So, we used the UV hazard weighting function (ICNIRP) proposed by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection to determine the biologically effective UV irradiance (UVBEeye ) and then cumulative effective radiant exposure (Heye ) to shown the risk of eye. We found that in different geographical directions, distributions of ocular exposure to UVR were markedly different from those of horizontal ambient UVR. When the midday maximum SEA > 50°, eye received more UVR from the east and west directions during the morning and evening hours, respectively. However, when the midday maximum SEA < 50°, eye received more UVR from the south direction at noon. The results of this research indicate that the higher risk of eye caused by UVR varies according to the midday maximum SEA corresponding to different geographical direction. PMID:24804634

Wang, Fang; Hu, Liwen; Gao, Qian; Gao, Yanyan; Liu, Guangcong; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Yang

2014-09-01

414

Interband ? plasmon of graphene: strong small-size and field-enhancement effects.  

PubMed

The interband ? plasmon of graphene has energy corresponding to the ultraviolet (UV) wave band, and hence is promising for UV nanophotonics and nanooptoelectronics. However, its special size effect and electric field-enhancement effect have not been well understood. Here, we have investigated the far-field optical extinction and near-field enhancement features of the interband ? plasmon in a graphene nanodisk using discrete dipole approximation and finite-difference time-domain methods. Very interestingly, it has been found that the in-plane (transverse mode) optical extinction peak of monolayer graphene firstly significantly red shifts with increasing diameter, but then tends to a saturation value when the diameter is above 20 nm, showing a strong small-size-sensitive effect. Furthermore, the transverse mode optical extinction peak obviously blue shifts with increasing thickness when the thickness is relatively small. Significantly, the corresponding local electric field enhancement factor produced by the plasmon, which can be found to be as large as several tens, firstly increases with the increase of the size and then reaches a maximum value at only several nanometers in size. Such an ultrasmall-size-sensitive plasmon in the UV region endows graphene dots with new promising potential uses in ultrasmall photo-electric devices and nanoantennas, and in UV enhancers. PMID:25269556

Hu, Jinlian; Zeng, Haibo; Wang, Cong; Li, Zhigang; Kan, Caixia; Liu, Youwen

2014-10-01

415

The Effect of a Self Assembled Monolayer in Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously found that a Self Assembled Monolayer (SAM) of Flouroalkyl TrichloroSilane (FTS) molecules on Single-Walled and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT & MWCNT) can greatly improve the conductivity [1]. In present work we have studied the effect of SAM modified carbon nanotubes in Small molecule organic photovoltaic cells. (OPV) We have fabricated and characterized OPV of the general structure: CNT(FTS)/CuPC/C60/BCP/Al. We observed improvement of the performance of the OPV with CNT anodes with FTS SAM both for SW and MW CNT. The major effect is an improvement of the open circuit voltage and also small improvements in both short circuit current and filling factor. The increase in open circuit voltage is likely due to modifications of the carbon nanotube work function by the strong dipole moments of the FTS molecules. The improvements in short circuit current and filling factor is probably due to improved active layer morphology and removal of absorbed water from the substrate. [4pt] [1] Cook, Alexander; Lee, Bumsu; Kuznetsov, Alexander; Podzorov, Vitaly; Zakhidov, Anvar. Self Assembled Dipole Monolayers on CNTs: Effect on Transport and Charge Collectio. Oral Presentation APS March Meeting 2010

Cook, Alexander; Mielczarek, Kamil; Zakhidov, Anvar

2011-03-01

416

Effect of inclination direction on recording performance of BPM with inclined anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of inclination direction on the recording performance of bit-patterned media with weakly inclined anisotropy was investigated by simulation. Magnetic dots with a size of 15x7.5x5 nm3 were arranged on a soft magnetic underlayer with an areal density of 2.6 Tdot/in2. Saturation magnetization of each dot was assumed to be 1000 emu/cm3. Media with three different inclination directions with an inclination angle of 30 degrees from the film normal, which were down-track inclined, cross-track inclined and cone-state, were investigated for the recording performance using a shielded planar head field. Although the three media exhibited almost the same remanence curve, obtained recording performance indicated different write shift margins. It was found that the write shift margin in the cross-track direction increased for the media with fixed inclined anisotropy axes, but the medium with the inclination direction in the cross-track direction exhibited larger shift margin than that of the down-track inclined medium when the anisotropy field dispersion was increased to 4%, while increase in the write shift margin in the downtrack direction was similar for down- and cross-track inclined media. The cause of the difference was primarily explained by the composite anisotropy of the elongated dot with the shape anisotropy in the cross-track direction.

Honda, Naoki; Yamakawa, Kiyoshi; Ouchi, Kazuhiro; Komukai, Tatsuya

417

A single climate driver has direct and indirect effects on insect population dynamics.  

PubMed

Weather drives population dynamics directly, through effects on vital rates, or indirectly, through effects on the population's competitors, predators or prey and thence on vital rates. Indirect effects may include non-additive interactions with density dependence. Detection of climate drivers is critical to predicting climate change effects, but identification of potential drivers may depend on knowing the underlying mechanisms. For the butterfly Speyeria mormonia, one climate driver, snow melt date, has multiple effects on population growth. Snow melt date in year t has density-dependent indirect effects. Through frost effects, early snow melt decreases floral resources, thence per-capita nectar availability, which determines fecundity in the lab. Snow melt date in year t?+?1 has density-independent direct effects. These effects explain 84% of the variation in population growth rate. One climate parameter thus has multiple effects on the dynamics of a species with non-overlapping generations, with one effect not detectable without understanding the underlying mechanism. PMID:22414183

Boggs, Carol L; Inouye, David W

2012-05-01

418

The role of small, cost effective spacecraft in the developing countries: the Algerian experience.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small satellites are becoming increasingly important in the context of capability building in space technology for the developing countries. The use of commercial of the shelf technology "COST" and focus on specific missions can speed up the development process, providing faster as well as cheaper access to space. This paper describes a highly successful small satellite programme which has also demonstrated a rapid, cost effective method of transferring expertise in spacecraft engineering, satellite orbital manoeuvres and orbital operations for a core team of eleven engineers from the National Centre of Space Techniques using Alsat-1, Algeria's first enhanced earth observation microsatellite. The approach was based on "learning by doing" in a sense that the know how transfer team had to entirely construct and fully test their own training model TM which represents one of SSTL's recent microsatellite missions. The TM microsatellite uses a modular multipurpose bus capable of supporting communications and earth observation payloads. The primary conclusions of this paper are that small satellite programmes can provide low cost, rapid response access to the space environment and an ideal technology transfer mechanism for countries with low financial inputs for space and wishing to take their first steps toward a national space programme.

Bekhti, M.; Benmohamed, M.; Sweeting, M. N.

2004-11-01

419

The effect of small variations in the magnetization curves of shielding material upon shielded fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shielding of strong electromagnetic fields at power frequency, performed by ferromagnetic plates, is often successfully modelled by the effective reluctivity. This method delivers good results for the RMSvalue of the shielded field. The following paper shows that a small variation of the magnetization curve (e.g.by taking another material charge) can strongly influence the shielded field. The field calculation is performed by the Finite Element Method (FEM), where for the interior plate region a)finite elements and b)non-linear Impedance Boundary Conditions (IBC) are used which circumvents the need to discretize the shielding plate.

Kost, A.; Jacobs, R. T.; Hahn, A.

2007-08-01

420

Effect of three-body interactions on the structure of small clusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minimum energy configurations of microclusters (up to six atoms) have been calculated using two- and three-body interactions. Structural changes were parametrically analyzed as a function of the intensity of three-body forces. The results are qualitative in nature; they indicate, however, that three-body interactions play an important role in the equilibrium structure of microclusters. The effect of the intensity of the three-body interactions on the structure of small clusters is not manifested in a continuous manner. Rather, changes in the energetically most stable structure occur abruptly. The results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations as well as other calculations.

Halicioglu, T.; White, P. J.

1980-01-01

421

Improving Blood Brain Barrier Permeation of Small Molecules Exhibiting Chemotherapeutic and Neuroprotective Effects  

E-print Network

school has been phenomenal and I don?t know if I could have done it without you. I love you very much. Thank you! 7 Improving Blood Brain Barrier Permeability of Small Molecules Exhibiting Chemotherapeutic and Neuroprotective Effects...-like groups at the C7 or C10 position???????..55 2.3.3 Modifications at the C13 position to enhance potency????????60 2.3.4 BBMEC permeability of derivatives showing reduced interaction with P-gp??????????????????????????????62 2.3.5 Mass balance...

Desino, Kelly Elizabeth

2008-05-06

422

Effect of Ozone Addition on Combustion Efficiency of Hydrogen: Liquid-Oxygen Propellant in Small Rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study shows that 2 percent by weight ozone in oxygen has little effect on overall reactivity for a range of oxidant-fuel weight ratios from 1 to 6. This conclusion is based on characteristic-velocity measurements in 200-pound-thrust chambers at a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute with low-efficiency injectors. The presence of 9 percent ozone in oxygen also did not affect performance in an efficient chamber. Explosions were encountered when equipment or procedure permitted ozone to concentrate locally. These experiments indicate that even small amounts of ozone in oxygen can cause operational problems.

Miller, Riley O.; Brown, Dwight D.

1959-01-01

423

Is Direct Access to Obstetricians/Gynecologists Effective at Improving Maternal Health Behaviors?  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effects of state legislation mandating direct access to obstetricians and gynecologists (OB/GYNs) on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes. Data Sources 1992–2002 Natality Detail File; 1994–2002 Pregnancy Assessment and Monitoring Survey (PRAMS). Study Design Using variation in state policy over time, we use individual-level data from two sources to consider the effects of direct access legislation on prenatal care utilization, maternal health behaviors during pregnancy, and infant health outcomes. Principal Findings Our results suggest that there is little evidence that direct access laws are effective at improving prenatal care access or conferring benefits to mothers and infants. These results are consistent across two data sets, a variety of specifications, and specific subgroups of women who are most likely to be affected by direct access legislation. Conclusion We conclude that direct access to OB/GYNs is not related to improvements in maternal health behaviors or infant health outcomes. If policy makers are interested in reforms that improve maternal and infant health, we recommend a focus on alternative poli