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Sample records for small gas turbine

  1. Small gas turbine engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, Richard W.; Meitner, Peter L.

    1988-01-01

    Performance of small gas turbine engines in the 250 to 1,000 horsepower size range is significantly lower than that of large engines. Engines of this size are typically used in rotorcraft, commutercraft, general aviation, and cruise missile applications. Principal reasons for the lower efficiencies of a smaller engine are well known: component efficients are lower by as much as 8 to 10 percentage points because of size effects. Small engines are designed for lower cycle pressures and temperatures because of smaller blading and cooling limitations. The highly developed analytical and manufacturing techniques evolved for large engines are not directly transferrable to small engines. Thus, it was recognized that a focused effort addressing technologies for small engies was needed and could significantly impact their performance. Recently, in-house and contract studies were undertaken at the NASA Lewis Research Center to identify advanced engine cycle and component requirements for substantial performance improvement of small gas turbines for projected year 2000 applications. The results of both in-house research and contract studies are presented. In summary, projected fuel savings of 22 to 42 percent could be obtained. Accompanying direct operating cost reductions of 11 to 17 percent, depending on fuel cost, were also estimated. High payoff technologies are identified for all engine applications, and recent results of experimental research to evolve the high payoff technologies are described.

  2. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  3. Mainshaft seals for small gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Lynwander, P.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of mainshaft seals for small gas turbine engines was conducted with shaft speeds to 213 m/s (700 ft/sec), air pressures to 148 Newtons per square centimeter abs. (215 psia), and air temperatures to 412k(282 F). A radial face seal incorporating self-acting geometry for lift augmentation was evaluated. In addition, three conventional carbon seal types (face, circumferential segmented, and rotating ring) were run for comparison. Test results indicated that the conventional seals used in this evaluation may not be satisfactory in future advanced engines because of excessive air leakage. On the other hand, the self-acting face seal was shown to have the potential capability of limiting leakages to one-half that of the conventional face seals and one-fifth that of conventional ring seals. A 150-hour endurance test of the self-acting face seal was conducted.

  4. Mainshaft seals for small gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Lynwander, P.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of mainshaft seals for small gas turbine engines was conducted with shaft speeds to 213 m/sec, air pressures to 215 psia, and air temperatures to 412 K. A radial face seal incorporating self-acting geometry for lift augmentation was evaluated. In addition, three conventional carbon seal types (face, circumferential segmented, and rotating ring) were run for comparison. Test results indicated that the conventional seals used in this evaluation may not be satisfactory in future advanced engines because of excessive air leakage. On the other hand, the self-acting face seal was shown to have the potential capability of limiting leakages to one-half that of the conventional face seals and one-fifth that of conventional ring seals. A 150 hour endurance test of the self-action face seal was conducted at speeds to 145 m/sec, air pressures to 180 psia, and air temperatures to 408 K. The seal wear was not measurable.

  5. Small Gas Turbine Combustor Primary Zone Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. E.; Young, E. R.; Miles, G. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A development process is described which consists of design, fabrication, and preliminary test evaluations of three approaches to internal aerodynamic primary zone flow patterns: (1) conventional double vortex swirl stabilization; (2) reverse flow swirl stabilization; and (3) large single vortex flow system. Each concept incorporates special design features aimed at extending the performance capability of the small engine combustor. Since inherent geometry of these combustors result in small combustion zone height and high surface area to volume ratio, design features focus on internal aerodynamics, fuel placement, and advanced cooling. The combustors are evaluated on a full scale annular combustor rig. A correlation of the primary zone performance with the overall performance is accomplished using three intrusion type gas sampling probes located at the exit of the primary zone section. Empirical and numerical methods are used for designing and predicting the performance of the three combustor concepts and their subsequent modifications. The calibration of analytical procedures with actual test results permits an updating of the analytical design techniques applicable to small reverse flow annular combustors.

  6. Combustor technology for future small gas turbine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    To enhance fuel efficiency, future advanced small gas turbine engines will utilize engine cycles calling for overall engine pressure ratios, leading to higher combustor inlet pressures and temperatures. Further, the temperature rise through the combustor and the corresponding exit temperature are also expected to increase. This report describes future combustor technology needs for small gas turbine engines. New fuel injectors with large turndown ratios which produce uniform circumferential and radial temperature patterns will be required. Uniform burning will be of greater importance because hot gas temperatures will approach turbine material limits. The higher combustion temperatures and increased radiation at high pressures will put a greater heat load on the combustor liners. At the same time, less cooling air will be available as more of the air will be used for combustion. Thus, improved cooling concepts and/or materials requiring little or no direct cooling will be required. Although presently there are no requirements for emissions levels from small gas turbine engines, regulation is anticipated in the near future. This will require the development of low emission combustors. In particular, nitrogen oxides will increase substantially if new technologies limiting their formation are not evolved and implemented. For example, staged combustion employing lean, premixed/prevaporized, lean direct injection, or rich burn-quick quench-lean burn concepts could replace conventional single stage combustors. Due to combustor size considerations, staged combustion is more easily accommodated in large engines. The inclusion of staged combustion in small engines will pose greater combustor design challenges.

  7. Combustor technology for future small gas turbine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Future engine cycles proposed for advanced small gas turbine engines will increase the severity of the operating conditions of the combustor. These cycles call for increased overall engine pressure ratios which increase combustor inlet pressure and temperature. Further, the temperature rise through the combustor and the corresponding exit temperature also increase. Future combustor technology needs for small gas turbine engines is described. New fuel injectors with large turndown ratios which produce uniform circumferential and radial temperature patterns will be required. Uniform burning will be of greater importance because hot gas temperatures will approach turbine material limits. The higher combustion temperatures and increased radiation at high pressures will put a greater heat load on the combustor liners. At the same time, less cooling air will be available as more of the air will be used for combustion. Thus, improved cooling concepts and/or materials requiring little or no direct cooling will be required. Although presently there are no requirements for emissions levels from small gas turbine engines, regulation is expected in the near future. This will require the development of low emission combustors. In particular, nitrogen oxides will increase substantially if new technologies limiting their formation are not evolved and implemented. For example, staged combustion employing lean, premixed/prevaporized, lean direct injection, or rich burn-quick quench-lean burn concepts could replace conventional single stage combustors.

  8. Small gas-turbine combustor study: Fuel injector evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort at the Lewis Research Center to improve performance, emissions, and reliability of turbine machinery, an investigation of fuel injection technique and effect of fuel type on small gas turbine combustors was undertaken. Performance and pollutant emission levels are documented over a range of simulated flight conditions for a reverse flow combustor configuration using simplex pressure-atomizing, spill-flow return, and splash cone airblast injectors. A parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading with each of the fuel injector types was obtained. Jet A and an experimental referee broad specification fuel were used to determine the effect of fuel type.

  9. Small-scale AFBC hot air gas turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Keener, H.M.; Hall, A.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW{sub e} plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1,450 F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

  10. An air bearing system for small high speed gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. B.; Davies, S. J.; Nimir, Y. L.

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the second phase of an experimental program concerning the application of air bearings to small turbomachinery test rigs and small gas turbines. The first phase examined externally pressurized (EP) journal bearings, with a novel EP thrust bearing, for application to 'warm air' test rigs, and was entirely successful at rotational speeds in excess of 100,000 rpm. This second phase examined several designs of tilting pad-spiring journal bearings, one with a novel form of externally pressurized pad, but all using the original EP thrust bearing. The designs tested are described, including some oscillogram traces, for tests up to a maximum of 70,000 rpm; the most successful using a carbon pad-titanium beam spring arrangement. The thrust bearing which gave trouble-free operation throughout, is also described. The results of an original experiment to measure the 'runway speed' of a radial inflow turbine are also presented, which show that overspeeds of 58 percent above the design speed can result from free-power turbine coupling failure.

  11. Composite Matrix Cooling Scheme for Small Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paskin, Marc D.; Ross, Phillip T.; Mongia, Hukam C.; Acosta, Waldo A.

    1990-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and testing of a compliant metal/ceramic (CMC) wall cooling concept-implementing combustor for small gas turbine engines has been undertaken by a joint U.S. Army/NASA technology development program. CMC in principle promises greater wall cooling effectiveness than conventional designs and materials, thereby facilitating a substantial reduction in combustor cooling air requirements and furnishing greater airflow for the control of burner outlet temperature patterns as well as improving thermodynamic efficiency and reducing pollutant emissions and smoke levels. Rig test results have confirmed the projected benefits of the CMC concept at combustor outlet temperatures of the order of 2460 F, at which approximately 80 percent less cooling air than conventionally required was being employed by the CMC combustor.

  12. Externally fired gas turbine cycles for small scale biomass cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Anheden, M.; Ahlroth, M.; Martin, A.R.; Svedberg, G.

    1999-07-01

    In this conceptual study, externally fired gas turbine cycles in combination with a biomass-fueled, atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace are investigated for small scale heat and power production ({approximately} 8 MW fuel input). Three cycle configurations are considered: closed cycle, with nitrogen, helium, and a helium/carbon dioxide mixture as working fluids; open cycle operating in parallel to the CFB system; and open cycle with a series connection to the CFB system. Intercooling, postcooling, and recuperation are employed with the goal of maximizing power output. Aside from a thermodynamic performance analysis, the study also includes an evaluation of the turbomachinery characteristics. Simulation results show that thermodynamic performance varies slightly between the different configurations, with electrical efficiencies approaching 38% (LHV) and power-to-heat ratios as high as 0.80. Equipment size is found to depend primarily upon the type of working fluid.

  13. Small turbines in distributed utility application: Natural gas pressure supply requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.L.

    1996-05-01

    Implementing distributed utility can strengthen the local distribution system and help avoid or delay the expense of upgrading transformers and feeders. The gas turbine-generator set is an attractive option based on its low front-end capital cost, reliable performance at unmanned stations, and environmental performance characteristics. This report assesses gas turbine utilization issues from a perspective of fuel supply pressure requirements and discusses both cost and operational factors. A primary operational consideration for siting gas turbines on the electric distribution system is whether the local gas distribution company can supply gas at the required pressure. Currently available gas turbine engines require gas supply pressures of at least 150 pounds per square inch gauge, more typically, 250 to 350 psig. Few LDCs maintain line pressure in excess of 125 psig. One option for meeting the gas pressure requirements is to upgrade or extend an existing pipeline and connect that pipeline to a high-pressure supply source, such as an interstate transmission line. However, constructing new pipeline is expensive, and the small volume of gas required by the turbine for the application offers little incentive for the LDC to provide this service. Another way to meet gas pressure requirements is to boost the compression of the fuel gas at the gas turbine site. Fuel gas booster compressors are readily available as stand-alone units and can satisfactorily increase the supply pressure to meet the turbine engine requirement. However, the life-cycle costs of this equipment are not inconsequential, and maintenance and reliability issues for boosters in this application are questionable and require further study. These factors may make the gas turbine option a less attractive solution in DU applications than first indicated by just the $/kW capital cost. On the other hand, for some applications other DU technologies, such as photovoltaics, may be the more attractive option.

  14. A method to estimate weight and dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The weight and major envelope dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines are estimated. The computerized method, called WATE-S (Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines-Small) is a derivative of the WATE-2 computer code. WATE-S determines the weight of each major component in the engine including compressors, burners, turbines, heat exchangers, nozzles, propellers, and accessories. A preliminary design approach is used where the stress levels, maximum pressures and temperatures, material properties, geometry, stage loading, hub/tip radius ratio, and mechanical overspeed are used to determine the component weights and dimensions. The accuracy of the method is generally better than + or - 10 percent as verified by analysis of four small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines.

  15. Review of the development of small- and medium-capacity gas turbines at the Motoren- und Turbinen Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilmann, W.

    1985-01-01

    Small- and medium-capacity gas turbines under development for turboprop aircraft and helicopter, as well as for armored and commercial vehicle propulsion, are discussed. Design problems related to axial turbines, ceramic components, regenerative gas turbines, and the optimal expansion ratios for turbines with capacities from 250 to greater than 800 kW are considered; in addition, combustion chamber technology is mentioned. Prototype gas turbines with capacities of 500 to 600 kW or 800 to 1800 kW are described.

  16. Reverse-flow combustor for small gas turbines with pressure-atomizing fuel injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Mularz, E. J.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    A reverse flow combustor suitable for a small gas turbine (2 to 3 kg/s mass flow) was used to evalute the effect of pressure atomizing fuel injectors on combustor performance. In these tests an experimental combustor was designed to operate with 18 simplex pressure atomizing fuel injectors at sea level takeoff conditions. To improve performance at low power conditions, fuel was redistributed so that only every other injector was operational. Combustor performance, emissions, and liner temperature were compared over a range of pressure and inlet air temperatures corresponding to simulated idle, cruise, and takeoff conditions typical of a 16 to 1 pressure ratio turbine engine.

  17. Small-scale AFBC-hot air gas turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.C.; Keener, H.M.; Hall, A.W.

    1995-02-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW, plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1450{degrees}F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

  18. A method to estimate weight and dimensions of large and small gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onat, E.; Klees, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method was developed to estimate weight and envelope dimensions of large and small gas turbine engines within + or - 5% to 10%. The method is based on correlations of component weight and design features of 29 data base engines. Rotating components were estimated by a preliminary design procedure which is sensitive to blade geometry, operating conditions, material properties, shaft speed, hub tip ratio, etc. The development and justification of the method selected, and the various methods of analysis are discussed.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Research of a Novel Combustion Chamber for Small Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuma, J.; Kubata, J.; Betak, V.; Hybl, R.

    2013-04-01

    New combustion chamber concept (based on burner JETIS-JET Induced Swirl) for small gas turbine engine (up to 200kW) is presented in this article. The combustion chamber concept is based on the flame stabilization by the generated swirl swirl generated by two opposite tangentially arranged jet tubes in the intermediate zone, this arrangement replaces air swirler, which is very complicated and expensive part in the scope of small gas turbines with annular combustion chamber. The mixing primary jets are oriented partially opposite to the main exhaust gasses flow, this enhances hot product recirculation and fuel-air mixing necessary for low NOx production and flame stability. To evaluate the designed concept a JETIS burner demonstrator (methane fuel) was manufactured and atmospheric experimental measurements of CO, NOx for various fuel nozzles and jet tubes the configuration were done. Results of these experiments and comparison with CFD simulation are presented here. Practical application of the new chamber concept in small gas turbine liquid fuel combustor was evaluated (verified) on 3 nozzles planar combustor sector test rig at atmospheric conditions results of the experiment and numerical simulation are also presented.

  20. The small turbine revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.L.

    1995-07-01

    Until the mid-1960s, improvements in technology and economies of scale made each new generating unit installed less expensive than the previous one. Later, bigger was still better. Larger units cost less per kilowatt than smaller units. Today, that may be changing. In some situations, distributed generation -the use of small, dispersed units (usually gas turbines) in the place of large central stations- can be the most attractive option.

  1. Small gas turbine combustor experimental study: Compliant metal/ceramic liner and performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, W. A.; Norgren, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    Combustor research relating to the development of fuel efficient small gas turbine engines capable of meeting future commercial and military aviation needs is currently underway at NASA Lewis. As part of this combustor research, a basic reverse-flow combustor has been used to investigate advanced liner wall cooling techniques. Liner temperature, performance, and exhaust emissions of the experimental combustor utilizing compliant metal/ceramic liners were determined and compared with three previously reported combustors that featured: (1) splash film-cooled liner walls; (2) transpiration cooled liner walls; and (3) counter-flow film cooled panels.

  2. Extension to an analysis of turbulent swirling compressible flow for application to axisymmetric small gas turbine ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B.; Edwards, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    An existing computer program, the Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct Code (ADD code), which calculates compressible turbulent swirling flow through axisymmetric ducts was modified to permit calculation of flows through small gas turbine ducts with struts, guide vanes and large degrees of turning. The improvements include a coordinate generator, an end-wall loss model, and a generalized geometry capability to describe struts and guide vanes in ducts which turn more than 90 degrees. An improved output format was developed to provide the solution on any arbitrary plane in the duct and an extensive literature survey of calculation procedures used in gas turbine technology was completed which suggests improvements in the computer code. Calculations are presented for the flow through the AGT101 small gas turbine inlet duct and turbine exhaust diffuser which demonstrate the ADD code modifications implemented in the investigation. The computed results compare favorably with experimental results.

  3. Alternative systems for fuel gas boosters for small gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Henry B.

    1992-04-01

    The study was done to investigate alternative technologies for fuel gas boosters for gas turbine engines under 5 MW output. The goal was to identify concepts which would significantly reduce the overall life cycle cost of these boosters. In a broad review of alternative systems, centrifugal compressors were found to be most promising. Electrically driven centrifugals, either direct drive or gear driven, were found to be quite limited in speed. Therefore they require many stages for these applications, and no cost advantage was indicated. Considerable promise was indicated for centrifugals driven by bleed air from the engine compressor, using turbocompressor units which are conversions of existing turbochargers for internal combustion engines. A first cost advantage of 30 to 80 percent was indicated for applications with an annual market size of at least ten units. Considerable savings in installation and maintenance costs are expected in addition.

  4. Small turbines, big unknown

    SciTech Connect

    Gipe, P.

    1995-07-01

    While financial markets focus on the wheeling and dealing of the big wind companies, the small wind turbine industry quietly keeps churning out its smaller but effective machines. Some, the micro turbines, are so small they can be carried by hand. Though worldwide sales of small wind turbines fall far short of even one large windpower plant, figures reach $8 million to $10 million annually and could be as much as twice that if batteries and engineering services are included.

  5. Large Parabolic Dish collectors with small gas-turbine, Stirling engine or photovoltaic power conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlisch, K.; Heikal, H.; Mobarak, A.; Simon, M.

    1982-08-01

    A comparison for different solar thermal power plants is presented and demonstrates that the large parabolic dish in association with a gas turbine or a Sterling engine could be a competitive system design in the net power range of 50-1000KW. The important advantages of the Large Parabolic Dish concept compared to the Farm and Tower concept are discussed: concentration ratios up to 5000 and uniform heat flux distribution throughout the day which allow very high receiver temperatures and therefor high receiver efficiency to operate effectively Stirling motors or small gas turbines in the mentioned power range with an overall efficiency of 20 to 30%. The high focal plane concentration leads to the efficient use of ceramic materials for receivers of the next generation, applicable in temperature ranges up to 1,300 /sup 0/C for energy converters. Besides the production of electricity, the system can supply process heat in the temperature range of 100 to 400 /sup 0/C as waste heat from the gas turbo converter and heat at temperature levels from 500 to 900 /sup 0/C (1300 /sup 0/C) directly out of the receiver.

  6. Investigation of soot and carbon formation in small gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of hardware configurations which attempt to minimize carbon and soot-production without sacrificing performance in small gas turbine combustors was conducted. Four fuel injectors, employing either airblast atomization, pressure atomization, or fuel vaporization techniques were combined with nozzle air swirlers and injector sheaths. Eight configurations were screened at sea-level takeoff and idle test conditions. Selected configurations were focused upon in an attempt to quantify the influence of combustor pressure, inlet temperature, primary zone operation, and combustor loading on soot and carbon formation. Cycle tests were also performed. It was found that smoke emission levels depended on the combustor fluid mechanics, the atomization quality of the injector and the fuel hydrogen content.

  7. Detection of very large ions in aircraft gas turbine engine combustor exhaust: charged small soot particles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, S.; Haverkamp, H.; Sorokin, A.; Arnold, F.

    Small electrically charged soot particles (CSP) present in the exhaust of a jet aircraft engine combustor have been detected by a Large Ion Mass Spectrometer and quantitatively measured by an Ion Mobility Analyzer. The size and concentration measurements which took place at an aircraft gas-turbine engine combustor test-rig at the ground covered different combustor conditions (fuel flow=FF, fuel sulphur content=FSC). At the high-pressure turbine stage of the engine, CSP-diameters were mostly around 6 nm and CSP-concentrations reached up to 4.8×10 7 cm -3 (positive and negative) corresponding to a CSP-emission index ECSP=2.5×10 15 CSP kg -1 fuel burnt. The ECSP increased with FF but did not increase with FSC. The latter indicates that sulphur was not a major component of the large ions. Possible CSP-sources and CSP-sinks as well as CSP-roles are discussed.

  8. An efficient liner cooling scheme for advanced small gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paskin, Marc D.; Mongia, Hukam C.; Acosta, Waldo A.

    1993-01-01

    A joint Army/NASA program was conducted to design, fabricate, and test an advanced, small gas turbine, reverse-flow combustor utilizing a compliant metal/ceramic (CMC) wall cooling concept. The objectives of this effort were to develop a design method (basic design data base and analysis) for the CMC cooling technique and then demonstrate its application to an advanced cycle, small, reverse-flow combustor with 3000 F burner outlet temperature. The CMC concept offers significant improvements in wall cooling effectiveness resulting in a large reduction in cooling air requirements. Therefore, more air is available for control of burner outlet temperature pattern in addition to the benefits of improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower smoke levels. The program was divided into four tasks. Task 1 defined component materials and localized design of the composite wall structure in conjunction with development of basic design models for the analysis of flow and heat transfer through the wall. Task 2 included implementation of the selected materials and validated design models during combustor preliminary design. Detail design of the selected combustor concept and its refinement with 3D aerothermal analysis were completed in Task 3. Task 4 covered detail drawings, process development and fabrication, and a series of burner rig tests. The purpose of this paper is to provide details of the investigation into the fundamental flow and heat transfer characteristics of the CMC wall structure as well as implementation of the fundamental analysis method for full-scale combustor design.

  9. Gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron

    2016-03-08

    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  10. Examination of in-service coating degradation in gas turbine blades using a small punch testing method

    SciTech Connect

    Kameda, J.; Bloomer, T.E.; Gold, C.R.; Sugita, Y.; Ito, M.; Sakurai, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes examination of in-service coating degradation in land based gas turbine blades by means of a small punch testing (SP) method and scanning Auger microprobe (SAM). SP tests on coated specimens with unpolished surfaces indicated large variations of the mechanical properties because of the surface roughness and curvature in gas turbine blades. SP tests on polished specimens better characterized the mechanical degradation of blade coatings. The coated specimens greatly softened and the room temperature ductility of the coatings and substrates tended to decrease with increasing operation time. The ductile-brittle transition temperature of the coatings shifted to higher temperatures during the blade operation. From SAM analyses on fracture surfaces of unused and used blades, it has been shown that oxidation and sulfidation near the coating surface, which control the fracture properties, result from high temperature environmental attack.

  11. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  12. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  13. Applications of high-temperature powder metal aluminum alloys to small gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millan, P. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A program aimed at the development of advanced powder-metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys for high-temperature applications up to 650 F using the concepts of rapid solidification and mechanical alloying is discussed. In particular, application of rapidly solidified PM aluminum alloys to centrifugal compressor impellers, currently used in auxiliary power units for both military and commercial aircraft and potentially for advanced automotive gas turbine engines, is examined. It is shown that substitution of high-temperature aluminum for titanium alloy impellers operating in the 360-650 F range provides significant savings in material and machining costs and results in reduced component weight, and consequently, reduced rotating group inertia requirements.

  14. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  15. Automotive gas turbine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel control system is reported for automotive-type gas turbines and particulary advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission. The fuel control system compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine braking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons.

  16. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  17. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  18. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  19. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  20. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  1. Characterization of mechanical properties of aluminized coatings in advanced gas turbine blades using a small punch method

    SciTech Connect

    Sugita, Y.; Ito, M.; Sakurai, S.; Bloomer, T.E.; Kameda, J. |

    1997-04-01

    Advanced technologies of superalloy casting and coatings enable one to enhance the performance of combined cycle gas turbines for electric power generation by increasing the firing temperature. This paper describes examination of the microstructure/composition and mechanical properties (22--950 C) in aluminized CoCrAlY coatings of advanced gas turbine blades using scanning Auger microprobe and a small punch (SP) testing method. Aluminized coatings consisted of layered structure divided into four regimes: (1) Al enriched and Cr depleted region, (2) Al and Cr graded region, (3) fine grained microstructure with a mixture of Al and Cr enriched phases and (4) Ni/Co interdiffusion zone adjacent to the interface. SP specimens were prepared in order that the specimen surface would be located in the various coating regions. SP tests indicated strong dependence of the fracture properties on the various coatings regimes. Coatings 1 and 2 with very high microhardness showed much easier formation of brittle cracks in a wide temperature range, compared to coatings 3 and 4 although the coating 2 had ductility improvement at 950 C. The coating 3 had lower room temperature ductility than the coating 4. However, the ductility in the coating 3 exceeded that in the region 4 above 730 C due to a precipitous ductility increase. The integrity of aluminized coatings while in-service is discussed in light of the variation of the low cycle fatigue life as well as the ductility in the layered structure.

  2. Compact gas turbine power for fast ships

    SciTech Connect

    Lauriat, T.B.

    1986-01-01

    Gas turbines in the medium power class, 1000 to 5000 SHP, usually enjoy lightweight and small size due to an aircraft engine heritage and allow the designer of small ships the ability to consider much higher speed craft and still maintain a reasonable space allotment for machinery. This paper describes several gas turbines in the medium power range and discuss a number of recently designed and/or delivered high speed vessels using these engines.

  3. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  4. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOEpatents

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  5. Establishing a Ballistic Test Methodology for Documenting the Containment Capability of Small Gas Turbine Engine Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heady, Joel; Pereira, J. Michael; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Bobula, George A.

    2009-01-01

    A test methodology currently employed for large engines was extended to quantify the ballistic containment capability of a small turboshaft engine compressor case. The approach involved impacting the inside of a compressor case with a compressor blade. A gas gun propelled the blade into the case at energy levels representative of failed compressor blades. The test target was a full compressor case. The aft flange was rigidly attached to a test stand and the forward flange was attached to a main frame to provide accurate boundary conditions. A window machined in the case allowed the projectile to pass through and impact the case wall from the inside with the orientation, direction and speed that would occur in a blade-out event. High-peed, digital-video cameras provided accurate velocity and orientation data. Calibrated cameras and digital image correlation software generated full field displacement and strain information at the back side of the impact point.

  6. Study of radiation heat transfer and the temperature state in the combustion chambers of small-size gas-turbine engines (GTEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukash, V. P.

    1993-03-01

    The experimental data on the radiation flux surface density distribution in the combusion chamber of a small-size gas-turbine engine are presented. Experiments are made at elevated pressures and temperatures of the stagnated flow at the chamber inlet. Satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

  7. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  8. Trends in gas turbine development

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper represents the Gas Turbine Association's view of the gas turbine industry's R and D needs following the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Some of this information was discussed at the workshop Next Generation Gas Turbine Power Systems, which was held in Austin, TX, February 9--10, 1999, sponsored by DOE-Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), reference 1. The general idea is to establish public-private partnerships to reduce the risks involved in the development of new technologies which results in public benefits. The recommendations in this paper are focused on gas turbines > 30 MW output. Specific GTA recommendations on smaller systems are not addressed here. They will be addressed in conjunction with DOE-Energy Efficiency.

  9. Gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burd, Steven W. (Inventor); Cheung, Albert K. (Inventor); Dempsey, Dae K. (Inventor); Hoke, James B. (Inventor); Kramer, Stephen K. (Inventor); Ols, John T. (Inventor); Smith, Reid Dyer Curtis (Inventor); Sowa, William A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a combustor module including an annular combustor having a liner assembly that defines an annular combustion chamber having a length, L. The liner assembly includes a radially inner liner, a radially outer liner that circumscribes the inner liner, and a bulkhead, having a height, H1, which extends between the respective forward ends of the inner liner and the outer liner. The combustor has an exit height, H3, at the respective aft ends of the inner liner and the outer liner interior. The annular combustor has a ratio H1/H3 having a value less than or equal to 1.7. The annular combustor may also have a ration L/H3 having a value less than or equal to 6.0.

  10. Gas turbine compressor unit repowering

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents how a major US gas transmission and storage company restored gas storage peaking capacity by repowering obsolete gas turbine compressor units. Consumers Power Company`s Ray Field located in Macomb County, Michigan, USA, was developed as a 44 BCF working capacity gas storage field in 1966. Due to the high deliverability, the field is operated as a peaking reservoir, handling rates as high as 500 MMCFD on injection and 1,200 MMCFD on withdrawal. Ten 2,750 horsepower gas turbine driven 4-stage centrifugal compressor units were installed in the mid to late 1960`s at the field. The compression is operated 2, 4 and 8 stage, as needed, to cover storage pressures of 450 to 1,800 psig. Each centrifugal compressor is driven by a Pratt Whitney (PW) GG-12 Gas Generator firing into a Cooper-Bessemer (CB) RT-27 Power Turbine. By 1980 parts and maintenance services for the PW GG-12 Gas Generator became very expensive to non-existent. In 1994 Consumers Power committed to a gas turbine unit repowering program as the preferred choice over unit replacement. Two refurbished Solar Centaur T4500 Gas Turbine drives were purchased and installed to repower 2 of the obsolete turbine units. This paper describes the retrofit.

  11. Study of research and development requirements of small gas-turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetri, E. P.; Topping, R. F.; Wilson, R. P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A survey is presented of the major small-engine manufacturers and governmental users. A consensus was undertaken regarding small-combustor requirements. The results presented are based on an evaluation of the information obtained in the course of the study. The current status of small-combustor technology is reviewed. The principal problems lie in liner cooling, fuel injection, part-power performance, and ignition. Projections of future engine requirements and their effect on the combustor are discussed. The major changes anticipated are significant increases in operating pressure and temperature levels and greater capability of using heavier alternative fuels. All aspects of combustor design are affected, but the principal impact is on liner durability. An R&D plan which addresses the critical combustor needs is described. The plan consists of 15 recommended programs for achieving necessary advances in the areas of liner thermal design, primary-zone performance, fuel injection, dilution, analytical modeling, and alternative-fuel utilization.

  12. The evaporative gas turbine (EGT) cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Horlock, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    Humidification of the flow through a gas turbine has been proposed in a variety of forms. The STIG plant involves the generation of steam by the gas turbine exhaust in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and its injection into or downstream of the combustion chamber. This increases the mass flow through the turbine and the power output from the plant, with a small increase in efficiency. In the evaporative gas turbine (or EGT) cycle, water is injected in the compressor discharge in a regenerative gas turbine cycle (a so-called CBTX plant--compressor [C], burner [B], turbine [T], heat exchanger [X]); the air is evaporatively cooled before it enters the heat exchanger. While the addition of water increases the turbine mass flow and power output, there is also apparent benefit in reducing the temperature drop in the exhaust stack. In one variation of the basic EGT cycle, water is also added downstream of the evaporative aftercooler, even continuously in the heat exchanger. There are several other variations on the basic cycle (e.g., the cascaded humidified advanced turbine [CHAT]). The present paper analyzes the performance of the EGT cycle. The basic thermodynamics are first discussed, and related to the cycle analysis of a dry regenerative gas turbine plant. Subsequently some detailed calculations of EGT cycles are presented. The main purpose of the work is to seek the optimum pressure ratio in the EGT cycle for given constraints (e.g., fixed maximum to minimum temperature). It is argued that this optimum has a relatively low value.

  13. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  14. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  15. H gas turbine combined cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Corman, J.

    1995-10-01

    A major step has been taken in the development of the Next Power Generation System - {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Technology Combined Cycle. This new gas turbine combined-cycle system increases thermal performance to the 60% level by increasing gas turbine operating temperature to 1430 C (2600 F) at a pressure ratio of 23 to 1. Although this represents a significant increase in operating temperature for the gas turbine, the potential for single digit NOx levels (based upon 15% O{sub 2}, in the exhaust) has been retained. The combined effect of performance increase and environmental control is achieved by an innovative closed loop steam cooling system which tightly integrates the gas turbine and steam turbine cycles. The {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Gas Turbine Combined Cycle System meets the goals and objectives of the DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. The development and demonstration of this new system is being carried out as part of the Industrial/Government cooperative agreement under the ATS Program. This program will achieve first commercial operation of this new system before the end of the century.

  16. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine engine is reviewed. Development of the engine compressor, gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, regenerator, and secondary system is discussed. Ceramic materials development and the application of such materials in the gas turbine engine components is described.

  17. Tempest gas turbine extends EGT product line

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    1995-07-01

    With the introduction of the 7.8 MW (mechanical output) Tempest gas turbine, ECT has extended the company`s line of its small industrial turbines. The new Tempest machine, featuring a 7.5 MW electric output and a 33% thermal efficiency, ranks above the company`s single-shaft Typhoon gas turbine, rated 3.2 and 4.9 MW, and the 6.3 MW Tornado gas turbine. All three machines are well-suited for use in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as demonstrated by the fact that close to 50% of the 150 Typhoon units sold are for CHP applications. This experience has induced EGT, of Lincoln, England, to announce the introduction of the new gas turbine prior to completion of the testing program. The present single-shaft machine is expected to be used mainly for industrial trial cogeneration. This market segment, covering the needs of paper mills, hospitals, chemical plants, ceramic industry, etc., is a typical local market. Cogeneration plants are engineered according to local needs and have to be assisted by local organizations. For this reason, to efficiently cover the world market, EGT has selected a number of associates that will receive from Lincoln completely engineered machine packages and will engineer the cogeneration system according to custom requirements. These partners will also assist the customer and dispose locally of the spares required for maintenance operations.

  18. Development of small gas-turbine-based steam cogeneration system. Phase 1. Final report, July 1987-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The increasing cost of electricity, the availability of low-cost natural gas and the promotion of cogeneration by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has increased the attractiveness of cogeneration as an alternate energy source. A study of the commercial/military/industrial segments indicates a viable market for the proposed system in hotels/motels, hospitals, nursing homes, shopping centers, district-heating plants, military bases, and light manufacturing. Design analysis indicates that a packaged cogeneration system utilizing the Teledyne Continental Motors TP500 gas-turbine engine, developed as a low-cost aircraft engine, when modified to include an industrial gearbox, exhaust recuperator with variable bypass and single can combustor with dual fuel capability can compete favorably in cost, durability and fuel consumption with current converted diesel engine powered systems with the advantage of producing 100 psig steam at variable rates.

  19. Very high efficiency small nuclear gas turbine power plant concept (HTGR-GT/BC) for special applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Cavallaro, L.; Kapich, D.; Medwid, W.A.

    1984-06-01

    To meet the energy needs of special terrestrial defense installations, where a premium is placed on high plant efficiency, conceptual studies have been performed on an advanced closed-cycle gas turbine system with a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as the heat source. Emphasis has been placed on system compactness and plant simplicity. A goal of plant operation for extended periods with no environmental contact had a strong influence on the design features. To realize a high plant efficiency (over 50%) for this mode of operation, a combined cycle was investigated. A primary helium Brayton power conversion system coupled with a Freon bottoming cycle was selected. Details are presented of the reactor arrangement, power conversion system, major components, installation, and performance for a compact nuclear power plant currently in a very early stage of concept definition.

  20. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  1. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  2. Durability Challenges for Next Generation of Gas Turbine Engine Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive fuel burn and carbon dioxide emission reduction goals for future gas turbine engines will require higher overall pressure ratio, and a significant increase in turbine inlet temperature. These goals can be achieved by increasing temperature capability of turbine engine hot section materials and decreasing weight of fan section of the engine. NASA is currently developing several advanced hot section materials for increasing temperature capability of future gas turbine engines. The materials of interest include ceramic matrix composites with 1482 - 1648 C temperature capability, advanced disk alloys with 815 C capability, and low conductivity thermal barrier coatings with erosion resistance. The presentation will provide an overview of durability challenges with emphasis on the environmental factors affecting durability for the next generation of gas turbine engine materials. The environmental factors include gaseous atmosphere in gas turbine engines, molten salt and glass deposits from airborne contaminants, impact from foreign object damage, and erosion from ingestion of small particles.

  3. Advancing gas turbine technology: Evolution and revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.E.

    1995-05-01

    This article describes advances made in gas turbine technology as manufacturers introduce aero-derived advances in the pursuit of more power. The rise in the application of gas turbines for electric power generation is attributable to many factors. The first is an abundance of cheap natural gas. The second reason is the very high (54 percent to 58 percent) combined-cycle efficiencies being achieved with commercially available technology right now. Reliability and availability are cited third. Low environmental impact was cited as the fourth reason why gas turbines are so popular. Fifth are gas turbine`s low capital costs.

  4. AGT (Advanced Gas Turbine) technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ; (7) Small turbine engine aerodynamic and mechanical design capability has been initiated; and (8) An infrastructure of manpower, facilities, materials, and fabrication capabilities has been established which is available for continued development of ceramic component technology in gas turbine and other heat engines.

  5. Heat Transfer in Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2001-01-01

    The turbine gas path is a very complex flow field. This is due to a variety of flow and heat transfer phenomena encountered in turbine passages. This manuscript provides an overview of the current work in this field at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Also, based on the author's preference, more emphasis is on the computational work. There is much more experimental work in progress at GRC than that reported here. While much has been achieved, more needs to be done in terms of validating the predictions against experimental data. More experimental data, especially on film cooled and rough turbine blades, are required for code validation. Also, the combined film cooling and internal cooling flow computation for a real blade is yet to be performed. While most computational work to date has assumed steady state conditions, the flow is clearly unsteady due to the presence of wakes. All this points to a long road ahead. However, we are well on course.

  6. Small Wind Research Turbine: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Meadors, M.

    2005-10-01

    The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) project was initiated to provide reliable test data for model validation of furling wind turbines and to help understand small wind turbine loads. This report will familiarize the user with the scope of the SWRT test and support the use of these data. In addition to describing all the testing details and results, the report presents an analysis of the test data and compares the SWRT test data to simulation results from the FAST aeroelastic simulation model.

  7. Gas turbine engine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A variable orifice system is described that is responsive to compressor inlet pressure and temperature, compressor discharge pressure and rotational speed of a gas-turbine engine. It is incorporated into a hydraulic circuit that includes a zero gradient pump driven at a speed proportional to the speed of the engine. The resulting system provides control of fuel rate for starting, steady running, acceleration and deceleration under varying altitudes and flight speeds.

  8. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  9. Thermodynamic evaluation of small-scale systems with biomass gasifiers, solid oxide fuel cells with Ni/GDC anodes and gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, P. V.; Woudstra, T.; Woudstra, N.; Spliethoff, H.

    Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to evaluate the performance of small-scale gasifier-SOFC-GT systems of the order of 100 kW. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) with Nickel/Gadolinia Doped Ceria (Ni/GDC) anodes were considered. High system electrical efficiencies above 50% are achievable with these systems. The results obtained indicate that when gas cleaning is carried out at temperatures lower than gasification temperature, additional steam may have to be added to biosyngas in order to avoid carbon deposition. To analyze the influence of gas cleaning at lower temperatures and steam addition on system efficiency, additional system calculations were carried out. It is observed that steam addition does not have significant impact on system electrical efficiency. However, generation of additional steam using heat from gas turbine outlet decreases the thermal energy and exergy available at the system outlet thereby decreasing total system efficiency. With the gas cleaning at atmospheric temperature, there is a decrease in the electrical efficiency of the order of 4-5% when compared to the efficiency of the systems working with intermediate to high gas-cleaning temperatures.

  10. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Janos; Dowdy, Thomas E.; Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1997-01-01

    A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

  11. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocko, Marián; Klimko, Marek

    2016-03-01

    This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for gas turbines (turbo-compressor engines) to effect the change of thermodynamic parameters of the engine.

  12. Gas turbine vane platform element

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X.; Schiavo, Anthony L.; Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL

    2012-08-28

    A gas turbine CMC shroud plate (48A) with a vane-receiving opening (79) that matches a cross-section profile of a turbine vane airfoil (22). The shroud plate (48A) has first and second curved circumferential sides (73A, 74A) that generally follow the curves of respective first and second curved sides (81, 82) of the vane-receiving opening. Walls (75A, 76A, 77A, 78A, 80, 88) extend perpendicularly from the shroud plate forming a cross-bracing structure for the shroud plate. A vane (22) may be attached to the shroud plate by pins (83) or by hoop-tension rings (106) that clamp tabs (103) of the shroud plate against bosses (105) of the vane. A circular array (20) of shroud plates (48A) may be assembled to form a vane shroud ring in which adjacent shroud plates are separated by compressible ceramic seals (93).

  13. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOEpatents

    Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1997-06-10

    A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

  14. Gas fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; White, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of the first phase of the Advanced Gas Turbine System (ATS) program was the concept definition of an advanced engine system that meets efficiency and emission goals far exceeding those that can be provided with today`s equipment. The thermal efficiency goal for such an advanced industrial engine was set at 50% some 15 percentage points higher than current equipment levels. Exhaust emissions goals for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UH) were fixed at 8 parts per million by volume (ppmv), 20 ppmv, and 20 ppmv respectively, corrected to 15% oxygen (O{sub 2}) levels. Other goals had to be addressed; these involved reducing the cost of power produced by 10 percent and improving or maintaining the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) at current levels. This advanced gas turbine was to be fueled with natural gas, and it had to embody features that would allow it bum coal or coal derived fuels.

  15. Gas turbine engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idelchik, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system and method of controlling a gas turbine engine. The control system receives an error signal and processes the error signal to form a primary fuel control signal. The control system also receives at least one anticipatory demand signal and processes the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal. The control system adjusts the value of the anticipatory fuel control signal based on the value of the error signal to form an adjusted anticipatory signal and then the adjusted anticipatory fuel control signal and the primary fuel control signal are combined to form a fuel command signal.

  16. Blade for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-10-26

    A blade is provided for a gas turbine. The blade comprises a main body comprising a cooling fluid entrance channel; a cooling fluid collector in communication with the cooling fluid entrance channel; a plurality of side channels extending through an outer wall of the main body and communicating with the cooling fluid collector and a cooling fluid cavity; a cooling fluid exit channel communicating with the cooling fluid cavity; and a plurality of exit bores extending from the cooling fluid exit channel through the main body outer wall.

  17. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  18. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  19. Variable cycle gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E.; Foster, T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A technique, method, and apparatus were designed for varying the bypass ratio and modulating the flow of a gas turbine engine in order to achieve improved mixed mission performance. Embodiments include gas flow control system for management of core and bypass stream pressure comprising diverter valve means downstream of the core engine to selectively mix or separate the core and bypass exhaust streams. The flow control system may also include variable geometry means for maintaining the engine inlet airflow at a matched design level at all flight velocities. Earth preferred embodiment thus may be converted from a high specific thrust mixed flow cycle at supersonic velocities to a lower specific thrust separated flow turbofan system at subsonic velocities with a high degree of flow variability in each mode of operation.

  20. Biomass externally fired gas turbine cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Eidensten, L.; Yan, J.; Svedberg, G.

    1996-07-01

    This paper is a presentation of a systematic study on externally fired gas turbine cogeneration fueled by biomass. The gas turbine is coupled in series with a biomass combustion furnace in which the gas turbine exhaust is used to support combustion. Three cogeneration systems have been simulated. They are systems without a gas turbine, with a non-top-fired gas turbine, and a top-fired gas turbine. For all systems, three types of combustion equipment have been selected: circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, grate fired steam boiler, and grate fired hot water boiler. The sizes of biomass furnaces have been chosen as 20 MW and 100 MW fuel inputs. The total efficiencies based on electricity plus process heat, electrical efficiencies, and the power-to-heat ratios for various alternatives have been calculated. For each of the cogeneration systems, part-load performance with varying biomass fuel input is presented. Systems with CFB boilers have a higher total efficiency and electrical efficiency than other systems when a top-fired gas turbine is added. However, the systems with grate fired steam boilers allow higher combustion temperature in the furnace than CFB boilers do. Therefore, a top combustor may not be needed when high temperature is already available. Only one low-grade fuel system is then needed and the gas turbine can operate with a very clean working medium.

  1. Method for detecting gas turbine engine flashback

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Kapil Kumar; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2012-09-04

    A method for monitoring and controlling a gas turbine, comprises predicting frequencies of combustion dynamics in a combustor using operating conditions of a gas turbine, receiving a signal from a sensor that is indicative of combustion dynamics in the combustor, and detecting a flashback if a frequency of the received signal does not correspond to the predicted frequencies.

  2. AGT-102 automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Development of a gas turbine powertrain with a 30% fuel economy improvement over a comparable S1 reciprocating engine, operation within 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.40 NOx grams per mile emissions levels, and ability to use a variety of alternate fuels is summarized. The powertrain concept consists of a single-shaft engine with a ceramic inner shell for containment of hot gasses and support of twin regenerators. It uses a fixed-geometry, lean, premixed, prevaporized combustor, and a ceramic radial turbine rotor supported by an air-lubricated journal bearing. The engine is coupled to the vehicle through a widerange continuously variable transmission, which utilizes gearing and a variable-ratio metal compression belt. A response assist flywheel is used to achieve acceptable levels of engine response. The package offers a 100 lb weight advantage in a Chrysler K Car front-wheel-drive installation. Initial layout studies, preliminary transient thermal analysis, ceramic inner housing structural analysis, and detailed performance analysis were carried out for the basic engine.

  3. Electrically charged small soot particles in the exhaust of an aircraft gas-turbine engine combustor: comparison of model and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A.; Arnold, F.

    The emission of electrically charged soot particles by an aircraft gas-turbine combustor is investigated using a theoretical model. Particular emphasis is placed on the influence of the fuel sulfur content (FSC). The model considers the production of primary "combustion" electrons and ions in the flame zone and their following interaction with molecular oxygen, sulfur-bearing molecules (e.g. O 2, SO 2, SO 3, etc.) and soot particles. The soot particle size distribution is approximated by two different populations of mono-dispersed large and small soot particles with diameters of 20-30 and 5-7 nm, respectively. The effect of thermal ionization of soot and its interaction with electrons and positive and negative ions is included in the model. The computed positive and negative chemiion (CI) concentrations at the combustor exit and relative fractions of small neutral and charged soot particles were found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The results show that the FSC indeed may influence the concentration of negative CI at low fuel flow into combustor. Importantly the simulation indicates a very efficient mutual interaction of electrons and ions with soot particles with a large effect on both ion and charged soot particle concentrations. This result may be interpreted as a possible indirect effect of FSC on the growth and size distribution of soot particles.

  4. Airfoil for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2011-01-18

    An airfoil is provided for a gas turbine comprising an outer structure comprising a first wall, an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced relative to the first wall such that a cooling gap is defined between at least portions of the first and second walls, and seal structure provided within the cooling gap between the first and second walls for separating the cooling gap into first and second cooling fluid impingement gaps. An inner surface of the second wall may define an inner cavity. The inner structure may further comprise a separating member for separating the inner cavity of the inner structure into a cooling fluid supply cavity and a cooling fluid collector cavity. The second wall may comprise at least one first impingement passage, at least one second impingement passage, and at least one bleed passage.

  5. Regenerator for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lewakowski, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A rotary disc-type counterflow regenerator for a gas turbine engine includes a disc-shaped ceramic core surrounded by a metal rim which carries a coaxial annular ring gear. Bonding of the metal rim to the ceramic core is accomplished by constructing the metal rim in three integral portions: a driving portion disposed adjacent the ceramic core which carries the ring gear, a bonding portion disposed further away from the ceramic core and which is bonded thereto by elastomeric pads, and a connecting portion connecting the bonding portion to the driving portion. The elastomeric pads are bonded to radially flexible mounts formed as part of the metal rim by circumferential slots in the transition portion and lateral slots extending from one end of the circumferential slots across the bonding portion of the rim.

  6. Modulated gas turbine cooling air

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, F.M.; Candelori, D.J.; Brooke, R.D.

    1993-07-06

    In an axial flow gas turbine engine in an aircraft, the engine having an annular flow of hot working fluid passing sequentially through a first bladed rotor stage, a vaned stator assembly having a plurality of hollow vanes, and a second bladed rotor stage; a flow resistant labyrinth seal comprised of an annular seal runner sealingly secured to the first and second rotor stages and a seal shroud surrounding and secured to the seal runner, forming a labyrinth flow passage therebetween; an upstream plenum in restricted fluid communication with the annular flow upstream of the vaned stator assembly and with the labyrinth flow passage; a downstream plenum in fluid communication with the labyrinth flow passage and in restricted flow communication with the annular flow downstream of the vaned stator assembly; a compressor; a conduit network connected to deliver a cooling airflow from the compressor to the upstream plenum, and a modulatable control valve means located in the conduit network, the method of operation comprising: measuring the temperature of gas passing through the labyrinth flow passage; sensing aircraft speed and comparing the sensed speed to a preselected air craft speed range; holding the valves open any item the sensed aircraft speed is less than the preselected aircraft speed range; and modulating he quantity of the cooling airflow in response to the measurement of the temperature of the gas passing through the labyrinth flow passage to keep the temperature at a substantially constant maximum value when the sensed aircraft speed is greater than the aircraft speed range.

  7. Desulfurization Of Gas-Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Ronald A.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur removed from nickel-base superalloy used to make gas-turbine blades by heating alloy and simultaneously subjecting it to sputtering by directed Ar(Sup+) ions from ion gun or from glow discharge. Reduction of sulfur content of superalloy by factor of 10 increases lifetime of turbine blade made of alloy by similar factor, because stability of protective surface oxide formed during operation of turbine increased.

  8. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  9. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

  10. The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

  11. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  12. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    York, William; Hughes, Michael; Berry, Jonathan; Russell, Tamara; Lau, Y. C.; Liu, Shan; Arnett, Michael; Peck, Arthur; Tralshawala, Nilesh; Weber, Joseph; Benjamin, Marc; Iduate, Michelle; Kittleson, Jacob; Garcia-Crespo, Andres; Delvaux, John; Casanova, Fernando; Lacy, Ben; Brzek, Brian; Wolfe, Chris; Palafox, Pepe; Ding, Ben; Badding, Bruce; McDuffie, Dwayne; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  13. Gas turbines for APFBC repowering applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.; Freier, M.D.; Weinstein, R.E.

    1999-07-01

    It is often difficult to repower an existing steam unit with a natural gas fired power turbine. This is because the gas turbine exhaust is generally too low in temperature to meet the superheat and reheat steam needs of existing steam turbines without making compromises that make less than effective use of existing equipment. However, advanced circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle (APFBC) technology has several features that make it an effective option for repowering. The main feature is that existing steam turbine superheat and reheat steam demand can be met by firing char and, if necessary, coal in the fluid bed combustor. The heat energy rejected from the gas turbine can then be used as a supplement to the steam generated in the fluid bed combustor. APFBC repowering significantly improves plant efficiency, environmental performance, and reduces operating costs. This paper describes APFBC-modifications of gas turbines, from several manufacturers that have potential for repowering existing steam plants with high efficiency APFBC technology. The paper discusses the issues that must be addressed by the gas turbine manufacturers for APFBC repowering service.

  14. Advanced bristle seals for gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabe, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    A seven month proof-of-concept program was conducted for an advanced bristle seal, called a bush seal, for use in gas turbine engines. This program was performed as a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 project. Bush seal specimen and a full ring bush seal were designed, evaluated, and manufactured for testing. An analytical study of the potential of the bush seal relative to a labyrinth seal was conducted. Static and dynamic testing of the bush seal was performed to determine the behavior of the bristles under pressurization and during contact with a rotating labyrinth tooth. Stable behavior of the bristle elements was observed during static pressurization of a full ring bush seal. The dynamic testing of various configurations of bush seal against a rotating labyrinth tooth showed minimal wear of the bristles relative to a conventional labyrinth seal. The development and application of the bush seal concept to gas turbine engines has the potential of improving the engine's performance while decreasing the degradation of the seal performance over time.

  15. Probabilistic Analysis of Gas Turbine Field Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, Rama S. R.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine thermodynamic cycle was computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of the several uncertainties in the performance parameters, which are indices of gas turbine health. Cumulative distribution functions and sensitivity factors were computed for the overall thermal efficiency and net specific power output due to the thermodynamic random variables. These results can be used to quickly identify the most critical design variables in order to optimize the design, enhance performance, increase system availability and make it cost effective. The analysis leads to the selection of the appropriate measurements to be used in the gas turbine health determination and to the identification of both the most critical measurements and parameters. Probabilistic analysis aims at unifying and improving the control and health monitoring of gas turbine aero-engines by increasing the quality and quantity of information available about the engine's health and performance.

  16. Gas turbine combustion and emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetter, B.

    The fundamentals of combustion are discussed in the context of gaseous and liquid fuels and gas turbine fuels. Methods for reducing the emission of pollutants in gas turbines are considered. These emissions are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, smoke/soot, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon dioxide. The focus is on nitrogen oxides. The general principles of combustor and burner design are considered: aero/can type combustors, silo combustors, and annular combustors. Premix and diffusion flames are discussed.

  17. Method and apparatus for preventing overspeed in a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Walker, William E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for preventing overspeed in a gas turbine in response to the rapid loss of applied load is disclosed. The method involves diverting gas from the inlet of the turbine, bypassing the same around the turbine and thereafter injecting the diverted gas at the turbine exit in a direction toward or opposing the flow of gas through the turbine. The injected gas is mixed with the gas exiting the turbine to thereby minimize the thermal shock upon equipment downstream of the turbine exit.

  18. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    PubMed

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware. PMID:17772808

  19. Gas turbine engines with particle traps

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.; Sumner, D. Warren; Sheoran, Yogendra; Judd, Z. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

  20. The marriage of gas turbines and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on developing gas turbine systems that can use coal or a coal-based fuel ensures that the United States will have cost-effective environmentally sound options for supplying future power generation needs. Power generation systems that marry coal or a coal-based fuel to a gas turbine Some matchmakers would consider this an unlikely marriage. Historically, most gas turbines have been operated only on premium fuels, primarily natural gas or distillate oil. The perceived problems from using coal or coal-based fuels in turbines are: Erosion and deposition: Coal ash particles in the hot combustion gases passing through the expander turbine could erode or deposit on the turbine blades. Corrosion: Coal combustion will release alkali compounds form the coal ash. Alkali in the hot gases passing through the expander turbine can cause corrosion of high-temperature metallic surfaces. Emissions: coal contains higher levels of ash, fuel-bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and trace contaminants than premium fuels. Meeting stringent environmental regulations for particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and trace contaminants will be difficult. Economics: Coal-based systems are expensive to build. The difference in price between coal and premium fuels must be large enough to justify the higher capital cost.

  1. Evaluation of airfoils for small wind turbines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new set of blades have been designed, fabricated, and tested at the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service-Conservation and Production Research Laboratory in Bushland, Texas in an attempt to improve the overall performance of small (1-10 kilowatt) wind turbines. The ...

  2. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kazuo

    1993-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} caused by the consumption of hydrocarbon fuel is one of the main gases which affect the global climate. In order to reduce the formation of CO{sub 2}, it is necessary to conserve energy as effectively as possible. Therefore the heat energy provided by the fuel should be utilized in multi-cascades. The energy at the high temperature should be used for the generation of electric power and the energy at low temperature could be used for making the steam and the hot water. The gas turbine is preferable for this purpose. The heat energy of exhaust gas can be reused more easily. The two systems are proposed by using the gas turbine as the high temperature stage. One is the cogeneration system and the other is the combined cycle. The former generates electric power by the gas turbine and make steam or hot water in the exhaust gas. The latter employs the gas turbine as the high temperature cycle and the steam turbine as the low temperature cycle.

  3. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  4. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  5. Optical Temperature Sensor For Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mossey, P. W.

    1987-01-01

    New design promises accuracy even in presence of contamination. Improved sensor developed to measure gas temperatures up to 1,700 degree C in gas-turbine engines. Sensor has conical shape for mechanical strengths and optical configuration insensitive to deposits of foreign matter on sides of cone.

  6. Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

  7. Corrosion and corrosion prevention in gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mom, A. J. A.; Kolkman, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions governing the corrosion behavior in gas turbines are surveyed. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, the presence of sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and fuel quality are discussed. Electromechanical corrosion at relatively low temperature in compressors; oxidation; and hot corrosion (sulfidation) at high temperature in turbines are considered. Corrosion prevention by washing and rinsing, fueld additives, and corrosion resistant materials and coatings are reviewed.

  8. The Trend of Future Gas Turbine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbomachinery system component research to advance the technology of aviation turbofan and turbojet engines is discussed. Areas of research include compressors, turbines, internal flow analysis, combustion, fuels, materials, structures, bearings, seals, lubrication, dynamics and controls, and instrumentation. A review of the research directions being taken in these areas and the steady advances being made provides a reasonable glimpse at gas turbine technology of the future.

  9. Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, Dean; Vargo, Stephen; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    A proposed microelectromechanical system (MEMS) containing a closed- Brayton-cycle turbine would serve as a prototype of electric-power generators for special applications in which high energy densities are required and in which, heretofore, batteries have been used. The system would have a volume of about 6 cm3 and would operate with a thermal efficiency >30 percent, generating up to 50 W of electrical power. The energy density of the proposed system would be about 10 times that of the best battery-based systems now available, and, as such, would be comparable to that of a fuel cell. The working gas for the turbine would be Xe containing small quantities of CO2, O2, and H2O as gaseous lubricants. The gas would be contained in an enclosed circulation system, within which the pressure would typically range between 5 and 50 atm (between 0.5 and 5 MPa). The heat for the Brayton cycle could be supplied by any of a number of sources, including a solar concentrator or a combustor burning a hydrocarbon or other fuel. The system would include novel heat-transfer and heat-management components. The turbine would be connected to an electric power generator/starter motor. The system would include a main rotor shaft with gas bearings; the bearing surfaces would be made of a ceramic material coated with nanocrystalline diamond. The shaft could withstand speed of 400,000 rpm or perhaps more, with bearing-wear rates less than 10(exp -)4 those of silicon bearings and 0.05 to 0.1 those of SiC bearings, and with a coefficient of friction about 0.1 that of Si or SiC bearings. The components of the system would be fabricated by a combination of (1) three-dimensional xray lithography and (2) highly precise injection molding of diamond-compatible metals and ceramic materials. The materials and fabrication techniques would be suitable for mass production. The disadvantages of the proposed system are that unlike a battery-based system, it could generate a perceptible amount of sound, and

  10. Assessment of steam-injected gas turbine systems and their potential application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results were arrived at by utilizing and expanding on information presented in the literature. The results were analyzed and compared with those for simple gas turbine and combined cycles for both utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. The efficiency and specific power of simple gas turbine cycles can be increased as much as 30 and 50 percent, respectively, by the injection of steam into the combustor. Steam-injected gas turbines appear to be economically competitive with both simple gas turbine and combined cycles for small, clean-fuel-fired utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. For large powerplants with integrated coal gasifiers, the economic advantages appear to be marginal.

  11. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  12. Gasification Evaluation of Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    2003-12-30

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for use in gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines of gases derived from biomass by pyrolysis or partial oxidation with air. Consideration was given to the use of mixtures of these gases with natural gas as a means of improving heating value and ensuring a steady gas supply. Gas from biomass, and mixtures with natural gas, were compared with natural gas reformates from low temperature partial oxidation or steam reforming. The properties of such reformates were based on computations of gas properties using the ChemCAD computational tools and energy inputs derived from known engine parameters. In general, the biomass derived fuels compare well with reformates, so far as can be judged without engine testing. Mild reforming has potential to produce a more uniform quality of fuel gas from very variable qualities of natural gas, and could possibly be applied to gas from biomass to eliminate organic gases and condensibles other than methane.

  13. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  14. Thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Levine, S. R.; Stecura, S.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in gas turbine performance are approaching the limits imposed by alloy properties and excessive cooling air requirements. Thin ceramic coatings can increase the difference between gas temperature and metal temperature by several hundred degrees. Thus, they are potentially a major step forward in surface protection. These coatings offer the potential to reduce fuel consumption by permitting reduced coolant flow or higher turbine inlet temperature or to improve durability by reducing metal temperatures and transient thermal stresses. At NASA Lewis, in-house and contractual programs are in place to bring this promising technology to engine readiness in the early 1980's. Progress towards this goal is summarized in this paper.

  15. Emissions control for ground power gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudney, R. A.; Priem, R. J.; Juhasz, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Mroz, T. S.; Mularz, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    The similarities and differences of emissions reduction technology for aircraft and ground power gas turbines is described. The capability of this technology to reduce ground power emissions to meet existing and proposed emissions standards is presented and discussed. Those areas where the developing aircraft gas turbine technology may have direct application to ground power and those areas where the needed technology may be unique to the ground power mission are pointed out. Emissions reduction technology varying from simple combustor modifications to the use of advanced combustor concepts, such as catalysis, is described and discussed.

  16. Combustion research for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Claus, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Research on combustion is being conducted at Lewis Research Center to provide improved analytical models of the complex flow and chemical reaction processes which occur in the combustor of gas turbine engines and other aeropropulsion systems. The objective of the research is to obtain a better understanding of the various physical processes that occur in the gas turbine combustor in order to develop models and numerical codes which can accurately describe these processes. Activities include in-house research projects, university grants, and industry contracts and are classified under the subject areas of advanced numerics, fuel sprays, fluid mixing, and radiation-chemistry. Results are high-lighted from several projects.

  17. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  18. Small Gas Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    Instructional materials are provided for a small gas engine course. A list of objectives appears first, followed by a list of internal parts and skills/competencies related to those parts for engine work, ignition and electrical systems, fuel system, crankcase lubrication system, arc welding skills, and gas welding skills. Outlines are provided…

  19. Airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-12-21

    An airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine is provided. The airfoil comprises a main body comprising a wall structure defining an inner cavity adapted to receive a cooling air. The wall structure includes a first diffusion region and at least one first metering opening extending from the inner cavity to the first diffusion region. The wall structure further comprises at least one cooling circuit comprising a second diffusion region and at least one second metering opening extending from the first diffusion region to the second diffusion region. The at least one cooling circuit may further comprise at least one third metering opening, at least one third diffusion region and a fourth diffusion region.

  20. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  1. Integrated gas turbine engine-nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, A. P.; Sargisson, D. F.; Stotler, C. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A nacelle for use with a gas turbine engine is presented. An integral webbed structure resembling a spoked wheel for rigidly interconnecting the nacelle and engine, provides lightweight support. The inner surface of the nacelle defines the outer limits of the engine motive fluid flow annulus while the outer surface of the nacelle defines a streamlined envelope for the engine.

  2. Mixer Assembly for a Gas Turbine Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor); Smith, Lance L. (Inventor); Hautman, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer with fuel injection holes located between at least one radial swirler and at least one axial swirler, wherein the fuel injected into the main mixer is atomized and dispersed by the air flowing through the radial swirler and the axial swirler.

  3. Gas turbine combustion chamber with air scoops

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, S.E.; Smed, J.P.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes a gas turbine combustion chamber. It comprises: means for admission of fuel to the upstream end thereof and discharge of hot gases from the downstream end thereof, and a combustion chamber wall, having an outer surface, with apertures therethrough, and air scoops provided through the apertures to direct air into the combustion chamber.

  4. Can advanced gas turbines meet all demands

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    1993-07-01

    This article examines the wisdom of the power industry's reliance on the gas turbine for satisfying all demands placed on today's power plants, including lowering NO[sub x] emissions. The topics of the article include the price of environmentalism, durability and reliability problems, performance impacts of achieving low NO[sub x] emissions, balance of plant problems and fuel issues.

  5. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Opila, Elizabeth; Nickel, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Over the past forty years, a wealth of information on the behavior of ceramic materials in heat engine environments has been obtained. In the first part of the talk we summarize the behavior of monolithic SiC and Si3N4. These materials show excellent baseline behavior in clean, oxygen environments. However the aggressive components in a heat engine environment such as water vapor and salt deposits can be quite degrading. In the second part of the talk we discuss SiC-based composites. The critical issue with these materials is oxidation of the fiber coating. We conclude with a brief discussion of future directions in ceramic corrosion research.

  6. Small axial turbine stator technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, W.; Kozak, A.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of surface finish, fillet radius, inlet boundary layer thickness, and free-stream inlet turbulence level on the aerodynamic performance of a small axial flow turbine stator. The principal objective of this program was to help understand why large turbine efficiency is not maintained when a large turbine is scaled to a smaller size. The stator used in this program as a one-sixth scale of a 762 mm (30 in.) diameter stator design with 50 vanes having a vane height of 17 mm (0.666 in.) and an aspect ratio of 1.77. A comprehensive overall test matrix was used to provide a complete engineering understanding of the effects of each variable over the full range of all the other variables. The range of each variable investigated was as follows: surface finish 0.1 micro (4 micro in.) to 2.4 micro (95 micro in.); boundary layer thickness 2 to 25 percent of channel height at each wall; fillet radius 0 mm (0 in.) to 1.0 mm (.040 in.) and turbulence 2 to 12 percent.

  7. New versions of gas turbine being shipped

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-15

    Redesigned versions of a popular gas turbine have recently been ordered for a US and an Italian company. ARCO Alaska Inc., Anchorage, and Bioelettrica S.p.A., Pisa, have each ordered uprated versions of Nuovo Pignone`s PGT 10 gas turbine, designated as PGT 10B. Nuovo Pignone says power output has been increased 10% to 11.6 mw in a design intended for industrial, cogeneration, and utility applications. The PGT 10B is also now available in a single-shaft version, whereas previously it had been available only as a two-shaft machine. ARCO Alaska`s order is for a two-shaft version for electric-power generation. It will be fueled primarily by natural gas but can burn a light liquid fuel. In addition, ARCO Alaska ordered a 26.3-mw MS5001 turbogenerator, a centrifugal compressor driven by a 38,000-hp MS5002 gas turbine, and a centrifugal compressor driven by an electric motor. As its primary fuel, the PGT 10B will use low-heat-value gas obtained from the gasification of biomass. Natural gas will be the start-up and backup fuel.

  8. Gas turbine engine with recirculating bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, A. P. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in a gas turbine engine are reduced by bleeding hot air from the engine cycle and introducing it back into the engine upstream of the bleed location and upstream of the combustor inlet. As this hot inlet air is recycled, the combustor inlet temperature rises rapidly at a constant engine thrust level. In most combustors, this will reduce carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions significantly. The preferred locations for hot air extraction are at the compressor discharge or from within the turbine, whereas the preferred reentry location is at the compressor inlet.

  9. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Kaufeld, J.; Kordes, R.

    1981-01-01

    A 74.5 kW(100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine engine is described. A design iteration to improve the weight and production cost associated with the original concept is discussed. Major rig tests included 15 hours of compressor testing to 80% design speed and the results are presented. Approximately 150 hours of cold flow testing showed duct loss to be less than the design goal. Combustor test results are presented for initial checkout tests. Turbine design and rig fabrication is discussed. From a materials study of six methods to fabricate rotors, two have been selected for further effort. A discussion of all six methods is given.

  10. Gas turbine engine and composite parts

    SciTech Connect

    Prewo, K.M.; Brennan, J.J.

    1988-04-19

    A gas turbine engine core engine component blade, vane, disk, side plate, seal, combustor liner, flap, burner case structure, or turbine case structure, is described comprising a silicon carbide fiber reinforced glass composite consisting essentially of about 30% to about 70% by volume silicon carbide fibers in a glass matrix selected from the group consisting of borosilicate glass, high silica content glass, aluminosilicate glass and mixtures thereof, the composite having a fracture toughness exemplified by a critical stress intensity factor above about 15,000 psi (inch)/sup 1/2/, high temperature strength, high temperature oxidation stability and insulating properties.

  11. Optical systems for gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrigley, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a turbine-blade pyrometer transducer for in situ measurements of blade temperature in operating gas-turbine engines are described and illustrated with diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Consideration is given to the primary components (optical probe, fiber-optic cable, and electronics), the operating environment (extreme temperatures and pressures, vibration, EMI, and liquids), the design specifications, and specific fabrication techniques. It is pointed out that electrooptic transducers of this type reduce the measurement error to + or - 10 C, and that the same sensors can be used to measure blade-tip clearance and shaft speed or to detect flame-out.

  12. Micro-combustor for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Scott M.

    2010-11-30

    An improved gas turbine combustor (20) including a basket (26) and a multiplicity of micro openings (29) arrayed across an inlet wall (27) for passage of a fuel/air mixture for ignition within the combustor. The openings preferably have a diameter on the order of the quenching diameter; i.e. the port diameter for which the flame is self-extinguishing, which is a function of the fuel mixture, temperature and pressure. The basket may have a curved rectangular shape that approximates the shape of the curved rectangular shape of the intake manifolds of the turbine.

  13. Small-scale modular wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressers, Scott; Vernier, Chris; Regan, Jess; Chappell, Stephen; Hotze, Mark; Luhman, Stephen; Avirovik, Dragan; Priya, Shashank

    2010-04-01

    This study reports the design, fabrication, and implementation of a horizontal-axis, small-scale modular wind turbine termed as "small-scale wind energy portable turbine (SWEPT)". Portability, efficient operation at low wind speeds, and cost-effectiveness were the primary goals of SWEPT. The fabrication and component design for SWEPT are provided along with the modifications that can provide improvement in performance. A comparative analysis is presented with the prototype reported in literature. The results show that current version of SWEPT leads to 150% increase in output power. It was found that SWEPT can generate 160 mW power at rated wind speed of 7 mph and 500mW power at wind speeds above 10 mph with a cut-in wind speed of 3.8 mph. Furthermore, the prototype was subjected to field testing in which the average output was measured to be 40 mW despite the average wind distribution being centered around 3 mph.

  14. Casing for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J.; Little, David A.; Charron, Richard C.

    2016-07-12

    A casing for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a compressed air section (40) spanning between a last row of compressor blades (26) and a first row of turbine blades (28), the compressed air section (40) having a plurality of openings (50) there through, wherein a single combustor/advanced duct assembly (64) extends through each opening (50); and one top hat (68) associated with each opening (50) configured to enclose the associated combustor/advanced duct assembly (64) and seal the opening (50). A volume enclosed by the compressed air section (40) is not greater than a volume of a frustum (54) defined at an upstream end (56) by an inner diameter of the casing at the last row of compressor blades (26) and at a downstream end (60) by an inner diameter of the casing at the first row of turbine blades (28).

  15. Advanced liner-cooling techniques for gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Component research for advanced small gas turbine engines is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. As part of this program, a basic reverse-flow combustor geometry was being maintained while different advanced liner wall cooling techniques were investigated. Performance and liner cooling effectiveness of the experimental combustor configuration featuring counter-flow film-cooled panels is presented and compared with two previously reported combustors featuring: splash film-cooled liner walls; and transpiration cooled liner walls (Lamilloy).

  16. Final Report - Certifying the Performance of Small Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, Larry

    2015-08-28

    The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) created a successful accredited certification program for small and medium wind turbines using the funding from this grant. SWCC certifies small turbines (200 square meters of swept area or less) to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard (AWEA Standard 9.1 – 2009). SWCC also certifies medium wind turbines to the International Electrical Commission (IEC) Power Performance Standard (IEC 61400-12-1) and Acoustic Performance Standard (IEC 61400-11).

  17. An introduction to the small wind turbine project

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, T.L.

    1997-07-01

    Small wind turbines are typically used for the remote or rural areas of the world including: a village in Chile; a cabin dweller in the U.S.; a farmer who wants to water his crop; or a utility company that wants to use distributed generation to help defer building new transmission lines and distribution facilities. Small wind turbines can be used for powering communities, businesses, homes, and miscellaneous equipment to support unattended operation. This paper covers the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Small Wind Turbine project, its specifications, its applications, the subcontractors and their small wind turbines concepts. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Dual entry radial turbine gas generator

    SciTech Connect

    Mowill, R.J.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes a high efficiency, single spool gas turbine gas generator comprising: (a) compressor means for providing an overall pressure ratio of greater than about 15:1, the compressor means including: (i) a first stage, double-entry centrifugal air compressor having a pair of entrances and a common exit, (ii) a second stage, centrifugal air compressor positioned adjacent to the first stage compressor, the second compressor stage having an entrance that is flow-connected to the first stage common exit and also having a second stage exit, and (iii) a shaft assembly for mechanically interconnecting the first and the second stage for rotation at the same angular speed; (b) combustor means operatively connected to the second stage exit for receiving the compressed air and combusting fuel using the compressed air to generate combustion gases; and (c) a single stage radial inflow turbine having an inlet and an outlet, the turbine being operatively connected directly to the shaft assembly drive and also being flow connected to the combustor means for receiving at the turbine inlet, and partially expanding, the combustion gases.

  19. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in the series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Standard Oil Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1985 through June 30, 1986. Technical progress during the reported period was highlighted by the 85-hour endurance run of an all-ceramic engine operating in the 2000 to 2250 F temperature regime. Component development continued in the areas of the combustion/fuel injection system, regenerator and seals system, and ceramic turbine rotor attachment design. Component rig testing saw further refinements. Ceramic materials showed continued improvements in required properties for gas turbine applications; however, continued development is needed before performance and reliability goals can be set.

  20. Detonation wave compression in gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the concept of augmenting the performance of low pressure ratio gas turbines by detonation wave compression of part of the flow. The concept exploits the constant volume heat release of detonation waves to increase the efficiency of the Brayton cycle. In the models studied, a fraction of the compressor output was channeled into detonation ducts where it was processed by transient transverse detonation waves. Gas dynamic studies determined the maximum cycling frequency of detonation ducts, proved that upstream propagation of pressure pulses represented no problems and determined the variations of detonation duct output with time. Mixing and wave compression were used to recombine the combustor and detonation duct flows and a concept for a spiral collector to further smooth the pressure and temperature pulses was presented as an optional component. The best performance was obtained with a single firing of the ducts so that the flow could be re-established before the next detonation was initiated. At the optimum conditions of maximum frequency of the detonation ducts, the gas turbine efficiency was found to be 45 percent while that of a corresponding pressure ratio 5 conventional gas turbine was only 26%. Comparable improvements in specific fuel consumption data were found for gas turbines operating as jet engines, turbofans, and shaft output machines. Direct use of the detonation duct output for jet propulsion proved unsatisfactory. Careful analysis of the models of the fluid flow phenomena led to the conclusion that even more elaborate calculations would not diminish the uncertainties in the analysis of the system. Feasibility of the concept to work as an engine now requires validation in an engineering laboratory experiment.

  1. BIOMASS-FUELED, SMALL-SCALE, INTEGRATED-GASIFIER, GAS-TURBINE POWER PLANT: PROGRESS REPORT ON THE PHASE 2 DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports the latest efforts to complete development of Phase 2 of a three-phase effort to develop a family of small-scale (1 to 20 MWe) biomass-fueled power plants. The concept envisioned is an air-blown pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier followed by a dry hot gas clean...

  2. Characterisation of a small viscous flow turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Lemma, E.; Deam, R.T.; Toncich, D.; Collins, R.

    2008-10-15

    The result of experimental and numerical study that was undertaken to determine the performance characteristics of viscous flow turbines is presented. It is anticipated that these devices may find use in applications such as small power sources for electronic appliances and micro-combined heat and power applications. In the numerical work that was carried out to broaden the experimental results, commercial CFD solver Fluent 6.2 was used while accompanying software, Gambit 3.2, was used for performing the necessary pre-processing. The results of the experimental study indicate that the adiabatic efficiency of these machines is around 25%. The main reasons for the low efficiency have been identified to be, parasitic losses in the bearing, viscous losses in the end walls, and other dissipative losses in the plenum chamber that also significantly contribute to the low efficiencies of these devices. If these parasitic losses can be minimised the turbine could potentially operate with an adiabatic expansion efficiency close to the theoretical limit of around 40%. (author)

  3. Endwall Treatment and Method for Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, Michael D. (Inventor); Strazisar, Anthony J. (Inventor); Suder, Kenneth L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An endwall treatment for a gas turbine engine having at least one rotor blade extending from a rotatable hub and a casing circumferentially surrounding the rotor and the hub, the endwall treatment including, an inlet formed in an endwall of the gas turbine engine adapted to ingest fluid from a region of a higher-pressure fluid, an outlet formed in the endwall and located in a region of lower pressure than the inlet, wherein the inlet and the outlet are in a fluid communication with each other, the outlet being adapted to inject the fluid from the inlet in the region of lower pressure, and wherein the outlet is at least partially circumferentially offset relative to the inlet.

  4. Regenerative system for a gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, W.

    1987-04-28

    A regenerative system is described for a gas turbine, wherein the turbine has a single shaft on which are mounted a compressor section and a work section, comprising: an air heater mounted adjacent the exit of the work section, the hot exit gas and pressurized air passing through passages formed in the air heater; combustor housings surrounding the compressor section, each containing a combustor mounted within it and extending coaxially thereof, each combustor having a transition section extending to the entrance to the work section; an annular connector housing extending between the combustor housing and the exit of the compressor section to carry the compressed air radially; an outer duct leading from the connector housing to one end of the air heater; and an inner duct attached to the other end of the air heater.

  5. Large eddy simulation applications in gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kevin

    2009-07-28

    The gas turbine presents significant challenges to any computational fluid dynamics techniques. The combination of a wide range of flow phenomena with complex geometry is difficult to model in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers. We review the potential for large eddy simulation (LES) in modelling the flow in the different components of the gas turbine during a practical engineering design cycle. We show that while LES has demonstrated considerable promise for reliable prediction of many flows in the engine that are difficult for RANS it is not a panacea and considerable application challenges remain. However, for many flows, especially those dominated by shear layer mixing such as in combustion chambers and exhausts, LES has demonstrated a clear superiority over RANS for moderately complex geometries although at significantly higher cost which will remain an issue in making the calculations relevant within the design cycle. PMID:19531505

  6. An overview of aerospace gas turbine technology of relevance to the development of the automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. G.; Miller, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Technology areas related to gas turbine propulsion systems with potential for application to the automotive gas turbine engine are discussed. Areas included are: system steady-state and transient performance prediction techniques, compressor and turbine design and performance prediction programs and effects of geometry, combustor technology and advanced concepts, and ceramic coatings and materials technology.

  7. Integrated gas turbine engine-nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, A. P.; Sargisson, D. F.; Stotler, C. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A nacelle for use with a gas turbine engine is provided with an integral webbed structure resembling a spoked wheel for rigidly interconnecting the nacelle and engine. The nacelle is entirely supported in its spacial relationship with the engine by means of the webbed structure. The inner surface of the nacelle defines the outer limits of the engine motive fluid flow annulus, while the outer surface of the nacelle defines a streamlined envelope for the engine.

  8. Flameholder for gas turbine engine afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, E.C.; Gulati, A.

    1992-07-14

    This patent describes a flameholder for reducing screech in gas turbine engines. It comprises: an elongated V-shaped member having a pair of opposing elongated walls joined at one end and diverging to respective trailing edges, the apex of the elongated V-shaped member facing upstream; and a plurality of vortex creating members extending from each of the trailing edges in a downstream direction.

  9. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  10. Control for a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.J.

    1992-08-04

    This patent describes a gas turbine engine having fuel metering means for delivering fuel to the engine and including means for controlling the fuel metering means including speed control means and slave-datum control responsive to a speed request signal and limit signal for limiting the fuel metering means for producing a signal that is integrated with respect to time for controlling the speed control means, and slave-datum limit control means for further limiting the slave-datum control so that its output is indicative of the maximum or minimum constraints of the engine during the engine's acceleration and deceleration modes of operation whereby the windup effect on the speed control means is eliminated, the output produced by the slave datum limit control means is a function of the formula: ((maximum constraint) [minus] (KOP [times] 'slave-datum'))/KP + speed feedback, where: maximum constraint is the surge limit of the gas turbine engine. KOP [times] 'slave-datum' is the scheduled engine operating point required for steady state engine operation, KP is the proportional gain of an engine governor, KIP is the slope of an engine operating line and speed feedback is indicative of the rotational speed of the gas turbine engine.

  11. Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  12. Smart design selftuning piezoelectric energy harvester intended for gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staaf, L. G. H.; Köhler, E.; Soeiro, M.; Lundgren, P.; Enoksson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting on a gas turbine implies constraints like high temperature tolerance, size limitation and a particular range of vibrations to utilise. In order to be able to operate under these conditions a harvester needs to be small and efficient and to respond to the appropriate range of frequencies. We present the design, simulation and measurements for a clamped-clamped coupled piezoelectric harvester with a free-sliding weight which adds self-tuning for improved response within the range of vibrations from the gas tufbine. We show a peak open circuit voltage of 11.7 V and a 3dB bandwidth of 12 Hz.

  13. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine was evaluated. The engine structure, bearings, oil system, and electronics were demonstrated and no shaft dynamics or other vibration problem were encountered. Areas identified during the five tests are the scroll retention features, and transient thermal deflection of turbine backplates. Modifications were designed. Seroll retention is addressed by modifying the seal arrangement in front of the gasifier turbine assembly, which will increase the pressure load on the scroll in the forward direction and thereby increase the retention forces. the backplate thermal deflection is addressed by geometric changes and thermal insulation to reduce heat input. Combustor rig proof testing of two ceramic combustor assemblies was completed. The combustor was modified to incorporate slots and reduce sharp edges, which should reduce thermal stresses. The development work focused on techniques to sinter these barrier materials onto the ceramic rotors with successes for both material systems. Silicon carbide structural parts, including engine configuration gasifier rotors (ECRs), preliminary gasifier scroll parts, and gasifier and power turbine vanes are fabricated.

  14. Brayton cycle solarized advanced gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Described is the development of a Brayton Engine/Generator Set for solar thermal to electrical power conversion, authorized under DOE/NASA Contract DEN3-181. The objective was to design, fabricate, assemble, and test a small, hybrid, 20-kW Brayton-engine-powered generator set. The latter, called a power conversion assembly (PCA), is designed to operate with solar energy obtained from a parobolic dish concentrator, 11 meters in diameter, or with fossil energy supplied by burning fuels in a combustor, or by a combination of both (hybrid model). The CPA consists of the Brayton cycle engine, a solar collector, a belt-driven 20-kW generator, and the necessary control systems for automatic operation in solar-only, fuel-only, and hybrid modes to supply electrical power to a utility grid. The original configuration of the generator set used the GTEC Model GTP36-51 gas turbine engine for the PCA prime mover. However, subsequent development of the GTEC Model AGT101 led to its selection as the powersource for the PCA. Performance characteristics of the latter, thermally coupled to a solar collector for operation in the solar mode, are presented. The PCA was successfully demonstrated in the fuel-only mode at the GTEC Phoenix, Arizona, facilities prior to its shipment to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for installation and testing on a test bed concentractor (parabolic dish). Considerations relative to Brayton-engine development using the all-ceramic AGT101 when it becomes available, which would satisfy the DOE heat engine efficiency goal of 35 to 41 percent, are also discussed in the report.

  15. Gas turbine engine with supersonic compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.

    2015-10-20

    A gas turbine engine having a compressor section using blades on a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes one or more of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions for deceleration of the gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure gas to combustors. The aerodynamic ducts include structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of two to one (2:1) or more, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  16. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  17. The use of small advanced turbine units in distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    There is a tremendous future for the application of small- and medium-sized advanced gas turbine systems in the world markets. Modern, industrialized countries; developing countries like China and the former republics of the Soviet Union; as well as island-based economies, such as those in Southeast Asia -- Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia--will be able to realize the economic advantages and environmental benefits of what is now becoming known as {open_quotes}distributed resources{close_quotes}. I am more convinced of this opinion after delivering s similar speech and conversing with conferees at POWER-GEN Asia 1995 held in Singapore in late September of this year; and discussing the subject with a high level delegation from China that visited the Energy Commission in early October. The interest, at least amongst this small group of people was nothing short of a market researcher`s dream. While my focus today is on small turbines, we should realize that when these advanced, clean units become commercially available, perhaps as early as four or five years from now, other distributed generation resources such as solar photovoltaic, and fuel cells, will become competitors at the distribution level of electrical service.

  18. Thermal stresses investigation of a gas turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowreesh, S.; Pravin, V. K.; Rajagopal, K.; Veena, P. H.

    2012-06-01

    The analysis of structural and thermal stress values that are produced while the turbine is operating are the key factors of study while designing the next generation gas turbines. The present study examines structural, thermal, modal analysis of the first stage rotor blade of a two stage gas turbine. The design features of the turbine segment of the gas turbine have been taken from the preliminary design of a power turbine for maximization of an existing turbojet engine with optimized dump gap of the combustion chamber, since the allowable temperature on the turbine blade dependents on the hot gas temperatures from the combustion chamber. In the present paper simplified 3-D Finite Element models are developed with governing boundary conditions and solved using the commercial FEA software ANSYS. As the temperature has a significant effect on the overall stress on the rotor blades, a detail study on mechanical and thermal stresses are estimated and evaluated with the experimental values.

  19. Combustor development for automotive gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, P. T.; Williams, J. R.; Anderson, D. N.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a combustion system for the AGT 100 automotive gas turbine engine is described. A maximum turbine inlet temperature of 1288 C is reached during the regenerative cycle, and air up to 1024 C is supplied to the combustor inlet. A premix/prevaporization ceramic combustor employing variable geometry to control burning zone temperature was developed and tested. Tests on both metal and ceramic combustors showed that emissions were a function of burner inlet temperature (BIT). At 999 C BIT, NO(x) emissions were two orders of magnitude below program goals, and at the same temperature but at a different variable geometry position, the CO was 30 times below program goal. Tests to evaluate the durability of the ceramic materials showed no failures during steady-state operation; however, some cracks developed in the dome during extended transient operation.

  20. Introducing the VRT gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melconian, Jerry O.; Mostafa, Abdu A.; Nguyen, Hung Lee

    1990-01-01

    An innovative annular combustor configuration is being developed for aircraft and other gas turbine engines. This design has the potential of permitting higher turbine inlet temperatures by reducing the pattern factor and providing a major reduction in NO(x) emission. The design concept is based on a Variable Residence Time (VRT) technique which allows large fuel particles adequate time to completely burn in the circumferentially mixed primary zone. High durability of the combustor is achieved by dual function use of the incoming air. The feasibility of the concept was demonstrated by water analogue tests and 3-D computer modeling. The computer model predicted a 50 percent reduction in pattern factor when compared to a state of the art conventional combustor. The VRT combustor uses only half the number of fuel nozzles of the conventional configuration. The results of the chemical kinetics model require further investigation, as the NO(x) predictions did not correlate with the available experimental and analytical data base.

  1. Introducing the VRT gas turbine combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melconian, Jerry O.; Mostafa, Abdu A.; Nguyen, Hung Lee

    1990-07-01

    An innovative annular combustor configuration is being developed for aircraft and other gas turbine engines. This design has the potential of permitting higher turbine inlet temperatures by reducing the pattern factor and providing a major reduction in NO(x) emission. The design concept is based on a Variable Residence Time (VRT) technique which allows large fuel particles adequate time to completely burn in the circumferentially mixed primary zone. High durability of the combustor is achieved by dual function use of the incoming air. The feasibility of the concept was demonstrated by water analogue tests and 3-D computer modeling. The computer model predicted a 50 percent reduction in pattern factor when compared to a state of the art conventional combustor. The VRT combustor uses only half the number of fuel nozzles of the conventional configuration. The results of the chemical kinetics model require further investigation, as the NO(x) predictions did not correlate with the available experimental and analytical data base.

  2. High temperature heat exchanger studies for applications to gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, June Kee; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Ha, Man Yeong; Kim, Kui Soon

    2009-12-01

    Growing demand for environmentally friendly aero gas-turbine engines with lower emissions and improved specific fuel consumption can be met by incorporating heat exchangers into gas turbines. Relevant researches in such areas as the design of a heat exchanger matrix, materials selection, manufacturing technology, and optimization by a variety of researchers have been reviewed in this paper. Based on results reported in previous studies, potential heat exchanger designs for an aero gas turbine recuperator, intercooler, and cooling-air cooler are suggested.

  3. Fatigue Reliability of Gas Turbine Engine Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, Thomas A.; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Tryon, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    The results of an investigation are described for fatigue reliability in engine structures. The description consists of two parts. Part 1 is for method development. Part 2 is a specific case study. In Part 1, the essential concepts and practical approaches to damage tolerance design in the gas turbine industry are summarized. These have evolved over the years in response to flight safety certification requirements. The effect of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods on these methods is also reviewed. Assessment methods based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, with regard to both crack initiation and crack growth, are outlined. Limit state modeling techniques from structural reliability theory are shown to be appropriate for application to this problem, for both individual failure mode and system-level assessment. In Part 2, the results of a case study for the high pressure turbine of a turboprop engine are described. The response surface approach is used to construct a fatigue performance function. This performance function is used with the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) to determine the probability of failure and the sensitivity of the fatigue life to the engine parameters for the first stage disk rim of the two stage turbine. A hybrid combination of regression and Monte Carlo simulation is to use incorporate time dependent random variables. System reliability is used to determine the system probability of failure, and the sensitivity of the system fatigue life to the engine parameters of the high pressure turbine. 'ne variation in the primary hot gas and secondary cooling air, the uncertainty of the complex mission loading, and the scatter in the material data are considered.

  4. Liquid-cooling technology for gas turbines review and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.; Stepka, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of research related to liquid cooling of gas turbines was conducted and an assessment of the state of the art was made. Various methods of liquid cooling turbines were reviewed. Examples and results with test and demonstrator turbines utilizing these methods along with the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed.

  5. Thermal analysis of a simple-cycle gas turbine in biogas power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yomogida, D.E.; Thinh, Ngo Dinh

    1995-09-01

    This paper investigates the technical feasibility of utilizing small simple-cycle gas turbines (25 kW to 125 kW) for biogas power generation through thermal analysis. A computer code, GTPower, was developed to evaluate the performance of small simple-cycle gas turbines specifically for biogas combustion. The 125 KW Solar Gas Turbine (Tital series) has been selected as the base case gas turbine for biogas combustion. After its design parameters and typical operating conditions were entered into GTPower for analysis, GTPower outputted expected values for the thermal efficiency and specific work. For a sensitivity analysis, the GTPower Model outputted the thermal efficiency and specific work. For a sensitivity analysis, the GTPower Model outputted the thermal efficiency and specific work profiles for various operating conditions encountered in biogas combustion. These results will assist future research projects in determining the type of combustion device most suitable for biogas power generation.

  6. Demonstration of Enabling Spar-Shell Cooling Technology in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, James

    2014-12-29

    In this Advanced Turbine Program-funded Phase III project, Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. (FTT) has developed and tested, at a pre-commercial prototypescale, spar-shell turbine airfoils in a commercial gas turbine. The airfoil development is based upon FTT’s research and development to date in Phases I and II of Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grants. During this program, FTT has partnered with an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), Siemens Energy, to produce sparshell turbine components for the first pre-commercial prototype test in an F-Class industrial gas turbine engine and has successfully completed validation testing. This project will further the commercialization of this new technology in F-frame and other highly cooled turbine airfoil applications. FTT, in cooperation with Siemens, intends to offer the spar-shell vane as a first-tier supplier for retrofit applications and new large frame industrial gas turbines. The market for the spar-shell vane for these machines is huge. According to Forecast International, 3,211 new gas turbines units (in the >50MW capacity size range) will be ordered in ten years from 2007 to 2016. FTT intends to enter the market in a low rate initial production. After one year of successful extended use, FTT will quickly ramp up production and sales, with a target to capture 1% of the market within the first year and 10% within 5 years (2020).

  7. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  8. Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, and a propulsor that is coupled to be driven by the turbine through the spool. A gear assembly is coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extends from the hub. The row includes no more than 20 of the propulsor blades.

  9. Functionally graded mullite coatings for gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Tushar

    The next generation of heat exchangers and gas turbines require high performance materials as they need to operate at higher temperatures for higher efficiency. SiC and Si3N4 are promising candidates as they have excellent high temperature properties. However, when used in complex combustion environments found in gas-turbine applications, these materials have two major concerns; namely hot-corrosion and recession. It is well established that environmental barrier coatings (EBC) can be utilized to overcome these limitations. Although chemical vapor deposited (CVD) mullite (3Al2O 3.2SiO2) coatings developed before this study have shown promise in protecting Si-based substrates, there is concern that the silica content within the mullite coating itself might be susceptible to hot-corrosion and recession during long term exposure to corrosive atmospheres containing Na/V salts and water vapor. There is thus strong motivation to substantially reduce or even virtually eliminate the silica component from the surfaces of mullite coatings that are in direct contact with atmospheres containing corrosive oxides and steam. In this study, CVD has been used to deposit mullite coatings with potential promise to protect Si-based ceramics for high temperature applications. The composition of these functionally graded mullite coatings was varied from silica-rich close to the coating/substrate (SiC) interface for coefficient of thermal expansion match to alumina-rich towards the outer surface of the coating. In the process, the highest alumina-rich mullite ever reported has been deposited. The phase transformation and hot-corrosion behavior of the coatings was also investigated in this work. The coatings show immense potential to protect Si-based ceramics. It is expected that these coatings will have very broad impact by enabling gas turbines to operate at higher temperatures leading to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions.

  10. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (CGT302)

    SciTech Connect

    Takehara, I.; Inobe, I.; Tatsumi, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kobayashi, H.

    1998-01-01

    The ongoing Japanese Ceramic Gas Turbine (CGT) project, as a part of the New Sunshine Project funded by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), aims to achieve higher efficiency, lower pollutant emission, and multifuel capability for small to medium sized gas turbine engines to be used in cogeneration systems. The final target of this project is to achieve a thermal efficiency over 42% at a turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of 1350 C. Under this project, Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) is developing the CGT302 (a regenerative twin-spool CGT). The CGT302 has several unique features: simple-shaped ceramic components, KHI`s original binding system for turbine nozzle segments, stress-free structure using ceramic springs and rings, etc. In addition to these features, a high turbine tip speed and a metal plate fin recuperator were adopted. At the end of the fiscal year 1994, an intermediate appraisal was carried out, and the CGT302 was recognized to have successfully achieved its target. The CGT302 endurance test at the intermediate stage required 20 hours` operation of the basic ceramic engine. The actual testing accomplished 40 hours at over 1200 C TIT, which included 30 hours of operation without disassembling. The target thermal efficiency of 30% at 1200 C has almost been reached, 29.2% having been achieved. In 1995 the CGT302 successfully recorded 33.1% at 1190 C of TIT with no trouble. The authors will introduce the current status of R and D of the CGT302 and its unique features in this paper.

  11. Heterogeneous reactions in aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Lukachko, S. P.; Waitz, I. A.

    2002-05-01

    One-dimensional flow models and unity probability heterogeneous rate parameters are used to estimate the maximum effect of heterogeneous reactions on trace species evolution in aircraft gas turbines. The analysis includes reactions on soot particulates and turbine/nozzle material surfaces. Results for a representative advanced subsonic engine indicate the net change in reactant mixing ratios due to heterogeneous reactions is <10-6 for O2, CO2, and H2O, and <10-10 for minor combustion products such as SO2 and NO2. The change in the mixing ratios relative to the initial values is <0.01%. Since these estimates are based on heterogeneous reaction probabilities of unity, the actual changes will be even lower. Thus, heterogeneous chemistry within the engine cannot explain the high conversion of SO2 to SO3 which some wake models require to explain the observed levels of volatile aerosols. Furthermore, turbine heterogeneous processes will not effect exhaust NOx or NOy levels.

  12. GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

    2004-05-17

    In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

  13. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2003-05-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for the reporting period October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002 are described in this quarterly report. No new membership, workshops, research projects, internships, faculty fellowships or special studies were initiated during this reporting period. Contract completion is set for June 30, 2003. During the report period, six research progress reports were received (3 final reports and 3 semi-annual reports). The University of Central Florida contract SR080 was terminated during this period, as UCF was unable to secure research facilities. AGTSR now projects that it will under spend DOE obligated funds by approximately 340-350K$.

  14. Gas turbine combustor stabilization by heat recirculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganji, A.; Short, J.; Branch, M. C.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of heat recirculation for stabilization of lean mixtures and emission reduction has been studied in detail for a typical aircraft gas turbine combustor. Thermodynamic calculations have indicated temperature and heat recirculation rates for operation of the combustor over a range of combustion zone equivalence ratios and for varying modes of desired engine operation. Calculations indicate the feasibility of stabilizing the combustion zone at equivalence ratios as low as 0.2 with achievable heat recirculation rates. Detailed chemical kinetic calculations suggest that combustor heat release is maintained with reaction completion substantially before the NO forming reactions, even though CO is rapidly oxidized in this same region.

  15. High temperature surface protection. [10 gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Alloys of the MCrAlX type are the basis for high temperature surface protection systems in gas turbines. M can be one or more of Ni, Co, or Fe and X denotes a reactive metal added to enhance oxide scale adherence. The selection and formation as well as the oxidation, hot corrosion and thermal fatigue performance of MCrAlX coatings are discussed. Coatings covered range from simple aluminides formed by pack cementation to the more advanced physical vapor deposition overlay coatings and developmental plasma spray deposited thermal barrier coatings.

  16. Internal cooling circuit for gas turbine bucket

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Susan Marie; Davis, Richard Mallory

    2005-10-25

    In a gas turbine bucket having a shank portion and an airfoil portion having leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction sides, an internal cooling circuit, the internal cooling circuit having a serpentine configuration including plural radial outflow passages and plural radial inflow passages, and wherein a coolant inlet passage communicates with a first of the radial outflow passages along the trailing edge, the first radial outflow passage having a plurality of radially extending and radially spaced elongated rib segments extending between and connecting the pressure and suction sides in a middle region of the first passage to prevent ballooning of the pressure and suction sides at the first radial outflow passage.

  17. Gas Turbine Engine Inlet Wall Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florea, Razvan Virgil (Inventor); Matalanis, Claude G. (Inventor); Stucky, Mark B. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an inlet duct formed to have a shape with a first ellipse in one half and a second ellipse in a second half. The second half has an upstream most end which is smaller than the first ellipse. The inlet duct has a surface defining the second ellipse which curves away from the first ellipse, such that the second ellipse is larger at an intermediate location. The second ellipse is even larger at a downstream end of the inlet duct leading into a fan.

  18. Cooling arrangement for a gas turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E

    2015-02-10

    A cooling arrangement (82) for a gas turbine engine component, the cooling arrangement (82) having a plurality of rows (92, 94, 96) of airfoils (98), wherein adjacent airfoils (98) within a row (92, 94, 96) define segments (110, 130, 140) of cooling channels (90), and wherein outlets (114, 134) of the segments (110, 130) in one row (92, 94) align aerodynamically with inlets (132, 142) of segments (130, 140) in an adjacent row (94, 96) to define continuous cooling channels (90) with non continuous walls (116, 120), each cooling channel (90) comprising a serpentine shape.

  19. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: Steam rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, I.G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton`s and Avogadro`s laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  20. Speed control of a small turbine using electrical loading.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small wind turbines with permanent magnet alternators (PMA) seldom have active speed control systems. The turbines rely on passive mechanisms such as furling and/or blade flutter to control the rotational speed. These passive methods cause high mechanical stresses and undesirable noise. One metho...

  1. External combustor for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Santanam, Chandran B.; Thomas, William H.; DeJulio, Emil R.

    1991-01-01

    An external combustor for a gas turbine engine has a cyclonic combustion chamber into which combustible gas with entrained solids is introduced through an inlet port in a primary spiral swirl. A metal draft sleeve for conducting a hot gas discharge stream from the cyclonic combustion chamber is mounted on a circular end wall of the latter adjacent the combustible gas inlet. The draft sleeve is mounted concentrically in a cylindrical passage and cooperates with the passage in defining an annulus around the draft sleeve which is open to the cyclonic combustion chamber and which is connected to a source of secondary air. Secondary air issues from the annulus into the cyclonic combustion chamber at a velocity of three to five times the velocity of the combustible gas at the inlet port. The secondary air defines a hollow cylindrical extension of the draft sleeve and persists in the cyclonic combustion chamber a distance of about three to five times the diameter of the draft sleeve. The hollow cylindrical extension shields the drive sleeve from the inlet port to prevent discharge of combustible gas through the draft sleeve.

  2. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  3. Tilting pad gas bearing design for micro gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabuurs, M. J. H. W.; Al-Bender, F.; Reynaerts, D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a dynamic stability investigation of a micro gas turbine supported by two flexible tilting pad bearings. The pad flexibility allows centrifugal and thermal shaft growth of the rotor but can also introduce undesirable rotor instabilities. An eigenvalue analysis on the linearised rotor-bearing dynamics is performed to estimate the required pad stiffness and damping for stability. Results of the eigenvalue analysis are evaluated by fully nonlinear orbit simulations.

  4. More-Electric Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Albert F.

    1997-01-01

    A new NASA Lewis Research Center and U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) thrust, the more-electric commercial engine, is creating significant interest in industry. This engine would have an integral starter-generator on the gas generator shaft and would be fully supported by magnetic bearings. The NASA/Army emphasis is on a high-temperature magnetic bearing for future gas turbine engines. Magnetic bearings could increase the reliability and reduce the weight of such engines by eliminating the lubrication system. They could also increase the DN (diameter of the bearing times the rpm) limit on engine speed and allow active vibration cancellation systems to be used, resulting in a more efficient, more-electric engine.

  5. Ceramic composite liner material for gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercegovic, D. B.; Walker, C. L.; Norgren, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced commercial and military gas turbine engines may operate at combustor outlet temperatures in excess of 1920 K (3000 F). At these temperatures combustors liners experience extreme convective and radiative heat fluxes. The ability of a plasma sprayed ceramic coating to reduce liner metal temperature has been recognized. However, the brittleness of the ceramic layer and the difference in thermal expansion with the metal substrate has caused cracking, spalling and some separation of the ceramic coating. Research directed at turbine tip seals (or shrouds) has shown the advantage of applying the ceramic to a compliant metal pad. This paper discusses recent studies of applying ceramics to combustor liners in which yttria stabilized zirconia plasma sprayed on compliant metal substrates which were exposed to near stoichiometric combustion, presents performance and durability results, and describes a conceptual design for an advanced, small gas turbine combustor. Test specimens were convectively cooled or convective-transpiration cooled and were evaluated in a 10 cm square flame tube combustor at inlet air temperatures of 533 K (500 F) and at a pressure of 0.5 MPa (75 psia). The ceramics were exposed to flame temperatures in excess of 2000 K (3320 F). Results appear very promising with all 30 specimens surviving a screening test and one of two specimens surviving a cyclic durability test.

  6. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... submitted to substantiate their suitability and safety for the service intended: (1) Combustion chamber....

  7. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... submitted to substantiate their suitability and safety for the service intended: (1) Combustion chamber....

  8. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... submitted to substantiate their suitability and safety for the service intended: (1) Combustion chamber....

  9. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... submitted to substantiate their suitability and safety for the service intended: (1) Combustion chamber....

  10. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... submitted to substantiate their suitability and safety for the service intended: (1) Combustion chamber....

  11. Gas turbine fuel control systems for unmanned applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.A.; Yates, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of controlling engine acceleration has made possible gas turbine controls with simple hydromechanics and a minimal number of inputs into the electronics. This paper describes a control and electrical power generation system developed for an unmanned aircraft gas turbine, and the results obtained from the development engine running carried out with it.

  12. Marine gas turbine programs at AlliedSignal

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Work has been continuing at AlliedSignal Turbines, located in Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A., on the integration of their gas turbine programs with those of Textron Lycoming since the merger of the Lycoming gas turbine operations into the AlliedSignal Turbines Group about a year and a half ago. Although much of the gas turbine business and development programs are aimed at the aircraft markets, the industrial and marine gas turbine product area is also receiving significant attention in this combined organization. Of particular importance is the marine market, where the TF40 marine gas turbine is a key element. The TF40 is based on a tested turbine core engine with over ten million hours of operating experience. The compact TF40 gas turbine offers one of the highest power-to-weight ratios in its class. With a length of 1422 mm and a weight of 600 kg without a gearbox, the TF40 can produce 3432 kW boost rating for yachts and military craft and 2984 kW at maximum continuous rating for fast ferries. This paper describes the specifications and variations of the different versions being offered by the company.

  13. Single pressure steam bottoming cycle for gas turbines combined cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Zervos, N.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes a process for recapturing waste heat from the exhaust of a gas turbine to drive a high pressure-high temperature steam turbine and a low pressure steam turbine. It comprises: delivering the exhaust of the gas turbine to the hot side of an economizer-reheater apparatus; delivering a heated stream of feedwater and recycled condensate through the cold side of the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus to elevate the temperature below the pinch point of the boiler; delivering the discharge from the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine through the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus; driving the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine with the discharge stream of feedwater and recycled condensate which is heated to a temperature below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus; and driving the low pressure steam turbine with the discharged stream of the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine reheated below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus.

  14. Update on DOE Advanced IGCC/H2 Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Cooling Flow Reduction: a) Focus on improving turbine hot gas path part cooling efficiency. b) Applicable to current metallic turbine components and synergistic with advanced materials. c) Address challenges of IGCC/hydrogen fuel environment (for example, possible cooling hole plugging). Leakage Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing turbine parasitic leakages, i.e. between static-to-static, static-to-rotating turbine parts. b) Develop improved seal designs in a variety of important areas. Purge Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing required flows to keep rotor disk cavities within temperature limits. b) Develop improved sealing at the cavity rims and modified flow geometries to minimize hot gas ingestion and aerodynamic impact.

  15. Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert

    2004-04-30

    Gas turbine reheat is a well-known technique for increasing the power output of gas turbine, as well as the efficiency in combined cycle operation with higher heat recovery inlet temperatures. The technique also could allow development of an advanced high efficiency turbine with an additional stage, but without a higher inlet temperature. A novel reheat approach, with fuel added via internal passages in turbine airfoils, has been proposed [1]. This avoids the bulky and possible high-NOx discrete reheat combustors used in traditional approaches. The key questions regarding this approach are whether there is sufficient residence time at high temperature for fuel burnout, and whether increased emissions of NOx and CO result. This project examines the chemical kinetics basis of these questions. In the present task detailed chemical kinetics models were used to evaluate injection reheat combustion. Models used included a Siemens Westinghouse diffusion flame model, the set of CHEMKIN gas-phase kinetics equation solvers, and the GRI 3.0 detailed kinetics data base. These modules are called by a reheat-specific main program, which also provides them with data, including gas path conditions that change with distance through the turbine. Conceptually, injection could occur in either of two ways: (1) direct injection via holes in airfoil trailing edges; or (2) injection at the downstream faces of small bluff bodies placed at these edges. In the former case, combustion could occur as a diffusion flame at the hole, as a plume or streak following this zone, or as a substantially mixed out homogeneous region downstream. In the latter case, combustion could occur as a lower temperature, well-mixed, recirculating flame in the wake of the bluff body, followed by burnout in the same sequence of diffusion flame, streak, and mixed out. The results were as follows. In the case of a conventional four-stage engine, vane 1 trailing edge injection can be achieved with complete burnout

  16. Combustor development for automotive gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.T.; Anderson, D.N.; Williams, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a combustion system for the AGT 100 automotive gas turbine engine. The AGT 100 is a 100 hp engine being developed by Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors Corporation. To achieve optimum fuel economy, the AGT 100 engine operates on a regenerative cycle. A maximum turbine inlet temperature of 1288/sup 0/C (2350/sup 0/F) is reached, and air is supplied to the inlet of the combustor at temperatures as high as 1024/sup 0/C (1875/sup 0/F). To meet the low-emission and high-durability requirements at these conditions, a premix/prevaporization ceramic combustor employing variable geometry to control the temperature in the burning zone has been developed. A test section capable of handling 1024/sup 0/C (1875/sup 0/F) inlet air was designed and fabricated to evaluate this combustor. Testing of both metal (transpiration cooled) and ceramic combustors was conducted. Emissions were measured and found to be a function of burner inlet temperature. At 999/sup 0/C (1830/sup 0/F) burner inlet temperature, NO /SUB x/ emissions were two orders of magnitude below the program goals. At the same temperature but at a different variable-geometry position, the CO was 30 times below the program goal. Considerable testing was conducted to evaluate the behavior of the ceramic materials used in the combustor. No failures occurred during steady-state operation; however, some cracks developed in the dome during extended transient operation.

  17. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  18. Modular Coating for Flexible Gas Turbine Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, J. R. A.; Schab, J. C.; Stankowski, A.; Grasso, P. D.; Olliges, S.; Leyens, C.

    2016-01-01

    In heavy duty gas turbines, the loading boundary conditions of MCrAlY systems are differently weighted for different operation regimes as well as for each turbine component or even in individual part locations. For an overall optimized component protection it is therefore of interest to produce coatings with flexible and individually tailored properties. In this context, ALSTOM developed an Advanced Modular Coating Technology (AMCOTEC™), which is based on several powder constituents, each providing specific properties to the final coating, in combination with a new application method, allowing in-situ compositional changes. With this approach, coating properties, such as oxidation, corrosion, and cyclic lifetime, etc., can be modularly adjusted for individual component types and areas. For demonstration purpose, a MCrAlY coating with modular ductility increase was produced using the AMCOTEC™ methodology. The method was proven to be cost effective and a highly flexible solution, enabling fast compositional screening. A calculation method for final coating composition was defined and validated. The modular addition of ductility agent enabled increasing the coating ductility with up to factor 3 with only slight decrease of oxidation resistance. An optimum composition with respect to ductility is reached with addition of 20 wt.% of ductility agent.

  19. Airfoil for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2011-05-24

    An airfoil is provided for a turbine of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil comprises: an outer structure comprising a first wall including a leading edge, a trailing edge, a pressure side, and a suction side; an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced from the first wall and at least one intermediate wall; and structure extending between the first and second walls so as to define first and second gaps between the first and second walls. The second wall and the at least one intermediate wall define at least one pressure side supply cavity and at least one suction side supply cavity. The second wall may include at least one first opening near the leading edge of the first wall. The first opening may extend from the at least one pressure side supply cavity to the first gap. The second wall may further comprise at least one second opening near the trailing edge of the outer structure. The second opening may extend from the at least one suction side supply cavity to the second gap. The first wall may comprise at least one first exit opening extending from the first gap through the pressure side of the first wall and at least one second exit opening extending from the second gap through the suction side of the second wall.

  20. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  1. Air cooling of disk of a solid integrally cast turbine rotor for an automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal analysis is made of surface cooling of a solid, integrally cast turbine rotor disk for an automotive gas turbine engine. Air purge and impingement cooling schemes are considered and compared with an uncooled reference case. Substantial reductions in blade temperature are predicted with each of the cooling schemes studied. It is shown that air cooling can result in a substantial gain in the stress-rupture life of the blade. Alternatively, increases in the turbine inlet temperature are possible.

  2. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2003-05-01

    The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading. No new memberships, workshops, research projects, internships, faculty fellowships or special studies were initiated during this reporting period. Contract completion is set for June 30, 2003. During the report period, nine subcontractor reports were received (5 final reports and 4 semi-annual reports). The report technology distribution is as follows: 3--aero-heat transfer, 2--combustion and 4--materials. AGTSR continues to project that it will under spend DOE obligated funds by approximately $329K.

  3. Detonation wave augmentation of gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study that examined the effects of using detonation waves to augment the performance of gas turbines are reported. The central ideas were to reduce compressor requirements and to maintain high performance in jet engines. Gasdynamic equations were used to model the flows associated with shock waves generated by the detonation of fuel in detonator tubes. Shock wave attenuation to the level of Mach waves was found possible, thus eliminating interference with the compressor and the necessity of valves and seals. A preliminary parametric study of the performance of a compressor working at a 4:1 ratio in a conceptual design of a detonation wave augmented jet engine in subsonic flight indicated a clear superiority over conventional designs in terms of fuel efficiency and thrust.

  4. High temperature coatings for gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Zheng, Xiaoci Maggie

    2003-10-21

    Coating for high temperature gas turbine components that include a MCrAlX phase, and an aluminum-rich phase, significantly increase oxidation and cracking resistance of the components, thereby increasing their useful life and reducing operating costs. The aluminum-rich phase includes aluminum at a higher concentration than aluminum concentration in the MCrAlX alloy, and an aluminum diffusion-retarding composition, which may include cobalt, nickel, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, rhodium, cadmium, indium, cerium, iron, chromium, tantalum, silicon, boron, carbon, titanium, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, and combinations thereof, and particularly nickel and/or rhenium. The aluminum-rich phase may be derived from a particulate aluminum composite that has a core comprising aluminum and a shell comprising the aluminum diffusion-retarding composition.

  5. Optical diagnostics in gas turbine combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Steven D.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the power industry and increasingly tight emission controls are pushing gas turbine manufacturers to develop engines operating at high pressure for efficiency and lean fuel mixtures to control NOx. This combination also gives rise to combustion instabilities which threaten engine integrity through acoustic pressure oscillations and flashback. High speed imaging and OH emission sensors have been demonstrated to be invaluable tools in characterizing and monitoring unstable combustion processes. Asynchronous imaging technique permit detailed viewing of cyclic flame structure in an acoustic environment which may be modeled or utilized in burner design . The response of the flame front to the acoustic pressure cycle may be tracked with an OH emission monitor using a sapphire light pipe for optical access. The OH optical emission can be correlated to pressure sensor data for better understanding of the acoustical coupling of the flame. Active control f the combustion cycle can be implemented using an OH emission sensor for feedback.

  6. Storage peak gas-turbine power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinkotski, B.

    1980-01-01

    A storage gas-turbine power plant using a two-cylinder compressor with intermediate cooling is studied. On the basis of measured characteristics of a .25 Mw compressor computer calculations of the parameters of the loading process of a constant capacity storage unit (05.3 million cu m) were carried out. The required compressor power as a function of time with and without final cooling was computed. Parameters of maximum loading and discharging of the storage unit were calculated, and it was found that for the complete loading of a fully unloaded storage unit, a capacity of 1 to 1.5 million cubic meters is required, depending on the final cooling.

  7. Asymmetric flameholder for gas turbine engine afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, A.; Bigelow, E.C.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes an afterburner flameholder for a gas turbine engine, the engine having an afterburner region including a central diffuser cone, a generally cylindrical outer shell and fuel spray means in the region between the shell and the cone. It comprises an annular member having an asymmetric V-shape in cross section, the annular member including a first and a second circular sidewall member, each sidewall member being joined together at one end forming an apex, the annular member adapted to be secured to the engine in the afterburner region with the apex facing upstream in an axial direction towards the fuel spray means, the annular member in cross section forming a V with unequal length sidewall members, the distance between the distal ends of the first and second circular members measured in the direction of the included angle bisector being approximately equal to the distance between the distal ends measured in a direction perpendicular to the bisector.

  8. Combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2015-04-28

    A combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine includes a combustor device, a fuel injection system, a transition duct, and an intermediate duct. The combustor device includes a flow sleeve for receiving pressurized air and a liner surrounded by the flow sleeve. The fuel injection system provides fuel to be mixed with the pressurized air and ignited in the liner to create combustion products. The intermediate duct is disposed between the liner and the transition duct so as to define a path for the combustion products to flow from the liner to the transition duct. The intermediate duct is associated with the liner such that movement may occur therebetween, and the intermediate duct is associated with the transition duct such that movement may occur therebetween. The flow sleeve includes structure that defines an axial stop for limiting axial movement of the intermediate duct.

  9. Combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2013-02-19

    A combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine. The combustor assembly includes a combustor device coupled to a main engine casing, a first fuel injection system, a transition duct, and an intermediate duct. The combustor device includes a flow sleeve for receiving pressurized air and a liner disposed radially inwardly from the flow sleeve. The first fuel injection system provides fuel that is ignited with the pressurized air creating first working gases. The intermediate duct is disposed between the liner and the transition duct and defines a path for the first working gases to flow from the liner to the transition duct. An intermediate duct inlet portion is associated with a liner outlet and allows movement between the intermediate duct and the liner. An intermediate duct outlet portion is associated with a transition duct inlet section and allows movement between the intermediate duct and the transition duct.

  10. Dynamic and Structural Gas Turbine Engine Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Model the interactions between the structural dynamics and the performance dynamics of a gas turbine engine. Generally these two aspects are considered separate, unrelated phenomena and are studied independently. For diagnostic purposes, it is desirable to bring together as much information as possible, and that involves understanding how performance is affected by structural dynamics (if it is) and vice versa. This can involve the relationship between thrust response and the excitation of structural modes, for instance. The job will involve investigating and characterizing these dynamical relationships, generating a model that incorporates them, and suggesting and/or developing diagnostic and prognostic techniques that can be incorporated in a data fusion system. If no coupling is found, at the least a vibration model should be generated that can be used for diagnostics and prognostics related to blade loss, for instance.

  11. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  12. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  13. Modeling the hole configuration on gas turbine blade vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Shukri; Manaf, Muhammad Zaidan Abdul; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Jumaidin, Ridhwan; Hafizan, Andi Hairul

    2015-05-01

    The performance of Gas Turbine can be improved by increasing the inlet temperature gradually. The high level temperature of component that contact with hot gases due to internal combustion in gas turbine will make possibility failure especially on turbine vane. Thus, this study aims to identify the best hole arrangement of cooling on turbine vane, and investigate the critical region for failure possibilities occur on turbine vane caused by the hot gases that considered into two parameter which are steady temperature profile and average temperature decreasing on blade. This study will implement C3X type vane in order to improve the process in turbine blades. An arrangement of two dimensional blade hole will be model Commercial software ANSYS Fluent. It is found that best arrangement and configuration between the hole shape can improve resistances in relation to thermal collapse and satisfied the blade cooling goal.

  14. Computational thermo-fluid dynamics contributions to advanced gas turbine engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Rohlik, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The design practices for the gas turbine are traced throughout history with particular emphasis on the calculational or analytical methods. Three principal components of the gas turbine engine will be considered: namely, the compressor, the combustor and the turbine.

  15. Off-Design Performance Prediction of Gas Turbines without the use of Compressor or Turbine Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraweera, Janitha Kanishka

    A new method of predicting gas turbine off-design performance is presented. This method, referred to as the core control method, is based on the idea that performance across a gas turbine depends on a single parameter that controls the energy input to the said gas turbine. It is shown that only the design-point performance of a gas turbine is needed to predict its off-design performance, and that neither compressor nor turbine characteristics are required. A thermodynamic model is developed for predicting the off-design performance of a single-spool turbojet and a two-spool gas generator with a free power turbine. This model is further developed to simulate the effects of handling bleed schedules, performance limiters and performance deterioration. The core control method is then used to predict the off-design performance of a Rolls-Royce Viper Mark 521 as a proof-of-concept, after which, the new and deteriorated off-design performance of three Rolls-Royce RB211-24GT gas turbines is predicted. In addition to the discussions on the involved theories and the performance predictions, the process by which the deteriorated RB211-24GT performance data was analyzed, and the sources and propagation of measurement uncertainties are also discussed.

  16. Gas turbine system simulation: An object-oriented approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.; Follen, Gregory J.; Putt, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype gas turbine engine simulation has been developed that offers a generalized framework for the simulation of engines subject to steady-state and transient operating conditions. The prototype is in preliminary form, but it successfully demonstrates the viability of an object-oriented approach for generalized simulation applications. Although object oriented programming languages are-relative to FORTRAN-somewhat austere, it is proposed that gas turbine simulations of an interdisciplinary nature will benefit significantly in terms of code reliability, maintainability, and manageability. This report elucidates specific gas turbine simulation obstacles that an object-oriented framework can overcome and describes the opportunity for interdisciplinary simulation that the approach offers.

  17. Support services for the automative gas turbine project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golec, T. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Support was provided to DOE and NASA in their efforts to inform industry, the public, and Government on the benefits and purpose of the gas turbine programs through demonstrations and exhibits. Tasks were carried out for maintenance, repair, and retrofit of the experimental gas turbine engines being used by NASA in their gas turbine technology programs and in program demonstrations. Limited support testing was conducted at Chrysler in which data were generated on air bearing rotor shaft dynamics, heavy duty variable sheave rubber belts, high temperature elastomer regenerator drive mounting and graphite regenerator seal friction characteristics.

  18. Trends in increasing gas-turbine units efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kostennikov, S. V.

    2008-06-01

    A review of the latest models of gas-turbine units (GTUs) manufactured by leading firms of the world is given. With the example of units made by General Electric, Siemens, and Alstom, modern approaches to the problem of increasing the efficiency of gas-turbine units are dealt with. Basic principles of designing of moderate-size capacity gas turbine units are discussed, and comparison between characteristics of foreign-made GTUs belonging to this class and the advanced domestic GTE-65 unit is made.

  19. AFB/open cycle gas turbine conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, T. W.; Tashjian, R.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed gas turbine systems in industrial cogeneration are identified. Based on site-specific conceptual designs, the potential benefits of the AFB/gas turbine system were compared with an atmospheric fluidized design steam boiler/steam turbine system. The application of these cogeneration systems at four industrial plant sites is reviewed. A performance and benefit analysis was made along with a study of the representativeness of the sites both in regard to their own industry and compared to industry as a whole. A site was selected for the conceptual design, which included detailed site definition, AFB/gas turbine and AFB/steam turbine cogeneration system designs, detailed cost estimates, and comparative performance and benefit analysis. Market and benefit analyses identified the potential market penetration for the cogeneration technologies and quantified the potential benefits.

  20. Conceptual design study of an Improved Gas Turbine (IGT) powertrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Design concepts for an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain are discussed. Twenty percent fuel economy improvement (over 1976), competitive costs (initial and life cycle), high reliability/life, low emissions, and noise/safety compliance were among the factors considered. The powertrain selected consists of a two shaft gas turbine engine with variable geometry aerodynamic components and a single disk rotating regenerator. The regenerator disk, gasifier turbine rotor, and several hot section flowpath parts are ceramic. The powertrain utilizes a conventional automatic transmission. The closest competitor was a single shaft turbine engine matched to a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Both candidate powertrain systems were found to be similar in many respects; however, the CVT represented a significant increase in development cost, technical risk, and production start-up costs over the conventional automatic transmission. Installation of the gas turbine powertrain was investigated for a transverse mounted, front wheel drive vehicle.

  1. Substitution of ceramics for high temperature alloys. [advantages of using silicon carbides and silicon nitrides in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probst, H. B.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature capability of ceramics such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide can result in turbine engines of improved efficiency. Other advantages when compared to the nickel and cobalt alloys in current use are raw material availability, lower weight, erosion/corrosion resistance, and potentially lower cost. The use of ceramics in three different sizes of gas turbine is considered; these are the large utility turbines, advanced aircraft turbines, and small automotive turbines. Special consideration, unique to each of these applications, arise when one considers substituting ceramics for high temperature alloys. The effects of material substitutions are reviewed in terms of engine performance, operating economy, and secondary effects.

  2. The UTZ Special Design Office for Construction of Gas Turbines turns fifty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyryanov, Yu. P.

    2008-08-01

    The main lines of activities conducted at the ZAO Ural Turbine Works Special Design Office for Construction of Gas Turbines on developing stationary gas turbine units for power engineering, driving gasturbine units for gas pumping stations, and gas turbines for utilizing secondary resources are presented.

  3. Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

  4. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include the AGT 101 engine test; compressor design modification; cold air turbine testing; Mod 1 alloy turbine rotor fabrication; combustion aspects; regenerator development; and thermal screening tests for ceramic materials. The foil gas bearings, rotor dynamics, and AGT controls and accessories are also considered.

  5. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  6. Combustion characteristics of gas turbine alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. James

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance values for specific heavyend, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. A flame tube combustor modified to duplicate an advanced gas turbine engine combustor was used for the tests. Each fuel was tested at steady-state operating conditions over a range of mass flow rates, fuel-to-air mass ratio, and inlet air temperatures. The combustion pressure, as well as the hardware, were kept nearly constant over the program test phase. Test results were obtained in regards to geometric temperature pattern factors as a function of combustor wall temperatures, the combustion gas temperature, and the combustion emissions, both as affected by the mass flow rate and fuel-to-air ratio. The synthetic fuels were reacted in the combustor such that for most tests their performance was as good, if not better, than the baseline gasoline or diesel fuel tests. The only detrimental effects were that at high inlet air temperature conditions, fuel decomposition occurred in the fuel atomizing nozzle passages resulting in blockage. And the nitrogen oxide emissions were above EPA limits at low flow rate and high operating temperature conditions.

  7. Hydrogen turbines for space power systems: A simplified axial flow gas turbine model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogen cooled, turbine powered space weapon systems require a relatively simple, but reasonably accurate hydrogen gas expansion turbine model. Such a simplified turbine model would require little computational time and allow incorporation into system level computer programs while providing reasonably accurate volume/mass estimates. This model would then allow optimization studies to be performed on multiparameter space power systems and provide improved turbine mass and size estimates for the various operating conditions (when compared to empirical and power law approaches). An axial flow gas expansion turbine model was developed for these reasons and is in use as a comparative bench mark in space power system studies at Sandia. The turbine model is based on fluid dynamic, thermodynamic, and material strength considerations, but is considered simplified because it does not account for design details such as boundary layer effects, shock waves, turbulence, stress concentrations, and seal leakage. Although the basic principles presented here apply to any gas or vapor axial flow turbine, hydrogen turbines are discussed because of their immense importance on space burst power platforms.

  8. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced material technologies for small aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comey, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Cost/benefit studies were conducted on ten advanced material technologies applicable to small aircraft gas turbine engines to be produced in the 1985 time frame. The cost/benefit studies were applied to a two engine, business-type jet aircraft in the 6800- to 9100-Kg (15,000- to 20,000-lb) gross weight class. The new material technologies are intended to provide improvements in the areas of high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine stator airfoils, and static structural components. The cost/benefit of each technology is presented in terms of relative value, which is defined as a change in life cycle cost times probability of success divided by development cost. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits based on relative value are uncooled single crystal MAR-M 247 turbine blades, cooled DS MAR-M 247 turbine blades, and cooled ODS 'M'CrAl laminate turbine stator vanes.

  9. UEM boosts cogeneration activity with frame 6 gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Boissenin, Y.; Moliere, M.; Remyl, P.

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, after EC directives allowed the use of natural gas for electricity production, Usine d`Electricite de Metz (UEM) decided to install a new combined-cycle plant based on a 38 MW MS6001B gas turbine supplied by European Gas Turbines. This selection was made after a screening of twenty or so solutions. The cogeneration/combined-cycle system based on a heavy-duty gas turbine was found to be the best because it ensured high efficiency, low environment impact and a profitability ratio of 20%, providing a payback of five years. The system consisting of the gas turbine, HRSG and other structures of the Chambiere plant has an efficiency of over 80% in cogeneration mode and approaching 50% in the combined-cycle configuration. A major factor in this flexibility is the Frame 6 gas turbine. The UEM Frame 6 gas turbine at site conditions has a rated ISO output of 38.15 MW without steam injection, 40.5 MW with 10.5 t/h of steam and 43.5 MW with 24.7 t/h of steam. NO{sub x} emissions are 152, 42 and less than 42 ppm respectively, at 15% O{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} emissions are below 100 g/MJ at base load, and a 14% increase in output by steam injection will only cause a 7% increase in CO{sub 2} emissions.

  10. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials science has become a

  11. Study on the turbine vane and blade for a 1500 C class industrial gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amagasa, S.; Shimomura, K.; Kadowaki, M.; Takeishi, K.; Kawai, H.; Aoki, S.; Aoyama, K.

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes the summary of a three-year development program for the first-stage stationary vane and rotating blade for the next generation, 1500 C class, high-efficiency gas turbine. In such a high-temperature gas turbine, the first turbine vane and blade are the most important hot parts. Full-coverage film cooling (FCFC) is adopted for the cooling scheme, and directionally solidified (DS) nickel base superalloy and thermal barrier coating (TBC) will be used to prolong the creep and thermal fatigue life. The concept of the cooling configuration, fundamental cascade test results, and material test results will be presented.

  12. Comparison of Coriolis and turbine-type flowmeters for fuel measurement in gas turbine testing

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, J.D.; Grabe, W.

    1995-01-01

    The Machinery and Engine Technology (MET) Program of the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) has established a program for the evaluation of sensors to measure gas turbine engine performance accurately. The precise measurement of fuel flow is an essential part of steady-state gas turbine performance assessment. The MET Laboratory has critically examined two types of fuel flowmeters, Coriolis and turbine. The two flowmeter types are different in that the Coriolis flowmeter measures mass flow directly, while the turbine flowmeter measures volumetric flow, which must be converted to mass flow for conventional performance analysis. The direct measurement of mass flow, using a Coriolis flowmeter, has many advantages in field testing of gas turbines, because it reduces the risk of errors resulting from the conversion process. Turbine flowmeters, on the other hand, have been regarded as an industry standard because they are compact, rugged, reliable, and relatively inexpensive. This paper describes the project objectives, the experimental installation, and the results of the comparison of the Coriolis and turbine-type flowmeters in steady-state performance testing. Discussed are variations between the two types of flowmeters due to fuel characteristics, fuel handling equipment, acoustic and vibration interference, and installation effects. Also included in this paper are estimations of measurement uncertainties for both types of flowmeter. Results indicate that the agreement between Coriolis and turbine-type flowmeters is good over the entire steady-state operating range of a typical gas turbine engine. In some cases the repeatability of the Coriolis flowmeter is better than the manufacturer`s specification. Even a significant variation in fuel density (10 percent), and viscosity (300 percent) did not appear to compromise the ability of the Coriolis flowmeter to match the performance of the turbine flowmeter.

  13. New airfoils for small horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Giguere, P.; Selig, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    In a continuing effort to enhance the performance of small energy systems, one root airfoil and three primary airfoils were specifically designed for small horizontal axis wind turbines. These airfoils are intended primarily for 1-10 kW variable-speed wind turbines for both conventional (tapered/twisted) or pultruded blades. The four airfoils were wind-tunnel tested at Reynolds numbers between 100,000 and 500,000. Tests with simulated leading-edge roughness were also conducted. The results indicate that small variable-speed wind turbines should benefit from the use of the new airfoils which provide enhanced lift-to-drag ratio performance as compared with previously existing airfoils.

  14. New airfoils for small horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Giguere, P.; Selig, M.S.

    1998-05-01

    In a continuing effort to enhance the performance of small wind energy systems, one root airfoil and three primary airfoils were specifically designed for small horizontal axis wind turbines. These airfoils are intended primarily for 1--5 kW variable-speed wind turbines for both conventional (tapered/twisted) or pultruded blades. The four airfoils were wind-tunnel tested at Reynolds numbers between 100,000 and 500,000. Tests with simulated leading-edge roughness were also conducted. The results indicate that small variable-speed wind turbines should benefit from the use of the new airfoils which provide enhanced lift-to-drag ratio performance as compared with previously existing airfoils.

  15. Demonstration and evaluation of gas turbine transit buses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Gas Turbine Transit Bus Demonstration Program was designed to demonstrate and evaluate the operation of gas turbine engines in transit coaches in revenue service compared with diesel powered coaches. The main objective of the program was to accelerate development and commercialization of automotive gas turbines. The benefits from the installation of this engine in a transit coach were expected to be reduced weight, cleaner exhaust emissions, lower noise levels, reduced engine vibration and maintenance requirements, improved reliability and vehicle performance, greater engine braking capability, and superior cold weather starting. Four RTS-II advanced design transit coaches were converted to gas turbine power using engines and transmissions. Development, acceptance, performance and systems tests were performed on the coaches prior to the revenue service demonstration.

  16. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EXHAUST PARTICLES FROM GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A program was conducted to chemically characterize particulate emissions from a current technology, high population, gas turbine engine. Attention was focused on polynuclear aromatic compounds, phenols, nitrosamines and total organics. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were...

  17. Reflection error correction of gas turbine blade temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipngetich, Ketui Daniel; Feng, Chi; Gao, Shan

    2016-03-01

    Accurate measurement of gas turbine blades' temperature is one of the greatest challenges encountered in gas turbine temperature measurements. Within an enclosed gas turbine environment with surfaces of varying temperature and low emissivities, a new challenge is introduced into the use of radiation thermometers due to the problem of reflection error. A method for correcting this error has been proposed and demonstrated in this work through computer simulation and experiment. The method assumed that emissivities of all surfaces exchanging thermal radiation are known. Simulations were carried out considering targets with low and high emissivities of 0.3 and 0.8 respectively while experimental measurements were carried out on blades with emissivity of 0.76. Simulated results showed possibility of achieving error less than 1% while experimental result corrected the error to 1.1%. It was thus concluded that the method is appropriate for correcting reflection error commonly encountered in temperature measurement of gas turbine blades.

  18. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Compressor development, turbine, combustion, regenerator system, gearbox/transmission, ceramic material and component development, foil gas bearings, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics development, and controls and accessories are discussed.

  19. Design and test of a small two stage counter-rotating turbine for rocket engine application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, F. W.; Branstrom, B. R.; Finke, A. K.; Johnson, P. D.; Rowey, R. J.; Veres, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for application in an advanced upper stage rocket engine turbopump. This engine will employ an oxygen/hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low flow rates result in very small airfoil diameter, height and chord. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The unconventional approach employed to meet this challenge is described, along with the detailed design process and resulting airfoil configurations. The method and results of full scale aerodynamic performance evaluation testing of both one and two stage configurations, as well as operation without the secondary stage stator are presented. The overall results of this effort illustrate that advanced aerodynamic design tools and hardware fabrication techniques have provided improved capability to produce small high performance turbines for advanced rocket engines.

  20. Condition Based Monitoring of Gas Turbine Combustion Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ulerich, Nancy; Kidane, Getnet; Spiegelberg, Christine; Tevs, Nikolai

    2012-09-30

    The objective of this program is to develop sensors that allow condition based monitoring of critical combustion parts of gas turbines. Siemens teamed with innovative, small companies that were developing sensor concepts that could monitor wearing and cracking of hot turbine parts. A magnetic crack monitoring sensor concept developed by JENTEK Sensors, Inc. was evaluated in laboratory tests. Designs for engine application were evaluated. The inability to develop a robust lead wire to transmit the signal long distances resulted in a discontinuation of this concept. An optical wear sensor concept proposed by K Sciences GP, LLC was tested in proof-of concept testing. The sensor concept depended, however, on optical fiber tips wearing with the loaded part. The fiber tip wear resulted in too much optical input variability; the sensor could not provide adequate stability for measurement. Siemens developed an alternative optical wear sensor approach that used a commercial PHILTEC, Inc. optical gap sensor with an optical spacer to remove fibers from the wearing surface. The gap sensor measured the length of the wearing spacer to follow loaded part wear. This optical wear sensor was developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. It was validated in lab tests and installed on a floating transition seal in an F-Class gas turbine. Laboratory tests indicate that the concept can measure wear on loaded parts at temperatures up to 800{degrees}C with uncertainty of < 0.3 mm. Testing in an F-Class engine installation showed that the optical spacer wore with the wearing part. The electro-optics box located outside the engine enclosure survived the engine enclosure environment. The fiber optic cable and the optical spacer, however, both degraded after about 100 operating hours, impacting the signal analysis.

  1. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Sudhoff, F.A.

    1998-04-01

    The present invention relates generally to an integrated fuel cell power plant, and more specifically to a combination of cycles wherein a first fuel cell cycle tops an indirect-fired gas turbine cycle and a second fuel cell cycle bottoms the gas turbine cycle so that the cycles are thermally integrated in a tandem operating arrangement. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to the employer-employee relationship between the United States Department of Energy and the inventors.

  2. Liquid-cooling technology for gas turbines - Review and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Fossen, G. J., Jr.; Stepka, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief review of past efforts involving the forced-convection cooling of gas turbines, the paper surveys the state of the art of the liquid cooling of gas turbines. Emphasis is placed on thermosyphon methods of cooling, including those utilizing closed, open, and closed-loop thermosyphons; other methods, including sweat, spray and stator cooling, are also discussed. The more significant research efforts, design data, correlations, and analytical methods are mentioned and voids in technology are summarized.

  3. Note: thermal imaging enhancement algorithm for gas turbine aerothermal characterization.

    PubMed

    Beer, S K; Lawson, S A

    2013-08-01

    An algorithm was developed to convert radiation intensity images acquired using a black and white CCD camera to thermal images without requiring knowledge of incident background radiation. This unique infrared (IR) thermography method was developed to determine aerothermal characteristics of advanced cooling concepts for gas turbine cooling application. Compared to IR imaging systems traditionally used for gas turbine temperature monitoring, the system developed for the current study is relatively inexpensive and does not require calibration with surface mounted thermocouples. PMID:24007128

  4. Fuel cell/gas turbine system performance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.T.; Sudhoff, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Because of the synergistic effects (higher efficiencies, lower emissions) of combining a fuel cell and a gas turbine into a power generation system, many potential system configurations were studied. This work is focused on novel power plant systems by combining gas turbines, solid oxide fuel cells, and a high-temperature heat exchanger; these systems are ideal for the distributed power and on- site markets in the 1-5 MW size range.

  5. Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (BP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path. The thermodynamic analyses of gas turbine cycles with modifications such as intercooling, recuperating, and reheating have shown that intercooling is important to achieving high efficiency gas turbines. The gas turbine industry has considerable interest in adopting intercooling to advanced gas turbines of different capacities. This observation is reinforced by the US Navys Intercooled-Recuperative (ICR) gas turbine development program to power the surface ships. In an intercooler system, the air exiting the LP compressor must be decelerated to provide the necessary residence time in the heat exchanger. The cooler air must subsequently be accelerated towards the inlet of the HP compressor. The circumferential flow nonuniformities inevitably introduced by the heat exchanger, if not isolated, could lead to rotating stall in the compressors, and reduce the overall system performance and efficiency. Also, the pressure losses in the intercooler flow path adversely affect the system efficiency and hence, must be minimized. Thus, implementing intercooling requires fluid dynamically efficient flow path with minimum flow nonuniformities and consequent pressure losses.

  6. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fox, Dennis S.; Smialek, James L.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Tortorelli, Peter F.; More, Karren L.; Nickel, Klaus G.; Hirata, Takehiko; Yoshida, Makoto; Yuri, Isao

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Figure 26.1 illustrates the requirements for components of an aircraft engine and critical issues [1]. Currently, heat engines are constructed of metal alloys, which meet these requirements within strict temperature limits. In order to extend these temperature limits, ceramic materials have been considered as potential engine materials, due to their high melting points and stability at high temperatures. These materials include oxides, carbides, borides, and nitrides. Interest in using these materials in engines appears to have begun in the 1940s with BeO-based porcelains [2]. During the 1950s, the efforts shifted to cermets. These were carbide-based materials intended to exploit the best properties of metals and ceramics. During the 1960s and 1970s, the silicon-based ceramics silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) were extensively developed. Although the desirable high-temperature properties of SiC and Si3N4 had long been known, consolidation of powders into component-sized bodies required the development of a series of specialized processing routes [3]. For SiC, the major consolidation routes are reaction bonding, hot-pressing, and sintering. The use of boron and carbon as additives which enable sintering was a particularly noteworthy advance [4]. For Si3N4 the major consolidation routes are reaction bonding and hot pressing [5]. Reaction-bonding involves nitridation of silicon powder. Hot pressing involves addition of various refractory oxides, such as magnesia (MgO), alumina (Al2O3), and yttria (y2O3). Variations on these processes include a number of routes including Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), gas-pressure sintering

  7. Infrared thermography to detect residual ceramic in gas turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meola, C.; Carlomagno, G. M.; di Foggia, M.; Natale, O.

    2008-06-01

    A serious problem in the production of gas turbine blades is the detection of residual ceramic cores inside the cooling passages; in fact, the presence of even small ceramic pieces affects turbine performance and may cause difficulties in successive manufacturing. Therefore, it is important to have a non-destructive technique that must be capable of detecting tiny ceramic fragments in a fast and easy way. In this perspective, the suitability of infrared thermography was investigated within cooperation between the University of Naples and the Europea Microfusioni Aerospaziali S.p.A. (EMA). Several blades of three different types were inspected revealing that in many cases infrared thermography can discover small ceramic fragments which were missed by X-ray inspection. In addition, infrared thermography allows gaining of information about other types of anomalies (e.g., surface defects) during the same testing step (by eventually changing the test parameters) and then saving time and money. The obtained results look promising in view of introducing infrared thermography among industrial instrumentation as an alternative to, or integrated with, the most currently utilized non-destructive techniques.

  8. Gas turbine and combined-cycle capacity enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report presents interim results of a study of capacity enhancement of gas turbines and combined cycles. A portion of the study is based on a tailored collaboration study for Missouri Public Service. The techniques studied include water injection, steam injection, increased firing temperature, supercharging, and inlet cooling for the gas turbines. The inlet cooling approaches cover evaporative cooling with and without media, water cooling, thermal energy storage (TES) systems using ice or water and continuous refrigeration. Results are given for UTC FT4/GG4, GE MS5001, MS7001, W501 and W251 gas turbines. Duct firing of a three-pressure HRSG for peaking capacity is investigated. The GE PG7221(FA) is used as the reference gas turbine for this combined cycle. The results to-date indicate that the utilities have a number of viable options for capacity enhancement that are dependent on the mission of the gas turbine, local climate, and the design of the gas turbine.

  9. Cooled blades of gas turbines /Thermal design and profiling/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelev, S. Z.

    The efficiency of the air-cooling of gas turbine blades is analyzed, and various approaches to the design of air-cooled gas turbine blades are discussed. In particular, attention is given to the analysis of heat transfer in blades with an internal deflector, blades with radial air flow, and blades with convective-barrier cooling. Methods for calculating the temperature of blades with transverse flow of the cooling air are discussed, as are methods for calculating losses in an air-cooled turbine.

  10. Internal flows of relevance to gas-turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuirk, J. J.; Whitelaw, J. H.

    An attempt is made to formulate the best combination of equations, numerical discretization, and turbulence modeling assumptions for internal aerodynamic flows relevant to gas turbines. Typical of the problems treated are the solution of the three-dimensional, time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for laminar and turbulent flow in 90-deg bends, and the relative advantages obtainable from parabolized forms in bends, in S-type intake ducts, in turbine blade passages, and in forced mixers. In the present discussion of the influence of numerical assumptions on the calculation of isothermal flow in gas turbine combustors, emphasis is given to the assessment and removal of numerical errors.