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Sample records for small mammal selection

  1. Small Mammal Intrigue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristol, Daniel A.

    1985-01-01

    Gives introductory information about the study of small mammals including the selection and use of harmless live-traps, handling and identification, techniques for observation and trapping in the wild, and safety measures. Suggests useful references for teachers wishing to develop a small mammal study program for their students. (JHZ)

  2. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the literature and results of a monitoring study at selected sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reservation. In the field, ten species of small mammals were trapped at contaminated and reference sites to monitor for exposure to mercury, strontium-90, and benzo(a)pyrene. Residue analyses and a hemoglobin-adduct assay were performed on the animals. Accumulation of mercury in kidney tissue and strontium-90 in bone was related to the degree of contamination of the environment as well as trophic level of the species. Both shorttail shrews and white-footed mice trapped at the mercury-contaminated site had significantly higher concentrations of mercury in kidney tissue than those trapped at the control site, with the insectivorous shrew having a higher concentration than the omnivorous mouse. Strontium-90 was present in the bone of all species trapped at the radionuclide-contaminated sites, but was highest in the eastern harvest mouse. The hemoglobin-adduct assay was evaluated as an indicator of subchronic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in the laboratory and chronic exposure in the field.

  3. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Walton, B.T. )

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. SMALL MAMMAL USE OF MICROHABITAT REVIEWED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small mammal microhabitat research has greatly influenced vertebrate community ecologists. There exists a "microhabitat paradigm" that states that sympatry among small mammal species is enabled by differential use of microhabitat (i.e., microhabitat partitioning). However, seve...

  5. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1991-01-01

    contaminant exposure and trophic level emerged. Insectivores (shrews) had the highest levels of contaminants, followed by omnivores (cricetid mice) with intermediate levels, and herbivores (voles) with the lowest levels. A substantial number of these biomonitoring studies using small mammals collectively point to the importance of food habits and habitat of small mammals, and their availability and abundance as factors that should influence species selection for monitoring studies. The type of contaminants under consideration as well as the appropriateness of the endpoints selected are important factors to consider when deciding whether or not to include small mammals in biomonitoring studies. PMID:1992495

  6. Habitat patterns in a small mammal community

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchings, J.T.; Levy, D.J.

    1981-11-01

    Microhabitat relationships between four sympatric small mammal species (Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, Blarina brevicauda, and Tamias striatus) were examined to determine if their discriminant analysis of small mammal habitat represented a unique habitat utilization pattern for a specific small mammal community. The authors concluded that habitat is only one of many dimensions to be considered when studying the interactions of sympatric species. Reproductive strategy, activity patterns, and other factors make up the n-dimensional hyperspace of an animal's niche. Thus differences in habitat usage alone cannot be used to determine niche overlap and competition between species. (JMT)

  7. Differentiation of flea communities infesting small mammals across selected habitats of the Baltic coast, central lowlands, and southern mountains of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Krzysztof; Eichert, Urszula; Bogdziewicz, Michał; Rychlik, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Only a few studies comparing flea composition on the coast and in the mountains have been conducted. We investigated differences in flea communities infesting small mammals in selected habitats in northern, central, and southern Poland. We predicted (1) a greater number of flea species in the southeastern Poland and a lower number in the north, (2) a greater number of flea species in fertile and wet habitats than in poor and arid habitats, and (3) a low similarity of flea species between flea communities in western and eastern Poland. We found a negative effect of increasing latitude on flea species richness. We suppose that the mountains providing a variety of environments and the limits of the geographic ranges of several flea subspecies in southeastern Poland result in a higher number of flea species. There was a positive effect of increasing wetness of habitat on flea species richness. We found a high diversity in flea species composition between western and eastern Poland (beta diversity = 11) and between central and eastern Poland (beta diversity = 12). Re-colonization of Poland by small mammals and their ectoparasites from different (western and eastern) refugees can affect on this high diversity of flea species. PMID:24619068

  8. Solid modeling of fossil small mammal teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschallinger, Robert; Hofmann, Peter; Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; Ketcham, Richard A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to create solid models of fossil small mammal teeth using a combination of microcomputed tomography, object based image analysis and voxel modeling. Small mammal teeth, because of their durability, are widely found in Cenozioc sediments the world over and play a key role in stratigraphy as well as in researching the rapid evolution and the paleogeographic spreading of small mammals. Recent advances in microcomputed tomography make this non-destructive analysis method an ideal data source for high-resolution 3D models of fossil small animal teeth. To derive internally consistent solid models of such fossils from micro-CT imagery, we propose a combination of 3D object based image analysis and solid modeling. Incorporating paleontological expert knowledge in the image processing cycle, object based image analysis yields topologically consistent image stacks classified by the main tooth components—enamel, dentine and pulp. Forwarding these data to a voxel modeling system, they can be quantitatively analyzed in an unprecedented manner: going beyond the possibilities of the state-of-art surface models, solid models are capable of unambiguously portraying the entire object volume—teeth can be peeled by material properties, subvolumes can be extracted and automatically analyzed by Boolean operations. The proposed method, which can be flexibly extended to handle a range of paleontological and geological micro-objects, is demonstrated with two typical fossil small mammal teeth.

  9. Effects of roads on small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.W.; Geis, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    (1) The study was designed to determine the effects of roads on the diversity, spatial distribution, and density of small mammals. (2) Forty species of small mammal (5859 individuals) were snap-trapped in the study. Data resulted from 144 360 trap-nights of effort for an average of 4.06 captures per 100 trap-nights. (3) Small mammal community structure and density were both influenced by roads. Community structure in right-of-way (ROW) habitat was different from that in adjacent habitat. Five species did not prefer ROW habitat: the golden mouse, dusky-footed woodrat, brush mouse, pinon mouse, and California red-backed vole. However, there were more species present in ROW habitat than in adjacent habitat. Grassland species generally preferred ROW habitat and many less habitat-specific species were distributed in ROW and adjacent habitat. (4) Small mammal density (all species combined) was greater in interstate ROW habitat than in adjacent habitat. This was also true individually for the eastern harvest mouse, white-footed mouse, meadow vole, prairie vole, vagrant shrew. Townsend's vole, and California vole. Small mammal density was less in county road ROWs than in adjacent habitat, probably because of the small size of these areas. The data indicate that ROW habitat and its accompanying edge are attractive no: only to grassland species but also to many less habitat-specific species that make use of the ROW-edge-adjacent habitat complex. (5) Mortality on interstate highways was greatest for those species with highest densities in ROW habitat, and did not appear to be detrimental to populations of these species.

  10. Bartonella spp. in Small Mammals, Benin.

    PubMed

    Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Houemenou, Gualbert; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Valladares, Basilio; Feliu, Carlos; Foronda, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella organisms in small mammals in Cotonou, Benin. We captured 163 rodents and 12 insectivores and successfully detected Bartonella DNA from 13 of the 175 small mammal individuals. Bartonella spp., identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum, and Bartonella rochalimae, was detected. A potential new Bartonella species, proposed as Candidatus Bartonella mastomydis, was found in three Mastomys individuals and genetically characterized by targeting two housekeeping genes (rpoB and gltA) and the intergenic species region. However, 20.8% of gray rats were found to be infected with Bartonella spp., and none of the black rats analyzed was positive. This work may be important from a public health point of view due to the zoonotic nature of the Bartonella species detected and warrants further investigation on the unknown zoonotic potential of this newly proposed Bartonella species. PMID:26910412

  11. Effects of tillage practices and carbofuran exposure on small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Linder, G.; Nichols, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    We compared population estimates, body mass, movement, and blood chemistry of small mammals between conventionally tilled and no-till cornfields in Maryland and Pennsylvania to evaluate the effects of tillage practices and carbofuran exposure on small mammals.

  12. Habitat use and food selection of small mammals near a sagebrush/crested wheatgrass interface in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, D.K. ); Anderson, S.H. )

    1991-09-01

    Research has been conducted on various aspects of the ecology of wildlife residing on and adjacent to the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) and one other low-level radioactive waste disposal site on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho. Habitat use and food selection data were collected for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), montane voles (Microtus montanus), Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii), and Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) near a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) interface. Significantly more captures occurred in the native sagebrush habitat than in areas planted in crested wheatgrass or in disturbed sites. Crested wheatgrass, a prolific seed producer, still accounted for over 30% of the total captures. Montane voles and Townsend's ground squirrels (during periods of aboveground activity) used the crested wheatgrass habitat throughout the summer, while deer mice and Ord's kangaroo rats exhibited heavy use after seed set.

  13. Influence of alternative silviculture on small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldien, David L.; Hayes, John P.

    2006-01-01

    HIGHLIGHT: A variety of harvest methods promote diversity within forests while still generating income. For example, recent studies have shown that when dead wood is left on the forest floor during harvest, biodiversity increases. A new Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research (CFER) program fact sheet summarizes how small mammals respond to dead wood in forests that are harvested with alternative methods. CFER is developing a series of fact sheets about responses to changes in young western Oregon forests. The fact sheets are designed to help resource managers balance management needs, including timber and wildlife. The USGS provides a primary source of financial support for CFER, a consortium of federal and state partners conducting research in support of the Northwest Forest Plan.

  14. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T. )

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants.

  15. Bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Puraite, Irma; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Balciauskas, Linas; Gedminas, Vaclovas

    2015-01-01

    The Bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. Epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of Bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infections in small mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in Lithuania. A total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in Lithuania during 2013-2014. A total of 151 fleas representing eight species were collected from 109 (25.8%) small mammals. Five hundred and seventy ticks (Ixodes ricinus) were collected from 68 (16.1%) small mammals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 102 (23.7%) small mammals, 44 (29.1%) fleas and five (3.7%) pooled tick samples. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS region showed that sequences were identical or similar to Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii and Bartonella rochalimae. This study is the first investigating the distribution and diversity of Bartonella species in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. rochalimae were detected in small mammals and their fleas, and B. grahamii in ticks obtained from small mammals. PMID:26344603

  16. Elk herbivory alters small mammal assemblages in high elevation drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Elliott W.R.; Maron, John L.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Together, our results show that relaxation of heavy herbivore pressure by a widespread native ungulate can lead to rapid changes in small mammal assemblages. Moreover, exclusion of large herbivores can yield rapid responses by vegetation that may enhance or maintain habitat quality for small mammal populations.

  17. Road zone effects in small-mammal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.; Rosa, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  18. PATHOBIOLOGY OF SELECTED MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine mammals are the subset of true mammals that have evolved unique characteristics for survival in an aquatic environment. he five major groups of marine mammals, cetacea, pinnipeds, mustelids, sirenia, and ursids, did not descend from a common phylogenetic line, and therefor...

  19. Temporal niche overlap among insectivorous small mammals.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Emerson M; Paise, Gabriela

    2011-12-01

    Being active in the same environment at different times exposes animals to the effects of very different environmental factors, both biotic and abiotic. In the present study, we used live traps equipped with timing devices to evaluate the potential role of biotic factors (competition and food abundance) on overall overlap in the temporal niche axis of 4 insectivorous small mammals in high-elevation grassland fields ('campos de altitude') of southern Brazil. Based on resources availability (invertebrates), data on animal captures were pooled in 2 seasons: 'scarcity' (June 2001-September 2001) and 'abundance' (November 2001-May 2002) seasons. We tested for non-random structure in temporal niche overlap among the species in each season. These species were the rodents Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837), Deltamys sp., Akodon azarae (Fischer, 1829), and the marsupial Monodelphis brevicaudis Olfers, 1818. The studied community was mainly diurnal with crepuscular peaks. Simulations using the Pianka index of niche overlap indicated that the empirical assemblage-wide overlap was not significantly different from randomly generated patterns in the abundance season but significantly greater than expected by chance alone in the scarcity season. All the species showed an increase in temporal niche breadth during the abundance season, which appears to be related to longer daylength and high nocturnal temperatures. Patterns on both temporal niche overlap and temporal niche breadth were the opposite to those that we were expecting in the case of diel activity patterns determined by competition for dietary resources. Therefore, we conclude that competition did not seem to be preponderant for determining patterns of temporal niche overlap by the studied community. PMID:22182329

  20. APPROACHES TO LUNG FUNCTION ASSESSMENT IN SMALL MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The review chapter of pulmonary function assessment in small mammals first discusses basic principles and methods such as assessment of various pressures, volumes and flows. The three types of plethysmographs (pressure, flow and barometric) used by animal physiologists are evalua...

  1. Diversity and habitat association of small mammals in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    BANTIHUN, Getachew; BEKELE, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Here, we conducted a survey to examine the diversity, distribution and habitat association of small mammals from August 2011 to February 2012 incorporating both wet and dry seasons in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia. Using Sherman live traps and snap traps in four randomly selected trapping grids, namely, natural forest, bushland, grassland and farmland, a total of 468 individuals comprising eight species of small mammals (live traps) and 89 rodents of six species (snap traps) were trapped in 2352 and 1200 trap nights, respectively. The trapped small mammals included seven rodents and one insectivore: Lophuromys flavopuntatus (30.6%), Arvicanthis dembeensis (25.8%), Stenocephalemys albipes (20%), Mastomys natalensis (11.6%), Pelomys harringtoni (6.4%), Acomys cahirinus (4.3%), Lemniscomys zebra (0.2%) and the greater red musk shrew (Crocidura flavescens, 1.1%). Analysis showed statistically significant variations in the abundance and habitat preferences of small mammals between habitats during wet and dry seasons. PMID:25855227

  2. Diversity and habitat association of small mammals in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bantihun, Getachew; Bekele, Afework

    2015-03-18

    Here, we conducted a survey to examine the diversity, distribution and habitat association of small mammals from August 2011 to February 2012 incorporating both wet and dry seasons in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia. Using Sherman live traps and snap traps in four randomly selected trapping grids, namely, natural forest, bushland, grassland and farmland, a total of 468 individuals comprising eight species of small mammals (live traps) and 89 rodents of six species (snap traps) were trapped in 2352 and 1200 trap nights, respectively. The trapped small mammals included seven rodents and one insectivore: Lophuromys flavopuntatus (30.6%), Arvicanthis dembeensis (25.8%), Stenocephalemys albipes (20%), Mastomys natalensis (11.6%), Pelomys harringtoni (6.4%), Acomys cahirinus (4.3%), Lemniscomys zebra (0.2%) and the greater red musk shrew (Crocidura flavescens, 1.1%). Analysis showed statistically significant variations in the abundance and habitat preferences of small mammals between habitats during wet and dry seasons. PMID:25855227

  3. A comparison of small-mammal communities in a desert riparian floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Laura E.; van Riper, Charles, III

    1998-01-01

    We compared small-mammal communities between inactive floodplain and actively flooded terraces of riparian habitat in the Verde Valley of central Arizona. We used species diversity, abundance, weight of adult males, number of juveniles, number of reproductively active individuals, longevity, residency status, and patterns of microhabitat use to compare the two communities. Although abundances of small mammals tended to be higher in the active floodplain, species diversity was greater in the inactive floodplain. Results were inconsistent with our initial prediction that actively flooded riparian habitat acts as a species source, whereas inactive floodplain acts as a sink or dispersal site for small mammals. Within each habitat type, we found evidence of significant microhabitat separation among the three most abundant small-mammal species (Peromyscus boylii, P. eremicus, and Neotoma albigula). Percent cover by annual and perennial grasses and shrubs, substrate, and frequency of shrubs, trees, and debris were significant determinants of small-mammal distribution within a habitat type. We found that the three most abundant species selected a nonrandom subset of available habitat. Nonrandom use of habitat and microhabitat separation were the two most important mechanisms structuring small-mammal communities in riparian habitat of central Arizona.

  4. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Yunger, John A.; /Northern Illinois U. /Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus Pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers wer 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in dits. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for P. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on P. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. Pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  5. Small mammals of a bitterbrush-cheatgrass community

    SciTech Connect

    Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Small mammals were live-trapped in burned and unburned segments of a bitterbrush-cheatgrass community during the years 1974-1979. Results indicate that the shrub-dominated unburned area supports about three times as many small mammals as the cheatgrass-dominated burned area. Species composition was similar in both areas with the exception of one ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) captured on the unburned area. Other species caught were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), and the western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis).

  6. Training birds and small mammals for medical behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Sara

    2012-09-01

    The use of operant conditioning in a zoologic setting allows zookeepers and other animal caretakers to train birds and small mammals to participate willingly in medical procedures. By using operant conditioning with an emphasis on positive reinforcement, small mammals and birds can be trained to cooperate in their own medical care in many ways. This conditioning can reduce stress for animals, caretakers, and veterinarians as well as reduce the potential for animal injuries. This article includes case studies of what the author has identified as foundation behaviors, intermediate behaviors, and advanced behaviors and the methods used to train them. PMID:22998964

  7. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection. PMID:27065607

  8. Small mammals from Sima de los Huesos.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Bescós, G; Laplana Conesa, C; Canudo, J I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    A small collection of rodents from Sima de los Huesos helps to clarify the stratigraphic position of this famous human locality. The presence of Allocricetus bursae and Pliomys lenki relictus and the size of A. bursae, Apodemus sylvaticus and Eliomys quercinus suggest a Middle Pleistocene age (Saalian) to the Clays where humans have been found. PMID:9300341

  9. PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

  10. Pulmonary function testing in small laboratory mammals.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

    1984-01-01

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small animals to measure spirometry (lung volumes), mechanics, distribution of ventilation, gas exchange or control of ventilation. These tests were designed on the basis of similar tests which are used in humans to diagnose and manage patients with lung disease. A major difference is that many of the measurements are performed in anesthetized animals, while human pulmonary function is usually measured in awake cooperating individuals. In addition, the measurement of respiratory events in small animals requires sensitive and rapidly responding equipment, because signals may be small and events can occur quickly. In general, the measurements described provide information on the change in normal lung function which results primarily from structural changes. These tests of pulmonary function can be repetitively and routinely accomplished and the results appear to be highly reproducible. Although some are quite sophisticated, many can be undertaken with relatively inexpensive equipment and provide useful information for toxicological testing. PMID:6434299

  11. A method of approximating range size of small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1965-01-01

    In summary, trap success trends appear to provide a useful approximation to range size of easily trapped small mammals such as Peromyscus. The scale of measurement can be adjusted as desired. Further explorations of the usefulness of the plan should be made and modifications possibly developed before adoption.

  12. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison; Katholi, Charles R.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Machang'u, Robert R.; Portaels, Françoise; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were divided into “reacting” and “nonreacting” farms, based on tuberculin tests, and more mycobacteria were present in insectivores collected in reacting farms as compared to nonreacting farms. More mycobacteria were also present in insectivores as compared to rodents. All mycobacteria detected by culture and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely. However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania. PMID:21785686

  13. Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (...

  14. Using of Synchrotron radiation for study of multielement composition of the small mammals diet and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezel, V. S.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Mukhacheva, S. V.; Chankina, O. V.; Savchenko, T. I.

    2007-05-01

    The Synchrotron radiation X-ray Fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) was used for estimation of "geochemical selection" of elements by small mammals, which belong to different trophic groups and inhabit polluted and background areas (the Middle Ural). The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Cd, Pb in the diet and into hepar of a herbivorous ( bank vole) and carnivorous ( Laxmann's shrew) small mammals were compared. Herbivores play a particular role in chemical elements translocation between trophic levels, limiting element transition to consumers of the consequent levels. Whereas, insectivores concentrate most elements in their tissues under the same conditions.

  15. Radionuclides in small mammals of the Saskatchewan prairie, including implications for the boreal forest and Arctic tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of the study reported was to collect and examine baseline data on radionuclides in small prairie mammal food chains and to assess the feasibility of using small mammals as radionuclide monitors in terrestrial ecosystems, in anticipation of possible future nuclear developments in northern Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories. The study report begins with a literature review that summarizes existing data on radionuclides in small mammals, their food, the ambient environment in Canadian terrestrial ecosystems, principles of terrestrial radioecology, soil and vegetation studies, and food chain studies. It then describes a field study conducted to investigate small mammal food chains at three southwestern Saskatchewan prairie sites. Activities included collection and analysis of water, soil, grains, and foliage samples; trapping of small mammals such as mice and voles, and analysis of gastrointestinal tract samples; and determination of food chain transfer of selected radionuclides from soil to plants and to small mammals. Recommendations are made for future analyses and monitoring of small mammals. Appendices include information on radiochemical methods, soil/vegetation studies and small mammal studies conducted at northern Saskatchewan mine sites, and analyses of variance.

  16. Isotope analyses of fossil small mammals in karstic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Alix, Antonio; Delgado Huertas, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Fossil skeletal accumulations in kartstic complexes, such as caves, are quite common, especially during the Pliocene and Quaternary. These fossil assemblages are sometimes difficult to study, as specimens from different ages can be found together (time averaging). The traditional approach to study this kind of paleontological sites was taphonomic (understanding the origin and other factors affecting the bone accumulation) and/or taxonomic (systematic description of the remains). However, other kinds of analyses, such as biogeochemical techniques to reconstruct past diets and environments, are being more frequently used. Small-mammals have a wide geographical distribution, and their remains (bones and teeth) are extensively represented in the fossil record; therefore, isotopic analyses in fossil small-mammals are a powerful tool to reconstruct paleoenvironments. Field samples for small-mammal studies yield large amounts of sediment-residues that need to be reduced in the laboratory (usually by means of diluted hydrochloric or acetic acid). Therefore, samples of fossil small-mammal for isotopic analyses usually receive two different acid treatments: one to reduce the carbonate residue of the sediment, and afterwards another one to remove digenetic carbonates from the ground sample. Those treatments, along with the small size of the remains, may increase the probability of chemical fractionation during those pre-treatment stages. Those acid treatments are even more aggressive in kasrtic fossil localities, as limestone has to be dissolved to extract the small mammal remains. In this abstract, we present the results of two different treatments carried out in limestone from the Pliocene karstic locality of Moreda (Guadix Basin, Spain) and a control sample. One batch of samples were treated with a solution of 1M acetic acid-acetate calcium buffer (ph 4,5), and the rest with diluted acetic acid (at 15% concentration, Ph 2,2), which is the most used to reduce the sediments

  17. Detection of diverse novel astroviruses from small mammals in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ben; Chmura, Aleksei A; Li, Jialu; Zhu, Guangjian; Desmond, James S; Zhang, Yunzhi; Zhang, Wei; Epstein, Jonathan H; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zhengli

    2014-11-01

    Astroviruses infect humans and many animal species and cause gastroenteritis. To extensively understand the distribution and genetic diversity of astrovirus in small mammals, we tested 968 anal swabs from 39 animal species, most of which were bats and rodents. We detected diverse astroviruses in 10 bat species, including known bat astroviruses and a large number of novel viruses. Meanwhile, novel groups of astroviruses were identified in three wild rodent species and a remarkably high genetic diversity of astrovirus was revealed in Eothenomys cachinus. We detected astroviruses in captive-bred porcupines and a nearly full-length genome sequence was determined for one strain. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete ORF2 sequence suggested that this strain may share a common ancestor with porcine astrovirus type 2. Moreover, to our knowledge, this study reports the first discovery of astroviruses in shrews and pikas. Our results provide new insights for understanding these small mammals as natural reservoirs of astroviruses. PMID:25034867

  18. Estimation methodology in contemporary small mammal capture-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Estimators of population size and survival rate based on the Jolly-Seber capture-recapture model and the 'enumeration method' are described. Enumeration estimators are shown to estimate complicated functions of capture and survival probabilities and, in the case of the population size estimator, population size. Frequently-listed reasons for preferring enumeration estimators are discussed and the Jolly-Seber estimators are shown to be superior even in the case of heterogeneity and trap-happy response, the two sources of unequal capture probability most likely to occur in small mammal studies. New developments in probabilistic capture-recapture models are described, and these models are recommended for future small mammal capture-recapture studies.

  19. The Celtic fringe of Britain: insights from small mammal phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Searle, Jeremy B; Kotlík, Petr; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Marková, Silvia; Herman, Jeremy S; McDevitt, Allan D

    2009-12-22

    Recent genetic studies have challenged the traditional view that the ancestors of British Celtic people spread from central Europe during the Iron Age and have suggested a much earlier origin for them as part of the human recolonization of Britain at the end of the last glaciation. Here we propose that small mammals provide an analogue to help resolve this controversy. Previous studies have shown that common shrews (Sorex araneus) with particular chromosomal characteristics and water voles (Arvicola terrestris) of a specific mitochondrial (mt) DNA lineage have peripheral western/northern distributions with striking similarities to that of Celtic people. We show that mtDNA lineages of three other small mammal species (bank vole Myodes glareolus, field vole Microtus agrestis and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus) also form a 'Celtic fringe'. We argue that these small mammals most reasonably colonized Britain in a two-phase process following the last glacial maximum (LGM), with climatically driven partial replacement of the first colonists by the second colonists, leaving a peripheral geographical distribution for the first colonists. We suggest that these natural Celtic fringes provide insight into the same phenomenon in humans and support its origin in processes following the end of the LGM. PMID:19793757

  20. Corridors and olfactory predator cues affect small mammal behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Haddad, Nick M.; Orrock, John L.

    2005-03-30

    Abstract The behavior of prey individuals is influenced by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, habitat configuration, risk of predation, and availability of resources, and these habitat-dependent factors may have interactive effects. We studied the responses of mice to an increase in perceived predation risk in a patchy environment to understand how habitat corridors might affect interactions among species in a fragmented landscape. We used a replicated experiment to investigate corridor-mediated prey responses to predator cues in a network of open habitat patches surrounded by a matrix of planted pine forest. Some of the patches were connected by corridors. We used mark–recapture techniques and foraging trays to monitor the movement, behavior, and abundance of small mammals. Predation threat was manipulated in one-half of the replicates by applying an olfactory predator cue. Corridors synchronized small mammal foraging activity among connected patches. Foraging also was inhibited in the presence of an olfactory predator cue but apparently increased in adjacent connected patches. Small mammal abundance did not change as a result of the predator manipulation and was not influenced by the presence of corridors. This study is among the 1st to indicate combined effects of landscape configuration and predation risk on prey behavior. These changes in prey behavior may, in turn, have cascading effects on community dynamics where corridors and differential predation risk influence movement and patch use.

  1. Small mammal response to the introduction of cattle into a cottonwood floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samson, F.B.; Knopf, F.L.; Hass, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    Few differences between pastures in small mammal communities were evident prior to grazing, 1 month following grazing, and no differences in number or distribution of small mammals were observed 5 months following grazing. Each small mammal species exhibited different habitat use compared to availability and few habitat variables differed on grazed versus ungrazed pastures. Grazing at SCS recommendations in winter did not appear to have an initial effect on small mammal populations or their habitats in a Colorado floodplain.

  2. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation. PMID:23828340

  3. Taphonomy for taxonomists: Implications of predation in small mammal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Denys, Christiane; Sesé, Carmen; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Marin-Monfort, Dolores; Pesquero, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    Predation is one of the most recurrent sources of bone accumulations. The influence of predation is widely studied for large mammal sites where humans, acting as predators, produce bone accumulations similar to carnivore accumulations. Similarly, small mammal fossil sites are mainly occupation levels of predators (nests or dens). In both cases, investigations of past events can be compared with present day equivalents or proxies. Chewing marks are sometimes present on large mammal predator accumulations, but digestion traits are the most direct indication of predation, and evidence for this is always present in small mammal (prey) fossil assemblages. Digestion grades and frequency indicates predator type and this is well established since the publication of Andrews (1990). The identification of the predator provides invaluable information for accurate interpretation of the palaeoenvironment. Traditionally, palaeoenvironmental interpretations are obtained from the taxonomic species identified in the site, but rather than providing direct interpretations of the surrounding palaeoenvironment, this procedure actually describes the dietary preferences of the predators and the type of occupation (nests, marking territory, dens, etc). This paper reviews the identification of traits produced by predators on arvicolins, murins and soricids using a method that may be used equally by taxonomists and taphonomists. It aims to provide the "tools" for taxonomists to identify the predator based on their methodology, which is examining the occlusal surfaces of teeth rather than their lateral aspects. This will greatly benefit both the work of taphonomists and taxonomists to recognize signs of predation and the improvement of subsequent palaeoecological interpretations of past organisms and sites by identifying both the prey and the predator.

  4. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Kathy; Sherwood, Sherri; Robinson, Rhonda

    2006-08-15

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  5. Evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus in small mammals.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor M; Lukashev, Alexander N; van den Brand, Judith M A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Brünink, Sebastian; Rasche, Andrea; Seggewiβ, Nicole; Feng, Hui; Leijten, Lonneke M; Vallo, Peter; Kuiken, Thijs; Dotzauer, Andreas; Ulrich, Rainer G; Lemon, Stanley M; Drosten, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and ubiquitous human pathogen recovered previously only from primates. The sole species of the genus Hepatovirus, existing in both enveloped and nonenveloped forms, and with a capsid structure intermediate between that of insect viruses and mammalian picornaviruses, HAV is enigmatic in its origins. We conducted a targeted search for hepatoviruses in 15,987 specimens collected from 209 small mammal species globally and discovered highly diversified viruses in bats, rodents, hedgehogs, and shrews, which by pairwise sequence distance comprise 13 novel Hepatovirus species. Near-complete genomes from nine of these species show conservation of unique hepatovirus features, including predicted internal ribosome entry site structure, a truncated VP4 capsid protein lacking N-terminal myristoylation, a carboxyl-terminal pX extension of VP1, VP2 late domains involved in membrane envelopment, and a cis-acting replication element within the 3D(pol) sequence. Antibodies in some bat sera immunoprecipitated and neutralized human HAV, suggesting conservation of critical antigenic determinants. Limited phylogenetic cosegregation among hepatoviruses and their hosts and recombination patterns are indicative of major hepatovirus host shifts in the past. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest a Hepatovirus origin in small insectivorous mammals and a rodent origin of human HAV. Patterns of infection in small mammals mimicked those of human HAV in hepatotropism, fecal shedding, acute nature, and extinction of the virus in a closed host population. The evolutionary conservation of hepatovirus structure and pathogenesis provide novel insight into the origins of HAV and highlight the utility of analyzing animal reservoirs for risk assessment of emerging viruses. PMID:26575627

  6. Evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus in small mammals

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor M.; Lukashev, Alexander N.; van den Brand, Judith M. A.; Gmyl, Anatoly P.; Brünink, Sebastian; Rasche, Andrea; Seggewiβ, Nicole; Feng, Hui; Leijten, Lonneke M.; Vallo, Peter; Kuiken, Thijs; Dotzauer, Andreas; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Drosten, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and ubiquitous human pathogen recovered previously only from primates. The sole species of the genus Hepatovirus, existing in both enveloped and nonenveloped forms, and with a capsid structure intermediate between that of insect viruses and mammalian picornaviruses, HAV is enigmatic in its origins. We conducted a targeted search for hepatoviruses in 15,987 specimens collected from 209 small mammal species globally and discovered highly diversified viruses in bats, rodents, hedgehogs, and shrews, which by pairwise sequence distance comprise 13 novel Hepatovirus species. Near-complete genomes from nine of these species show conservation of unique hepatovirus features, including predicted internal ribosome entry site structure, a truncated VP4 capsid protein lacking N-terminal myristoylation, a carboxyl-terminal pX extension of VP1, VP2 late domains involved in membrane envelopment, and a cis-acting replication element within the 3Dpol sequence. Antibodies in some bat sera immunoprecipitated and neutralized human HAV, suggesting conservation of critical antigenic determinants. Limited phylogenetic cosegregation among hepatoviruses and their hosts and recombination patterns are indicative of major hepatovirus host shifts in the past. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest a Hepatovirus origin in small insectivorous mammals and a rodent origin of human HAV. Patterns of infection in small mammals mimicked those of human HAV in hepatotropism, fecal shedding, acute nature, and extinction of the virus in a closed host population. The evolutionary conservation of hepatovirus structure and pathogenesis provide novel insight into the origins of HAV and highlight the utility of analyzing animal reservoirs for risk assessment of emerging viruses. PMID:26575627

  7. Small mammal study of Sandia Canyon, 1994 and 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.

    1996-11-01

    A wide range of plant and wildlife species utilize water discharged from facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this study was to gather baseline data of small mammal populations and compare small mammal characteristics within three areas of Sandia Canyon, which receives outfall effluents from multiple sources. Three small mammal trapping webs were placed in the upper portion of Sandia Canyon, the first two were centered in a cattail-dominated marsh with a ponderosa pine overstory and the third web was placed in a much drier transition area with a ponderosa pine overstory. Webs 1 and 2 had the highest species diversity indices with deer mice the most commonly captured species in all webs. However, at Web 1, voles, shrews, and harvest mice, species more commonly found in moist habitats, made up a much greater overall percentage (65.6%) than did deer mice and brush mice (34.5%). The highest densities and biomass of animals were found in Web 1 with a continual decrease in density estimates in each web downstream. There is no statistical difference between the mean body weights of deer mice and brush mice between sites. Mean body length was also determined not to be statistically different between the webs (GLM [deer mouse], F = 0.89, p = 0.4117; GLM [brush mouse], F = 2.49, p = 0.0999). Furthermore, no statistical difference between webs was found for the mean lean body masses of deer and brush mice (GLM [deer mouse], F = 2.54, p = 0.0838; GLM [brush mouse], F = 1.60, p = 0.2229). Additional monitoring studies should be conducted in Sandia Canyon so comparisons over time can be made. In addition, rodent tissues should be sampled for contaminants and then compared to background or control populations elsewhere at the Laboratory or at an off-site location.

  8. Measurements of uranium in soils and small mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Miera, F.R. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of uranium to a single species of small mammal, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus (Merriam), white-footed deer mouse, from two different source terms: a Los Alamos National Laboratory dynamic weapons testing site in north central New Mexico, where an estimated 70,000 kg of uranium have been expended over a 31-y period; and an inactive uranium mill tailings pile located in west central New Mexico near Grants, which received wastes over a 5-y period from the milling of 2.7 x 10/sup 9/ kg of uranium ore.

  9. The trap line as a measure of small mammal populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1948-01-01

    SUMMARY: The value of a line of traps as a measure of relative abundance of small mammals was studied by field trials on Peromyscus leucopus populations. Comparisons were made between the numbers of mice captured by a line of live traps and the numbers captured in intensive live trapping of a larger area surrounding the line. Trials were made in bottomland woods where mice were numerous and in upland woods where mice were less common. It was found that wood mice living in upland woods had significantly larger cruising ranges than those living in bottomland woods. Consequently, a line of traps in the bottomlands captured mice from a smaller surrounding territory than in the uplands. Therefore, comparisons of relative size of the mouse population in these two areas on the basis of line-trapping showed an erroneously large number for the upland woods. As a result of these trials and the studies of other workers, it is concluded that lines of traps are not fully reliable means of measuring relative abundance of small mammals.

  10. Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-03-13

    An opportunity to study the response of a small mammal community to restoration of a riparian wetland was provided by the Pen Branch project at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Live trapping of small mammals was conducted on six transects at Pen Branch in 1996 and 1998 and at three transects at Meyer's Branch, an unimpacted stream at SRS, in 1997 and 1998. Distributions of rates of capture of the four most common species were both spatially and temporally uneven. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance found no significant differences in the relationship of capture rates between species and between treatment and both the within-stream control and Meyers Branch. Habitat use and movement within stream corridors appears to be dependent primarily on species, with age and sex perhaps contributing to preference and distance moved. The lack of differences in capture rates related to transect or treatment may be due to the close proximity of sample transects relative to the movement potential of the species sampled.

  11. [Structure of parasitic arthropod communities in forest small mammals].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S

    2004-01-01

    Species composition and structure of ectoparasite arthropod communities were examined all year round six years in the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus, Ural wood mouse Apodemus uralensis and the common shrew Sorex araneus in forests of the Ilmen'-Volkhov depression. In total, 4500 host samples have been examined and all ectoparasites have been collected. The species composition of ectoparasite community in small mammal species are as follows: the bank vole--29 insect, tick and mite species, the common shrew--23 species, the Ural wood mouse--16 species. In forest biotopes, many temporary ectoparasitic species occur on several host species living in the same habitats under a forest canopy and contacting each other. A parasitic supracommunity in the ecosystem examined has a pool of temporary ectoparasites, which is available for all the community of small mammals. A role of different rodent and shrew species are hosts of insects and ticks changes depending on a density of potential host populations and numerous other environment factors. PMID:15656091

  12. Small Mammals: Common Surgical Procedures of Rodents, Ferrets, Hedgehogs, and Sugar Gliders.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Yasutsugu; Sladky, Kurt K

    2016-01-01

    Small mammal surgical procedures are a part of clinical veterinary practice and are performed with regularity. Anesthetic and analgesic techniques are important components of any successful small mammal surgical procedure. Many basic surgical principles used in dogs and cats can be directly applied to small mammals, but tissues tend to be smaller and thinner, and hemostasis is critical with small patients due to risk of death with minimal blood loss. Common surgical procedures in small mammals include integumentary mass and abscess excision, reproductive procedures, gastrointestinal foreign body removal, urolith removal, prolapsed tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract, intra-abdominal mass excision, and hepatic surgery. PMID:26611930

  13. Isotopic partitioning by small mammals in the subnivium.

    PubMed

    Calandra, Ivan; Labonne, Gaëlle; Mathieu, Olivier; Henttonen, Heikki; Lévêque, Jean; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Renvoisé, Élodie; Montuire, Sophie; Navarro, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    In the Arctic, food limitation is one of the driving factors behind small mammal population fluctuations. Active throughout the year, voles and lemmings (arvicoline rodents) are central prey in arctic food webs. Snow cover, however, makes the estimation of their winter diet challenging. We analyzed the isotopic composition of ever-growing incisors from species of voles and lemmings in northern Finland trapped in the spring and autumn. We found that resources appear to be reasonably partitioned and largely congruent with phylogeny. Our results reveal that winter resource use can be inferred from the tooth isotopic composition of rodents sampled in the spring, when trapping can be conducted, and that resources appear to be partitioned via competition under the snow. PMID:26445663

  14. Patterns of relative diversity within riparian small mammal communities, Platte River Watershed, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, T.E.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1988-01-01

    Relative diversity within and between small mammal assemblages of riparian and upland vegetation was evaluated at 6 study areas across an elevational gradient. In contrast to avian diversity analyses conducted at the same sites, species richness, relative diversity, and faunal similarity of small mammals were greater among upland rather than riparian communities across the cline. Beta diversity between riparian and upland small mammal communities is greater at higher elevations within the watershed. These higher elevation portions of watersheds must be emphasized in management strategies to conserve regional integrity of native small mammal faunas.

  15. Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size–extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size–extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly. PMID:24694691

  16. Future directions in training of veterinarians for small exotic mammal medicine: expectations, potential, opportunities, and mandates.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Small exotic mammals have been companions to people for almost as long as dogs and cats have been. The challenge for veterinary medicine today is to decipher the tea leaves and determine whether small mammals are fad or transient pets or whether they will still be popular in 20 years. This article focuses on pet small-mammal medicine, as the concerns of the laboratory animal are better known and may differ profoundly from those of a pet. Dozens of species of small exotic mammals are kept as pets. These pet small-mammal species have historically served human purposes other than companionship: for hunting, for their pelts, or for meat. Now, they are common pets. At present, most veterinary schools lack courses in the medical care of these animals. Veterinary students need at least one required class to introduce them to these pets. Currently, there are no small-mammal-only residency programs. This does not correspond with current needs. The only way to judge current needs is by assessing what employers are looking for. In a recent JAVMA classified section, almost 30% of small-animal practices in suburban/urban areas were hiring veterinarians with knowledge of exotic pets. All veterinarians must recognize that pet exotic small mammals have changed the landscape of small-animal medicine. It is a reality that, today, many small-animal practices see pet exotic small mammals on a daily basis. PMID:17035210

  17. Avian ecosystem functions are influenced by small mammal ecosystem engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birds are important mobile link species that contribute to landscape-scale patterns by means of pollination, seed dispersal, and predation. Birds are often associated with habitats modified by small mammal ecosystem engineers. We investigated whether birds prefer to forage on degu (Octodon degus) runways by comparing their foraging effort across sites with a range of runway densities, including sites without runways. We measured granivory by granivorous and omnivorous birds at Rinconada de Maipú, central Chile. As a measure of potential bird foraging on insects, we sampled invertebrate prey richness and abundance across the same sites. We then quantified an index of plot-scale functional diversity due to avian foraging at the patch scale. Results We recorded that birds found food sources sooner and ate more at sites with higher densities of degu runways, cururo mounds, trees, and fewer shrubs. These sites also had higher invertebrate prey richness but lower invertebrate prey abundance. This implies that omnivorous birds, and possibly insectivorous birds, forage for invertebrates in the same plots with high degu runway densities where granivory takes place. In an exploratory analysis we also found that plot-scale functional diversity for four avian ecosystem functions were moderately to weakly correllated to expected ecosystem function outcomes at the plot scale. Conclusions Degu ecosystem engineering affects the behavior of avian mobile link species and is thus correlated with ecosystem functioning at relatively small spatial scales. PMID:24359802

  18. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia. PMID:26346455

  19. Experimental analysis of methods for measuring small mammal populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1946-01-01

    SUMMARY: The Peromyscus leucopus on a 17-acre study area were live-trapped, marked, and released over a seven-day period. On the three following nights intensive snap-trapping was done on the central acre of the study plot. The animals caught by snap traps in the central acre represented the population of the central acre and several surrounding acres. By the currently accepted methods of interpreting snap-trap data, the population per acre would be considered to be 23 adults. The live-trap data show that the true population was between six and seven adults per acre. Modern methods of live-trapping are shown to be valid for population studies. Two methods are presented for the conversion of live-trap data into per acre figures. Errors involved in the current use of snap-trap data are discussed and snap-trap methods are shown to be invalid for determining actual population numbers. It should be practical to use a snap-trap quadrant technique to obtain a relative measure or index figure for small mammal populations.

  20. Hantavirus testing in small mammal populations of northcentral New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Foxx, T.

    1995-07-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993 and 1994, the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, primarily for ecological risk assessment (ecorisk) studies. At the request of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the School of Medicine at the University of New Mexico, EST also collected blood samples from captured animals for use in determining seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region due to the recent outbreak of this virus in the four-comers region of the Southwest. The deer mouse was the most commonly captured species during the tripping sessions. Other species sampled included harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), least chipmunk (Eutamias minimus), long-tailed vole (Microtus longicaudus), Mexican woodrat (Neotoma mexicana), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). The team collected blood samples from tripped animals following CDC`s suggested guidelines. Results of the 1993 and 1994 hantavirus testing identified a total overall seroprevalence of approximately 5.5% and 4.2%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence rates were found in deer mice seri (3--6%), but results on several species were inconclusive; further studies will be necessary, to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  1. Improving ungulate habitat in a region undergoing rapid energy development: Consequences for songbirds and small mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, Sara Petrita

    Habitat manipulation intended to mitigate the impact of energy development on game animals is well underway in the western U.S. Yet, the consequences of these actions for other species are not well understood. A habitat manipulation experiment was established in the Piceance Basin, a region of Colorado undergoing rapid energy development, to evaluate alternative methods (i.e. chaining, hydro-axe, and roller-chop treatments) for reducing pinyon-juniper woodlands to promote mule deer habitat. I use this experimental design to additionally test the initial effects of these treatments on birds and small mammals, and to evaluate selection of habitat components in treatments by birds and small mammals. I found lower bird species occupancy in all treatment plots compared to control plots; however the strength of this response varied by bird guild. I found a positive relationship between bird species occupancy and percent tree cover and a negative relationship between bird species occupancy and percent grass and forb cover. I found no evidence of differences in small mammal species occupancy or density between controls and treatments. I found a positive relationship between small mammal species occupancy and percent grass and forb cover. Species richness did not significantly differ between control and treatment plots for birds or small mammals. My approach and research findings can be used to inform habitat management and multiple-species conservation objectives in pinyon-juniper and sage-steppe ecosystems undergoing energy development. Specifically, I have identified that recently developed roller-chop and hydro-axe treatments have similar impacts to woodland bird guilds as traditional chaining treatments. I have also identified species that are sensitive to habitat mitigation treatments, and thus should be monitored if woodland reduction continues to be used as a habitat mitigation strategy. Since all bird guilds were positively associated with tree cover, woodland

  2. Resource Selection and Its Implications for Wide-Ranging Mammals of the Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L.; Machado, Ricardo B.; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J.; Wasser, Samuel K.

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  3. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  4. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hentall, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts) are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 mA-h were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm) but taller (6 mm) were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat's raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-min (50% duty cycle) trains of 30 μA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n = 128). Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n = 16) were achieved with larger batteries (44 mA-h) in longer (18 mm), taller (6 mm) capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat's sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation. PMID:24130527

  5. Negative Effects of an Exotic Grass Invasion on Small-Mammal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Eric D.; Sharp, Tiffanny R.; Larsen, Randy T.; Knight, Robert N.; Slater, Steven J.; McMillan, Brock R.

    2014-01-01

    Exotic invasive species can directly and indirectly influence natural ecological communities. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is non-native to the western United States and has invaded large areas of the Great Basin. Changes to the structure and composition of plant communities invaded by cheatgrass likely have effects at higher trophic levels. As a keystone guild in North American deserts, granivorous small mammals drive and maintain plant diversity. Our objective was to assess potential effects of invasion by cheatgrass on small-mammal communities. We sampled small-mammal and plant communities at 70 sites (Great Basin, Utah). We assessed abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community, diversity of the plant community, and the percentage of cheatgrass cover and shrub species. Abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community decreased with increasing abundance of cheatgrass. Similarly, cover of cheatgrass remained a significant predictor of small-mammal abundance even after accounting for the loss of the shrub layer and plant diversity, suggesting that there are direct and indirect effects of cheatgrass. The change in the small-mammal communities associated with invasion of cheatgrass likely has effects through higher and lower trophic levels and has the potential to cause major changes in ecosystem structure and function. PMID:25269073

  6. Negative effects of an exotic grass invasion on small-mammal communities.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Eric D; Sharp, Tiffanny R; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; Slater, Steven J; McMillan, Brock R

    2014-01-01

    Exotic invasive species can directly and indirectly influence natural ecological communities. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is non-native to the western United States and has invaded large areas of the Great Basin. Changes to the structure and composition of plant communities invaded by cheatgrass likely have effects at higher trophic levels. As a keystone guild in North American deserts, granivorous small mammals drive and maintain plant diversity. Our objective was to assess potential effects of invasion by cheatgrass on small-mammal communities. We sampled small-mammal and plant communities at 70 sites (Great Basin, Utah). We assessed abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community, diversity of the plant community, and the percentage of cheatgrass cover and shrub species. Abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community decreased with increasing abundance of cheatgrass. Similarly, cover of cheatgrass remained a significant predictor of small-mammal abundance even after accounting for the loss of the shrub layer and plant diversity, suggesting that there are direct and indirect effects of cheatgrass. The change in the small-mammal communities associated with invasion of cheatgrass likely has effects through higher and lower trophic levels and has the potential to cause major changes in ecosystem structure and function. PMID:25269073

  7. Comparison of small mammal species diversity near wastewater outfalls, natural streams, and dry canyons

    SciTech Connect

    Raymer, D.F.; Biggs, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    A wide range of plant and wildlife species utilizes water discharged from facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this study was to compare nocturnal small mammal communities at wet areas created by wastewater outfalls with communities in naturally created wet and dry areas. Thirteen locations within LANL boundaries were selected for small mammal mark-recapture trapping. Three of these locations lacked surface water sources and were classified as {open_quotes}dry,{close_quotes} while seven sites were associated with wastewater outfalls ({open_quotes}outfall{close_quotes} sites), and three were located near natural sources of surface water ({open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} sites). Data was collected on site type (dry, outfall or natural), location, species trapped, and the tag number of each individual captured. This data was used to calculate mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity at each type of site. When data from each type of site was pooled, there were no significant differences in these variables between dry, outfall, and natural types. However, when data from individual sites was compared, tests revealed significant differences. All sites in natural areas were significantly higher than dry areas in daily mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity. Most outfall sites were significantly higher than dry areas in all three variables tested. When volume of water from each outfall site was considered, these data indicated that the number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity of nocturnal small mammals were directly related to the volume of water at a given outfall.

  8. Integrating small mammal community variables into aircraft-wildlife collision management plans at Namibian airports.

    PubMed

    Hauptfleisch, Morgan L; Avenant, Nico L

    2015-11-01

    Understanding ecosystems within and around airports can help to determine the causes and possible mitigation measures for collisions between aircraft and wildlife. Small mammal communities are an important component of the semi-arid savanna ecosystems of Namibia, its productivity and its ecosystem integrity. They are also a major direct attractant for raptors at airports. The present study compared the abundance and diversity of small mammals between Namibia's 2 main airport properties (Hosea Kutako International Airport and Eros Airport), and among areas of land used for various purposes surrounding the airports. A total of 2150 small mammals (3 orders, 11 species) were captured over 4 trapping seasons. Small mammal abundance was significantly higher at the end of the growing season than during the non-growing season. The grass mowing regimen in current management plans at the airports resulted in a significant reduction of small mammal abundance at Hosea Kutako during the non-growing season only, thus indicating that annual mowing is effective but insufficient to reduce the overall abundance of mammal prey species for raptors. Small mammal numbers were significantly higher at Hosea Kutako Airport compared to the cattle and game farming land surrounding the airport, while no differences in small mammal densities or diversity were found for areas with different land uses at and surrounding Eros. The study suggests that the fence around Hosea Kutako provides a refuge for small mammals, resulting in higher densities. It also indicates that different surrounding land use practices result in altered ecosystem function and productivity, an important consideration when identifying wildlife attractants at airports. PMID:26331534

  9. Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change.

    PubMed

    Blois, Jessica L; McGuire, Jenny L; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-10

    Communities have been shaped in numerous ways by past climatic change; this process continues today. At the end of the Pleistocene epoch about 11,700 years ago, North American communities were substantially altered by the interplay of two events. The climate shifted from the cold, arid Last Glacial Maximum to the warm, mesic Holocene interglacial, causing many mammal species to shift their geographic distributions substantially. Populations were further stressed as humans arrived on the continent. The resulting megafaunal extinction event, in which 70 of the roughly 220 largest mammals in North America (32%) became extinct, has received much attention. However, responses of small mammals to events at the end of the Pleistocene have been much less studied, despite the sensitivity of these animals to current and future environmental change. Here we examine community changes in small mammals in northern California during the last 'natural' global warming event at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and show that even though no small mammals in the local community became extinct, species losses and gains, combined with changes in abundance, caused declines in both the evenness and richness of communities. Modern mammalian communities are thus depauperate not only as a result of megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene but also because of diversity loss among small mammals. Our results suggest that across future landscapes there will be some unanticipated effects of global change on diversity: restructuring of small mammal communities, significant loss of richness, and perhaps the rising dominance of native 'weedy' species. PMID:20495547

  10. A small-scale survey of hantavirus in mammals from Indiana.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, N; Pruden, S; Ksiazek, T G; Morzunov, S P; Camp, J W

    1997-10-01

    In order to determine if hantaviruses were present in mice and other small mammals in Indiana (USA), small mammals were trapped in Brown, LaPorte, Tippecanoe and Whitley counties. Sixty-seven small mammals were trapped during August and September 1994. Sixty-three Peromyscus leucopus, one Microtus pennsylvanicus, one Zapus hudsonius and two Blarina brevicauda were captured and tested for hantaviruses. Six P. leucopus were found to have antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SN) by IgG ELISA, and a 139 bp fragment of SN-like hantavirus was amplified from five of them. All six of the positive P. leucopus were from LaPorte County. No other small mammals had evidence of infection with SN virus. This study presents the first report of Sin Nombre-like hantavirus in P. leucopus from Indiana. PMID:9391967

  11. NITROGEN OUTPUTS OF SMALL MAMMALS FROM FECAL AND URINE DEPOSITION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of small mammals in nitrogen cycling is poorly understood and could have reverberations back to the producer community by maintaining or even magnifying increased nitrogen availability. Our objective was to model nitrogen outputs (deposition of feces and urine) ...

  12. 2002 Small Mammal Inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    West, E; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    To assist the University of California in obtaining biological assessment information for the ''2004 Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'', Jones & Stokes conducted an inventory of small mammals in six major vegetation communities at Site 300. These communities were annual grassland, native grassland, oak savanna, riparian corridor, coastal scrub, and seep/spring wetlands. The principal objective of this study was to assess the diversity and abundance of small mammal species in these communities, as well as the current status of any special-status small mammal species found in these communities. Surveys in the native grassland community were conducted before and after a controlled fire management burn of the grasslands to qualitatively evaluate any potential effects of fire on small mammals in the area.

  13. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  14. How-to-Do-It: Tracing Small Mammal Movements with Fluorescent Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, Tim R.; Streubel, Donald P.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is an activity designed to teach small mammal ecology and the scientific method using fluorescent dyes and pigments. Procedures for analyzing home ranges and social organizations are described. A list of 16 references is included. (CW)

  15. Strong Artificial Selection in Domestic Mammals Did Not Result in an Increased Recombination Rate

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Marcet-Ortega, Marina; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Linde Forsberg, Catharina; Morrell, Jane M.; Manzano-Piedras, Esperanza; Söderberg, Arne; Daniel, Katrin; Villalba, Adrian; Toth, Attila; Di Rienzo, Anna; Roig, Ignasi; Vilà, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Recombination rates vary in intensity and location at the species, individual, sex and chromosome levels. Despite the fundamental biological importance of this process, the selective forces that operate to shape recombination rate and patterns are unclear. Domestication offers a unique opportunity to study the interplay between recombination and selection. In domesticates, intense selection for particular traits is imposed on small populations over many generations, resulting in organisms that differ, sometimes dramatically, in morphology and physiology from their wild ancestor. Although earlier studies suggested increased recombination rate in domesticates, a formal comparison of recombination rates between domestic mammals and their wild congeners was missing. In order to determine broad-scale recombination rate, we used immunolabeling detection of MLH1 foci as crossover markers in spermatocytes in three pairs of closely related wild and domestic species (dog and wolf, goat and ibex, and sheep and mouflon). In the three pairs, and contrary to previous suggestions, our data show that contemporary recombination rate is higher in the wild species. Subsequently, we inferred recombination breakpoints in sequence data for 16 genomic regions in dogs and wolves, each containing a locus associated with a dog phenotype potentially under selection during domestication. No difference in the number and distribution of recombination breakpoints was found between dogs and wolves. We conclude that our data indicate that strong directional selection did not result in changes in recombination in domestic mammals, and that both upper and lower bounds for crossover rates may be tightly regulated. PMID:25414125

  16. Spatial distribution of an infectious disease in a small mammal community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Juana P.; Bacigalupo, Antonella; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Oda, Esteban; Cattan, Pedro E.; Solari, Aldo; Botto-Mahan, Carezza

    2015-10-01

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by insect vectors to several mammals, but little is known about its spatial epidemiology. We assessed the spatial distribution of T. cruzi infection in vectors and small mammals to test if mammal infection status is related to the proximity to vector colonies. During four consecutive years we captured and georeferenced the locations of mammal species and colonies of Mepraia spinolai, a restricted-movement vector. Infection status on mammals and vectors was evaluated by molecular techniques. To examine the effect of vector colonies on mammal infection status, we constructed an infection distance index using the distance between the location of each captured mammal to each vector colony and the average T. cruzi prevalence of each vector colony, weighted by the number of colonies assessed. We collected and evaluated T. cruzi infection in 944 mammals and 1976 M. spinolai. We found a significant effect of the infection distance index in explaining their infection status, when considering all mammal species together. By examining the most abundant species separately, we found this effect only for the diurnal and gregarious rodent Octodon degus. Spatially explicit models involving the prevalence and location of infected vectors and hosts had not been reported previously for a wild disease.

  17. Comparative dynamics of small mammal populations in treefall gaps and surrounding understorey within Amazonian rainforest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, H.; Gaines, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Variation in food resource availability can have profound effects on habitat selection and dynamics of populations. Previous studies reported higher food resource availability and fruit removal in treefall gaps than in the understorey. Therefore, gaps have been considered 'keystone habitat' for Neotropical frugivore birds. Here we test if this prediction would also hold for terrestrial small mammals. In the Amazon, we quantified food resource availability in eleven treefall gaps and paired understorey habitats and used feeding experiments to test if two common terrestrial rodents (Oryzomys megacephalus and Proechimys spp.) would perceive differences between habitats. We live-trapped small mammals in eleven gaps and understorey sites for two years, and compared abundance, fitness components (survival and per capita recruitment) and dispersal of these two rodent species across gaps and understorey and seasons (rainy and dry). Our data indicated no differences in resource availability and consumption rate between habitats. Treefall gaps may represent a sink habitat for Oryzomys where individuals had lower fitness, apparently because of habitat-specific ant predation on early life stages, than in the understorey, the source habitat. Conversely, gaps may be source habitat for Proechimys where individuals had higher fitness, than in the understorey, the sink habitat. Our results suggest the presence of source-sink dynamics in a tropical gap-understorey landscape, where two rodent species perceive habitats differently. This may be a mechanism for their coexistence in a heterogeneous and species-diverse system.

  18. The influence of trap density and sampling duration on the detection of small mammal species richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conard, J.M.; Baumgardt, J.A.; Gipson, P.S.; Althoff, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing species richness of small mammal communities is an important research objective for many live-trapping studies designed to assess or monitor biological diversity. We tested the effectiveness and efficiency of various trap densities for determining estimates and counts of small mammal species richness. Trapping was conducted in grassland habitats in northeastern Kansas during spring and fall of 2002 and 2003. Estimates and counts of species richness were higher at increased trap densities. This effect appeared to be primarily due to the higher number of individuals sampled at higher trap densities. At least 3 nights duration was needed to produce a stable estimate of species richness for the range of trap densities tested (9-144 trap stations/ha). Higher trap densities generally reached stable richness estimates in fewer nights than low density trapping arrangements. Given that counts and estimates of species richness were influenced by trap density and sampling duration, it is critical that these parameters are selected to most effectively meet research objectives.

  19. Land use and small mammal predation effects on shortgrass prairie birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland birds endemic to the central shortgrass prairie ecoregion of the United States have experienced steep and widespread declines over the last 3 decades, and factors influencing reproductive success have been implicated. Nest predation is the major cause of nest failure in passerines, and nesting success for some shortgrass prairie birds is exceptionally low. The 3 primary land uses in the central shortgrass prairie ecoregion are native shortgrass prairie rangeland (62), irrigated and nonirrigated cropland (29), and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP, 8). Because shortgrasscropland edges and CRP may alter the community of small mammal predators of grassland bird nests, I sampled multiple sites on and near the Pawnee National Grasslands in northeast Colorado, USA, to evaluate 1) whether small mammal species richness and densities were greater in CRP fields and shortgrass prairiecropland edges compared to shortgrass prairie habitats, and 2) whether daily survival probabilities of ground-nesting grassland bird nests were negatively correlated with densities of small mammals. Small mammal species richness and densities, estimated using trapping webs, were generally greater along edges and on CRP sites compared to shortgrass sites. Vegetation did not differ among edges and shortgrass sites but did differ among CRP and shortgrass sites. Daily survival probabilities of artificial nests at edge and CRP sites and natural nests at edge sites did not differ from shortgrass sites, and for natural nests small mammal densities did not affect nest survival. However, estimated daily survival probability of artificial nests was inversely proportional to thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) densities. In conclusion, these data suggest that although land-use patterns on the shortgrass prairie area in my study have substantial effects on the small mammal community, insufficient data existed to determine whether land-use patterns or small mammal density

  20. Small mammal abundance in Mediterranean post-fire habitats: a role for predators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre, I.; Díaz, M.

    2004-05-01

    We studied patterns of small mammal abundance and species richness in post-fire habitats by sampling 33 plots (225 m 2 each) representing different stages of vegetation recovery after fire. Small mammal abundance was estimated by live trapping during early spring 1999 and vegetation structure was sampled by visual estimation at the same plots. Recently-burnt areas were characterised by shrubby and herbaceous vegetation with low structural variability, and unburnt areas were characterised by well developed forest cover with high structural complexity. Small mammal abundance and species richness decreased with time elapsed since the last fire (from 5 to at least 50 years), and these differences were associated to the decreasing cover of short shrubs as the post-fire succession of plant communities advanced. However, relationships between vegetation structure and small mammals differed among areas burned in different times, with weak or negative relationship in recently burnt areas and positive and stronger relationship in unburnt areas. Furthermore, the abundance of small mammals was larger than expected from vegetation structure in plots burned recently whereas the contrary pattern was found in unburned areas. We hypothesised that the pattern observed could be related to the responses of small mammal predators to changes in vegetation and landscape structure promoted by fire. Fire-related fragmentation could have promoted the isolation of forest predators (owls and carnivores) in unburned forest patches, a fact that could have produced a higher predation pressure for small mammals. Conversely, small mammal populations would have been enhanced in early post-fire stages by lower predator numbers combined with better predator protection in areas covered by resprouting woody vegetation.

  1. Implications of invasion by Juniperus virginiana on small mammals in the southern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horncastle, V.J.; Hellgren, E.C.; Mayer, P.M.; Ganguli, A.C.; Engle, David M.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examined effects of invasion by eastern red cedar on small mammals in 3 plant communities (tallgrass prairie, old field, and cross-timbers forest) in the cross-timbers ecoregion in Oklahoma. We sampled small mammals seasonally from May 2001 to August 2002 by using Sherman live traps and mark-recapture techniques on 3.24-ha, 450-trap grids in each plant community. We sampled vegetation in two hundred twenty-five 12 x 12-m cells within each grid. The structure of the small-mammal community differed among the 3 habitat types, with higher species diversity and richness in the tallgrass-prairie and old-field sites. Overall, the small-mammal community shifted along a gradient of increasing eastern red cedar. In the old-field and tallgrass-prairie plots, occurrence of grassland mammals decreased with increasing red cedar, whereas only 1 woodland mammal species increased. In the cross-timbers forest site, percent woody cover (<1 m in height), rather than cover of red cedar, was the most important factor affecting woodland mammal species. Examination of our data suggests that an increase in overstory cover from 0% to 30% red cedar can change a species-rich prairie community to a depauperate community dominated by 1 species, Peromyscus leucopus. Losses in species diversity and changes in mammal distribution paralleled those seen in avian communities invaded by eastern red cedar. Our results highlight ecological effects of invasion by eastern red cedar on diversity and function at multiple trophic levels. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  2. Effects of cattle grazing on small mammal communities in the Hulunber meadow steppe

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Tao; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Small mammals play important roles in many ecosystems, and understanding their response to disturbances such as cattle grazing is fundamental for developing sustainable land use strategies. However, how small mammals respond to cattle grazing remains controversial. A potential cause is that most of previous studies adopt rather simple experimental designs based solely on the presence/absence of grazing, and are thus unable to detect any complex relationships between diversity and grazing intensity. In this study, we conducted manipulated experiments in the Hulunber meadow steppe to survey small mammal community structures under four levels of grazing intensities. We found dramatic changes in species composition in native small mammal communities when grazing intensity reached intermediate levels (0.46 animal unit/ha). As grazing intensity increased, Spermophilus dauricus gradually became the single dominant species. Species richness and diversity of small mammals in ungrazed and lightly grazed (0.23 animal unit/ha) area were much higher than in intermediately and heavily grazed area. We did not detect a humped relationship between small mammal diversity and disturbance levels predicted by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). Our study highlighted the necessity of conducting manipulated experiments under multiple grazing intensities.

  3. The impact of buffer strips and stream-side grazing on small mammals in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Erik W.; Ribic, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The practice of continuously grazing cattle along streams has caused extensive degradation of riparian habitats. Buffer strips and managed intensive rotational grazing (MIRG) have been proposed to protect and restore stream ecosystems in Wisconsin. However, the ecological implications of a switch from traditional livestock management to MIRG or buffer strip establishment have not been investigated. Differences in small mammal communities associated with riparian areas on continuously grazed and MIRG pastures, as well as vegetative buffer strips adjacent to row crops, were investigated in southwestern Wisconsin during May-September 1997 and 1998. More species (mean of 6-7) were found on the buffer sites than on the pasture sites (mean of 2-5). Total small mammal abundance on buffer sites was greater than on the pastures as well: there were 3-5 times as many animals on the buffer sites compared to the pasture sites, depending on year. There were no differences in species richness or total abundance between MIRG and continuously grazed pastures in either year. Total small mammal abundance was greater near the stream than away from the stream, regardless of farm management practice but there were no differences in species richness. Buffer strips appear to support a particularly rich and abundant small mammal community. Although results did not detect a difference in small mammal use between pasture types, farm-wide implications of a conversion from continuous to MIRG styles of grazing may benefit small mammals indirectly by causing an increase in the prevalence of pasture in the agricultural landscape.

  4. Effects of fire on small mammal communities in frequent-fire forests in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Susan L.; Kelt, Douglas A.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Meyer, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is a natural, dynamic process that is integral to maintaining ecosystem function. The reintroduction of fire (e.g., prescribed fire, managed wildfire) is a critical management tool for protecting many frequent-fire forests against stand-replacing fires while restoring an essential ecological process. Understanding the effects of fire on forests and wildlife communities is important in natural resource planning efforts. Small mammals are key components of forest food webs and essential to ecosystem function. To investigate the relationship of fire to small mammal assemblages, we live trapped small mammals in 10 burned and 10 unburned forests over 2 years in the central Sierra Nevada, California. Small mammal abundance was higher in unburned forests, largely reflecting the greater proportion of closed-canopy species such as Glaucomys sabrinus in unburned forests. The most abundant species across the entire study area was the highly adaptable generalist species, Peromyscus maniculatus. Species diversity was similar between burned and unburned forests, but burned forests were characterized by greater habitat heterogeneity and higher small mammal species evenness. The use and reintroduction of fire to maintain a matrix of burn severities, including large patches of unburned refugia, creates a heterogeneous and resilient landscape that allows for fire-sensitive species to proliferate and, as such, may help maintain key ecological functions and diverse small mammal assemblages.

  5. Intrasexual competition and sexual selection in cooperative mammals.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Hodge, S J; Spong, G; Russell, A F; Jordan, N R; Bennett, N C; Sharpe, L L; Manser, M B

    2006-12-21

    In most animals, the sex that invests least in its offspring competes more intensely for access to the opposite sex and shows greater development of secondary sexual characters than the sex that invests most. However, in some mammals where females are the primary care-givers, females compete more frequently or intensely with each other than males. A possible explanation is that, in these species, the resources necessary for successful female reproduction are heavily concentrated and intrasexual competition for breeding opportunities is more intense among females than among males. Intrasexual competition between females is likely to be particularly intense in cooperative breeders where a single female monopolizes reproduction in each group. Here, we use data from a twelve-year study of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta), where females show high levels of reproductive skew, to show that females gain greater benefits from acquiring dominant status than males and traits that increase competitive ability exert a stronger influence on their breeding success. Females that acquire dominant status also develop a suite of morphological, physiological and behavioural characteristics that help them to control other group members. Our results show that sex differences in parental investment are not the only mechanism capable of generating sex differences in reproductive competition and emphasize the extent to which competition for breeding opportunities between females can affect the evolution of sex differences and the operation of sexual selection. PMID:17183322

  6. The Grinnell Project; Small Mammal Responses to Climate in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, C. C.; Koo, M.; Monahan, B.; Parra, J.; Moritz, C.

    2006-12-01

    Between 1915 and 1920, Joseph Grinnell and colleagues investigated the diversity of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds across what they termed the Yosemite Transect, an area spanning portions of the San Joaquin Valley, the Sierra Nevada, including about 1/3 of Yosemite National Park, and ending at Mono Lake. Their data collection included preservation of series of specimens at a large number of locations, point counts of birds, photography and extensive natural history notes, all of which are still archived at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at UC Berkeley. Beginning in 2003, researchers from the MVZ began retracing this work, collecting specimens, using point counts, and retaking some photographs. The comparison of the two periods indicates that some mammals have shifted their ranges greatly. Most taxa show an elevation increase, either an increase at the top for middle elevation species, or a retraction at the bottom for higher elevation species. However, not all species moved, and one high elevation species moved down. To further investigate how changes observed in Yosemite might also apply to larger spatial scales, our group has been using historic climate surfaces, historic specimen localities, and a variety of modeling methods to predict statewide changes in species' distributions. Other potential sites to be revisited include the Lassen Transect in Northern California, the Colorado River, and the San Bernardino Mountains.

  7. Lower richness of small wild mammal species and chagas disease risk.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; Otaviano, Joel Carlos Rodrigues; Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    A new epidemiological scenario involving the oral transmission of Chagas disease, mainly in the Amazon basin, requires innovative control measures. Geospatial analyses of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle in the wild mammals have been scarce. We applied interpolation and map algebra methods to evaluate mammalian fauna variables related to small wild mammals and the T. cruzi infection pattern in dogs to identify hotspot areas of transmission. We also evaluated the use of dogs as sentinels of epidemiological risk of Chagas disease. Dogs (n = 649) were examined by two parasitological and three distinct serological assays. kDNA amplification was performed in patent infections, although the infection was mainly sub-patent in dogs. The distribution of T. cruzi infection in dogs was not homogeneous, ranging from 11-89% in different localities. The interpolation method and map algebra were employed to test the associations between the lower richness in mammal species and the risk of exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection. Geospatial analysis indicated that the reduction of the mammal fauna (richness and abundance) was associated with higher parasitemia in small wild mammals and higher exposure of dogs to infection. A Generalized Linear Model (GLM) demonstrated that species richness and positive hemocultures in wild mammals were associated with T. cruzi infection in dogs. Domestic canine infection rates differed significantly between areas with and without Chagas disease outbreaks (Chi-squared test). Geospatial analysis by interpolation and map algebra methods proved to be a powerful tool in the evaluation of areas of T. cruzi transmission. Dog infection was shown to not only be an efficient indicator of reduction of wild mammalian fauna richness but to also act as a signal for the presence of small wild mammals with high parasitemia. The lower richness of small mammal species is discussed as a risk factor for the re-emergence of Chagas disease. PMID:22616021

  8. Radiation exposure and dose to small mammals in radon-rich soils.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, C R; Laverock, M J

    1998-07-01

    Protection of the environment from radionuclide releases requires knowledge of the normal background levels of radiation exposure in the exposed biotic community and an estimate of the detriment caused by additional exposure. This study modeled the background exposure and dose to the lungs of small burrowing mammals from 222Rn in artificial burrows in radon-rich soils at a site in southeastern Manitoba. E-PERM chambers used to measure 222Rn in soil showed good reproducibility of measurement, with an average coefficient of variance (CV) of about 10%. Geometric mean (GM) 222Rn concentrations at nine randomly selected sites ranged from 5,490 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.57, n = 7) to 41,000 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.02, n = 5). Long-term monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in artificial burrows showed large variation within and between burrows and did not show consistent variation with season, orientation of the burrow opening, or levels of 226Ra in the soil. Annual GM concentrations in individual burrows ranged from 7,480 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.60) to 18,930 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.81) in burrows several meters apart. A grand GM of 9,990 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.81, n = 214) was measured over the site for the year. An exposure model was constructed for five small mammal species based on their respiration rates and the number of hours spent in the burrow, active or hibernating, exposed to soil gas 222Rn, and the time spent out of the burrow exposed to atmospheric 222Rn. A background dose of 0.9 mGy/a from atmospheric 222Rn (40 Bq/m3) was estimated for a large-bodied (80 kg), nonburrowing animal living on the soil surface. The highest exposures (mJ/a) in burrowing mammals occurred in those species with the highest respiration rates. Hibernation accounted for a small fraction of total annual exposure (<5%) because of very low respiration rates during this period. Absorbed dose to lung (mGy/a) was highest in the pocket gopher and decreased in the larger animals because of larger lung mass. Using mean 222Rn concentrations

  9. Effect of downed woody debris on small mammal anti-predator behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkleman, Travis, M.; Orrock, John, L.; Loeb, Susan, C.

    2011-10-01

    Anti-predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs,but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used givingup densities to quantify the degree to which downed woody debris alters perceived predation risk by small mammals in southeastern pineforests. We placed 14 foraging trays next to large downed woody debris,shrubs, and in open areas for 12 consecutive nights. Moon illumination, a common indicator of predation risk, led to a similar reduction in small mammal foraging in all three microhabitats (open, downed woody debris,and shrub). Small mammals perceived open microhabitats as riskier than shrub microhabitats, with downed woody debris habitats perceived as being of intermediate risk between shrub and open microhabitats. Despite the presumed benefits of the protective cover of downed woody debris, small mammals may perceive downed woody debris as a relatively risky foraging site in southeastern pine forests where the high diversity and abundance of rodent-eating snakes may provide a primary predatory threat.

  10. Assessing small mammal abundance with track-tube indices and mark-recapture population estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiewel, A.S.; Clark, W.R.; Sovada, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We compared track-tube sampling with mark-recapture livetrapping and evaluated a track-tube index, defined as the number of track tubes with identifiable small mammal tracks during a 4-night period, as a predictor of small mammal abundance estimates in North Dakota grasslands. Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were the most commonly recorded species by both methods, but were underrepresented in track-tube sampling, whereas 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) and Franklin's ground squirrels (S. franklinii) were overrepresented in track-tube sampling. Estimates of average species richness were lower from track tubes than from livetrapping. Regression models revealed that the track-tube index was at best a moderately good predictor of small mammal population estimates because both the form (linear versus curvilinear) and slope of the relationship varied between years. In addition, 95% prediction intervals indicated low precision when predicting population estimates from new track-tube index observations. Track tubes required less time and expense than mark-recapture and eliminated handling of small mammals. Using track tubes along with mark-recapture in a double sampling for regression framework would have potential value when attempting to estimate abundance of small mammals over large areas. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild small mammals: Seroprevalence, DNA detection and genotyping.

    PubMed

    Machačová, Tereza; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Žákovská, Alena; Sedlák, Kamil; Bártová, Eva

    2016-06-15

    Generally, rodents and other small mammals are considered as one of the sources of Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum infection for cats and dogs as the definitive hosts of these two parasites, respectively. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of these two parasites in wild small mammals from the Czech Republic and to characterize T. gondii isolates by methods of molecular biology. A total of 621 wild small mammals were caught in the Czech Republic during years 2002-2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected by latex agglutination test in six (2.5%) of 240 small mammals (in two A. agrarius and four A. flavicollis). Antibodies to N. caninum were detected by commercially available competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in one A. flavicolis (0.4%). Three of 427 (0.7%) liver samples were positive for T. gondii by PCR while negative for N. caninum. All embryo samples (n=102) were negative for both T. gondii and N. caninum. The three liver samples positive for T. gondii DNA (two from A. flavicollis and one from A. sylvaticus) were genotyped by 15 microsatellite markers and characterized as type II. To our knowledge, this is the first information about genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates in small mammals from Europe and the first detection of N. caninum antibodies in wild rodents from the Czech Republic. PMID:27198782

  12. Use of habitats by non-volant small mammals in Cerrado in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, M; Frieiro-Costa, F; Ignácio, Á R A; Silva, M N F

    2012-11-01

    Non-volant small mammals are organisms capable of yielding precise information on richness, abundance and species composition variations related to the use of habitats. The aim of this research was to compare these variations in Cerrado sensu stricto, Palm Forest, Gallery Forest and Rocky Field. From May 1999 to February 2000, we surveyed non-volant small mammals (hence small mammals) in Serra das Araras Ecological Station. We captured 218 individuals and recaptured 62 individuals, belonging to 21 taxa, 13 rodents and eight marsupials, in a total of 13200 trap-nights. Capture success was 1.7%. We observed higher richness of small mammals in forested areas (Gallery Forest and Palm Forest) than in open areas (Rocky Field and Cerrado sensu stricto). The Palm Forest had the highest richness of marsupials, possibly due to the quality of a specific niche. The Rocky Field had the smallest richness, but with very high abundance of few species, mainly Thrichomys pachyurus and Monodelphis domestica. Forest habitats had similar species composition. The open habitats, Cerrado sensu stricto and Rocky Field, had a distinct species composition between them, and also when compared to forested areas. Different species are exclusive or showed preference for specific habitats. The protection of horizontally heterogeneous biomes, such as Cerrado, has a fundamental importance to the maintenance of the regional diversity of the small mammal community of Central Brazil. PMID:23295519

  13. Small mammal populations at hazardous waste disposal sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Small mammals were trapped, tagged and recaptured in 0?45 ha plots at six hazardous industrial waste disposal sites to determine if populations, body mass and age structures were different from paired control site plots. Low numbers of six species of small mammals were captured on industrial waste sites or control sites. Only populations of hispid cotton rats at industrial waste sites and control sites were large enough for comparisons. Overall population numbers, age structure, and body mass of adult male and female cotton rats were similar at industrial waste sites and control sites. Populations of small mammals (particularly hispid cotton rats) may not suffice as indicators of environments with hazardous industrial waste contamination.

  14. A framework for assessment and monitoring of small mammals in a lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Solari, Sergio; Rodriguez, Juan José; Vivar, Elena; Velazco, Paul M

    2002-05-01

    Development projects in tropical forests can impact biodiversity. Assessment and monitoring programs based on the principles of adaptive management assist managers to identify and reduce such impacts. The small mammal community is one important component of a forest ecosystem that may be impacted by development projects. In 1996, a natural gas exploration project was initiated in a Peruvian rainforest. The Smithsonian Institution's Monitoring and Assessment of Biodiversity program cooperated with Shell Prospecting and Development Peru to establish an adaptive management program to protect the region's biodiversity. In this article, we discuss the role of assessing and monitoring small mammals in relation to the natural gas project. We outline the conceptual issues involved in establishing an assessment and monitoring program, including setting objectives, evaluating the results and making appropriate decisions. We also summarize the steps taken to implement the small mammal assessment, provide results from the assessment and discuss protocols to identify appropriate species for monitoring. PMID:12125752

  15. Control of small mammal damage in the Alberta oil sands reclamation and afforestation program

    SciTech Connect

    Radvanyi, A.

    1980-12-01

    Open-pit mining procedures being conducted in the oil sands of northeast Alberta greatly disrupt many acres of the environment. The reclamation and afforestation program intended to restore the forest habitat encountered an unanticipated problem when a large percentage of young nursery-raised trees planted on a tailings pond dyke and on overburden dump sites were found to have been girdled by a population of meadow voles which had become established in the dense grass habitat created to stabilize steep sandy slopes of the spoil piles. The study monitored small mammal populations through a high, low, and a second high level commensurate with the 3- to 4-year population cycle of small mammals. A control technique utilizing grain treated with an anticoagulant rodenticide made available to the mice in poisoned bait feeder stations effectively reduced small mammal numbers to very low levels and reduced girdling damage from an average of 50% to 1-2%.

  16. Elk herbivory alters small mammal assemblages in high-elevation drainages.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Elliott W R; Maron, John L; Martin, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Heavy herbivory by ungulates can substantially alter habitat, but the indirect consequences of habitat modification for animal assemblages that rely on that habitat are not well studied. This is a particularly important topic given that climate change can alter plant-herbivore interactions. We explored short-term responses of small mammal communities to recent exclusion of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) in high-elevation riparian drainages in northern Arizona, where elk impacts on vegetation have increased over the past quarter century associated with climate change. We used 10-ha elk exclosures paired with unfenced control drainages to examine how browsing influenced the habitat use, relative abundance, richness and diversity of a small mammal assemblage. We found that the small mammal assemblage changed significantly after 5 years of elk exclusion. Relative abundance of voles (Microtus mexicanus) increased in exclosure drainages, likely due to an increase in habitat quality. The relative abundances of woodrats (Neotoma neomexicana) and two species of mice (Peromyscus maniculatus and P. boylii) decreased in the controls, while remaining stable in exclosures. The decline of mice in control drainages was likely due to the decline in shrub cover that they use. Thus, elk exclusion may have maintained or improved habitat for mice inside the exclosures while habitat quality and mouse abundance both declined outside the fences. Finally, small mammal species richness increased in the exclosures relative to the controls while species diversity showed no significant trends. Together, our results show that relaxation of heavy herbivore pressure by a widespread native ungulate can lead to rapid changes in small mammal assemblages. Moreover, exclusion of large herbivores can yield rapid responses by vegetation that may enhance or maintain habitat quality for small mammal populations. PMID:23163813

  17. Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the southern mariana islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely

  18. Influence of landscape elements on population densities and habitat use of three small-mammal species.

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Dreelin, Erin, A.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2003-01-01

    Mabry, K.E., E.A. Dreelin, and G.W. Barrett. 2003. Influence of landscape elements on population densities and habitat use of three small-mammal species. J. Mammology. 84(1):20-25. Corridor effects on population densities and habitat use of 3 small mammal species were assessed in an experimentally fragmented landscape. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant effect on population densities of cotton rats or cotton mice; however, a significant effect was observed for old-field mice. The results suggest that landscape fragmentation and habitat structure may have varying effects on population densities of different species.

  19. Influence of physiography and vegetation on small mammals at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, B.L.

    1995-02-13

    Influence of physiography and vegetation on small mammal abundance and species Composition was investigated at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California to assess prey abundance for Federally endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and to assess the distribution of two Federal candidate species, San Joaquin antelope squirrels (Ammospermophilus nelsoni) and short-nosed kangaroo rats (Dinodomys nitratoides brevinasus). The specific objectives of this investigation were to determine whether small mammal abundance and community composition varied with north-south orientation, terrain, ground cover, and Cypher shrub density, and whether these factors influenced the distribution and abundance of San Joaquin antelope squirrels and short-nosed kangaroo rats.

  20. Serial population extinctions in a small mammal indicate Late Pleistocene ecosystem instability

    PubMed Central

    Brace, Selina; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Dalén, Love; Lister, Adrian M.; Miller, Rebecca; Otte, Marcel; Germonpré, Mietje; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Stewart, John R.; Barnes, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene global extinction of many terrestrial mammal species has been a subject of intensive scientific study for over a century, yet the relative contributions of environmental changes and the global expansion of humans remain unresolved. A defining component of these extinctions is a bias toward large species, with the majority of small-mammal taxa apparently surviving into the present. Here, we investigate the population-level history of a key tundra-specialist small mammal, the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus), to explore whether events during the Late Pleistocene had a discernible effect beyond the large mammal fauna. Using ancient DNA techniques to sample across three sites in North-West Europe, we observe a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity in this species over the last 50,000 y. We further identify a series of extinction-recolonization events, indicating a previously unrecognized instability in Late Pleistocene small-mammal populations, which we link with climatic fluctuations. Our results reveal climate-associated, repeated regional extinctions in a keystone prey species across the Late Pleistocene, a pattern likely to have had an impact on the wider steppe-tundra community, and one that is concordant with environmental change as a major force in structuring Late Pleistocene biodiversity. PMID:23185018

  1. Small mammal tooth enamel carbon isotope record of C4 grasses in late Neogene China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arppe, Laura; Kaakinen, Anu; Passey, Benjamin H.; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Fortelius, Mikael

    2015-10-01

    The spatiotemporal pattern of the late Cenozoic spread of C4 vegetation is an important indicator of environmental change that is intertwined with the uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, and the development of the East Asian monsoons. To explore the spread of C4 vegetation in China and shed new light on regional climatic evolution, we measured δ13C values of more than 200 small mammal teeth (primarily rodents and lagomorphs) using a laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach. Small mammals are highly sensitive indicators of their environment because they have limited spatial ranges and because they have minimal time-averaging of carbon isotope signatures of dietary components. The specimens originate from four classic Late Miocene fossil localities, Lufeng, Yuanmou, Lingtai, and Ertemte, along a southwest-northeast transect from Yunnan Province to Inner Mongolia. In Yunnan (Lufeng, Yuanmou) and on the Loess Plateau (Lingtai), the small mammal δ13C values record nearly pure C3 ecosystems, and mixed but C3-based ecosystems, respectively, in agreement with previous studies based on carbon isotopes of large herbivores and soil carbonates. In Inner Mongolia, the micromammalian tooth enamel δ13C record picks up the presence of C4 vegetation where large mammal samples do not, indicating a mixed yet C3-dominated ecosystem at ~ 6 Ma. As a whole, the results support a scenario of northward increasing C4 grass abundance in a pattern that mirrors northward decreasing precipitation of the summer monsoon system. The results highlight differences between large and small mammals as indicators of C4 vegetation in ancient ecosystems, particularly the ability of small mammal δ13C values to detect the presence of minor components of the vegetation structure.

  2. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in vegetation and small mammals inhabiting a coal ash disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, L.A.; Garten, C.T.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1994-12-31

    Coal ash is exempted from treatment as a hazardous waste under RCRA Subtitle C. The US Environmental Protection Agency justifies this exemption contending that coal ash does not possess any of the four RCRA hazardous properties (ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity). However, metals in coal ash may accumulate to toxic levels in biota on ash disposal sites. From 1955 to 1989, the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant sluiced coal ash to a 36-ha earthen retention basin (Filled Coal Ash Pond; FCAP); the basin drains to a small local stream. The FCAP is now revegetated, and a productive terrestrial ecosystem now exists on the site. Vegetation and small mammals were collected from the FCAP and a nearby reference site in September 1992, and June--September 1993. Vegetation and small mammals were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Se, Tl and Hg. Mean concentrations of Se and As for FCAP vs. reference site samples were significantly higher in deciduous tree foliage (18.9 {+-} 19.1 /{mu}g Se/g and 1.6 {+-} 0.69 /{mu}g As/g) and small mammals (2.4 {+-} 1.4 {mu}g Se/g and 0.16 {+-} 0.1 {mu}g As/g) inhabiting the FCAP. Thus, biota living on or near the ash disposal site have bioaccumulated Se and As. Concentrations of these metals in vegetation and small mammals are sufficient to cause toxic effects in their consumers.

  3. THE subfossil occurrence and paleoecological significance of small mammals at ankilitelo cave, southwestern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muldoon, K.M.; De Blieux, D. D.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Small mammals are rarely reported from subfossil sites in Madagascar despite their importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, especially as it relates to recent ecological changes on the island. We describe the uniquely rich subfossil small mammal fauna from Ankilitelo Cave, southwestern Madagascar. The Ankilitelo fauna is dated to the late Holocene (???500 years ago), documenting the youngest appearances of the extinct giant lemur taxa Palaeopropithecus, Megaladapis, and Archaeolemur, in association with abundant remains of small vertebrates, including bats, tenrecs, carnivorans, rodents, and primates. The Ankilitelo fauna is composed of 34 mammalian species, making it one of the most diverse Holocene assemblages in Madagascar. The fauna comprises the 1 st report of the short-tailed shrew tenrec (Microgale brevicaudata) and the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) in southwestern Madagascar. Further, Ankilitelo documents the presence of southwestern species that are rare or that have greatly restricted ranges today, such as Nasolo's shrew tenrec (M. nasoloi), Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), and the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). A simple cause for the unusual small mammal occurrences at Ankilitelo is not obvious. Synergistic interactions between climate change, recent fragmentation and human-initiated degradation of forested habitats, and community-level processes, such as predation, most likely explain the disjunct distributions of the small mammals documented at Ankilitelo. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments. PMID:21635640

  5. Powdertracking Small Mammals: An Illuminating Exercise for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoagland, Donald B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an easy-to-use, inexpensive field trip/laboratory exercise designed to delineate the home ranges of small animals. Students participate in the design of the exercise; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; and the presentation of results. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  6. Prevalence and Genotype Allocation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Small Mammals from Various Habitat Types in Germany.

    PubMed

    Obiegala, Anna; Woll, Dietlinde; Karnath, Carolin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schex, Susanne; Eßbauer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for Leptospira spp., the causative agents of Leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. The knowledge about Leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from Germany is scarce. Thus, this study's objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence types in small mammals from three different study sites: a forest in southern Germany (site B1); a National Park in south-eastern Germany (site B2) and a renaturalised area, in eastern Germany (site S) where small mammals were captured. DNA was extracted from kidneys of small mammals and tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by duplex and conventional PCRs. For 14 positive samples, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. Altogether, 1213 small mammals were captured: 216 at site B1, 456 at site B2 and 541 at site S belonging to following species: Sorex (S.) araneus, S. coronatus, Apodemus (A.) flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus (Mi.) arvalis, Crocidura russula, Arvicola terrestris, A. agrarius, Mustela nivalis, Talpa europaea, and Mi. agrestis. DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 6% of all small mammals. At site B1, 25 small mammals (11.6%), at site B2, 15 small mammals (3.3%) and at site S, 33 small mammals (6.1%) were positive for Leptospira spp. Overall, 54 of the positive samples were further determined as L. kirschneri, nine as L. interrogans and four as L. borgpetersenii while five real-time PCR-positive samples could not be further determined by conventional PCR. MLST results revealed focal occurrence of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri sequence type (ST) 117 while L. kirschneri ST 110 was present in small mammals at all three sites. Further, this study provides evidence for a particular host association of L. borgpetersenii to mice of the genus Apodemus. PMID:27015596

  7. Prevalence and Genotype Allocation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Small Mammals from Various Habitat Types in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Karnath, Carolin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schex, Susanne; Eßbauer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for Leptospira spp., the causative agents of Leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. The knowledge about Leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from Germany is scarce. Thus, this study’s objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence types in small mammals from three different study sites: a forest in southern Germany (site B1); a National Park in south-eastern Germany (site B2) and a renaturalised area, in eastern Germany (site S) where small mammals were captured. DNA was extracted from kidneys of small mammals and tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by duplex and conventional PCRs. For 14 positive samples, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. Altogether, 1213 small mammals were captured: 216 at site B1, 456 at site B2 and 541 at site S belonging to following species: Sorex (S.) araneus, S. coronatus, Apodemus (A.) flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus (Mi.) arvalis, Crocidura russula, Arvicola terrestris, A. agrarius, Mustela nivalis, Talpa europaea, and Mi. agrestis. DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 6% of all small mammals. At site B1, 25 small mammals (11.6%), at site B2, 15 small mammals (3.3%) and at site S, 33 small mammals (6.1%) were positive for Leptospira spp. Overall, 54 of the positive samples were further determined as L. kirschneri, nine as L. interrogans and four as L. borgpetersenii while five real-time PCR-positive samples could not be further determined by conventional PCR. MLST results revealed focal occurrence of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri sequence type (ST) 117 while L. kirschneri ST 110 was present in small mammals at all three sites. Further, this study provides evidence for a particular host association of L. borgpetersenii to mice of the genus Apodemus. PMID:27015596

  8. Cattle grazing and small mammals on the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldemeyer, John L.; Allen-Johnson, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    We studied effects of cattle grazing on small mammal microhabitat and abundance in northwestern Nevada. Abundance, diversity, and microhabitat were compared between a 375-ha cattle exclosure and a deferred-rotation grazing allotment which had a three-year history of light to moderate use. No consistent differences were found in abundance, diversity, or microhabitat between the two areas.

  9. Small mammals in saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) - invaded and native riparian habitats of the western Great Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive saltcedar species have replaced native riparian trees on numerous river systems throughout the western US, raising concerns about how this habitat conversion may affect wildlife. For periods ranging from 1-10 years, small mammal populations were monitored at six riparian sites impacted by s...

  10. 75 FR 66065 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Exploratorium Relocation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... (75 FR 42691), requesting comments from the public on the proposed IHA. Description of the Specified... Federal Register (75 FR 42691, July 22, 2010) and a summary is provided here. To make room for the new... Authorization (IHA) to the Exploratorium, allowing the take of small numbers of marine mammals, by Level...

  11. Natural infection of small mammal species in Minnesota with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Walls, J J; Greig, B; Neitzel, D F; Dumler, J S

    1997-04-01

    The natural reservoirs for the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) are suspected to be the small mammals that host immature stages of Ixodes scapularis ticks. To determine if such small mammals are naturally infected, we collected blood and serum samples from small mammal species in rural and suburban areas of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn. Samples were collected from white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), southern red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi), and insectivorous shrews (Blarina brevicauda and Sorex cinereus). Blood samples were tested by PCR for active infection with the HGE agent, and sera from P. leucopus mice were tested for serologic evidence of infection by indirect immunofluorescence. PCR analyses revealed the presence of HGE agent DNA in 20 of the 190 samples (10.5%) tested. Of the 119 P. leucopus mouse serum samples that were analyzed, 12 (10.1%) contained Ehrlichia equi antibodies. In 3 of 119 (2.5%) P. leucopus mice from which both blood and serum were collected. HGE agent DNA and antibodies against E. equi were present. Animals with evidence of infection with the HGE agent are widely distributed around the Minneapolis-St. Paul area in regions with known I. scapularis tick activity. Small mammals that are frequent hosts for larval I. scapularis ticks and that are found in areas where HGE occurs are likely to be a major reservoir from which infected ticks that bite humans are derived. PMID:9157141

  12. NITROGEN OUTPUTS FROM FECAL AND URINE DEPOSITION OF SMALL MAMMALS: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of small mammals to nitrogen cycling is poorly understood, but it could have reverberations back to the producer community by maintaining or perhaps magnifying nitrogen availability. Our objective was to model nitrogen outputs (deposition of feces and urine) of ...

  13. IMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We exam...

  14. THE INTERACTION OF HABITAT FRAGMENTATION, PLANT, AND SMALL MAMMAL SUCCESSION IN AN OLD FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the density and spatial distribution of four small mammal species (Microtus ochrogaster, Peromyscus maniculatus, Sigmodon hispidus, and P. luecopus) along with general measures of an old field plant community across two successional phases (1984-1986 and 1994-1996) of...

  15. IIMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examin...

  16. Effects of bridge construction on songbirds and small mammals at Blennerhassett Island, Ohio River, USA.

    PubMed

    Vance, Joshua A; Angus, Norse B; Anderson, James T

    2013-09-01

    Construction of man-made objects such as roads and bridges may have impacts on wildlife depending on species or location. We investigated songbirds and small mammals along the Ohio River, WV, USA at a new bridge both before and after construction and at a bridge crossing that was present throughout the study. Comparisons were made at each site over three time periods (1985-1987 [Phase I] and 1998-2000 [Phase II] [pre-construction], 2007-2009 [Phase III] [post-construction]) and at three distances (0, 100, 300 m) from the bridge or proposed bridge location. Overall, 70 songbirds and 10 small mammals were detected during the study. Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) showed high affinity for bridges (P < 0.05). Combined small mammal abundances increased between Phases I and II (P < 0.05), but did not differ between Phases II and III (P > 0.05). Species richness and diversity for songbirds and small mammals did not differ before and after bridge construction (P > 0.05). We found that most species sampled did not respond to the bridge crossing, and believe that the bridge is not causing any measurable negative density impacts to the species we investigated. The new bridge does provide habitat for exotic rock pigeons that are adjusted to man-made structures for nesting. PMID:23435850

  17. Effects of anthropogenic and demographic factors on patterns of parasitism in African small mammal communities.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Johanna S; Carroll, Darin S; Williams-Newkirk, Amanda Jo; Lang, Stefanie; Peterhans, Julian Kerbis; Rwego, Innocent B; Ockers, Sandra; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-03-01

    Habitat disturbance often results in alterations in community structure of small mammals. Additionally, the parasites harboured by these small mammals may be impacted by environmental changes or indirectly affected by changes in available hosts. To improve our understanding of this interplay, we examined the patterns of parasitism in small mammal communities from a variety of habitats in forested Uganda. Small mammals were collected from areas experiencing variable habitat disturbance, host density and species richness. The analysis focused on 3 most abundant rodent species, Lophuromys aquilus, Praomys jacksoni and Hylomyscus stella, and a diverse group of parasites they harbour. The impact of various habitat and host community factors on parasite prevalence was examined using linear regression and Spearman's rank-order correlation. We further investigated the parasite communities associated with each individual using correspondence analysis. We determined that, parasite prevalence and richness may be occasionally influenced by community and habitat factors, but taxonomy is a driving force in influencing the parasite community harboured by an individual host. Ultimately, applying general principles across a broad range of disturbance levels and diverse host communities needs to be approached with caution in complex communities. PMID:25262668

  18. Road network in an agrarian landscape: Potential habitat, corridor or barrier for small mammals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redon (de), Louis; Le Viol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Machon, Nathalie; Scher, Olivier; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    If the negative effects of road networks on biodiversity are now recognized, their role as barriers, habitats or corridors remain to be clarified in human altered landscapes in which road verges often constitute the few semi-natural habitats where a part of biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning may maintain. In human-dominated landscape, their roles are crucial to precise in comparison to other habitats for small mammal species considered as major natural actors (pests (voles) or biological control agents (shrew)). We studied these roles through the comparison of small mammal abundance captured (418 individuals belonging to 8 species) using non-attractive pitfall traps (n = 813) in 176 sampled sites distributed in marginal zones of road and crop, in natural areas and in fields. We examined the effect of roadside width and isolation of sites. We found the higher small mammal abundances in roadside verges and an effect of width margins for shrews. The significant effect of the distance to the next adjacent natural habitat at the same side of the road on the relative abundance of Sorex coronatus, and the absence of a significant effect of distance to the next natural habitat at the opposite side of road, suggest that highway and road verges could be used as corridor for their dispersal, but have also a barrier effect for shrews. Our results show that in intensive agricultural landscapes roadside and highway verges may often serve as refuge, habitat and corridor for small mammals depending on species and margin characteristics.

  19. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in small mammal hosts of Ixodes ticks, western United States.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet E; Nieto, Nathan C; Adjemian, Jennifer; Dabritz, Haydee; Brown, Richard N

    2008-07-01

    A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. Odds ratios were >1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks. PMID:18598645

  20. Borrelia infection in small mammals in West Africa and its relationship with tick occurrence inside burrows.

    PubMed

    Diatta, Georges; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Granjon, Laurent; Bâ, Khalilou; Chauvancy, Gilles; Ndiaye, Mady; Trape, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a zoonotic disease caused by several Borrelia species transmitted to humans by Ornithodoros tick vectors. In West Africa, Borrelia crocidurae is a common cause of disease in many rural populations. Small mammals act as reservoirs of infection. We report here the results of surveys that investigated the occurrence of B. crocidurae infection in rodents and insectivores from eight countries of West and Central Africa. Animals were identified at the species level and tested for Borrelia either by examination of thick blood film, intra-peritoneal inoculation of blood or brain tissues into laboratory mice, or by molecular techniques. A total of 4358 small mammals belonging to 38 species and 7 families were collected, including 3225 specimens collected in areas where the occurrence of Ornithodoros sonrai tick in rodent burrows was documented, and 1133 in areas where this tick was absent. In areas with O. sonrai, Borrelia infection was demonstrated in 287 of 3109 (9.2%) small mammals tested, and none was documented in 1004 animals tested from other areas. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Rhipicephalus, Hyaloma and Argas ticks in burrows and the distribution of Borrelia infection in small mammals. The 287 specimens infected by Borrelia belonged to 15 rodent and shrew species, including three Saharo-Sahelian species - Gerbillus gerbillus, Gerbillus occiduus and Gerbillus tarabuli - identified as reservoirs for TBRF with a distribution restricted to this area. In Sudan and Sudano-Sahelian areas, Arvicanthis niloticus, Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys huberti were the main reservoir of infection. Although most small mammals species collected had a large distribution in West and Central Africa, the fact that only animals collected in areas with O. sonrai were found infected suggest that this tick is the only vector of TBRF in rodents and insectivores in this part of Africa. PMID:26327444

  1. Effects of the removal of large herbivores on fleas of small mammals.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Douglas J; Keesing, Felicia; Young, Truman; Dittmar, Katharina

    2008-12-01

    The removal of large herbivorous mammals can cause dramatic increases in the densities of small mammals. These small mammals are hosts for a variety of ectoparasites, many of which are important pathogens of human diseases such as plague and murine typhus. It is thus valuable from a human health perspective to understand if large herbivore removals can indirectly affect ectoparasite numbers and thus potentially alter disease risk. To make this determination, we experimentally excluded large herbivores and measured the number of fleas present on the numerically dominant small mammal, the pouched mouse, Saccostomus mearnsi. Removing large herbivores nearly doubled S. mearnsi density, while the percentage of mice infested with fleas (prevalence) and the average number of fleas per sampled mouse (intensity) remained constant. The net effect of doubling the number of mice via the removal of large herbivores was a near doubling in the number of fleas present in the study habitat. Because these fleas also parasitize humans and can serve as disease vectors, this work empirically demonstrates a potential mechanism by which ecosystem alterations could affect human risk for zoonotic diseases. PMID:19263845

  2. Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

  3. Beta-endorphin levels in blood from selected Alaskan mammals.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, A W; Flynn, A; Schwartz, C C; Calkins, D G; Nichols, L

    1981-10-01

    Blood samples were analyzed for beta-endorphin from 43 non-torpid black bear (Ursus americanus), 8 torpid black bear, 3 non-torpid brown bear (Ursus arctos), 14 moose (Alces alces), 6 mountain goats (Oreamnus americanus) and 30 Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Beta-endorphin levels were detected in all species sampled and there were no significant differences in levels among non-torpid black bear, brown bear and sea lions. Also, no differences were detected between moose and mountain goats, but all other comparisons were significantly different (P less than 0.001). Torpid black bear had higher levels than all other groups. Moose and mountain goats had the lowest levels. The possibility of beta-endorphin influencing behavior and physiology of mammals is discussed. PMID:6279890

  4. Physiological adaptations of small mammals to desert ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schwimmer, Hagit; Haim, Abraham

    2009-12-01

    Adaptations of animals to the xeric environment have been studied in various taxonomic groups and across several deserts. Despite the impressive data that have been accumulated, the focus in most of these studies is mainly on the significance of one variable at a time. Here, we attempt to integrate between responses of several physiological systems, challenged by increasing diet and water salinity and extreme temperatures, acquired in different studies of thermo and osmo-regulatory adaptations, of small rodents, to the xeric environment. Studies have shown differential thermoregulatory responses to increased dietary salinity, which were attributed to habitat and habits of the relevant species. In the thermoregulatory studies, a potential adaptive significance of low metabolic rate was demonstrated. From an evolutionary point of view, the most important adaptation is in the timing of reproduction, as it enables the transfer of genetic properties to the next generation in an unpredictable ecosystem, where reproduction might not occur every year. Results in this aspect show that increased dietary salinity, through an increase in vasopressin plasma levels, plays an important role as a regulator of the reproductive system. We assume that the amount of food existing in the habitat and the amount of reserves in the animal in the form of white adipose tissue are important for reproduction. Photoperiod affects all studied physiological responses, emphasizing the importance of pre-acclimation to seasonal characteristics. We summarize the existing data and suggest neuro-endocrine pathways, which have a central role in these adaptations by affecting thermoregulation, osmoregulation and reproduction to create the optimal response to xeric conditions. These hypotheses can be used as the basis for future studies. PMID:21392308

  5. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and soil properties in a plague endemic area in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Meliyo, Joel L; Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Mulungu, Loth S; Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand small mammals and fleas in West Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, a plague endemic area. Standard field survey methods coupled with Geographical Information System (GIS) technique were used to examine landform and soils characteristics. Soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Small mammals were trapped on pre-established landform positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals and counted. Exploration of landform and soil data was done using ArcGIS Toolbox functions and descriptive statistical analysis. The relationships between landforms, soils, small mammals and fleas were established by generalised linear regression model (GLM) operated in R statistics software. Results show that landforms and soils influence the abundance of small mammals and fleas and their spatial distribution. The abundance of small mammals and fleas increased with increase in elevation. Small mammal species richness also increases with elevation. A landform-soil model shows that available phosphorus, slope aspect and elevation were statistically significant predictors explaining richness and abundance of small mammals. Fleas' abundance and spatial distribution were influenced by hill-shade, available phosphorus and base saturation. The study suggests that landforms and soils have a strong influence on the richness and evenness of small mammals and their fleas' abundance hence could be used to explain plague dynamics in the area. PMID:26867276

  6. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small laboratory mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The scaling of metabolic heat production rate on body mass is investigated for five species of small laboratory mammal in order to define selection of animals of metabolic rates and size range appropriate for the measurement of changes in the scaling relationship upon exposure to weightlessness in Shuttle/Spacelab experiment. Metabolic rates were measured according to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production for individual male and female Swiss-Webster mice, Syrian hamsters, Simonsen albino rats, Hartley guinea pigs and New Zealand white rabbits, which range in mass from 0.05 to 5 kg mature body size, at ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The metabolic intensity, defined as the heat produced per hour per kg body mass, is found to decrease dramatically with age until the animals are 6 to 8 months old, with little or no sex difference. When plotted on a logarithmic graph, the relation of metabolic rate to total body mass is found to obey a power law of index 0.676, which differs significantly from the classical value of 0.75. When the values for the mice are removed, however, an index of 0.749 is obtained. It is thus proposed that six male animals, 8 months of age, of each of the four remaining species be used to study the effects of gravitational loading on the metabolic energy requirements of terrestrial animals.

  7. Processes driving short-term temporal dynamics of small mammal distribution in human-disturbed environments.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Julie; Pothier, David; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    As the impact of anthropogenic activities intensifies worldwide, an increasing proportion of landscape is converted to early successional stages every year. To understand and anticipate the global effects of the human footprint on wildlife, assessing short-term changes in animal populations in response to disturbance events is becoming increasingly important. We used isodar habitat selection theory to reveal the consequences of timber harvesting on the ecological processes that control the distribution dynamics of a small mammal, the red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi). The abundance of voles was estimated in pairs of cut and uncut forest stands, prior to logging and up to 2 years afterwards. A week after logging, voles did not display any preference between cut and uncut stands, and a non-significant isodar indicated that their distribution was not driven by density-dependent habitat selection. One month after harvesting, however, juvenile abundance increased in cut stands, whereas the highest proportions of reproductive females were observed in uncut stands. This distribution pattern appears to result from interference competition, with juveniles moving into cuts where there was weaker competition with adults. In fact, the emergence of source-sink dynamics between uncut and cut stands, driven by interference competition, could explain why the abundance of red-backed voles became lower in cut (the sink) than uncut (the source) stands 1-2 years after logging. Our study demonstrates that the influences of density-dependent habitat selection and interference competition in shaping animal distribution can vary frequently, and for several months, following anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27003700

  8. Small mammal carbon isotope ecology across the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, northwestern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, Scott A.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Prado, José Luis; Brown, Francis H.; Cerling, Thure E.; Quade, Jay

    2012-03-01

    The late Miocene expansion of plants using the C4 photosynthetic pathway in South America has been documented by tooth enamel carbon isotope ratios (δ13Cen). However, a more detailed understanding of this ecological event is hampered by poor chronological control on the widespread fossil localities from which isotopic data are derived. This study develops a δ13Cen record from a single 2500 m-thick stratigraphic section in subtropical South America. Strata at Puerta de Corral Quemado (PCQ), northwestern Argentina, span 9 to 3.5 Ma in age, and existing paleosol carbonate data (δ13Cpc) document C4 expansion across the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Comparison of δ13Cen data with δ13Cpc data at high stratigraphic resolution refines understanding of this ecological event in South America. Small mammal δ13Cen data in particular are complementary to that of large mammal and paleosol δ13C data. Small mammal teeth integrate isotopic data over much shorter temporal and spatial scales than large mammal teeth, providing a sensitive measure of local vegetation and placing constraints on the landscape distribution of C3 and C4 plants. Explicit consideration of the distinctive carbon isotope enrichment factor between enamel and diet for rodents (ɛ*en-diet = 11‰, as opposed to 14‰ for large mammals) allows for unequivocal inference of C4 vegetation ~ 1 Ma prior to that inferred from large mammal δ13Cen data, and ~ 2 Ma prior to δ13Cpc data. This multiproxy record demonstrates that C4 plants were a stable component of the ecosystem hundreds of thousands of years prior to their major ecological expansion, and that the expansion of C4 plants was pulsed at PCQ. Two periods of ecological change are demonstrated by δ13C and δ18O data at ~ 7 Ma and 5.3 Ma (coincident with the Miocene-Pliocene boundary). Development of small mammal δ13Cen records on other continents may provide similar insight into the early stages of the global C4 event.

  9. Energy flow and functional compensation in Great Basin small mammals under natural and anthropogenic environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Rebecca C.; Rowe, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the ecological impacts of environmental change has primarily focused at the species level, leaving the responses of ecosystem-level properties like energy flow poorly understood. This is especially so over millennial timescales inaccessible to direct observation. Here we examine how energy flow within a Great Basin small mammal community responded to climate-driven environmental change during the past 12,800 y, and use this baseline to evaluate responses observed during the past century. Our analyses reveal marked stability in energy flow during rapid climatic warming at the terminal Pleistocene despite dramatic turnover in the distribution of mammalian body sizes and habitat-associated functional groups. Functional group turnover was strongly correlated with climate-driven changes in regional vegetation, with climate and vegetation change preceding energetic shifts in the small mammal community. In contrast, the past century has witnessed a substantial reduction in energy flow caused by an increase in energetic dominance of small-bodied species with an affinity for closed grass habitats. This suggests that modern changes in land cover caused by anthropogenic activities—particularly the spread of nonnative annual grasslands—has led to a breakdown in the compensatory dynamics of energy flow. Human activities are thus modifying the small mammal community in ways that differ from climate-driven expectations, resulting in an energetically novel ecosystem. Our study illustrates the need to integrate across ecological and temporal scales to provide robust insights for long-term conservation and management. PMID:26170294

  10. Temporal, spatial and ecological dynamics of speciation among amphi-Beringian small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Takebayashi, Naoki; Galbreath, Kurt E.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in promoting diversification across the Northern Hemisphere, although details of the mechanisms driving evolutionary change are still poorly resolved. In a comparative phylogeographical framework, we investigate temporal, spatial and ecological components of evolution within a suite of Holarctic small mammals. We test a hypothesis of simultaneous divergence among multiple taxon pairs, investigating time to coalescence and demographic change for each taxon in response to a combination of climate and geography.

  11. Effects of disturbance on small mammal community structure in the New Jersey Pinelands, USA.

    PubMed

    Shenko, Alicia N; Bien, Walter F; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W

    2012-03-01

    We compared small mammal community composition among undisturbed habitats and habitats disturbed by military operations on Warren Grove Gunnery Range (WGR) in the New Jersey Pinelands. WGR is one of the largest tracts of protected land within this globally rare ecosystem. Disturbance in the form of fire, mowing, soil disruption and logging has had a large effect on small mammal occurrence and distribution. Of the 14 small mammal species that occur in the Pinelands, 9 live on WGR, including large populations of the southern bog lemming (Synaptomys cooperi Baird, 1858) and meadow jumping mouse [Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780)]. Simpson's Index of Diversity was 0 for most disturbed sites and was generally greater in wetlands than in uplands. White-footed mouse [Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque, 1818)] was the most common species on WGR and had a dominant effect on species diversity and community similarity indices. It dominated upland habitats and was the only species to occur in several disturbed habitats, whereas all 9 species occurred in wetlands. Principal components analysis indicated that most variation in species diversity was explained by disturbance and differences between upland and wetland habitats, due to presence of white-footed mice in disturbed and upland sites. Meadow jumping mice, southern bog lemmings and red-back voles [Myodes gapperi (Vigors, 1830)] were positively correlated with wetland habitats, and pine voles [Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte, 1830)], short-tail shrews [Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1823)] and eastern chipmunks [Tamias striatus (Linnaeus, 1758)] were associated with uplands. Habitat heterogeneity at WGR, including extensive undisturbed wetlands and uplands supported a rich diversity of small mammal species. PMID:22405445

  12. Small mammal community succession on the beach of Dongting Lake, China after the Three Gorges Project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiwen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Huang, Guoxian; Shen, Guo; Zhou, Xunjun

    2014-06-01

    Although the Three Gorges Project (TGP) may have affected the population structure and distribution of plant and animal communities, few studies have analyzed the effect of this project on small mammal communities. Therefore, the present paper compares the small mammal communities inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake using field investigations spanning a 20-year period, both before and after the TGP was implemented. Snap traps were used throughout the census. The results indicate that the TGP caused major changes to the structure of the small mammal community at a lake downstream of the dam. First, species abundance on the beaches increased after the project commenced. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), which rarely inhabited the beach before the TGP, became abundant (with marked population growth) once water was impounded by the Three Gorges Reservoir. Second, dominant species concentration indices exhibited a stepwise decline, indicating that the community structure changed from a single dominant species to a more diverse species mix after TGP implementation. Third, the regulation of water discharge release by the TGP might have caused an increase in the species diversity of the animal community on the beaches. A significant difference in diversity indices was obtained before and after the TGP operation. Similarity indices also indicate a gradual increase in species numbers. Hence, a long-term project should be established to monitor the population fluctuations of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis), the striped field mouse and the Norway rat to safeguard against population outbreaks (similar to the Yangtze vole outbreak in 2007), which could cause crop damage to adjacent farmland, in addition to documenting the succession process of the small mammal community inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake. PMID:24148252

  13. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.

    1997-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (Site 1-recently disturbed and Site 2-partially disturbed) at Area G, Technical Area 54 and a control site on Frijoles Mesa (Site 4) in 1995. Our objectives were (1) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify if the primary mode of contamination to small mammals is by surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least rive animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr , {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 3}H. Significantly higher (parametric West at p=0.05) levels of total U, {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu were detected in pelts than in carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Our results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses, which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0125) mean tritium concentration in carcasses than Site 2 or Site 4. In addition Site 1 also had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, p=0.0024) mean tritium concentration in pelts than Site 2 or Site 4. Site 2 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0499) mean {sup 239}Pu concentration in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 4.

  14. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Fresquez, P.

    1995-09-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (1 and 2) at Area G, TA-54 and a control site outside Area G (Site 3) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U, and gamma spectroscopy (including {sup 137}Cs). Significantly higher (parametric t-test at p = 0.05) levels of total U, {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 40}K were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. The authors results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0095) total U concentrations in carcasses than Sites 2 and 3. Site 2 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0195) {sup 239}Pu concentrations in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 3. A significant difference in {sup 90}Sr concentration existed between Sites 1 and 2 (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0681) and concentrations of {sup 40}K at Site 1 were significantly different from Site 3.

  15. Interaction of ectoparasites (Mesostigmata, Phthiraptera and Siphonaptera) with small mammals in Cerrado fragments, western Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Landulfo, Gabriel A; Jacinavicius, Fernando C; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2015-07-01

    We describe ectoparasite fauna associated with small mammals in fragments of Cerrado biome, central-western Brazil. We analyzed the level of associations and the aggregation patterns according to seasonal and host variations. Small mammals were systematically captured in 54 woodland fragments from February 2012 to July 2013. A total of 1040 animals belonging to eight marsupial and 12 rodent species were sampled; 354 individuals were parasitized by 33 ectoparasite species (twenty five Mesostigmata, seven Phthiraptera and one Siphonaptera). A total of 49 ecological relationships between ectoparasites and small mammals were observed, 24 being new association records. The overall specialization index of all ectoparasites and host species was 0.91 with significant deviation from a random host-parasite association, suggesting a high host-parasite specialization in this system. Specialization indices for ectoparasites ranged from moderate to high, while among host was high, for most species. Contrary to the overall pattern, some ectoparasites had higher prevalence and mean intensity of infestation in the dry season. Overall, ectoparasite prevalence and mean intensity of infestation were not significantly associated with host gender. This study provides significant information about the ectoparasites ecology in relation to specificity, seasonality and hosts gender, contributing to the understanding of host-parasite relationships in Brazilian savannah. PMID:25912954

  16. Scaling the relative dominance of exogenous drivers in structuring desert small mammal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Daniela; Ojeda, Ricardo A.

    2015-11-01

    Assemblage patterns could be primarily generated by two types of drivers: exogenous (such as environmental and climatic factors) and endogenous (interactions such as competition, predation, mutualism or herbivory). The most widely accepted hypothesis states that at smaller scales (such as patch scale), interspecific interactions are the major drivers structuring communities, whereas at larger regional scales, factors such as climate, topography and soil act as ecological filters that determine assemblage composition. The general aim of this paper is to compare different exogenous drivers in terms of their relative dominance in structuring desert small mammal communities across a range of spatial scales, from patch to regional, and compare them with previous results on endogenous drivers. Our results show that as spatial scale increases, the explanatory power of exogenous factors also increases, e.g. from 17% at the patch scale (i.e. abundance) to 99% at the regional scale (i.e. diversity). Moreover, environmental drivers vary in type and strength depending on the community estimator across several spatial scales. On the other hand, endogenous drivers such as interspecific interactions are more important at the patch scale, diminishing in importance towards the regional scale. Therefore, the relative importance of exogenous versus endogenous drivers affects small mammal assemblage structure at different spatial scales. Our results fill up a knowledge gap concerning ecological drivers of assemblage structure at intermediate spatial scales for Monte desert small mammals, and highlight the importance of dealing with multi-causal factors in explaining ecological patterns of assemblages.

  17. Small mammals from the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, Jason O.; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté; Woodman, Neal; Bulmer, Walter; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Hanson, J. Delton

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the small mammals of remnant mixed hardwood-coniferous cloud forest at elevations ranging from 2,100–2,300 m in the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Removal-trapping using a combination of live traps, snap traps, and pitfall traps for 6 days in January 2007 resulted in 175 captures of 15 species of marsupials, shrews, and rodents. This diversity of small mammals is the highest that we have recorded from a single locality of the 10 visited during eight field seasons in the highlands of Guatemala. Based on captures, the most abundant species in the community of small mammals is Peromyscus grandis (n = 50), followed by Handleyomys rhabdops (n = 27), Heteromys desmarestianus(n = 18), Reithrodontomys mexicanus (n = 17), Handleyomys saturatior (n = 16), Sorex veraepacis (n = 15), and Scotinomys teguina (n = 13). The remaining eight species were represented by one to five individuals.

  18. Morphological and molecular analysis of Ornithonyssus spp. (Acari: Macronyssidae) from small terrestrial mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Marcili, Arlei; Durden, Lance A; Mendoza-Uribe, Leonardo; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2011-12-01

    Based on chaetotaxy of the dorsal shield, the taxonomic status of many species of Ornithonyssus has been considered invalid, resulting in the synonymy of all Brazilian Ornithonyssus from small terrestrial wild mammals into one of the following four species: Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst, 1913), Ornithonyssus matogrosso (Fonseca, 1954), Ornithonyssus pereirai (Fonseca, 1935) or Ornithonyssus wernecki (Fonseca, 1935). Despite the revision of this genus in 1980, including all known species worldwide, the knowledge of Ornithonyssus in Brazil has not progressed for more than 40 years. Considering the potential importance of these haematophagous mites in transmitting rickettsial disease agents to animals and humans, we have revised Ornithonyssus species collected from small mammals in Brazil by means of morphological and molecular studies. Types and other material deposited in the Acari Collection of the Instituto Butantan (IBSP) were examined in addition to recently collected specimens. Morphological and genetic analysis of the 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene revealed that small terrestrial mammals in Brazil are parasitized by six species of Ornithonyssus mites: Ornithonyssus brasiliensis (Fonseca, 1939), O. matogrosso, O. monteiroi (Fonseca, 1941), O. pereirai, O. vitzthumi (Fonseca, 1941), and O. wernecki. An illustrated key to females of the valid Brazilian species of Ornithonyssus is included, based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:21786041

  19. Molecular Identification of Echinococcus multilocularis Infection in Small Mammals from Northeast, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Beiromvand, Molouk; Akhlaghi, Lame; Fattahi Massom, Seyed Hossein; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Darvish, Jamshid; Razmjou, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis. Many species of small mammals, including arvicolid rodents or Ochotona spp., are natural intermediate hosts of the cestode. The main aim of this study was to identify natural intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran, where the prevalence of infected wild and domestic carnivores is high. Methodology/Principal Findings A program of trapping was carried out in five villages in which this cestode was reported in carnivores. The livers of 85 small mammals were investigated for the presence of E. multilocularis infection using multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. Infections were identified in 30 specimens: 23 Microtus transcaspicus, three Ochotona rufescens, two Mus musculus, one Crocidura gmelini, and one Apodemus witherbyi. Conclusions/Significance A range of small mammals therefore act as natural intermediate hosts for the transmission of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, and the prevalence suggested that E. multilocularis infection is endemic in this region. The existence of the life cycle of this potentially lethal cestode in the vicinity of human habitats provides a significant risk of human infection. PMID:23875048

  20. Ecological characteristics of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Species composition, diversity, biomass and densities of small mammal populations were examined in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on a solid radioactive waste disposal area and in native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in the marketing of 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats and the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. Although the adjacent native sagebrush habitat had the highest species diversity and the Russian thistle habitat on the disposal area had the lowest, the total rodent density was not significantly different among the three vegetation types. Crested wheatgrass within the disposal area contained the largest rodent biomass throughout the study, in part due to an increasing M. montanus population. The peak small mammal biomass of 5000 g/ha in creasted wheatgrass and sagebrush habitats was considerably higher than previously reported for similar habitats. Differences in diversity and biomass between the disposal area and surrounding native habitat are most likely related to differences in soil compaction and vegetation between these two areas.

  1. Land use determinants of small mammal abundance and distribution in a plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kimaro, Didas N; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals are considered to be involved in the transmission cycle of bubonic plague, still occurring in different parts of the world, including the Lushoto District in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between land use types and practices and small mammal abundance and distribution. A field survey was used to collect data in three landscapes differing in plague incidences. Data collection was done both in the wet season (April-June 2012) and dry season (August-October 2012). Analysis of variance and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling technique were used to establish the relationship between land use and small mammal abundance and distribution. Significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) of small mammal abundance among land use types were identified. Plantation forest with farming, natural forest and fallow had higher populations of small mammals than the other aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on small mammal abundance level showed that, in both dry and wet seasons, miraba and fallow tended to favour small mammals' habitation whereas land tillage practices had the opposite effect. In addition, during the wet season crop types such as potato and maize appeared to positively influence the distribution and abundance of small mammals which was attributed to both shelter and food availability. Based on the findings from this study it is recommended that future efforts to predict and map spatial and temporal human plague infection risk at fine scale should consider the role played by land use and associated human activities on small mammal abundance and distribution. PMID:26867281

  2. Challenges to natural resource monitoring in a small border park: terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, Cochise County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swann, Don E.; Bucci, Melanie; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Alberti, Barbara N.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring in national parks is essential to meet National Park Service and other important public goals. Terrestrial mammals are often proposed for monitoring because large mammals are of interest to visitors and small mammals are important as prey. However, traditional monitoring strategies for mammals are often too expensive and complex to sustain for long periods, particularly in small parks. To evaluate potential strategies for long-term monitoring in small parks, we conducted an intensive one-year inventory of terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, located in Arizona on the U.S.-Mexico international border, then continued less-intensive monitoring at the site for 7 additional years. During 1996-2003 we confirmed 44 species of terrestrial mammals. Most species (40) were detected in the intensive first year of the study, but we continued to detect new species in later years. Mark-recapture data on small mammals indicated large inter-annual fluctuations in population size, but no significant trend over the 7-year period. Issues associated with the international border affected monitoring efforts and increased sampling costs. Our study confirms that sustained annual monitoring of mammals is probably not feasible in small park units like Coronado. However, comparisons of our data with past studies provide insight into important changes in the mammal community since the 1970s, including an increase in abundance and diversity of grassland rodents. Our results suggest that intensive inventories every 10-20 years may be a valuable and cost-effective approach for detecting long-term trends in terrestrial mammal communities in small natural areas.

  3. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn; Ebeling, Markus; Liu, Chun; Luttik, Robert; Mastitsky, Sergey; Nacci, Diane; Topping, Chris; Wang, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study demonstrating the application of 3 individual-based, spatially explicit population models (IBMs, also known as agent-based models) in ecological risk assessments to predict long-term effects of a pesticide to populations of small mammals. The 3 IBMs each used a hypothetical fungicide (FungicideX) in different scenarios: spraying in cereals (common vole, Microtus arvalis), spraying in orchards (field vole, Microtus agrestis), and cereal seed treatment (wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus). Each scenario used existing model landscapes, which differed greatly in size and structural complexity. The toxicological profile of FungicideX was defined so that the deterministic long-term first tier risk assessment would result in high risk to small mammals, thus providing the opportunity to use the IBMs for risk assessment refinement (i.e., higher tier risk assessment). Despite differing internal model design and scenarios, results indicated in all 3 cases low population sensitivity unless FungicideX was applied at very high (×10) rates. Recovery from local population impacts was generally fast. Only when patch extinctions occured in simulations of intentionally high acute toxic effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report. However, further investigation and agreement are needed to develop recommendations for landscape attributes such as size, structure, and crop rotation to define appropriate regulatory risk assessment scenarios. Overall, the application of IBMs provides multiple advantages to higher tier ecological risk assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios. PMID:25891765

  4. The crouching of the shrew: Mechanical consequences of limb posture in small mammals.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Daniel K; Kendall, Corinne J; Hermanson, John W

    2016-01-01

    An important trend in the early evolution of mammals was the shift from a sprawling stance, whereby the legs are held in a more abducted position, to a parasagittal one, in which the legs extend more downward. After that transition, many mammals shifted from a crouching stance to a more upright one. It is hypothesized that one consequence of these transitions was a decrease in the total mechanical power required for locomotion, because side-to-side accelerations of the body have become smaller, and thus less costly with changes in limb orientation. To test this hypothesis we compared the kinetics of locomotion in two mammals of body size close to those of early mammals (< 40 g), both with parasagittally oriented limbs: a crouching shrew (Blarina brevicauda; 5 animals, 17 trials) and a more upright vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus; 4 animals, 22 trials). As predicted, voles used less mechanical power per unit body mass to perform steady locomotion than shrews did (P = 0.03). However, while lateral forces were indeed smaller in voles (15.6 ± 2.0% body weight) than in shrews (26.4 ± 10.9%; P = 0.046), the power used to move the body from side-to-side was negligible, making up less than 5% of total power in both shrews and voles. The most power consumed for both species was that used to accelerate the body in the direction of travel, and this was much larger for shrews than for voles (P = 0.01). We conclude that side-to-side accelerations are negligible for small mammals-whether crouching or more upright-compared to their sprawling ancestors, and that a more upright posture further decreases the cost of locomotion compared to crouching by helping to maintain the body's momentum in the direction of travel. PMID:27413633

  5. Long-term effects of precommercial thinning on small mammals in northern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homyack, J.A.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    Precommercial thinning (PCT) is being practiced increasingly throughout the Acadian forest of eastern North America to meet silvicultural objectives; however, effects of this practice on wildlife, both immediately and several years post-treatment are not well understood. Forest dependent small mammals have ecological roles as prey for numerous avian and mammalian predators, dispersers of seeds, fruit, and spores, and contribute to nutrient cycling. Researchers in the northwestern USA have suggested that thinning of young, regenerating clearcuts may increase the abundance and diversity of some forest-dependent small mammals by increasing rates of forest development and enhancing the ecological representation of mid-successional stands across managed landscapes. We examined the effects of PCT within conifer-dominated forest stands 1-, 6-, 11-, and 16-years post-treatment, on abundances of mice, voles, and shrews, and on within-stand structure in the commercially managed, Acadian forests of northern Maine. We live-trapped small mammals on 24 herbicide-treated clearcuts treated with PCT and on 13 similar, unthinned stands during summers of 2000 and 2001. Thinning of mid-successional conifer stands resulted in increased abundances, (red-backed voles, Clethrionomys gapperi, P = 0.008; masked shrews, Sorex cinereus, P < 0.001) or had no detectable effect on (deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, P = 0.544; short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, P = 0.517) the 4 most common species of Muridae and Soricidae in northern Maine. In general, abundance of deer mice responded more positively to increasing development class and to the number of years since thinning than other species of small mammals. Several within-stand habitat characteristics associated with stand maturity, such as larger stem diameters and a partially open canopy, occurred in thinned stands. Thus, PCT may accelerate the development of habitat attributes typical of mid-successional conifer stands in intensively

  6. Detection of Clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild Mammals in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2013-04-01

    We sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in Ontario, Canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. Clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the Toronto Zoo. The positive animals included two raccoons from one beef farm, one raccoon from a different beef farm, one raccoon from a swine farm, and a shrew (Blarina brevicauda) from a dairy farm. None had evidence of gastrointestinal disease. Three of the five isolates were toxinotype variants (II, IV, and XIII) that are rarely identified in humans and domestic animals. The other two were toxinotype 0, a common toxinotype in humans and animals; however, all five isolates were of different ribotypes. None of the recovered ribotypes were recognized as ribotypes present in the authors' reference library of over 3,000 human and domestic animal C. difficile isolates. Neither the public health nor the animal health relevance of these findings is clear. It is not known whether C. difficile is a pathogen of small and medium-sized wild mammals, although the susceptibility of various laboratory species suggests it could cause disease. PMID:23568920

  7. Last glacial maximum environments in northwestern Patagonia revealed by fossil small mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammone, Mauro N.; Hajduk, Adan; Arias, Pablo; Teta, Pablo; Lacey, Eileen A.; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Comparisons of historical and modern assemblages of mammals can yield important insights into patterns and processes of environmental change. Here, we present the first analyses of small mammal assemblages present in northern Patagonia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Using remains obtained from owl pellets excavated from an archeological cave site (Arroyo Corral I, levels VII-V, carbon dates of 22,400-21,530 cal yr BP), we generate estimates of the minimum number of individuals for all species detected; these estimates, in turn are used to determine relative species abundances. Comparisons of these data with similar analyses of small mammal remains obtained from a second archeological site (ACoII, levels IV-V, carbon dates of 10,010-9220 cal yr BP) as well as from modern owl pellets reveal pronounced changes in relative species abundance since the LGM. In particular, Euneomys chinchilloides and Ctenomys sociabilis - the predominant species during the LGM - declined markedly, suggesting a change from open, bare habitat punctuated by patches of wet meadows and shrubs to the more densely vegetated mosaic of ecotone habitats found in this region today. These data provide important new insights into the environmental changes that have occurred in northern Patagonia over the last 20,000 years.

  8. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. PMID:26104342

  9. [Structure of populations and ecological nishes of ectoparasites in the parasite communities of small forest mammals].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S; Bochkov, A V; Vashchenok, V S; Grigor'eva, L A; Staniukovich, M K; Tret'iakov, K A

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports the results of eight-year investigations on the ectoparasites of rodents and insectivores carried out in southern taiga of the Ilmen-Volkhov lowland (Novgorod Region) and Kurgolovsky reserve (Leningrad Region). Twelve species of small mammals were captured including three dominate species--bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (2722 specimens), common shrew Sorex araneus (1658 specimens), and wood mouse Apodemus uralensis (367 specimens). Parasite community of the bank vole comprises 34 species of mites, ticks, and insects, the community of common shrew comprises 25 species, and the community of A. uralensis includes 28 species. Taxonomic diversity of the ectoparasite communities was shown to be based on the diversity of types of parasitism and ecological nishes of the host body. Permanent ectoparasites are found to be represented by 2 species of lie and 14 species of acariform mites. The group of temporary parasites includes 13 species of fleas, 10 species of gamasid mites. 3 ixodid species and 1 Trombiculidae. There is a common pool of temporary parasites of small mammals in the ecological system of taiga. Significance of different shrew and rodent species as hosts were found to be dependent on the population density in possible hosts and many other factors. Species diversity in the parasite communities of different small mammal species is dependent on the number of possible ecological nishes in the host body. Actual infill of these nishes by ectoparasites is usually lesser than potential one. Species composition of temporary parasites, their occurrence and abundance changes according to season. Interspecific competition in the temporary parasite species can decrease because of the seasonal disjunction of their population peaks. Diversification of the ecological niches of ectoparasites allow simultaneous feeding of more parasite individuals on one host, than in the case of parasitising of single species or several species with similar ecological

  10. Evaluating abundance estimate precision and the assumptions of a count-based index for small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation and management of small mammals requires reliable knowledge of population size. We investigated precision of markrecapture and removal abundance estimates generated from live-trapping and snap-trapping data collected at sites on Guam (n 7), Rota (n 4), Saipan (n 5), and Tinian (n 3), in the Mariana Islands. We also evaluated a common index, captures per unit effort (CPUE), as a predictor of abundance. In addition, we evaluated cost and time associated with implementing live-trapping and snap-trapping and compared species-specific capture rates of selected live- and snap-traps. For all species, markrecapture estimates were consistently more precise than removal estimates based on coefficients of variation and 95 confidence intervals. The predictive utility of CPUE was poor but improved with increasing sampling duration. Nonetheless, modeling of sampling data revealed that underlying assumptions critical to application of an index of abundance, such as constant capture probability across space, time, and individuals, were not met. Although snap-trapping was cheaper and faster than live-trapping, the time difference was negligible when site preparation time was considered. Rattus diardii spp. captures were greatest in Haguruma live-traps (Standard Trading Co., Honolulu, HI) and Victor snap-traps (Woodstream Corporation, Lititz, PA), whereas Suncus murinus and Mus musculus captures were greatest in Sherman live-traps (H. B. Sherman Traps, Inc., Tallahassee, FL) and Museum Special snap-traps (Woodstream Corporation). Although snap-trapping and CPUE may have utility after validation against more rigorous methods, validation should occur across the full range of study conditions. Resources required for this level of validation would likely be better allocated towards implementing rigorous and robust methods.

  11. Small mammal abundance and habitat relationships on deciduous forested sites with different susceptibility to gypsy moth defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahner, Richard H.; Smith, Harvey R.

    1991-01-01

    Small mammals are important predators of gypsy moths ( Lymantria dispar L.), which are major defoliators of deciduous forests in the northeastern United States. Abundance and habitat relationships of small mammals were studied during summers 1984 and 1985 on forested sites at Moshannon and Rothrock state forests in two physiographic regions of Pennsylvania (Allegheny High Plateaus Province and Valley and Ridge Province, respectively) that varied in potential susceptibility to defoliation. The white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus), which is a major vertebrate predator of gypsy moths, was the most common small mammal on all sites. Of the four common species, northern short-tailed shrews ( Blarina brevicauda), southern red-backed voles ( Clethrionomys gapperi), and white-footed mice were more abundant at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, but masked shrews ( Sorex cinereus) were more abundant at Rothrock. Elevation was a major factor affecting abundance and distribution of small mammals. Because of the greater abundance of small mammals and more suitable physiographic features at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, small mammals may be more effective as predators on gypsy moths in the Allegheny High Plateaus than the Valley and Ridge Province of Pennsylvania.

  12. Preliminary Radiocarbon Chronology and Paleoecological Analysis of the Small Mammals in Samwel and Potter Creek Caves, Shasta County, California, and its Relation to the End-Pleistocene Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feranec, R. S.; Blois, J. L.; Hadly, E. A.

    2005-12-01

    Although mostly excavated before 1910, the fossil deposits discovered in Samwel and Potter Creek Caves in northern California have been little studied. The deposits within the caves have yielded both extinct megafauna and archaeological remains implying that the deposits cross the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Small mammals are abundant within these cave deposits, and many of these smaller mammals are from extant species of California, survivors of the end Pleistocene extinction. Because of the abundant fossils collected in stratigraphic context, our ultimate goal is the use these unique sites to assess community and population response of the extant mammals to the end Pleistocene event. However, our initial aim was to answer the following two questions regarding the small mammal communities: (1) What is the chronology of the small mammals in the cave deposits? (2) Are ecological changes occurring within the small mammal taxa? To determine chronology, we prepared 10 small mammal samples for radiocarbon analysis using standard techniques. The samples were analyzed and dated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our dates, selected from across the strata, ranged from 1,200 to 21,000 radiocarbon years before present. For a preliminary assessment of ecological changes through time, we used cranial metrics of ground squirrels ( Spermophilus sp.). Diastemal length (the distance between the first molariform tooth and incisor) is an index of body size, which is a function of the physiology of the individual. Toothrow measures the length of the molariform teeth, and does not change with the ontogeny of the individual, but can represent heritable, evolutionary changes in size or species replacement. Our preliminary results are promising, demonstrating a significant decrease in diastemal length, or ecophenotypic body size, at the top of the deposit. No significant change was observed in toothrow length. Our results confirm that the deposits of these northern

  13. Small mammals cause non-trophic effects on habitat and associated snails in a native system.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Mikaela; Karban, Richard; Maron, John L

    2011-12-01

    Legacy effects occur when particular species or their interactions with others have long-lasting impacts, and they are increasingly recognized as important determinants of ecological processes. However, when such legacy effects have been explicitly explored, they most often involve the long-term direct effects of species on systems, as opposed to the indirect effects. Here, we explore how a legacy of small mammal exclusion on the abundance of a shrub, bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus), influences the abundance of a native land snail (Helminthoglypta arrosa) in coastal prairie and dune habitats in central California. The factors that limit populations of land snails are very poorly known despite the threats to the persistence of this group of species. In grasslands, prior vole (Microtus californicus) exclusion created long-lasting gains in bush lupine abundance, mediated through the seedbank, and was associated with increased snail numbers (10×) compared to control plots where mammals were never excluded. Similar plots in dune habitat showed no difference in snail numbers due to previous mammal exclusion. We tested whether increased competition for food, increased predation, and/or lower desiccation explained the decline in snail numbers in plots with reduced lupine cover. Tethering experiments supported the hypothesis that voles can have long-lasting impacts as ecosystem engineers, reducing woody lupine habitat required for successful aestivation by snails. These results add to a growing list of studies that have found that non-trophic interactions can be limiting to invertebrate consumers. PMID:21691854

  14. The crouching of the shrew: Mechanical consequences of limb posture in small mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Corinne J.; Hermanson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    An important trend in the early evolution of mammals was the shift from a sprawling stance, whereby the legs are held in a more abducted position, to a parasagittal one, in which the legs extend more downward. After that transition, many mammals shifted from a crouching stance to a more upright one. It is hypothesized that one consequence of these transitions was a decrease in the total mechanical power required for locomotion, because side-to-side accelerations of the body have become smaller, and thus less costly with changes in limb orientation. To test this hypothesis we compared the kinetics of locomotion in two mammals of body size close to those of early mammals (< 40 g), both with parasagittally oriented limbs: a crouching shrew (Blarina brevicauda; 5 animals, 17 trials) and a more upright vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus; 4 animals, 22 trials). As predicted, voles used less mechanical power per unit body mass to perform steady locomotion than shrews did (P = 0.03). However, while lateral forces were indeed smaller in voles (15.6 ± 2.0% body weight) than in shrews (26.4 ± 10.9%; P = 0.046), the power used to move the body from side-to-side was negligible, making up less than 5% of total power in both shrews and voles. The most power consumed for both species was that used to accelerate the body in the direction of travel, and this was much larger for shrews than for voles (P = 0.01). We conclude that side-to-side accelerations are negligible for small mammals–whether crouching or more upright–compared to their sprawling ancestors, and that a more upright posture further decreases the cost of locomotion compared to crouching by helping to maintain the body’s momentum in the direction of travel. PMID:27413633

  15. Comparison of radionuclide levels in soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    Soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogam, and small mammal samples were collected and analyzed for cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium 239/240, technetium-99, and iodine-129 from 1981 to 1986 at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as part of site characterization and environmental monitoring activities. Samples were collected on the 200 Areas Plateau, downwind from ongoing waste management activities. Plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals are media that are not routinely utilized in monitoring or characterization efforts for determination of radionuclide concentrations. Studies at Hanford, other US Department of Energy sites, and in eastern Europe have indicated that plant litter and cryptogams may serve as effective ``natural`` monitors of air quality. Plant litter in this study consists of fallen leaves from sagebrush and ``cryptogams`` describes that portion of the soil crust composed of mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi. Comparisons of cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations in the soil, sagebrush, litter, and cryptogams revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) levels in plant litter and cryptogams. Technetium-99 values were the highest in sagebrush and litter. Plutonium-238 and 239/40 and iodine-129 concentrations never exceeded 0.8 pCi/gm in all media. No evidence of any significant amounts of any radionuclides being incorporated into the small mammal community was discovered. The data indicate that plant litter and cryptogams may be better, indicators of environmental quality than soil or vegetation samples. Augmenting a monitoring program with samples of litter and cryptogams may provide a more accurate representation of radionuclide environmental uptake and/or contamination levels in surrounding ecosystems. The results of this study may be applied directly to other radioecological monitoring conducted at other nuclear sites and to the monitoring of other pollutants.

  16. Faunal analysis of chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu

    2015-08-01

    This paper studied the species diversity and fauna distribution of chigger mites on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest Yunnan. In total, 120,138 individuals of chigger mites were collected from 13,760 individual small mammals, and these mites were identified as comprising two families, 26 genera, and 274 species. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, the mite species diversity in subregions I and II was higher than that in subregions III, IV, and V. Four mite species (Leptotrombidium scutellare, Leptotrombidium sinicum, Leptotrombidium deliense, and Helenicula simena) were the most dominant species in the whole province. Several vector species of chigger mites co-existed in Yunnan, and L. deliense (a main vector of scrub typhus in China) was mainly distributed in subregions IV and V with lower latitude and average altitude whereas L. scutellare (also a main vector in China) was mainly distributed in subregions I, II, and III with higher latitude and average altitude. Some geographically widely distributed mite species were also the mites with wide host ranges and low host specificity. The dominant mite species and their clustering tendency in the dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis were highly in accordance with the zoogeographical divisions. The species diversity of chigger mites showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3,500 m) along the vertical gradients and reached the highest value in the middle altitude regions in 2,000-2,500 m. The highest species diversity of the mites and their small mammal hosts happened in the regions around the Hengduan Mountains, which is a hotspot of biodiversity in Asia continent. The host and its sample size, geographical scope, landscape, topography, and some other factors comprehensively influence the species diversity and faunal distribution of chigger mites. A systematic field investigation with a wide geographical scope and large host sample is strongly recommended

  17. Dynamic edge effects in small mammal communities across a conservation-agricultural interface in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Zachary M; McCleery, Robert A; Collier, Bret A; Fletcher, Robert J; Silvy, Nova J; Taylor, Peter J; Monadjem, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge effects. Such effects, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge effects to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped small mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized small mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge effects on communities across sites and seasons. Using small mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that effects can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics. PMID:24040269

  18. Dynamic Edge Effects in Small Mammal Communities across a Conservation-Agricultural Interface in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Zachary M.; McCleery, Robert A.; Collier, Bret A.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Silvy, Nova J.; Taylor, Peter J.; Monadjem, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge effects. Such effects, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge effects to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped small mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized small mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge effects on communities across sites and seasons. Using small mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that effects can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics. PMID:24040269

  19. Nidicolous ticks of small mammals in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-enzootic sites in northern California

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Janet; Rejmanek, Daniel; Fleer, Katryna; Nieto, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Ixodes spp. tick-borne zoonotic diseases are present across the Holarctic in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Small mammals are reservoirs for the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick vectors may include catholic-feeding bridge vectors as well as host-specialist or nidicolous ticks. Far western North American communities in which A. phagocytophilum is maintained are complex ecologically, with multiple reservoir host and tick species, multiple strains of the bacterial pathogen A. phagocytophilum and differences in dynamics of hosts and vectors across heterogeneous landscapes. We evaluated sites in northern California in order to identify primarily nidicolous ticks and the hosts they infest. A total of 667 ticks was found in 11 study sites, including 288 on flags and 379 attached to small mammals. Larvae were over-represented among attached ticks and adults on flags. The most abundant species was I. pacificus. Two-hundred fourteen nidicolous ticks were found, most abundantly I. angustus and I. spinipalpis. All adult I. ochotonae, I. auritulus, I. angustus, I. jellisoni, and I. woodi were female, while the male:female ratio of I. spinipalpis was 1.2:1 and 1:1 for I. pacificus. The greatest number of ticks was obtained from Tamias ochrogenys, Peromyscus spp., and Neotoma fuscipes. Of 234 small mammal individuals that were infested with Ixodes spp., only 81 (34.6%) were infested with I. pacificus. The remaining infested small mammals hosted nidicolous tick species. Eight ticks were PCR-positive, including 6 I. pacificus (one adult, one larva, and 6 nymphs), and 2 adult I. ochotonae and high PCR prevalences of 18% and 9% were detected in woodrats and chipmunks, respectively. Nymphal I. angustus ticks were active year-long with a possible increase in August while larval activity was only observed in December and spring months and adults only during spring and fall. Overall, we show high tick species richness and year-round high levels of

  20. Species diversity of ectoparasitic chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu; Dong, Wen-Ge; Fan, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Chigger mites are a large group of arthropods and the larvae of mites are ectoparasites. Some species of ectoparasitic mites (larvae) can be the transmitting vectors of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is located in the southwest of China with complicated topographic landform and high biodiversity, where there are five zoogeographical subregions. Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001-2013. From 13,760 individuals and 76 species of small mammal hosts, we collected 274 species of mites, which were identified as comprising 26 genera in two families. The species diversity of chigger mites (274 species) in the present study were not only much higher than that from other provinces of China but also largely exceeded that recorded from other regions and countries in the world. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, both the species diversity and Shannon-Weiner's diversity of mites were the highest in subregion II (southern subregion of Hengduan Mountains) with middle altitudes and middle latitude. Both the species diversity of mites and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3500 m) along the vertical gradients with the peak occurring in the middle-altitude regions (2000-2500 m). Of four dominant hosts, the species richness of mites was highest on Eothenomys miletus (S = 165) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest on Rattus norvegicus (H = 3.13). Along latitude gradients, species richness of chigger mites increased first and then decreased, peaking at 25° to 26° N with 193 mite species. The geographical location, complex topography, and landscape with diverse small mammal hosts in Yunnan Province have contributed to the extremely high species diversity of mites in the province. The large sampling size of small mammal hosts in a wide geographical scope

  1. Spatial capture-recapture model performance with known small-mammal densities.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Brian D; Parmenter, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Abundance and density of wild animals are important ecological metrics. However, estimating either is fraught with challenges; spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models are a relatively new class of models that attempt to ameliorate common challenges, providing a statistically coherent framework to estimate abundance and density. SCR models are increasingly being used in ecological and conservation studies of mammals worldwide, but have received little testing with empirical field data. We use data collected via a web and grid sampling design to evaluate the basic SCR model where small-mammal abundance (N) and density (D) are known (via exhaustive sampling). We fit the basic SCR model with and without a behavioral effect to 11 small-mammal populations for each sampling design using a Bayesian and likelihood SCR modeling approach. We compare SCR and ad hoc density estimators using frequentist performance measures. We found Bayesian and likelihood SCR estimates of density (D) and abundance (N) to be similar. We also found SCR models to have moderately poor frequentist coverage of D and N (45-73%), high deviation from truth (i.e., accuracy; D, 17-29%; N, 16-29%), and consistent negative bias across inferential paradigms, sampling designs, and models. With the trapping grid data, the basic SCR model generally performed more poorly than the best ad hoc estimator (behavior CR super-population estimate divided by the full mean maximum distance moved estimate of the effective trapping area), whereas with the trapping web data, the best-performing SCR model (null) was comparable to the best distance model. Relatively poor frequentist SCR coverage resulted from higher precision (SCR coefficients of variation [CVs] < ad hoc CVs); however D and D were fairly well correlated (r2 range of 0.77-0.96). SCR's negative relative bias (i.e., average underestimation of the true density) suggests additional heterogeneity in detection and/or that small mammals maintained asymmetric home

  2. Sampling Small Mammals in Southeastern Forests: The Importance of Trapping in Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, S.C.; Chapman, G.L.; Ridley, T.R.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of sampling methodology on the richness and abundance of small mammal communities in loblolly pine forests. Trapping in trees using Sherman live traps was included along with routine ground trapping using the same device. Estimates of species richness did not differ among samples in which tree traps were included or excluded. However, diversity indeces (Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Shannon and Brillouin) were strongly effected. The indeces were significantly greater than if tree samples were included primarily the result of flying squirrel captures. Without tree traps, the results suggested that cotton mince dominated the community. We recommend that tree traps we included in sampling.

  3. Reinvasion of small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects on a reclaimed coal strip-mine

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, T.T.; Schemnitz, S.D.; Wolters, G.L.

    1990-12-31

    We conducted wildlife and vegetation sampling on sites reclaimed in 1979, 1982, and 1986, as well as unmined sites, on The Pittsburgh & Midway (P&M) Coal Mining Co.`s McKinley Mine in McKinley County, New Mexico. In June, July, and August 1988 and 1989 we samples small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects. Soil and vegetation sampling was conducted in July and September 1988, respectively. We found several significant differences (P < 0.05) among plant and animal data that may have suggested differences between study sites. Recent reclamation procedures conducted or proposed by P&M promise increased wildlife value of reclaimed sites.

  4. Nidicolous ticks of small mammals in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-enzootic sites in northern California.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet; Rejmanek, Daniel; Fleer, Katryna; Nieto, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    Ixodes spp. tick-borne zoonotic diseases are present across the Holarctic in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Small mammals are reservoirs for the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick vectors may include catholic-feeding bridge vectors as well as host-specialist or nidicolous ticks. Far western North American communities in which A. phagocytophilum is maintained are complex ecologically, with multiple reservoir host and tick species, multiple strains of the bacterial pathogen A. phagocytophilum and differences in dynamics of hosts and vectors across heterogeneous landscapes. We evaluated sites in northern California in order to identify primarily nidicolous ticks and the hosts they infest. A total of 667 ticks was found in 11 study sites, including 288 on flags and 379 attached to small mammals. Larvae were over-represented among attached ticks and adults on flags. The most abundant species was I. pacificus. Two-hundred fourteen nidicolous ticks were found, most abundantly I. angustus and I. spinipalpis. All adult I. ochotonae, I. auritulus, I. angustus, I. jellisoni, and I. woodi were female, while the male:female ratio of I. spinipalpis was 1.2:1 and 1:1 for I. pacificus. The greatest number of ticks was obtained from Tamias ochrogenys, Peromyscus spp., and Neotoma fuscipes. Of 234 small mammal individuals that were infested with Ixodes spp., only 81 (34.6%) were infested with I. pacificus. The remaining infested small mammals hosted nidicolous tick species. Eight ticks were PCR-positive, including 6 I. pacificus (one adult, one larva, and 6 nymphs), and 2 adult I. ochotonae and high PCR prevalences of 18% and 9% were detected in woodrats and chipmunks, respectively. Nymphal I. angustus ticks were active year-long with a possible increase in August while larval activity was only observed in December and spring months and adults only during spring and fall. Overall, we show high tick species richness and year-round high levels of

  5. Small mammal populations in Maryland meadows during four years of herbicide (Brominal? ) applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Moulton, C.A.; Hines, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The herbicide Brominal? was applied at the recommended rate to one plot in each of three paired 0.6-ha plots; the other three plots were used as controls. Plots were sprayed once in the fall of 1988 and 1989 and twice in the spring of 1990 and 1991. Small mammals were trapped three times during each activity season (April?October) to obtain population estimates before and after spraying and in the spring preceding fall spraying or the fall following spring spraying. Population estimates immediately after spraying gave no evidence of direct mortality. By 1991, dicot vegetation on treated plots was suppressed and mean numbers of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were less than on control plots. Because meadow voles favor dicots over monocots in their diet, reduced availability of dicots may have been related to the smaller vole population estimates. Species diversity of small mammals was negatively correlated with size of vole populations, but was not different between treated and control plots. Brominal apparently induced opaque corneas in nine voles. The condition was found in two voles too small to have been conceived at the time of the last previous spray nearly 8 months earlier, suggesting exposure to residue alone.

  6. Hardwood energy crops and wildlife diversity: Investigating potential benefits for breeding birds and small mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A.; Tolbert, V.R.

    1996-08-01

    Hardwood energy crops have the potential to provide a profit to growers as well as environmental benefits (for water quality, soil stabilization, chemical runoff, and wildlife habitat). Environmental considerations are important for both sustainable development of bioenergy technologies on agricultural lands, and for public support. The Environmental Task of the US DOE`s Biofuels feedstock Development Program (BFDP) is working with industry, universities and others to determine how to plant, manage and harvest these crops to maximize environmental advantages and minimize impacts while economically meeting production needs. One research objective is to define and improve wildlife habitat value of these energy crops by exploring how breeding birds and small mammals use them. The authors have found increased diversity of birds in tree plantings compared to row crops. However, fewer bird and small mammal species use the tree plantings than use natural forest. Bird species composition on hardwood crops studied to date is a mixture of openland and forest bird species. Restricted research site availability to date has limited research to small acreage sites of several years of age, or to a few larger acreage but young (1--2 year) plantings. Through industry collaboration, research began this season on bird use of diverse hardwood plantings (different ages, acreages, tree species) in the southeast. Together with results of previous studies, this research will help define practical energy crop guidelines to integrate native wildlife benefits with productive energy crops.

  7. Effects of Large and Small-Source Seismic Surveys on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, M.; Richardson, W. J.; Koski, W. R.; Smultea, M. A.; Haley, B.; Fitzgerald, M. W.; Rawson, M.

    2006-05-01

    L-DEO implements a marine mammal and sea turtle monitoring and mitigation program during its seismic surveys. The program consists of visual observations, mitigation, and/or passive acoustic monitoring (PAM). Mitigation includes ramp ups, powerdowns, and shutdowns of the seismic source if marine mammals or turtles are detected in or about to enter designated safety radii. Visual observations for marine mammals and turtles have taken place during all 11 L-DEO surveys since 2003, and PAM was done during five of those. Large sources were used during six cruises (10 to 20 airguns; 3050 to 8760 in3; PAM during four cruises). For two interpretable large-source surveys, densities of marine mammals were lower during seismic than non- seismic periods. During a shallow-water survey off Yucatán, delphinid densities during non-seismic periods were 19x higher than during seismic; however, this number is based on only 3 sightings during seismic and 11 sightings during non-seismic. During a Caribbean survey, densities were 1.4x higher during non-seismic. The mean closest point of approach (CPA) for delphinids for both cruises was significantly farther during seismic (1043 m) than during non-seismic (151 m) periods (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.001). Large whales were only seen during the Caribbean survey; mean CPA during seismic was 1722 m compared to 1539 m during non-seismic, but sample sizes were small. Acoustic detection rates with and without seismic were variable for three large-source surveys with PAM, with rates during seismic ranging from 1/3 to 6x those without seismic (n = 0 for fourth survey). The mean CPA for turtles was closer during non-seismic (139 m) than seismic (228 m) periods (P < 0.01). Small-source surveys used up to 6 airguns or 3 GI guns (75 to 1350 in3). During a Northwest Atlantic survey, delphinid densities during seismic and non-seismic were similar. However, in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, delphinid densities during non-seismic were 2x those during

  8. The use of a robust capture-recapture design in small mammal population studies: A field example with Microtus pennsylvanicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hines, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The robust design of Pollock (1982) was used to estimate parameters of a Maryland M. pennsylvanicus population. Closed model tests provided strong evidence of heterogeneity of capture probability, and model M eta (Otis et al., 1978) was selected as the most appropriate model for estimating population size. The Jolly-Seber model goodness-of-fit test indicated rejection of the model for this data set, and the M eta estimates of population size were all higher than the Jolly-Seber estimates. Both of these results are consistent with the evidence of heterogeneous capture probabilities. The authors thus used M eta estimates of population size, Jolly-Seber estimates of survival rate, and estimates of birth-immigration based on a combination of the population size and survival rate estimates. Advantages of the robust design estimates for certain inference procedures are discussed, and the design is recommended for future small mammal capture-recapture studies directed at estimation.

  9. Association patterns of ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae, Argasidae) of small mammals in Cerrado fragments, western Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Martins, Thiago F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes ticks associated with small mammals and analyzes the aggregation patterns according to seasonal and host variations in the Cerrado biome, central-western Brazil. Small mammals were systematically captured in 54 woodland fragments from February 2012 to July 2013. A total of 1,040 animals belonging to eight marsupial and 12 rodent species were captured; 265 animals were parasitized by eight tick species (in decreasing order of abundance): Ornithodoros mimon, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma parkeri, and Ixodes amarali. With few exceptions, collected ticks were larvae and nymphs. Among the more abundant animals, the marsupial Didelphis albiventris showed the highest tick prevalence (84.4 %), mean abundance (19.2), mean intensity (22.8), richness of ticks species (n = 7), and total abundance of ticks (n = 2,457). Amblyomma sculptum and O. mimon were the most generalist species, collected on four host species. Fifteen new tick-host associations are reported for the first time. Most ticks showed higher prevalence and mean intensity in the dry season, regardless of host species. Overall, tick prevalence and mean intensity of infestation were significantly associated with host gender. Finally, the importance of the large number of records of the argasid O. mimon is discussed. PMID:25633262

  10. Small mammal community composition in cornfields, roadside ditches, and prairies in eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Community composition of small mammals was examined in prairies, cornfields, and their adjacent roadside ditches in eastern Nebraska. Western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were associated with prairie habitat, were common in ditches, but avoided cornfields. Prairie voles (M. Ochrogaster) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were associated with ditch habitat, were common in prairies, but avoided cornfields. Short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) avoided cornfields, were associated with ditches next to cornfields, but were common in prairies and ditches next to prairies. Deer mice (P. Maniculatus) were associated with cornfields but were relatively common in prairies and ditches. House mice (Mus musculus) were most common in ditches next to cornfields, occurred in cornfields and ditches next to prairies, but were not captured in prairies. Although community composition appears to differ among prairies, ditches, and cornfields, ditches support a more complete suite of the native small mammal species in large and relatively even numbers, whereas cornfields only support deer mice in large numbers.

  11. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan.

  12. Disentangle the Causes of the Road Barrier Effect in Small Mammals through Genetic Patterns.

    PubMed

    Ascensão, Fernando; Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E; Ruiz-Capillas, Pablo; Silva, Catarina; Silva, André P; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Road barrier effect is among the foremost negative impacts of roads on wildlife. Knowledge of the factors responsible for the road barrier effect is crucial to understand and predict species' responses to roads, and to improve mitigation measures in the context of management and conservation. We built a set of hypothesis aiming to infer the most probable cause of road barrier effect (traffic effect or road surface avoidance), while controlling for the potentially confounding effects road width, traffic volume and road age. The wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus was used as a model species of small and forest-dwelling mammals, which are more likely to be affected by gaps in cover such as those resulting from road construction. We confront genetic patterns from opposite and same roadsides from samples of three highways and used computer simulations to infer migration rates between opposite roadsides. Genetic patterns from 302 samples (ca. 100 per highway) suggest that the highway barrier effect for wood mouse is due to road surface avoidance. However, from the simulations we estimated a migration rate of about 5% between opposite roadsides, indicating that some limited gene flow across highways does occur. To reduce highway impact on population genetic diversity and structure, possible mitigation measures could include retrofitting of culverts and underpasses to increase their attractiveness and facilitate their use by wood mice and other species, and setting aside roadside strips without vegetation removal to facilitate establishment and dispersal of small mammals. PMID:26978779

  13. Drivers of Intensity and Prevalence of Flea Parasitism on Small Mammals in East African Savanna Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Young, Hillary S; Dirzo, Rodolfo; McCauley, Douglas J; Agwanda, Bernard; Cattaneo, Lia; Dittmar, Katharina; Eckerlin, Ralph P; Fleischer, Robert C; Helgen, Lauren E; Hintz, Ashley; Montinieri, John; Zhao, Serena; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2015-06-01

    The relative importance of environmental factors and host factors in explaining variation in prevalence and intensity of flea parasitism in small mammal communities is poorly established. We examined these relationships in an East African savanna landscape, considering multiple host levels: across individuals within a local population, across populations within species, and across species within a landscape. We sampled fleas from 2,672 small mammals of 27 species. This included a total of 8,283 fleas, with 5 genera and 12 species identified. Across individual hosts within a site, both rodent body mass and season affected total intensity of flea infestation, although the explanatory power of these factors was generally modest (<10%). Across host populations in the landscape, we found consistently positive effects of host density and negative effects of vegetation cover on the intensity of flea infestation. Other factors explored (host diversity, annual rainfall, anthropogenic disturbance, and soil properties) tended to have lower and less consistent explanatory power. Across host species in the landscape, we found that host body mass was strongly positively correlated with both prevalence and intensity of flea parasitism, while average robustness of a host species to disturbance was not correlated with flea parasitism. Cumulatively, these results provide insight into the intricate roles of both host and environmental factors in explaining complex patterns of flea parasitism across landscape mosaics. PMID:25634599

  14. Radionuclide transfer to invertebrates and small mammals in a coastal sand dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wood, M D; Leah, R T; Jones, S R; Copplestone, D

    2009-06-15

    International intercomparisons of models to assess the impact of ionising radiation on wildlife have identified radionuclide transfer assumptions as a significant source of uncertainty in the modelling process. There is a need to improve the underpinning data sets on radionuclide transfer to reduce this uncertainty, especially for poorly-studied ecosystems such as coastal sand dunes. This paper presents the results of the first published study of radionuclide transfer to invertebrates and small mammals in a coastal sand dune ecosystem. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am are reported for detritivorous, herbivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous biota. Differences in activity concentrations measured in the sand dune biota are related to the trophic level of the organisms and the influence of sea-to-land transfer is apparent in the food chain transfer observed at the site. There are notable differences in the concentration ratios (CRs) calculated for the sand dune biota compared to other terrestrial ecosystems, especially for the small mammals which have CRs that are two orders of magnitude lower than the generic terrestrial ecosystem CRs published by the recent EC EURATOM ERICA project. The lower CRs at the sand dunes may be due to the influence of other cations from the marine environment (e.g. K and Na) on the net radionuclide transfer observed, but further research is required to test this hypothesis. PMID:19345398

  15. Patterns of small mammal microhabitat utilization in cedar glade and deciduous forest habitats

    SciTech Connect

    Seagle, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Differential microhabitat use by the small mammals inhabiting a cedar glade and a deciduous forest was investigated using discriminant function analysis of 30 structural parameters measured around the capture site of each animal. Ochrotomys nuttalli and Peromyscus leucopus utilize different microhabitats in the cedar glade, as do Blarina brevicauda and P. leucopus in the deciduous forest. P. leucopus was found to be a microhabitat generalist in the deciduous forest and a specialist in the cedar glade, whereas O. nuttalli and B. bravicauda were a microhabitat generalist and specialist, respectively. The sexes of P. leucopus were found to occupy different microhabitats in the deciduous forest but not in the cedar glade. Female P. leucopus occupied microhabitat with better protective cover in the deciduous forest. Comparisons of microhabitats used by the two species captured in each habitat with a random microhabitat sample and trap sites at which no animals were captured indicate that each habitat is a complex matrix of microhabitats, some of which are used by small mammals and some of which are not. 24 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on small mammals in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Anstead, Clare A; Hwang, Yeen Ten; Chilton, Neil B

    2013-11-01

    Two hundred and ninety-one ticks (i.e., 185 larvae, 72 nymphs, and 34 adults) were removed from 153 small mammals comprising six species collected in Verdant Forest, Numa Forest, and Marble Canyon within Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada. Morphological examination and molecular analyses (i.e., polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism [PCR-SSCP] and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene) of the ticks revealed that most individuals were Ixodes angustus Neumann. All life cycle stages of I. angustus were found primarily on southern red-backed voles, Clethrionomys gapperi (Vigors). Two Dermacentor andersoni Stiles females were also found on these small mammals. The results of the molecular analyses also revealed that there were three 16S haplotypes of I. angustus and two 16S haplotypes of D. andersoni. A comparison of available sequence data suggests genetic divergence between I. angustus near the western and eastern limits of the species distributional range in North America. Additional studies are needed to determine whether there are genetic differences between I. angustus from North America, Japan, and Russia, and whether there is geographical variation in the ability of ticks to transmit pathogens to their mammalian hosts. PMID:24843924

  17. Disentangle the Causes of the Road Barrier Effect in Small Mammals through Genetic Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ascensão, Fernando; Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E.; Ruiz-Capillas, Pablo; Silva, Catarina; Silva, André P.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Road barrier effect is among the foremost negative impacts of roads on wildlife. Knowledge of the factors responsible for the road barrier effect is crucial to understand and predict species’ responses to roads, and to improve mitigation measures in the context of management and conservation. We built a set of hypothesis aiming to infer the most probable cause of road barrier effect (traffic effect or road surface avoidance), while controlling for the potentially confounding effects road width, traffic volume and road age. The wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus was used as a model species of small and forest-dwelling mammals, which are more likely to be affected by gaps in cover such as those resulting from road construction. We confront genetic patterns from opposite and same roadsides from samples of three highways and used computer simulations to infer migration rates between opposite roadsides. Genetic patterns from 302 samples (ca. 100 per highway) suggest that the highway barrier effect for wood mouse is due to road surface avoidance. However, from the simulations we estimated a migration rate of about 5% between opposite roadsides, indicating that some limited gene flow across highways does occur. To reduce highway impact on population genetic diversity and structure, possible mitigation measures could include retrofitting of culverts and underpasses to increase their attractiveness and facilitate their use by wood mice and other species, and setting aside roadside strips without vegetation removal to facilitate establishment and dispersal of small mammals. PMID:26978779

  18. Natural Selection at the Brush-Border: Adaptations to Carbohydrate Diets in Humans and Other Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pontremoli, Chiara; Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Menozzi, Giorgia; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Dietary shifts can drive molecular evolution in mammals and a major transition in human history, the agricultural revolution, favored carbohydrate consumption. We investigated the evolutionary history of nine genes encoding brush-border proteins involved in carbohydrate digestion/absorption. Results indicated widespread adaptive evolution in mammals, with several branches experiencing episodic selection, particularly strong in bats. Many positively selected sites map to functional protein regions (e.g., within glucosidase catalytic crevices), with parallel evolution at SI (sucrase-isomaltase) and MGAM (maltase-glucoamylase). In human populations, five genes were targeted by positive selection acting on noncoding variants within regulatory elements. Analysis of ancient DNA samples indicated that most derived alleles were already present in the Paleolithic. Positively selected variants at SLC2A5 (fructose transporter) were an exception and possibly spread following the domestication of specific fruit crops. We conclude that agriculture determined no major selective event at carbohydrate metabolism genes in humans, with implications for susceptibility to metabolic disorders. PMID:26319403

  19. Natural Selection at the Brush-Border: Adaptations to Carbohydrate Diets in Humans and Other Mammals.

    PubMed

    Pontremoli, Chiara; Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Menozzi, Giorgia; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    Dietary shifts can drive molecular evolution in mammals and a major transition in human history, the agricultural revolution, favored carbohydrate consumption. We investigated the evolutionary history of nine genes encoding brush-border proteins involved in carbohydrate digestion/absorption. Results indicated widespread adaptive evolution in mammals, with several branches experiencing episodic selection, particularly strong in bats. Many positively selected sites map to functional protein regions (e.g., within glucosidase catalytic crevices), with parallel evolution at SI (sucrase-isomaltase) and MGAM (maltase-glucoamylase). In human populations, five genes were targeted by positive selection acting on noncoding variants within regulatory elements. Analysis of ancient DNA samples indicated that most derived alleles were already present in the Paleolithic. Positively selected variants at SLC2A5 (fructose transporter) were an exception and possibly spread following the domestication of specific fruit crops. We conclude that agriculture determined no major selective event at carbohydrate metabolism genes in humans, with implications for susceptibility to metabolic disorders. PMID:26319403

  20. Physiological and behavioural responses of a small heterothermic mammal to fire stimuli.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Matthews, Jaya K; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-11-01

    The predicted increase of the frequency and intensity of wildfires as a result of climate change could have a devastating impact on many species and ecosystems. However, the particular physiological and behavioural adaptions of animals to survive fires are poorly understood. We aimed to provide the first quantitative data on physiological and behavioural mechanisms used by a small heterothermic marsupial mammal, the fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata), that may be crucial for survival during and immediately after a fire. Specifically, we aimed to determine (i) whether captive torpid animals are able to respond to fire stimuli and (ii) which energy saving mechanisms are used in response to fires. The initial response of torpid dunnarts to smoke exposure was to arouse immediately and therefore express shorter and shallower torpor bouts. Dunnarts also increased activity after smoke exposure when food was provided, but not when food was withheld. A charcoal/ash substrate, imitating post-fire conditions, resulted in a decrease in torpor use and activity, but only when food was available. Our novel data suggests that heterothermic mammals are able to respond to fire stimuli, such as smoke, to arouse from torpor as an initial response to fire and adjust torpor use and activity levels according to food availability modulated by fire cues. PMID:26343772

  1. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.

    PubMed

    Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J

    1994-05-01

    Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say). PMID:8057327

  2. Mediterranean Europe as an area of endemism for small mammals rather than a source for northwards postglacial colonization.

    PubMed Central

    Bilton, D T; Mirol, P M; Mascheretti, S; Fredga, K; Zima, J; Searle, J B

    1998-01-01

    There is a general perception that central and northern Europe were colonized by range expansion from Mediterranean refugia at the end of the last glaciation. Data from various species support this scenario, but we question its universality. Our mitochondrial DNA studies on three widespread species of small mammal suggest that colonization may have occurred from glacial refugia in central Europe-western Asia. The haplotypes on the Mediterranean peninsulae are distinctive from those found elsewhere. Rather than contributing to the postglacial colonization of Europe, Mediterranean populations of widespread small mammals may represent long-term isolates undergoing allopatric speciation. This could explain the high endemism of small mammals associated with the Mediterranean peninsulae. PMID:9699314

  3. Small mammals from the early Pleistocene of the Granada Basin, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alix, Antonio; Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Suárez, Elvira Martín; Freudenthal, Matthijs

    2009-09-01

    The Pliocene and Pleistocene continental sedimentary records of the western sector of the Granada Basin, southern Spain, consist of alternating fluvial and lacustrine/palustrine sediments. Two Quaternary sections from this sector have been sampled: Huétor Tájar and Tojaire. They have yielded remains of rodents, insectivores and lagomorphs. The presence in the Huétor Tájar and Tojaire sections of Mimomys, Apodemus atavus, Castillomys rivas and two different species of Allophaiomys, indicates an Early Pleistocene age. These deposits, which are related to a fluvio-lacustrine system, can be differentiated from an older (Pliocene) braided fluvial system. Their dating has important repercussions on the paleogeographic reconstruction of the basin. The conditions inferred from the ecological preferences of the small mammal associations are wet and cold. These associations suggest a predominance of open herbaceous habitats, followed by forested habitats; semiaquatic habitats are the least represented.

  4. Hundreds of Genes Experienced Convergent Shifts in Selective Pressure in Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Chikina, Maria; Robinson, Joseph D; Clark, Nathan L

    2016-09-01

    Mammal species have made the transition to the marine environment several times, and their lineages represent one of the classical examples of convergent evolution in morphological and physiological traits. Nevertheless, the genetic mechanisms of their phenotypic transition are poorly understood, and investigations into convergence at the molecular level have been inconclusive. While past studies have searched for convergent changes at specific amino acid sites, we propose an alternative strategy to identify those genes that experienced convergent changes in their selective pressures, visible as changes in evolutionary rate specifically in the marine lineages. We present evidence of widespread convergence at the gene level by identifying parallel shifts in evolutionary rate during three independent episodes of mammalian adaptation to the marine environment. Hundreds of genes accelerated their evolutionary rates in all three marine mammal lineages during their transition to aquatic life. These marine-accelerated genes are highly enriched for pathways that control recognized functional adaptations in marine mammals, including muscle physiology, lipid-metabolism, sensory systems, and skin and connective tissue. The accelerations resulted from both adaptive evolution as seen in skin and lung genes, and loss of function as in gustatory and olfactory genes. In regard to sensory systems, this finding provides further evidence that reduced senses of taste and smell are ubiquitous in marine mammals. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of identifying genes underlying convergent organism-level characteristics on a genome-wide scale and without prior knowledge of adaptations, and provides a powerful approach for investigating the physiological functions of mammalian genes. PMID:27329977

  5. Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Trichuridae nematodes of carnivores and small mammals.

    PubMed

    Guardone, Lisa; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio; Magi, Marta; Mathis, Alexander

    2013-10-18

    Several species of Trichuridae nematodes can infect dogs, cats and wild mammals. The diagnosis of these infections relies on the microscopic identification of eggs which are characterized by a similar "lemon" shape and polar plugs in all Trichuridae. Thus, morphological diagnosis to species level is challenging. The use of biomolecular diagnostic methods is desirable but very little genetic data are known from Trichuridae of carnivores and small mammals. The aim of this work was to genetically characterize several species of Trichuridae that can affect dogs, cats and wild mammals, as a basis to develop molecular diagnostic tests. Specimens (adult worms or eggs) of Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila), Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi), Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii), Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica), Calodium splenaecum (syn. Capillaria splenaeca) and Trichuris vulpis were obtained from carcasses of red foxes, feces of dogs, the liver of a vole and from the spleen of Crocidura sp. Parts of the small subunit rRNA (18S rRNA) gene and of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox 1 mtDNA) gene were amplified from the above mentioned nematodes, yielding the first 18S rRNA gene sequences of all the capillariid nematodes and the first cox 1 mtDNA sequences of E. boehmi, P. plica, C. hepaticum, A. putorii and T. vulpis. The 18S rRNA gene is highly conserved among the different species and not suitable as a target for specific diagnostic oligonucleotides. However, these sequences contribute to a better understanding of the complex taxonomic relations among Trichuridae. Indeed, a dendrogram based on the 18S rRNA gene locus supports the latest taxonomic revision. Interspecies divergence was much higher at the cox 1 mtDNA gene locus, rendering it suitable for DNA barcoding and particularly valuable in resolving closely related species. Furthermore, the mitochondrial genetic

  6. Fleas of Small Mammals on Reunion Island: Diversity, Distribution and Epidemiological Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; LeMinter, Gildas; Licciardi, Séverine; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frédéric; Laudisoit, Anne; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and geographical distribution of fleas parasitizing small mammals have been poorly investigated on Indian Ocean islands with the exception of Madagascar where endemic plague has stimulated extensive research on these arthropod vectors. In the context of an emerging flea-borne murine typhus outbreak that occurred recently in Reunion Island, we explored fleas' diversity, distribution and host specificity on Reunion Island. Small mammal hosts belonging to five introduced species were trapped from November 2012 to November 2013 along two altitudinal transects, one on the windward eastern and one on the leeward western sides of the island. A total of 960 animals were trapped, and 286 fleas were morphologically and molecularly identified. Four species were reported: (i) two cosmopolitan Xenopsylla species which appeared by far as the prominent species, X. cheopis and X. brasiliensis; (ii) fewer fleas belonging to Echidnophaga gallinacea and Leptopsylla segnis. Rattus rattus was found to be the most abundant host species in our sample, and also the most parasitized host, predominantly by X. cheopis. A marked decrease in flea abundance was observed during the cool-dry season, which indicates seasonal fluctuation in infestation. Importantly, our data reveal that flea abundance was strongly biased on the island, with 81% of all collected fleas coming from the western dry side and no Xenopsylla flea collected on almost four hundred rodents trapped along the windward humid eastern side. The possible consequences of this sharp spatio-temporal pattern are discussed in terms of flea-borne disease risks in Reunion Island, particularly with regard to plague and the currently emerging murine typhus outbreak. PMID:25188026

  7. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-01-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  8. Small mammals as indicators of short-term and long-term disturbance in mixed prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leis, S.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Engle, David M.; Fehmi, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbance by military maneuvers over short and long time scales may have differential effects on grassland communities. We assessed small mammals as indicators of disturbance by military maneuvers in a mixed prairie in southern Oklahoma USA. We examined sites on two soil series, Foard and Lawton, across a gradient of disturbance intensity. A MANOVA showed that abundance of small mammals was associated (p = 0.03) with short-term (cover of vehicle tracks) disturbance but was not associated (p = 0.12) with long-term (loss of soil organic carbon, SOC) disturbance intensity. At the individual species level, Sigmodon hispidus (cotton rat) and Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) occurred across all levels of disturbance and in both soil types. Only P. maniculatus abundance changed (p < 0.01) with short-term disturbance and increased by about one individual per 5% of additional track-cover. Abundance of P. maniculatus also increased (p = 0.04) by about three individuals per 1% increase in soil carbon. Chaetodipus hispidus (hispid pocket mouse) and Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous harvest mouse) only occurred in single soil types limiting their potential as more general indicators. Abundance of P. maniculatus was positively related to shifts in plant species composition and likely reflected changes in vegetation structure (i.e. litter depth) and forage availability resulting from disturbance. Peromyscus maniculatus may be a useful biological indicator of ecosystem change because it responded predictably to both long-term and short-term disturbance and, when coupled with soil, plant, and disturbance history variables, can reveal land condition trends. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  9. Relating Demographic Characteristics of a Small Mammal to Remotely Sensed Forest-Stand Condition

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Hania; Thomson, James R.; Cunningham, Shaun C.; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change) and indirect (climate change) human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes) in 60 000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha) across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year) and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers) were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests) are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times. PMID:24621967

  10. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

    PubMed

    Lada, Hania; Thomson, James R; Cunningham, Shaun C; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change) and indirect (climate change) human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes) in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha) across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year) and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers) were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests) are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times. PMID:24621967

  11. Small mammal-heavy metal concentrations from mined and control sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.J.; Rongstad, O.J.

    1982-01-01

    Total body concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, mercury and arsenic were determined for Peromyscus maniculatus and Microtus pennsylvanicus from an active zinc-copper mine near Timmins, Ontario, Canada, and a proposed zinc-copper mine near Crandon, Wisconsin, USA. Metal concentrations were evaluated with respect to area, species, sex and age groups. Metal concentrations in Peromyscus from the proposed mine site were not different from those collected in a third area where no mine or deposit exists. This is probably due to the 30 m of glacial material over the proposed mine site deposit. A statistical interaction between area, species, sex and age was observed for zinc and copper concentrations in small mammals we examined. Peromyscus from the mine site had consistently higher metal concentrations than Peromyscus from the control site. Greater total body cadmium and lead concentrations in adult?compared with juvenile?Peromyscus collected at the mine site suggests age-dependent accumulation of these toxic metals. Microtus did not exhibit this age-related response, and responded to other environmental metals more erratically and to a lesser degree. Differences in the response of these two species to environmental metal exposure may be due to differences in food habits. Nickel, mercury and arsenic concentrations in small mammals from the mine site were not different from controls. Heavy metal concentrations are also presented for Sorex cinereus, Blarina brevicauda and Zapus hudsonicus without respect to age and sex cohorts. Peromyscus may be a potentially important species for the monitoring of heavy metal pollution.

  12. Small mammals as indicators of short-term and long-term disturbance in mixed prairie.

    PubMed

    Leis, Sherry A; Leslie, David M; Engle, David M; Fehmi, Jeffrey S

    2008-02-01

    Disturbance by military maneuvers over short and long time scales may have differential effects on grassland communities. We assessed small mammals as indicators of disturbance by military maneuvers in a mixed prairie in southern Oklahoma USA. We examined sites on two soil series, Foard and Lawton, across a gradient of disturbance intensity. A MANOVA showed that abundance of small mammals was associated (p = 0.03) with short-term (cover of vehicle tracks) disturbance but was not associated (p = 0.12) with long-term (loss of soil organic carbon, SOC) disturbance intensity. At the individual species level, Sigmodon hispidus (cotton rat) and Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) occurred across all levels of disturbance and in both soil types. Only P. maniculatus abundance changed (p < 0.01) with short-term disturbance and increased by about one individual per 5% of additional track-cover. Abundance of P. maniculatus also increased (p = 0.04) by about three individuals per 1% increase in soil carbon. Chaetodipus hispidus (hispid pocket mouse) and Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous harvest mouse) only occurred in single soil types limiting their potential as more general indicators. Abundance of P. maniculatus was positively related to shifts in plant species composition and likely reflected changes in vegetation structure (i.e. litter depth) and forage availability resulting from disturbance. Peromyscus maniculatus may be a useful biological indicator of ecosystem change because it responded predictably to both long-term and short-term disturbance and, when coupled with soil, plant, and disturbance history variables, can reveal land condition trends. PMID:17458511

  13. Heterogeneous road networks have no apparent effect on the genetic structure of small mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Grilo, Clara; Del Cerro, Irene; Centeno-Cuadros, Alejandro; Ramiro, Victor; Román, Jacinto; Molina-Vacas, Guillem; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rodríguez, Juan; Porto-Peter, Flávia; Fonseca, Carlos; Revilla, Eloy; Godoy, José A

    2016-09-15

    Roads are widely recognized to represent a barrier to individual movements and, conversely, verges can act as potential corridors for the dispersal of many small mammals. Both barrier and corridor effects should generate a clear spatial pattern in genetic structure. Nevertheless, the effect of roads on the genetic structure of small mammal populations still remains unclear. In this study, we examine the barrier effect that different road types (4-lane highway, 2-lane roads and single-lane unpaved roads) may have on the population genetic structure of three species differing in relevant life history traits: southern water vole Arvicola sapidus, the Mediterranean pine vole Microtus duodecimcostatus and the Algerian mouse Mus spretus. We also examine the corridor effect of highway verges on the Mediterranean pine vole and the Algerian mouse. We analysed the population structure through pairwise estimates of FST among subpopulations bisected by roads, identified genetic clusters through Bayesian assignment approaches, and used simple and partial Mantel tests to evaluate the relative barrier or corridor effect of roads. No strong evidences were found for an effect of roads on population structure of these three species. The barrier effect of roads seems to be site-specific and no corridor effect of verges was found for the pine vole and Algerian mouse populations. The lack of consistent results among species and for each road type lead us to believe that the ability of individual dispersers to use those crossing structures or the habitat quality in the highway verges may have a relatively higher influence on gene flow among populations than the presence of crossing structures per se. Further research should include microhabitat analysis and the estimates of species abundance to understand the mechanisms that underlie the genetic structure observed at some sites. PMID:27219505

  14. Spatial variation in keystone effects: Small mammal diversity associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, B.; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.

  15. Effects of aerial applications of esfenvalerate on small mammals and birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Rice, C.P.; Grove, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Although no adverse effects were documented, this study did not provide data sufficient to adequately test for effects of aerial spraying of esfenvalerate on small mammal populations or nesting of birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards. Small mammal trapping data were too sparse to provide statistical testing with reasonable power. Residues of the R and S forms of fenvalerate were low with maxima of 0.56 and 1.72 ?g/g, respectively in pelage of a deer mouse. No diagnostic residue data are available to interpret our results.

  16. Small mammals associated with colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the Southern High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruett, A.L.; Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Ray, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    We compared diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and paired non-colony sites. Of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in our study area, >80 were on slopes of playa lakes; thus, we used sites of colonies and non-colonies that were on slopes of playa lakes. We trapped small mammals on 29 pairs of sites. Overall abundance did not differ between types of sites, but some taxa exhibited associations with colonies (Onychomys leucogaster) or non-colonies (Chaetodipus hispidus, Reithrodontomys, Sigmodon hispidus). Diversity and evenness of small mammals did not differ between colonies and non-colonies in 2002, but were higher on non-colonies in 2003. Although we may not have detected some rare or infrequently occurring species, our data reveal differences in diversity and evenness of more common species among the types of sites. Prairie dogs are touted as a keystone species with their colonies associated with a greater faunal diversity than adjacent lands. Our findings contradict several studies reporting greater diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of prairie dogs. We suggest that additional research across a wider landscape and incorporating landscape variables beyond the immediate trapping plot may further elucidate interspecific associations between black-tailed prairie dogs and species of small rodents.

  17. Status and challenges for conservation of small mammal assemblages in South America.

    PubMed

    Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L

    2014-08-01

    South America spans about 44° latitude, covers almost 18 million km(2) , and is second only to Africa in continental mammal species richness. In spite of this richness, research on the status of this fauna and on the nature and magnitude of contemporary threats remains limited. Distilling threats to this diverse fauna at a continental scale is challenging, in part because of the limited availability of rigorous studies. Recognizing this constraint, we summarize key threats to small mammals in South America, emphasizing the roles of habitat loss and degradation, direct persecution, and the increasing threat of climate change. We focus on three regional 'case studies': the tropical Andes, Amazonia and adjacent lowland regions, and the southern temperate region. We close with a brief summary of recent findings at our long-term research site in north-central Chile as they pertain to projected threats to this fauna. Habitat alteration is a pervasive threat that has been magnified by market forces and globalization (e.g. extensive agricultural development in Amazonia), and threatens increasing numbers of populations and species. Climate change poses even greater threats, from changes in rainfall and runoff regimes and resulting changes in vegetative structure and composition to secondary influences on fire dynamics. It is likely that many changes have yet to be recognized, but existing threats suggest that the future may bring dramatic changes in the distribution of many mammal taxa, although it is not clear if key habitat elements (vegetation) will respond as rapidly as climatic factors, leading to substantial uncertainty. Climate change is likely to result in 'winners' and 'losers' but available information precludes detailed assessment of which species are likely to fall into which category. In the absence of long-term monitoring and applied research to characterize these threats more accurately, and to develop strategies to reduce their impacts, managers already are

  18. Are tropical small mammals physiologically vulnerable to Arrhenius effects and climate change?

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry G; Canale, Cindy; Levesque, Danielle; Fluch, Gerhard; Reháková-Petrů, Milada; Ruf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is some urgency in the necessity to incorporate physiological data into mechanistic, trait-based, demographic climate change models. Physiological responses at the individual level provide the mechanistic link between environmental changes and individual performances and hence population dynamics. Here we consider the causal relationship between ambient temperature (Ta) and metabolic rate (MR), namely, the Arrhenius effect, which is directly affected by global warming through increases in average global air temperatures and the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events. We measured and collated data for several small, free-ranging tropical arboreal mammals and evaluated their vulnerability to Arrhenius effects and putative heat stress associated with climate change. Skin temperatures (Tskin) were obtained from free-ranging tarsiers (Tarsius syrichta) on Bohol Island, Philippines. Core body temperature (Tb) was obtained from the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus) and the gray brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis) from Ankarafantsika, Madagascar. Tskin for another mouse lemur, Microcebus griseorufus, was obtained from the literature. All four species showed evidence of hyperthermia during the daytime rest phase in the form of either Tskin or Tb that was higher than the normothermic Tb during the nighttime active phase. Potentially, tropical arboreal mammals with the lowest MRs and Tb, such as tarsiers, are the most vulnerable to sustained heat stress because their Tb is already close to Ta. Climate change may involve increases in MRs due to Arrhenius effects, especially during the rest phase or during torpor and hibernation. The most likely outcome of increased Arrhenius effects with climate change will be an increase in energy expenditure at the expense of other critical functions such as reproduction or growth and will thus affect fitness. However, we propose that these hypothetical Arrhenius costs can be, and in some

  19. Selection preserves Ubiquitin Specific Protease 4 alternative exon skipping in therian mammals

    PubMed Central

    Vlasschaert, Caitlyn; Xia, Xuhua; Gray, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin specific protease 4 (USP4) is a highly networked deubiquitinating enzyme with reported roles in cancer, innate immunity and RNA splicing. In mammals it has two dominant isoforms arising from inclusion or skipping of exon 7 (E7). We evaluated two plausible mechanisms for the generation of these isoforms: (A) E7 skipping due to a long upstream intron and (B) E7 skipping due to inefficient 5′ splice sites (5′SS) and/or branchpoint sites (BPS). We then assessed whether E7 alternative splicing is maintained by selective pressure or arose from genetic drift. Both transcript variants were generated from a USP4-E7 minigene construct with short flanking introns, an observation consistent with the second mechanism whereby differential splice signal strengths are the basis of E7 skipping. Optimization of the downstream 5′SS eliminated E7 skipping. Experimental validation of the correlation between 5′SS identity and exon skipping in vertebrates pinpointed the +6 site as the key splicing determinant. Therian mammals invariably display a 5′SS configuration favouring alternative splicing and the resulting isoforms have distinct subcellular localizations. We conclude that alternative splicing of mammalian USP4 is under selective maintenance and that long and short USP4 isoforms may target substrates in various cellular compartments. PMID:26833277

  20. The influence of small-mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the activities that were conducted in support of the long-term surface barrier development program by Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the degree that small-mammal burrow systems affect the loss or retention of water in the soils at the Hanford Site in Washington state. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed, consisting of two outer boxes buried at grade, which served as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing animals common the Hanford Site were introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation was added monthly to three of the lysimeters with a rainfall simulator (rainulator). Information collected from the five tests indicated that (1) during summer months, water was lost in all the lysimeters, including the supplemental precipitation added with the rainulator; and (2) during winter months, all lysimeters gained water. The data indicate little difference in the amount of water stored between control and animal lysimeters. The overall water loss was attributed to surface evaporation, a process that occurred equally in control and treatment lysimeters. Other causes of water loss are a result of (1) constant soil turnover and subsequent drying, and (2) burrow ventilation effects. This suggests that burrow systems will not contribute to any significant water storage at depth and, in fact, may enhance the removal of water from the soil.

  1. Concentration ratios for small mammals collected from the exposed sediments of a 137Cs contaminated reservoir.

    PubMed

    Paller, Michael H; Timothy Jannik, G; Wike, Lynn D

    2006-01-01

    (137)Cs concentration ratios were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediments of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil (137)Cs activity concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales and had a geometric mean of 253 (range 23-2110) Bq/kg dry weight. Mean (137)Cs activity concentrations in composite cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus and cotton mouse Peromyscus gossypinus samples averaged 2480 (range 556-6670) and 471 (range 96-1000) Bq/kg whole body dry weight, respectively. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat tissue (137)Cs activity was explained by variation in soil (137)Cs activity. Soil-to-animal dry weight concentration ratios averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice and were generally similar to (137)Cs concentration ratios for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default wet-weight concentration ratio for (137)Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of internal and external radiation doses to terrestrial biota that is 44 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured wet-weight concentration ratio for cotton rats (1.6). These results show that site-specific concentration ratios can significantly affect the estimation of dose. PMID:16963166

  2. Long term variations in small mammal composition of a snake diet do not mirror climate change trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugiero, Lorenzo; Milana, Giuliano; Capula, Massimo; Amori, Giovanni; Luiselli, Luca

    2012-08-01

    The study of the dietary changes which have intervened over the years in generalist and opportunist predators may provide useful information on the temporal modifications of their prey communities, especially under a climate change scenario. In this study, we analysed the quantitative changes in the small mammal portion of the diet of a generalist and opportunist predator, the asp viper (Vipera aspis) at a forest zone in central Italy, for the period 1987-2010. In addition, small mammals were trapped in five of these years. Apodemus spp., Mus musculus, and Myodes glareolus were the main prey for vipers. Among the various taxa eaten by vipers, only two showed significantly consistent trends over the years, with M. glareolus increasing and Sorex spp. declining in the viper diet. There were no significant relationships between the number of years passed after the first year of sampling and the diversity and dominance indexes of prey composition. We also found a significantly positive relationship between small mammal abundance in the field and their relative frequency of occurrence in the viper's diet, thus demonstrating that vipers really sampled the small mammal species in relation to their local availability. Despite being temperate-zone forest-associated species, hence likely adversed by global warming, Sorex spp. and M. glareolus showed opposite trends over the years, thus suggesting that such trends may reflect more local scale perturbations (local forest overgrowth and diminution of logging).

  3. Seroepidemiological Survey of Zoonotic Diseases in Small Mammals with PCR Detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Chiggers, Gwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Wook; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Sun Hee; Cho, Sun Ju; Ha, Yi Deun; Jung, So Hyang; Park, Hye Jung; Song, Hyun Jae; Lee, Jung Yoon; Kim, Dong Min; Pyus, Jah; Ha, Dong Ryong; Kim, Eun Sun; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Serosurveillance for zoonotic diseases in small mammals and detection of chiggers, the vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi, were conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in Gwangju Metropolitan Area. Apodemus agrarius was the most commonly collected small mammals (158; 91.8%), followed by Myodes regulus (8; 4.6%), and Crocidura lasiura (6; 3.5%). The highest seroprevalence of small mammals for O. tsutsugamushi (41; 26.3%) was followed by hantaviruses (24; 15.4%), Rickettsia spp. (22; 14.1%), and Leptospira (2; 1.3%). A total of 3,194 chiggers were collected from small mammals, and 1,236 of 3,194 chiggers were identified with 7 species of 3 genera: Leptotrombidium scutellare was the most commonly collected species (585; 47.3%), followed by L. orientale (422; 34.1%), Euchoengastia koreaensis (99; 8.0%), L. palpale (58; 4.7%), L. pallidum (36; 2.9%), Neotrombicula gardellai (28; 2.3%), and L. zetum (8; 0.6%). L. scutellare was the predominant species. Three of 1,236 chigger mites were positive for O. tsutsugamushi by PCR. As a result of phylogenetic analysis, the O. tsutsugamushi strain of chigger mites had sequence homology of 90.1-98.2% with Boryong. This study provides baseline data on the distribution of zoonotic diseases and potential vectors for the development of prevention strategies of vector borne diseases in Gwangju metropolitan area. PMID:27417085

  4. Seroepidemiological Survey of Zoonotic Diseases in Small Mammals with PCR Detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Chiggers, Gwangju, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Wook; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Sun Hee; Cho, Sun Ju; Ha, Yi Deun; Jung, So Hyang; Park, Hye Jung; Song, Hyun Jae; Lee, Jung Yoon; Kim, Dong Min; Pyus, Jah; Ha, Dong Ryong; Kim, Eun Sun; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-06-01

    Serosurveillance for zoonotic diseases in small mammals and detection of chiggers, the vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi, were conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in Gwangju Metropolitan Area. Apodemus agrarius was the most commonly collected small mammals (158; 91.8%), followed by Myodes regulus (8; 4.6%), and Crocidura lasiura (6; 3.5%). The highest seroprevalence of small mammals for O. tsutsugamushi (41; 26.3%) was followed by hantaviruses (24; 15.4%), Rickettsia spp. (22; 14.1%), and Leptospira (2; 1.3%). A total of 3,194 chiggers were collected from small mammals, and 1,236 of 3,194 chiggers were identified with 7 species of 3 genera: Leptotrombidium scutellare was the most commonly collected species (585; 47.3%), followed by L. orientale (422; 34.1%), Euchoengastia koreaensis (99; 8.0%), L. palpale (58; 4.7%), L. pallidum (36; 2.9%), Neotrombicula gardellai (28; 2.3%), and L. zetum (8; 0.6%). L. scutellare was the predominant species. Three of 1,236 chigger mites were positive for O. tsutsugamushi by PCR. As a result of phylogenetic analysis, the O. tsutsugamushi strain of chigger mites had sequence homology of 90.1-98.2% with Boryong. This study provides baseline data on the distribution of zoonotic diseases and potential vectors for the development of prevention strategies of vector borne diseases in Gwangju metropolitan area. PMID:27417085

  5. SMALL MAMMALS: CONSEQUENCES OF STOCHASTIC DATA VARIATION FOR MODELING INDICATORS OF HABITAT SUITABILITY FOR A WELL-STUDIED RESOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, models of physical habitat variables (i.e. vegetation, soil) are utilized as indicators of small mammal habitat suitability or quality. Presumably, use of physical habitat models indicating habitat suitability or quality would be improved and enhanced by the extens...

  6. Small Mammal Jointed Models to Make, Description Cards, and a Menu of Follow-on Activities in Different Intelligence Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Vander Zanden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Instilling an appreciation of nature in our youth is an important precursor to environmental protection and support for sustainability. Research has shown that involving students in environmental projects improves their motivation, skills, and achievement on standardized tests, This document contains images of the body parts of small mammals with…

  7. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Andréa O; Passamani, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a context, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors) using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments). PMID:23025102

  8. Responses of small mammals to habitat fragmentation: epidemiological considerations for rodent-borne hantaviruses in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. The transmission of hantaviruses among rodent hosts may be higher with the increase of reservoir host abundance in a given area (density-dependent transmission) and with the decrease of small mammal diversity (dilution effect phenomenon). These population and community parameters may be modified by habitat fragmentation; however, studies that focus on fragmentation and its effect on hantavirus infection risk are scarce. To further understanding of this issue, we assessed some population and community responses of rodents that may increase the risk for hantavirus transmission among wildlife hosts in the Americas. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the responses of small mammals to fragmentation of native habitats, relative to patch size. Our analyses included five countries and 14 case studies for abundance of reservoir hosts (8 species) and 15 case studies for species richness. We found that a reduction of patch area due to habitat fragmentation is associated with increased reservoir host abundances and decreased small mammal richness, which is mainly due to the loss of non-host small mammals. According to these results, habitat fragmentation in the Americas should be considered as an epidemiological risk factor for hantavirus transmission to humans. These findings are important to assess potential risk of infection when fragmentation of native habitats occurs. PMID:24845575

  9. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, Technical Area 54, 1996 (with cumulative summary for 1994--1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.R.; Bennett, K.D.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-07-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites at Area G, Technical Area (TA) 54 and a control site within the proposed Area G expansion area in 1996 to (1) identify radionuclides that are present within rodent tissues at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of approximately five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 3}H. Higher levels of total U, {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Due to low sample sizes in total number of animals captured, statistical analysis to compare site to site could not be conducted. However, mean concentrations of total U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 137}Cs in rodent carcasses were higher at Site 1 than site 2 or the Control Site and {sup 241}Am was higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or the Control Site.

  10. Radionuclide Contaminant Analysis of Small Mammals at Area G, Technical Area 54, 1997 (with cumulative summary 1994-1997)

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Biggs; Kathryn D. Bennett; P. R. Fresquez

    1998-12-01

    In 1997, small mammals were sampled at four locations at Area G, Technical Area 54, a control site within the proposed Area G expansion area, and a background site on Frijoles Mesa. The purpose of the sampling was to (1) identify radionuclides that are present within rodent tissues at waste burial sites, (2) compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) identifi the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of approximately five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241Am, 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, total U, 137Cs, and 3H. Higher levels of total U and 137CS were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals, and 90Sr was found to be higher in carcasses. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were not found to be statistically different (p< 0.05) from that measured in pelts. However, pelts generally had higher concentrations than carcasses, indicating surface contamination may be the primary contamination mode. Low sample sizes in total number of animals captured during 1997 prevented statistical analysis to compare site to site to all but four sites. Mean concentrations of 241Am, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 3H in small mammal carcasses were found to be statistically greater at the transuranic (TRU) waste pad #2. In addition, mean concentrations of total U, ~lAm, and 3H in pelts of small mammals were also statistically greater. The Control Site and Background Site consistently had the lowest mean concentrations of radionuclides. Year to year comparison of mean radionuclide concentrations was conducted where suftlcient sample size existed. We found 241Am, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 3H mean concentrations in carcasses to be statistically greater in 1997 than previous years at TRU waste pad #2

  11. Effects of Precommercial Thinning and Midstory Control on Avian and Small Mammal Communities during Longleaf Pine Savanna Restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Vanessa R; Kilgo, John C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract - Restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savanna is a goal of many southern land managers, and longleaf plantations may provide a mechanism for savanna restoration. However, the effects of silvicultural treatments used in the management of longleaf pine plantations on wildlife communities are relatively unknown. Beginning in 1994, we examined effects of longleaf pine restoration with plantation silviculture on avian and small mammal communities using four treatments in four 8- to 11- year-old plantations within the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Treatments included prescribed burning every 3 to 5 years, plus: (1) no additional treatment (burn-only control); (2) precommercial thinning; (3) non-pine woody control with herbicides; and (4) combined thinning and woody control. We surveyed birds (1996-2003) using 50-m point counts and small mammals with removal trapping. Thinning and woody control alone had short-lived effects on avian communities, and the combination treatment increased avian parameters over the burn-only control in all years. Small mammal abundance showed similar trends as avian abundance for all three treatments when compared with the burn-only control, but only for 2 years post-treatment. Both avian and small mammal communities were temporarily enhanced by controlling woody vegetation with chemicals in addition to prescribed fire and thinning. Therefore, precommercial thinning in longleaf plantations, particularly when combined with woody control and prescribed fire, may benefit early-successional avian and small mammal communities by developing stand conditions more typical of natural longleaf stands maintained by periodic fire.

  12. 76 FR 56735 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...NMFS has received a complete and adequate application from Cape Wind Associates for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to pre-construction high resolution survey activities. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is proposing to issue an IHA to Cape Wind Associates to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment, five......

  13. 75 FR 17382 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Federal Register (74 FR 58248) for the take of marine mammals incidental to Estuary water level management... notice (74 FR 58248). In summary, harbor seals are the most abundant marine mammal found at the mouth of... published on November 12, 2009 (74 FR 58248). During the 30-day public comment period, six members of...

  14. 78 FR 7402 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...NMFS has received an application from Cape Wind Associates (CWA) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to pre-construction high resolution survey activities. CWA began pre-construction activities last year, but was unable to complete the entire survey. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments......

  15. An assessment of non-volant terrestrial vertebrates response to wind farms--a study of small mammals.

    PubMed

    Łopucki, Rafał; Mróz, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    The majority of studies on the effects of wind energy development on wildlife have been focused on birds and bats, whereas knowledge of the response of terrestrial, non-flying vertebrates is very scarce. In this paper, the impact of three functioning wind farms on terrestrial small mammal communities (rodents and shrews) and the population parameters of the most abundant species were studied. The study was carried out in southeastern Poland within the foothills of the Outer Western Carpathians. Small mammals were captured at 12 sites around wind turbines and at 12 control sites. In total, from 1200 trap-days, 885 individuals of 14 studied mammal species were captured. There was no difference in the characteristics of communities of small mammals near wind turbines and within control sites; i.e. these types of sites were inhabited by a similar number of species of similar abundance, similar species composition, species diversity (H' index) and species evenness (J') (Pielou's index). For the two species with the highest proportion in the communities (Apodemus agrarius and Microtus arvalis), the parameters of their populations (mean body mass, sex ratio, the proportion of adult individuals and the proportion of reproductive female) were analysed. In both species, none of the analysed parameters differed significantly between sites in the vicinity of turbines and control sites. For future studies on the impact of wind turbines on small terrestrial mammals in different geographical areas and different species communities, we recommend the method of paired 'turbine-control sites' as appropriate for animal species with pronounced fluctuations in population numbers. PMID:26818016

  16. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  17. Molecular Survey of Zoonotic Agents in Rodents and Other Small Mammals in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, Ante; Tokarz, Rafal; Markotić, Alemka; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Vucelja, Marko; Desai, Aaloki; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-02-01

    Croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. Here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 Myodes glareolus, 131 Apodemus flavicollis, 53 Apodemus agrarius, three Apodemus sylvaticus, six Sorex araneus, four Microtus arvalis, one Microtus agrestis, and one Muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in Croatia over an 8-year period. Multiplex MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Francisella tularensis, and Coxiella burnetii. Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses, hantaviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Of the rodents, 52 (21.5%) were infected with Leptospira, 9 (3.7%) with Borrelia miyamotoi, 5 (2%) with Borrelia afzelii, 29 (12.0%) with Bartonella, 8 (3.3%) with Babesia microti, 2 (0.8%) with Ehrlichia, 4 (1.7%) with Anaplasma, 2 (0.8%) with F. tularensis, 43 (17.8%) with hantaviruses, and 1 (0.4%) with an orthopoxvirus. Other agents were not detected. Multiple infections were found in 32 rodents (13.2%): dual infections in 26 rodents (10.7%), triple infections in four rodents (2.9%), and quadruple infections in two rodents (0.8%). Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. PMID:26711522

  18. Torque patterns of the limbs of small therian mammals during locomotion on flat ground.

    PubMed

    Witte, Hartmut; Biltzinger, Jutta; Hackert, Rémi; Schilling, Nadja; Schmidt, Manuela; Reich, Christian; Fischer, Martin S

    2002-05-01

    In three species of small therian mammals (Scandentia: Tupaia glis, Rodentia: Galea musteloides and Lagomorpha: Ochotona rufescens) the net joint forces and torques acting during stance phase in the four kinematically relevant joints of the forelimbs (scapular pivot, shoulder joint, elbow joint, wrist joint) and the hindlimbs (hip joint, knee joint, ankle joint, intratarsal joint) were determined by inverse dynamic analysis. Kinematics were measured by cineradiography (150 frames s(-1)). Synchronously ground reaction forces were acquired by forceplates. Morphometry of the extremities was performed by a scanning method using structured illumination. The vector sum of ground reaction forces and weight accounts for most of the joint force vector. Inertial effects can be neglected since errors of net joint forces amount at most to 10 %. The general time course of joint torques is comparable for all species in all joints of the forelimb and in the ankle joint. Torques in the intratarsal joints differ between tailed and tail-less species. The torque patterns in the knee and hip joint are unique to each species. For the first time torque patterns are described completely for the forelimb including the scapula as the dominant propulsive segment. The results are compared with the few torque data available for various joints of cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris), goats (Capra sp.) and horses (Equus przewalskii f. caballus). PMID:11948209

  19. Preliminary small mammal taphonomy of FLK NW level 20 (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, Saleta; Sevilla, Paloma; Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda

    2010-11-01

    The Bed-I series of Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) is a reference site in human evolution, having yielded the holotypes of Paranthropus boisei and Homo habilis, together with manufactured artefacts and abundant large and micro-fauna. Excavations in Olduvai Gorge have been recently resumed, with new aims and new results. This paper presents the results of the taphonomic analysis carried out on a fossil small-mammal assemblage recovered from FLK NW level 20, a layer overlying Tuff C, dated from 1.84 Ma. The analysis provides good evidence of a category 1 predator, most likely a barn owl, as the predator of the bone assemblage. Trampling and sediment compression might influence postdepositional breakage of the bones. This study is especially relevant since previous taphonomic analyses carried out at levels above and below this sample led to inconclusive results due to a low number of fossils ( Fernández-Jalvo et al., 1998). The new sample provides new information to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental context in which early hominins inhabited.

  20. Recognition of non-harmonic natural sounds by small mammals using competitive training.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Hisayuki; Taira, Masato; Kubota, Michinori; Horikawa, Junsei

    2012-01-01

    Animals recognize biologically relevant sounds, such as the non-harmonic sounds made by some predators, and respond with adaptive behaviors, such as escaping. To clarify which acoustic parameters are used for identifying non-harmonic, noise-like, broadband sounds, guinea pigs were conditioned to a natural target sound by introducing a novel training procedure in which 2 or 3 guinea pigs in a group competed for food. A set of distinct behavioral reactions was reliably induced almost exclusively to the target sound in a 2-week operant training. When fully conditioned, individual animals were separately tested for recognition of a set of target-like sounds that had been modified from the target sound, with spectral ranges eliminated or with fine or coarse temporal structures altered. The results show that guinea pigs are able to identify the noise-like non-harmonic natural sounds by relying on gross spectral compositions and/or fine temporal structures, just as birds are thought to do in the recognition of harmonic birdsongs. These findings are discussed with regard to similarities and dissimilarities to harmonic sound recognition. The results suggest that similar but not identical processing that requires different time scales might be used to recognize harmonic and non-harmonic sounds, at least in small mammals. PMID:23251497

  1. Uptake of environmental contaminants by small mammals in pickleweed habitats at San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Foerster, K.S.; Marn, C.M.; Hothem, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Small mammals were livetrapped in pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) habitats near San Francisco Bay, California in order to measure the uptake of several contaminants and to evaluate the potential effects of these contaminants on the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Tissues of house mice (Mus musculus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and California voles (Microtus californicus) from nine sites were analyzed for chemical contaminants including mercury, selenium, cadmium, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of contaminants differed significantly among sites and species. Mean concentrations at sites where uptake was greatest were less than maximum means for the same or similar species recorded elsewhere. Harvest mice (Reithrodontomys spp.) were captured only at sites where concentrations of mercury or PCBs were below specific levels in house mice. Additional studies aimed at the protection of the salt marsh harvest mouse are suggested. These include contaminant feeding studies in the laboratory as well as field monitoring of surrogate species and community structure in salt marsh harvest mouse habitats.

  2. Role of edge effect on small mammal populations in a forest fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-06-27

    In many cases, edge effect may determine the distribution and densities of small mammal populations. In 1995 and 1998, a mark and recapture study was conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC, to evaluate the role of forest edge habitat. The area studied was an abandoned home site that had been recently isolated by a timber harvest. Harvest activities left a distinct edge of old field and planted pine contrasting with a relatively xeric, mixed hardwood stand. Trapping was conducted for 17 days in 1995 and 14 days in 1998. Three 30 m by 150 m grids were placed in the clear-cut, edge, and hardwood interior habitats. For both years the principal species captured were Peromyscus gossypinus, P. polionotus, and Neotoma floridana. The edge habitat accounted for approximately 55 percent of all captures and nearly four times as many recaptures as the interior and clear-cut habitats. In 1998, greater numbers of N. floridana were trapped than in 1995. The results indicate that the use of edge habitat can be pronounced even within simple communities. Stewards of managed or restored habitats need to carefully consider the role of edge in these systems. In managed areas such as waste sites, movement of material within the food chain could be reduced by minimizing edge habitat around the points of contamination.

  3. PREVALENCE AND DIVERSITY OF BARTONELLA SPECIES IN WILD SMALL MAMMALS IN ASIA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Soon; Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Takada, Tomoe; Pangjai, Decha; Chiu, Shih-Hui; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    We collected 641 small mammals belonging to 17 species of Rodentia and four species of Soricomorpha in Japan, Korea, Russia, Taiwan, and Thailand and investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species. Apodemus (field mice) and Rattus (rats) were the most-common genera captured, making up 56.0% and 23.1% of the total specimens, respectively. Bartonellae were isolated from 54.6% of the collected animals, and the prevalence varied depending on the host species and the country of origin. The isolates were identified to the species level based on gltA and rpoB sequences. Although most Bartonella species were shared by more than two host species, the distribution patterns of Bartonella species clearly differed among the four most-common host genera: Apodemus, Rattus, Myodes (voles), and Suncus (shrews). The predominant Bartonella species were Bartonella grahamii in Apodemus, Bartonella tribocorum in Rattus, B. grahamii and Bartonella taylorii in Myodes, and an unclassified Bartonella sp. in Suncus. PMID:26528573

  4. Spatially heterogeneous impact of climate change on small mammals of montane California

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Kevin C.; Rowe, Karen M. C.; Tingley, Morgan W.; Koo, Michelle S.; Patton, James L.; Conroy, Chris J.; Perrine, John D.; Beissinger, Steven R.; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Resurveys of historical collecting localities have revealed range shifts, primarily leading edge expansions, which have been attributed to global warming. However, there have been few spatially replicated community-scale resurveys testing whether species' responses are spatially consistent. Here we repeated early twentieth century surveys of small mammals along elevational gradients in northern, central and southern regions of montane California. Of the 34 species we analysed, 25 shifted their ranges upslope or downslope in at least one region. However, two-thirds of ranges in the three regions remained stable at one or both elevational limits and none of the 22 species found in all three regions shifted both their upper and lower limits in the same direction in all regions. When shifts occurred, high-elevation species typically contracted their lower limits upslope, whereas low-elevation species had heterogeneous responses. For high-elevation species, site-specific change in temperature better predicted the direction of shifts than change in precipitation, whereas the direction of shifts by low-elevation species was unpredictable by temperature or precipitation. While our results support previous findings of primarily upslope shifts in montane species, they also highlight the degree to which the responses of individual species vary across geographically replicated landscapes. PMID:25621330

  5. The interaction of disturbances and small mammal community dynamics in a lowland forest in Belize.

    PubMed

    Klinger, R

    2006-11-01

    1. Three floods (July 2000, August 2002, September 2003) and a hurricane (October 2001) that occurred in a lowland forest in the southern Maya Mountains of Belize presented an opportunity to evaluate the influence of these disturbances on the structure of a small mammal assemblage. 2. Four terrestrial and four primarily scansorial/arboreal species were trapped July 2000-March 2005 in six grids over 14 irregularly spaced trapping periods. 3. Community dynamics were characterized more by changes in species composition than changes in diversity. The dynamics were driven by species-specific variation in abundance, with changes in composition generally, but not exclusively, due to the occurrence or disappearance of species at low abundance. Despite the disturbances, species richness remained relatively constant. Evenness within the assemblage was consistently low, primarily as a result of dominance by one species, Heteromys desmarestianus. 4. Effects of flooding on community structure were direct but relatively brief (< 1 year), and varied with the duration and intensity of flooding. Effects from the hurricane were indirect but long-lasting and strongly related to severely reduced food resources. 5. This study suggests that long-term dynamics in the structure of many animal communities in the tropics often results from interactions between direct and indirect effects of disturbance. It also suggests that community resistance will depend on variation in disturbance type and regime, but resilience will be determined by the life-history characteristics of each species. PMID:17032355

  6. Uptake of environmental contaminants by small mammals in pickleweed habitats at San Francisco Bay, California.

    PubMed

    Clark, D R; Foerster, K S; Marn, C M; Hothem, R L

    1992-05-01

    Small mammals were live-trapped in pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) habitats near San Francisco Bay, California in order to measure the uptake of several contaminants and to evaluate the potential effects of these contaminants on the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Tissues of house mice (Mus musculus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and California voles (Microtus californicus) from nine sites were analyzed for chemical contaminants including mercury, selenium, cadmium, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of contaminants differed significantly among sites and species. Mean concentrations at sites where uptake was greatest were less than maximum means for the same or similar species recorded elsewhere. Harvest mice (Reithrodontomys spp.) were captured only at sites where concentrations of mercury or PCBs were below specific levels in house mice. Additional studies aimed at the protection of the salt marsh harvest mouse are suggested. These include contaminant feeding studies in the laboratory as well as field monitoring of surrogate species and community structure in salt marsh harvest mouse habitats. PMID:1586203

  7. Climate Change Risks and Conservation Implications for a Threatened Small-Range Mammal Species

    PubMed Central

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background Climate change is already affecting the distributions of many species and may lead to numerous extinctions over the next century. Small-range species are likely to be a special concern, but the extent to which they are sensitive to climate is currently unclear. Species distribution modeling, if carefully implemented, can be used to assess climate sensitivity and potential climate change impacts, even for rare and cryptic species. Methodology/Principal Findings We used species distribution modeling to assess the climate sensitivity, climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species, the Iberian desman (Galemys pyrenaicus), which is a phylogenetically isolated insectivore endemic to south-western Europe. Atlas data on the distribution of G. pyrenaicus was linked to data on climate, topography and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors that determine the range for this species. Predictive models were developed and projected onto climate scenarios for 2070–2099 to assess climate change risks and conservation possibilities. Mean summer temperature and water balance appeared to be the main factors influencing the distribution of G. pyrenaicus. Climate change was predicted to result in significant reductions of the species' range. However, the severity of these reductions was highly dependent on which predictor was the most important limiting factor. Notably, if mean summer temperature is the main range determinant, G. pyrenaicus is at risk of near total extinction in Spain under the most severe climate change scenario. The range projections for Europe indicate that assisted migration may be a possible long-term conservation strategy for G. pyrenaicus in the face of global warming. Conclusions/Significance Climate change clearly poses a severe threat to this illustrative endemic species. Our findings confirm that endemic species can be highly vulnerable to

  8. Reproductive delays in mammals: an unexplored avenue for post-copulatory sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Orr, Teri J; Zuk, Marlene

    2014-11-01

    Numerous mammalian taxa exhibit reproductive delays, pauses in reproduction that occur between mating and fertilization, between fertilization and implantation of the embryo, or after an embryo has implanted. Of the 27 mammalian orders, 9 are known to exhibit reproductive delays, including Diptrotodontia, Dasyuromorphia, Eulipotyphyta, Cingulata, Carnivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha and Cetartiodactyla. Most researchers interested in delays have focused on their evolutionary origins. However, the consequences of these delays have not been considered fully. Given the lengthening of the period over which reproduction occurs, it is possible that this unique aspect of reproduction facilitates post-copulatory sexual selection. When considered in the context of sexual selection, delays may allow sperm competition and female manipulation of fertilization (cryptic female choice) as well as other post-copulatory processes. We investigate the potential for reproductive delays to facilitate post-copulatory sexual selection and suggest avenues for research that may further our knowledge of sexual selection. We also provide a general review of reproductive delays in mammals. PMID:24517909

  9. Context-dependent effects of large-wildlife declines on small-mammal communities in central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Goheen, Jacob R; Agwanda, Bernard; Brook, Cara; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Ferguson, Adam W; Kinyua, Stephen N; McDonough, Molly M; Palmer, Todd M; Pringle, Robert M; Young, Truman P; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2015-03-01

    Many species of large wildlife have declined drastically worldwide. These reductions often lead to profound shifts in the ecology of entire communities and ecosystems. However, the effects of these large-wildlife declines on other taxa likely hinge upon both underlying abiotic properties of these systems and on the types of secondary anthropogenic changes associated with wildlife loss, making impacts difficult to predict. To better understand how these important contextual factors determine the consequences of large-wildlife declines on other animals in a community, we examined the effects of three common forms of large-wildlife loss (removal without replacement [using fences], removal followed by replacement with domestic stock, and removal accompanied by crop agricultural use) on small-mammal abundance, diversity, and community composition, in landscapes that varied in several abiotic attributes (rainfall, soil fertility, land-use intensity) in central Kenya. We found that small-mammal communities were indeed heavily impacted by all forms of large-wildlife decline, showing, on average: (1) higher densities, (2) lower species richness per site, and (3) different species assemblages in sites from which large wildlife were removed. However, the nature and magnitude of these effects were strongly context dependent. Rainfall, type of land-use change, and the interaction of these two factors were key predictors of both the magnitude and type of responses of small mammals. The strongest effects, particularly abundance responses, tended to be observed in low-rainfall areas. Whereas isolated wildlife removal primarily led to increased small-mammal abundance, wildlife removal associated with secondary uses (agriculture, domestic stock) had much more variable effects on abundance and stronger impacts on diversity and composition. Collectively, these results (1) highlight the importance of context in determining the impacts of large-wildlife decline on small-mammal

  10. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Giffen, Neil R; Reasor, R. Scott; Campbell, Claire L.

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes a 1-year small mammal biodiversity survey conducted on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The task was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division, interns in the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Higher Education Research Experiences Program, and ORNL Environmental Protection Services staff. Eight sites were surveyed reservation wide. The survey was conducted in an effort to determine species abundance and diversity of small mammal populations throughout the reservation and to continue the historical inventory of small mammal presence for biodiversity records. This data collection effort was in support of the approved Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, a major goal of which is to maintain and enhance wildlife biodiversity on the Reservation. Three of the sites (Poplar Creek, McNew Hollow, and Deer Check Station Field) were previously surveyed during a major natural resources inventory conducted in 1996. Five new sites were included in this study: Bearden Creek, Rainy Knob (Natural Area 21), Gum Hollow, White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. The 2009-2010 small mammal surveys were conducted from June 2009 to July 2010 on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The survey had two main goals: (1) to determine species abundance and diversity and (2) to update historical records on the OR Research Park. The park is located on the Department of Energy-owned Oak Ridge Reservation, which encompasses 13,580 ha. The primary focus of the study was riparian zones. In addition to small mammal sampling, vegetation and coarse woody debris samples were taken at certain sites to determine any correlations between habitat and species presence. During the survey all specimens were captured and released using live trapping techniques including

  11. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Firing Points 10 and 60, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Lee, John S; Kim, Heung-Chul; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chong, Sung-Tae; Turell, Michael J; Burkett, Douglas A; Schuster, Anthony; Lee, In-Yong; Yi, Suk-Hee; Sames, William J; Song, Ki-Joon; Song, Jin-Won

    2008-12-01

    Throughout Korea, small mammals are hosts to a number of disease-causing agents that pose a health threat to U.S. and Korean military forces while they conduct field-training exercises. A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at two firing points (FP), FP-10, and FP-60, and conducted over five years from 2001 through 2005 in response to hantavirus cases among U.S. soldiers. The ecology of these sites consisted primarily of tall grasses associated with semi-permanent and temporary water sources (drainage ditches and a small stream) and dry-land agriculture farming. Eight species of rodents and one species of insectivore were collected, including Apodemus agrarius, Micromys minutus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Tscherskia triton, Microtus fortis, Myodes regulus, and Crocidura lasiura. The striped field mouse, A. agrarius, (primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, the causative agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever), was the most frequently collected, representing 90.6% of the 1,288 small mammals captured at both sites. Reported herein are the ecological parameters, seasonal population densities, and seasonal population characteristics associated with small mammals collected at two military training sites in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19263858

  12. Losing ground: past history and future fate of Arctic small mammals in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Prost, Stefan; Guralnick, Robert P; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, Vadim B; Kuzmina, Elena; Smirnov, Nickolay; van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Hofreiter, Michael; Vrieling, Klaas

    2013-06-01

    According to the IPCC, the global average temperature is likely to increase by 1.4-5.8 °C over the period from 1990 to 2100. In Polar regions, the magnitude of such climatic changes is even larger than in temperate and tropical biomes. This amplified response is particularly worrisome given that the so-far moderate warming is already impacting Arctic ecosystems. Predicting species responses to rapid warming in the near future can be informed by investigating past responses, as, like the rest of the planet, the Arctic experienced recurrent cycles of temperature increase and decrease (glacial-interglacial changes) in the past. In this study, we compare the response of two important prey species of the Arctic ecosystem, the collared lemming and the narrow-skulled vole, to Late Quaternary climate change. Using ancient DNA and Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM), we show that the two species, which occupy similar, but not identical ecological niches, show markedly different responses to climatic and environmental changes within broadly similar habitats. We empirically demonstrate, utilizing coalescent model-testing approaches, that collared lemming populations decreased substantially after the Last Glacial Maximum; a result consistent with distributional loss over the same period based on ENM results. Given this strong association, we projected the current niche onto future climate conditions based on IPCC 4.0 scenarios, and forecast accelerating loss of habitat along southern range boundaries with likely associated demographic consequences. Narrow-skulled vole distribution and demography, by contrast, was only moderately impacted by past climatic changes, but predicted future changes may begin to affect their current western range boundaries. Our work, founded on multiple lines of evidence suggests a future of rapidly geographically shifting Arctic small mammal prey communities, some of whom are on the edge of existence, and whose fate may have ramifications for the

  13. Small mammal survival and trapability in mark-recapture monitoring programs for hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Parmenter, C A; Yates, T L; Parmenter, R R; Mills, J N; Childs, J E; Campbell, M L; Dunnum, J L; Milner, J

    1998-01-01

    Following the 1993 hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) epidemic in the south-western United States, mammalogists and epidemiologists instituted long-term studies to monitor population density and prevalence of infection in rodents which constitute the reservoir for Sin Nombre virus (SNV). In this study, field techniques used in sampling small mammals for SNV infection were evaluated to determine if trapping and handling protocols were having significant effects on future trapability or mortality of animals. We compared rodent mark-recapture control plots, on which all rodents were simply measured, marked, and released on site, with experimental plots on which all animals were anesthetized with methoxyflurane, sampled for blood and saliva, measured, marked, and released. Blood samples were obtained from anesthetized animals on the experimental plots via a retro-orbital sinus puncture using a heparinized capillary tube. Dacron tipped oral swabs were used to collect buccal cells and saliva from the rodent's oral cavity. Field data were collected monthly from August 1994 to August 1996 at two sites in New Mexico (USA). Analyses were based on 3,661 captures of 1,513 individuals representing 21 species from three rodent families (Rodentia: Muridae, Heteromyidae, Sciuridae) and two species of rabbits (Lagomorpha: Leporidae). Overall, for most murid rodents (including five Peromyscus spp., Neotoma albigula, and Onychomys leucogaster) and one rabbit species (Sylvilagus floridanus), the handling/bleeding procedures had no significant effects on recapture rates or mortality. In contrast, several species of heteromyids (Dipodomys ordii and Perognathus flavus), one murid (Reithrodontomys megalotis) and one leporid (S. auduboni) suffered higher mortality rates, and heteromyid kangaroo rats (D. ordii and D. merriami) exhibited lower trapability as a result of the anesthesia and sampling procedures. In view of the overall non-significant influence of the sampling procedures on

  14. Ancient urban ecology reconstructed from archaeozoological remains of small mammals in the Near East.

    PubMed

    Weissbrod, Lior; Malkinson, Dan; Cucchi, Thomas; Gadot, Yuval; Finkelstein, Israel; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Modern rapidly expanding cities generate intricate patterns of species diversity owing to immense complexity in urban spatial structure and current growth trajectories. We propose to identify and uncouple the drivers that give rise to these patterns by looking at the effect of urbanism on species diversity over a previously unexplored long temporal frame that covers early developments in urbanism. To provide this historical perspective we analyzed archaeozoological remains of small mammals from ancient urban and rural sites in the Near East from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BCE, and compared them to observations from modern urban areas. Our data show that ancient urban assemblages consistently comprised two main taxa (Mus musculus domesticus and Crocidura sp.), whereas assemblages of contemporaneous rural sites were significantly richer. Low species diversity also characterizes high-density core areas of modern cities, suggesting that similar ecological drivers have continued to operate in urban areas despite the vast growth in their size and population densities, as well as in the complexity of their technologies and social organization. Research in urban ecology has tended to emphasize the relatively high species diversity observed in low-density areas located on the outskirts of cities, where open and vegetated patches are abundant. The fact that over several millennia urban evolution did not significantly alter species diversity suggests that low diversity is an attribute of densely-populated settlements. The possibility that high diversity in peripheral urban areas arose only recently as a short-term phenomenon in urban ecology merits further research based on long-term data. PMID:24622726

  15. Uncovering cryptic diversity and refugial persistence among small mammal lineages across the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Demos, Terrence C; Kerbis Peterhans, Julian C; Agwanda, Bernard; Hickerson, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    The Eastern Afromontane region of Africa is characterized by striking levels of endemism and species richness accompanied by significant conservation threat, a pattern typical across biodiversity hotspots. Using multi-locus molecular data under a coalescent species tree framework we identify major cryptic biogeographic patterns within and between two endemic montane small mammal species complexes, Hylomyscus mice and Sylvisorex shrews, co-distributed across the Albertine Rift and Kenya Highlands of the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot (EABH). Hypotheses put forward to account for the high diversity of the region include retention of older palaeo-endemic lineages across major regions in climatically stable refugia, as well as the accumulation of lineages associated with more recent differentiation between allopatric populations separated by unsuitable habitat during periods of Pleistocene aridification. Sympatric pairs of sister lineages were found to have significantly older divergence times than allopatric pairs. Genetic analyses and historical distribution modeling suggest that regional meta-populations have persisted since the Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene across a climatic gradient from the Albertine Rift in the west to the Kenya Highlands in the east for both focal taxa. Differing patterns of regional sub-division and demographic expansion were detected and are consistent with differing life histories as well as shared responses to regional variation in stability of suitable habitat. There is also strong support in both mice and shrew species for Late Miocene divergence with subsequent range expansion into sympatry in previously unidentified cryptic species pairs. These results highlight the broad temporal scale at which climatic and geological changes may have facilitated rare dispersal events between montane habitats as well as the long-term persistence of populations in both the Albertine Rift and the Kenyan Highlands that together contributed to the

  16. Ancient Urban Ecology Reconstructed from Archaeozoological Remains of Small Mammals in the Near East

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrod, Lior; Malkinson, Dan; Cucchi, Thomas; Gadot, Yuval; Finkelstein, Israel; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Modern rapidly expanding cities generate intricate patterns of species diversity owing to immense complexity in urban spatial structure and current growth trajectories. We propose to identify and uncouple the drivers that give rise to these patterns by looking at the effect of urbanism on species diversity over a previously unexplored long temporal frame that covers early developments in urbanism. To provide this historical perspective we analyzed archaeozoological remains of small mammals from ancient urban and rural sites in the Near East from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BCE, and compared them to observations from modern urban areas. Our data show that ancient urban assemblages consistently comprised two main taxa (Mus musculus domesticus and Crocidura sp.), whereas assemblages of contemporaneous rural sites were significantly richer. Low species diversity also characterizes high-density core areas of modern cities, suggesting that similar ecological drivers have continued to operate in urban areas despite the vast growth in their size and population densities, as well as in the complexity of their technologies and social organization. Research in urban ecology has tended to emphasize the relatively high species diversity observed in low-density areas located on the outskirts of cities, where open and vegetated patches are abundant. The fact that over several millennia urban evolution did not significantly alter species diversity suggests that low diversity is an attribute of densely-populated settlements. The possibility that high diversity in peripheral urban areas arose only recently as a short-term phenomenon in urban ecology merits further research based on long-term data. PMID:24622726

  17. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 2: Small mammal food chains and bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-06-01

    Food chain transfer through the soil-vegetation-small mammal food chain was measured by concentration ratios (CRs) for uranium, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po at three sites near the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Plant/soil CRs, animal carcass/GI tract CRs, and animal/soil CRs were depressed at sites impacted by mill and tailings dusts relative to a nearby control site. Thus, radionuclides associated with large particulates in tailings and/or ore dusts may be less bioavailable to terrestrial plants and animals than natural sources of radioactive dust. These results show that reliance on default food chain transfer parameters, obtained from uncontaminated terrestrial ecosystems, may overpredict impacts at uranium mine and mill sites. Given the omnivorous diet of small mammals and birds, animal/soil CRs are recommended as the most cost-effective and robust means of predicting animal concentrations from environmental monitoring data at uranium mill facilities.

  18. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals.

    PubMed

    Balčiauskas, Linas; Skipitytė, Raminta; Jasiulionis, Marius; Trakimas, Giedrius; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-09-15

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ(13)C and δ(15)N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ(15)N (16.31±3.01‰ and 17.86±2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ(15)N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ(13)C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ(15)N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. PMID:27179319

  19. How does landscape use influence small mammal diversity, abundance and biomass in hedgerow networks of farming landscapes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Nadia; Burel, Françoise; Butet, Alain

    2006-07-01

    Over the last decades, profound changes in agricultural practices in the world have led to modifications of land-use as well as landscape structure and composition. Major changes resulted in enlargement of parcel size, increase of cultivated areas and drastic reduction of permanent elements such as woods, hedges or natural meadows. In this context we chose to investigate the composition and structure of small mammal communities in the hedgerow networks of three landscape units of Western France (Brittany) differing by their level of agricultural land-use intensity and hedgerow network density: a slightly intensified dense hedgerow network landscape unit (BOC1), a moderately intensified and fragmented hedgerow network landscape unit (BOC2) and a highly intensified landscape unit on an area reclaimed from the sea (POL). Characterization of small mammal communities was performed using live trapping on permanent habitats (eight hedges per landscape unit). In each of the 24 trapping units, a standardized method was used consisting of a baited 100-m trap-line. Diversity indices were used to compare the three communities. Species richness didn't vary across landscapes whereas Shannon's index of diversity underlined a clear difference between, on the one hand, the most intensified landscape unit (POL) which displayed the lowest diversity and, on the other hand, the two other less intensified units. The abundance of small mammals differed between the three sites: they were significantly more numerous in the hedges of the most intensified site than in hedges of the two other sites. Differences between species also appeared: for example, the Bank vole ( Clethrionomys glareolus) was very characteristic of POL, whereas the Pygmy shrew ( Sorex minutus) was much more associated with BOC sites. Within hedges, like for abundance, small mammal biomass was the highest in the most intensified site (POL > BOC2 = BOC1). On the contrary, at the landscape scale, biomass was the lowest in

  20. Moisture History and Small Mammal Community Richness during the Latest Pleistocene and Holocene, Northern Bonneville Basin, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Donald K.

    1998-05-01

    Precipitation and net primary productivity are positively correlated in arid environments. Both variables are, in turn, correlated with mammal species richness, but this relationship is not necessarily positive. With increasing precipitation in arid areas of low to moderate productivity, mammal richness increases linearly; as rainfall and productivity increase beyond this point, mammal richness is known to decline in some areas, producing a relationship that has been termed "unimodal" or "humped." In the Great Basin of the arid western United States, studies of the relationship between rodent species richness and precipitation have revealed only a positive relationship between these two variables. It has, however, been argued that if areas of higher precipitation were to be sampled within this region, the decline phase would become evident. When latest Pleistocene and Holocene small mammal assemblages from the northern Bonneville Basin (central Utah) are examined across a temporal moisture gradient, species richness declines as moisture declines. Since the Great Basin was significantly moister during the latest Pleistocene and Early Holocene than it has been since that time, the unimodal response model does not appear to apply to this region.

  1. Vector biodiversity did not associate with tick-borne pathogen prevalence in small mammal communities in northern and central California.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet; Piovia-Scott, Jonah

    2014-04-01

    Vector and host abundance affect infection transmission rates, prevalence, and persistence in communities. Biological diversity in hosts and vectors may provide "rescue" hosts which buffer against pathogen extinction and "dilution" hosts which reduce the force of infection in communities. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted zoonotic pathogen that circulates in small mammal and tick communities characterized by varying levels of biological diversity. We examined the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Ixodes spp. ticks in 11 communities in northern and central California. A total of 1020 ticks of 8 species was evaluated. Five percent of ticks (5 species) were PCR-positive, with the highest prevalence (6-7%) in I. pacificus and I. ochotonae. In most species, adults had a higher prevalence than nymphs or larvae. PCR prevalence varied between 0% and 40% across sites; the infection probability in ticks increased with infestation load and prevalence in small mammals, but not tick species richness, diversity, evenness, or small mammal species richness. No particular tick species was likely to "rescue" infection in the community; rather the risk of A. phagocytophilum infection is related to exposure to particular tick species and life stages, and overall tick abundance. PMID:24582513

  2. Antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Philippa, J D W; Leighton, F A; Daoust, P Y; Nielsen, O; Pagliarulo, M; Schwantje, H; Shury, T; Van Herwijnen, R; Martina, B E E; Kuiken, T; Van de Bildt, M W G; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2004-07-31

    Antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [CAV-2], feline herpesvirus [FHV], phocine herpesvirus [PHV-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [DMV], phocine distemper virus [PDV], parainfluenza virus type 3 [PI3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [DRV], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, Borrelia burgdorferi and Toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals, including cougars (Fellis concolor), lynxes (Fellis lynx), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), fishers (Martes pennanti), wolverines (Gulo gulo), wolves (Canis lupus), black bears (Ursus americanus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) and belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), which had been collected at several locations in Canada between 1984 and 2001. Antibodies to a number of viruses were detected in species in which these infections have not been reported before, for example, antibodies to CAV-2 in walruses, to PDV in black bears, grizzly bears, polar bears, lynxes and wolves, to DMV in grizzly bears, polar bears, walruses and wolves, to PI3 in black bears and fishers, and to DRV in belugas and walruses. PMID:15338705

  3. Lead concentrations: Bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Wholebody lead concentrations of two species of bats (big brown and little brown) and three species of terrestrial mammals (meadow voles, white-footed mice, and short-tailed shrews) trapped along the Baltimore-Washington Parkway in 1976 are compared, including embryo lead concentration. These data are also compared to those of previous studies conducted in Illinois and Virginia within 20 miles of highways with high traffic volumes. Minimum dosages of various lead compounds that cause mortality or reproductive impairment in six species of domestic mammals (horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, rats, and mice) are noted.

  4. Selected marine mammals of Alaska: species accounts with research and management recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book is the result of a need seen by the Marine Mammal Commission for a current summary of the biology and status of ten species of Alaskan marine mammals, including recommendations for research and management. Its purpose is to serve as a reference and working document as conservation and management plans are developed and implemented for the ten species.

  5. Responses of five small mammal species to micro-scale variations in vegetation structure in secondary Atlantic Forest remnants, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Püttker, Thomas; Pardini, Renata; Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne; Sommer, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is highly endangered and only about 7% of the original forest remains, most of which consists of fragments of secondary forest. Small mammals in the Atlantic Forest have differential responses to this process of fragmentation and conversion of forest into anthropogenic habitats, and have varying abilities to occupy the surrounding altered habitats. We investigated the influence of vegetation structure on the micro-scale distribution of five small mammal species in six secondary forest remnants in a landscape of fragmented Atlantic Forest. We tested whether the occurrence of small mammal species is influenced by vegetation structure, aiming to ascertain whether species with different degrees of vulnerability to forest fragmentation (not vulnerable: A. montensis, O. nigripes and G. microtarsus; vulnerable: M. incanus and D. sublineatus; classification of vulnerability was based on the results of previous studies) are associated with distinct vegetation characteristics. Results Although vegetation structure differed among fragments, micro-scale distribution of most of the species was influenced by vegetation structure in a similar way in different fragments. Among the three species that were previously shown not to be vulnerable to forest fragmentation, A. montensis and G. microtarsus were present at locations with an open canopy and the occurrence of O. nigripes was associated to a low canopy and a dense understory. On the other hand, from the two species that were shown to be vulnerable to fragmentation, M. incanus was captured most often at locations with a closed canopy while the distribution of D. sublineatus was not clearly influenced by micro-scale variation in vegetation structure. Conclusion Results indicate the importance of micro-scale variation in vegetation structure for the distribution of small mammal species in secondary forest fragments. Species that are not vulnerable to fragmentation occurred at locations

  6. Small-Mammal Data on Early and Middle Holocene Climates and Biotic Communities in the Bonneville Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dave N.; Madsen, David B.; Lupo, Karen D.

    2002-11-01

    Archaeological investigations in Camels Back Cave, western Utah, recovered a series of small-mammal bone assemblages from stratified deposits dating between ca. 12,000 and 500 14C yr B.P. The cave's early Holocene fauna includes a number of species adapted to montane or mesic habitats containing grasses and/or sagebrush (e.g., Lepus townsendii, Marmota flaviventris, Reithrodontomys megalotis, and Brachylagus idahoensis) which suggest that the region was relatively cool and moist until after 8800 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 8600 and 8100 14C yr B.P. these mammals became locally extinct, taxonomic diversity declined, and there was an increase in species well-adapted to xeric, low-elevation habitats, including ground squirrels, Lepus californicus and Neotoma lepida. The early small-mammal record from Camels Back Cave is similar to the 11,300-6000 14C yr B.P. mammalian sequence from Homestead Cave, northwestern Utah, and provides corroborative data on Bonneville Basin paleoenvironments and mammalian responses to middle Holocene desertification.

  7. Small-mammal data on early and middle Holocene climates and biotic communities in the Bonneville Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, D.N.; Madsen, D.B.; Lupo, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Archaeological investigations in Camels Back Cave, western Utah, recovered a series of small-mammal bone assemblages from stratified deposits dating between ca. 12,000 and 500 14C yr B.P. The cave's early Holocene fauna includes a number of species adapted to montane or mesic habitats containing grasses and/or sagebrush (e.g., Lepus townsendii, Marmota flaviventris, Reithrodontomys megalotis, and Brachylagus idahoensis) which suggest that the region was relatively cool and moist until after 8800 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 8600 and 8100 14C yr B.P. these mammals became locally extinct, taxonomic diversity declined, and there was an increase in species well-adapted to xeric, low-elevation habitats, including ground squirrels, Lepus californicus and Neotoma lepida. The early small-mammal record from Camels Back Cave is similar to the 11,300-6000 14C yr B.P. mammalian sequence from Homestead Cave, northwestern Utah, and provides corroborative data on Bonneville Basin paleoenvironments and mammalian responses to middle Holocene desertification. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  8. Tracking marine mammals and ships with small and large-aperture hydrophone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Martin

    Techniques for passive acoustic tracking in all three spatial dimensions of marine mammals and ships were developed for long-term acoustic datasets recorded continuously over months using custom-designed arrays of underwater microphones (hydrophones) with spacing ranging from meters to kilometers. From the three-dimensional tracks, the acoustical properties of toothed whales and ships, such as sound intensity and directionality, were estimated as they are needed for the passive acoustic abundance estimation of toothed whales and for a quantitative description of the contribution of ships to the underwater soundscape. In addition, the tracks of the toothed whales reveal their underwater movements and demonstrate the potential of the developed tracking techniques to investigate their natural behavior and responses to sound generated by human activity, such as from ships or military SONAR. To track the periodically emitted echolocation sounds of toothed whales in an acoustically refractive environment in the upper ocean, a propagation-model based technique was developed for a hydrophone array consisting of one vertical and two L-shaped subarrays deployed from the floating instrument platform R/P FLIP. The technique is illustrated by tracking a group of five shallow-diving killer whales showing coordinated behavior. The challenge of tracking the highly directional echolocation sounds of deep-diving (< 1 km) toothed whales, in particular Cuvier's beaked whales, was addressed by embedding volumetric small-aperture (≈ 1 m element spacing) arrays into a large-aperture (≈ 1 km element spacing) seafloor array to reduce the minimum number of required receivers from five to two. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated by tracking several groups of up to three individuals over time periods from 10 min to 33 min within an area of 20 km2 in the Southern California Bight. To track and measure the underwater radiated sound of ships, a frequency domain beamformer was

  9. 75 FR 18160 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Antioch Bridge Seismic Retrofit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... (74 FR 67856), requesting comments from the public on the proposed IHA. The Antioch Bridge was... December 21, 2009 (74 FR 67856). During the 30 day public comment period, the Marine Mammal Commission..., and all monitoring and mitigation measured described in the previous Federal Register notice (74...

  10. 50 CFR 18.27 - Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to specified activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contained in the Act and in 50 CFR 18.3 and unless the context otherwise requires, in this section: Citizens.... (Complete definition of take is contained in 50 CFR 18.3.) Negligible impact is an impact resulting from the... marine mammals incidental to specified activities. 18.27 Section 18.27 Wildlife and Fisheries...

  11. 50 CFR 18.27 - Regulations governing small takes of marine mammals incidental to specified activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contained in the Act and in 50 CFR 18.3 and unless the context otherwise requires, in this section: Citizens.... (Complete definition of take is contained in 50 CFR 18.3.) Negligible impact is an impact resulting from the... marine mammals incidental to specified activities. 18.27 Section 18.27 Wildlife and Fisheries...

  12. Community- and landscape-level responses of reptiles and small mammals to feral-horse grazing in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, Erik A.; Brussard, P.F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated species- and community-level responses of squamate reptiles and granivorous small mammals to feral-horse grazing in two elevational strata across nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin, USA. Although mammal species richness did not differ between horse-occupied and horse-removed sites, occupied sites possessed less community completeness (biotic integrity) and 1.1–7.4 times greater deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) than removed sites. In opposite fashion, horse-removed sites possessed greater reptile species richness and tended towards greater abundance for seven of nine species, yet unequal species pools across sites dictated that community completeness did not differ statistically between horse-removed and -occupied sites.

  13. [An attempt to search for the correlations between the indices of plague infectivity in small mammals and fleas].

    PubMed

    Burdelov, L A; Zhubanazarov, I Zh; Rudenchik, N F; Koshenov, U A

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of faunal analysis of 1.2 mln fleas collected from about 300,000 individuals belonging to 30 species of small mammals were obtained average indices of abundance and similarity between faunas of ectoparasites of different animals in a number of autonomous plague nidi of the Aral sea area. Their comparison with published earlier average data on the infection of mammals with plague has revealed notable statistical connections between these indices in all nidi under study. Thus, has been shown a leading role of transmission of plague microbe by fleas in the maintenance of natural nidality of this zoonosis. At the same time a new confirmation of the multiple-host nature of Middle Asian natural nidus of plague has been obtained. PMID:2748203

  14. Body composition and amino acid concentrations of select birds and mammals consumed by cats in northern and central California.

    PubMed

    Kremen, N A; Calvert, C C; Larsen, J A; Baldwin, R A; Hahn, T P; Fascetti, A J

    2013-03-01

    The diet of the feral domestic cat consists of primarily birds and small mammals, but the nutritional composition is relatively unknown. Because of the increasing popularity of natural diets for cats and other wild captive carnivores, the purpose of this study was to describe the body composition and AA concentrations of select birds and small mammals in northern and central California: wild-caught mice (n = 7), Norway rats (n = 2), roof rats (n = 2), voles (n = 4), moles (n = 2), gophers (n = 3), and birds (n = 4). Body water, crude fat (CFa), CP, ash, and AA composition for each specimen were determined. Results are reported as mean ± SD. All results are reported on a DM basis except body water (as-is basis) and AA (g/16 g N). Combined, carcasses had this mean composition: 67.35 ± 3.19% water, 11.72 ± 6.17% CFa, 62.19 ± 7.28% CP, and 14.83 ± 2.66% ash. Concentrations of Arg, Tau, Cys, and Met were 5.63 ± 0.46, 0.92 ± 0.33, 1.91 ± 0.89, and 1.82 ± 0.19 g/16 g N, respectively. Using NRC physiologic fuel values for CP, CFa, and carbohydrate by difference, the combined average energy content of the carcasses was 3,929 kcal/kg DM, but the fiber content was not determined. With the exception of mice and rats, little historical data exist regarding the body and AA composition of many of the species analyzed in this study. Wild-caught mice and rats were composed of less fat but more ash compared with previously reported data in their purpose-bred counterparts. The CP content of mice in this study was similar to previous reports in purpose-bred mice. The CP content of rats was similar or slightly greater compared with historical findings in purpose-bred rats. The N content of rats and AA concentrations on a per-N basis for both rats and mice were similar to previously published data on purpose-bred rodents. The discrepancies in nutrient composition, especially fat concentration, indicate that using purpose-bred animals to represent the diet of the feral domestic

  15. Woodland Recovery after Suppression of Deer: Cascade effects for Small Mammals, Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) and Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus)

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Emma R.; Buesching, Christina D.; Slade, Eleanor M.; Macdonald, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past century, increases in both density and distribution of deer species in the Northern Hemisphere have resulted in major changes in ground flora and undergrowth vegetation of woodland habitats, and consequentially the animal communities that inhabit them. In this study, we tested whether recovery in the vegetative habitat of a woodland due to effective deer management (from a peak of 0.4–1.5 to <0.17 deer per ha) had translated to the small mammal community as an example of a higher order cascade effect. We compared deer-free exclosures with neighboring open woodland using capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods to see if the significant difference in bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) numbers between these environments from 2001–2003 persisted in 2010. Using the multi-state Robust Design method in program MARK we found survival and abundance of both voles and mice to be equivalent between the open woodland and the experimental exclosures with no differences in various metrics of population structure (age structure, sex composition, reproductive activity) and individual fitness (weight), although the vole population showed variation both locally and temporally. This suggests that the vegetative habitat - having passed some threshold of complexity due to lowered deer density - has allowed recovery of the small mammal community, although patch dynamics associated with vegetation complexity still remain. We conclude that the response of small mammal communities to environmental disturbance such as intense browsing pressure can be rapidly reversed once the disturbing agent has been removed and the vegetative habitat is allowed to increase in density and complexity, although we encourage caution, as a source/sink dynamic may emerge between old growth patches and the recently disturbed habitat under harsh conditions. PMID:22347472

  16. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan L Klimstra; Christopher E Moorman; Converse, Sarah; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  17. Dynamics, co-infections and characteristics of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in Hokkaido small mammals, Japan.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Shimozuru, Michito; Sashika, Mariko; Rosà, Roberto; Thu, May June; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    Many of the emerging infectious diseases originate in wildlife and many of them are caused by vector-borne pathogens. In Japan, zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are frequently detected in both ticks and wildlife. Here, we studied the infection rates of potentially zoonotic species, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neoehrlichia and Babesia spp., in Hokkaido's most abundant small mammals as they relate to variable extrinsic factors that might affect the infection rates of these pathogens. A total of 412 small mammals including 64 Apodemus argenteus, 219 Apodemus speciosus, 78 Myodes rufocanus, 41 Myodes rutilus, 6 Myodes rex and 4 Sorex unguiculatus were collected from Furano and Shari sites in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2010 and 2011 and were examined by multiplex PCR for TBPs. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) was then developed for the specific detection of 13 potentially zoonotic TBPs. A total of 4 TBPs were detected: Anaplasma sp. AP-sd, Ehrlichia muris, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Babesia microti. The infection rates were 4.4% (18/412), 1.2% (5/412), 13.1% (54/412) and 17.2% (71/412), respectively. The infection rates of each of the detected TBPs were significantly correlated with host small mammal species. A total of 22 (two triple and 20 double) co-infection cases were detected (5.3%). The most frequent co-infection cases occurred between Candidatus N. mikurensis and B. microti 68.2% (15/22). Further studies are required to examine human exposure to these zoonotic TBPs in Hokkaido. PMID:27166277

  18. Global analyses of endonucleolytic cleavage in mammals reveal expanded repertoires of cleavage-inducing small RNAs and their targets

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Ashley A.; Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Greer, Christopher; Lin, Xianzhi; Kim, Yong; Hsiao, Yun-Hua Esther; Xiao, Xinshu

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, small RNAs are important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. While their roles in mRNA destabilization and translational repression are well appreciated, their involvement in endonucleolytic cleavage of target RNAs is poorly understood. Very few microRNAs are known to guide RNA cleavage. Endogenous small interfering RNAs are expected to induce target cleavage, but their target genes remain largely unknown. We report a systematic study of small RNA-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage in mouse through integrative analysis of small RNA and degradome sequencing data without imposing any bias toward known small RNAs. Hundreds of small cleavage-inducing RNAs and their cognate target genes were identified, significantly expanding the repertoire of known small RNA-guided cleavage events. Strikingly, both small RNAs and their target sites demonstrated significant overlap with retrotransposons, providing evidence for the long-standing speculation that retrotransposable elements in mRNAs are leveraged as signals for gene targeting. Furthermore, our analysis showed that the RNA cleavage pathway is also present in human cells but affecting a different repertoire of retrotransposons. These results show that small RNA-guided cleavage is more widespread than previously appreciated. Their impact on retrotransposons in non-coding regions shed light on important aspects of mammalian gene regulation. PMID:26975654

  19. In contrast to many other mammals, cetaceans have relatively small hippocampi that appear to lack adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Bertelsen, Mads F; Haagensen, Mark; Chawana, Richard; Streicher, Sonja; Kaswera, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Reep, Roger L; Bennett, Nigel C; Siegel, Jerry M; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is essential for the formation and retrieval of memories and is a crucial neural structure sub-serving complex cognition. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the birth, migration and integration of new neurons, is thought to contribute to hippocampal circuit plasticity to augment function. We evaluated hippocampal volume in relation to brain volume in 375 mammal species and examined 71 mammal species for the presence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis using immunohistochemistry for doublecortin, an endogenous marker of immature neurons that can be used as a proxy marker for the presence of adult neurogenesis. We identified that the hippocampus in cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is both absolutely and relatively small for their overall brain size, and found that the mammalian hippocampus scaled as an exponential function in relation to brain volume. In contrast, the amygdala was found to scale as a linear function of brain volume, but again, the relative size of the amygdala in cetaceans was small. The cetacean hippocampus lacks staining for doublecortin in the dentate gyrus and thus shows no clear signs of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This lack of evidence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, along with the small hippocampus, questions current assumptions regarding cognitive abilities associated with hippocampal function in the cetaceans. These anatomical features of the cetacean hippocampus may be related to the lack of postnatal sleep, causing a postnatal cessation of hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:24178679

  20. Landscape structure in a managed forest mosaic of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and its influence on songbirds and small mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leimgruber, Peter

    Forests in the Appalachian Mountains have been severely affected by logging in the past and little old-growth is left. The remaining forests form a heterogeneous mosaic of different forest successions. A concern for conservation is how additional logging will alter the mosaic and its fauna. I studied the effects of logging on the landscape mosaic and how changes in the landscape structure influence small mammals and birds in the George Washington National Forest, Virginia. My dissertation also included research on how to improve techniques for landscape ecological studies, such as roadside monitoring of birds and mapping of forest resources using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Because of the scale dependency of landscape-ecological relationships, I investigated how landscape structure in the forest mosaic changes with increasing scales. I determined threshold scales at which structure changed markedly. After establishing a baseline, I examined how logging affected the intensity and location of such thresholds. I found thresholds in landscape structure exist at 400-, 500-, and 800-m intervals from the outer edge of the cut. While logging did not change threshold location and intensity for global landscape indices, such as dominance and contagion, thresholds for focal indices, such as mean patch size and percent cover for early-successional forest, changed markedly. Using GIS, I determined how logging affected small mammals and birds at the landscape scale. I divided the landscape into three zones (zone 1, inside logged areas; zone 2, 20--400 m from logged areas; zone 3, 1000--1500 m from logged areas). Logging changed species presence and richness more drastically in close proximity of cuts than on the landscape and influenced birds more strongly than mammals. In the cuts, edge-adapted birds, such as the indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), replaced forest interior species, such as the Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens). Most

  1. A unique resource mutualism between the giant Bornean pitcher plant, Nepenthes rajah, and members of a small mammal community.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Melinda; Clarke, Charles; Lee, Ch'ien C; Gunsalam, Ansou; Clarke, Rohan H

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous pitcher plant genus Nepenthes grows in nutrient-deficient substrates and produce jug-shaped leaf organs (pitchers) that trap arthropods as a source of N and P. A number of Bornean Nepenthes demonstrate novel nutrient acquisition strategies. Notably, three giant montane species are engaged in a mutualistic association with the mountain treeshrew, Tupaia montana, in which the treeshrew defecates into the pitchers while visiting them to feed on nectar secretions on the pitchers' lids.Although the basis of this resource mutualism has been elucidated, many aspects are yet to be investigated. We sought to provide insights into the value of the mutualism to each participant. During initial observations we discovered that the summit rat, R. baluensis, also feeds on sugary exudates of N. rajah pitchers and defecates into them, and that this behavior appears to be habitual. The scope of the study was therefore expanded to assess to what degree N. rajah interacts with the small mammal community.We found that both T. montana and R. baluensis are engaged in a mutualistic interaction with N. rajah. T .montana visit pitchers more frequently than R. baluensis, but daily scat deposition rates within pitchers do not differ, suggesting that the mutualistic relationships are of a similar strength. This study is the first to demonstrate that a mutualism exists between a carnivorous plant species and multiple members of a small mammal community. Further, the newly discovered mutualism between R. baluensis and N. rajah represents only the second ever example of a multidirectional resource-based mutualism between a mammal and a carnivorous plant. PMID:21695073

  2. A Unique Resource Mutualism between the Giant Bornean Pitcher Plant, Nepenthes rajah, and Members of a Small Mammal Community

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Melinda; Clarke, Charles; Lee, Ch'ien C.; Gunsalam, Ansou; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous pitcher plant genus Nepenthes grows in nutrient-deficient substrates and produce jug-shaped leaf organs (pitchers) that trap arthropods as a source of N and P. A number of Bornean Nepenthes demonstrate novel nutrient acquisition strategies. Notably, three giant montane species are engaged in a mutualistic association with the mountain treeshrew, Tupaia montana, in which the treeshrew defecates into the pitchers while visiting them to feed on nectar secretions on the pitchers' lids. Although the basis of this resource mutualism has been elucidated, many aspects are yet to be investigated. We sought to provide insights into the value of the mutualism to each participant. During initial observations we discovered that the summit rat, R. baluensis, also feeds on sugary exudates of N. rajah pitchers and defecates into them, and that this behavior appears to be habitual. The scope of the study was therefore expanded to assess to what degree N. rajah interacts with the small mammal community. We found that both T. montana and R. baluensis are engaged in a mutualistic interaction with N. rajah. T .montana visit pitchers more frequently than R. baluensis, but daily scat deposition rates within pitchers do not differ, suggesting that the mutualistic relationships are of a similar strength. This study is the first to demonstrate that a mutualism exists between a carnivorous plant species and multiple members of a small mammal community. Further, the newly discovered mutualism between R. baluensis and N. rajah represents only the second ever example of a multidirectional resource-based mutualism between a mammal and a carnivorous plant. PMID:21695073

  3. Ecology, distribution, and predictive occurrence modeling of Palmers chipmunk (Tamias palmeri): a high-elevation small mammal endemic to the Spring Mountains in southern Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowrey, Chris E.; Longshore, Kathleen; Riddle, Brett R.; Mantooth, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Although montane sky islands surrounded by desert scrub and shrub steppe comprise a large part of the biological diversity of the Basin and Range Province of southwestern North America, comprehensive ecological and population demographic studies for high-elevation small mammals within these areas are rare. Here, we examine the ecology and population parameters of the Palmer’s chipmunk (Tamias palmeri) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, and present a predictive GIS-based distribution and probability of occurrence model at both home range and geographic spatial scales. Logistic regression analyses and Akaike Information Criterion model selection found variables of forest type, slope, and distance to water sources as predictive of chipmunk occurrence at the geographic scale. At the home range scale, increasing population density, decreasing overstory canopy cover, and decreasing understory canopy cover contributed to increased survival rates.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems. PMID:27012919

  5. Predictors for presence and abundance of small mammals in households of villages endemic for commensal rodent plague in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jia-Xiang; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Dong, Xing-Qi; Du, Chun-Hong; Zhong, You-Hong; McNeil, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Background Ninety-one rodent plague epidemics have occurred in Lianghe county, Yunnan Province, China, between 1990 and 2006. This study aimed to identify predictors for the presence and abundance of small mammals in households of villages endemic for rodent plague in Lianghe county. Results Rattus flavipectus and Suncus murinus were the two species captured in 110 households. Keeping cats decreased the number of captures of R. flavipectus by one to two thirds and the chance of reported small mammal sightings in houses by 60 to 80%. Food availability was associated with fewer captures. Keeping food in sacks decreased the small mammal captures, especially of S. murinus 4- to 8-fold. Vegetables grown around house and maize grown in the village reduced the captures of S. murinus and R. flavipectus by 73 and 45%, respectively. An outside toilet and garbage piles near the house each reduced R. flavipectus captures by 39 and 37%, respectively, while raising dogs and the presence of communal latrines in the village increased R. flavipectus captures by 76 and 110% but were without detectable effect on small mammal sightings. Location adjacent to other houses increased captures 2-fold but reduced the chance of sightings to about half. In addition, raising ducks increased the chance of sighting small mammals 2.7-fold. Even after adjusting for these variables, households of the Dai had higher captures than those of the Han and other ethnic groups. Conclusion Both species captures were reduced by availability of species-specific foods in the environment, whereas other predictors for capture of the two species differed. Other than the beneficial effect of cats, there were also discrepancies between the effects on small mammal captures and those on sightings. These differences should be considered during the implementation and interpretation of small mammal surveys. PMID:19068139

  6. Anthropogenic soils and land use patterns in relation to small mammal and flea abundance in plague endemic area of Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Meliyo, Joel; Hieronimo, Proches; Mwango, Sibaway; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Heterogeneity in the landscapes of West Usambara Mountains on land use and human activities has been reported. However, the interface of land use patterns and human modified soils with small mammal and flea abundance for possible explanation of plague has not been explored. This study was carried out to determine the link between anthropogenic soils and land use patterns on small mammal and flea abundance and the occurrence of reported plague in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Standard soil survey methods were used to identify and describe soils and land use patterns on lower slopes and valley bottoms on which the surrounding villages are reported to have high and medium plague frequencies. The identified soils were characterised in terms of their morphological and physico-chemical properties and classified according to FAO-World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Small mammals were trapped on the same landscape positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals, counted and identified to species level. In total 57 small mammals were captured from which 32 fleas were collected. Results show that human settlements and mixed cultivation on lower slopes and continuous vegetable cropping in the valley bottoms are dominant land use types. Intensive use of forest soils, manuring and irrigation on farms in the studied landscapes have contributed to the development of uniquely human modified soils namely Hortic Anthrosols in the lower slopes and Plaggic Irragric Hortic Anthrosols in valley bottoms. The identified anthropogenic soils and land use patterns are associated with high abundance of small mammals (Mastomys natalensis) and flea species (Xenopsylla brasiliensis and Dinopsyllus lypusus). This phenomenon is vividly apparent in the villages with medium to high plague frequencies. The study suggests that plague surveillance programmes should consider the existing relationship between anthropogenic soils, land

  7. Responses of a small-mammal community to habitat management through controlled burning in a protected Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Fire is widely used as a management tool to achieve conservation goals. However, the consequences of such management on non-target species are frequently neglected and unknown. This study examines the effects of traditional management practices of scrubland clearance by controlled burning to improve menaced carnivores on non-target species: rodent and insectivores in Doñana National Park (SW of Iberian Peninsula). We used capture-recapture methods to examine changes in abundance in areas that were burnt one and three years ago, compared with unburnt areas. Results showed that burnt areas had higher species abundances, but mainly on the ecotonal boundaries. Species abundances showed dramatic seasonal differences with high abundances in autumn and winter, and very low abundance in summer. Our study revealed that scrubland management by controlled fires increases the abundance of small mammal species, mainly Mus spretus and Apodemus sylvaticus. We found only four small mammal species between the different treatments. However, some species that were formerly abundant in Doñana, such as Elyomis quercinus, were found only in burnt areas. Our results suggest that controlled burning is not contributing to the current loss of biotic diversity in this community.

  8. Legacies of land use and recent climatic change: the small mammal fauna in the mountains of Utah.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Rebecca J

    2007-08-01

    Climate warming will continue alongside human modification of the landscape. Therefore, studying systems modified by land use may highlight factors that mitigate or exacerbate predicted biological responses to ongoing climate warming. Using historical museum specimen records and recent field surveys, I examine temporal patterns in the ecological dynamics of the small mammal fauna on five mountain ranges in central Utah over time intervals of 27-53 years during the past century. This landscape was heavily modified by livestock grazing early in the twentieth century and since then has witnessed a steady decline in grazing intensity. In general, at regional and landscape scales, species preferring mesic habitats increased in percent abundance, rank abundance, and rank occurrence over time. This result is opposite that predicted from regional climate trends and probably represents the recovery of forest conditions following a release over time from earlier periods of severe overgrazing. Decreased grazing intensity may thus mitigate the predicted biological effects of climatically driven environmental change for small mammals. This work also illustrates that abundance data gleaned from natural history collections can be an appropriate tool for assessing temporal changes in composition, especially when comparisons are drawn using time- and space-averaged data sets. PMID:17874375

  9. Fleas associated with non-flying small mammal communities from northern and central Chile: with new host and locality records.

    PubMed

    Bazán-León, E A; Lareschi, M; Sanchez, J; Soto-Nilo, G; Lazzoni, I; Venegas, C I; Poblete, Y; Vásquez, R A

    2013-12-01

    Fleas associated with small mammals from seven localities from northern and central Chile were assessed. We captured 352 small mammals belonging to 12 species from which we obtained 675 fleas belonging to 15 different species. The most frequently captured flea species were Neotyphloceras crassispina crassispina (n = 198) and N. chilensis (n = 175). High values of flea species richness and diversity were found in Fray Jorge National Park (NP), a north-central Chilean site, whereas the highest values of mean abundance (MA) and prevalence were found in three diverse sites that include Los Molles River, a high altitude site located in north-central Chile, Fray Jorge NP and Dichato, in south-central Chile. On the other hand, high values of flea richness and diversity were found on two rodent species, Abrothrix olivacea and A. longipilis, whereas the highest values of MA and prevalence were found on Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, A. longipilis and Phyllotis xanthopygus. A total of three new host recordings, nine new localities and nine new host species and locality recordings are reported. Also, this study represents the first known record of Tetrapsyllus (Tetrapsyllus) comis in Chile and the first ecological analysis of Neotyphloceras chilensis. PMID:23496338

  10. Small-mammal populations of a Maryland woodlot, 1949-1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Warbach, O.

    1960-01-01

    SUMMARY: Small-mammal populations of a 4.4-acre farm woodlot on the Patuxent Research Center, Mary land were studied by periodic live trapping for nearly 5 years, I949-54: The woodlot is a mixed stand of pine and deciduous trees, most of which began to grow in an abandoned farm field in the decade 1914-24. Traps were set in a 60-foot grid at intervals of approximately 2 months. Peromyscus leucopus, Microtus pennsylvanicus, and Pitymys pinetorum were the principal species. Peromyscus were most numerous. They fluctuated seasonally from a high in December to a low in April. Numbers increased to a low midsummer peak, declined slightly, then increased again to the high for the year in December. Seasonal trends in the numbers were intermediate between seasonal cycles in the north and those in the south. They were similar to the pattern in Michigan, although population peaks in fall were about a month later in Maryland. Our December populations varied from 3.9 to 8.6 Peromyscus per acre, April populations from 0 to 3.6 per acre. High numbers were present through most of 1951 and 1953. One Peromyscus was trapped in the woodlot for a period of 38 months, and several others for a year or more. The average expectancy of residence was about 3 months. No seasonal differences in persistence in the woodlot were noted. Most Peromyscus maintained home ranges in the same. general area from month to month. A few made trips away from their usual ranges, or gradually shifted their ranges. Several mice ranged over the entire woodlot at some times, but occupied more limited parts of it at other times. The history of the travels of a mouse that lived there 38 mouths is discussed in detail. The greatest distance between capture sites was taken as an indication of range size. Distances, measured for mice trapped 14 or more times apiece, averaged 280 feet for females, 378 feet for males. These were long-term records and so included any shifts of range or trips that occurred. True home ranges

  11. Bacterial inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase ("IMPDH") DNA as a dominant selectable marker in mammals and other eukaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Huberman, Eliezer; Baccam, Mekhine J.

    2007-02-27

    The present invention relates to a nucleic acid sequence and its corresponding protein sequence useful as a dominant selectable marker in eukaryotes. More specifically the invention relates to a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial IMPDH gene that has been engineered into a eukaryotic expression vectors, thereby permitting bacterial IMPDH expression in mammalian cells. Bacterial IMPDH expression confers resistance to MPA which can be used as dominant selectable marker in eukaryotes including mammals. The invention also relates to expression vectors and cells that express the bacterial IMPDH gene as well as gene therapies and protein synthesis.

  12. Response to enrichment, type and timing: small mammals vary in their response to a springtime cicada but not a carbohydrate pulse.

    PubMed

    Vandegrift, Kurt J; Hudson, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    1. Masting events in the autumn provide a carbohydrate-rich pulse of resources that can influence the dynamics of small mammals and their natural enemies. Similar patterns are observed with the periodical cicada emergence which provides a protein-rich pulse in the spring, but comparisons are confounded by timing and food type. 2. We compared the influence of a naturally occurring spring pulse of cicadas with an experimental spring pulse of carbohydrate-rich seeds. We used a replicated population level field experiment and capture-mark-recapture techniques to record the vital rates, demographics, and abundance of Peromyscus leucopus (the white-footed mouse), as well as other small mammals and their parasites. 3. The density of P. leucopus on grids where cicadas emerged was 55% higher than controls as a consequence of early breeding. This was followed by an increase in the prevalence of the nematode Pterygodermatities peromysci, reduced breeding and decreased recruitment rates. Other small mammals including Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk) and Blarina brevicauda (short-tailed shrew), increased in density, but there was no affect on Sorex cinereus (masked shrew). 4. In contrast to the presence of cicadas, there was no influence of sunflower seed supplementation on small mammal density, vital rates, or reproduction with the exception of an increase in B. brevicauda density. The response of small mammals to seasonal pulses depends on timing, food type, and species. PMID:18684131

  13. Small Mammal Investigation in Spotted Fever Focus with DNA-Barcoding and Taxonomic Implications on Rodents Species from Hainan of China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liang; Chesters, Douglas; Zhang, Wen; Li, Guichang; Ma, Ying; Ma, Huailei; Song, Xiuping; Wu, Haixia; Meng, Fengxia; Zhu, Chaodong; Liu, Qiyong

    2012-01-01

    Although mammals are a well-studied group of animals, making accurate field identification of small mammals is still complex because of morphological variation across developmental stages, color variation of pelages, and often damaged osteological and dental characteristics. In 2008, small mammals were collected for an epidemiological study of a spotted fever outbreak in Hainan, China. Ten species of small mammals were identified by morphological characters in the field, most using pelage color characters only. The study is extended here, in order to assess whether DNA barcoding would be suitable as an identification tool in these small mammals. Barcode clusters showed some incongruence with morphospecies, especially for some species of Rattus and Niviventer, so molecular delineation was carried out with an expanded dataset of combined cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. COI sequences were successfully amplified from 83% of collected mammals, but failed in all specimens of Suncus murinus, which were thus excluded in DNA barcoding analysis. Of note, ten molecular taxonomic units were found from samples of nine morphologically identified species. Accordingly, 11 species of small mammals were present in the investigated areas, including four Rattus species, three Niviventer species, Callosciurus erythraeus, Neohylomys hainanensis, Tupaia belangeri, and Suncus murinus. Based on the results of the phylogenetic and molecular delineation analyses, the systematic status of some rodent species should be redefined. R. rattus hainanicus and R. rattus sladeni are synonyms of R. andamanensis. R. losea from China and Southeast Asia comprises two independent species: R. losea and R. sakeratensis. Finally, the taxonomic status of three putative species of Niviventer should be further confirmed according to morphological, molecular and ecological characters. PMID:22952689

  14. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters. PMID:26214849

  15. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters. PMID:26214849

  16. Dynamics of Leishmania chagasi infection in small mammals of the undisturbed and degraded tropical dry forests of northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Travi, B L; Osorio, Y; Becerra, M T; Adler, G H

    1998-01-01

    The infection rate with Leishmania chagasi and the population dynamics of small mammals were studied in an undisturbed forest reserve (Colosó) and an area of highly degraded forest (San Andrés de Sotavento [SAS]) in northern Colombia, both endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Live trapping of mammals was done every month, and species, age, sex and reproductive status determined. L. chagasi was detected in samples of skin or spleen by the polymerase chain reaction, after extraction of deoxyribonucleic acid using specific primers (DB8/AJS3), and dot blood hybridization. Didelphis marsupialis was found to be infected in Colosó (3/21, 14.3%) and SAS (13/137, 9.5%); its relative abundance was higher in SAS (93/113, 82% of the captures). Although Proechimys canicollis was also found to be infected in Colosó (3/34, 8.8%) and SAS (2/4), its relative abundance was much lower (4%) in SAS than in Colosó (56% of 77 animals captured). Sciurus granatensis, Marmosa robinsoni, Heteromys anomalus, Zygodontomys brevicauda and Metachirus nudicaudatus were less common, and no L. chagasi infection was detected in them. PMID:9861395

  17. Sound localization in common vampire bats: acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°-within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  18. Sound localization in common vampire bats: Acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°—within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  19. First Isolation and Direct Evidence for the Existence of Large Small-Mammal Reservoirs of Leptospira sp. in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Léon, Albertine; Harstskeerl, Rudy A.; Sertour, Natacha; Ahmed, Ahmed; Raharimanana, Claudine; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Garnier, Martine; Chartier, Loïc; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Rahalison, Lila; Cornet, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis has long been a major public health concern in the southwestern Indian Ocean. However, in Madagascar, only a few, old studies have provided indirect serological evidence of the disease in humans or animals. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a large animal study focusing on small-mammal populations. Five field trapping surveys were carried out at five sites, from April 2008 to August 2009. Captures consisted of Rattus norvegicus (35.8%), R. rattus (35.1%), Mus musculus (20.5%) and Suncus murinus (8.6%). We used microbiological culture, serodiagnosis tests (MAT) and real-time PCR to assess Leptospira infection. Leptospira carriage was detected by PCR in 91 (33.9%) of the 268 small mammals, by MAT in 17 of the 151 (11.3%) animals for which serum samples were available and by culture in 9 of the 268 animals (3.3%). Rates of infection based on positive PCR results were significantly higher in Moramanga (54%), Toliara (48%) and Mahajanga (47.4%) than in Antsiranana (8.5%) and Toamasina (14%) (p = 0.001). The prevalence of Leptospira carriage was significantly higher in R. norvegicus (48.9%), S. murinus (43.5%) and R. rattus (30.8%) than in M. musculus (9.1%) (p<0.001). The MAT detected antibodies against the serogroups Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae. Isolates were characterized by serology, secY sequence-based phylogeny, partial sequencing of rrs, multi-locus VNTR analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The 10 isolates obtained from nine rats were all identified as species L. interrogans serogroup Canicola serovar Kuwait and all had identical partial rrs and secY sequences. Conclusions/Significance We present here the first direct evidence of widespread leptospiral carriage in small mammals in Madagascar. Our results strongly suggest a high level of environmental contamination, consistent with probable transmission of the infection to humans. This first isolation of pathogenic Leptospira strains in this country may

  20. Interspecific differences between small mammals as hosts of immature Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) and a model for detection of high risk areas of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kollars, T M

    1996-10-01

    Fourteen species of small mammals were captured from July 1990 through August 1991 in Tennessee, from which 1,217 immature Dermacentor variabilis and 1 Ixodes dentatus were collected. Mammal species were given scores of importance (TS) as hosts to immature D. variabilis based on mean intensity and prevalence. The rice rat ranked the highest, with a TS = 5, followed by the golden mouse TS = 4, white-footed mouse TS = 3, pine vole TS = 2, cotton rat TS = 1, with the Norway rat, house mouse, and short-tailed shrew all having a TS = 0. Assigning a TS allows a quantitative method for differentiating and ranking small mammals as hosts for immature D. variabilis. Relative abundance of a species can also be important in determining D. variabilis populations, even with a low TS. The potential of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSFP) to occur in an area was estimated using the total score of small mammal hosts in an area and multiplying the relative abundance of important host species. The RMSFP of a site, based only upon small mammal species composition and relative abundance of important host species, was an accurate estimate of adult D. variabilis infesting raccoons and opossums at that trap site (P < or = 0.001). A RMSFP of 1.61 is needed to produce an estimated 252 adults per ha (RMSF threshold) at 98% survival of engorged immature ticks (P < 0.001). PMID:8885876

  1. The Fleas of Endemic and Introduced Small Mammals in Central Highland Forests of Madagascar: Faunistics, Species Diversity, and Absence of Host Specificity.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Steven M; Randrenjarison Andriniaina, H Rico; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Data are presented on the flea species of the genera Paractenopsyllus (Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllinae) and Synopsyllus (Pulicidae, Xenopsyllinae) obtained from small mammals during two 2014 seasonal surveys at a montane humid forest site (Ambohitantely) in the Central Highlands of Madagascar. The mammal groups included the endemic family Tenrecidae (tenrecs) and subfamily Nesomyinae (rodents) and two introduced families Muridae (rodents) and Soricidae (shrews); no fleas were recovered from the latter family. The surveys were conducted at the end of the wet and dry seasons with 288 individual small mammals captured, including 12 endemic and four introduced species. These animals yielded 344 fleas, representing nine species endemic to Madagascar; no introduced species was collected. Some seasonal variation was found in the number of trapped small mammals, but no marked difference was found in species richness. For flea species represented by sufficient samples, no parasite-host specificity was found, and there is evidence for considerable lateral exchange in the local flea fauna between species of tenrecs and the two rodent families (endemic and introduced). The implications of these results are discussed with regards to small mammal species richness and community structure, as well as a possible mechanism for the maintenance of sylvatic cycles of bubonic plague in the montane forests of Madagascar. PMID:26336252

  2. Phenotypic plasticity of post-fire activity and thermal biology of a free-ranging small mammal.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Körtner, Gerhard; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-05-15

    Ecosystems can change rapidly and sometimes irreversibly due to a number of anthropogenic and natural factors, such as deforestation and fire. How individual animals exposed to such changes respond behaviourally and physiologically is poorly understood. We quantified the phenotypic plasticity of activity patterns and torpor use - a highly efficient energy conservation mechanism - in brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), a small Australian marsupial mammal. We compared groups in densely vegetated forest areas (pre-fire and control) with a group in a burned, open habitat (post-fire). Activity and torpor patterns differed among groups and sexes. Females in the post-fire group spent significantly less time active than the other groups, both during the day and night. However, in males only daytime activity declined in the post-fire group, although overall activity was also reduced on cold days in males for all groups. The reduction in total or diurnal activity in the post-fire group was made energetically possible by a ~3.4-fold and ~2.2-fold increase in the proportion of time females and males, respectively, used torpor in comparison to that in the pre-fire and control groups. Overall, likely due to reproductive needs, torpor was more pronounced in females than in males, but low ambient temperatures increased torpor bout duration in both sexes. Importantly, for both male and female antechinus and likely other small mammals, predator avoidance and energy conservation - achieved by reduced activity and increased torpor use - appear to be vital for post-fire survival where ground cover and refuges have been obliterated. PMID:27001165

  3. Small mammals as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants and health effects in northeastern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Smits, Judit E G

    2016-02-01

    The extraction of bitumen in areas of northeastern Alberta (Canada) has been associated with the release of complex mixtures of metals, metalloids, and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to the environment. To mitigate effects on ecosystems, Canadian legislation mandates that disturbed areas be reclaimed to an ecologically sustainable state after active operations. However, as part of reclamation activities, exposure to, and effects on wildlife living in these areas is not generally assessed. To support successful reclamation, the development of efficient methods to assess exposure and health effects in potentially exposed wildlife is required. In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of two native mammalian species (deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, and meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus) as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants by examining biomarkers of exposure and indicators of biological costs. Tissue residues of 31 metals and metalloids in kidneys and muscle, activity of the hepatic detoxification enzyme EROD (as a biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants), body condition, and the relative mass of liver, kidney, spleen, and testes were compared in animals from one reclaimed area and a reference site. Deer mice from the reclaimed site had higher renal levels of Co, Se and Tl compared to animals from the reference site, which was associated with reduced body condition. Lower testis mass was another feature that distinguished mice from the reclaimed site in comparison to those from the reference site. One mouse and one vole from the reclaimed site also showed increased hepatic EROD activity. In marked contrast, no changes were evident for these variables in meadow voles. Our results show that deer mouse is a sensitive sentinel species and that the biomarkers and indicators used here are efficient means to detect local contamination and associated biological effects in native mammals inhabiting reclaimed areas on active oil sands mine

  4. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  5. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Neves, Carolina Lima; Vilela, Júlio Fernando; Silva, Maria José de J

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4 marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the importance of karyotype information in cytotaxonomy. We report for first time the karyotype of Monodelphis scalops (Thomas, 1888) and two new records for PESM: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 and Brucepattersonius soricinus Hershkovitz, 1998. Cytogenetic polymorphisms were detected for some species trapped in the area. Our results show the importance of Santa Virgínia / PESM in addressing studies for the conservation of small mammal wildlife in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:24744831

  6. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Neves, Carolina Lima; Vilela, Júlio Fernando; Silva, Maria José de J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4 marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the importance of karyotype information in cytotaxonomy. We report for first time the karyotype of Monodelphis scalops (Thomas, 1888) and two new records for PESM: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 and Brucepattersonius soricinus Hershkovitz, 1998. Cytogenetic polymorphisms were detected for some species trapped in the area. Our results show the importance of Santa Virgínia / PESM in addressing studies for the conservation of small mammal wildlife in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:24744831

  7. Implications of scale-independent habitat specialization on persistence of a rare small mammal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaver, Michael; Klinger, Robert C.; Anderson, Steven T.; Maier, Paul A.; Clark, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the habitat use patterns of the Amargosa vole Microtus californicus scirpensis , an endangered rodent endemic to wetland vegetation along a 3.5 km stretch of the Amargosa River in the Mojave Desert, USA. Our goals were to: (1) quantify the vole’s abundance, occupancy rates and habitat selection patterns along gradients of vegetation cover and spatial scale; (2) identify the processes that likely had the greatest influence on its habitat selection patterns. We trapped voles monthly in six 1 ha grids from January to May 2012 and measured habitat structure at subgrid (View the MathML source225m2) and trap (View the MathML source1m2) scales in winter and spring seasons. Regardless of scale, analyses of density, occupancy and vegetation structure consistently indicated that voles occurred in patches of bulrush (Schoenoplectus americanus ; Cyperaceae) where cover >50%. The majority of evidence indicates the vole's habitat selectivity is likely driven by bulrush providing protection from intense predation. However, a combination of selective habitat use and limited movement resulted in a high proportion of apparently suitable bulrush patches being unoccupied. This suggests the Amargosa vole's habitat selection behavior confers individual benefits but may not allow the overall population to persist in a changing environment.

  8. Polychlorinated terphenyl patterns and levels in selected marine mammals and a river fish from different continents.

    PubMed

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants which have been used from the 1920s to the 1980s for similar purposes as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Comparably little data was available on the PCT distribution in the environment mainly due to analytical difficulties in their determination. By means of a calculation algorithm recently developed we now studied the PCT pattern in individual marine mammal samples and one fish sample from different continents. Altogether, 97 PCTs were detected in eight samples and twelve to 66 tetra- to nonachloroterphenyl (tetra- to nonaCT) congeners were detected in individual samples. PCTs were present in all marine mammal samples which originated from four continents, but the PCT pattern was varied. TetraCTs were dominant in the sample from Africa, Australia, Spitsbergen (European Arctic) and in a sample from the Baltic Sea, heptaCTs in samples from the North Sea and octaCTs in a sample from Iceland. The abundance of sumPCTs relative to PCB 153, estimated from the GC/ECNI-MS response corrected for the degree of chlorination, ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%, corresponding with ~0.22-2.2% of the total PCB content. The highest PCT level detected was 980 mg/kg lipid in a harbour seal from the North Sea, Germany. The results from this study indicated that samples from certain areas, e.g. the North Sea may still be polluted with PCTs. PMID:24211498

  9. SIMULATING SMALL MAMMAL EFFECTS ON GRASS-SHRUB ECOTONES IN ARID ECOSYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several processes leading to shrub encroachment within semiarid and arid grasslands have been identified. However, the role of small animals in shifting dominance between grasses and shrubs at their ecotones has not been well studied, especially in combination with other factors, such as drought, c...

  10. Role of small mammals in the ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi in a peri-urban park in north coastal California.

    PubMed

    Peavy, C A; Lane, R S; Kleinjan, J E

    1997-08-01

    The role of small mammals other than woodrats in the enzootiology of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgorferi, was assessed in the peri-urban park. Mammals were collected monthly from September through to April. Following tick removal, the animals were tested for B. burgdorferi by culture of ear-punch biopsies. Larvae and nymphs that were intermediate in morphology between Ixodes spinipalpis and Ixodes neotomae occurred on several species of rodents (Peromyscus truei, Peromyscus californicus, Microtus californicus, Rattus rattus and Reithrodontomys megalotis) and the brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani). Morphometric analyses of these I. spinipalpis-like ticks and the offspring from two I. neotomae females from the site suggest that I. neotomae may bo conspecific with I. spinipalpis. Borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from eight out of 109 (7.3%), three out of 16 (18.8%), two out of 38 (5.3%) and two out of six (33.3%) P. truei, P. maniculatus, M. californicus and R. rattus, respectively. One bush rabbit yielded the first isolate of B. burgdorferi from a lagomorph in western North America. This isolate and three others derived from unfed I. spinipalpis-like nymphs failed to produce infection when inoculated intradermally into 11-12 P. maniculatus each. Likewise, no spirochetes were detected in 420 Ixodes pacificus nymphs derived from larvae fed on animals inoculated with these isolates. An additional isolate, derived from an I. spinipalpis-like nymph, was recovered by ear-punch biopsies from five our of 12 (42%) needle-inoculated P. maniculatus. However, spirochetes were not detected in 20 I. pacificus nymphs fed as larvae on each of five mice (two infected and three uninfected) inoculated with this isolate. We conclude that brush rabbits and several species of rodents besides woodrats may contribute to the maintenance of B. burgdorferi because they harbour the spirochete and are fed upon by competent enzootic vectors. PMID:9291589

  11. Purifying selection drives the evolution of surfactant protein C (SP-C) independently of body temperature regulation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sally; Orgeig, Sandra; Donnellan, Stephen; Daniels, Christopher B

    2007-06-01

    The pulmonary surfactant system of heterothermic mammals must be capable of dealing with the effect of low body temperatures on the physical state of the lipid components. We have shown previously that there is a modest increase in surfactant cholesterol during periods of torpor, however these changes do not fully explain the capacity of surfactant to function under the wide range of physical conditions imposed by torpor. Here we examine indirectly the role of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in adapting to variable body temperatures by testing for the presence of positive (adaptive) selection during evolutionary transitions between heterothermy and homeothermy. We sequenced SP-C from genomic DNA of 32 mammalian species from groups of closely related heterothermic and homeothermic species (contrasts). We used phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood estimates of rates of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions and fully Bayesian inference of these sequences to determine whether the mode of body temperature regulation exerts a selection pressure driving the molecular adaptation of SP-C. The protein sequence of SP-C is highly conserved with synonymous or highly conservative amino acid substitutions being predominant. The evolution of SP-C among mammals is characterised by high codon usage bias and high rates of transition/transversion. The only contrast to show evidence of positive selection was that of the bears (Ursus americanus and U. maritimus). The significance of this result is unclear. We show that SP-C is under strong evolutionary constraints, driven by purifying selection, presumably to maintain protein function despite variation in the mode of body temperature regulation. PMID:20483290

  12. Radionuclides in Small Mammals Collected at the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility during 2001-- 2003

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez

    2005-01-20

    Rodents are effective indicators of environmental contamination and the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Mitigation Action Plan specifies the (radionuclide) comparison of small mammals to baseline levels to determine if there are any impacts as a result of operations. Consequently, samples of (whole body) field mice (Peromyscus spp.) were collected from within the grounds of the DARHT facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 15, from 2001 through 2003. Samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. Results, which represent three years since the start of operations in 2000, were compared with baseline statistical reference level (BSRL) data established over a four-year-long preoperational period. Most radionuclides in mice were either at nondetectable levels or within BSRLs. The few radionuclides that were above BSRLs included U isotopes; and the ratios of some samples indicated depleted U sources. Although the amounts of U in some samples were just above BSRLs, and since depleted U is less soluble and less toxic (chemical and radioactive) than naturally occurring U, the very small levels in the mice collected around the DARHT facility grounds are unlikely to pose a threat to predators that feed upon them.

  13. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  14. Peroxisome homeostasis: Mechanisms of division and selective degradation of peroxisomes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Honsho, Masanori; Yamashita, Shun-ichi; Fujiki, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisome number and quality are maintained by its biogenesis and turnover and are important for the homeostasis of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are increased in number by division with dynamic morphological changes including elongation, constriction, and fission. In the course of peroxisomal division, peroxisomal morphogenesis is orchestrated by Pex11β, dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1), and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff). Conversely, peroxisome number is reduced by its degradation. Peroxisomes are mainly degraded by pexophagy, a type of autophagy specific for peroxisomes. Upon pexophagy, an adaptor protein translocates on peroxisomal membrane and connects peroxisomes to autophagic machineries. Molecular mechanisms of pexophagy are well studied in yeast systems where several specific adaptor proteins are identified. Pexophagy in mammals also proceeds in a manner dependent on adaptor proteins. In this review, we address the recent progress in studies on peroxisome morphogenesis and pexophagy. PMID:26434997

  15. Age-related changes in the central nervous system in selected domestic mammals and primates.

    PubMed

    Firląg, Maciej; Kamaszewski, Maciej; Gaca, Katarzyna; Bałasińska, Bożena

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a process which operates at many levels of physiological, genetic and molecular organization and leads inevitably to death. Brain macroscopic changes by MRI investigation during aging were observed in humans and dogs but chimpanzees did not display significant changes. This suggestion led to the statement that brain aging is different in various species. Although human brain changes, e.g. β-amyloid storage, neurofibrillary tangle formation, lipofuscin, are relatively well known, we are still looking for a suitable animal model to study the mechanisms of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this paper presents a comparative analysis of the changes described in the brains of senile dog, horse and gorilla. In addition we present the latest, non-invasive methods that can be applied in the diagnosis of old age in mammals. Our considerations have shown that the best animal model for further studies and observations on aging is the dog. PMID:23619226

  16. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals.

    PubMed

    Brehme, Cheryl S; Tracey, Jeff A; McClenaghan, Leroy R; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoid paved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads, but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  17. A nonlethal sampling method to obtain, generate and assemble whole blood transcriptomes from small, wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zixia; Gallot, Aurore; Lao, Nga T; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Jebb, David; Bekaert, Michaël; Teeling, Emma C

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of tissue samples from wild populations is a constant challenge in conservation biology, especially for endangered species and protected species where nonlethal sampling is the only option. Whole blood has been suggested as a nonlethal sample type that contains a high percentage of bodywide and genomewide transcripts and therefore can be used to assess the transcriptional status of an individual, and to infer a high percentage of the genome. However, only limited quantities of blood can be nonlethally sampled from small species and it is not known if enough genetic material is contained in only a few drops of blood, which represents the upper limit of sample collection for some small species. In this study, we developed a nonlethal sampling method, the laboratory protocols and a bioinformatic pipeline to sequence and assemble the whole blood transcriptome, using Illumina RNA-Seq, from wild greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). For optimal results, both ribosomal and globin RNAs must be removed before library construction. Treatment of DNase is recommended but not required enabling the use of smaller amounts of starting RNA. A large proportion of protein-coding genes (61%) in the genome were expressed in the blood transcriptome, comparable to brain (65%), kidney (63%) and liver (58%) transcriptomes, and up to 99% of the mitogenome (excluding D-loop) was recovered in the RNA-Seq data. In conclusion, this nonlethal blood sampling method provides an opportunity for a genomewide transcriptomic study of small, endangered or critically protected species, without sacrificing any individuals. PMID:26186236

  18. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brehme, Cheryl S.; Tracey, Jeff A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoidpaved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads,but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  19. The uptake and effects of lead in small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range.

    PubMed

    Stansley, W; Roscoe, D E

    1996-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 micrograms/g dry weight. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and depressed ALAD activities in small mammals and frogs indicate that some of the lead deposited at the site is bioavailable. Mean tissue lead concentrations (micrograms/g dry wt.) in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) at the range liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5- to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda) captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35- to 1038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs (Rana clamitans) at the range (1,728 micrograms/g) were elevated nearly 1000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 micrograms/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P < 0.001). Hematological and histopathological lesions associated with lead toxicosis were observed in some animals. Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material

  20. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance in Generic Escherichia coli Isolates from Wild Small Mammals Living in Swine Farm, Residential, Landfill, and Natural Environments in Southern Ontario, Canada▿

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Samantha E.; Boerlin, Patrick; Janecko, Nicol; Lumsden, John S.; Barker, Ian K.; Pearl, David L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Jardine, Claire

    2011-01-01

    To assess the impacts of different types of human activity on the development of resistant bacteria in the feces of wild small mammals, we compared the prevalences and patterns of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from fecal samples collected from wild small mammals living in four environments: swine farms, residential areas, landfills, and natural habitats. Resistance to antimicrobials was observed in E. coli isolates from animals in all environments: 25/52 (48%) animals trapped at swine farms, 6/69 (9%) animals trapped in residential areas, 3/20 (15%) animals trapped at landfills, and 1/22 (5%) animals trapped in natural habitats. Animals trapped on farms were significantly more likely to carry E. coli isolates with resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin than animals trapped in residential areas. The resistance genes sul2, aadA, and tet(A) were significantly more likely to be detected in E. coli isolates from animals trapped on farms than from those trapped in residential areas. Three S. enterica serotypes (Give, Typhimurium, and Newport) were recovered from the feces of 4/302 (1%) wild small mammals. All Salmonella isolates were pansusceptible. Our results show that swine farm origin is significantly associated with the presence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes in wild small mammals in southern Ontario, Canada. However, resistant fecal bacteria were found in small mammals living in all environments studied, indicating that environmental exposure to antimicrobials, antimicrobial residues, resistant bacteria, or resistance genes is widespread. PMID:21131524

  2. 77 FR 39471 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in Port Townsend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...NMFS has received a complete and adequate application from the Washington State Department of Transportation/Ferries Division (WSF) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to pile driving during replacement of the Port Townsend Ferry Terminal Transfer Span. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS proposes to issue an......

  3. Competition and coexistence of small mammals in an East Tennessee pine plantation

    SciTech Connect

    Seagle, S.W.

    1985-10-01

    Microhabitat use and niche characteristics of Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli and Blarina brevicauda were examined in a pine plantation on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Although general microhabitat use was the same, niche parameters (such as niche breadth) for each species varied between two study grids, apparently in response to differing understory density. Microhabitat specialization is thus proposed to be a function of local microhabitat structure. Removal of the generalist species, P. leucopus, from one grid while maintaining the other grid as a control elicited a significant microhabitat shift and increase in niche breadth by O. nuttalli. Blarina brevicauda displayed a slight microhabitat shift and increased niche breadth. These results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that generalist species are poor competitors. Microhabitat heterogeneity created by plant succession and extrinsic disturbances such as tree blow-down are suggested to allow coexistence of these species by altering competitive abilities or microhabitat selection.

  4. Comparative sensitivity of small mammals to micronucleus induction in bone marrow cells by clastogenic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J.R.; Wernsing, P.; Daniel, F.B.; Torsella, J.

    1995-12-31

    The bone marrow micronucleus assay is the most widely used method for detecting genetic damage in vivo, but this assay has received little attention for its possible application to biomonitoring terrestrial environments. The present study compared the responsiveness of three small mammalian species, Cryptotus parva (least shrew), Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse), and strain CD-1 Mus musculus (house mouse), to the clastogen, methylmethanesulfonate (MMS). Five animals of each sex of each species were exposed for 24 h to four concentrations of MMS ranging from 0 to 50 mg/kg. Bone marrow cells were flushed from the femurs, and smears were stained with acridine orange and examined using fluorescence microscopy. The slides were scored for evidence of acute bone marrow toxicity (polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocyte ratio, PCE:NCE) and frequency of micronucleated PCE. PCE:NCE was depressed at 50 mg/kg in P. leucopus, but not in the other species. Dose-related increases in micronucleated PCE were observed in all three species, with males being more sensitive for P. leucopus and M. musculus, and females being more sensitive for C. parva. For both sexes, the two feral species, P. leucopus and C. parva, were more sensitive than M. musculus. These studies demonstrate the successful application of the bone marrow micronucleus assay to species other than standard laboratory strains of mice. The results also demonstrate heretofore unrecognized species differences in responsiveness.

  5. Selective functionalization: Shields for small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Scott K.

    2012-10-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers have been employed to shield small molecules so that one among many similar reactive functional groups can be modified. This provides access to new chemical entities with potentially interesting properties while avoiding the use of covalent protecting groups.

  6. Selected Reference Aids for Small Medical Libraries *

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Howertine Farrell

    1970-01-01

    This annotated list of 178 items is compiled as a guide to the development of the reference collection in a small medical library. Arrangement, following the pattern of the previous revision, is by broad subject groups. Titles are chiefly in English. Textbooks in subject fields have been omitted since these are covered adequately in several comprehensive guides to the literature. PMID:5439904

  7. Feeding success of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae) experimentally exposed to small mammal hosts in an endemic focus of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gregory H; Becerra, María Teresa; Travi, Bruno L

    2003-12-01

    Lutzomyia evansi is the vector of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia. Differences in feeding success were revealed, when this phlebotomine sand fly was fed on five species of small mammal hosts from an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis. In each trial, 50 female sand flies were provided access to similar-sized depilated areas of the hind foot of each of 44 individual mammals and allowed to feed for 30 minutes. The number of engorged sand flies was counted at the end of each trial and compared among host species by analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Sand flies fed least successfully on Sciurus granatensis, a common squirrel in the endemic area. It has not been found infected with L. chagasi. Intermediate numbers of sand flies engorged on Heteromys anomalus and Zygodontomys brevicauda, but these two mammals have not been found infected with L. chagasi and are not expected to be important in transmission. Sand flies fed most successfully on Didelphis marsupialis and Proechimys canicollis. These are the two most abundant mammals in the endemic area and frequently are infected. Results provided further evidence that these two species are the wild mammals with the greatest impact on transmission of L. chagasi in northern Colombia. PMID:14968917

  8. Diet analysis of small mammal pests: A comparison of molecular and microhistological methods.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Surrya; Howitt, Robyn; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Russell, James C

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of what pest species are eating is important to determine their impact on stored food products and to plan management strategies accordingly. In this study, we investigated the food habits of 2 rodents, Rattus rattus (ship rat) and Mus musculus castaneus (house mouse) as well as an insectivore, Suncus murinus (shrew), present in human dwellings. Both a microhistological approach and a DNA barcoding approach were used in the present study. Following DNA extraction, amplification was performed using group-specific primers targeting birds, plants and invertebrates. Resulting polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and analyzed to identify the different prey species present in the gut contents. The findings from the application of both techniques were in agreement, but the detection of prey type with each technique was different. The DNA barcoding approach gave greater species-level identification when compared to the microhistological method, especially for the invertebrate and avian prey. Overall, with both techniques, 23 prey taxa were identified in the gut contents of the 3 species, including 15 plants, 7 insects and a single bird species. We conclude that with a selection of suitable "barcode genes" and optimization of polymerase chain reaction protocols, DNA barcoding can provide more accurate and faster results. Prey detection from either technique alone can bias the dietary information. Hence, combining prey information of both microhistological analysis and DNA barcoding is recommended to study pest diet, especially if the pest is an omnivore or insectivore species. PMID:27001489

  9. A Small Protein Associated with Fungal Energy Metabolism Affects the Virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans in Mammals.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Erin E; Ramagopal, Udupi A; Rivera, Johanna; Cox, James; Nakouzi, Antonio; Prabu, Moses M; Almo, Steven C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcosis, a life-threatening fungal disease. C. neoformans has multiple virulence mechanisms that are non-host specific, induce damage and interfere with immune clearance. Microarray analysis of C. neoformans strains serially passaged in mice associated a small gene (CNAG_02591) with virulence. This gene, hereafter identified as HVA1 (hypervirulence-associated protein 1), encodes a protein that has homologs of unknown function in plant and animal fungi, consistent with a conserved mechanism. Expression of HVA1 was negatively correlated with virulence and was reduced in vitro and in vivo in both mouse- and Galleria-passaged strains of C. neoformans. Phenotypic analysis in hva1Δ and hva1Δ+HVA1 strains revealed no significant differences in established virulence factors. Mice infected intravenously with the hva1Δ strain had higher fungal burden in the spleen and brain, but lower fungal burden in the lungs, and died faster than mice infected with H99W or the hva1Δ+HVA1 strain. Metabolomics analysis demonstrated a general increase in all amino acids measured in the disrupted strain and a block in the TCA cycle at isocitrate dehydrogenase, possibly due to alterations in the nicotinamide cofactor pool. Macrophage fungal burden experiments recapitulated the mouse hypervirulent phenotype of the hva1Δ strain only in the presence of exogenous NADPH. The crystal structure of the Hva1 protein was solved, and a comparison of structurally similar proteins correlated with the metabolomics data and potential interactions with NADPH. We report a new gene that modulates virulence through a mechanism associated with changes in fungal metabolism. PMID:27583447

  10. Selective herbivory by mammals on 19 species planted at two densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafferty, Christine; Lamont, Byron B.

    2007-07-01

    The impact of mammalian herbivory, particularly macropods, upon seedling establishment in a post-fire environment was studied experimentally at Whiteman Park Reserve, Perth, Western Australia. Nineteen plant species of contrasting morphology and chemistry were established at low and high densities in protective exclosures, and half of the plants later exposed to herbivores. After one year of exposure, 16 species showed evidence of greater mortality and/or reduced shoot mass due to mammal herbivory. Two species had reduced shoot mass at high density (competition) and two had the reverse (facilitation), both annulled in the presence of herbivores due to poor growth at both densities. There was no preference by herbivores for high over low density plots. A general preference (high percentage plants eaten, large difference between biomass inside and outside exclosures) for species high in K, N or P and leaf mass: area, and low in initial shoot mass, spinescence, moisture and height was evident from principal components and canonical variates analyses. Grass-like species were more vulnerable to herbivory than seedlings of shrubs.

  11. Occurrence of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in the oral cavity of selected marine mammal species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads F; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of bacteria belonging to Pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive marine mammals was investigated using culture and subsequent geno- and phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. A total of 89 bacterial isolates from pinnipeds tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequences, which showed that the isolates investigated formed five distinct groups. Four strains from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) made up group I, which was classified with Pasteurella canis. Group II comprised four strains from harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) classified with Pasteurella stomatis. Group III consisted of 28 strains, isolated from harbor and gray seals and represented Bisgaardia genomospecies 1. Two strains from a harbor and a grey seal, group IV, were classified with Bisgaardia hudsonensis. Fifty-two strains from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus), and California and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) formed group V and represented Otariodibacter oris. No Pasteurellaceae isolates were obtained from cetaceans, but Pasteurellaceae were isolated from all sampled pinnipeds. On the basis of these results, it is very likely that Pasteurellaceae bacteria represent a part of the normal oral flora in pinnipeds. PMID:23272350

  12. Detecting and modelling delayed density-dependence in abundance time series of a small mammal (Didelphis aurita).

    PubMed

    Brigatti, E; Vieira, M V; Kajin, M; Almeida, P J A L; de Menezes, M A; Cerqueira, R

    2016-01-01

    We study the population size time series of a Neotropical small mammal with the intent of detecting and modelling population regulation processes generated by density-dependent factors and their possible delayed effects. The application of analysis tools based on principles of statistical generality are nowadays a common practice for describing these phenomena, but, in general, they are more capable of generating clear diagnosis rather than granting valuable modelling. For this reason, in our approach, we detect the principal temporal structures on the bases of different correlation measures, and from these results we build an ad-hoc minimalist autoregressive model that incorporates the main drivers of the dynamics. Surprisingly our model is capable of reproducing very well the time patterns of the empirical series and, for the first time, clearly outlines the importance of the time of attaining sexual maturity as a central temporal scale for the dynamics of this species. In fact, an important advantage of this analysis scheme is that all the model parameters are directly biologically interpretable and potentially measurable, allowing a consistency check between model outputs and independent measurements. PMID:26865413

  13. Detecting and modelling delayed density-dependence in abundance time series of a small mammal (Didelphis aurita)

    PubMed Central

    Brigatti, E.; Vieira, M. V.; Kajin, M.; Almeida, P. J. A. L.; de Menezes, M. A.; Cerqueira, R.

    2016-01-01

    We study the population size time series of a Neotropical small mammal with the intent of detecting and modelling population regulation processes generated by density-dependent factors and their possible delayed effects. The application of analysis tools based on principles of statistical generality are nowadays a common practice for describing these phenomena, but, in general, they are more capable of generating clear diagnosis rather than granting valuable modelling. For this reason, in our approach, we detect the principal temporal structures on the bases of different correlation measures, and from these results we build an ad-hoc minimalist autoregressive model that incorporates the main drivers of the dynamics. Surprisingly our model is capable of reproducing very well the time patterns of the empirical series and, for the first time, clearly outlines the importance of the time of attaining sexual maturity as a central temporal scale for the dynamics of this species. In fact, an important advantage of this analysis scheme is that all the model parameters are directly biologically interpretable and potentially measurable, allowing a consistency check between model outputs and independent measurements. PMID:26865413

  14. Intra-sexual selection in cooperative mammals and birds: why are females not bigger and better armed?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Andrew J.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2013-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding mammals and birds, intra-sexual reproductive competition among females may often render variance in reproductive success higher among females than males, leading to the prediction that intra-sexual selection in such species may have yielded the differential exaggeration of competitive traits among females. However, evidence to date suggests that female-biased reproductive variance in such species is rarely accompanied by female-biased sexual dimorphisms. We illustrate the problem with data from wild Damaraland mole-rat, Fukomys damarensis, societies: the variance in lifetime reproductive success among females appears to be higher than that among males, yet males grow faster, are much heavier as adults and sport larger skulls and incisors (the weapons used for fighting) for their body lengths than females, suggesting that intra-sexual selection has nevertheless acted more strongly on the competitive traits of males. We then consider potentially general mechanisms that could explain these disparities by tempering the relative intensity of selection for competitive trait exaggeration among females in cooperative breeders. Key among these may be interactions with kin selection that could nevertheless render the variance in inclusive fitness lower among females than males, and fundamental aspects of the reproductive biology of females that may leave reproductive conflict among females more readily resolved without overt physical contests. PMID:24167305

  15. Tupaia small RNAs provide insights into function and evolution of RNAi-based transposon defense in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, David; Rudloff, Stefanie; Bastuck, Katharina; Ketting, René F.; Zischler, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Argonaute proteins comprising Piwi-like and Argonaute-like proteins and their guiding small RNAs combat mobile DNA on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. While Piwi-like proteins and associated piRNAs are generally restricted to the germline, Argonaute-like proteins and siRNAs have been linked with transposon control in the germline as well as in the soma. Intriguingly, evolution has realized distinct Argonaute subfunctionalization patterns in different species but our knowledge about mammalian RNA interference pathways relies mainly on findings from the mouse model. However, mice differ from other mammals by absence of functional Piwil3 and expression of an oocyte-specific Dicer isoform. Thus, studies beyond the mouse model are required for a thorough understanding of function and evolution of mammalian RNA interference pathways. We high-throughput sequenced small RNAs from the male Tupaia belangeri germline, which represents a close outgroup to primates, hence phylogenetically links mice with humans. We identified transposon-derived piRNAs as well as siRNAs clearly contrasting the separation of piRNA- and siRNA-pathways into male and female germline as seen in mice. Genome-wide analysis of tree shrew transposons reveal that putative siRNAs map to transposon sites that form foldback secondary structures thus representing suitable Dicer substrates. In contrast piRNAs target transposon sites that remain accessible. With this we provide a basic mechanistic explanation how secondary structure of transposon transcripts influences piRNA- and siRNA-pathway utilization. Finally, our analyses of tree shrew piRNA clusters indicate A-Myb and the testis-expressed transcription factor RFX4 to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of mammalian piRNA clusters. PMID:25802409

  16. Tupaia small RNAs provide insights into function and evolution of RNAi-based transposon defense in mammals.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, David; Rudloff, Stefanie; Bastuck, Katharina; Ketting, René F; Zischler, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Argonaute proteins comprising Piwi-like and Argonaute-like proteins and their guiding small RNAs combat mobile DNA on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. While Piwi-like proteins and associated piRNAs are generally restricted to the germline, Argonaute-like proteins and siRNAs have been linked with transposon control in the germline as well as in the soma. Intriguingly, evolution has realized distinct Argonaute subfunctionalization patterns in different species but our knowledge about mammalian RNA interference pathways relies mainly on findings from the mouse model. However, mice differ from other mammals by absence of functional Piwil3 and expression of an oocyte-specific Dicer isoform. Thus, studies beyond the mouse model are required for a thorough understanding of function and evolution of mammalian RNA interference pathways. We high-throughput sequenced small RNAs from the male Tupaia belangeri germline, which represents a close outgroup to primates, hence phylogenetically links mice with humans. We identified transposon-derived piRNAs as well as siRNAs clearly contrasting the separation of piRNA- and siRNA-pathways into male and female germline as seen in mice. Genome-wide analysis of tree shrew transposons reveal that putative siRNAs map to transposon sites that form foldback secondary structures thus representing suitable Dicer substrates. In contrast piRNAs target transposon sites that remain accessible. With this we provide a basic mechanistic explanation how secondary structure of transposon transcripts influences piRNA- and siRNA-pathway utilization. Finally, our analyses of tree shrew piRNA clusters indicate A-Myb and the testis-expressed transcription factor RFX4 to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of mammalian piRNA clusters. PMID:25802409

  17. Mycophagy by small mammals in the coniferous forests of North America: nutritional value of sporocarps of Rhizopogon vinicolor, a common hypogeous fungus.

    PubMed

    Claridge, A W; Trappe, J M; Cork, S J; Claridge, D L

    1999-04-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of sporocarps of Rhizopogon vinicolor, a common hypogeous fungus in the coniferous forests of North America, for two small mammal species: the Californian red-backed vole (Clethrionomys californicus) and the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). Although the nitrogen concentration of sporocarps was high, much of it was in non-protein form or associated with cell walls, suggesting that it may be of low nutritional value or protected from mammalian digestive enzymes. Sporocarps also had high concentrations of cell wall constituents, indicating low availability of digestible energy. When fed a diet of this fungus alone in a controlled feeding experiment both mammal species lost a small amount of body mass. Digestibilities of dry matter, nitrogen, cell wall constituents and energy from sporocarps by both species were lower than the digestibilities of other food types by other similarly sized small mammals. Red-backed voles digested the various components of sporocarps at least as well as the flying squirrels, even though they were almost six-fold smaller in body mass. This observation supports the notion that red-backed voles, like other microtine rodents, have morphological and physiological adaptations of the digestive system that are postulated to permit greater digestion of fibrous diets than predicted on the basis of body size. Despite this, our results re-affirm previous conclusions that hypogeous fungi are only of moderate nutritional value for most small, hindgut-fermenting mammals. Future studies should focus on the importance of mixed-species of fungi in the diet of small mammalian mycophagists. PMID:10335615

  18. Selective pressurized liquid extraction technique for halogenated organic pollutants in marine mammal blubber: a lipid-rich matrix.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E M; Jia, M; Trumble, S J; Usenko, S

    2015-03-13

    Analytical methods for unique and rare samples, such as marine mammal tissue, strive to reduce opportunities for analyte loss and contamination. Historically, analytical methodologies for marine mammal tissues required an extraction followed by multiple cleanup and concentration steps. These steps increase the opportunity for analyte loss and sample contamination. Selective pressurized liquid extractions (SPLE; an analytical technique that combines PLE with in-cell adsorbent cleanup) have the potential to reduce and/or eliminate the number of steps. A SPLE method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from bowhead whale blubber. This SPLE utilized acidic silica with a fat-to-fat retainer ratio of 0.02 as well as eliminated post-extraction cleanup steps, such as size-exclusion chromatography step. In addition, neutral silica was placed beneath the acidic silica as an acid buffer, thereby preventing acid from contaminating the extraction system. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ionization mode. PBDE, PCB and OCP triplicate recoveries averaged 84±1%, 83±3%, and 76±11%, respectively. Overall, measurements of NIST Whale Blubber SRM 1945 were within±30% of certified values. PBDEs were measured for the first time in bowhead whale blubber; average concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). Average OCPs and PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 37 ng g(-1)ww and 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1)ww, respectively, which were within one order of magnitude lower than those previously reported in bowhead whale blubber. PMID:25678322

  19. Food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity of mercury to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1993-12-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in surface soil and biota at a contaminated terrestrial field site and were used to calculate transfer coefficients of mercury through various compartments of the ecosystem based on trophic relationships. Mercury concentrations in all compartments (soil, vegetation, invertebrates, and small mammals) were higher than mercury concentrations in corresponding samples at local reference sites. Nonetheless, mercury concentrations in biota did not exceed concentrations in the contaminated surface soil, which averaged 269 μg g(-1). Plant tissue concentrations of mercury were low (0.01 to 2.0 μg g(-1)) and yielded soil to plant transfer coefficients ranging from 3.7×10(-5) for seeds to 7.0×10(-3) for grass blades. Mercury concentrations in invertebrates ranged from 0.79 for harvestmen (Phalangida) to 15.5 μg g(-1) for undepurated earthworms (Oligochaeta). Mean food chain transfer coefficients for invertebrates were 0.88 for herbivores/omnivores and 2.35 for carnivores. Mean mercury concentrations in target tissue (kidney) were 1.16±1.16 μg g(-1) for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a granivore, and 38.8±24.6 μg g(-1) for the shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda), an insectivore. Transfer coefficients for diet to kidney were 0.75 and 4.40 for P. leucopus and B. brevicauda, respectively. A comparison of kidney mercury residues measured in this study with values from controlled laboratory feeding studies from the literature indicate that B. brevicauda but not P. leucopus may be ingesting mercury at levels that are nephrotoxic. PMID:24201735

  20. An updated distribution and hosts: trombiculid mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) associated with small mammals in Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Dong, Wen-Ge; Song, Wen-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Trombiculid mites (or chigger mites) are a large group of arthropods, and some of these species are vectors of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is situated in the southwest of China, and its complicated topography, special altitude gradients, and high biodiversity have aroused the interest of many scientists to study the fauna and species diversity of plants and animals. To replenish our former faunal study, this paper listed all the scientific names of trombiculid mites in Yunnan Province, together with their hosts and collection sites (geographical distribution). A total of 120,138 individuals of trombiculid mites were collected from the body surface of 13,760 small mammal hosts (89.06 % of them are rodents) in 29 collection sites (counties) of Yunnan Province from 2001 to 2013. The 120,138 mites were identified as comprising 2 families (Trombiculidae and Leeuwenhoekiidae), 26 genera, and 274 species. The genus Leptotrombidium had the most abundant species (109 species) of 26 genera. Of the six main vectors of scrub typhus in China, five of them were found in Yunnan. Of the 274 chigger mite species, 23 were determined as the newly recorded species (new records), which were found in Yunnan Province for the first time. The identified 274 species of trombiculid mites in the present paper are much more than those from other provinces in China and even largely exceeded the species of trombiculid mites recorded from some other regions and countries in the world. Based on the formula of Chao 1, the total number of chigger mite species in Yunnan was approximately estimated to be 346 species, and about 72 species might have been missed in our sampling process. PMID:26833324

  1. The uptake and effects of lead on small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range

    SciTech Connect

    Stansley, W.; Roscoe, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 {micro}g/g dry weight. Mean tissue lead concentrations ({micro}g/g dry wt.) in while footed mice at the range (liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5 to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only short tail shrew captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35 to 1,038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs at the range (1,728 {micro}g/g) were elevated nearly 1,000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 {micro}g/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P<0.001). Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice, Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material.

  2. Silvicolous on a small scale: possibilities and limitations of habitat suitability models for small, elusive mammals in conservation management and landscape planning.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nina I; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution and endangerment can be assessed by habitat-suitability modelling. This study addresses methodical aspects of habitat suitability modelling and includes an application example in actual species conservation and landscape planning. Models using species presence-absence data are preferable to presence-only models. In contrast to species presence data, absences are rarely recorded. Therefore, many studies generate pseudo-absence data for modelling. However, in this study model quality was higher with null samples collected in the field. Next to species data the choice of landscape data is crucial for suitability modelling. Landscape data with high resolution and ecological relevance for the study species improve model reliability and quality for small elusive mammals like Muscardinus avellanarius. For large scale assessment of species distribution, models with low-detailed data are sufficient. For regional site-specific conservation issues like a conflict-free site for new wind turbines, high-detailed regional models are needed. Even though the overlap with optimally suitable habitat for M. avellanarius was low, the installation of wind plants can pose a threat due to habitat loss and fragmentation. To conclude, modellers should clearly state the purpose of their models and choose the according level of detail for species and environmental data. PMID:25781894

  3. Silvicolous on a Small Scale: Possibilities and Limitations of Habitat Suitability Models for Small, Elusive Mammals in Conservation Management and Landscape Planning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution and endangerment can be assessed by habitat-suitability modelling. This study addresses methodical aspects of habitat suitability modelling and includes an application example in actual species conservation and landscape planning. Models using species presence-absence data are preferable to presence-only models. In contrast to species presence data, absences are rarely recorded. Therefore, many studies generate pseudo-absence data for modelling. However, in this study model quality was higher with null samples collected in the field. Next to species data the choice of landscape data is crucial for suitability modelling. Landscape data with high resolution and ecological relevance for the study species improve model reliability and quality for small elusive mammals like Muscardinus avellanarius. For large scale assessment of species distribution, models with low-detailed data are sufficient. For regional site-specific conservation issues like a conflict-free site for new wind turbines, high-detailed regional models are needed. Even though the overlap with optimally suitable habitat for M. avellanarius was low, the installation of wind plants can pose a threat due to habitat loss and fragmentation. To conclude, modellers should clearly state the purpose of their models and choose the according level of detail for species and environmental data. PMID:25781894

  4. Characterization of the CCR3 and CCR9 genes in miiuy croaker and different selection pressures imposed on different domains between mammals and teleosts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhihuang; Wang, Rixin; Ren, Liping; Xu, Tianjun

    2013-12-01

    The innate immune system can recognize non-self through pattern recognition receptors and provides a first line of antimicrobial host defense. Thus innate immunity plays a very important role in resistance against major bacterial disease in vertebrates. In the innate immune responses, the chemokine receptors act as the main receptors of chemokines which are released at the sites of infection, inflammation and injury. In this study, the Miichthys miiuy CCR3 and CCR9 genes were cloned and characterized, showing that MIMI-CCR3 possesses a highly conserved DRYLA motif similar to that of other fishes. MIMI-CCR3 and CCR9 were ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues and the expressions were significantly up-regulated after infection with Vibrio anguillarum except that of CCR9 in spleen. Evolutionary analysis showed that all the ancestral lineages of CCR3 and CCR9 in mammals and teleosts underwent positive selection, indicating that the ancestor of terrestrial animals further evolved to adapt to terrestrial environments and the continuous intrusion of microbes stimulated the evolution of CCR genes in the ancestor of teleost. Multiple ML methods were used to detect the robust candidates for sites under positive selection. In total, 11 and 8 positively selected sites were found in the subsets of current mammal and teleost CCR3 genes, and 3 and 2 sites were detected in the subsets of current mammals and teleosts in CCR9. Interestingly, for mammal CCR3 and CCR9 genes, the robust candidates of positively selected sites were mainly located in the extracellular domains which were the ligand binding and pathogen interaction regions. For teleost CCR3 and CCR9 genes, the positively selected sites were not only located in the extracellular domains but also in the C-terminal and intracellular domains, indicating mammals and teleosts experienced different selection pressures upon their N-terminus, C-terminus and intracellular loops of CCRs. PMID:23817141

  5. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, A P; Huettmann, F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  6. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Baltensperger, A. P.; Huettmann, F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  7. Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project: Sample inventory and results of analyses of selected samples for organic compounds and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Schantz, M.M.; Koster, B.J.; Zeisler, R.

    1992-02-01

    In 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) was established as part of the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).The purpose of the AMMTAP was to establish a representative collection of Alaska marine mammal tissues for future contaminant analyses and documentation of long-term trends in environmental quality. Since 1987, specimens have been collected from 65 animals (seven species) from six different sites. The report contains the current sample inventory and the results of the analysis of selected samples for the measurement of inorganic and organic compounds.

  8. Spatio-temporal variation in small mammal species richness, relative abundance and body mass reveal changes in a coastal wetland ecosystem in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Benjamin Y; Attuquayefio, Daniel K; Owusu, Erasmus H; Musah, Yahaya; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa

    2016-06-01

    Coastal wetlands in Ghana are under severe threat of anthropogenic drivers of habitat degradation and climate change, thereby increasing the need for assessment and monitoring to inform targeted and effective conservation of these ecosystems. Here, we assess small mammal species richness, relative abundance and body mass in three habitats at the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site of Ghana, and compare these to baseline data gathered in 1997 to evaluate changes in the wetland ecosystem. Small mammals were live-trapped using Sherman collapsible and pitfall traps. We recorded 84 individuals of 10 species in 1485 trap-nights, whereas the baseline study recorded 45 individuals of seven species in 986 trap-nights. The overall trap-success was therefore greater in the present study (5.66 %) than the baseline study (4.56 %). The species richness increased from one to four in the forest, and from zero to eight in the thicket, but decreased from six to four in the grassland. The total number of individuals increased in all habitats, with the dominant species in the grassland shifting from Lemniscomys striatus to Mastomys erythroleucus. Three species, Malacomys edwardsi, Grammomys poensis and Praomys tullbergi are the first records for the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site. Generally, the average body mass of individual species in the grassland was lower in the present study. The considerable changes in small mammal community structure suggest changes in the wetland ecosystem. The conservation implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:27154051

  9. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the early Neolithic to middle Bronze Age Peña Larga rock shelter (Álava, Spain) from the small mammal record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofes, Juan; Zuluaga, Mari Cruz; Murelaga, Xabier; Fernández-Eraso, Javier; Bailon, Salvador; Iriarte, María José; Ortega, Luis Ángel; Alonso-Olazabal, Ainhoa

    2013-03-01

    The Peña Larga site, a rock shelter on the southern slopes of the Cantabrian cordillera (north Spain), is an archeological deposit covering nearly 4000 years, from the early Neolithic to the middle Bronze Age (Atlantic/Subboreal chronozones). It was used both as a household and as a stable, with a hiatus in the Chalcolithic when it was used as a collective sepulcher. Nearly twenty-eight thousand small vertebrate elements were recovered from its seven stratigraphic units, of which 2553 items were identified to the genus and/or species levels. The assemblage is composed of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Of these, small mammals were used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction since they are very sensitive to climatic conditions, the sample sizes are large, and their preservation is good. Their distributions over time, measured in terms of relative abundance, serve as reliable proxies of habitat and climate change. The reconstruction of Peña Larga's past environments based on small mammals roughly coincides with the pollen and the amphibian/reptile records on the local scale, and with that of an ice core from Central Greenland on the global scale. This makes it a valuable tool for comparative purposes both in the regional and continental scales.

  10. Exposure of small mammals to ticks and rickettsiae in Atlantic Forest patches in the metropolitan area of Recife, North-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Aléssio, Filipe Martins; Siqueira, Daniel Barreto; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Martins, Thiago F; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Camargo, Maria Cecília G O; D'Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Labruna, Marcelo B; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Between December 2007 and March 2009, small mammals were captured in 6 Atlantic Forest patches in Brazil. We assessed tick-host associations and whether they differ among forest strata, sites, seasons, and host age classes or between sexes. Moreover, we assessed the exposure of animals to Rickettsia spp. In total, 432 animals were captured and 808 ticks were found on 32·9% of them. Significant differences were found among host species, collection sites, and forest strata; microhabitat preference was a strong risk factor for tick infestation. The highest tick density rates were recorded in forest fragments settled in rural areas; 91·3% of the ticks were collected from animals trapped in these forest fragments. A high prevalence (68·8%) of antibodies to Rickettsia spp. was detected among animals. This study suggests that disturbed Atlantic Forest fragments provide an environment for ticks and small mammals, which are highly exposed to rickettsiae. It also indicates that forest patches settled in rural areas are usually associated with higher small mammal diversity as well as with higher tick density rates. PMID:22217620

  11. Geographical Distribution and Seasonal Indices of Chigger Mites on Small Mammals Collected on the East Coast of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Gab-Man; Shin, Ho-Sung

    2016-04-01

    The geographical distributions and relative population densities of scrub typhus vector mites collected from small mammals were determined for 5 locations on the east coast of the Republic of Korea. Collection sites included Goseong, Gangneung, and Hoengseong in Gangwon province and Uljin and Yeongdeok in Gyeongbuk province. A total of 275 small mammals including members of Rodentia (rodents) and Soricomorpha (shrews, such as Crocidura lasiura ) belonging to 4 genera and 4 species were captured in the field from 2012 to 2013. Apodemus agrarius was collected most frequently (220, 80%), followed by C. lasiura (25, 9.1%), Mus musculus (15, 5.5%), and Myodes regulus (15, 5.5%). A total of 23,436 larval chigger mites (Family Trombiculidae) belonging to 3 genera and 8 species (Leptotrombidium pallidum, Leptotrombidium scutellare, Leptotrombidium palpale, Leptotrombidium orientale, Leptotrombidium zetum, Neotrombicula tamiyai, Neotrombicula japonica, and Euschoengastica koreaensis) were collected from the small mammals. The predominant chigger species collected during the spring and fall seasons from A. agrarius were L. pallidum (57.6%), L. palpale (14.5%), and L. scutellare (7.9%). Leptotrombidium scutellare was collected only along the southeastern coast at Yeongdeok, Gyeongbuk province. The geographical distribution of scrub typhus vectors and reservoir hosts are important aspects of understanding the epidemiology of the disease as well as the potential impacts of climate change and health risks. PMID:26653927

  12. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-10-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  13. Quality prevails over identity in the sexually selected vocalisations of an ageing mammal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Male sexually selected vocalisations generally contain both individuality and quality cues that are crucial in intra- as well as inter-sexual communication. As individuality is a fixed feature whereas male phenotypic quality changes with age, individuality and quality cues may be subjected to different selection pressures over time. Individuality (for example, morphology of the vocal apparatus) and quality (for example, body size and dominance status) can both affect the vocal production mechanism, inducing the same components of vocalisations to convey both kinds of information. In this case, do quality-related changes to the acoustic structure of calls induce a modification of vocal cues to identity from year to year? We investigated this question in fallow deer (Dama dama), in which some acoustic parameters of vocalisations (groans) code for both individuality and quality. Results We carried out a longitudinal analysis of groan individuality, examining the effects of age and dominance rank on the acoustic structure of groans of the same males recorded during consecutive years. We found both age- and rank-related changes to groans; the minimum values of the highest formant frequencies and the fundamental frequency increased with the age of males and they decreased when males became more dominant. Both age- and rank-related acoustic parameters contributed to individuality. Male quality changed with age, inducing a change in quality-related parameters and thus, a modification of vocal cues to male individuality between years. Conclusions The encoding of individuality and quality information in the same components of vocalisations induces a tradeoff between these two kinds of signals over time. Fallow deer vocalisations are honest signals of quality that are not fixed over time but are modified dynamically according to male quality. As they are more reliable cues to quality than to individuality, they may not be used by conspecifics to recognize a given

  14. Cytology of the normal and abnormal choroid plexi in selected domestic mammals, wildlife species, and man.

    PubMed

    Garma-Aviña, Armando

    2004-07-01

    A cytologic study of the choroid plexi of animals and humans was carried out using impression smears (imprints, imp) to understand better the cellular changes that occur in the cerebrospinal fluid in the case of disease. The samples, totaling 756 imp were from 11 dogs (239 imp), 10 horses (219 imp), 1 mule (23 imp), 3 cattle (69 imp), 1 sheep (19 imp), 2 pigs (39 imp), 1 deer (20 imp), 4 monkeys (22 imp), and 7 humans (106 imp). The samples came from individuals clinically free of neurologic disease, as well as from a few abnormal cases. Six of the 7 humans had no history of neurologic disease and had a complete necropsy with brain histopathology. The seventh human case had mild neurologic signs at the time of death and only a partial necropsy with histopathological examination of the brain, in which a few small leptomeningeal lymphocytic infiltrates and polymicrogyria were found. One of the human brains without neurologic disease had arteriosclerosis. In the 40 individuals studied, several features and some unique cell types were found, for which little or no information is available. Four different morphologic cell types were consistently found in all the species studied. The first 3 types were arbitrarily named alpha (with deeply basophilic cytoplasm), beta (with neutral to weakly acidophilic cytoplasm), and gamma or vesicle-bearing cells. The third type, gamma, was a cell bearing unique inclusions (vesicles) filled with many tiny light tan to pale pink granules. The fourth type was the Kolmer cell found in very low numbers. Immature lymphocytes were found in all of 3 newborn foals, in 1 pig, and in the only stillborn calf and deer studied. The results suggest that the choroid plexi contain more than 1 epithelial cell type and that knowledge of their morphology is far from complete because other unusual cells and structures are also present in small numbers. Imprints are excellent for studying the choroid plexi, especially for tiny changes that are too subtle to

  15. Reconstruction of the Neanderthal and Modern Human landscape and climate from the Fumane cave sequence (Verona, Italy) using small-mammal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, Juan Manuel; dalla Valle, Chiara; Cremaschi, Mauro; Peresani, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Fumane cave, located at an altitude of 350 m.a.s.l. in the Monti Lessini in the Veneto Pre-Alps, northeastern Italy, is a reference site for southern Europe for the study of the behaviour of Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) from Marine Isotope Stages 5 to 2 (MIS5-MIS2). It is one of the few well-dated and closely studied sites in the Italian Peninsula, with a finely layered sedimentary sequence from the Mousterian to Gravettian. In this paper we present for the first time a palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstruction of the MIS3 and MIS2 sequence based on the small mammal (insectivore, bat and rodent) assemblages. The environmental and climatic results, coupled with the radiocarbon dating together with previous studies on large mammals, birds and charcoal and other studies on small mammals and pollen for the same time-span in Italy, enable us clearly to identify distinct climatic periods within our data: Heinrich Event 5 in units A7 to A6, Greenland Interstadial 12 in units A5 + A6 to A4, Heinrich Event 4 in units A3 to A1, and Heinrich Event 3 in unit D1e. Finally, the study shows that Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans were well adapted to the different climatic and environmental conditions of MIS3 at the foot of the Alps.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi TcI and TcII transmission among wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs in a conservation unit and surrounding areas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa; Santos, Jean Pierre; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Cordeir-Estrela, Pedro; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2013-02-01

    Aiming to better understand the ecological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles, wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs were examined for T. cruzi infection in the Serra da Canastra National Park region, Brazil. Isolates were genotyped using mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8 and H3) genomic targets. Trypanosoma cruzi transmission was well established in the area and occurred in both wild and peridomestic environments. Dog seroprevalence was 29·4% (63/214) and TcI and TcII genotypes, besides mixed infections were observed. Only TcI was detected in wild mammals. Marsupials displayed lower relative abundance, but a high prevalence of positive haemocultures (4/22), whereas rodents displayed positive haemocultures (9/113) mainly in the abundant Akodon montensis and Cerradomys subflavus species. The felid Leopardus pardalis was the only carnivore to display positive haemoculture and was captured in the same region where the small mammal prevalence of T. cruzi infection was high. Two canid species, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Cerdocyon thous, were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection (4/8 and 8/39, respectively), probably related to their capacity to exploit different ecological niches. Herein, dog infection not only signals T. cruzi transmission but also the genotypes present. Distinct transmission strategies of the T. cruzi genotypes are discussed. PMID:23062278

  17. An annotated catalogue of the gamasid mites associated with small mammals in Asiatic Russia. The family Laelapidae s. str. (Acari: Mesostigmata: Gamasina).

    PubMed

    Vinarski, Maxim V; Korallo-Vinarskaya, Natalia P

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-nine species of mites of the family Laelapidae s. str. have been recorded as associated with small mammals (rodents, insectivores) in Asiatic Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). These species belong to two subfamilies (Laelapinae, Myonyssinae) and six genera: Androlaelaps Berlese, 1903, Dipolaelaps Zemskaya & Piontkovskaya, 1960, Laelaps C.L. Koch, 1836, Hyperlaelaps Zakhvatkin, 1948, Myonyssus Tiraboschi, 1904, Oryctolaelaps Lange, 1955. A list of the species, with data on synonymy, geographic ranges, and relationships with mammal hosts is provided. Some considerations concerning patterns of distribution of the parasitic Laelaptidae of Asiatic Russia are presented as well as their classifications from the point of view of known host association records. PMID:27395087

  18. High prevalence of Babesia microti 'Munich' type in small mammals from an Ixodes persulcatus/Ixodes trianguliceps sympatric area in the Omsk region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Rar, Vera; Yakimenko, Valeriy; Makenov, Marat; Tikunov, Artem; Epikhina, Tamara; Tancev, Aleksey; Bobrova, Oksana; Tikunova, Nina

    2016-09-01

    Babesia microti is a genetically diverse group of protozoan parasites whose life cycle is associated with both small mammals and Ixodes spp. ticks. In this study, the prevalence of different B. microti genetic groups in ticks and small rodents in an area with Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes trianguliceps occurring in sympatry was examined. A total of 541 small mammals were captured during eight sampling periods between 2013 and 2015 at a site in the Omsk region of Russia and tested for the presence of B. microti using nested PCR with subsequent sequencing of positive samples. B. microti DNA was found in 31.6 % of examined samples, and prevalence rates ranged from 5.3 to 61.6 % in different sampling periods. The sequenced B. microti samples belonged to two genetic groups: enzootic B. microti 'Munich' type and zoonotic B. microti 'US' type. B. microti 'Munich' type was more common across all sampling periods, with greater than 80 % prevalence in infected animals. Despite the high B. microti 'Munich'-type prevalence in voles, B. microti was not found in any of 394 adult I. persulcatus ticks collected by flagging or in the 84 I. persulcatus or 20 I. trianguliceps ticks taken from voles and molted under laboratory conditions. It was demonstrated that B. microti 'Munich'-type DNA can be detected in the blood of naturally infected voles for at least 20 weeks after capture. Thus, the high prevalence of B. microti 'Munich' type in small mammals may be explained by the prolonged persistence of B. microti in the blood of wild voles. PMID:27212463

  19. How Small Are the Smallest Selectable Domains of Form?

    PubMed Central

    Weber, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Two lines of Drosophila melanogaster from the same base population were selected in opposite directions to produce simultaneous antagonistic changes in two very small (<0.2 mm) and closely adjacent (<0.3 mm) dimensions within the base of the wing. Wing dimensions near the targeted area became differentiated by large positive and negative percentage differences, while only small homogeneous percentage changes occurred in the remainder of the wing. If very small regions of morphology (less than 100 cells across) can respond to selection almost independently, even in small population samples, then the control of developmental detail must involve many genes, and the diversity of possible outcomes in development and adaptation must be large. PMID:1541394

  20. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(-)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru. PMID:26645579

  1. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. PMID:26782931

  2. Selection and Biosensor Application of Aptamers for Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Franziska; Mayer, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules play a major role in the human body and as drugs, toxins, and chemicals. Tools to detect and quantify them are therefore in high demand. This review will give an overview about aptamers interacting with small molecules and their selection. We discuss the current state of the field, including advantages as well as problems associated with their use and possible solutions to tackle these. We then discuss different kinds of small molecule aptamer-based sensors described in literature and their applications, ranging from detecting drinking water contaminations to RNA imaging. PMID:27379229

  3. Selection and Biosensor Application of Aptamers for Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Franziska; Mayer, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules play a major role in the human body and as drugs, toxins, and chemicals. Tools to detect and quantify them are therefore in high demand. This review will give an overview about aptamers interacting with small molecules and their selection. We discuss the current state of the field, including advantages as well as problems associated with their use and possible solutions to tackle these. We then discuss different kinds of small molecule aptamer-based sensors described in literature and their applications, ranging from detecting drinking water contaminations to RNA imaging. PMID:27379229

  4. Douglas-fir forests in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington: is the abundance of small mammals related to stand age and moisture?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coen, P.S.; Bury, R.B.; Spies, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Red tree voles (Arborimus longicaudus) were the only small mammal strongly associated with old-growth forests, whereas vagrant shrews (Sorex vagrans) were most abundant in young forests. Pacific marsh shrews (S. bendirii) were most abundant in wet old-growth forests, but abundance of this species in young (wet) forests needs further study. Clearcuts had a mammalian fauna distinct from young forest stands. Abundance of several species was correlated to habitat features unique to naturally regenerated forests, indicated an urgent need to study the long-term effects of forest management to nongame wildlife.

  5. Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae-Ji; Shim, So-Hee; Ha, Si-Jung; Chong, Sung-Tae; Lee, In-Yong; Richards, Allen L; Yi, Suk-Hee; Song, Jin-Won

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conduct armistice military operations at Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) located near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and are exposed to zoonotic disease pathogens that small mammals and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites transmit. TBTA is a 36 km2 rural training site with small villages and various forms of agriculture along its boundary. At TBTA, rodents, insectivores, and their ectoparasites are commonly found in association with unmanaged habitats of various densities of tall grasses, herbaceous plants, shrubs, briars, and crawling vegetation. Rodents and insectivores were collected during the winter (November-December 2005 and December 2006) and early spring (March 2007), and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the six species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (96.1%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (2.5%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Myodes regulus (0.5%), Mus musculus (0.3%), and Rattus rattus (0.1%). A. agrarius (56.1%), M. musculus (66.7%), M. minutus (25%), and R. rattus (100%) were positive for scrub typhus antibodies. Only A. agrarius (14.7%) and C. lasiura (4.5%) were positive for murine typhus antibodies, whereas only A. agrarius (1.5%) was seropositive for leptospirosis. Seroprevalence rates of scrub typhus and murine typhus based on weight and sex of A. agrarius are presented. PMID:20108842

  6. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Sosa-Bibiano, E I; Rivero-Cárdenas, N A; Andrade-Narváez, F J

    2009-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March). One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L.) mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L.) mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004) in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula. PMID:19390737

  7. Checklist/Guide to Selecting a Small Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Wilma E.

    This 322-point checklist was designed to help executives make an intelligent choice when selecting a small computer for a business. For ease of use the questions have been divided into ten categories: Display Features, Keyboard Features, Printer Features, Controller Features, Software, Word Processing, Service, Training, Miscellaneous, and Costs.…

  8. Selected Energy Management Options for Small Business and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.; Worthington, Barry K.

    This document is a checklist of 257 energy management options for small business and local government. The energy management options are categorized under: (1) Energy management strategies; (2) Buildings; (3) Lighting; (4) Water; (5) Waste operations; (6) Equipment; (7) Transportation; and (8) Food preparation. To select options for…

  9. Personnel Recruitment/Selection/Induction in Small/Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Steve

    This paper provides tips and resources for the recruitment, selection, and induction of teachers and other school personnel. These materials were developed with rural and small schools in mind; some resources focus on Kansas. Means of recruitment are discussed, including internal search, referrals, college and university placement services,…

  10. Co-Infection of Blacklegged Ticks with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi Is Higher than Expected and Acquired from Small Mammal Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Michelle H.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; McHenry, Diana J.; Tibbetts, Michael; Brunner, Jesse L.; Killilea, Mary E.; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Keesing, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Humans in the northeastern and midwestern United States are at increasing risk of acquiring tickborne diseases – not only Lyme disease, but also two emerging diseases, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis. Co-infection with two or more of these pathogens can increase the severity of health impacts. The risk of co-infection is intensified by the ecology of these three diseases because all three pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti) are transmitted by the same vector, blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis), and are carried by many of the same reservoir hosts. The risk of exposure to multiple pathogens from a single tick bite and the sources of co-infected ticks are not well understood. In this study, we quantify the risk of co-infection by measuring infection prevalence in 4,368 questing nymphs throughout an endemic region for all three diseases (Dutchess County, NY) to determine if co-infections occur at frequencies other than predicted by independent assortment of pathogens. Further, we identify sources of co-infection by quantifying rates of co-infection on 3,275 larval ticks fed on known hosts. We find significant deviations of levels of co-infection in questing nymphs, most notably 83% more co-infection with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi than predicted by chance alone. Further, this pattern of increased co-infection was observed in larval ticks that fed on small mammal hosts, but not on meso-mammal, sciurid, or avian hosts. Co-infections involving A. phagocytophilum were less common, and fewer co-infections of A. phagocytophilum and B. microti than predicted by chance were observed in both questing nymphs and larvae fed on small mammals. Medical practitioners should be aware of the elevated risk of B. microti/B. burgdorferi co-infection. PMID:24940999

  11. Small-Molecule Binding Aptamers: Selection Strategies, Characterization, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscito, Annamaria; DeRosa, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded, synthetic oligonucleotides that fold into 3-dimensional shapes capable of binding non-covalently with high affinity and specificity to a target molecule. They are generated via an in vitro process known as the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment, from which candidates are screened and characterized, and then applied in aptamer-based biosensors for target detection. Aptamers for small molecule targets such as toxins, antibiotics, molecular markers, drugs, and heavy metals will be the focus of this review. Their accurate detection is ultimately needed for the protection and wellbeing of humans and animals. However, issues such as the drastic difference in size of the aptamer and small molecule make it challenging to select, characterize, and apply aptamers for the detection of small molecules. Thus, recent (since 2012) notable advances in small molecule aptamers, which have overcome some of these challenges, are presented here, while defining challenges that still exist are discussed

  12. Holocene environmental change in the eastern Snake River Plain of Idaho, USA, as inferred from stable isotope analyses of small mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commendador, Amy S.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2016-05-01

    Previous research on the small mammal population recovered from archeological excavations at the Wasden Site in southeastern Idaho suggests that changing frequency distributions through time represent a shift in climate during the early Holocene from a cooler, wetter regime to a warmer, drier one. This conclusion was re-evaluated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of bone collagen from the three species of small mammals examined in the earlier studies: pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides), pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii). Resulting carbon and nitrogen isotopic values are consistent with known differences in feeding ecology, suggesting high fidelity as proxies for past vegetation (and thus climate) regimes. Patterns of 15N enrichment and increased representation of C4-CAM vegetation observed in the pocket gophers, and to a lesser extent ground squirrels, suggests increasing warmth and/or aridity from the early Holocene until ∼7000 cal yr BP, thus supporting previous hypotheses of climate change on the eastern Snake River Plain. The results highlight the potential contribution of such studies for archeological research by providing additional proxies for environmental conditions that bear on paleoecological adaptations to climatic change, including past human use and occupation of the region.

  13. Holocene environmental change in the eastern Snake River Plain of Idaho, USA, as inferred from stable isotope analyses of small mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commendador, Amy S.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2016-05-01

    Previous research on the small mammal population recovered from archeological excavations at the Wasden Site in southeastern Idaho suggests that changing frequency distributions through time represent a shift in climate during the early Holocene from a cooler, wetter regime to a warmer, drier one. This conclusion was re-evaluated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of bone collagen from the three species of small mammals examined in the earlier studies: pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides), pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii). Resulting carbon and nitrogen isotopic values are consistent with known differences in feeding ecology, suggesting high fidelity as proxies for past vegetation (and thus climate) regimes. Patterns of 15N enrichment and increased representation of C4-CAM vegetation observed in the pocket gophers, and to a lesser extent ground squirrels, suggests increasing warmth and/or aridity from the early Holocene until ∼7000 cal yr BP, thus supporting previous hypotheses of climate change on the eastern Snake River Plain. The results highlight the potential contribution of such studies for archeological research by providing additional proxies for environmental conditions that bear on paleoecological adaptations to climatic change, including past human use and occupation of the region.

  14. Arctic Small Rodents Have Diverse Diets and Flexible Food Selection

    PubMed Central

    Soininen, Eeva M.; Ravolainen, Virve T.; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Gielly, Ludovic; Ims, Rolf A.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of small rodent food selection is poorly understood, as mammalian herbivore food selection theory has mainly been developed by studying ungulates. Especially, the effect of food availability on food selection in natural habitats where a range of food items are available is unknown. We studied diets and selectivity of grey-sided voles (Myodes rufocanus) and tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus), key herbivores in European tundra ecosystems, using DNA metabarcoding, a novel method enabling taxonomically detailed diet studies. In order to cover the range of food availabilities present in the wild, we employed a large-scale study design for sampling data on food availability and vole diets. Both vole species had ingested a range of plant species and selected particularly forbs and grasses. Grey-sided voles also selected ericoid shrubs and tundra voles willows. Availability of a food item rarely affected its utilization directly, although seasonal changes of diets and selection suggest that these are positively correlated with availability. Moreover, diets and selectivity were affected by availability of alternative food items. These results show that the focal sub-arctic voles have diverse diets and flexible food preferences and rarely compensate low availability of a food item with increased searching effort. Diet diversity itself is likely to be an important trait and has previously been underrated owing to methodological constraints. We suggest that the roles of alternative food item availability and search time limitations for small rodent feeding ecology should be investigated. Nomenclature Annotated Checklist of the Panarctic Flora (PAF), Vascular plants. Available at: http://nhm2.uio.no/paf/, accessed 15.6.2012. PMID:23826371

  15. Taphonomy and palaeoecology of the late Pleistocene to middle Holocene small mammal succession of El Harhoura 2 cave (Rabat-Témara, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Marion, Lucile; Nespoulet, Roland; El Hajraoui, Mohammed Abdeljalil; Denys, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between local and global climatic variations and the origin and dispersal of Homo sapiens in Africa is complex, and North Africa may have played a major role in these events. In Morocco, very few studies are specifically dedicated to small fossil vertebrates, and neither taphonomic nor palaeoecological studies have been undertaken on these taxa, particularly in archaeological contexts. The late Pleistocene to middle Holocene succession of El Harhoura 2 cave, situated in the region of Témara, yields an exceptionally rich small vertebrate assemblage. We present the results of a first systematic, taphonomic, and palaeoecological study of the small mammals from Levels 1 to 8 of El Harhoura 2. The absence of bone sorting and polishing, as well as the presence of significant traces of digestion indicate that the small mammal bones were accumulated in the cave by predators and that no water transport occurred. Other traces observed on the surface of bones consist mainly of root marks and black traces (micro-organisms or more probably manganese) which affected the majority of the material. The percentage of fragmentation is very high in all stratigraphic levels, and the post-depositional breakage (geologic and anthropogenic phenomena) obscure the original breakage patterns of bones by predators. According to the ecology of the different species present in the levels of El Harhoura 2, and by taking into account possible biases highlighted by the taphonomic analysis, we reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution in the region. For quantitative reconstructions we used two indices: the Taxonomic Habitat Index (THI) and the Gerbillinae/Murinae ratio. Late Pleistocene accumulations were characterised by a succession of humid (Levels 3, 4a, 6, and 8) and arid (Levels 2?, 5, and 7) periods, with more or less open landscapes, ending in an ultimate humid and wooded period during the middle Holocene (Level 1). We discuss particular limits of our results and

  16. Cancer Immunotherapy: Selected Targets and Small-Molecule Modulators.

    PubMed

    Weinmann, Hilmar

    2016-03-01

    There is a significant amount of excitement in the scientific community around cancer immunotherapy, as this approach has renewed hope for many cancer patients owing to some recent successes in the clinic. Currently available immuno-oncology therapeutics under clinical development and on the market are mostly biologics (antibodies, proteins, engineered cells, and oncolytic viruses). However, modulation of the immune system with small molecules offers several advantages that may be complementary and potentially synergistic to the use of large biologicals. Therefore, the discovery and development of novel small-molecule modulators is a rapidly growing research area for medicinal chemists working in cancer immunotherapy. This review provides a brief introduction into recent trends related to selected targets and pathways for cancer immunotherapy and their small-molecule pharmacological modulators. PMID:26836578

  17. Influence of continental history on the ecological specialization and macroevolutionary processes in the mammalian assemblage of South America: Differences between small and large mammals

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper tests Vrba's resource-use hypothesis, which predicts that generalist species have lower specialization and extinction rates than specialists, using the 879 species of South American mammals. We tested several predictions about this hypothesis using the biomic specialization index (BSI) for each species, which is based on its geographical range within different climate-zones. The four predictions tested are: (1) there is a high frequency of species restricted to a single biome, which henceforth are referred to as stenobiomic species, (2) certain clades are more stenobiomic than others, (3) there is a higher proportion of biomic specialists in biomes that underwent through major expansion-contraction alternation due to the glacial-interglacial cycles, (4) certain combinations of inhabited biomes occur more frequently among species than do others. Results Our results are consistent with these predictions. (1) We found that 42 % of the species inhabit only one biome. (2) There are more generalists among species of Carnivora than in clades of herbivores. However, Artiodactyla, shows a distribution along the specialization gradient different from the one expected. (3) Biomic specialists are predominant in tropical rainforest and desert biomes. Nevertheless, we found some differences between small and large mammals in relation to these results. Stenobiomic species of micromammalian clades are more abundant in most biomes than expected by chance, while in the case of macromammalian clades stenobiomic species are more frequent than expected in tropical rainforest, tropical deciduous woodland and desert biomes only. (4) The most frequent combinations of inhabited biomes among the South American mammals are those with few biomes, i.e., the ones that suffered a higher rate of vicariance due to climatic cycles. Conclusion Our results agree with the resource-use hypothesis and, therefore, with a major role of the past climatic changes as drivers of

  18. High muscle mitochondrial volume and aerobic capacity in a small marsupial (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) reveals flexible links between energy-use levels in mammals.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Lee, Enhua; Buttemer, William A

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the muscle structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacity of an insectivorous, small (~15 g) marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata (Family: Dasyuridae), to obtain further insight into energy use patterns in marsupials relative to those in placentals, their sister clade within the Theria (advanced mammals). Disparate hopping marsupials (Suborder Macropodiformes), a kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata), show aerobic capabilities as high as those of 'athletic' placentals. Equivalent muscle mitochondrial volumes and cardiovascular features support these capabilities. We examined S. crassicaudata to determine whether highly developed aerobic capabilities occur elsewhere in marsupials, rather than being restricted to the more recently evolved Macropodiformes. This was the case. Treadmill-trained S. crassicaudata attained a maximal aerobic metabolic rate ( or MMR) of 272 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1) (N=8), similar to that reported for a small (~20 g), 'athletic' placental, Apodemus sylvaticus, 264 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1). Hopping marsupials have comparable aerobic levels when body mass variation is considered. Sminthopsis crassicaudata has a basal metabolic rate (BMR) about 75% of placental values but it has a notably large factorial aerobic scope (fAS) of 13; elevated fAS also features in hopping marsupials. The of S. crassicaudata was supported by an elevated total muscle mitochondrial volume, which was largely achieved through high muscle mitochondrial volume densities, Vv(mt,f), the mean value being 14.0±1.33%. These data were considered in relation to energy use levels in mammals, particularly field metabolic rate (FMR). BMR is consistently lower in marsupials, but this is balanced by a high fAS, such that marsupial MMR matches that of placentals. However, FMR shows different mass relationships in the two clades, with the FMR of small (<125 g) marsupials, such as S. crassicaudata, being higher than that in

  19. [Detection of Babesia spp. DNA in small mammals and ixodic ticks on the territory of north Ural, west Siberia and far east of Russia].

    PubMed

    Rar, V A; Epikhina, T I; Livanova, N N; Panov, V V; Pukhovskaia, N M; Vysochina, N P; Ivanov, L I

    2010-01-01

    Totally, 932 small mammals and 458 questing adult Ixodes persulcatus from Sverdlovsk and Novosibirsk regions and Khabarovsk Territory, as well as 128 Haemaphysalis japonica, 34 H. concinna and 29 Dermacentor silvarum from Khabarovsk Territory were examined for the presence of Babesia by nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia microti DNA was found in samples of small mammals from all the studied regions--in 36.2% of samples from Sverdlovsk region, 5.3% of samples from Novosibirsk region, and 6.7% of samples from Khabarovsk Territory. The determined B. microti 18S rRNA gene sequences from Novosibirsk region (6 sequences) and from Khabarovsk Territory (10 sequences) were identical to each other and to the sequences of pathogenic for human B. microti US-type, while the determined B. microti 18S rRNA gene sequences from Sverdlovsk region (12 sequences) were identical to those of B. microti strain Munich. B. microti were found most frequently in samples of Myodes spp., they were found also in Microtus spp., Apodemus spp., Sorer spp., and Sicista betulinav. It was shown that one of 347 analyzed I. persulcatus from Novosibirsk region and one of 77 I. persulcatus from Khabarovsk Territory contained B. microti US-type DNA. One I. persulcatus from Novosibirsk region contained B. divergens DNA. In this work B. divergens was for the first time determined in I. persulcatus and B. microti in I. persulcatus in Asian part of Russia. Three different genetic variants of Babesia sensu stricto were found in three H. japonica from Khabarovsk Territory. The first genetic variant was closely related to Babesia sp. revealed in a feral raccoon in Japan (99.9% similarity on the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequences). Two others Babesia genetic variants were most similar to the ovine pathogen Babesia crassa (97.1-97.6% similarity on the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequences). PMID:20886686

  20. Dispersal, niche, and isolation processes jointly explain species turnover patterns of nonvolant small mammals in a large mountainous region of China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhixin; Quan, Qing; Du, Yuanbao; Xia, Lin; Ge, Deyan; Yang, Qisen

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that govern the spatial patterns of species turnover (beta diversity) has been one of the fundamental issues in biogeography. Species turnover is generally recognized as strong in mountainous regions, but the way in which different processes (dispersal, niche, and isolation) have shaped the spatial turnover patterns in mountainous regions remains largely unexplored. Here, we explore the directional and elevational patterns of species turnover for nonvolant small mammals in the Hengduan Mountains of southwest China and distinguish the relative roles of geographic distance, environmental distance, and geographic isolation on the patterns. The spatial turnover was assessed using the halving distance (km), which was the geographic distance that halved the similarity (Jaccard similarity) from its initial value. The halving distance was calculated for the linear, logarithmic, and exponential regression models between Jaccard similarity and geographic distance. We found that the east-west turnover is generally faster than the south-north turnover for high-latitudinal regions in the Hengduan Mountains and that this pattern corresponds to the geographic structure of the major mountain ranges and rivers that mainly extend in a south-north direction. There is an increasing trend of turnover toward the higher-elevation zones. Most of the variation in the Jaccard similarity could be explained by the pure effect of geographic distance and the joint effects of geographic distance, environmental distance, and average elevation difference. Our study indicates that dispersal, niche, and isolation processes are all important determinants of the spatial turnover patterns of nonvolant small mammals in the Hengduan Mountains. The spatial configuration of the landscape and geographic isolation can strongly influence the rate of species turnover in mountainous regions at multiple spatial scales. PMID:26941938

  1. Small-incision manual extracapsular cataract extraction using selective hydrodissection.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, M; Ashkenazi, I; Assia, E; Cahane, M

    1992-10-01

    Hydrodissection is a technique in which balanced salt solution is injected through a cannula into various layers of a cataractous lens to separate the lens lamella in a nonspecific location. Selective hydrodissection allows separation of the lens lamella at different desired anatomical layers. The technique allows the smallest possible nucleus, ie, the hard-core nucleus, to be hydroexpressed as a separate entity, requiring, correspondingly, a relatively small capsulorhexis and limbal incision. Then, in a second maneuver, the epinucleus, which engulfs the hardcore nucleus to form the adult nucleus, also can be aspirated or hydroexpressed as a whole. Selective hydrodissection permits scleral incision and stitchless surgery in planned extracapsular cataract extraction and also may serve as an intermediate step for surgeons who wish to convert to or learn phacoemulsification techniques. PMID:1436973

  2. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  3. First description of the nymph and larva of Dermacentor raskemensis (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of pikas and other small mammals in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2013-09-01

    Dermacentor raskemensis Pomerantzev, 1946 is one of the rare Asian species in this genus. The immature stages of this species have never been described. Reexamination of D. raskemensis holdings stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed a collection lot containing reared nymphs and larvae of this species. This collection made it possible for us to find numerous nymphs and larvae of D. raskemensis among previously unidentified material collected in the field. Both immature stages of D. raskemensis are described here for the first time. Nymphs of D. raskemensis can be distinguished from those of other Dermacentor species in the region by small spiracular plate, relatively short and obtuse lateral projections of basis capituli dorsally, relatively short spurs on coxa I and the internal spur is characteristically very broadly rounded at its apex, and very small spur on coxa IV, whereas larvae of D. raskemensis can be distinguished from other Dermacentor by relatively short and obtuse lateral projections of basis capituli, approximately 6 denticles in the median files on hypostome, and relatively short, broad, and rounded spur on coxa I. The nymphs and larvae of D. raskemensis studied originate from Afghanistan, India, Iran, and Pakistan, where they were collected from pikas and other small mammals. PMID:24180099

  4. Small-Molecule Binding Aptamers: Selection Strategies, Characterization, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ruscito, Annamaria; DeRosa, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded, synthetic oligonucleotides that fold into 3-dimensional shapes capable of binding non-covalently with high affinity and specificity to a target molecule. They are generated via an in vitro process known as the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment, from which candidates are screened and characterized, and then used in various applications. These applications range from therapeutic uses to biosensors for target detection. Aptamers for small molecule targets such as toxins, antibiotics, molecular markers, drugs, and heavy metals will be the focus of this review. Their accurate detection is needed for the protection and wellbeing of humans and animals. However, the small molecular weights of these targets, including the drastic size difference between the target and the oligonucleotides, make it challenging to select, characterize, and apply aptamers for their detection. Thus, recent (since 2012) notable advances in small molecule aptamers, which have overcome some of these challenges, are presented here, while defining challenges that still exist are discussed. PMID:27242994

  5. Small-Molecule Binding Aptamers: Selection Strategies, Characterization, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Ruscito, Annamaria; DeRosa, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded, synthetic oligonucleotides that fold into 3-dimensional shapes capable of binding non-covalently with high affinity and specificity to a target molecule. They are generated via an in vitro process known as the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment, from which candidates are screened and characterized, and then used in various applications. These applications range from therapeutic uses to biosensors for target detection. Aptamers for small molecule targets such as toxins, antibiotics, molecular markers, drugs, and heavy metals will be the focus of this review. Their accurate detection is needed for the protection and wellbeing of humans and animals. However, the small molecular weights of these targets, including the drastic size difference between the target and the oligonucleotides, make it challenging to select, characterize, and apply aptamers for their detection. Thus, recent (since 2012) notable advances in small molecule aptamers, which have overcome some of these challenges, are presented here, while defining challenges that still exist are discussed. PMID:27242994

  6. SMALL RODENTS AND OTHER MAMMALS ASSOCIATED WITH MOUNTAIN MEADOWS AS RESERVOIRS OF 'GEARDIA' SPP. AND 'CAMPYLOBACTER' SPP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixty-five percent of the fecal samples collected from small rodents in the central Washington Cascades were positive for Giardia spp. Trapping studies showed that microtines of the genus Microtus were heavily infected with the parasite. Morphologically the cysts and trophozoites...

  7. Invasive mammals.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P P

    2010-08-01

    Every region of the world is concerned by potential mammal invasions, as humans are already present on all the world's land masses. All these invasions are a result of species introductions by humans for one reason or another. The authors briefly review the known movements and observed consequences of mammal-related invasions. They take examples from all five continents, as well as from a few island systems. The ancient introduction of game species, and later of domestic species, has been followed more recently by movements of commercial species. We are now seeing the emergence of what are known as entertainment species. In a number of cases, such introductions have led to the establishment of new epidemiological cycles that previously might never have been thought possible. According to current indicators, this phenomenon is not on the wane. PMID:20919577

  8. Organ Dose-Rate Calculations for Small Mammals at Maralinga, the Nevada Test Site, Hanford and Fukushima: A Comparison of Ellipsoidal and Voxelized Dosimetric Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, Emily A; Johansen, Mathew P; Higley, Kathryn A

    2015-10-01

    Radiological dosimetry for nonhuman biota typically relies on calculations that utilize the Monte Carlo simulations of simple, ellipsoidal geometries with internal radioactivity distributed homogeneously throughout. In this manner it is quick and easy to estimate whole-body dose rates to biota. Voxel models are detailed anatomical phantoms that were first used for calculating radiation dose to humans, which are now being extended to nonhuman biota dose calculations. However, if simple ellipsoidal models provide conservative dose-rate estimates, then the additional labor involved in creating voxel models may be unnecessary for most scenarios. Here we show that the ellipsoidal method provides conservative estimates of organ dose rates to small mammals. Organ dose rates were calculated for environmental source terms from Maralinga, the Nevada Test Site, Hanford and Fukushima using both the ellipsoidal and voxel techniques, and in all cases the ellipsoidal method yielded more conservative dose rates by factors of 1.2-1.4 for photons and 5.3 for beta particles. Dose rates for alpha-emitting radionuclides are identical for each method as full energy absorption in source tissue is assumed. The voxel procedure includes contributions to dose from organ-to-organ irradiation (shown here to comprise 2-50% of total dose from photons and 0-93% of total dose from beta particles) that is not specifically quantified in the ellipsoidal approach. Overall, the voxel models provide robust dosimetry for the nonhuman mammals considered in this study, and though the level of detail is likely extraneous to demonstrating regulatory compliance today, voxel models may nevertheless be advantageous in resolving ongoing questions regarding the effects of ionizing radiation on wildlife. PMID:26414505

  9. Audubon Mammal Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Mammals," a leaders' guide, a large wall chart picturing 39 North American mammals, and a separate booklet describing the mammals on the wall chart. The student reader presents these main topics: What Is a Mammal?; How Mammals Differ From Each Other; Where, When, and How To Find Mammals;…

  10. Epizootiologic survey for Babesia microti among small wild mammals in northeastern Eurasia and a geographic diversity in the beta-tubulin gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Zamoto, Aya; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Wei, Qiang; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Shin, E-Hyun; Kim, Tong-Soo; Leonova, Galina N; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Takashima, Ikuo; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2004-07-01

    We previously reported that small wild rodents in Japan harbor two types of novel Babesia microti-like parasites (designated as Hobetsu and Kobe types), but not the type commonly found in the northeastern United States (U.S. type) where human babesiosis is endemic. To determine whether these new types of parasites are distributed in places surrounding Japan, an epizootiologic survey was undertaken in three geographically distant areas in northeastern Eurasia; South Korea, Vladivostok in Russia, and Xinjiang in China. Blood samples were collected from a total of 387 animals comprising 24 species. DNAs extracted from the samples were tested by nested PCR targeting babesial nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA), which revealed that small rodents harboring B. microti exist in all three survey areas. Sequence analysis showed that all PCR-positive samples had rDNA sequences virtually identical to that of U.S.-type B. microti. However, when beta-tubulin gene sequences were compared, evident geographic variations were seen. By use of primers specific for each of the beta-tubulin genes of Kobe-, Hobetsu-, and U.S.-type parasites, a type-specific PCR was developed. Parasite with Hobetsu- or Kobe-type sequence was not detected from any of the three survey areas. These findings suggest that U.S.-type B. microti is widely distributed among small wild mammals in temperate zones of not only North America, but also Eurasia, whereas that Hobetsu- and Kobe-type parasites may be uniquely distributed in Japan. PMID:15297749

  11. Evolution of bone compactness in extant and extinct moles (Talpidae): exploring humeral microstructure in small fossorial mammals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Talpids include forms with different degree of fossoriality, with major specializations in the humerus in the case of the fully fossorial moles. We studied the humeral microanatomy of eleven extant and eight extinct talpid taxa of different lifestyles and of two non-fossorial outgroups and examined the effects of size and phylogeny. We tested the hypothesis that bone microanatomy is different in highly derived humeri of fossorial taxa than in terrestrial and semi-aquatic ones, likely due to special mechanical strains to which they are exposed to during digging. This study is the first comprehensive examination of histological parameters in an ecologically diverse and small-sized mammalian clade. Results No pattern of global bone compactness was found in the humeri of talpids that could be related to biomechanical specialization, phylogeny or size. The transition zone from the medullary cavity to the cortical compacta was larger and the ellipse ratio smaller in fossorial talpids than in non-fossorial talpids. No differences were detected between the two distantly related fossorial clades, Talpini and Scalopini. Conclusions At this small size, the overall morphology of the humerus plays a predominant role in absorbing the load, and microanatomical features such as an increase in bone compactness are less important, perhaps due to insufficient gravitational effects. The ellipse ratio of bone compactness shows relatively high intraspecific variation, and therefore predictions from this ratio based on single specimens are invalid. PMID:23442022

  12. Highly Diverse Morbillivirus-Related Paramyxoviruses in Wild Fauna of the Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands: Evidence of Exchange between Introduced and Endemic Small Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Mélade, Julien; Dietrich, Muriel; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Lagadec, Erwan; le Minter, Gildas; Tortosa, Pablo; Heraud, Jean-Michel; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Goodman, Steven M.; Dellagi, Koussay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Paramyxoviridae form an increasingly diverse viral family, infecting a wide variety of different hosts. In recent years, they have been linked to disease emergence in many different animal populations and in humans. Bats and rodents have been identified as major animal populations capable of harboring paramyxoviruses, and host shifting between these animals is likely to be an important driving factor in the underlying evolutionary processes that eventually lead to disease emergence. Here, we have studied paramyxovirus circulation within populations of endemic and introduced wild small mammals of the southwestern Indian Ocean region and belonging to four taxonomic orders: Rodentia, Afrosoricida, Soricomorpha, and Chiroptera. We report elevated infection levels as well as widespread paramyxovirus dispersal and frequent host exchange of a newly emerging genus of the Paramyxoviridae, currently referred to as the unclassified morbillivirus-related viruses (UMRVs). In contrast to other genera of the Paramyxoviridae, where bats have been shown to be a key host species, we show that rodents (and, in particular, Rattus rattus) are significant spreaders of UMRVs. We predict that the ecological particularities of the southwestern Indian Ocean, where small mammal species often live in densely packed, multispecies communities, in combination with the increasing invasion of R. rattus and perturbations of endemic animal communities by active anthropological development, will have a major influence on the dynamics of UMRV infection. IMPORTANCE Identification of the infectious agents that circulate within wild animal reservoirs is essential for several reasons: (i) infectious disease outbreaks often originate from wild fauna; (ii) anthropological expansion increases the risk of contact between human and animal populations and, as a result, the risk of disease emergence; (iii) evaluation of pathogen reservoirs helps in elaborating preventive measures to limit the risk

  13. Conservation on international boundaries: the impact of security barriers on selected terrestrial mammals in four protected areas in Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Jamie W; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Cuthill, Innes C

    2014-01-01

    Several thousand terrestrial protected areas (PAs) lie on international boundaries. Because international boundaries can be focal points for trade, illegal activity and development, such PAs can be vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic threats. There is an increasing trend towards the erection of international boundary infrastructure (including fences, barriers and ditches) in many parts of the world, which may reduce the risk of these anthropogenic threats to some PAs. However this may restrict home range and access to resources for some native species. We sought to understand the impacts of these two different types of threat by using camera traps to measure the activity level of humans, native and invasive mammals in four US PAs on the Mexican international boundary. Comparisons were made between treatment areas with barriers and those without. Results showed that puma and coati were more likely to appear in treatment areas without barriers, whereas humans were not observed more frequently in one treatment area over another. The suggestion is that the intermittent fencing present in this part of the world does affect some native species, but does not necessarily restrict the movement of humans (including illegal migrants), who may negatively impact native species. PMID:24717982

  14. Conservation on International Boundaries: The Impact of Security Barriers on Selected Terrestrial Mammals in Four Protected Areas in Arizona, USA

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Jamie W.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Cuthill, Innes C.

    2014-01-01

    Several thousand terrestrial protected areas (PAs) lie on international boundaries. Because international boundaries can be focal points for trade, illegal activity and development, such PAs can be vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic threats. There is an increasing trend towards the erection of international boundary infrastructure (including fences, barriers and ditches) in many parts of the world, which may reduce the risk of these anthropogenic threats to some PAs. However this may restrict home range and access to resources for some native species. We sought to understand the impacts of these two different types of threat by using camera traps to measure the activity level of humans, native and invasive mammals in four US PAs on the Mexican international boundary. Comparisons were made between treatment areas with barriers and those without. Results showed that puma and coati were more likely to appear in treatment areas without barriers, whereas humans were not observed more frequently in one treatment area over another. The suggestion is that the intermittent fencing present in this part of the world does affect some native species, but does not necessarily restrict the movement of humans (including illegal migrants), who may negatively impact native species. PMID:24717982

  15. The Effect of the Crayfish Orconectes virilis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae) in the Decomposition and Succession of Submerged Small Mammal Carrion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, G. D.; Chadwick, J. W.

    2005-05-01

    The role of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in the decomposition of submerged rat carrion and succession of other benthic macroinvertebrates was experimentally investigated in Slaughterhouse Gulch, a small, urban stream in Littleton, Colorado. Crayfish participation in carrion decomposition significantly altered the decomposition rate of the carrion. Nine carcasses were exposed in anchored minnow traps at three degrees of crayfish access: crayfish always present, crayfish having free access, and crayfish excluded. These three treatments required 23 days, 29 days, and 65 days, respectively, for complete decomposition of the rat carrion (<2% original biomass). Sample variability increased with number of crayfish present, especially as decomposition proceeded. Seven other macroinvertebrate taxa were collected from the carcasses, but their presence or absence could not be correlated with crayfish presence. The leech Haemopis marmoratus was generally the first macroinvertebrate to arrive at the carrion, being present in densities of <5 individuals/carcass early in succession and in larger densities (up to 25 individuals/carcass) after extensive decomposition and exposure of the viscera.

  16. Concurrent effects of age class and food distribution on immigration success and population dynamics in a small mammal.

    PubMed

    Rémy, Alice; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Odden, Morten; Andreassen, Harry P

    2014-07-01

    introduced in a plot with clumped food. These results indicate the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on immigration success and demographic consequences of dispersal and are of relevance to conservation actions, such as reinforcement of small populations. PMID:24256406

  17. 76 FR 38361 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... intentional, taking by harassment of small numbers of marine mammals of a species or population stock, by... provided to the public for review. Authorization for incidental taking of small numbers of marine mammals... incidental harassment of small numbers of marine mammals. Within 45 days of the close of the public...

  18. Dolphin social intelligence: complex alliance relationships in bottlenose dolphins and a consideration of selective environments for extreme brain size evolution in mammals.

    PubMed

    Connor, Richard C

    2007-04-29

    Bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, live in a large, unbounded society with a fission-fusion grouping pattern. Potential cognitive demands include the need to develop social strategies involving the recognition of a large number of individuals and their relationships with others. Patterns of alliance affiliation among males may be more complex than are currently known for any non-human, with individuals participating in 2-3 levels of shifting alliances. Males mediate alliance relationships with gentle contact behaviours such as petting, but synchrony also plays an important role in affiliative interactions. In general, selection for social intelligence in the context of shifting alliances will depend on the extent to which there are strategic options and risk. Extreme brain size evolution may have occurred more than once in the toothed whales, reaching peaks in the dolphin family and the sperm whale. All three 'peaks' of large brain size evolution in mammals (odontocetes, humans and elephants) shared a common selective environment: extreme mutual dependence based on external threats from predators or conspecific groups. In this context, social competition, and consequently selection for greater cognitive abilities and large brain size, was intense. PMID:17296597

  19. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  20. Mammals of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  1. What Makes a Mammal a Mammal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Describes the distinctive characteristics of mammals and compares modern mammals with their prehistoric relatives as well as with other animal groups. Includes activities and ready-to-copy games, illustrations, and diagrams of wolves, vertebrates, and past and present mammals. (ML)

  2. Cave-dwelling bats do not avoid TMT and 2-PT - components of predator odour that induce fear in other small mammals.

    PubMed

    Driessens, Tess; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-07-15

    Recognition and avoidance of predators is fundamental for the survival of prey animals. Here we conducted the first study assessing chemosensory predator recognition in cave-dwelling bats. We used a Y-maze approach to test the reaction of greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) to two synthetically derived components of predator odour (2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline, TMT, a component of fox faeces scent; and 2-propylthietane, 2-PT, a component of mustelid scent) and to the natural scent of the least weasel (Mustela nivalis). It is well documented that rodents and several other small mammals show strong and at least partly innate fear reactions when confronted with these odorants. By contrast, the bats did not show any avoidance or fear reaction, despite the fact that relatively high odorant concentrations were presented. Furthermore, they did not react differently towards predator scent and towards acrid but otherwise neutral odours (basil or goat). The number of entries into in the Y-maze arm with the odour source and the time spent in this arm as well as the bats' overall exploratory activity and several other behavioural variables were not affected by the odour treatments. Generally, the sense of smell is well developed in bats and plays an important role in bat behavioural ecology. It is thus somewhat surprising that the bats did not show any avoidance reaction to predator scent, even though direct contact with a mustelid or fox would result in death. We discuss ecological explanations that might have prevented bats from evolving olfactory predatory recognition and avoidance. PMID:20581275

  3. The transfer of (137)Cs, Pu isotopes and (90)Sr to bird, bat and ground-dwelling small mammal species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Beresford, N A; Gaschak, S; Maksimenko, Andrey; Wood, M D

    2016-03-01

    Protected species are the focus of many radiological environmental assessments. However, the lack of radioecological data for many protected species presents a significant international challenge. Furthermore, there are legislative restrictions on destructive sampling of protected species to obtain such data. Where data are not available, extrapolations are often made from 'similar' species but there has been little attempt to validate this approach. In this paper we present what, to our knowledge, is the first study purposefully designed to test the hypothesis that radioecological data for unprotected species can be used to estimate conservative radioecolgical parameters for protected species; conservatism being necessary to ensure that there is no significant impact. The study was conducted in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Consequently, we are able to present data for Pu isotopes in terrestrial wildlife. There has been limited research on Pu transfer to terrestrial wildlife which contrasts with the need to assess radiation exposure of wildlife to Pu isotopes around many nuclear facilities internationally. Our results provide overall support for the hypothesis that data for unprotected species can be used to adequately assess the impacts for ionising radiation on protected species. This is demonstrated for a range of mammalian and avian species. However, we identify one case, the shrew, for which data from other ground-dwelling small mammals would not lead to an appropriately conservative assessment of radiation impact. This indicates the need to further test our hypothesis across a range of species and ecosystems, and/or ensure adequate conservatism within assessments. The data presented are of value to those trying to more accurately estimate the radiation dose to wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, helping to reduce the considerable uncertainty in studies reporting dose-effect relationships for wildlife. A video abstract for this paper is available from

  4. Baseline Radionuclide and Nonradionuclide Concentrations in Soils, Vegetation, and Small Mammals at the Proposed Expansion Area at TA-54 Area G

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Romero, P. R. Fresquez

    2007-11-30

    Area G is a 25.5-hectare (63-acre), fenced, low-level radioactive solid waste processing and disposal area located on the east end of Mesa del Buey at Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This disposal area has been in existence since 1957 and is expected to be filled by the year 2015. Thus, a new area, located adjacent to Area G on the west side, has been proposed for the expansion of disposal activities. Since 1994 to the present, baseline levels of several radionuclides and nonradionuclides have been collected in soils, vegetation, and small mammals (field mice and rock squirrels). These data will be used to assess potential impacts, if any, at the expanded site once operations begin. Baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) (mean plus three standard deviations = 99% confidence level) of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in these media were calculated and compared with regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). RSRLs are calculated from regional areas away from the influence of the Laboratory and represent natural and worldwide fallout sources. BSRLs in most media, with the exception of field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.), compare very well with RSRLs. Field mice, probably because they are mobile and may have spent time within the active disposal area, appeared to be impacted by Area G operations as they contained higher concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am as compared to RSRLs. Overall, however, the preoperational data from the other media show that the proposed expansion area has been impacted very little by Area G operations.

  5. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolated from small feral and wild mammals in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Mu, Jung-Jung; Arent, Zbigniew; Okano, Shou; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Mizutani Muto, Maki; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Taylor, Kyle R; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Thi Thu Ha, Hoang; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors. PMID:26296603

  6. Approaches and selection to space debris mitigation for small satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, B.; Zheng, Y.; Meng, B.; Xu, X.; Liu, Y.; Wu, Z.; Hao, Y.; Dong, Y.

    Aiming at space debris mitigation for small satellite after the end of mission, several approaches are analyzed and compared, and implementations are suggested in this paper. In recent years more and more small satellites have been developed and launched into orbit. Most of them run on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with height less than 2000km. On the one hand, the small satellites increase the density of space debris and the risk of collision; on the other hand, some of them have orbit lifetime over 25 years if only depending natural attenuation beyond the guideline of Inter-agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). In this paper several approaches are analyzed and compared for space debris mitigation after the end of mission, including the utilizations of air drag, solar radiation pressure, rocket propulsion, and others. The cost will be required for small satellite to mitigate space debris. For lower orbit small satellites and their constellation, the functions and performances perhaps are degraded. For higher orbit satellites, lifetime of spacecraft always is more than 25 years. Then some supererogatory equipments should be appended to shorten orbit lifetime, such as air chamber, sail, even thruster, usually they are not necessary for small satellites. Based on the analysis of effect and cost for these approaches, implementations are suggested for small satellite with different functions (whether or not provide capability of orbit control) and different mass: 50kg, 100kg, 150kg and 300kg. This research is supported by China National Space Administration (CNSA).

  7. This week?s Citation Classic: 'Stickel, L. F. A comparison of certain methods of measuring ranges of small mammals. J. Mammalogy 35: 1-15, 1954.'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    During my first employment as a junior biologist conducting food habits analyses at the Patuxent Research Refuge (now Patuxent Wildlife Research Center) of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the first station director, Arnold L. Nelson, gave each staff biologist the opportunity to spend a little time conducting field studies on the 2,600-acre research area. These studies were to help in ecological evaluation of the area, but also, no doubt, functioned as a morale builder for biologists daily engaged in difficult, demanding and confining laboratory work. I undertook to measure the population density of small mammals in different habitats. The state-of-the-art methods recommended to me and prevalent in the literature worried me, especially after preliminary field work. Reading the classic, paper by W.H. Burt [Terrioriality and home range concepts as applied to mammals. J. Mammalogy 24:346-352, 1943] was a turning point for me in seeing that knowledge of home-range size was the key to measuring population density. My first papers employed these concepts in field evaluations. However, they could give-only limited attention to the question of how home ranges could be measured. Furthermore, the importance of knowledge of the home range to habitat evaluation and to understanding animal behavior was becoming increasingly apparent. Advocacy of many different methods of measuring home ranges appeared in the literature. It did not seem possible to evaluate them objectively. It occurred to me that artificial populations could be used to help in understanding the mechanisms of measuring home ranges. The effects of random trap-visiting, bias toward central traps, trap-spacing, range shape, and other factors could be considered. So grids of traps were inked onto oversize graph paper, and simulated ranges were cut from plastic to be tossed as randomly as possible on the trap-grids. It was a slow, laborious job. Analysis showed that random captures in artificial populations produced

  8. The evolution of micro-cursoriality in mammals.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry G; Mowoe, Metobor O

    2014-04-15

    In this study we report on the evolution of micro-cursoriality, a unique case of cursoriality in mammals smaller than 1 kg. We obtained new running speed and limb morphology data for two species of elephant-shrews (Elephantulus spp., Macroscelidae) from Namaqualand, South Africa, which we compared with published data for other mammals. Elephantulus maximum running speeds were higher than those of most mammals smaller than 1 kg. Elephantulus also possess exceptionally high metatarsal:femur ratios (1.07) that are typically associated with fast unguligrade cursors. Cursoriality evolved in the Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla and Carnivora coincident with global cooling and the replacement of forests with open landscapes in the Oligocene and Miocene. The majority of mammal species, though, remained non-cursorial, plantigrade and small (<1 kg). The extraordinary running speed and digitigrady of elephant-shrews was established in the Early Eocene in the earliest macroscelid Prodiacodon, but was probably inherited from Paleocene, Holarctic stem macroscelids. Micro-cursoriality in macroscelids evolved from the plesiomorphic plantigrade foot of the possum-like ancestral mammal earlier than in other mammalian crown groups. Micro-cursoriality evolved first in forests, presumably in response to selection for rapid running speeds facilitated by local knowledge, in order to avoid predators. During the Miocene, micro-cursoriality was pre-adaptive to open, arid habitats, and became more derived in the newly evolved Elephantulus and Macroscelides elephant-shrews with trail running. PMID:24436375

  9. Positive Selection and Multiple Losses of the LINE-1-Derived L1TD1 Gene in Mammals Suggest a Dual Role in Genome Defense and Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Neme, Rafik; Wichman, Holly A.; Malik, Harmit S.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian genomes comprise many active and fossilized retroelements. The obligate requirement for retroelement integration affords host genomes an opportunity to ‘domesticate’ retroelement genes for their own purpose, leading to important innovations in genome defense and placentation. While many such exaptations involve retroviruses, the L1TD1 gene is the only known domesticated gene whose protein-coding sequence is almost entirely derived from a LINE-1 (L1) retroelement. Human L1TD1 has been shown to play an important role in pluripotency maintenance. To investigate how this role was acquired, we traced the origin and evolution of L1TD1. We find that L1TD1 originated in the common ancestor of eutherian mammals, but was lost or pseudogenized multiple times during mammalian evolution. We also find that L1TD1 has evolved under positive selection during primate and mouse evolution, and that one prosimian L1TD1 has ‘replenished’ itself with a more recent L1 ORF1 from the prosimian genome. These data suggest that L1TD1 has been recurrently selected for functional novelty, perhaps for a role in genome defense. L1TD1 loss is associated with L1 extinction in several megabat lineages, but not in sigmodontine rodents. We hypothesize that L1TD1 could have originally evolved for genome defense against L1 elements. Later, L1TD1 may have become incorporated into pluripotency maintenance in some lineages. Our study highlights the role of retroelement gene domestication in fundamental aspects of mammalian biology, and that such domesticated genes can adopt different functions in different lineages. PMID:25211013

  10. Sustainable Leadership in Small Rural Schools: Selected Australian Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Simon; Stevens, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    According to Hargreaves and Fink (The seven principles of sustainable leadership, 2003; Sustainable leadership, 2006), sustainable leadership matters, spreads and lasts, and is fundamental to enduring and widespread school improvement. This observation is especially germane to the context of leading small primary schools in rural locations, where…

  11. Discovery of selective RIO2 kinase small molecule ligand.

    PubMed

    Varin, Thibault; Godfrey, Alexander G; Masquelin, Thierry; Nicolaou, Christos A; Evans, David A; Vieth, Michal

    2015-10-01

    We report the discovery and initial optimization of diphenpyramide and several of its analogs as hRIO2 kinase ligands. One of these analogs is the most selective hRIO2 ligand reported to date. Diphenpyramide is a Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 inhibitor that was used as an anti-inflammatory agent. The RIO2 kinase affinity of diphenpyramide was discovered by serendipity while profiling of 13 marketed drugs on a large 456 kinase assay panel. The inhibition values also suggested a relative selectivity of diphenpyramide for RIO2 against the other kinases in the panel. Subsequently three available and eight newly synthesized analogs were assayed, one of which showed a 10 fold increased hRIO2 binding affinity. Additionally, this compound shows significantly better selectivity over assayed kinases, when compared to currently known RIO2 inhibitors. As RIO2 is involved in the biosynthesis of the ribosome and cell cycle regulation, our selective ligand may be useful for the delineation of the biological role of this kinase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. PMID:25891899

  12. Evaluating Gaze-Based Interface Tools to Facilitate Point-and-Select Tasks with Small Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovsgaard, Henrik; Mateo, Julio C.; Hansen, John Paulin

    2011-01-01

    Gaze interaction affords hands-free control of computers. Pointing to and selecting small targets using gaze alone is difficult because of the limited accuracy of gaze pointing. This is the first experimental comparison of gaze-based interface tools for small-target (e.g. less than 12 x 12 pixels) point-and-select tasks. We conducted two…

  13. Compactifying de Sitter space naturally selects a small cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam R.; Dahlen, Alex; Masoumi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    We study compactifications of D -dimensional de Sitter space with a q -form flux down to D -N q dimensions. We show that for (N -1 )(q -1 )≥2 there are double-exponentially or even infinitely many compact de Sitter vacua, and that their effective cosmological constants accumulate at zero. This population explosion of Λ ≪1 de Sitters arises by a mechanism analogous to natural selection.

  14. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  15. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals. PMID:25736919

  16. Influence of selected fluorescent dyes on small aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowiński, Paweł; Chrzanowski, Marcin

    2011-02-01

    Rhodamine B and Rhodamine WT are fluorescent dyes commonly used as tracers in hydrological investigations. Since introducing intensely red substances into rivers raises understandable doubts of ecological nature, the authors aimed at examining the influence of these dyes on small water fauna using bioindication methods. Quantitative results, calculated with the use of Bliss-Weber probit statistical method, were achieved by means of standardized ecotoxicological tests containing ready-to-hatch resting forms of fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus). Qualitative studies included observation of water flea crustacean (Daphnia magna) and horned planorbis snail (Planorbis corneus), both typically present in rivers and representative for temperate climate, as well as guppy fish (Poecilla reticulata), paramecium protozoan (Paramaecium caudatum) and the above-mentioned fairy shrimp. The investigation revealed that both dyes in concentrations used for hydrological purposes are low enough to exert almost no toxic impact on water fauna considered.

  17. [Jaws of primitive mammals].

    PubMed

    Tsubamoto, Takehisa

    2005-06-01

    Some of main osteological differences between mammals and reptiles are seen in the number of bones that constitute lower jaw and in jaw articulation. A lower jaw of mammals consists of only one bone, while in reptiles it consists of several bones (e.g., four to six in lizards and five in crocodiles). The jaw articulation in mammals is performed by squamosal of the skull and the mandible ( = dentary), while in reptiles it is done by quadrate of the skull and articular of the lower jaw. When mammals first appeared about 200 million years ago in the Mesozoic Era, the jaws of primitive mammals were morphologically intermediate between those of reptiles and typical mammals. Here, I briefly introduce the evolution of lower jaw morphology from the reptilian one to the mammalian one, showing lower jaw features of some mammal-like reptiles and primitive mammals. PMID:15930721

  18. Laser surgery for selected small animal soft-tissue conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1991-05-01

    With the acquisition of a Nd:YAG and a CO2 laser in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Oklahoma State University in 1989, over 100 small animal clinical cases have been managed with these modern modalities for surgical excision and tissue vaporization. Most procedures have been for oncologic problems, but inflammatory, infectious, or congenital conditions including vaporization of acral lick 'granulomas,' excision/vaporization of foreign body induced, infected draining tracts, and resection of elongated soft palates have been successfully accomplished. Laser excision or vaporization of both benign and malignant neoplasms have effectively been performed and include feline nasal squamous cell carcinoma, mast cell tumors, and rectal/anal neoplasms. Results to date have been excellent with animals exhibiting little postoperative pain, swelling, and inflammation. Investigations involving application of laser energy for tissue welding of esophageal lacerations and hepatitic interstitial hyperthermia for metastatic colorectal cancer have also shown potential. A review of cases with an emphasis on survival time and postoperative morbidity suggests that carefully planned laser surgical procedures in clinical veterinary practice done with standardized protocols and techniques offer an acceptable means of treating conditions that were previously considered extremely difficult or virtually impossible to perform.

  19. [Abundance of larvae and nymphs of the taiga tick Ixodes persuicatus (Acari: Ixodidae) on small mammals in the cut-over lands of the middle taiga subzone of Karelia].

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Bespiatova, L A; Anikanova, V S; Ieshko, E P

    2009-01-01

    Data of long-term investigations (1998-2004) on the abundance of the taiga tick larvae and nymphs in the cut-over lands of different age in the middle taiga subzone of Karelia (62 degrees 04'S; 33 degrees 55'W) are presented. The investigation was carried out on three model cut-over lands of different age: 1) "young" cut-over land; age of cut-over in the beginning of investigation is 7 years; Betula-Deschampsia cespitosa-Agrostis tenuis; 2) "middle" cut-over land; age of cut-over is 12 years; Salix-Deschampsia cespitosa-Agrostis tenuis; 3) "old" cut-over land; age of cut-over 25 years; Alnus incana-Rubus idaeus-grass. The number of ticks was estimated by using common parasitological indices: prevalence, abundance, and index of feeding intensity (the tick abundance multiply by the number of small mammals per hundred traps-nights). In the beginning of investigation the "young" cut-over land was a typical meadow association. The lowest tick abundance was recorded here. That was a result of unfavorable abiotic conditions and low number of small mammals in the beginning of summer. "Middle" cut-over land is characterized by the highest number of the tick larvae, which is the evidence for high number of the hosts of tick imago. "Old" cut-over land has the optimum conditions for development of taiga ticks. High abundance of the ticks (larvae and nymphs) was recorded during the whole period of investigations. The number of preimaginal ticks is shown to be much higher in cut-over lands as compared with that in mixed and coniferous forests, due to the higher number of small mammals. PMID:19807045

  20. Selections from 2015: An Ancient System of Small Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    Editors Note:In these last two weeks of 2015, well be looking at a few selections from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.An Ancient Extrasolar System with Five Sub-Earth-Size PlanetsPublished January2015Main takeaway:Transit light curves for the five planets orbiting Kepler-444. [Campante et al. 2015]A team led by Tiago Campante (University of Birmingham, Aarhus University) reported Kepler spacecraft observations of Kepler-444, a system of five transiting exoplanets around a metal-poor, Sun-like star. All five planets are sub-Earth-sized. Furthermore, the system is measured to be over 11 billion years old making this the oldest known system of terrestrial-size planets.Why its interesting:While gas-giant planets show a preference for forming around metal-rich stars, smaller planets appear to be less picky. This suggests that Earth-size planets may have been able to form at earlier times in the universes history, when metals were scarcer. The determination that Kepler-444 is 11.2 billion years old confirms that terrestrial-size planets have been able to form throughout most of the universes 13.8 billion year history.Awesome technical achievement:The age of the Kepler-444 system was determined from asteroseismology of the host star. The fact that we can measure oscillations in the interior of this ancient star located 116 light-years away and use this to determine its age to a precision of 9%! is a remarkable achievement made possible by 4 years of continuous, high-quality observations of the system.CitationT. L. Campante et al 2015 ApJ 799 170. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/170

  1. Lack of dissemination of acquired resistance to β-lactams in small wild mammals around an isolated village in the Amazonian forest.

    PubMed

    Grall, Nathalie; Barraud, Olivier; Wieder, Ingrid; Hua, Anna; Perrier, Marion; Babosan, Ana; Gaschet, Margaux; Clermont, Olivier; Denamur, Erick; Catzeflis, François; Decré, Dominique; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Andremont, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the spread of resistance to β-lactams and of integrons in small rodents and marsupials living at various distances from a point of antibiotic's use. Rectal swabs from 114 animals were collected in Trois-Sauts, an isolated village in French Guiana, and along a 3 km transect heading through the non-anthropized primary forest. Prevalence of ticarcillin-resistant enterobacteria was 36% (41/114). Klebsiella spp., naturally resistant to ticarcillin, were found in 31.1% (23/73) of animals from the village and in an equal ratio of 31.7% (13/41) of animals trapped along the transect. By contrast Escherichia coli with acquired resistance to ticarcillin were found in 13.7% (10/73) of animals from the village and in only 2.4% (1/41) of those from the transect (600 m from the village). There was a huge diversity of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with very unique and infrequent sequence types. The overall prevalence of class 1 integrons carriage was 19.3% (22/114) homogenously distributed between animals from the village and the transect, which suggests a co-selection by a non-antibiotic environmental factor. Our results indicate that the anthropogenic acquired antibiotic resistance did not disseminate in the wild far from the point of selective pressure. PMID:25858231

  2. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  3. 76 FR 62778 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...In accordance with the regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) as amended, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the Northeast Gateway[supreg] Energy BridgeTM L.P. (Northeast Gateway or NEG) to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, small numbers of marine mammals during operation of an......

  4. 75 FR 49709 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 8 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine survey program, which includes site clearance and shallow hazards, ice gouge, and strudel scour surveys,......

  5. 78 FR 25703 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting fisheries research, over the course... their fisheries research. A copy of the draft EA, which would also support our proposed rulemaking...

  6. 78 FR 1205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Hydrographic Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...NMFS' Office of Protected Resources has received a request from the NOAA Office of Coast Survey (OCS) for authorization to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting hydrographic surveys, over the course of 5 years from the date of issuance. Pursuant to regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of OCS's request under the......

  7. 77 FR 64961 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BC69 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking... of 5-year regulations governing the incidental taking of marine mammals and inviting information... Commerce to allow, upon request, the incidental, but not intentional, taking of small numbers of...

  8. 77 FR 40007 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BP) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 10 species of marine mammals incidental to ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic surveys in the Simpson Lagoon area of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, during the......

  9. 78 FR 51147 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company ASA (TGS) to take, by harassment, small numbers of marine mammals incidental to a marine 2-dimensional (2D) seismic survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2013 Arctic open-water......

  10. Joint Skewness and Its Application in Unsupervised Band Selection for Small Target Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Tang, Hairong; Zhao, Yongchao

    2015-04-01

    Few band selection methods are specially designed for small target detection. It is well known that the information of small targets is most likely contained in non-Gaussian bands, where small targets are more easily separated from the background. On the other hand, correlation of band set also plays an important role in the small target detection. When the selected bands are highly correlated, it will be unbeneficial for the subsequent detection. However, the existing non-Gaussianity-based band selection methods have not taken the correlation of bands into account, which generally result in high correlation of obtained bands. In this paper, combining the third-order (third-order tensor) and second-order (correlation) statistics of bands, we define a new concept, named joint skewness, for multivariate data. Moreover, we also propose an easy-to-implement approach to estimate this index based on high-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). Based on the definition of joint skewness, we present an unsupervised band selection for small target detection for hyperspectral data, named joint skewness band selection (JSBS). The evaluation results demonstrate that the bands selected by JSBS are very effective in terms of small target detection.

  11. Joint Skewness and Its Application in Unsupervised Band Selection for Small Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Tang, Hairong; Zhao, Yongchao

    2015-01-01

    Few band selection methods are specially designed for small target detection. It is well known that the information of small targets is most likely contained in non-Gaussian bands, where small targets are more easily separated from the background. On the other hand, correlation of band set also plays an important role in the small target detection. When the selected bands are highly correlated, it will be unbeneficial for the subsequent detection. However, the existing non-Gaussianity-based band selection methods have not taken the correlation of bands into account, which generally result in high correlation of obtained bands. In this paper, combining the third-order (third-order tensor) and second-order (correlation) statistics of bands, we define a new concept, named joint skewness, for multivariate data. Moreover, we also propose an easy-to-implement approach to estimate this index based on high-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). Based on the definition of joint skewness, we present an unsupervised band selection for small target detection for hyperspectral data, named joint skewness band selection (JSBS). The evaluation results demonstrate that the bands selected by JSBS are very effective in terms of small target detection. PMID:25873018

  12. [Ectoparasites of small wild mammals from the adjacent areas of Itapecuru River and Environmental Preservation Area of Inhamum, state of Maranhão, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Reis, Francineto S; Barros, Maria Claudene; Fraga, Elmary Da C; Da Penha, Tatiane A; Teixeira, Whaubytfran C; Dos Santos, Ana Clara G; Guerra, Rita De Maria S N De C

    2008-09-01

    During fauna studies, thirty-six wild mammals were collected in adjacent areas of Itapecuru River and Environmental Preservation area of Inhamum, state of Maranhão, Brazil. They were sampled for ectoparasites. The following specimens of the order Rodentia and its respective ectoparasites were identified: Akodon sp. (Androlaelaps sp. and Laelaps sp.), Oecomys sp. (Androlaelaps sp. and Amblyomma cajennense), Oligoryzomys sp. (Androlaelaps sp. Laelaps sp. and Amblyomma sp.) e Oryzomys megacephalus (A. cajennense). In Calomys callosus no ectoparasite was found. It was observed infestation in the order Didelphimorphia as follows: Didelphis marsupialis (Androlaelaps sp., Laelaps sp. and larvae of Diptera Cyclorrhapha); Gracilinanus sp. (Laelaps sp. and larvae of Diptera Cyclorrhapha), Monodelphis domestica (Poplygenis (Polygenis)), Cummingsia sp., Amblyomma sp. and Androlaelaps sp.). Marmosa sp. e Thylamis sp. had no ectoparasites. From the captured hosts 56% were infested, 82% and 44% rodents and marsupials, respectively. Mites from the family Laelapidae presented the great diversity of hosts and genus. PMID:20059819

  13. Immune Profile Predicts Survival and Reflects Senescence in a Small, Long-Lived Mammal, the Greater Sac-Winged Bat (Saccopteryx bilineata)

    PubMed Central

    Schneeberger, Karin; Courtiol, Alexandre; Czirják, Gábor Á.; Voigt, Christian C.

    2014-01-01

    The immune system imposes costs that may have to be traded against investment of resources in other costly life-history traits. Yet, it is unknown if a trade-off between immunity and longevity occurs in free-ranging mammals. Here, we tested if age and survival, two aspects associated with longevity, are linked to immune parameters in an 8 g bat species. Using a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal data, we assessed whether total white blood cell (WBC) counts, bacterial killing ability of the plasma (BKA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration change with age. Furthermore, we asked if these immune parameters impose costs resulting in decreased survival probabilities. We found that WBC counts decreased with age both within and among individuals. IgG concentrations were higher in older individuals, but did not change with age within individuals. Furthermore, individuals with above average WBC counts or IgG concentration had lower probabilities to survive the next six months. High WBC counts and IgG concentrations may reflect infections with parasites and pathogens, however, individuals that were infected with trypanosomes or nematodes showed neither higher WBC counts or IgG concentrations, nor was infection connected with survival rates. BKA was higher in infected compared with uninfected bats, but not related to age or survival. In conclusion, cellular (WBC) and humoral (IgG) parts of the immune system were both connected to age and survival, but not to parasite infections, which supports the hypothesis that energetically costly immunological defences are traded against other costly life-history traits, leading to a reduced lifespan in this free-ranging mammal. PMID:25254988

  14. Do Small Mammals and Vegetation Metacommunity Dynamics Determine the Extent and Pattern of Treeline in the High Elevation Zone of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, R. C.; Chase, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a general expectation that warming temperatures will facilitate transformation of high elevation meadows to woody dominated communities. We have been using observational and experimental approaches to analyze potential state changes of meadows and the role seed and seedling predation play in conifer expansion in the high elevation zone of the Sierra Nevada mountain range of the western United States. The observational component consists of 256 plots spanning 3 degrees of latitude and an elevation range from 3000 m to 4000 m. The experimental component consists of mammal seed predator exclosures (N = 252) allocated among three arrays at each of two sites separated by > 100 km. Three cohorts of seeds at five seed densities (1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 seeds per 0.25 m2) and one seedling cohort were placed within and immediately outside the exclosures at each site. Trend surface and distance decay analyses of community composition indicate vegetation communities in the high elevation zone have not assembled predictably along environmental or spatial gradients. Rather, we have found strong support for neutral dynamics, implying that communities assemble more stochastically as a result of dispersal limitation or priority effects. Density of mature and sapling conifers decrease as a function of distance from conifer patches, but seedling density has no relationship with distance from conifer patches. Germination of seeds outside of the exclosures was 19% compared to 65% within, and these were mainly at densities of 1 seed per 0.25 m2. None of the seeds that germinated outside the exclosures survived more than 1.5 years compared to 23% within the exclosures. Virtually all of the seedlings planted outside the exclosures were removed within a year. Collectively, these findings indicate a highly patchy rather than uniform pattern of treeline extension in the high elevation zone of the Sierra Nevada. Moreover, smaller mammals appear to be playing a critical role in

  15. Adaptive evolution toward larger size in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joanna; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Venditti, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The notion that large body size confers some intrinsic advantage to biological species has been debated for centuries. Using a phylogenetic statistical approach that allows the rate of body size evolution to vary across a phylogeny, we find a long-term directional bias toward increasing size in the mammals. This pattern holds separately in 10 of 11 orders for which sufficient data are available and arises from a tendency for accelerated rates of evolution to produce increases, but not decreases, in size. On a branch-by-branch basis, increases in body size have been more than twice as likely as decreases, yielding what amounts to millions and millions of years of rapid and repeated increases in size away from the small ancestral mammal. These results are the first evidence, to our knowledge, from extant species that are compatible with Cope’s rule: the pattern of body size increase through time observed in the mammalian fossil record. We show that this pattern is unlikely to be explained by several nonadaptive mechanisms for increasing size and most likely represents repeated responses to new selective circumstances. By demonstrating that it is possible to uncover ancient evolutionary trends from a combination of a phylogeny and appropriate statistical models, we illustrate how data from extant species can complement paleontological accounts of evolutionary history, opening up new avenues of investigation for both. PMID:25848031

  16. Sexual selection counteracts extinction of small populations of the bulb mites.

    PubMed

    Jarzebowska, Magdalena; Radwan, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Genetic drift in small populations can increase frequency of deleterious recessives and consequently lead to inbreeding depression and population extinction. On the other hand, as homozygosity at deleterious recessives increases, they should be purged from populations more effectively by selection. Sexual selection has been postulated to strengthen selection against deleterious mutations, and should thus decrease extinction rate and intensify purging of inbreeding depression. We tested these predictions in the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini. We created 100 replicate lines of small populations (five males and five females) and in half of them experimentally removed sexual selection by enforcing monogamy. The lines were propagated for eight generations and then assayed for purging of inbreeding depression. We found that proportion of lines which went extinct was lower with sexual selection than without. We also found evidence for purging of inbreeding depression in the lines with sexual selection, but not in lines without sexual selection. Our results suggest that purging of inbreeding depression was more effective against mutations with relatively large deleterious effects. Thus, although our data clearly indicate a positive impact of sexual selection on short-term survival of bottlenecked populations, long-term consequences are less clear as they may be negatively impacted by accumulation of deleterious mutations of small effect. PMID:19930452

  17. 76 FR 28733 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile-Driving and Renovation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take small numbers of marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to... is provided to the public for review. An authorization to take small numbers of marine mammals by... an authorization to incidentally take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment. Except...

  18. An in vitro selection for small molecule induced switching RNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Martini, Laura; Ellington, Andrew D; Mansy, Sheref S

    2016-08-15

    The selection of RNA and DNA aptamers now has a long history. However, the ability to directly select for conformational changes upon ligand binding has remained elusive. These difficulties have stymied attempts at making small molecule responsive strand displacement circuitry as well as synthetic riboswitches. Herein we present a detailed strand displacement based selection protocol to directly select for RNA molecules with switching activity. The library was based on a previously selected thiamine pyrophosphate riboswitch. The fully in vitro methodology gave sequences that showed strong strand displacement activity in the presence of thiamine pyrophosphate. Further, the selected sequences possessed riboswitch activity similar to that of natural riboswitches. The presented methodology should aid in the design of more complex, environmentally responsive strand displacement circuitry and in the selection of riboswitches responsive to toxic ligands. PMID:26899430

  19. Anesthesia and Monitoring in Small Laboratory Mammals Used in Anesthesiology, Respiratory and Critical Care Research: A Systematic Review on the Current Reporting in Top-10 Impact Factor Ranked Journals

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Thea; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Spieth, Peter Markus

    2015-01-01

    Rationale This study aimed to investigate the quality of reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia in experimental studies in small laboratory mammals published in the top ten impact factor journals. Methods A descriptive systematic review was conducted and data was abstracted from the ten highest ranked journals with respect to impact factor in the categories ‘Anesthesiology’, ‘Critical Care Medicine’ and ‘Respiratory System’ as defined by the 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Inclusion criteria according to PICOS criteria were as follows: 1) population: small laboratory mammals; 2) intervention: any form of anesthesia and/or euthanasia; 3) comparison: not specified; 4) primary outcome: type of anesthesia, anesthetic agents and type of euthanasia; secondary outcome: animal characteristics, monitoring, mechanical ventilation, fluid management, postoperative pain therapy, animal care approval, sample size calculation and performed interventions; 5) study: experimental studies. Anesthesia, euthanasia, and monitoring were analyzed per performed intervention in each article. Results The search yielded 845 articles with 1,041 interventions of interest. Throughout the manuscripts we found poor quality and frequency of reporting with respect to completeness of data on animal characteristics as well as euthanasia, while anesthesia (732/1041, 70.3%) and interventions without survival (970/1041, 93.2%) per se were frequently reported. Premedication and neuromuscular blocking agents were reported in 169/732 (23.1%) and 38/732 (5.2%) interventions, respectively. Frequency of reporting of analgesia during (117/610, 19.1%) and after painful procedures (38/364, 10.4%) was low. Euthanasia practice was reported as anesthesia (348/501, 69%), transcardial perfusion (37/501, 8%), carbon dioxide (26/501, 6%), decapitation (22/501, 5%), exsanguination (23/501, 5%), other (25/501, 5%) and not specified (20/501, 4%, respectively. Conclusions The present systematic review revealed

  20. Selecting a Conservation Surrogate Species for Small Fragmented Habitats Using Ecological Niche Modelling.

    PubMed

    Nekaris, K Anne-Isola; Arnell, Andrew P; Svensson, Magdalena S

    2015-01-01

    Flagship species are traditionally large, charismatic animals used to rally conservation efforts. Accepted flagship definitions suggest they need only fulfil a strategic role, unlike umbrella species that are used to shelter cohabitant taxa. The criteria used to select both flagship and umbrella species may not stand up in the face of dramatic forest loss, where remaining fragments may only contain species that do not suit either set of criteria. The Cinderella species concept covers aesthetically pleasing and overlooked species that fulfil the criteria of flagships or umbrellas. Such species are also more likely to occur in fragmented habitats. We tested Cinderella criteria on mammals in the fragmented forests of the Sri Lankan Wet Zone. We selected taxa that fulfilled both strategic and ecological roles. We created a shortlist of ten species, and from a survey of local perceptions highlighted two finalists. We tested these for umbrella characteristics against the original shortlist, utilizing Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modelling, and analysed distribution overlap using ArcGIS. The criteria highlighted Loris tardigradus tardigradus and Prionailurus viverrinus as finalists, with the former having highest flagship potential. We suggest Cinderella species can be effective conservation surrogates especially in habitats where traditional flagship species have been extirpated. PMID:26479135

  1. Small prizes increased healthful school lunch selection in a Midwestern school district.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Robert; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Barnes, Allison S; Hiller, Elizabeth; Kipp, Roger; Robison, Debora L; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Hudgens, Michelle E

    2016-04-01

    As obesity has become a pressing health issue for American children, greater attention has been focused on how schools can be used to improve how students eat. Previously, we piloted the use of small prizes in an elementary school cafeteria to improve healthful food selection. We hoped to increase healthful food selection in all the elementary schools of a small school district participating in the United States Department of Agriculture Lunch Program by offering prizes to children who selected a Power Plate (PP), which consisted of an entrée with whole grains, a fruit, a vegetable, and plain low-fat milk. In this study, the PP program was introduced to 3 schools sequentially over an academic year. During the kickoff week, green, smiley-faced emoticons were placed by preferred foods, and children were given a prize daily if they chose a PP on that day. After the first week, students were given a sticker or temporary tattoo 2 days a week if they selected a PP. Combining data from the 3 schools in the program, students increased PP selection from 4.5% at baseline to 49.4% (p < 0.0001) during an intervention period of 2.5 school weeks. The school with the longest intervention period, 6 months, showed a PP selection increase of from 3.9% to 26.4% (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, giving small prizes as rewards dramatically improves short-term healthful food selection in elementary school children. PMID:26914228

  2. Selecting a Conservation Surrogate Species for Small Fragmented Habitats Using Ecological Niche Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola; Arnell, Andrew P.; Svensson, Magdalena S.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Large “charismatic” animals (with widespread popular appeal) are often used as flagship species to raise awareness for conservation. Deforestation and forest fragmentation are among the main threats to biodiversity, and in many places such species are disappearing. In this paper we aim to find a suitable species among the less charismatic animal species left in the fragmented forests of South-western Sri Lanka. We selected ten candidates, using a questionnaire survey along with computer modelling of their distributions. The red slender loris and the fishing cat came out as finalists as they were both appealing to local people, and fulfilled selected ecological criteria. Abstract Flagship species are traditionally large, charismatic animals used to rally conservation efforts. Accepted flagship definitions suggest they need only fulfil a strategic role, unlike umbrella species that are used to shelter cohabitant taxa. The criteria used to select both flagship and umbrella species may not stand up in the face of dramatic forest loss, where remaining fragments may only contain species that do not suit either set of criteria. The Cinderella species concept covers aesthetically pleasing and overlooked species that fulfil the criteria of flagships or umbrellas. Such species are also more likely to occur in fragmented habitats. We tested Cinderella criteria on mammals in the fragmented forests of the Sri Lankan Wet Zone. We selected taxa that fulfilled both strategic and ecological roles. We created a shortlist of ten species, and from a survey of local perceptions highlighted two finalists. We tested these for umbrella characteristics against the original shortlist, utilizing Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modelling, and analysed distribution overlap using ArcGIS. The criteria highlighted Loris tardigradus tardigradus and Prionailurus viverrinus as finalists, with the former having highest flagship potential. We suggest Cinderella species can be effective

  3. Use of indigenous small mammal populations to assess a National Priority List site: A case study at Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island

    SciTech Connect

    Hummell, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Prior disposal activities at Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island resulted in the release of heavy metals and organic chemicals into the environment resulting in the site being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. This presentation reports an ecotoxicological study of indigenous populations of voles on the NPL site. The study attempted to provide three endpoints: (1) exposure, (2) individual effects, (3) population effects. Exposure was quantified during the study by comparing chemical concentrations in the tissues of voles live captured on site to tissue concentrations of mammals captured at site specific reference locations. Live trapped voles were also aged according to eye lens weights. Effects exerted on individuals were evaluated based on physiological measurements of the liver, kidney, and whole body as they correlated with age and chemical concentrations. Capture-recapture techniques and age structure analyses were used to develop survivorship curves and evaluate population stability and fitness. The study provides data that can be used to support ecological risk assessments required for CIRCLE investigations.

  4. Mammals in Our Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines how humans have treated mammals throughout history. Identifies both the problems facing animals and the corrective efforts that are currently underway. Student activities include stories, games, a scavenger hunt, a mural, a puzzle, and a survey focusing on mammals. (ML)

  5. Cutaneous eccrine glands of the foot pads of the small Madagascan tenrec ( Echinops telfairi, Insectivora, Tenrecidae): skin glands in a primitive mammal.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Peter; Künzle, Heinz; Welsch, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    In order to find correlations between skin gland morphology and specific ethological features, the cutaneous glands of the foot pads of the primitive mammal the Madagascan tenrec, Echinops telfairi, were studied by histological and various histochemical methods as well as by electron microscopy. In the foot pads specific eccrine skin glands occurred consisting of coiled ducts and tubular secretory portions, the lumina of which were considerably wider than in primate sweat glands. The secretory tubules were composed of branched myoepithelial cells and glandular cells. The latter contained abundant mitochondria, large amounts of glycogen particles and few secretory granules as well as individual heterolysosomes and myelin bodies. The lateral cell membrane was marked by extensive interdigitations. The apical membranes of all glandular cells contained proteoglycans with sulfated and carboxylated groups containing N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and mannose. The expression pattern of cytokeratins of the glandular epithelium was variable and showed similarities to that of the human eccrine glands. Tubulin, vinculin and actin were expressed in the glandular epithelium. The secretory cells showed positive reactions with antibodies against antimicrobial peptides and IgA. A positive reaction was observed with antibodies against the androgen receptor. The PCNA and TUNEL reactions indicated that the tubular skin glands of Echinops are made up of a slowly renewing tissue. We conclude that the glands fulfill several functions: production of a fluid-rich secretory product, which may prevent slipping of the foot pads on the substrate during running or climbing, secretion of antimicrobial peptides and proteins, and playing a role in thermoregulation. PMID:14586691

  6. 76 FR 26948 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Federal Register of March 25, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-7135, on page 16703, in the second column, correct the...-0006 must be received on or before June 6, 2011. In the Federal Register of March 25, 2011, in FR Doc... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions...

  7. 76 FR 16703 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    .... See Notice of Grant Opportunities to States: STEP Grant Program, 76 FR 10082 (Feb. 23, 2011). These... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having... Jobs Act of 2010 (SBJA). On Monday, March 7, 2011, SBA announced a series of public meetings on...

  8. In vitro selection and amplification protocols for isolation of aptameric sensors for small molecules.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyung-Ae; Pei, Renjun; Stojanovic, Milan N

    2016-08-15

    We recently optimized a procedure that directly yields aptameric sensors for small molecules in so-called structure-switching format. The protocol has a high success rate, short time, and is sufficiently simple to be readily implemented in a non-specialist laboratory. We provide a stepwise guide to this selection protocol. PMID:27155227

  9. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.

    1965-01-01

    This list of 358 books and 123 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. PMID:14308899

  10. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library *

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.

    1967-01-01

    This updated list of 388 books and 140 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. PMID:6041826

  11. Examining Factors Influencing Attrition at a Small, Private, Selective Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Zhang, Yi; Beatty, Cameron C.; Paja, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Despite a diverse body of literature on college student retention, studies focusing on small, private, selective liberal arts colleges are limited. This study utilized a mixed methodology beginning with logistic regression analyses and followed with a qualitative inquiry that included interviews with students who had not persisted. While variables…

  12. An Attempt of Formalizing the Selection Parameters for Settlements Generalization in Small-Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsznia, Izabela

    2014-12-01

    The paper covers one of the most important problems concerning context-sensitive settlement selection for the purpose of the small-scale maps. So far, no formal parameters for small-scale settlements generalization have been specified, hence the problem seems to be an important and innovative challenge. It is also crucial from the practical point of view as it is necessary to develop appropriate generalization algorithms for the purpose of the General Geographic Objects Database generalization which is the essential Spatial Data Infrastructure component in Poland. The author proposes and verifies quantitative generalization parameters for the purpose of the settlement selection process in small-scale maps. The selection of settlements was carried out in two research areas - in Lower Silesia and Łódź Province. Based on the conducted analysis appropriate contextual-sensitive settlements selection parameters have been defined. Particular effort has been made to develop a methodology of quantitative settlements selection which would be useful in the automation processes and that would make it possible to keep specifics of generalized objects unchanged.

  13. Selective control of small versus large diameter axons using infrared laser light (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lothet, Emilie H.; Shaw, Kendrick M.; Horn, Charles C.; Lu, Hui; Wang, Yves T.; Jansen, E. Duco; Chiel, Hillel J.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2016-03-01

    Sensory information is conveyed to the central nervous system via small diameter unmyelinated fibers. In general, smaller diameter axons have slower conduction velocities. Selective control of such fibers could create new clinical treatments for chronic pain, nausea in response to chemo-therapeutic agents, or hypertension. Electrical stimulation can control axonal activity, but induced axonal current is proportional to cross-sectional area, so that large diameter fibers are affected first. Physiologically, however, synaptic inputs generally affect small diameter fibers before large diameter fibers (the size principle). A more physiological modality that first affected small diameter fibers could have fewer side effects (e.g., not recruiting motor axons). A novel mathematical analysis of the cable equation demonstrates that the minimum length along the axon for inducing block scales with the square root of axon diameter. This implies that the minimum length along an axon for inhibition will scale as the square root of axon diameter, so that lower radiant exposures of infrared light will selectively affect small diameter, slower conducting fibers before those of large diameter. This prediction was tested in identified neurons from the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Radiant exposure to block a neuron with a slower conduction velocity (B43) was consistently lower than that needed to block a faster conduction velocity neuron (B3). Furthermore, in the vagus nerve of the musk shrew, lower radiant exposure blocked slow conducting fibers before blocking faster conducting fibers. Infrared light can selectively control smaller diameter fibers, suggesting many novel clinical treatments.

  14. Population Variation Reveals Independent Selection toward Small Body Size in Chinese Debao Pony

    PubMed Central

    Kader, Adiljan; Li, Yan; Dong, Kunzhe; Irwin, David M.; Zhao, Qianjun; He, Xiaohong; Liu, Jianfeng; Pu, Yabin; Gorkhali, Neena Amatya; Liu, Xuexue; Jiang, Lin; Li, Xiangchen; Guan, Weijun; Zhang, Yaping; Wu, Dong-Dong; Ma, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    Body size, one of the most important quantitative traits under evolutionary scrutiny, varies considerably among species and among populations within species. Revealing the genetic basis underlying this variation is very important, particularly in humans where there is a close relationship with diseases and in domestic animals as the selective patterns are associated with improvements in production traits. The Debao pony is a horse breed with small body size that is unique to China; however, it is unknown whether the size-related candidate genes identified in Western breeds also account for the small body size of the Debao pony. Here, we compared individual horses from the Debao population with other two Chinese horse populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with the Equine SNP 65 Bead Chip. The previously reported size-related candidate gene HMGA2 showed a significant signature for selection, consistent with its role observed in human populations. More interestingly, we found a candidate gene TBX3, which had not been observed in previous studies on horse body size that displayed the highest differentiation and most significant association, and thus likely is the dominating factor for the small stature of the Debao pony. Further comparison between the Debao pony and other breeds of horses from around the world demonstrated that TBX3 was selected independently in the Debao pony, suggesting that there were multiple origins of small stature in the horse. PMID:26637467

  15. Population Variation Reveals Independent Selection toward Small Body Size in Chinese Debao Pony.

    PubMed

    Kader, Adiljan; Li, Yan; Dong, Kunzhe; Irwin, David M; Zhao, Qianjun; He, Xiaohong; Liu, Jianfeng; Pu, Yabin; Gorkhali, Neena Amatya; Liu, Xuexue; Jiang, Lin; Li, Xiangchen; Guan, Weijun; Zhang, Yaping; Wu, Dong-Dong; Ma, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    Body size, one of the most important quantitative traits under evolutionary scrutiny, varies considerably among species and among populations within species. Revealing the genetic basis underlying this variation is very important, particularly in humans where there is a close relationship with diseases and in domestic animals as the selective patterns are associated with improvements in production traits. The Debao pony is a horse breed with small body size that is unique to China; however, it is unknown whether the size-related candidate genes identified in Western breeds also account for the small body size of the Debao pony. Here, we compared individual horses from the Debao population with other two Chinese horse populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with the Equine SNP 65 Bead Chip. The previously reported size-related candidate gene HMGA2 showed a significant signature for selection, consistent with its role observed in human populations. More interestingly, we found a candidate gene TBX3, which had not been observed in previous studies on horse body size that displayed the highest differentiation and most significant association, and thus likely is the dominating factor for the small stature of the Debao pony. Further comparison between the Debao pony and other breeds of horses from around the world demonstrated that TBX3 was selected independently in the Debao pony, suggesting that there were multiple origins of small stature in the horse. PMID:26637467

  16. Genetic drift vs. natural selection in a long-term small isolated population: major histocompatibility complex class II variation in the Gulf of California endemic porpoise (Phocoena sinus).

    PubMed

    Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Esquer-Garrigos, Yareli; Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo; Vazquez-Juarez, Ricardo; Castro-Prieto, Aines; Flores-Ramirez, Sergio

    2007-10-01

    Although many studies confirm long-term small isolated populations (e.g. island endemics) commonly sustain low neutral genetic variation as a result of genetic drift, it is less clear how selection on adaptive or detrimental genes interplay with random forces. We investigated sequence variation at two major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II loci on a porpoise endemic to the upper Gulf of California, México (Phocoena sinus, or vaquita). Its unique declining population is estimated around 500 individuals. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis revealed one putative functional allele fixed at the locus DQB (n = 25). At the DRB locus, we found two presumed functional alleles (n = 29), differing by a single nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution that could increase the stability at the dimer interface of alphabeta-heterodimers on heterozygous individuals. Identical trans-specific DQB1 and DRB1 alleles were identified between P. sinus and its closest relative, the Burmeister's porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis). Comparison with studies on four island endemic mammals suggests fixation of one allele, due to genetic drift, commonly occurs at the DQA or DQB loci (effectively neutral). Similarly, deleterious alleles of small effect are also effectively neutral and can become fixed; a high frequency of anatomical malformations on vaquita gave empirical support to this prediction. In contrast, retention of low but functional polymorphism at the DRB locus was consistent with higher selection intensity. These observations indicated natural selection could maintain (and likely also purge) some crucial alleles even in the face of strong and prolonged genetic drift and inbreeding, suggesting long-term small populations should display low inbreeding depression. Low levels of Mhc variation warn about a high susceptibility to novel pathogens and diseases in vaquita. PMID:17727623

  17. Ecotoxicology of wild mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Shore, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that for birds, a detailed examination of scientific publications and databases reveal that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various taxa of mammals, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis (e.g., shrews, moles and bats). Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues. Overarching research needs include: development of new exposure/effects models and better methods for estimation of species sensitivities; generation of comparative data on contaminant bioavailability, sublethal responses and detoxication mechanisms; enhanced understanding of pesticide, industrial contaminant and metal interactions; identification of endocrine disruptive contaminants and their overall ecological significance; and finally, estimating the relative contribution of environmental contamination as a factor affecting wild mammal populations.

  18. Small Molecule Microarrays Enable the Identification of a Selective, Quadruplex-Binding Inhibitor of MYC Expression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor MYC plays a pivotal role in cancer initiation, progression, and maintenance. However, it has proven difficult to develop small molecule inhibitors of MYC. One attractive route to pharmacological inhibition of MYC has been the prevention of its expression through small molecule-mediated stabilization of the G-quadruplex (G4) present in its promoter. Although molecules that bind globally to quadruplex DNA and influence gene expression are well-known, the identification of new chemical scaffolds that selectively modulate G4-driven genes remains a challenge. Here, we report an approach for the identification of G4-binding small molecules using small molecule microarrays (SMMs). We use the SMM screening platform to identify a novel G4-binding small molecule that inhibits MYC expression in cell models, with minimal impact on the expression of other G4-associated genes. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and thermal melt assays demonstrated that this molecule binds reversibly to the MYC G4 with single digit micromolar affinity, and with weaker or no measurable binding to other G4s. Biochemical and cell-based assays demonstrated that the compound effectively silenced MYC transcription and translation via a G4-dependent mechanism of action. The compound induced G1 arrest and was selectively toxic to MYC-driven cancer cell lines containing the G4 in the promoter but had minimal effects in peripheral blood mononucleocytes or a cell line lacking the G4 in its MYC promoter. As a measure of selectivity, gene expression analysis and qPCR experiments demonstrated that MYC and several MYC target genes were downregulated upon treatment with this compound, while the expression of several other G4-driven genes was not affected. In addition to providing a novel chemical scaffold that modulates MYC expression through G4 binding, this work suggests that the SMM screening approach may be broadly useful as an approach for the identification of new G4-binding small

  19. Climate change and seasonal reproduction in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Bronson, F. H.

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction is common among mammals at all latitudes, even in the deep tropics. This paper (i) discusses the neuroendocrine pathways via which foraging conditions and predictive cues such as photoperiod enforce seasonality, (ii) considers the kinds of seasonal challenges mammals actually face in natural habitats, and (iii) uses the information thus generated to suggest how seasonal reproduction might be influenced by global climate change. Food availability and ambient temperature determine energy balance, and variation in energy balance is the ultimate cause of seasonal breeding in all mammals and the proximate cause in many. Photoperiodic cueing is common among long-lived mammals from the highest latitudes down to the mid-tropics. It is much less common in shorter lived mammals at all latitudes. An unknown predictive cue triggers reproduction in some desert and dry grassland species when it rains. The available information suggests that as our climate changes the small rodents of the world may adapt rather easily but the longer lived mammals whose reproduction is regulated by photoperiod may not do so well. A major gap in our knowledge concerns the tropics; that is where most species live and where we have the least understanding of how reproduction is regulated by environmental factors. PMID:19833645

  20. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    PubMed

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. PMID:25236413

  1. 48 CFR 2436.602-5 - Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed the small purchase limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 2436.602-5 Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed the small purchase limitation. The short selection process described...

  2. 48 CFR 2436.602-5 - Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed the small purchase limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 2436.602-5 Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed the small purchase limitation. The short selection process described...

  3. 48 CFR 2436.602-5 - Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed the small purchase limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 2436.602-5 Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed the small purchase limitation. The short selection process described...

  4. Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2013-01-01

    study of populations with major data gaps, including offshore small cetaceans, cryptic species, and marine mammals in low latitudes and developing nations, is needed to better understand the status of marine mammal populations worldwide. PMID:24205025

  5. Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1985-01-01

    The interrelationship of print and electronic media in the hospital library and the relevance of the "Selected List" in 1985 are discussed in the introduction to this revised list of 583 books and 138 journals. The list is meant to be a selection guide for the small or medium-size library in a hospital or comparable medical facility, or a core collection for a consortium of small hospital libraries. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase by smaller libraries are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for 1985 subscriptions to all the journals would require about $45,200. The cost of only the asterisked items totals approximately $16,100. PMID:3888331

  6. Selected list of Books and Journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of the "Selected List" to collection development is explored in the introduction to this revised list of 559 books and 135 journals. The list is intended as a selection guide for the small or medium-sized library in a hospital or comparable medical facility or as a core collection for a consortium of small hospital libraries. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase by smaller libraries (155 books and 54 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for annual subscriptions would require an expenditure of about $38,900. The cost of only the asterisked items totals approximately $13,200. PMID:6190523

  7. Effective gene selection method with small sample sets using gradient-based and point injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, D; Chow, Tommy W S

    2007-01-01

    Microarray gene expression data usually consist of a large amount of genes. Among these genes, only a small fraction is informative for performing cancer diagnostic test. This paper focuses on effective identification of informative genes. We analyze gene selection models from the perspective of optimization theory. As a result, a new strategy is designed to modify conventional search engines. Also, as overfitting is likely to occur in microarray data because of their small sample set, a point injection technique is developed to address the problem of overfitting. The proposed strategies have been evaluated on three kinds of cancer diagnosis. Our results show that the proposed strategies can improve the performance of gene selection substantially. The experimental results also indicate that the proposed methods are very robust under all the investigated cases. PMID:17666766

  8. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library *

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.

    1969-01-01

    This updated list of 398 books and 141 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for first purchase by smaller libraries are noted by an asterisk. PMID:4888285

  9. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library *

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.

    1971-01-01

    This updated list of 389 books and 135 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for first purchase by smaller libraries are noted by an asterisk. PMID:5582092

  10. Selective instability of Orc1 protein accounts for the absence of functional origin recognition complexes during the M-G(1) transition in mammals.

    PubMed

    Natale, D A; Li, C J; Sun, W H; DePamphilis, M L

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the events leading to initiation of DNA replication in mammalian chromosomes, the time when hamster origin recognition complexes (ORCs) became functional was related to the time when Orc1, Orc2 and Mcm3 proteins became stably bound to hamster chromatin. Functional ORCs, defined as those able to initiate DNA replication, were absent during mitosis and early G(1) phase, and reappeared as cells progressed through G(1) phase. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that hamster Orc1 and Orc2 proteins were present in nuclei at equivalent concentrations throughout the cell cycle, but only Orc2 was stably bound to chromatin. Orc1 and Mcm3 were easily eluted from chromatin during mitosis and early G(1) phase, but became stably bound during mid-G(1) phase, concomitant with the appearance of a functional pre-replication complex at a hamster replication origin. Since hamster Orc proteins are closely related to their human and mouse homologs, the unexpected behavior of hamster Orc1 provides a novel mechanism in mammals for delaying assembly of pre-replication complexes until mitosis is complete and a nuclear structure has formed. PMID:10835370

  11. Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N

    1977-01-01

    This revised list of 472 books and 138 journals is intended as a selection guide for small or medium-sized hospital libraries or for the small medical library serving a specified clientele. It can also be used as a core list by small hospital library consortia. Books and journals are categorized by subject, with the books being followed by an author index and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase by smaller libraries are indicated by an asterisk. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for annual subscriptions to all the journals would require an expenditure of about $18,200. The cost of only the asterisked items recommended for first purchase totals approximately $4,500. PMID:321057

  12. Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1979-01-01

    This revised list of 492 books and 138 journals is intended as a selection guide for small or medium-sized hospital libraries or for the small medical library serving a specified clientele. It can also be used as a core list by small hospital library consortia. Books and journals are categorized by subject, with the books being followed by an author index and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase by smaller libraries are indicated by an asterisk. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for annual subscriptions to all the journals would require an expenditure of about $22,500. The cost of only the asterisked items, recommended for first purchase, totals approximately $6,100. PMID:380695

  13. Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1981-01-01

    This revised list of 539 books and 136 journals is intended as a selection guide for small or medium-sized hospital libraries or for small medical libraries in comparable health care facilities. It can also be used as a core list by consortia of small hospital libraries. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author index and the list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase by smaller libraries, 137 books and 54 journals, are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for annual subscriptions to all the journals would require an expenditure of about $30,000. The cost of only the asterisked items, which are recommended for first purchase, totals approximately $8,900. PMID:7225656

  14. Small sample training and test selection method for optimized anomaly detection algorithms in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindrup, Frank M.; Friend, Mark A.; Bauer, Kenneth W.

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous anomaly detection algorithms proposed for hyperspectral imagery. Robust parameter design (RPD) techniques provide an avenue to select robust settings capable of operating consistently across a large variety of image scenes. Many researchers in this area are faced with a paucity of data. Unfortunately, there are no data splitting methods for model validation of datasets with small sample sizes. Typically, training and test sets of hyperspectral images are chosen randomly. Previous research has developed a framework for optimizing anomaly detection in HSI by considering specific image characteristics as noise variables within the context of RPD; these characteristics include the Fisher's score, ratio of target pixels and number of clusters. We have developed method for selecting hyperspectral image training and test subsets that yields consistent RPD results based on these noise features. These subsets are not necessarily orthogonal, but still provide improvements over random training and test subset assignments by maximizing the volume and average distance between image noise characteristics. The small sample training and test selection method is contrasted with randomly selected training sets as well as training sets chosen from the CADEX and DUPLEX algorithms for the well known Reed-Xiaoli anomaly detector.

  15. Economic evaluation of genomic selection in small ruminants: a sheep meat breeding program.

    PubMed

    Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Lemarié, S; Fugeray-Scarbel, A; Elsen, J M

    2016-06-01

    Recent genomic evaluation studies using real data and predicting genetic gain by modeling breeding programs have reported moderate expected benefits from the replacement of classic selection schemes by genomic selection (GS) in small ruminants. The objectives of this study were to compare the cost, monetary genetic gain and economic efficiency of classic selection and GS schemes in the meat sheep industry. Deterministic methods were used to model selection based on multi-trait indices from a sheep meat breeding program. Decisional variables related to male selection candidates and progeny testing were optimized to maximize the annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG), that is, a weighted sum of meat and maternal traits annual genetic gains. For GS, a reference population of 2000 individuals was assumed and genomic information was available for evaluation of male candidates only. In the classic selection scheme, males breeding values were estimated from own and offspring phenotypes. In GS, different scenarios were considered, differing by the information used to select males (genomic only, genomic+own performance, genomic+offspring phenotypes). The results showed that all GS scenarios were associated with higher total variable costs than classic selection (if the cost of genotyping was 123 euros/animal). In terms of AMGG and economic returns, GS scenarios were found to be superior to classic selection only if genomic information was combined with their own meat phenotypes (GS-Pheno) or with their progeny test information. The predicted economic efficiency, defined as returns (proportional to number of expressions of AMGG in the nucleus and commercial flocks) minus total variable costs, showed that the best GS scenario (GS-Pheno) was up to 15% more efficient than classic selection. For all selection scenarios, optimization increased the overall AMGG, returns and economic efficiency. As a conclusion, our study shows that some forms of GS strategies are more advantageous

  16. DNA aptamer functionalized zinc oxide field effect transistors for liquid state selective sensing of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Joshua A.; Kim, Sang N.; Bayraktaroglu, Burhan; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R.; Stone, Morley O.

    2010-08-01

    In this work, we show the use of single stranded DNA aptamers as selective biorecognition elements in a sensor based on a field effect transistor (FET) platform. Aptamers are chemically attached to the semiconducting material in the FET through the use of linker molecules and confirmed through atomic force microscopy and positive target detection. Highly selective sensing of a small molecule, riboflavin is shown down to the nano-molar level in zinc oxide FET and micro-molar level in a carbon nanotube FET. High selectivity is determined through the use of negative control target molecules with similar molecular structures as the positive control targets with little to no sensor response. The goal of this work is to develop a sensor platform where biorecognition elements can be used to functionalize an array of transistors for simultaneous sensing of multiple targets in biological fluids.

  17. Selective vapor phase sensing of small molecules using biofunctionalized field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Joshua A.; Kim, Sang Nyon; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R.; Stone, Morley O.

    2011-05-01

    This work details a proof of concept study for vapor phase selective sensing using a strategy of biorecognition elements (BRE) integrated into a zinc oxide field effect transistor (ZnO FET). ZnO FETs are highly sensitive to changes to the environment with little to no selectivity. Addition of a biorecognition element retains the sensitivity of the device while adding selectivity. The DNA aptamer designed to bind the small molecule riboflavin was covalently integrated into the ZnO FET and detects the presence of 116 ppb of riboflavin in a nitrogen atmosphere by a change in current. The unfunctionalized ZnO FET shows no response to this same concentrations of riboflavin, showing that the aptamerbinding strategy may be a promising strategy for vapor phase sensing.

  18. Adaptive radiation of multituberculate mammals before the extinction of dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory P; Evans, Alistair R; Corfe, Ian J; Smits, Peter D; Fortelius, Mikael; Jernvall, Jukka

    2012-03-22

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction approximately 66 million years ago is conventionally thought to have been a turning point in mammalian evolution. Prior to that event and for the first two-thirds of their evolutionary history, mammals were mostly confined to roles as generalized, small-bodied, nocturnal insectivores, presumably under selection pressures from dinosaurs. Release from these pressures, by extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, triggered ecological diversification of mammals. Although recent individual fossil discoveries have shown that some mammalian lineages diversified ecologically during the Mesozoic era, comprehensive ecological analyses of mammalian groups crossing the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary are lacking. Such analyses are needed because diversification analyses of living taxa allow only indirect inferences of past ecosystems. Here we show that in arguably the most evolutionarily successful clade of Mesozoic mammals, the Multituberculata, an adaptive radiation began at least 20 million years before the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs and continued across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Disparity in dental complexity, which relates to the range of diets, rose sharply in step with generic richness and disparity in body size. Moreover, maximum dental complexity and body size demonstrate an adaptive shift towards increased herbivory. This dietary expansion tracked the ecological rise of angiosperms and suggests that the resources that were available to multituberculates were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Taken together, our results indicate that mammals were able to take advantage of new ecological opportunities in the Mesozoic and that at least some of these opportunities persisted through the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Similar broad-scale ecomorphological inventories of other radiations may help to constrain the possible causes of mass extinctions

  19. Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that

  20. Determination of inorganic constituents in marine mammal tissues.

    PubMed

    Zeisler, R; Demiralp, R; Koster, B J; Becker, P R; Burow, M; Ostapczuk, P; Wise, S A

    1993-11-01

    Analyses of selected tissues from the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) have provided comprehensive information related to levels of 36 trace elements and methyl-mercury in marine mammal tissues. Liver, kidney and muscle tissues from two northern fur seals, four ringed seals and six belukha whales were analyzed. The bulk of the investigated tissues and additional tissues from a total of 65 marine mammals are banked in the AMMTAP. The results are compared to literature values for trace element concentrations in marine mammal tissues and their relevance to environmental studies is discussed. PMID:8272841

  1. 77 FR 21539 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...NMFS has received a request from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) for authorization to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting sturgeon research in the Gulf of Mexico, over the course of 5 years from the date of issuance. Pursuant to regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of USFWS's request for the......

  2. 77 FR 25692 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16479

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... FR 72389) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been submitted by the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA840 Marine Mammals; File No. 16479 AGENCY... selecting File No. 16479 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available...

  3. 77 FR 12815 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16160

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 68161) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16160 AGENCY... selecting File No. 16160 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Selective Enforcement Auditing Pt. 90, Subpt. F, App. A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Selective Enforcement Auditing Pt. 90, Subpt. F, App. A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Selective Enforcement Auditing Pt. 90, Subpt. F, App. A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Selective Enforcement Auditing Pt. 90, Subpt. F, App. A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Selective Enforcement Auditing Pt. 90, Subpt. F, App. A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad...

  9. Selectivity by Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Protein Interactions Can Be Driven by Protein Surface Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David K.; Karanicolas, John

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecules that inhibit interactions between specific pairs of proteins have long represented a promising avenue for therapeutic intervention in a variety of settings. Structural studies have shown that in many cases, the inhibitor-bound protein adopts a conformation that is distinct from its unbound and its protein-bound conformations. This plasticity of the protein surface presents a major challenge in predicting which members of a protein family will be inhibited by a given ligand. Here, we use biased simulations of Bcl-2-family proteins to generate ensembles of low-energy conformations that contain surface pockets suitable for small molecule binding. We find that the resulting conformational ensembles include surface pockets that mimic those observed in inhibitor-bound crystal structures. Next, we find that the ensembles generated using different members of this protein family are overlapping but distinct, and that the activity of a given compound against a particular family member (ligand selectivity) can be predicted from whether the corresponding ensemble samples a complementary surface pocket. Finally, we find that each ensemble includes certain surface pockets that are not shared by any other family member: while no inhibitors have yet been identified to take advantage of these pockets, we expect that chemical scaffolds complementing these “distinct” pockets will prove highly selective for their targets. The opportunity to achieve target selectivity within a protein family by exploiting differences in surface fluctuations represents a new paradigm that may facilitate design of family-selective small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. PMID:25706586

  10. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  11. Protection of mammal diversity in Central America.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Clinton N; Giri, Chandra

    2008-08-01

    Central America is exceptionally rich in biodiversity, but varies widely in the attention its countries devote to conservation. Protected areas, widely considered the cornerstone of conservation, were not always created with the intent of conserving that biodiversity. We assessed how well the protected-area system of Central America includes the region's mammal diversity. This first required a refinement of existing range maps to reduce their extensive errors of commission (i.e., predicted presences in places where species do not occur). For this refinement, we used the ecological limits of each species to identify and remove unsuitable areas from the range. We then compared these maps with the locations of protected areas to measure the habitat protected for each of the region's 250 endemic mammals. The species most vulnerable to extinction-those with small ranges-were largely outside protected areas. Nevertheless, the most strictly protected areas tended toward areas with many small-ranged species. To improve the protection coverage of mammal diversity in the region, we identified a set of priority sites that would best complement the existing protected areas. Protecting these new sites would require a relatively small increase in the total area protected, but could greatly enhance mammal conservation. PMID:18616739

  12. Paternal kin recognition in the high frequency / ultrasonic range in a solitary foraging mammal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity. Recognition of paternal kin using vocalizations occurs in taxa with cohesive, complex social groups. This is the first investigation of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitary foraging mammal, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a frequent model for ancestral primates. We analyzed the high frequency/ultrasonic male advertisement (courtship) call and alarm call. Results Multi-parametric analyses of the calls’ acoustic parameters and discriminant function analyses showed that advertisement calls, but not alarm calls, contain patrilineal signatures. Playback experiments controlling for familiarity showed that females paid more attention to advertisement calls from unrelated males than from their fathers. Reactions to alarm calls from unrelated males and fathers did not differ. Conclusions 1) Findings provide the first evidence of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitarily foraging mammal. 2) High predation, small body size, and dispersed social systems may select for acoustic paternal kin recognition in the high frequency/ultrasonic ranges, thus limiting risks of inbreeding and eavesdropping by predators or conspecific competitors. 3) Paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in mammals is not dependent upon a large brain and high social complexity, but may already have been an integral part of the dispersed social networks from which more complex, kin-based sociality emerged. PMID:23198727

  13. 48 CFR 2436.602-5 - Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed the small purchase limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Short selection processes... CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 2436.602-5 Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed the small purchase limitation. The short selection process described...

  14. Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N

    1975-01-01

    This revised list of 446 books and 137 journals is intended as a selection guide for small or medium-sized hospital libraries or for the small medical library serving a specified clientele. Books and journals are categorized by subject, with the books being followed by an author index and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase by smaller libraries are indicated by an asterisk. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for annual subscriptions to all the journals would require an expenditure for about $14,500. The cost of only the asterisked items recommended for first purchase totals approximately $4,100. PMID:1095095

  15. Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1989-01-01

    In the introduction to this revised list of 607 books and 141 journals, quality assurance programs of health care institutions and patient education are suggested as vehicles for more directly involving the hospital library and its collection in patient care. This list is intended as a selection guide for the small or medium-sized library in a hospital or comparable medical facility, or as a core collection for a consortium of small hospital libraries. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for 1989 subscriptions would require about $63,500. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $24,000. PMID:2655782

  16. Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1991-01-01

    The current financial status of the health care industry is viewed both from its effect on the hospital library collection and the response of the hospital library to the financial crisis. Predecessors of this list have been intended as selection guides for a small or medium-size library in a hospital or comparable medical facility. As the prices of books and journals continue to soar, the secondary purpose as a core collection for a consortium of small hospital libraries or a network sharing library resources may eventually become its primary use. Books (607) and journals (140) are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for 1991 subscriptions would require about $77,700. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $29,300. PMID:2039906

  17. Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1987-01-01

    The impact that the hospital librarian's use of management techniques and comprehension of the highly competitive health care environment can have on collection development and resulting information services in his or her library is reviewed in the introduction to this revised list of 600 books and 139 journals. The list is intended as a selection guide for the small or medium-size library in a hospital or comparable medical facility, or a core collection for a consortium of small hospital libraries. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase by smaller libraries are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for 1987 subscriptions to all journals would require about $52,600. The cost of only the asterisked items totals approximately $21,000. PMID:3594025

  18. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library *

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.

    1973-01-01

    This updated list of 410 books and 136 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for first purchase by smaller libraries are noted by an asterisk. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for the annual subscription costs of all the journals would require an expenditure of about $12,000. To acquire only those items suggested for first purchase, approximately $3,250 would be needed. PMID:4702804

  19. Selection of Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma for Surgical Resection

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Norman W.

    1985-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is rapidly increasing in incidence in both sexes and soon will overtake breast cancer as the most deadly cancer in women. Selection of patients with non-small-cell carcinoma for surgical resection is largely based on preoperative clinical staging, using the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM-based group staging protocol. Determining the presence or absence of mediastinal nodal metastasis is paramount and is currently best achieved by computed tomographic scanning of the chest and biopsy of enlarged nodes via mediastinoscopy. Certain types of stage III lesions, previously excluded from surgical treatment, are now recognized as operable. PMID:3909642

  20. The effect of gender and age differences on media selection in small and medium tourism enterprises.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Majid A; Zarei, Behrouz; Dehkordi, Shabnam A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that gender and age differences have on the communication media selection within the context of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMEs). Media Richness Theory (MRT) was used to assess media preferences in the firms. Using a mail questionnaire, data from 78 firms were collected on seven popular media in use. Historical data of the firms, media characteristics, and other firm-specific factors were included in the analysis. The results indicated that there are substantial gender and age differences in term of communication media selection. This is consistent with MRT and highlights the importance of choosing the appropriate media in SMEs, according with the employee's behaviors, in order to achieve better outcomes and to smooth the path towards good performance in the future. PMID:18954272

  1. Mammals With Hooves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about mammals that have hooves, including definitions and descriptions of their characteristics. Contains teaching activities such as "Build a Paper Pachyderm,""Do the Funky Trunk Dance,""A Horse of a Different Color," and "Horns and Antlers." A reproducible quiz is also provided. (TW)

  2. A killer appetite: metabolic consequences of carnivory in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Williams, T M; Haun, J; Davis, R W; Fuiman, L A; Kohin, S

    2001-07-01

    Among terrestrial mammals, the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract reflects the metabolic demands of the animal and individual requirements for processing, distributing, and absorbing nutrients. To determine if gastrointestinal tract morphology is similarly correlated with metabolic requirements in marine mammals, we examined the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and small intestinal length in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Oxygen consumption was measured for resting bottlenose dolphins and Weddell seals, and the results combined with data for four additional species of carnivorous marine mammal. Data for small intestinal length were obtained from previously published reports. Similar analyses were conducted for five species of carnivorous terrestrial mammal, for which BMR and intestinal length were known. The results indicate that the BMRs of Weddell seals and dolphins resting on the water surface are 1.6 and 2.3 times the predicted levels for similarly sized domestic terrestrial mammals, respectively. Small intestinal lengths for carnivorous marine mammals depend on body size and are comparatively longer than those of terrestrial carnivores. The relationship between basal metabolic rate (kcal day(-1)) and small intestinal length (m) for both marine and terrestrial carnivores was, BMR=142.5 intestinal length(1.20) (r(2)=0.83). We suggest that elevated metabolic rates among marine mammal carnivores are associated with comparatively large alimentary tracts that are presumably required for supporting the energetic demands of an aquatic lifestyle and for feeding on vertebrate and invertebrate prey. PMID:11440865

  3. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  4. Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this revised list (seventeenth version) of 610 books and 141 journals addresses the origin, three decades ago, of the "Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library," and the accomplishments of the late Alfred N. Brandon in helping health sciences librarians, and especially hospital librarians, to envision what collection development and a library collection are all about. This list is intended as a selection guide for the small or medium-size library in a hospital or similar facility. More realistically, it can function as a core collection for a library consortium. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Due to continuing requests from librarians, a "minimal core" book collection consisting of 78 titles has been pulled out from the 200 asterisked (*) initial-purchase books and marked with daggers ([symbol: see text]). To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for 1997 journal subscriptions would require $101,700. The cost of only the asterisked items, books and journals, totals $43,100. The "minimal core" book collection costs $12,600. PMID:9160148

  5. Wavelet transform-based fault diagnosis and line selection method of small current grounding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ni; Zhang, Shuqing; Zhang, Liguo; Zhang, Kexin; Sun, Lingyun

    2008-12-01

    Small current grounding system is the system that the neutral point doesn't ground or grounds across the arc suppressing coils, which has been applied commonly in distribution system of many countries. As the grounding fault occurs, current is the one caused by capacity of circuit to ground only and it is rather small. The status of fault is complexity, e.g., the electromagnet interferes together with the amplified impact of zero-order loops to high-order singularity waves and various temporary variables. All these result in the lower ratio of the fault element signal to noise caused by zero-order current. In this paper, the position of signal singularity and the magnitude of the singularity degree are analyzed based on the variable focus character of wavelet, and the time fault occurs is then determined. The series db wavelet with close sustain is adopted, and the line selection is according to the zero-order voltage of the generatrix and the current of various outlet line. It is proved by the experiment that the fault circuit diagnosis method based on wavelet analysis to the character of temporary status of single-phase grounding fault plays an important role to a finer line selection.

  6. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  7. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  8. Pneumocystosis in wild small mammals from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Cyst forms of the opportunistic fungal parasite Pneumocystis carinii were found in the lungs of 34% of the desert shrew, Notiosorex crawfordi (n = 59), 13% of the ornate shrew, Sorex ornatus (n = 55), 6% of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes (n = 16), 2.5% of the California meadow vole, Microtus californicus (n = 40), and 50% of the California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus californicus (n = 2) caught from southern California between February 1998 and February 2000. Cysts were not found in any of the harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis (n = 21), California mouse, Peromyscus californicus (n = 20), brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii (n = 7) or deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (n = 4) examined. All infections were mild; extrapulmonary infections were not observed. Other lung parasites detected were Hepatozoon sp./ spp. from M. californicus and Notiosorex crawfordi, Chrysosporium sp. (Emmonsia) from M. californicus, and a nematode from S. ornatus.

  9. A mathematical analysis of small mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Hoppensteadt, F C; Murphy, L

    1987-01-01

    Populations of Microtus montanus, the montane vole, have been extensively studied. It is known that their reproductive activity is closely linked to the availability of the chemicals in growing plants. We use a mathematical model here to study how the length of the vegetative season and the natural reproduction rhythm of voles are involved in the long term dynamics of the population numbers. In particular, we use data obtained from Timpie Springs, Utah, and from Jackson Hole, Wyoming, to formulate a model. The novelty of this model is its use of littering curves that highlight the temporally discrete nature of vole reproduction. The model shows how the timing of the vegetative season can influence vole population sizes. PMID:3305751

  10. Small intestine motility development in newborn mammals.

    PubMed

    Woliński, Jarosław; Słupecka-Ziemilska, Monika; Boryczka, Maria; Grzesiak, Paulina; Kwiatkowski, Jakub; Kotarba, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been working to improve the understanding of gastrointestinal motility. The first major discovery was the observation of a migrating myoelectric complex that turned out to be a universal occurrence among vertebrates. Further inquires resulted in a detailed description of its development during different stages of ontogeny. Some time before that, a cornerstone had been laid for a breakthrough that would come years later. That cornerstone came in the form of interstitial cells of Cajal whose true role could not be discerned until the discovery of a CD117 receptor - their main marker. With the ability to precisely mark interstitial cells of Cajal, a wave of subsequent new experiments and observations connected them to the occurrence of slow waves and allowed an understanding of the mechanism responsible for their generation. Some of these findings suggested that Cajal cells might have a role in the development of several motility disorders thus opening an avenue of research that requires the usage of both traditional and advanced diagnostic methods. PMID:27416626

  11. Pneumocystosis in wild small mammals from California.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Fisher, R N; Case, T J

    2001-04-01

    Cyst forms of the opportunistic fungal parasite Pneumocystis carinii were found in the lungs of 34% of the desert shrew, Notiosorex crawfordi (n = 59), 13% of the ornate shrew, Sorex ornatus (n = 55), 6% of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes (n = 16), 2.5% of the California meadow vole, Microtus californicus (n = 40), and 50% of the California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus californicus (n = 2) caught from southern California between February 1998 and February 2000. Cysts were not found in any of the harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis (n = 21), California mouse, Peromyscus californicus (n = 20), brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii (n = 7) or deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (n = 4) examined. All infections were mild; extrapulmonary infections were not observed. Other lung parasites detected were Hepatozoon sp./spp. from M. californicus and Notiosorex crawfordi, Chrysosporium sp. (Emmonsia) from M. californicus, and a nematode from S. ornatus. PMID:11310900

  12. Optimal energy window selection of a CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Su-Jin; Yu, A. Ram; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has desirable characteristics such as superior energy resolution, but data acquisition for SPECT imaging has been widely performed with a conventional energy window. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal energy window settings for technetium-99