Science.gov

Sample records for small open economy

  1. Growth and the Current Account in a Small Open Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benge, Matt; Wells, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Offers a framework with which to analyze growth in a small economy with perfect capital mobility. Produces a diagrammatic representation of steady states that differs from the usual closed-economy Solow-Swan diagram. Uses the diagrams to compare open economy steady states with closed ones. Illustrate the possibility of endogenous income growth.…

  2. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation. PMID:17756868

  3. The monetary approach to the balance of payments: The case of the oil-based, small, open, developing economies of Libya, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Buzakuk, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    This study explores the determinants of foreign reserves flow in light of the oil-based small open economies of Libya, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. The period of study encompasses the major oil price increases of the 1970s and early 1980s, which had led to the huge transfers of foreign exchanges towards these, among other, developing economies. The framework of analysis is basically a monetary approach to the balance of payments. This study is of both a theoretical and empirical nature. It utilizes the monetary forces in the domestic money market to derive a basic balance of payments (BOP) equation that explains the monetary nature of the balance of payments. The study found that the data from those countries support the monetary relationships as hypothesized by the monetary approach, especially the negative one-to-one relation between domestic credit (DC) and the BOP. Results from the simultaneous estimations of the BOP and DC reported better estimates than the single-equation model. Findings from the reaction function indicated that the monetary authorities of these oil-based economies were actively sterilizing the effect of foreign reserve flows. Findings supported the integrated market hypothesis in Kuwait and Libya, but not in the Saudi case.

  4. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  5. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  6. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  7. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  8. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content…

  9. The Management of Managers: Challenges in a Small Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John; Boxall, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…

  10. Environmental and energy issues in an open economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kyungsoo

    The environmental and energy consequences of globalization have become an important topic of debate. My dissertation examines the interaction between environmental and energy issues and international trade. Specifically, I investigate environmental regulations and policy in an open economy. In the first chapter, I analyze how an environmental tax on pollution from consumption affects trade flows and welfare in an open economy. In particular, I argue that the effect of an environmental tax on the direction of trade flows depends on who is directly burdened by the regulation (consumers or producers) regardless of who is the polluter. In the case of pollution generated by consumers, a tax on consumers who are the polluters tends to increase exports and reduce imports of dirty goods. This result is the opposite of the well-known effect arising from taxes on pollution-intensive industries. Stringent environmental regulations on pollution-intensive industries diminishes exports and increases imports of dirty industries. In terms of welfare, I show the importance of targeting the policy instrument to the correct source of pollution. Assuming pollution is caused by the consumption of a good, a production tax has a weak effect on increasing welfare through reducing pollution. Furthermore, welfare can fall if the production tax ratio is too high, leading to reduced national income. The second chapter is motivated by recent trends in the U.S. economy: increasing imports from China, decreasing energy consumption, and increasing output. There are two primary theoretical approaches related to the relationship between energy use in U.S. manufacturing and increasing imports from China: Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) trade theory and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH). These two frameworks generate opposite predictions about the relationship between these trends. H-O theory suggests that with increased Chinese import penetration, U.S. manufacturing should move toward more energy

  11. Open Education and the Creative Economy: Global Perspectives and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is to deal the issues of open education, creative economies, higher education. It also compares the performances in these aspects among different countries. The conception of the "creative economy" develops within the context of "global neoliberalism" and "knowledge economy." These three notions are…

  12. Statistical Physics of Economic Systems: a Survey for Open Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yong; Chen, Xun

    2012-05-01

    We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.

  13. A Preliminary Analysis of Adaptive Responding Under Open and Closed Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roane, Henry S.; Call, Nathan A.; Falcomata, Terry S.

    2005-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In…

  14. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  15. Small-business employment in 22 rich economies.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, John; Lane, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Opponents of health care reform in the United States have often argued that such reform will be detrimental to small and medium-sized enterprises. The authors review the most recent data from a sample of 22 rich countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), all of which, except the United States, have universal health care systems. By every measure of small-business employment, the United States has among the world's smallest small-business sectors (as a proportion of total national employment). These findings hold for self-employed workers and across all industry groups for which the Paris-based OECD publishes internationally comparable data, including manufacturing, computer-related services, and research and development. PMID:20198809

  16. Open and continuous fermentation: products, conditions and bioprocess economy.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Chen, Xiang-bin; Chen, Jin-chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fermentation is the key to industrial biotechnology. Most fermentation processes are sensitive to microbial contamination and require an energy intensive sterilization process. The majority of microbial fermentations can only be conducted over a short period of time in a batch or fed-batch culture, further increasing energy consumption and process complexity, and these factors contribute to the high costs of bio-products. In an effort to make bio-products more economically competitive, increased attention has been paid to developing open (unsterile) and continuous processes. If well conducted, continuous fermentation processes will lead to the reduced cost of industrial bio-products. To achieve cost-efficient open and continuous fermentations, the feeding of raw materials and the removal of products must be conducted in a continuous manner without the risk of contamination, even under 'open' conditions. Factors such as the stability of the biological system as a whole during long cultivations, as well as the yield and productivity of the process, are also important. Microorganisms that grow under extreme conditions such as high or low pH, high osmotic pressure, and high or low temperature, as well as under conditions of mixed culturing, cell immobilization, and solid state cultivation, are of interest for developing open and continuous fermentation processes. PMID:25476917

  17. The Costs and Economies of Open and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    This book is designed to give planners of open and distance learning programs the technical information needed to determine the cost of programs and analyze the behavior of costs. The following are among the topics discussed: budgets; classification of resources (human resources, premises and accommodation, and equipment and furniture); a basic…

  18. OER and the Value of Openness: Implications for the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge economy is marked by recent trends in technological advancement, globalisation and increasing knowledge intensity. Through new technologies like Open Educational Resources (OER), knowledge can be freely accessed by individuals around the world, blurring traditional notions of ownership and prompting a social transformation manifested…

  19. Effect of energy prices and monetary policy on a smnall open economy: the case of Italy in the 1970s

    SciTech Connect

    Petruska, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is divided into theoretical and empirical sections. In the theory section a macroeconomic model of a small open economy in steady-state equilibrium is presented. The economy is assumed to be an importer of one of its factors of production energy. The dynamic finance constraints for the government and international sectors are carefully specified. The major analysis is of the conditions of long-run money neutrality, purchasing-power parity, and crowding-out. These conditions are found to depend on a lack of sensitivity of money demand to changes in the interest rate and the lack of a wealth effect in the consumption function. In the empirical section, the model is estimated using a three-step procedure. In the first step an instrumental variable is created for the domestic relative price of energy, which is employed in the second step to estimate an aggregate production function using a method introduced by Rasche and Tatom. The estimated coefficients of this aggregate production function are used to create a proxy for potential output which is used as an independent variable in estimating equations for real income, nominal income, and the price level.

  20. New Perspectives on the Rural Economy. Hearing on New Perspectives on the Rural Economy before the Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming of the Committee on Small Business. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Small Business.

    Testimony and prepared statements presented at a hearing before the Senate Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming focused on the concerns of rural small business. Witnesses included Senators from Montana, Illinois, New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa, and nine representatives of business, state government,…

  1. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  2. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis. PMID:26488206

  3. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  4. Staying Competitive. How Small and Mid-Sized Companies Are Meeting the Challenge of a Global Economy. Workforce Brief #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Terri; Kaufmann, Barbara

    Small and mid-sized businesses must change their production and service delivery methods if they are to remain competitive in a global economy. According to businesspersons, service providers, and employees who participated in 18 focus groups in 10 cities throughout the United States, businesses are being forced to change their ways of doing…

  5. Limit of small exits in open Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Jacobo; Sanjuán, Miguel A F

    2003-05-01

    The nature of open Hamiltonian systems is analyzed, when the size of the exits decreases and tends to zero. Fractal basins appear typically in open Hamiltonian systems, but we claim that in the limit of small exits, the invariant sets tend to fill up the whole phase space with the strong consequence that a new kind of basin appears, where the unpredictability grows indefinitely. This means that for finite, arbitrarily small accuracy, we can find uncertain basins, where any information about the future of the system is lost. This total indeterminism had only been reported in dissipative systems, in particular in the so-called intermingled riddled basins, as well as in the riddledlike basins. We show that this peculiar, behavior is a general feature of open Hamiltonian systems. PMID:12786244

  6. Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

  7. Early postoperative small bowel obstruction: open vs laparoscopic

    PubMed Central

    Goussous, Naeem; Kemp, Kevin M.; Bannon, Michael P.; Kendrick, Michael L.; Srvantstyan, Boris; Khasawneh, Mohammad A.; Zielinski, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The window for safe reoperation in early postoperative (<6 weeks) small bowel obstruction (ESBO) is short and intimately dependent on elapsed time from the initial operation. Laparoscopic procedures create fewer inflammatory changes than open laparotomies. We hypothesize that it is safer to reoperate for ESBO after laparoscopic procedures than open. METHODS Review of patients who underwent re-exploration for ESBO from 2003 to 2009 was performed. Based on the initial operation, patients were classified as “open” or “laparoscopic.” The Revised Accordion Severity Grading System was used to define complications as minor (1 to 2) or severe (3 to 6). RESULTS There were 189 patients identified (age 55 years, 48% male): 130 open and 59 laparoscopic. Adhesive disease was more common (65% vs 42%, P <.01), while strictures were less frequent (5% vs 14% P = .03), in the open group. The open group had a greater rate of malignancy, days to re-exploration, and severity of complications. There was no difference in the rates of minor complications, enterotomy, and mortality. ESBO after laparoscopic surgery was more commonly caused by a focal source (85% vs 63%). Eighty-three patients (64 open, 19 laparoscopic) underwent re-exploration at or beyond 14 days. Within this subgroup, there were more severe complications (25% vs 5%) after open procedures with equivalent mortality (4% vs 0%). CONCLUSIONS Laparoscopic approaches confer a lower rate of adhesive disease and severity of complications in early SBO as compared with open surgery even if performed after 2 weeks of index procedure. PMID:25457244

  8. Developing Entrepreneurial Economies in Rural Regions: Lessons from Kentucky and Appalachia. Open Field Occasional Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurwitt, Rob; Kimel, Kris

    A 1996 workshop held in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, explored the challenge of creating an entrepreneurial economy in predominantly rural states such as Kentucky with little or no history of widespread entrepreneurial activity. Traditional approaches to economic development in such states, such as spending on relocation incentives for out-of-state…

  9. R&D Centres in Mexico in an Open Economy: Redefining Operating Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gortari Rabiela, Rebeca; Corral, Maria Josefa Santos

    2004-01-01

    Structural changes in Mexico's economy and trade policies have influenced firms' efforts to achieve technological innovation and improve their learning processes. In this context, R&D centres face new challenges in responding to firms' technological needs. The authors analyse how this new environment is affecting the operating practices of R&D…

  10. The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.

    PubMed

    Fox, D K; Hopkins, B L; Anger, W K

    1987-01-01

    A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment damage, or failed to report accidents or injuries. The stamps could be exchanged for a selection of thousands of items at redemption stores. Implementation of the token economy was followed by large reductions in the number of days lost from work because of injuries, the number of lost-time injuries, and the costs of accidents and injuries. The reductions in costs far exceeded the costs of operating the token economy. All improvements were maintained over several years. PMID:3667473

  11. Hundreds of putatively functional small open reading frames in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between DNA sequence and encoded information is still an unsolved puzzle. The number of protein-coding genes in higher eukaryotes identified by genome projects is lower than was expected, while a considerable amount of putatively non-coding transcription has been detected. Functional small open reading frames (smORFs) are known to exist in several organisms. However, coding sequence detection methods are biased against detecting such very short open reading frames. Thus, a substantial number of non-canonical coding regions encoding short peptides might await characterization. Results Using bio-informatics methods, we have searched for smORFs of less than 100 amino acids in the putatively non-coding euchromatic DNA of Drosophila melanogaster, and initially identified nearly 600,000 of them. We have studied the pattern of conservation of these smORFs as coding entities between D. melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura, their presence in syntenic and in transcribed regions of the genome, and their ratio of conservative versus non-conservative nucleotide changes. For negative controls, we compared the results with those obtained using random short sequences, while a positive control was provided by smORFs validated by proteomics data. Conclusions The combination of these analyses led us to postulate the existence of at least 401 functional smORFs in Drosophila, with the possibility that as many as 4,561 such functional smORFs may exist. PMID:22118156

  12. Is Small Finally Becoming Beautiful? Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in the New Economy. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, J.; Ramioul, M.; Van Hootegem, G.

    This report addresses small and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs') role in the changing international division of labor and trade in information service activities. Chapter 2 describes the EMERGENCE project to map and measure eWork. Chapter 3 reviews literature that shows SMEs account for the overwhelming majority of companies and make a crucial…

  13. Madisonville Community College: Training Small Manufacturers To Be Competitive in the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    Madisonville Community College (MCC) is in Madisonville, Kentucky, a small town with a strong coal industry presence. Mine closings and layoffs in the 1980s prompted the region to reorient itself toward light industry and manufacturing, but the recession of the early 1990s and globalization led to closings of several of the largest employers. In…

  14. Computational discovery of small open reading frames in Bacillus lehensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Nurhafizhoh; Illias, Rosli Md.; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Bacillus lehensis is a Gram-positive and endospore-forming alkalitolerant bacterial strain. In recent years there has been increasing interest in alkaliphilic bacteria and their ability to grow under extreme conditions as well as their ability to serve various important functions in industrial biology especially enzyme production. Small open reading frames (sORFs) have emerged as important regulators in various biological roles such as tumor progression, hormone signalling and stress response. Over the past decade, many biocomputational tools have been developed to predict genes in bacterial genomes. In this study, three softwares were used to predict sORF (≤ 80 aa) in B. lehensis by using whole genome sequence. We used comparative analysis to identify the sORFs in B. lehensis that conserved across all other bacterial genomes. We extended the analysis by doing the homology analysis against protein database. This study established the sORFs in B. lehensis that are conserved across bacteria which might has important biological function which still remain elusive in biological field.

  15. Career and Training in the New Economy: A Study Focused to Small Scale Enterprises Located in OSTIM Organized Industrial Region in Ankara/Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Hasan Huseyin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe training levels related to careers, employment, and influences of "new economy" in small and mid-sized firms. The organizational side of career development behaviors was also a focus of this study. Interviews related to company policies and practices were conducted with 26 employers or managers…

  16. Impediments to global surveillance of infectious diseases: consequences of open reporting in a global economy.

    PubMed Central

    Cash, R. A.; Narasimhan, V.

    2000-01-01

    Globalization has led to an increase in the spread of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. International efforts are being launched to control their dissemination through global surveillance, a major hindrance to which is the failure of some countries to report outbreaks. Current guidelines and regulations on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases do not sufficiently take into account the fact that when developing countries report outbreaks they often derive few benefits and suffer disproportionately heavy social and economic consequences. In order to facilitate full participation in global surveillance by developing countries there should be: better and more affordable diagnostic capabilities to allow for timely and accurate information to be delivered in an open and transparent fashion; accurate, less sensationalist news reporting of outbreaks of diseases; adherence by countries to international regulations, including those of the World Trade Organization and the International Health Regulations; financial support for countries that are economically damaged by the diseases in question. The article presents two cases--plague in India and cholera in Peru--that illuminate some of the limitations of current practices. Recommendations are made on measures that could be taken by WHO and the world community to make global surveillance acceptable. PMID:11143197

  17. Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

  18. Future Job Openings: Australia in the Knowledge Economy. Project 2000-02: Changing Skill Requirements in the Australian Labour Force in a Knowledge Economy. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    Forecasts of Australian labor market growth, net replacement needs, and net job openings to 2006 are presented using the nine-way grouping of occupations described by (Maglen and Shah, 1999). Analysis is based on classifying occupations by whether they are advantaged by globalization and technological change, relatively insulated, or vulnerable.…

  19. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  20. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  1. Numerical simulation of pressure fluctuation in 1000MW Francis turbine under small opening condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, R. Z.; Wang, H. G.; Yao, Y.; Shu, L. F.; Huang, Y. J.

    2012-11-01

    In order to study the cause of abnormal vibration in large Francis turbine under small opening condition, CFD method was adopted to analyze the flow filed and pressure fluctuation. Numerical simulation was performed on the commercial CFD code Ansys FLUENT 12, using DES method. After an effective validation of the computation result, the flow behaviour of internal flow field under small opening condition is analyzed. Pressure fluctuation in different working mode is obtained by unsteady CFD simulation, and results is compared to study its change. Radial force fluctuation is also analyzed. The result shows that the unstable flow under small opening condition leads to an increase of turbine instability in reverse pump mode, and is one possible reason of the abnormal oscillation.

  2. 77 FR 30591 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

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  10. Development of a small single-ring OpenPET prototype with a novel transformable architecture.

    PubMed

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Shinaji, Tetsuya; Nitta, Munetaka; Kinouchi, Shoko; Suga, Mikio; Haneishi, Hideaki; Inaniwa, Taku; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-02-21

    The single-ring OpenPET (SROP), for which the detector arrangement has a cylinder shape cut by two parallel planes at a slant angle to form an open space, is our original proposal for in-beam PET. In this study, we developed a small prototype of an axial-shift type SROP (AS-SROP) with a novel transformable architecture for a proof-of-concept. In the AS-SROP, detectors originally forming a cylindrical PET are axially shifted little by little. We designed the small AS-SROP prototype for 4-layer depth-of-interaction detectors arranged in a ring diameter of 250 mm. The prototype had two modes: open and closed. The open mode formed the SROP with the open space of 139 mm and the closed mode formed a conventional cylindrical PET. The detectors were simultaneously moved by a rotation handle allowing them to be transformed between the two modes. We evaluated the basic performance of the developed prototype and carried out in-beam imaging tests in the HIMAC using (11)C radioactive beam irradiation. As a result, we found the open mode enabled in-beam PET imaging at a slight cost of imaging performance; the spatial resolution and sensitivity were 2.6 mm and 5.1% for the open mode and 2.1 mm and 7.3% for the closed mode. We concluded that the AS-SROP can minimize the decrease of resolution and sensitivity, for example, by transforming into the closed mode immediately after the irradiation while maintaining the open space only for the in-beam PET measurement. PMID:26854528

  11. Development of a small single-ring OpenPET prototype with a novel transformable architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Shinaji, Tetsuya; Nitta, Munetaka; Kinouchi, Shoko; Suga, Mikio; Haneishi, Hideaki; Inaniwa, Taku; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-02-01

    The single-ring OpenPET (SROP), for which the detector arrangement has a cylinder shape cut by two parallel planes at a slant angle to form an open space, is our original proposal for in-beam PET. In this study, we developed a small prototype of an axial-shift type SROP (AS-SROP) with a novel transformable architecture for a proof-of-concept. In the AS-SROP, detectors originally forming a cylindrical PET are axially shifted little by little. We designed the small AS-SROP prototype for 4-layer depth-of-interaction detectors arranged in a ring diameter of 250 mm. The prototype had two modes: open and closed. The open mode formed the SROP with the open space of 139 mm and the closed mode formed a conventional cylindrical PET. The detectors were simultaneously moved by a rotation handle allowing them to be transformed between the two modes. We evaluated the basic performance of the developed prototype and carried out in-beam imaging tests in the HIMAC using 11C radioactive beam irradiation. As a result, we found the open mode enabled in-beam PET imaging at a slight cost of imaging performance; the spatial resolution and sensitivity were 2.6 mm and 5.1% for the open mode and 2.1 mm and 7.3% for the closed mode. We concluded that the AS-SROP can minimize the decrease of resolution and sensitivity, for example, by transforming into the closed mode immediately after the irradiation while maintaining the open space only for the in-beam PET measurement.

  12. 76 FR 2196 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

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  13. Freedom of Development for Industry and Consumers. Small Business and the Social Market Economy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sonderdienst Special Report No. 1. Code No. 79. Q 6016.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Wilhelm; Breuer, Michael

    Small businesses have made a decisive contribution to the reconstruction and development of the German economy and society since World War II. The Federal Republic of Germany considers small-scale industry important and has granted tax relief and initiated a wide range of loan and guarantee programs for them. The Act against Restraints of…

  14. Identification of small open reading frames in the Glaciozyma antarctica genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat-Sharani, Shuhaila; Bharudin, Izwan; Zainuddin, Nursyafiqi; Abdul-Murad, Abdul-Munir; Abu-Bakar, Farah-Diba; Najimuddin, Nazalan; Mahadi, Nor-Muhammad; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Glaciozyma antarctica is an obligate psychrophilic yeast that was isolated from Casey Research Station, Antarctica. The objective of this study was to identify small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) in the G. antarctica genome. Small ORFs have been found in other organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human and they have been known to partake in a diverse variety of functions. In this study, ORFs were searched from the existing G. antarctica genome annotations and this resulted 294 sORFs (of at most 100 amino acids) which represented 4% of the 7857 annotated ORFs. Several of these sORFs were validated by mapping to EST and transcriptome of G. antarctica.

  15. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions. PMID:26175010

  16. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  17. [Concept and methodology on up-scaling issue of small watershed prototypes for reconstructing ecological economies in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu; Liu, Guobin; Chen, Youqi; Chang, Xin

    2004-06-01

    The general ecological situation of Loess Plateau is kept deteriorating, despite great efforts have been made and some achievements were gained after 50 years' endeavor to control soil erosion and renovate ecological landscape. Investigations on the past 20 years results from 11 experimental sites showed that the extension of prototypes and models derived from these sites, which were all based on one scale of small watershed, were unsatisfactory. The possible reasons for such a situation could be attributed to the too coarse scale of map, on which, the regional planning were set up and the locations of these experiment sites were decided, the too fine scale of the small watershed which were usually 3-10 km2 in size, the shortage of studies on various scales particularly on the meso-scale, and the lack of methods of scaling on up-scaling. Based on the analysis of restraints in management of small watershed, the specific concept and relevant proposed methods of resemblance-scaling and multi-scale complementarity were put forward and tested. PMID:15362634

  18. System design of a small OpenPET prototype with 4-layer DOI detectors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouchi, Shoko; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed an OpenPET geometry which consists of two axially separated detector rings. The open gap is suitable for in-beam PET. We have developed the small prototype of the OpenPET especially for a proof of concept of in-beam imaging. This paper presents an overview of the main features implemented in this prototype. We also evaluated the detector performance. This prototype was designed with 2 detector rings having 8 depth-of-interaction detectors. Each detector consisted of 784 Lu(2x)Gd(2(1-x))SiO₅:Ce (LGSO) which were arranged in a 4-layer design, coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PS-PMT). The size of the LGSO array was smaller than the sensitive area of the PS-PMT, so that we could obtain sufficient LGSO identification. Peripheral LGSOs near the open gap directly detect the gamma rays on the side face in the OpenPET geometry. Output signals of two detectors stacked axially were projected onto one 2-dimensional position histogram for reduction of the scale of a coincidence processor. Front-end circuits were separated from the detector head by 1.2-m coaxial cables for the protection of electronic circuits from radiation damage. The detectors had sufficient crystal identification capability. Cross talk between the combined two detectors could be ignored. The timing and energy resolutions were 3.0 ns and 14%, respectively. The coincidence window was set 20 ns, because the timing histogram showed that not only the main peak, but also two small shifted peaks were caused by the coaxial cable. However, the detector offers the promise of sufficient performance, because random coincidences are at a nearly undetectable level for in-beam PET experiments. PMID:22124931

  19. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. PMID:26455783

  20. Artificial mouth opening fosters anoxic conditions that kill small estuarine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Alistair; Laurenson, Laurie J. B.; Bishop, Kylie

    2009-05-01

    Fish kills are not uncommon within estuaries in many regions of the world. In seasonally open systems, which are common in temperate areas, they are often associated with mouth openings. Such a kill occurred in July 2005 in the Surrey Estuary following a closed mouth period of seven months resulting in the loss of many thousands of fish. At the time the fish community within the estuary was under investigation which provided comprehensive data of this population prior to the kill. Monthly water quality monitoring was also being conducted prior to the kill and also carried out on a daily basis following the mouth opening. The Surrey was stratified during the closed mouth phase, isolated waters below the halocline had stagnated and become anoxic. As a result only waters above the halocline contained oxygen concentrations capable of sustaining most fish. It appears that if a mouth opening happens under low flow conditions, a shearing effect occurs within the water column where surface waters flow out to sea leaving deeper waters behind. This resulted in only anoxic waters being present for in excess of six days and was responsible for the fish kill. Fish sampling of the Surrey Estuary was conducted three and six months following the kill and those data were compared to that collected in the 12 months prior to the event. Three months after the kill few fish were collected within the estuary and included marine opportunists near the mouth and estuarine resident species in the far upper reaches of the system. However six months following the kill large numbers of estuarine resident species were collected throughout the Surrey Estuary. As many species were euryhaline, it is believed that some individuals migrated into freshwater reaches of the Surrey to escape the anoxic conditions within the estuary. As conditions improved they recolonised the Surrey Estuary. The high fecundity and rapid growth of these small, short lived species probably aided in their re

  1. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  2. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  3. "I've Never Heard of It Before": Awareness of Open Access at a Small Liberal Arts University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, Gregory J.; Wical, Stephanie H.

    2013-01-01

    Small colleges and universities, often late adopters of institutional repositories and open access initiatives, face challenges that have not fully been explored in the professional literature. In an effort to gauge the level of awareness of open access and institutional repositories at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC), the authors of…

  4. The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansour, Faris Abdullah

    -Tariff PV system using HOMER. The result of the simulation has been discussed, analyzed, and plotted. We also give evidence in the thesis how useful the small PV systems can be as oppose to the larger scale system that must deal with location issues.

  5. Case study of open-source enterprise resource planning implementation in a small business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, David L.; Staley, Jesse

    2012-02-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been recognised as offering great benefit to some organisations, although they are expensive and problematic to implement. The cost and risk make well-developed proprietorial systems unaffordable to small businesses. Open-source software (OSS) has become a viable means of producing ERP system products. The question this paper addresses is the feasibility of OSS ERP systems for small businesses. A case is reported involving two efforts to implement freely distributed ERP software products in a small US make-to-order engineering firm. The case emphasises the potential of freely distributed ERP systems, as well as some of the hurdles involved in their implementation. The paper briefly reviews highlights of OSS ERP systems, with the primary focus on reporting the case experiences for efforts to implement ERPLite software and xTuple software. While both systems worked from a technical perspective, both failed due to economic factors. While these economic conditions led to imperfect results, the case demonstrates the feasibility of OSS ERP for small businesses. Both experiences are evaluated in terms of risk dimension.

  6. Sediment depositions upstream of open check dams: new elements from small scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piton, Guillaume; Le Guern, Jules; Carbonari, Costanza; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Torrent hazard mitigation remains a big issue in mountainous regions. In steep slope streams and especially in their fan part, torrential floods mainly result from abrupt and massive sediment deposits. To curtail such phenomenon, soil conservation measures as well as torrent control works have been undertaken for decades. Since the 1950s, open check dams complete other structural and non-structural measures in watershed scale mitigation plans1. They are often built to trap sediments near the fan apexes. The development of earthmoving machinery after the WWII facilitated the dredging operations of open check dams. Hundreds of these structures have thus been built for 60 years. Their design evolved with the improving comprehension of torrential hydraulics and sediment transport; however this kind of structure has a general tendency to trap most of the sediments supplied by the headwaters. Secondary effects as channel incision downstream of the traps often followed an open check dam creation. This sediment starvation trend tends to propagate to the main valley rivers and to disrupt past geomorphic equilibriums. Taking it into account and to diminish useless dredging operation, a better selectivity of sediment trapping must be sought in open check dams, i.e. optimal open check dams would trap sediments during dangerous floods and flush them during normal small floods. An accurate description of the hydraulic and deposition processes that occur in sediment traps is needed to optimize existing structures and to design best-adjusted new structures. A literature review2 showed that if design criteria exist for the structure itself, little information is available on the dynamic of the sediment depositions upstream of open check dams, i.e. what are the geomorphic patterns that occur during the deposition?, what are the relevant friction laws and sediment transport formula that better describe massive depositions in sediment traps?, what are the range of Froude and Shields

  7. The effects of wastewater discharges on the functioning of a small temporarily open/closed estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater discharges affect the functioning of small temporarily open/closed estuaries (TOCEs) through two main mechanisms: (1) they can significantly change the water balance by altering the quantity of water inflows, and (2) they can significantly change the nutrient balance and hence the water quality. This study investigated the bio-physical responses of a typical, small TOCE on the east coast of South Africa, the Mhlanga Estuary. This estuary receives significant inflows of treated effluent from upstream wastewater treatment works. Water and nutrient budgets were used together with biological sampling to investigate changes in the functioning of the system. The increase in inflows due to the effluent discharges has significantly increased the mouth breaching frequency. Furthermore, when the mouth closes, the accumulation of nutrients leads to eutrophication and algal blooms. A grey water index, namely the proportion of effluent in the estuary and an indicator of the additional nutrient inputs into the estuary, reached high values (≳50%) during low flow regimes and when the mouth was closed. In these hyper-eutrophic conditions (DIN and DIP concentrations up to 457 μM and 100 μM respectively), field measurements showed that algal blooms occurred within about 14 days following closure of the mouth (chlorophyll-a concentrations up to 375 mg chl-a m -3). Water and nutrient balance simulations for alternative scenarios suggest that further increases in wastewater discharges would result in more frequent breaching events and longer open mouth conditions, but the occurrence of hyper-eutrophic conditions would initially intensify despite more frequent openings. The study indicates how water and nutrient balance simulations can be used in the planning and impact assessment of wastewater treatment facilities.

  8. Improved Identification and Analysis of Small Open Reading Frame Encoded Polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiao; Diedrich, Jolene K; Jungreis, Irwin; Donaldson, Cynthia; Vaughan, Joan; Kellis, Manolis; Yates, John R; Saghatelian, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Computational, genomic, and proteomic approaches have been used to discover nonannotated protein-coding small open reading frames (smORFs). Some novel smORFs have crucial biological roles in cells and organisms, which motivates the search for additional smORFs. Proteomic smORF discovery methods are advantageous because they detect smORF-encoded polypeptides (SEPs) to validate smORF translation and SEP stability. Because SEPs are shorter and less abundant than average proteins, SEP detection using proteomics faces unique challenges. Here, we optimize several steps in the SEP discovery workflow to improve SEP isolation and identification. These changes have led to the detection of several new human SEPs (novel human genes), improved confidence in the SEP assignments, and enabled quantification of SEPs under different cellular conditions. These improvements will allow faster detection and characterization of new SEPs and smORFs. PMID:27010111

  9. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-09-01

    We present results from Johnson UBV, Kron-Cousins RI and Washington CT1T2 photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH 1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multi-band photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and colour-colour (CC) diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from ˜ 60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size (˜ 1 - 6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times (tr). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/tr ˜ 20 - 320), possibly in the typical phase of those tidally filled with mass segregation in their core regions. Compared to open clusters in the solar neighbourhood, the seven vdBH clusters are within more massive (˜ 80 - 380M$⊙$), with higher concentration parameter values (c ˜ 0.75-1.15) and dynamically evolved ones.

  10. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-12-17

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.

  11. Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Non-Exclusive Copyright Licensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge…

  12. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma is Associated with MR Biomarkers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mercieca, Karl; Cain, John; Hansen, Thomas; Steeples, Laura; Watkins, Amy; Spencer, Fiona; Jackson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study tests the hypotheses that: 1) glaucoma is associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease; 2) that imaging biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease in POAG and NTG will show different characteristics. 12 normal controls, 7 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 9 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were recruited. Ophthalmological clinical assessment and MR imaging of the brain were performed. MR imaging was used to quantify white matter lesion load, frequency of dilated perivascular spaces (PVS) and abnormalities in cerebral hydrodynamics. Patients with POAG had significantly greater white matter lesion load (p < 0.05), more PVS in the centrum semiovale (p < 0.05) and had higher overall PVS scores than controls (p < 0.05). In the POAG group, optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) was positively correlated with deep white matter hyperintensities (R2 = 0.928, p < 0.01). Mean deviation on the Humphrey visual field assessment was negatively correlated with deep white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.840, p < 0.01), total white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.928, p < 0.01) and total PVS (R2 = −0.820, p < 0.01). MR evidence of cerebral small vessel disease is strongly associated with a diagnosis of POAG and with the severity of abnormalities in CDR and visual field. PMID:26923106

  13. Trends in cancer patient survival in Estonia before and after the transition from a Soviet republic to an open-market economy.

    PubMed

    Aareleid, Tiiu; Brenner, Hermann

    2002-11-01

    Cancer patients' survival is strongly dependent on socioeconomic factors, including access to and quality of medical care. During the past decade, Estonia has undergone a major political and economic change from a Soviet republic to an open-market economy country, and the health care system was transformed from a centralised state-controlled system into a decentralised health insurance-based one. Using data from the population-based Estonian Cancer Registry, we assessed trends in cancer patient survival before and after this transition by application of period analysis, a new method of survival analysis, which allows more timely disclosure of time trends than traditional survival analysis. Our study included 83,138 patients diagnosed with 1 of the 11 most frequent malignancies in Estonia from 1969-1998. Patients were followed up to the end of 1998. Despite a moderate increase in 5- and 10-year relative survival over time, prognosis for many common forms of cancer, such as stomach, colorectal, breast and ovarian cancer, remained considerably worse than the survival rates achieved in more affluent European countries many years ago. By contrast, a very steep increase in survival rates was observed for common urologic cancers, including prostate, kidney and bladder cancer, which went along with a rise in incidence rates of these cancers over time. For prostate cancer, similar survival rates as in other European countries have now been achieved. The most likely explanation for these trends is enhanced availability and utilization of laboratory and technical diagnostic equipment. Despite recent improvement, major efforts in delivering modern cancer care to the population of Estonia will be required to close the gap that continues to exist between prognosis of cancer patients in this country and other European countries. PMID:12353233

  14. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

  15. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

  16. Tentative Study on Performance of Darriues-Type Hydroturbine Operated in Small Open Water Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, D.; Moriyama, R.; Nakashima, K.; Watanabe, S.; Okuma, K.; Furukawa, A.

    2014-03-01

    The development of small hydropower is one of the realistic and preferable utilizations of renewable energy, but the extra-low head hydropower less than 2 m is almost undeveloped yet for some reasons. The authors have developed several types of Darrieus-type hydro-turbine system, and among them, the Darrieus-turbine with a wear and a nozzle installed upstream of turbine is so far in success to obtain more output power, i.e. more shaft torque, by gathering all water into the turbine. However, there can several cases exist, in which installing the wear covering all the flow channel width is unrealistic. Then, in the present study, the hydraulic performances of Darrieus-type hydro-turbine with the inlet nozzle is investigated, putting alone in a small open channel without upstream wear. In the experiment, the five-bladed Darrieus-type runner with the pitch-circle diameter of 300 mm and the blade span of 300 mm is vertically installed in the open channel with the width of 1,200 mm. The effectiveness of the shape of the inlet nozzle is also examined using two types of two-dimensional symmetric nozzle, the straight line nozzle (SL nozzle) with the converging angle of 45 degrees and the half diameter curved nozzle (HD nozzle) whose radius is a half diameter of runner pitch circle. Inlet and outlet nozzle widths are in common for the both nozzles, which are 540 mm and 240 mm respectively. All the experiments are carried out under the conditions with constant flow rate and downstream water level, and performances are evaluated by measured output torque and the measured head difference between the water levels upstream and downstream of the turbine. As a result, it is found that the output power is remarkably increased by installing the inlet nozzle, and the turbine with SL nozzle produces larger power than that with HD nozzle. However, the peak efficiency is deteriorated in both cases. The speed ratio defined by the rotor speed divided by the downstream water velocity at

  17. Fish population size and movement patterns in a small intermittently open South African estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukey, J. R.; Booth, A. J.; Froneman, P. W.

    2006-03-01

    The population size and movement patterns of small fish (>50 mm SL) in a small intermittently open estuary (Grant's Valley estuary: 33°40'12.1″S, 26°42'12.6″E) situated on the south-east Cape coast of South Africa were examined during the closed phase over the period May and August 2004. The estuary was subdivided into four discrete areas and the fish within each area sampled using a 30 m seine net (15 mm mesh). Fish captured were marked by fin clipping according to the area of capture. Fish population size was estimated by using three methods: the Schnabel estimator, the Hilborn estimator, and a derived estimator. A total of 12 species was captured and marked during the study. The total number of fish in the estuary was estimated at ca. 12 000 individuals (11 219-13 311). Marine-breeding species ( Rhabdosargus holubi, Monodactylus falciformis, and two mullet species) numerically dominated the ichthyofauna, possibly as a result of their effective use of overtopping events, when seawater washes over the sandbar, to enter the estuary during the closed mouth phase. The two mullet species, Myxus capensis and Liza richardsonii, and the Cape stumpnose, R. holubi moved extensively throughout the estuary, while the remaining species exhibited restricted movement patterns possibly due to the preference for refuge and foraging areas associated with reed beds. The observed movement patterns of individual fish species appeared to be associated with both foraging behaviour and habitat selection.

  18. The early apoptotic DNA fragmentation targets a small number of specific open chromatin regions.

    PubMed

    Di Filippo, Miriam; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    We report here that early apoptotic DNA fragmentation, as obtained by using an entirely new approach, is the result of an attack at a small number of specific open chromatin regions of interphase nuclei. This was demonstrated as follows: (i) chicken liver was excised and kept in sterile tubes for 1 to 3 hours at 37 degrees C; (ii) this induced apoptosis (possibly because of oxygen deprivation), as shown by the electrophoretic nucleosomal ladder produced by DNA preparations; (iii) low molecular-weight DNA fragments (approximately 200 bp) were cloned, sequenced, and shown to derive predominantly from genes and surrounding 100 kb regions; (iv) a few hundred cuts were produced, very often involving the same chromosomal sites; (v) at comparable DNA degradation levels, micrococcal nuclease (MNase) also showed a general preference for genes and surrounding regions, but MNase cuts were located at sites that were quite distinct from, and less specific than, those cut by apoptosis. In conclusion, the approach presented here, which is the mildest and least intrusive approach, identifies a preferred accessibility landscape in interphase chromatin. PMID:19347039

  19. The open prototype for educational NanoSats: Fixing the other side of the small satellite cost equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Josh; Straub, Jeremy; Whalen, David

    Government supported nano-satellite launch programs and emerging commercial small satellite launch services are reducing the cost of access to space for educational and other CubeSat projects. The cost and complexity of designing and building these satellites remains a vexing complication for many would be CubeSat aspirants. The Open Prototype for Educational NanoSats (OPEN), a proposed nano-satellite development platform, is described in this paper. OPEN endeavors to reduce the costs and risks associated with educational, government and commercial nano-satellite development. OPEN provides free and publicly available plans for building, testing and operating a versatile, low-cost satellite, based on the standardized CubeSat form-factor. OPEN consists of public-domain educational reference plans, complete with engineering schematics, CAD files, construction and test instructions as well as ancillary reference materials relevant to satellite building and operation. By making the plan, to produce a small but capable spacecraft freely available, OPEN seeks to lower the barriers to access on the other side (non-launch costs) of the satellite cost equation.

  20. 76 FR 17996 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice... Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

  1. Expression and strain variation of the novel “Small Open Reading Frame” 3 (smorf) multigene family in Babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small open reading frame (smorf) genes comprise the second largest Babesia bovis multigene family. All known 44 variant smorf genes are located in close chromosomal proximity to ves1 genes, which encode proteins that mediate cytoadhesion and contribute to immune evasion. In this study, we characte...

  2. Integrated spectral properties of 22 small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    2007-10-01

    Aims:Flux-calibrated integrated spectra of a sample of 22 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter are presented. With one exception (ESO 429-SC2), all objects have Galactic longitudes in the range 208° < l < 33°. The spectra cover the range ≈3600-6800 Å, with a resolution of ≈14 Å. The properties of the present cluster sample are compared with those of well-studied clusters located in two 90° sectors, centred at l = 257° and l = 347°. The dissolution rate of Galactic open clusters in these two sectors is examined. Methods: Using the equivalent widths of the Balmer lines and comparing line intensities and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties, we derive both foreground reddening values and ages. Thus, we provide information independent of that determined through colour-magnitude diagrams. Results: The derived E(B-V) values for the whole sample vary from 0.0 in ESO 445-SC74 to 1.90 in Pismis 24, while the ages range from ~3 Myr (NGC 6604 and BH 151) to ~3.5 Gyr (Ruprecht 2). For six clusters (Dolidze 34, ESO 429-SC2, ESO 445-SC74, Ruprecht 2, BH 151 and Hogg 9) the foreground E(B-V) colour excesses and ages are determined for the first time. The results obtained for the remaining clusters show, in general terms, good agreement with previous photometric results. Conclusions: The age and reddening distributions of the present sample match those of known clusters in the two selected Galactic sectors. The present results would favour a major dissolution rate of star clusters in these two sectors. Two new solar-metallicity templates are defined corresponding to the age groups of (4-5) Myr and 30 Myr among those of Piatti et al. (2002, MNRAS, 335, 233). The Piatti et al. templates of 20 Myr and (3-4) Gyr are here redefined. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y T

  3. Small-Scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster CHI Persei-Fuse II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Friedman, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the physical conditions of gas along sight lines toward 6 stars in the core Chi Persei open cluster. These sight lines traverse gas in both the Orion and Perseus spiral arms of the Galaxy, at distances of 500 and 2000 pc, respectively. The stars have angular separations ranging from 45 to 280 arcsec; 60 arcsec corresponds to linear distances of 0.15 and 0.6 pc in the two arms. Thus, abundance variations in these observations would constitute evidence for small-scale variations in the properties of the interstellar medium. Ground-based Na I observations at high resolution (approx. 15 km/sec) toward 172 stars (including the 6 in this study) in the double open cluster h and Chi Persei have revealed complex spatial variation. These variations are especially evident in the gas at velocities of -40 and -55 km/sec, corresponding to the Perseus spiral arm. 21 cm observations of HI emission using the Low Resolution DRAO Survey, with a 12-arcmin beam, also show variations. Averaging the Na I apparent optical depth profiles of neighboring sight lines in order to mimic such a beam size reduces the variation, as compared to the individual Na I measurements, but still show variations larger than seen in the 21 cm profiles. Na I is not the dominant ionization state of Na in the interstellar medium. Thus, it is possible that the variations seen really trace physical structures in the interstellar medium, or they may simply result from variations in the radiation field seen by the gas, or be due to some other environmental circumstance. To distinguish among these possibilities in the present study we obtained FUSE spectra toward the 6 targets in order to measure the molecular hydrogen absorption profiles along these sight lines. The higher J states of H2 are populated by the ambient W radiation field, and thus can provide insight into the environment affecting the gas. If both the high and low J states reveal absorption line profiles with

  4. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  5. Silicon-based guided-wave optical flow sensor using a diaphragm with a small opening as an orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, Masashi; Sato, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Our proposed silicon-based guided-wave optical flow sensor consists of a diaphragm with a small opening used as an orifice and a waveguide across the diaphragm. The sensor operates based on Bernoulli's theorem and the elasto-optic effect. A sensor, which had a 10×10-mm2, 50-μm-thick diaphragm with a 0.34×0.34-mm2 opening, was fabricated to demonstrate and confirm the sensor operation. Measured output power as a function of flow rate using oxygen gas agreed quite well with the theoretical prediction although slight deviation was seen in the high flow rate region. Moreover, according to Bernoulli's theorem, sensitivity is strongly dependent on sectional area of opening. So, three sensors with different opening areas, such as 0.28×0.28, 0.34×0.34, and 0.55×0.55 mm2, were fabricated to examine such a dependence, which would be helpful to design the sensor. The measured sensitivity was found to be almost proportional to area of the opening, similar to the theoretical prediction.

  6. Practical Token Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackerby, W. F.

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses special considerations in applying standard token economy techniques to behavior change with the head injured with examples of token economies at three rehabilitation facilities. (DB)

  7. Antimatter Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  8. The Valuation of Plurilingual Competences in an Open European Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    We present a model allowing the measurement of the returns to plurilingual competences in a small open economy, considered as a reduced model of an open European labour market where different nationalities work together and therefore need to communicate either in one or in multiple languages. Our results suggest that high plurilingual competences…

  9. Resource Use in Small Island States

    PubMed Central

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Richter, Regina; Eisenmenger, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are small open, high-income island economies with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their economy being largely based on the exploitation of one or two key resources for export production. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, the physical economy is dominated by oil and natural gas extraction and petrochemical industries, whereas Iceland's economy for centuries has been based on fisheries. More recently, abundant hydropower and geothermal heat were the basis for the establishment of large export-oriented metal processing industries, which fully depend on imported raw materials and make use of domestic renewable electricity. Both countries are highly dependent on these natural resources and vulnerable to overexploitation and price developments. We show how the export-oriented industries lead to high and growing levels of per capita material and energy use and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from large amounts of processing wastes and energy consumption in production processes. The example of small open economies with an industrial production system focused on few, but abundant, key resources and of comparatively low complexity provides interesting insights of how resource endowment paired with availability or absence of infrastructure and specific institutional arrangements drives domestic resource-use patterns. This also contributes to a better understanding and interpretation of MFA indicators, such as domestic material consumption. PMID:25505367

  10. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  11. Openings.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  12. A comparison of methods for estimating open-water evaporation in small wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, Jason R.; Stannard, David I.

    2010-01-01

    We compared evaporation measurements from a floating pan, land pan, chamber, and the Priestley-Taylor (PT) equation. Floating pan, land pan, and meteorological data were collected from June 6 to July 21, 2005, at a small wetland in the Canadian River alluvium in central Oklahoma, USA. Evaporation measured with the floating pan compared favorably to 12 h chamber measurements. Differences between chamber and floating pan rates ranged from −0.2 to 0.3 mm, mean of 0.1 mm. The difference between chamber and land pan rates ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 mm, mean of 1.5 mm. The mean chamber-to-floating pan ratio was 0.97 and the mean chamber-to-land pan ratio was 0.73. The chamber-to-floating pan ratio of 0.97 indicates the use of a floating pan to measure evaporation in small limited-fetch water bodies is an appropriate and accurate method for the site investigated. One-sided Paired t-Tests indicate daily floating pan rates were significantly less than land pan and PT rates. A two-sided Paired t-Test indicated there was no significant difference between land pan and PT values. The PT equation tends to overestimate evaporation during times when the air is of low drying power and tends to underestimate as drying power increases.

  13. Multicopter-based small format aerial photography using free and open source photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert Matthew

    A process is described to convert aerial photographs from flat images to 3D point clouds and then convert into height maps to be used as pseudo digital elevation models for surface modeling. All software used in the process is either free or open source. The process uses a DJI Phanton multicoper and two Canon Point and Shoot digital cameras. One camera is unaltered, and a second camera is modified to produce infrared images. A DJI Phantom FC-40 multicopter is used as the aerial platform to carry the cameras. Multiple paths are described to convert from still images (or video to still images) to N-view matches, followed by sparse point clouds then dense point clouds. Point clouds are distinct 3D points charted in an XYZ coordinate system. The dense point clouds can be converted into 3D models for viewing and analysis. A height map is extracted from the point cloud and surface images (in raster format) are created and then used in QGIS or ArcMap as pseudo digital elevation models for surface modeling. Finally, the digital elevation models are evaluated in comparison to similar LIDAR images. Keywords: Passive Remote Sensing; LIDAR; Spatial Resolution.

  14. BRAF mutations in non-small cell lung cancer: has finally Janus opened the door?

    PubMed

    Caparica, Rafael; de Castro, Gilberto; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Caglevic, Christian; Calogero, Raffaele; Giallombardo, Marco; Santos, Edgardo S; Raez, Luis E; Rolfo, Christian

    2016-05-01

    B-Raf mutations occur in about 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). These mutations generate a permanent activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which promotes tumor growth and proliferation. In the present review, we discuss B-Raf mutation epidemiology, diagnostic methods to detect B-Raf mutations, the role of B-Raf as a driver mutation and a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC. The results of clinical trials involving B-Raf or MAPK pathway inhibitors for the treatment of NSCLC are also discussed. Clinical trials evaluating B-Raf inhibitors in BRAF mutated NSCLC patients have shown promising results, and larger prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings. Enrollment of these patients in clinical trials is an interesting strategy to offer a potentially more effective and less toxic targeted therapy. PMID:26960735

  15. Small Heat Shock Proteins Can Release Light Dependence of Tobacco Seed during Germination1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Park, Soo Min; Kim, Keun Pill; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong-Kon; Xinli, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) function as ATP-independent molecular chaperones, and although the production and function of sHSPs have often been described under heat stress, the expression and function of sHSPs in fundamental developmental processes, such as pollen and seed development, have also been confirmed. Seed germination involves the breaking of dormancy and the resumption of embryo growth that accompany global changes in transcription, translation, and metabolism. In many plants, germination is triggered simply by imbibition of water; however, different seeds require different conditions in addition to water. For small-seeded plants, like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), light is an important regulator of seed germination. The facts that sHSPs accumulate during seed development, sHSPs interact with various client proteins, and seed germination accompanies synthesis and/or activation of diverse proteins led us to investigate the role of sHSPs in seed germination, especially in the context of light dependence. In this study, we have built transgenic tobacco plants that ectopically express sHSP, and the effect was germination of the seeds in the dark. Administering heat shock to the seeds also resulted in the alleviation of light dependence during seed germination. Subcellular localization of ectopically expressed sHSP was mainly observed in the cytoplasm, whereas heat shock-induced sHSPs were transported to the nucleus. We hypothesize that ectopically expressed sHSPs in the cytoplasm led the status of cytoplasmic proteins involved in seed germination to function during germination without additional stimulus and that heat shock can be another signal that induces seed germination. PMID:25604531

  16. Implementing ILDs and Assessment in Small-enrollment, Calculus-based Physics Classes -- Lessons, Observations and Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason-McCaffrey, Deborah

    2011-04-01

    At Salem State, we offer a Physics minor, but most of our teaching load is support courses for other science majors and a lab sequence which satisfies the University's core education requirement. In three years of using assessments and ILDs in small-enrollment calculus-based Physics classes, there has been a significant implementation learning curve, there are encouraging results, a few cautions, and still some open questions to report. ILDs can be highly effective teaching tools. They do require significant advance preparation as well as a safe environment for student participation. Motivating students to do their best on assessment pre- and post-tests can also be difficult. Strategies for motivating assessment performance, experiments using clickers to encourage participation in ILDs, and modifying and developing home-grown ILDs are discussed.

  17. Enhancement of Open-Circuit Voltage by Using the 58-π Silylmethyl Fullerenes in Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Il; Delacou, Clément; Nakagawa, Takafumi; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2016-04-20

    The application of 58-π-1,4-bis(silylmethyl)[60]fullerenes, C60 (CH2 SiMe2 Ph)(CH2 SiMe2 Ar) (Ar=Ph and 2-methoxylphenyl for SIMEF-1 and SIMEF-2, respectively), in small-molecule organic solar cells with a diketopyrrolopyrrole donor (3,6-bis[5-(benzofuran-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl]-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (DPP(TBFu)2 )) is demonstrated. With the 58-π-silylmethyl fullerene acceptor, SIMEF-1, the devices showed the highest efficiency of 4.57 % with an average of 4.10 %. They manifested an improved open-circuit voltage (1.03 V) owing to the high-lying LUMO level of SIMEF-1, while maintaining a high short-circuit density (9.91 mA cm(-2) ) through controlling the crystallinity of DPP by thermal treatment. On the other hand, despite even higher open-circuit voltage (1.05 V), SIMEF-2-based devices showed lower performances of 3.53 %, owing to a low short-circuit current density (8.33 mA cm(-2) ) and fill factor (0.40) arising from the asymmetric structure, which results in a lower mobility and immiscibility. PMID:26840629

  18. Comparison of Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa versus Polypropylene in Open Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xin; Xiao, Dongdong; Wang, Wenyue; Song, Zhicheng; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Yuanwen; Gu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) with polypropylene in open inguinal hernia repair. Method Electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were used to compare patient outcomes for the two groups via meta-analysis. Result A total of 3 randomized controlled trials encompassing 200 patients were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in recurrence (P = 0.16), hematomas (P = 0.06), postoperative pain within 30 days (P = 0.45), or postoperative pain after 1 year (P = 0.12) between the 2 groups. The incidence of discomfort was significantly lower (P = 0.0006) in the SIS group. However, the SIS group experienced a significantly higher incidence of seroma (P = 0.03). Conclusions Compared to polypropylene, using SIS in open inguinal hernia repair is associated with a lower incidence of discomfort and a higher incidence of seroma. However, well-designed larger RCT studies with a longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26252895

  19. Small bowel obstruction and abdominal pain after robotic versus open radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Karl-Johan; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Loeb, Stacy; Axelson, Anna Bill; Stattin, Pär; Nordin, Pär

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether intraperitoneal robot-assisted surgery leads to small bowel obstruction (SBO), possibly caused by the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions. Materials and methods In total, 7256 men treated by intraperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and 9787 men treated by retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) in 2005-2012 were identified in the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the risk of readmission for SBO, SBO-related surgery and admissions due to abdominal pain up to 5 years postoperatively. Results During the first postoperative year, the risk of readmission for SBO was higher after RARP than after RRP [hazard ratio (HR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-3.25] but after 5 years there was no significant difference (HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.86-1.91), and there was no difference in the risk of SBO surgery during any period. The risk of admission for abdominal pain was significantly increased after RARP during the first year (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.50-3.33) but not after 5 years (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.92-1.63). Conclusion Intraperitoneal RARP had an increased risk of SBO and abdominal pain in the short term during the first year, but not in the long term, compared to RRP. PMID:26936203

  20. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Small Business Exposure and Sensitivity Analysis to a Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.; Wein, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards (Jones and others, 2007). In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 (M7.8) earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report contains an exposure and sensitivity analysis of small businesses in terms of labor and employment statistics. Exposure is measured as the absolute counts of labor market variables anticipated to experience each level of Instrumental Intensity (a proxy measure of damage). Sensitivity is the percentage of the exposure of each business establishment size category to each Instrumental Intensity level. The analysis concerns the direct effect of the earthquake on small businesses. The analysis is inspired by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report that analyzed the labor market losses (exposure) of a M6.9 earthquake on the Hayward fault by overlaying geocoded labor market data on Instrumental Intensity values. The method used here is influenced by the ZIP-code-level data provided by the California Employment Development Department (CA EDD), which requires the assignment of Instrumental Intensities to ZIP codes. The ZIP-code-level labor market data includes the number of business establishments, employees, and quarterly payroll categorized by business establishment size.

  1. Understanding the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  2. Comparison of laparoscopic hepatectomy, percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and open hepatectomy in the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chong; Jin, Ren-an; Liang, Xiao; Cai, Xiu-jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Three mainstream techniques—laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (pRFA), and open hepatectomy (OH)—were compared in this study, in terms of their efficacies in the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: A comparative study was performed within a total of 94 patients diagnosed with small HCC in our hospital from 2005 to 2010, who underwent LH (28), RFA (33), or OH (33). They had either a single tumor lesion of less than 5 cm or up to three nodules with diameters of less than 3 cm each. Outcomes were carefully evaluated throughout a 3-year follow-up interval and statistically interpreted. Results: The pRFA group had a significantly lower disease-free survival rate compared with the two surgical groups (P=0.001) and significantly shorter overall survival (P=0.005), while the LH group and the OH group had no difference in survival results. For patients younger than 60 years old, surgical approaches offered a better long-term overall survival prognosis (P=0.008). There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups in overall survival for elderly patients (P=0.104). Conclusions: Among patients with small HCC, LH may provide better curative effects than pRFA without increasing complication rates. pRFA leads to faster recurrence than surgical resections. LH has similar therapeutic effects to OH and causes less trauma. For patients younger than 60 years old, LH may be the best curative treatment. Elderly patients may choose either surgery or pRFA. PMID:26984844

  3. Hydrological and Hysteresis Response of Open Lined Channels in Small Urban Residential Catchments in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.

    2005-12-01

    Two small urban residential catchments, namely Jurong West (JW) (1 ha) and Ang Mo Kio (AMK) (0.6 ha) in Singapore have been selected as sites to investigate hysteresis patterns and hydrological responses from catchments' pervious surfaces and different types of impervious, namely directly connected impervious areas (DCIA) and non-directly connected impervious areas (Non-DCIA)during rain events. Results from February 2005 till May 2005 have been analyzed. Table 1 \\begin{tabular}{|1| |1| |1| |1| |1| |1|} \\hline {c}{JW} ļine{1-6} Date (d/m/y)&Rainfall(mm)&(Time Lag)(mins)&(Time Of Rise)(mins)& Antecedent Dry Days&Previous Rainfall event (mm) \\hline 26/02/05&13.6&20&5&1&0.8 03/03/05&1.2&23&15&0&28.4 10/03/05&7&18&15&1&7.4 12/03/05&4.6&22&10&1&7.4 26/03/05&15.2&14&15&0&6.8 02/04/05&2.2&12&15&1&3.8 21/04/05&3.8&19&10&3&0.4 28/04/05&28.6&8&23&6&3.8 04/05/05&1.6&19&14&0&7.8 12/05/05&14.2&12&15&1&20.6 \\hline {c}{AMK} ļine{1-6} 11/03/05&12&15&10 3&0.2 23/03/05&21.4&10&10&11&12 26/03/05&10&32&32 2&21.4 31/03/05&7.8&13&19&0&2.8 02/04/05&10.6&9&9&0&1 12/04/05&15.8&12&10&0&10 24/04/05&8&8&4&5&4.6 \\hline From the selected rain events (Table 1), duration for direct runoff from impervious surfaces for JW and AMK catchments ranges from 10 - 15 minutes and 4- 10 minutes respectively. Antecedent dry period did not play a critical role in influencing time-lag for both catchments. Although rise in magnitude of rain event does not proportionally lead to decrease in lag time, it is more influential as compared to antecedent dry period factor. Majority of time of rise for each rain event is 10 - 15 minutes and 4- 10 minutes for JW and AMK respectively. This indicates a direct runoff from constant degree of impervious surfaces. The influence of the magnitude of rain event rather than impervious surfaces was also shown in multi-rain events (Table 2). It has been shown that in most cases, a lower magnitude of consecutive rain event will increase lag time of preceding rain event. Table

  4. Expression and strain variation of the novel “small open reading frame” (smorf) multigene family in Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreri, Lucas M.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Sondgeroth, Kerry S.; Lau, Audrey O.T.; Suarez, Carlos E.; McElwain, Terry F.

    2012-01-01

    Small open reading frame (smorf) genes comprise the second largest Babesia bovis multigene family. All known 44 variant smorf genes are located in close chromosomal proximity to ves1 genes, which encode proteins that mediate cytoadhesion and contribute to immune evasion. In this study, we characterised the general topology of smorf genes and investigated the gene repertoire, transcriptional profile and SMORF expression in two distinct strains, T2Bo and Mo7. Sequence analysis using degenerate primers identified additional smorf genes in each strain and demonstrated that the smorf gene repertoire varies between strains, with conserved and unique genes in both. Smorf genes have multiple semi-conserved and variable blocks, and a large hypervariable insertion in 20 of the 44 genes defines two major branches of the family, termed smorf A and smorf B. A total of 32 smorf genes are simultaneously transcribed in T2Bo strain B. bovis merozoites obtained from deep brain tissue of an acutely infected animal. SMORF peptide-specific antiserum bound in immunoblots to multiple proteins with a range of sizes predicted by smorf genes, confirming translation of smorf gene products from these transcripts. These results indicate that the smorf multigene family is larger than previously described and demonstrate that smorf genes are expressed and are undergoing variation, both within strains and in a lineage-specific pattern independent of strain specificity. The function of these novel proteins is unknown. PMID:22138017

  5. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  6. Small-scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster Chi Persei; Program ID: BO29 (Cycle 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar H2 absorption toward six early-type stars in the core of the open star cluster Chi Persei. High resolution optical observations of the interstellar Na I absorption toward these stars and others in the core of Chi Per have revealed a rich variety of small-scale diffuse ISM structure in both the distant Perseus and more local Orion spiral arms. At the 1 arc minute angular scales typically probed by the separations of these stars, this structure corresponds to respective physical length scales of 0.6 and 0.15 pc in the Perseus and Orion arm gas. The principal scientific goal of the FUSE observations was to determine if this small-scale Na I structure toward the core of Chi Per was reflected in the abundance and/or excitation of interstellar H2. In September 2001, we obtained FUSE observations of the Chi Per stars BD +56 563, BD +56 571, BD +56 573, BD +56 574, BD +56 575, and BD +56 578 for this program. The data reveal that the Perseus arm gas exhibits significant small-scale variations in the strength of its molecular hydrogen absorption while the Orion arm H2 absorption is relatively uniform. We presented these results at the January 2003 American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, WA (points, Meyer, Lauroesch, Nguyen, and Friedman 2002, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 34,1229). Since Na I is not a dominant ion in H I clouds, the variations detected in the Perseus arm Na I line profiles could be due to spatial differences in either the physical structure or the physical conditions in the gas. Although many of the H2 absorption profiles are too saturated or too weak to be definitive in this regard, it is clear that small-scale variations are present in H2 gas with excitation as high as the J=4 rotational level. In contrast, lower spatial resolution H I 21 cm studies of the Perseus arm gas across the face of the h and Chi Per double cluster have shown

  7. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  8. Observing the economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  9. Supporting Innovation in Developing and Transitional Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of innovative entrepreneurship and the needs of developing and transitional economies. Outlines the operation of the European Commission's Business and Innovation Centres. Suggests that innovation must be viewed as a major issue in all enterprises and that greater recognition be given to the role of innovative small and…

  10. Continuous Measurement of CO2 concentration in Arctic Soil by Small Open-path Type CO2 Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, K.; Oechel, W. C.; Lipson, D.

    2006-12-01

    Permafrost and seasonally thawed Arctic soils in high northern latitudes hold approximately 25 percent of the world's soil organic carbon. The predicted warming of the Arctic, coupled with regional drying, could release much of the carbon now stored in the Arctic soils. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the release of soil organic carbon as CO2 is critical to predicting sensitive Arctic soils will respond to and influence global climate change. However, there are only a few reports of soil respiration, and very few that report continuous respiration rates. The results of chamber measurements give the overall efflux from the surface and emphasize biological and chemical processes and controls. However, they do not measure soil CO2 concentrations. To our knowledge, continuous measurements of soil CO2 concentration has not been previously conducted in the Arctic, and gas diffusivity of Arctic soils that thaw and freeze are poorly known. To obtain a better understanding of the patterns and controls on carbon release from Arctic soils, long-term measurements of soil respiration and an investigation of the underlying processes were undertaken. In this study, continuous measurements of soil CO2 concentration by small open path type infrared gas analyzers in a revegetated Arctic drained lake basin at Barrow Alaska was undertaken. Measurements were conducted from the beginning of soil thaw in summer through the following winter and summer. Changes in soil CO2 concentration during freezing and thawing processes proved especially interesting. Soil CO2 concentration in the organic layer of the drained lake basin was much higher than that of Typic Psamomoturbals soil from heath vegetation cover in Greenland (Elberling and Brandt 2003) throughout the thawing season. Soil CO2 increased with increasing soil temperature and thaw depth reflecting CO2 production in the soil. Soil CO2 concentration was greater in relatively wet soil than in dry soil. Soil CO2 concentration

  11. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  12. Small Open Chemical Systems Theory: Its Implications to Darwinian Evolution Dynamics, Complex Self-Organization and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong

    2014-10-01

    The study of biological cells in terms of mesoscopic, nonequilibrium, nonlinear, stochastic dynamics of open chemical systems provides a paradigm for other complex, self-organizing systems with ultra-fast stochastic fluctuations, short-time deterministic nonlinear dynamics, and long-time evolutionary behavior with exponentially distributed rare events, discrete jumps among punctuated equilibria, and catastrophe.

  13. 76 FR 2193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

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  14. Fullerene-free small molecule organic solar cells with a high open circuit voltage of 1.15 V.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wang; Li, Miaomiao; Kan, Bin; Liu, Feng; Wan, Xiangjian; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hongtao; Russell, Thomas P; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-01-11

    A new small molecule named DTBTF with thiobarbituric acid as a terminal group was designed and synthesized as an acceptor for organic photovoltaic applications. DTBTF exhibits strong absorption in the visible region, and a relatively high lying LUMO energy level (-3.62 eV). All-small-molecule organic solar cells based on DR3TSBDT:DTBTF blend films show a considerable PCE of 3.84% with a high V(oc) of 1.15 V. PMID:26538446

  15. The College Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the economy in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…

  16. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  17. Costs and Potential Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, J. A.; And Others

    The University of Bradford was designated as the target for research directed toward identifying potential economies in the teaching of students under alternative sets of assumptions, in order that action may be taken to secure a more economic use of resources in the higher education sector. Part one looks generally at the nature of university…

  18. Fueling the Green Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  19. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  20. Economy of Command

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, David Peter

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a principle of "economy of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…

  1. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  2. Token Economies in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; Nicholas, Heather

    1973-01-01

    Behavior modification has become a widely known practice in rehabilitation during the past decade. A medium of exchange or token is typically used to facilitate transactions and can be traded for backup reinforcers later on. This review of the use of token economies focuses on groups of individuals usually considered target rehabilitation…

  3. The Economy and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirduso, Waneen Wyrick; Kennamer, Lorrin

    1984-01-01

    There are many problems facing the education system due to the economy. Social attitudes, demographic effects, economic trends, and financial resources are issues to be addressed when evaluating trends in education. The study of economics and how it relates to education will help bring about positive outcomes. Strategies for dealing with the…

  4. Airline Safety and Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  5. The Knowledge Economy and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the global knowledge economy (the k-economy), comprised by (1) open source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all economy the global knowledge economy is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…

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  12. Economic Openness and the Marginalization of Small Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh

    Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for small farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…

  13. If We Open the Door, How Long Will They Stay? The Use of Personal Counseling in a Small College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunardi, Pamela M.; Webb, Richard E.; Widseth, Jane C.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this brief report about one small college's experience in providing personal counseling and psychotherapy to its students is on how the students used the services over their, generally, four years of matriculation. The 404 student users of counseling services from six classes of graduating students had an average number of sessions…

  14. The Exosome and Trans-Acting Small Interfering RNAs Regulate Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis during Arabidopsis Inflorescence Stem Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Patricia; Zhao, Lifang; Eveleigh, Nathan; Yu, Yu; Chen, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    The primary aerial surfaces of land plants are covered with a cuticle, a protective layer composed of the cutin polyester matrix and cuticular waxes. Previously, we discovered a unique mechanism of regulating cuticular wax biosynthesis during Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stem elongation that involves ECERIFERUM7 (CER7), a core subunit of the exosome. Because loss-of-function mutations in CER7 result in reduced expression of the wax biosynthetic gene CER3, we proposed that CER7 is involved in degrading a messenger RNA encoding a CER3 repressor. To identify this putative repressor, we performed a cer7 suppressor screen that resulted in the isolation of the posttranscriptional gene-silencing components RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE1 and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3, indicating that small RNAs regulate CER3 expression. To establish the identity of the effector RNA species and determine whether these RNAs control CER3 transcript levels directly, we cloned additional genes identified in our suppressor screen and performed next-generation sequencing of small RNA populations that differentially accumulate in the cer7 mutant in comparison with the wild type. Our results demonstrate that the trans-acting small interfering RNA class of small RNAs are the effector molecules involved in direct silencing of CER3 and that the expression of five additional genes (EARLY RESPONSE TO DEHYDRATION14, AUXIN RESISTANT1, a translation initiation factor SUI1 family protein, and two genes of unknown function) is controlled by both CER7 and trans-acting small interfering RNAs. PMID:25502190

  15. A reliable, low-cost picture archiving and communications system for small and medium veterinary practices built using open-source technology.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Bryan; Valazza, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) are the most needed system in a modern hospital. As an integral part of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard, they are charged with the responsibility for secure storage and accessibility of the diagnostic imaging data. These machines need to offer high performance, stability, and security while proving reliable and ergonomic in the day-to-day and long-term storage and retrieval of the data they safeguard. This paper reports the experience of the authors in developing and installing a compact and low-cost solution based on open-source technologies in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the University of Torino, Italy, during the course of the summer of 2012. The PACS server was built on low-cost x86-based hardware and uses an open source operating system derived from Oracle OpenSolaris (Oracle Corporation, Redwood City, CA, USA) to host the DCM4CHEE PACS DICOM server (DCM4CHEE, http://www.dcm4che.org ). This solution features very high data security and an ergonomic interface to provide easy access to a large amount of imaging data. The system has been in active use for almost 2 years now and has proven to be a scalable, cost-effective solution for practices ranging from small to very large, where the use of different hardware combinations allows scaling to the different deployments, while the use of paravirtualization allows increased security and easy migrations and upgrades. PMID:24793019

  16. America and the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony Patrick

    This monograph explains the new economy from the point of view of people at work. It begins by providing an overview of the new economy and places the United States in it. Separate aspects of the new economy are elaborated in five parts. Part I presents the competitive standards that provide the cornerstone for the new economic reality: robust…

  17. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  18. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  19. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    there was a cattle breeding economic and cultural type of producing economy with a simplified system of natural and anthropogenic and anthropogenic landscapes involving a maximum of 4-5 natural and economic systems. In the forest-steppe zone a significant part of the population was settled in the valley landscapes. The basis of the economy was pastoral and house cattle breeding with a predominance of beef cattle and pigs and hoe-mattock agriculture, which was only possible in the floodplain landscape complexes. In the areas of permanent settlements long grazing in one place led to the complete destruction of vegetation. The forced reduction of the agricultural land areas led to significant ecologic crisis. In the forest zone, along with hunters, fishermen and gatherers there appear the first tribes, who already engaged in the forest cattle breeding. First, they raised pigs and then small and beef cattle, while hunting and fishing were of subordinate nature. Pastures were situated mainly in floodplains and lakeside lowlands which had more open spaces. It is the extensive economy of that time that can be associated with the deforestation of flood plains of rivers and lakes and the emergence of meadows. There arises a natural-economic system with floodplain cattle-breeding (agricultural geo-systems of pasture type with floodplain meadows and woodlands), which existed for a long time. In all landscape zones the character of the relationship between men and the landscape was determined by the nature of producing activity, as well as natural features of "accommodating" landscape. The formation of nature use systems and settlement patterns strictly depend on the local landscape structure. In all earlier historical periods in similar landscape (zonal) conditions the settlers had the same type of economy, thus forming the same types of natural and economic systems and similar anthropogenically transformed landscapes. The dramatic change in the nature use occurs with the

  20. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  1. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2004-01-01

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  2. The real new economy.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments. PMID:14521102

  3. Insights into open/closed conformations of the catalytically active human guanylate kinase as investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit; Khan, Nazimuddin; Menzel, Andreas; Rajkovic, Ivan; Konrad, Manfred; Techert, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Bio-catalysis is the outcome of a subtle interplay between internal motions in enzymes and chemical kinetics. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) investigation of an enzyme's internal motions during catalysis offers an integral view of the protein's structural plasticity, dynamics, and function, which is useful for understanding allosteric effects and developing novel medicines. Guanylate kinase (GMPK) is an essential enzyme involved in the guanine nucleotide metabolism of unicellular and multicellular organisms. It is also required for the intracellular activation of numerous antiviral and anticancer purine nucleoside analog prodrugs. Catalytically active recombinant human GMPK (hGMPK) was purified for the first time and changes in the size and shape of open/closed hGMPK were tracked by SAXS. The binding of substrates (GMP + AMPPNP or Ap5G or GMP + ADP) resulted in the compaction of size and shape of hGMPK. The structural changes between open and completely closed hGMPK conformation were confirmed by observing differences in the hGMPK secondary structures with circular dichroism spectroscopy. PMID:26446352

  4. Primary TKI resistance in advanced non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutation: an open question.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Martelli, Salvatore; Remo, Andrea; Bonetti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The malignant behavior of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is caused by different driver mutations, which may include alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Activating mutations in exons 19 or 21 of EGFR in NSCLC are associated with increased sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib. However, approximately 10% of NSCLC patients show primary resistance to TKIs, and the resistance mechanism is poorly understood. We report the case of a 72-year-old nonsmoking Caucasian woman who underwent pulmonary segmentectomy for right peripheral T1N0M0 NSCLC. The tumor was an adenocarcinoma, with a point mutation in exon 21 of EGFR and with negative ALK gene rearrangement. Postoperative CT scan revealed right pleural effusion and abundant ascites without metastases to parenchymal organs. After paracentesis with positive cytology for adenocarcinoma, the patient started therapy with oral gefitinib 250 mg/day. CT scan after 2 months revealed disease progression with an increase in the pleural effusion (right and left) and ascites, as well as the appearance of solid tissue involving the right main bronchus and bronchus intermedius. Gefitinib was stopped and the patient died 1 month later of progressive NSCLC. The peculiarities of our case are the site of the metastatic disease and the complete lack of a response to gefitinib in a patient with an activating mutation in EGFR exon 21. PMID:25953440

  5. Research fuels local economies

    SciTech Connect

    Bosisio, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Research from US DOA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has resulted in a number of new products, alternative crops, and an increase in planted acreage of crops due to pest control by pheromones. Superslurper, produced from cornstarch, was found to absorb 1400 times its weight in moisture. This material is being used in fuel filters to remove water in fuel tanks and pumps. There is a growing market for these filters; superslurpers also are used in body powders, diapers, absorbent soft goods, batteries, soil additives, and in medical and recreational coldpacks. Local economies have benefited as a direct result of ARS efforts.

  6. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, George; Prakash, G. K.

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  7. Thriving locally in the global economy.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2003-08-01

    More and more small and midsize companies are joining corporate giants in striving to exploit international growth markets. At the same time, civic leaders worry about their communities' economic future in light of the impact of global forces on the operation and survival of business. How can communities retain local vitality yet still link their business to the global economy? Harvard professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter addresses that question in this classic HBR article, orginally published in 1995. To avoid a clash between international economic interests and local political interests, globalizing business must learn how to be responsive to the communities in which they operate, Kanter says. And communities must determine how to create a civic culture that will attract and retain footloose companies. The author surveyed five U.S. regions with direct connections to the global economy--Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle, and the Spartanburg-Greenville region of South Carolina--to determine their business and civic leader's strategies for improving their constituent's quality of life. She identified ways in which the global economy can work locally by capitalizing on the resources that distinguish one place from another. Kanter argues that regions can invest in capabilities that connect their local populations to the global economy in one of three ways: as thinkers, makers, or traders. She points to the Spartanburg-Greenville region as a good example of a world-class makers, with its exceptional blue-collar workforce that has attracted more than 200 companies from 18 countries. The history of the economic development of this region is a lesson for those seeking to understand how to achieve world-class status and bring local residents into the world economy. PMID:12884672

  8. Economy, Academy, and Community College Faculty: A Mission Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Mary Melissa

    2009-01-01

    In the face of 21st century economic challenges, community colleges must contend with complex pressures on their mission. The dueling missions of academic transfer and workforce preparation must sustain and grow the American economy in a global market and simultaneously meet the promise to community college students--open access to quality higher…

  9. Long-term outcomes after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy versus lobectomy via open thoracotomy for clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is a standard treatment for lung cancer. This study retrospectively compared long-term outcomes after VATS lobectomy versus lobectomy via open thoracotomy for clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods From July 2002 to June 2012, 160 patients were diagnosed with clinical stage IA NSCLC and underwent lobectomy. Of these, 114 underwent VATS lobectomy and 46 underwent lobectomy via open thoracotomy. Results The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 88.0% in the VATS group and 77.1% in the thoracotomy group for clinical stage IA NSCLC (p = 0.1504), and 91.5% in the VATS group and 93.8% in the thoracotomy group for pathological stage IA NSCLC (p = 0.2662). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 94.1% in the VATS group and 81.8% in the thoracotomy group for clinical stage IA NSCLC (p = 0.0268), and 94.8% in the VATS group and 96.2% in the thoracotomy group for pathological stage IA NSCLC (p = 0.5545). The rate of accurate preoperative staging was 71.9% in the VATS group and 56.5% in the thoracotomy group (p = 0.2611). Inconsistencies between the clinical and pathological stages were mainly related to tumor size, nodal status, and pleural invasion. Local recurrence occurred for one lesion in the VATS group and six lesions (five patients) in the thoracotomy group (p = 0.0495). Conclusions The DFS and OS were not inferior after VATS compared with thoracotomy. Local control was significantly better after VATS than after thoracotomy. Preoperative staging lacked sufficient accuracy. PMID:24886655

  10. Influence of the indium tin oxide/organic interface on open-circuit voltage, recombination, and cell degradation in organic small-molecule solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Stefan; Petersen, Andreas; Wagner, Thomas A.; Kniprath, Rolf; Lingenfelser, Dominic; Zen, Achmad; Kirchartz, Thomas; Zimmermann, Birger; Würfel, Uli; Feng, Xianjin; Mayer, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance and stability of small-molecule organic solar cells with respect to the indium tin oxide (ITO)/organic interface. Different zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/fullerene (C60) cell architectures with and without ITO O2-plasma treatment are compared and tested with respect to their degradation behavior under illumination in inert atmosphere. Photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS and XPS) shows that the O2-plasma treatment increases the ITO work function from 4.3 eV up to 5.6 eV. We find that both the increased ITO work function as well as the introduction of an electron blocking layer between ITO and the mixed donor/acceptor layer increases the open-circuit voltage Voc by more than 200 mV. For both cases our continuum approach device simulation quantitatively relates the increase of Voc to a reduced contact recombination and thus a reduced dark current. For cells built on ozone treated ITO we find a fast cell degradation caused by the UV part of the AM 1.5 spectrum. We identify the degradation, which manifests itself in a decrease of Voc of up to 25%, as a partial reversion of the plasma induced ITO work function increase. Additionally, we demonstrate that the degradation can be reduced by structural changes in the cell architecture, leading to improved cell stability. We present a comprehensive study of the recombination at the ITO/organic interface and its influence on the open-circuit voltage and the cell stability.

  11. Quantification of water and sediment yield from small catchment in open mining areas: experience and results from Poro nickel mining basin in New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event

  12. Multiscaling behavior in transition economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Vladimir A.

    2004-12-01

    A comparable statistical analysis for the currency exchange rates of the countries with transition economies has been made. Self-criticality has been demonstrated and studied. Non-linear effect for self-criticality indexes has been demonstrated. All effects are essentially nonlinear and differ from ones in the advanced economies.

  13. Modeling of Economy Considering Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Lev F.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss main modeling's problems of economy dynamic processes and the reason forecast's absence of economic crisis. We present a structure of complexity level of system and models and discuss expected results concerning crisis phenomena. We formulate the basic perspective directions of the mathematical modeling of economy, including possibility of the analysis of the pre crisis, crisis and post crisis phenomena in economic systems.

  14. Can Education Save the Economy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the economy recovers. Education alone cannot save the economy. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …

  15. Why Classroom Token Economies Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabman, Ronald S.; Tucker, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    The reasons for clinical failures of classroom token economies are divided into three groups: (1) Problems associated with the token program itself, (2) Problems associated with the teacher, and (3) Problems associated with the specific population on which the classroom token economy is used. Each of these problem areas is discussed. (Author)

  16. The Economy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The macroeconomic trends shaping the United States economy and the effects of those trends on higher education are considered. Warning institutions of higher education about possible problems in the economy will place them in a better position to react if necessary. The economic environment is discussed in terms of productivity (goods and services…

  17. Constant efficiency versus variable economy of cardiac contraction.

    PubMed

    Suga, H; Goto, Y; Hata, K; Takasago, T; Saeki, A; Taylor, T W; Nishioka, T

    1992-03-01

    An intriguing aspect of cardiac mechanoenergetics is the smaller variability of the contractile efficiency than the energy economy of force. We theoretically speculated about this dissociation by relating the mechanical efficiency with Po/a (the curvature of the force-velocity curve) in Hill's characteristic equation of muscle; Po/a is known to change with the energy economy and inversely with Vmax and myosin ATPase activity. The analysis showed that the variability is smaller for the mechanical efficiency than for Po/a and that the energy economy changes approximately with (Po/a)3. These theoretical relations may partly explain the small variability of the empirically observed contractile efficiency under various experimental conditions which are known to widely change the energy economy. PMID:1593751

  18. Restricted ADP movement in cardiomyocytes: Cytosolic diffusion obstacles are complemented with a small number of open mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels.

    PubMed

    Simson, Päivo; Jepihhina, Natalja; Laasmaa, Martin; Peterson, Pearu; Birkedal, Rikke; Vendelin, Marko

    2016-08-01

    Adequate intracellular energy transfer is crucial for proper cardiac function. In energy starved failing hearts, partial restoration of energy transfer can rescue mechanical performance. There are two types of diffusion obstacles that interfere with energy transfer from mitochondria to ATPases: mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) with voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) permeable to small hydrophilic molecules and cytoplasmatic diffusion barriers grouping ATP-producers and -consumers. So far, there is no method developed to clearly distinguish the contributions of cytoplasmatic barriers and MOM to the overall diffusion restriction. Furthermore, the number of open VDACs in vivo remains unknown. The aim of this work was to establish the partitioning of intracellular diffusion obstacles in cardiomyocytes. We studied the response of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of permeabilized rat cardiomyocytes to changes in extracellular ADP by recording 3D image stacks of NADH autofluorescence. Using cell-specific mathematical models, we determined the permeability of MOM and cytoplasmatic barriers. We found that only ~2% of VDACs are accessible to cytosolic ADP and cytoplasmatic diffusion barriers reduce the apparent diffusion coefficient by 6-10×. In cardiomyocytes, diffusion barriers in the cytoplasm and by the MOM restrict ADP/ATP diffusion to similar extents suggesting a major role of both barriers in energy transfer and other intracellular processes. PMID:27261153

  19. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

    In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

  20. Individual diversity of functional brain network economy

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Ganger, Sebastian; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    On average, brain network economy represents a trade-off between communication efficiency, robustness and connection cost, though, an analogous understanding on an individual level is largely missing. Evaluating resting-state networks of 42 healthy participants with 7 Tesla functional MRI and graph theory revealed that not even half of all possible connections were common across subjects. The strongest similarities among individuals were observed for interhemispheric and/or short-range connections, which may relate to the essential feature of the human brain to develop specialized systems within each hemisphere. Despite this marked variability in individual network architecture, all subjects exhibited equal small-world properties. Furthermore, interdependency between four major network economy metrics was observed across healthy individuals. The characteristic path length was associated with the clustering coefficient (peak correlation r=0.93), the response to network attacks (r=−0.97) and the physical connection cost in 3D space (r=−0.62). On the other hand, clustering was negatively related to attack response (r=−0.75) and connection cost (r=-0.59). Finally, increased connection cost was associated with better response to attacks (r=0.65). This indicates that functional brain networks with high global information transfer also exhibit strong network resilience. However, it seems that these advantages come at the cost of decreased local communication efficiency and increased physical connection cost. Except for wiring length, the results were replicated on a subsample at 3 Tesla (n=20). These findings highlight the finely tuned interrelationships between different parameters of brain network economy. Moreover, the understanding of the individual diversity of functional brain network economy may provide further insights in the vulnerability to mental and neurological disorders. PMID:25411715

  1. Individual diversity of functional brain network economy.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Ganger, Sebastian; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    On average, brain network economy represents a trade-off between communication efficiency, robustness, and connection cost, although an analogous understanding on an individual level is largely missing. Evaluating resting-state networks of 42 healthy participants with seven Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory revealed that not even half of all possible connections were common across subjects. The strongest similarities among individuals were observed for interhemispheric and/or short-range connections, which may relate to the essential feature of the human brain to develop specialized systems within each hemisphere. Despite this marked variability in individual network architecture, all subjects exhibited equal small-world properties. Furthermore, interdependency between four major network economy metrics was observed across healthy individuals. The characteristic path length was associated with the clustering coefficient (peak correlation r=0.93), the response to network attacks (r=-0.97), and the physical connection cost in three-dimensional space (r=-0.62). On the other hand, clustering was negatively related to attack response (r=-0.75) and connection cost (r=-0.59). Finally, increased connection cost was associated with better response to attacks (r=0.65). This indicates that functional brain networks with high global information transfer also exhibit strong network resilience. However, it seems that these advantages come at the cost of decreased local communication efficiency and increased physical connection cost. Except for wiring length, the results were replicated on a subsample at three Tesla (n=20). These findings highlight the finely tuned interrelationships between different parameters of brain network economy. Moreover, the understanding of the individual diversity of functional brain network economy may provide further insights in the vulnerability to mental and neurological disorders. PMID:25411715

  2. Washout rate in rat brain irradiated by a 11C beam after acetazolamide loading using a small single-ring OpenPET prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-03-01

    In dose verification techniques of particle therapies based on in-beam positron emission tomography (PET), the causes of washout of positron emitters by physiological effects should be clarified to correct washout for accurate verification. As well, the quantitative washout rate has a potential usefulness as a diagnostic index which should be explored. Therefore, we measured washout rates of rat brain after vasodilator acetazolamide loading to investigate the possible effects of blood flow on washout. Six rat brains were irradiated by a radioisotope 11C beam and time activity curves on the whole brains were obtained with a small single-ring OpenPET prototype. Then, washout rates were calculated with the Mizuno model, where two washout rates (k 2m and k 2s ) were assumed, and a two-compartment model including efflux from tissue to blood (k 2) and influx (k 3) and efflux (k 4) between the two tissue compartments. Before the irradiations, we used laser-Doppler flowmetry to confirm that acetazolamide increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a rat. We compared means of k 2m , k 2s and k 2, k 3 and k 4 without acetazolamide loading (Rest) and with acetazolamide loading (ACZ). For all k values, ACZ values were lower than Rest values. In other words, though CBF increased, washout rates were decreased. This may be attributed to the implanted 11C reacting to form 11CO2. Because acetazolamide increased the concentration of CO2 in brain, suppressed diffusion of 11CO2 and decomposition of 11CO2 into ions were prevented.

  3. A Short Open Reading Frame Encompassing the MicroRNA173 Target Site Plays a Role in trans-Acting Small Interfering RNA Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Manabu; Iki, Taichiro; Numa, Hisataka; Miyashita, Kyoko; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    trans-Acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) participate in the regulation of organ morphogenesis and determination of developmental timing in plants by down-regulating target genes through mRNA cleavage. The production of tasiRNAs is triggered by microRNA173 (miR173) and other specific microRNA-mediated cleavage of 5'-capped and 3'-polyadenylated primary TAS transcripts (pri-TASs). Although pri-TASs are not thought to encode functional proteins, they contain multiple short open reading frames (ORFs). For example, the primary TAS2 transcript (pri-TAS2) contains 11 short ORFs, and the third ORF from the 5' terminus (ORF3) encompasses the miR173 target site. Here, we show that nonsense mutations in ORF3 of pri-TAS2 upstream of the miR173 recognition site suppress tasiRNA accumulation and that ORF3 is translated in vitro. Glycerol gradient centrifugation analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant extracts revealed that pri-TAS2 and its miR173-cleaved 5' and 3' fragments are fractionated together in the polysome fractions. These and previous results suggest that the 3' fragment of pri-TAS2, which is a source of tasiRNAs, forms a huge complex containing SGS3, miR173-programmed AGO1 RNA-induced silencing complex, the 5' fragment, and ribosomes. This complex overaccumulated, moderately accumulated, and did not accumulate in rdr6, sde5, and sgs3 mutants, respectively. The sgs3 sde5 and rdr6 sde5 double mutants showed phenotypes similar to those of sgs3 and sde5 single mutants, respectively, with regard to the TAS2-related RNA accumulation, suggesting that the complex is formed in an SGS3-dependent manner, somehow modified and stabilized by SDE5, and becomes competent for RDR6 action. Ribosomes in this complex likely play an important role in this process. PMID:26966170

  4. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to μs) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals thatmore » generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to μs charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.« less

  5. Positive expression of protein chromosome 9 open reading frame 86 (C9orf86) correlated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Gui-Lin; Tao, Ya-Lan; Wu, Qi-Nian; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Chromosome 9 open reading frame 86 (C9orf86) is a novel subfamily of GTPases. Previous studies have implicated C9orf86 as a potential oncogene. Methods C9orf86 expression was detected in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cell lines by RT-PCR and western blotting. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect 180 consecutive NSCLC specimens and 16 normal lung tissues. The correlation between C9orf86 expression and clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox hazards ratio models were used to estimate the effect of C9orf86 expression on survival. Results C9orf86 was expressed in the cytoplasm in 74 of 180 (41.11%) NSCLC specimens. In clinical pathology analysis, C9orf86 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and clinical stage significantly (P<0.05). Multivariable analysis confirmed that C9orf86 expression increased the risk of death after adjusting for other clinicopathological factors (P<0.01). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly prolonged in the C9orf86 negative group compared to the C9orf86 positive group (P<0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy prolonged OS and DFS in resected NSCLC patients with C9orf86 negative expression (P<0.001) but not C9orf86 positive. Conclusions Positive expression of C9orf86 is an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC patients, and C9orf86 may serve as a prognostic biomarker for patients with NSCLC. PMID:27499931

  6. Political Economy, the Internet and FL/OSS Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansell, Robin; Berdou, Evangelia

    Despite the growing amount of research on Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FL/OSS) development, there is little insight into how structural factors associated with institutions influence the patterns of software developer activity in this area. This article examines some of the dynamics of the development of this type of software and the extent to which these dynamics are associated with features of the gift economy as is frequently suggested in the literature. Drawing on an empirical analysis of contributors to the GNOME FL/OSS project, we suggest that greater attention should be given to the emergence of a mixed economy in which features of the exchange economy come to the fore with implications for the power relationships among those contributing to FL/OSS.

  7. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  8. Scale Economies in Public Education: Evidence from School Level Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Tyler J.; Bosworth, Ryan

    2002-01-01

    Begins with a discussion of cost and efficiency in education. Presents an empirical model to estimate school-level economies of scale. Applies model to expenditure data set by school from 17 Wyoming school districts. Finds that it costs more per student in a small school than in large schools to achieve similar educational outcomes, thus…

  9. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    enterprises taxes, etc. What purposes are the specified methods applied to? The regional companies management and their reforming. One of the major directions - transformation of the enterprises into the viable industrial companies, an effective economic structures formation. In this connection, the technology of financial streams management allows to solve another important problem. The created (or reorganized) structure can be checked up in various economic modes even before practical realization of the project. The received data can be applied to an indicative plans substantiation and control over their performance. They can be used at negotiations with the enterprises heads, which are spent for interests of a regional industrial policy. Such approach can become base for concrete (as figures, plans and schemes) coordination of long-term investment priorities of the largest firms and companies, their production programs coordination, the mutual markets formation and the cooperation communications stabilization, payment chains, the social and economic development programs creation. It opens opportunities for the regional branches, enterprises, the major economic centers coordinated management. An effective planning of price pools, investment programs, the control over tax revenues and financial streams becomes possible. All this are necessary elements of a regional authorities economic policy. The offered approach considerably surpasses by it's efficiency auditor, "paper" or traditional computer technology. Bulky computer centers are not capable to cope with the given class problems. At the same time the small mobile commissions of experts "armed" with modern intellectual technologies, are capable to solve rather scale analytical problems. On the basis of the offered methods can be generated means of automation of the regional industrial complex development management. They are focused on concrete objects of various scale: territorial complexes, branches, groups of the

  10. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  11. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  12. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  13. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies. PMID:26983175

  14. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  15. Dabrafenib in BRAF V600E–Mutant Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: an Open-label, Single arm, Multicenter, Phase 2 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, David; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Quoix, Elisabeth; Riely, Gregory; Barlesi, Fabrice; Souquet, Pierre-John; Smit, Egbert F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Kelly, Ronan J.; Cho, B. C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Pandite, Lini; Nase, Christine; Ma, Bo; D’Amelio, Anthony; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Curtis, C. Martin; Johnson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activating BRAF V600E mutations are found in approximately 1–2% of adenocarcinomas of the lung offering an opportunity to test targeted therapy for this disease. Dabrafenib is an oral selective inhibitor of the BRAF kinase. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity of dabrafenib in patients with advanced BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods In this phase 2, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label study of previously treated and untreated patients with stage IV, metastatic NSCLC and BRAF V600E mutation, we evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR) in patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug. Safety analysis was performed on the all-treated population (all previously treated and untreated patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug). The study is ongoing but not enrolling participants in this cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Findings Between August 2011 and February 2014 a total of 84 previously treated and untreated patients were enrolled. Investigator-assessed ORR for 78 pretreated patients was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23·1 to 44·9). Independent review committee assessment of ORR was consistent with investigator-based assessment. Four of the six previously untreated patients had an objective response. One patient died on study due to intracranial hemorrhage that was considered by the investigator to be due to study drug. Serious adverse events were reported in 35 (42%) of 84 patients. The most frequent grade 3 or higher adverse events were cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (10 [12%] of 84 patients), asthenia (4 [5%] of 84 patients), and basal cell carcinoma (4 [5%] of 84 patients). Interpretation This is, to our knowledge, the first prospective trial focusing on BRAF V600E-mutant NSCLC to show clinical activity of a BRAF inhibitor. The

  16. Radiation processing and market economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagórski, Z. P.

    1998-06-01

    In the system of totalitarian economy, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market economy in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market economy. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared.

  17. Whole System Carbon Exchange of Small Stands of Pinus Ponderosa Growing at Different CO{sub 2} concentrations in open top chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J. Timothy; Ross, Peter D.; Picone, John B.; Eichelmann, Hillar Y.; Ross, Gregory N.

    1996-12-01

    Functional understanding of the carbon cycle from the molecular to the global level is a high scientific priority requiring explanation of the relationship between fluxes at different spatial and temporal scales. We describe methods used to convert an open top chamber into both closed and open flow gas exchange systems utilized to measure such fluxes. The systems described consist of temporary modifications to an open top chamber, and are put in place for several days on one or several open top chambers. In the closed system approach, a chamber is quickly sealed for a short, predetermined time interval, the change in gas concentrations is measured, then the chamber is unsealed and ventilated. In the open flow system approach, airflow into the open top chamber is measured by trace gas injection, and the air stream concentration of CO{sub 2} and water vapor is measured before and after injection into the chamber. The closed chamber approach can resolve smaller fluxes, but causes transient increases in chamber air temperature, and has a high labor requirement. The open flow approach reduces the deviation of measuring conditions from ambient, may be semi-automated (requiring less labor), allows a more frequent sampling interval, but cannot resolve low fluxes well. Data demonstrating the capabilities of these systems show that, in open canopies of ponderosa pine, scaling fluxes from leaves to whole canopies is well approximated from summation of leaf P{sub s} rates. Flux measurements obtained from these systems can be a valuable contribution to our understanding whole system material fluxes, and challenge our understanding of ecosystem carbon budgets.

  18. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  19. Languages and the Export Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, D. E.

    The improvement of language skills and intercultural understanding among Australians for the purpose of increasing their country's ability to develop a strong export economy is explored. It is argued that a formidable language teaching system in education is vital to the strengthening of Australia's international reputation in world markets.…

  20. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  1. Education and the Next Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Robert B.

    The features of a mass production-based economy are traced and contrasted within a competitive global marketplace in this political-economic analysis. The early reform movement's equation of "more" with "better" is no longer appropriate to meet the human resource needs of a nation undergoing profound economic changes. Older industrial economies…

  2. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize labor. (MJP)

  3. The Political Economy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    1985-01-01

    The political economy of education treats education as a factor shaped by the power relations between different economic, political, and social groups. Specific topics discussed include the economic value of education, education as an allocator of economic roles, education and social class, education and income distribution, and education and…

  4. Enterprise Skills for the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Anderson, Maggie; Brown, Wendy; Wilson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ? In response to the emergence of an enterprise economy, government claims that building an enterprise culture is vital. Correspondingly, provision of entrepreneurship education in higher education has expanded. The paper aims to assess the potential of entrepreneurship education to develop skills, and of whether students perceive them as…

  5. Linking Education to the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuschel, Robert P.; And Others

    The papers in this section of the proceedings of the 1981 World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching concern educational reforms and how they can address national economic needs. An introductory article by Robert P. Neuschel, "Linking Education to the Economy: An Introductory Statement," discusses the relationship that…

  6. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    there was a cattle breeding economic and cultural type of producing economy with a simplified system of natural and anthropogenic and anthropogenic landscapes involving a maximum of 4-5 natural and economic systems. In the forest-steppe zone a significant part of the population was settled in the valley landscapes. The basis of the economy was pastoral and house cattle breeding with a predominance of beef cattle and pigs and hoe-mattock agriculture, which was only possible in the floodplain landscape complexes. In the areas of permanent settlements long grazing in one place led to the complete destruction of vegetation. The forced reduction of the agricultural land areas led to significant ecologic crisis. In the forest zone, along with hunters, fishermen and gatherers there appear the first tribes, who already engaged in the forest cattle breeding. First, they raised pigs and then small and beef cattle, while hunting and fishing were of subordinate nature. Pastures were situated mainly in floodplains and lakeside lowlands which had more open spaces. It is the extensive economy of that time that can be associated with the deforestation of flood plains of rivers and lakes and the emergence of meadows. There arises a natural-economic system with floodplain cattle-breeding (agricultural geo-systems of pasture type with floodplain meadows and woodlands), which existed for a long time. In all landscape zones the character of the relationship between men and the landscape was determined by the nature of producing activity, as well as natural features of "accommodating" landscape. The formation of nature use systems and settlement patterns strictly depend on the local landscape structure. In all earlier historical periods in similar landscape (zonal) conditions the settlers had the same type of economy, thus forming the same types of natural and economic systems and similar anthropogenically transformed landscapes. The dramatic change in the nature use occurs with the

  7. Scale economies in rail transit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, I.

    1994-06-01

    The research uses Federal Transit Administration Section 15 data to investigate the operating costs of 13 heavy-rail and 13 light-rail urban mass transit systems for the period 1985-91. A Cobb-Douglas technology is used to investigate various types of economies of scale. The principal findings are: (1) Adding additional passenges to an existing network and schedule of services involves zero marginal cost for heavy-rail systems, and small additional costs for light-rail systems. (2) Adding additional trains, and passengers, to an existing network leads to a less than proportionate increase in costs. (3) An expanded route network results in mild increases in unit costs for the large heavy-rail systems. The smaller light-rail systems display reduced unit costs with an expanded network. The research suggests that the minimum efficient scale for rail operation is approximately 25 route miles.

  8. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  11. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  12. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  17. The small turbine revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.L.

    1995-07-01

    Until the mid-1960s, improvements in technology and economies of scale made each new generating unit installed less expensive than the previous one. Later, bigger was still better. Larger units cost less per kilowatt than smaller units. Today, that may be changing. In some situations, distributed generation -the use of small, dispersed units (usually gas turbines) in the place of large central stations- can be the most attractive option.

  18. Teaching Economics in the Mini-Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet produced by the State of Indiana introduces elementary teachers to economic concepts appropriate to the elementary curriculum and explains how to use mini-economy activities to teach these concepts. Chapter 1 describes how the mini-economy works, while chapter 2 introduces basic economic vocabulary and discusses market economy. Ideas…

  19. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  20. Serving Business in an Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information economy: "Serving Business in an Information Economy" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging Economy and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to Business" (B. S.…

  1. Political economy of population growth.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates. PMID:12179026

  2. The State of Small Business: A Report of the President. Together with the Annual Report on Small Business and Competition of the Small Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

    This volume consists of a report of the President concerning the state of small businesses as well as the U.S. Small Business Administration annual report on small business and competition. Addressed in the President's report are the following issues: the role of small business in the economy; the foundations of small business policy; and problems…

  3. Long-acting somatostatin analogues provide significant beneficial effect in patients with refractory small bowel angiodysplasia: Results from a proof of concept open label mono-centre trial

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Barry; Breslin, Niall; McNamara, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel angiodysplasias account for over 50% of causes of small bowel bleeding and carry a worse prognosis than lesions located elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Re-bleeding rates are high even after first-line endoscopic therapy and are associated with high levels of morbidity for affected patients. Small trials of long-acting somatostatin analogues have shown promising results but have not yet been assessed in patients with refractory small bowel disease. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of long-acting somatostatin analogues in reducing re-bleeding rates and transfusion requirements, and improving haemoglobin levels in patients with refractory small bowel angiodysplasia. Methods Patients with refractory small bowel angiodysplasia were treated with 20 mg of long-acting octreotide for a minimum of three months. Response was assessed according to: rates of re-bleeding, haemoglobin levels, transfusion requirements, and side effects. Results A total of 24 patients were initially treated and 20 received at least three doses. Rates of complete, partial and non-response were 70%, 20% and 10% respectively. Average haemoglobin rates increased from 9.19 g/dl to 11.35 g/dl (p = 0.0027, 95% confidence interval (CI) −3.5 to −1.1) in the group overall and 70% remained transfusion-free after a mean treatment duration of 8.8 months. The rate of adverse events was higher than previously reported at 30%. Conclusion Long-acting somatostatin analogues offer a therapeutic advantage in a significant proportion of patients with small bowel angiodysplasia. With careful patient selection and close observation, a long-acting somatostatin analogue should be considered in all patients with persistent anaemia attributable to refractory disease in conjunction with other standard treatments. PMID:26966525

  4. Influence of habitat structure and mouth dynamics on avifauna of intermittently-open estuaries: A study of four small South African estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terörde, Anja I.; Turpie, Jane K.

    2013-07-01

    Habitat composition was a major factor in determining waterbird species composition and abundance, particularly the area of floodplain and vegetated channel in four intermittently open estuaries (IOEs) in the warm-temperate coastal biogeographical region of South Africa. Average bird densities on the four estuaries varied from 0.5 to 4.2 birds per hectare, and community composition differed significantly between estuaries. However, the considerable variation in abundance of macrophytes did not have a detectable effect on waterbirds. Under closed mouth conditions, piscivorous birds dominated the avifauna. Each estuary's avifauna responded differently in terms of changes in feeding guild composition when the mouth opened. Bird abundance changed immediately after breaching, but not consistently. Diversity was significantly higher under open-mouth conditions for three of the four estuaries, and species composition was significantly different from that under closed-mouth conditions at all four estuaries. Changes in mouth dynamics as a result of climate change, water abstraction and artificial breaching could lead to significant changes in estuarine fauna.

  5. Population and the Colombian economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  6. Designing Corporate Training in Developing Economies Using Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geith, Chris; Vignare, Karen; Bourquin, Leslie D.; Thiagarajan, Deepa

    2010-01-01

    The Food Safety Knowledge Network (FSKN) is a collaboration between Michigan State University, the Global Food Safety Initiative of the Consumer Goods Forum, and other food industry and public sector partners. FSKN's goal is to help strengthen the food industry's response to the complex food safety knowledge and training challenges that affect…

  7. Inelastically scattering particles and wealth distribution in an open economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanina, František

    2004-04-01

    Using the analogy with inelastic granular gases we introduce a model for wealth exchange in society. The dynamics is governed by a kinetic equation, which allows for self-similar solutions. The scaling function has a power-law tail, the exponent being given by a transcendental equation. In the limit of continuous trading, a closed form of the wealth distribution is calculated analytically.

  8. For a Political Economy of Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In understanding the changes that are impacting the global higher education sector, developing a critique of the relationships between technology and technological innovation, new managerialism and financialisation, and the impact of the secular crisis of global capitalism is critical. Moreover, it is important to critique these changes…

  9. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. PMID:26674686

  10. A single gene for juvenile and middle-age onset open-angle glaucomas confined within a small interval on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, V.; Dumont, M.; Plante, M.

    1994-09-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) encompasses a complex of ocular disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy causing progressive loss of the visual fields and usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure. POAG can be subdivided into two groups according to age of onset: (1) the more prevalent middle to late-age onset chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after age 40 and (2) the less common form, juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), which occurs between 3 years of age and early adulthood. Susceptibility to either COAG or JOAG has been found to be inherited. We studied 141 members of a huge multigeneration French Canadian family affected with an autosomal dominant form of POAG. Both JOAG and COAG were diagnosed in 43 patients. To first position the disease gene, AFM microsatellites markers specific to chromosome 1q21-q31 were selected since linkage of JOAG to this region was recently demonstrated in two Caucasian families. Tight linkage was observed between the JOAG/COAG phenotype and 7 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 at {theta}=0 was obtained with AFM278ye5. Using a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect, a characteristic JOAG/COAG haplotype spanning 12 cM was next recognized between loci D1S196 and D1S212. Two key recombination events in affected patients further confined the disease locus within a 5 cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S452/D1S210. These results are the first to demonstrate that JOAG and one adult form of POAG map at a single locus on chromosome 1q23-q25. They also provide members of this family with a new diagnostic tool to identify the at-risk individuals.

  11. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  12. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  13. Strategies to improve running economy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kyle R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Running economy (RE) represents a complex interplay of physiological and biomechanical factors that is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running and expressed as the submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2) at a given running velocity. This review considered a wide range of acute and chronic interventions that have been investigated with respect to improving economy by augmenting one or more components of the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical or neuromuscular systems. Improvements in RE have traditionally been achieved through endurance training. Endurance training in runners leads to a wide range of physiological responses, and it is very likely that these characteristics of running training will influence RE. Training history and training volume have been suggested to be important factors in improving RE, while uphill and level-ground high-intensity interval training represent frequently prescribed forms of training that may elicit further enhancements in economy. More recently, research has demonstrated short-term resistance and plyometric training has resulted in enhanced RE. This improvement in RE has been hypothesized to be a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics. Altitude acclimatization results in both central and peripheral adaptations that improve oxygen delivery and utilization, mechanisms that potentially could improve RE. Other strategies, such as stretching should not be discounted as a training modality in order to prevent injuries; however, it appears that there is an optimal degree of flexibility and stiffness required to maximize RE. Several nutritional interventions have also received attention for their effects on reducing oxygen demand during exercise, most notably dietary nitrates and caffeine. It is clear that a range of training and passive interventions may improve RE, and researchers should concentrate their investigative efforts on more fully understanding the types and mechanisms that

  14. Bolivia's economy--an update.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis

    2008-01-01

    This report looks at Bolivia's main economic indicators over the past year (mid-2006 to mid-2007), noting improvements in growth, fiscal balances, balance of payments, and international reserves. These improvements were largely due to government policies and choices, such as increased hydrocarbons royalties and control over the hydrocarbons sector, and have allowed the government to embark on a number of programs targeting the poor and landless. The report also notes that Bolivia faces many challenges: expansion of land reform, more rapid growth and poverty reduction, the reduction of regional and demographic disparities, and an accelerated diversification of the economy away from hydrocarbons and minerals. PMID:18459287

  15. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, A P; Huettmann, F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  16. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Baltensperger, A. P.; Huettmann, F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  17. Arabidopsis RNASE THREE LIKE2 Modulates the Expression of Protein-Coding Genes via 24-Nucleotide Small Interfering RNA-Directed DNA Methylation[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hachet, Mélanie; Comella, Pascale; Zytnicki, Matthias; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    RNaseIII enzymes catalyze the cleavage of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and have diverse functions in RNA maturation. Arabidopsis thaliana RNASE THREE LIKE2 (RTL2), which carries one RNaseIII and two dsRNA binding (DRB) domains, is a unique Arabidopsis RNaseIII enzyme resembling the budding yeast small interfering RNA (siRNA)-producing Dcr1 enzyme. Here, we show that RTL2 modulates the production of a subset of small RNAs and that this activity depends on both its RNaseIII and DRB domains. However, the mode of action of RTL2 differs from that of Dcr1. Whereas Dcr1 directly cleaves dsRNAs into 23-nucleotide siRNAs, RTL2 likely cleaves dsRNAs into longer molecules, which are subsequently processed into small RNAs by the DICER-LIKE enzymes. Depending on the dsRNA considered, RTL2-mediated maturation either improves (RTL2-dependent loci) or reduces (RTL2-sensitive loci) the production of small RNAs. Because the vast majority of RTL2-regulated loci correspond to transposons and intergenic regions producing 24-nucleotide siRNAs that guide DNA methylation, RTL2 depletion modifies DNA methylation in these regions. Nevertheless, 13% of RTL2-regulated loci correspond to protein-coding genes. We show that changes in 24-nucleotide siRNA levels also affect DNA methylation levels at such loci and inversely correlate with mRNA steady state levels, thus implicating RTL2 in the regulation of protein-coding gene expression. PMID:26764378

  18. Comprehensive Annotation of Physcomitrella patens Small RNA Loci Reveals That the Heterochromatic Short Interfering RNA Pathway Is Largely Conserved in Land Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Coruh, Ceyda; Cho, Sung Hyun; Shahid, Saima; Liu, Qikun; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Axtell, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Many plant small RNAs are sequence-specific negative regulators of target mRNAs and/or chromatin. In angiosperms, the two most abundant endogenous small RNA populations are usually 21-nucleotide microRNAs (miRNAs) and 24-nucleotide heterochromatic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Heterochromatic siRNAs are derived from repetitive regions and reinforce DNA methylation at targeted loci. The existence and extent of heterochromatic siRNAs in other land plant lineages has been unclear. Using small RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of the moss Physcomitrella patens, we identified 1090 loci that produce mostly 23- to 24-nucleotide siRNAs. These loci are mostly in intergenic regions with dense DNA methylation. Accumulation of siRNAs from these loci depends upon P. patens homologs of DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3), RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE2, and the largest subunit of DNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE IV, with the largest subunit of a Pol V homolog contributing to expression at a smaller subset of the loci. A MINIMAL DICER-LIKE (mDCL) gene, which lacks the N-terminal helicase domain typical of DCL proteins, is specifically required for 23-nucleotide siRNA accumulation. We conclude that heterochromatic siRNAs, and their biogenesis pathways, are largely identical between angiosperms and P. patens, with the notable exception of the P. patens-specific use of mDCL to produce 23-nucleotide siRNAs. PMID:26209555

  19. Health Information Economy: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182

  20. Small-crack test methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, James M.; Allison, John E.

    This book contains chapters on fracture mechanics parameters for small fatigue cracks, monitoring small-crack growth by the replication method, measurement of small cracks by photomicroscopy (experiments and analysis), and experimental mechanics of microcracks. Other topics discussed are the real-time measurement of small-crack-opening behavior using an interferometric strain/displacement gage; direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks; an ultrasonic method for the measurement of the size and opening behavior of small fatigue cracks; and the simulation of short crack and other low closure loading conditions, utilizing constant K(max) Delta-K-decreasing fatigue crack growth procedures.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: small fiber neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions small fiber neuropathy small fiber neuropathy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Small fiber neuropathy is a condition characterized by severe pain attacks ...

  2. The Meaning of Foreign Investment in the Chinese Economy. Training Discussion Paper No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura

    As the Chinese economy opens up to the outside world, the decision to engage in joint ventures with foreign capital is among the most important national policies. Significant direct consequences of joint ventures are the influx of foreign capital, expanding exports, and employment creation. However, the great importance of joint ventures lies in…

  3. The Token Economy: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicole Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a token economy as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an open concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…

  4. Small RNA Derived from the Virulence Modulating Region of the Potato spindle tuber viroid Silences callose synthase Genes of Tomato Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Brosseau, Chantal; Giguère, Tamara; Sano, Teruo; Moffett, Peter; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) callose synthase genes CalS11-like and CalS12-like encode proteins that are essential for the formation of callose, a major component of pollen mother cell walls; these enzymes also function in callose formation during pathogen infection. This article describes the targeting of these callose synthase mRNAs by a small RNA derived from the virulence modulating region of two Potato spindle tuber viroid variants. More specifically, viroid infection of tomato plants resulted in the suppression of the target mRNAs up to 1.5-fold, depending on the viroid variant used and the gene targeted. The targeting of these mRNAs by RNA silencing was validated by artificial microRNA experiments in a transient expression system and by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Viroid mutants incapable of targeting callose synthase mRNAs failed to induce typical infection phenotypes, whereas a chimeric viroid obtained by swapping the virulence modulating regions of a mild and a severe variant of Potato spindle tuber viroid greatly affected the accumulation of viroids and the severity of disease symptoms. These data provide evidence of the silencing of multiple genes by a single small RNA derived from a viroid. PMID:26290537

  5. Novel and Recently Evolved MicroRNA Clusters Regulate Expansive F-BOX Gene Networks through Phased Small Interfering RNAs in Wild Diploid Strawberry1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Rui; Ye, Songqing; Liu, Zongrang; Meyers, Blake C.; Liu, Zhongchi

    2015-01-01

    The wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has recently emerged as an excellent model for cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) as well as other Rosaceae fruit crops due to its short seed-to-fruit cycle, diploidy, and sequenced genome. Deep sequencing and parallel analysis of RNA ends were used to identify F. vesca microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes, respectively. Thirty-eight novel and 31 known miRNAs were identified. Many known miRNAs targeted not only conserved mRNA targets but also developed new target genes in F. vesca. Significantly, two new clusters of miRNAs were found to collectively target 94 F-BOX (FBX) genes. One of the miRNAs in the new cluster is 22 nucleotides and triggers phased small interfering RNA production from six FBX genes, which amplifies the silencing to additional FBX genes. Comparative genomics revealed that the main novel miRNA cluster evolved from duplications of FBX genes. Finally, conserved trans-acting siRNA pathways were characterized and confirmed with distinct features. Our work identified novel miRNA-FBX networks in F. vesca and shed light on the evolution of miRNAs/phased small interfering RNA networks that regulate large gene families in higher plants. PMID:26143249

  6. Proteogenomic Discovery of a Small, Novel Protein in Yeast Reveals a Strategy for the Detection of Unannotated Short Open Reading Frames.

    PubMed

    Yagoub, Daniel; Tay, Aidan P; Chen, Zhiliang; Hamey, Joshua J; Cai, Curtis; Chia, Samantha Z; Hart-Smith, Gene; Wilkins, Marc R

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, proteomic data have contributed to genome annotation efforts, most notably in humans and mice, and spawned a field termed "proteogenomics". Yeast, in contrast with higher eukaryotes, has a small genome, which has lent itself to simpler ORF prediction. Despite this, continual advances in mass spectrometry suggest that proteomics should be able to improve genome annotation even in this well-characterized species. Here we applied a proteogenomics workflow to yeast to identify novel protein-coding genes. Specific databases were generated, from intergenic regions of the genome, which were then queried with MS/MS data. This suggested the existence of several putative novel ORFs of <100 codons, one of which we chose to validate. Synthetic peptides, RNA-Seq analysis, and evidence of evolutionary conservation allowed for the unequivocal definition of a new protein of 78 amino acids encoded on chromosome X, which we dub YJR107C-A. It encodes a new type of domain, which ab initio modeling suggests as predominantly α-helical. We show that this gene is nonessential for growth; however, deletion increases sensitivity to osmotic stress. Finally, from the above discovery process, we discuss a generalizable strategy for the identification of short ORFs and small proteins, many of which are likely to be undiscovered. PMID:26554900

  7. CIO in a Service Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, Paul G.

    The role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) has evolved considerably since its inception in the 1980s. This paper begins with a brief review of the evolution of this role and sets the stage for future change brought about by the rise of the service economy. The enterprise of the future is then characterized based on an important global study by IBM. Using this characterization, the future challenges for CIOs in areas such as strategic planning, governance and operations management of information technology services are assessed from the perspectives of the four major elements of a service system (technology, people, organization and shared information). The paper concludes with a summary of the important findings, pointing to the challenge that CIOs of the future must be the leaders in their organizations in the delivery of smarter, on-demand service systems to smarter customers.

  8. Training in Toronto's "New Economy"=La formation dans la "nouvelle" economie de Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspectives Series document includes statements about the new economy in Toronto made by four participants in a March 2001 forum. The new economy was defined by the moderator as "an economy that emphasizes knowledge and technical processes put to the production of goods and other outputs so that an individual's knowledge is viewed…

  9. Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

  10. Separation of small organic molecules using covalent organic frameworks-LZU1 as stationary phase by open-tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoying; Ding, Sanyuan; Wang, Weifeng; Xu, Yali; Xu, Yinyin; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo

    2016-03-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have attracted much attention because of their permanent nanoscale porosity and higher surface area compared to zeolites as well as robustness. COFs have great potential in several fields such as hydrogen storage, gas separation, and catalysis. However, COFs have not yet been applied in capillary electrochromatography. Herein, covalent organic frameworks-LZU1 (COF-LZU1) was used as the stationary phase in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography for the first time. Compared to the monoliths used in electrochromatography, the preparation technique of a COF-LZU1-coated capillary was simple and practical. The baseline separation of model analytes including alkylbenzenes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and anilines by the COF-LZU1-coated capillary was achieved based on the size selectivity of COF-LZU1 porous structure and hydrophobic interactions between the model analytes and organic ligands of COF-LZU1. The load capacity of the COF-LZU1-coated capillary for naphthalene was 0.6mg/mL. For three consecutive runs, the intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.4-2.6% for the migration time and 2.7-8.7% for the peak area. The interday RSDs were 1.3-3.9% for the migration time and 3.7-9.7% for the peak area. The column-to-column reproducibility of migration time was in the range 1.0-3.9%. Moreover, the coated capillary was used for >300 runs with no changes in the separation efficiency. Thus, COFs have great potential in capillary electrochromatography and may provide a new method for chromatographic separation. PMID:26858115

  11. "Developing" the Self in the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, James D.

    2008-01-01

    The term "knowledge economy", like the term "globalisation", has become a catchword in political and educational debate over the last decade or so, especially in debates upon educational policy where the role of education in preparing young people to take their part in the Knowledge Economy is often seen as paramount over other traditional…

  12. The solar-hydrogen economy: an analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Warren D.

    2007-09-01

    The 20th Century was the age of the Petroleum Economy while the 21st Century is certainly the age of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy. The global Solar-Hydrogen Economy that is now emerging follows a different logic. Under this new economic paradigm, new machines and methods are once again being developed while companies are restructuring. The Petroleum Economy will be briefly explored in relation to oil consumption, Hubbert's curve, and oil reserves with emphasis on the "oil crash". Concerns and criticisms about the Hydrogen Economy will be addressed by debunking some of the "hydrogen myths". There are three major driving factors for the establishment of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy, i.e. the environment, the economy with the coming "oil crash", and national security. The New Energy decentralization pathway has developed many progressive features, e.g., reducing the dependence on oil, reducing the air pollution and CO II. The technical and economic aspects of the various Solar-Hydrogen energy options and combinations will be analyzed. A proposed 24-hour/day 200 MWe solar-hydrogen power plant for the U.S. with selected energy options will be discussed. There are fast emerging Solar Hydrogen energy infrastructures in the U.S., Europe, Japan and China. Some of the major infrastructure projects in the transportation and energy sectors will be discussed. The current and projected growth in the Solar-Hydrogen Economy through 2045 will be given.

  13. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  14. The Rural Economy in a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas G.

    Technological change, globalization, and localization have changed rural economies. They have increased labor productivity, reducing the importance of labor costs in location decisions; decreased the importance of distance; increased the importance of economies of scale; and increased the role of local conditions and choices in determining…

  15. Politics Between Economy and Culture. Introductory Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokkan, Stein

    The introductory statement to the plenary session of the Ninth World Congress of the International Political Science Association announces the first of two major themes, politics between economy and culture. This theme is described as investigating the culture-economy dialectic at all levels of politics -- global, territorial, national, community,…

  16. Indicators of Education and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoachlander, E. Gareth; And Others

    Eighteen indicators represent important considerations for discussions about education and the economy and strategies for public policy. They describe major aspects of the economy, the demand for labor, and levels for human capital. The indicators are the following: (1) shifts in sectors' relative share of gross national product and the labor…

  17. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  18. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  19. Using Classroom Token Economies as Instructional Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minner, Sam; Knutson, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The use of a token economy in teaching special needs students is outlined. Steps in establishing a token economy are presented and activities, such as the use of charge cards and a classroom bank, which help develop related skills are discussed. (PHR)

  20. Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Token Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Brenda Smith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The following stages in planning a token economy with students having behavior problems are discussed: (1) identifying target behaviors; (2) specifying and selecting reinforcers; (3) identifying token types and schedules; (4) planning token distribution and redemption; (5) initiating and implementing the token economy system; and (6) planning…

  1. Knowledge Production in a Cooperative Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative economy is contrasted with the competitive economy that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…

  2. Manufacturing Careers, Skilled Workers and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to jumpstart the economy, "Made in the U.S.A." needs to be synonymous with in-demand, high-quality products sold throughout the world. Recognizing the importance of the manufacturing industry and its connection to a healthy economy, President Obama addressed Carnegie Mellon University and launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership…

  3. Getting Tenure in a Down Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Darla; Maidment, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Academic tenure is now under attack. A down economy has placed greater pressure on institutions making tenure more difficult to obtain. Nineteen tips for gaining tenure in a down economy are presented along with several justifications for tenure and why tenure is important for the preservation of the academy and the freedom to research and teach.

  4. The Informal Economy: Recent Trends, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Martha Alter

    2016-08-01

    Informal employment represents more than half of nonagricultural employment in most developing regions, contributes to the overall economy, and provides pathways to reduction of poverty and inequality. Support to the informal economy should include the expansion of occupational health and safety to include informal workers, based on an analysis of their work places and work risks. The paper presents main schools of thought and argues for a holistic understanding of the different segments of the informal work force and for policies and interventions tailored to the needs and constraints of these different segments. The paper recommends a policy approach which seeks to extend social protection, including occupational health and safety services, to informal workers, and to increase the productivity of informal enterprises and informal workers through an enabling environment and support services. The paper calls for a new paradigm of a hybrid economy which would value and integrate the informal economy alongside the formal economies. PMID:27252281

  5. Characterization of the Tupaia Rhabdovirus Genome Reveals a Long Open Reading Frame Overlapping with P and a Novel Gene Encoding a Small Hydrophobic Protein

    PubMed Central

    Springfeld, Christoph; Darai, Gholamreza; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses are negative-stranded RNA viruses of the order Mononegavirales and have been isolated from vertebrates, insects, and plants. Members of the genus Lyssavirus cause the invariably fatal disease rabies, and a member of the genus Vesiculovirus, Chandipura virus, has recently been associated with acute encephalitis in children. We present here the complete genome sequence and transcription map of a rhabdovirus isolated from cultivated cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue from a moribund tree shrew. The negative-strand genome of tupaia rhabdovirus is composed of 11,440 nucleotides and encodes six genes that are separated by one or two intergenic nucleotides. In addition to the typical rhabdovirus genes in the order N-P-M-G-L, a gene encoding a small hydrophobic putative type I transmembrane protein of approximately 11 kDa was identified between the M and G genes, and the corresponding transcript was detected in infected cells. Similar to some Vesiculoviruses and many Paramyxovirinae, the P gene has a second overlapping reading frame that can be accessed by ribosomal choice and encodes a protein of 26 kDa, predicted to be the largest C protein of these virus families. Phylogenetic analyses of the tupaia rhabdovirus N and L genes show that the virus is distantly related to the Vesiculoviruses, Ephemeroviruses, and the recently characterized Flanders virus and Oita virus and further extends the sequence territory occupied by animal rhabdoviruses. PMID:15890917

  6. Arabidopsis Small Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. PMID:26903535

  7. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you--the geothermal entrepreneur, small company, or

  8. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  9. SUMOylation by a Stress-Specific Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier E2 Conjugase Is Essential for Survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under Stress Conditions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Knobbe, Amy R.; Horken, Kempton M.; Plucinak, Thomas M.; Balassa, Eniko; Cerutti, Heriberto; Weeks, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is required for survival of virtually all eukaryotic organisms. Attachment of SUMO to target proteins is catalyzed by SUMO E2 conjugase. All haploid or diploid eukaryotes studied to date possess a single indispensable SUMO conjugase. We report here the unanticipated isolation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (mutant5 [mut5]). in which the previously identified SUMO conjugase gene C. reinhardtii ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme9 (CrUBC9) is deleted. This surprising mutant is viable and unexpectedly, displays a pattern of protein SUMOylation at 25°C that is essentially identical to wild-type cells. However, unlike wild-type cells, mut5 fails to SUMOylate a large set of proteins in response to multiple stress conditions, a failure that results in a markedly reduced tolerance or complete lack of tolerance to these stresses. Restoration of expected stress-induced protein SUMOylation patterns as well as normal stress tolerance phenotypes in mut5 cells complemented with a CrUBC9 gene shows that CrUBC9 is an authentic SUMO conjugase and, more importantly, that SUMOylation is essential for cell survival under stress conditions. The presence of bona fide SUMOylated proteins in the mut5 mutant at 25°C can only be explained by the presence of at least one additional SUMO conjugase in C. reinhardtii, a conjugase tentatively identified as CrUBC3. Together, these results suggest that, unlike all other nonpolyploid eukaryotes, there are at least two distinct and functional SUMO E2 conjugases in C. reinhardtii, with a clear division of labor between the two sets: One (CrUBC9) is involved in essential stress-induced SUMOylations, and one (CrUBC3) is involved in housekeeping SUMOylations. PMID:25614063

  10. Institutions of Higher Education as Engines of Small Business Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rodney D.; Venkatachalam, Padma

    2005-01-01

    Universities today exert an ever-increasing stimulus to small business development, contributing to national and local economic development as the general economy becomes increasingly knowledge-based. The transition to a knowledge-based economy, coupled with the passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980, has resulted in stronger university-industry…

  11. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. PMID:26024057

  12. Paraguay: population and the economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1986-01-01

    Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal economy, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date. PMID:12315094

  13. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    PubMed Central

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00–0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03–0.46), body mass (r = −0.09–0.46) and body height (r = 0.11–0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects. PMID:24478718

  14. Welcome to the experience economy.

    PubMed

    Pine, B J; Gilmore, J H

    1998-01-01

    First there was agriculture, then manufactured goods, and eventually services. Each change represented a step up in economic value--a way for producers to distinguish their products from increasingly undifferentiated competitive offerings. Now, as services are in their turn becoming commoditized, companies are looking for the next higher value in an economic offering. Leading-edge companies are finding that it lies in staging experiences. To reach this higher level of competition, companies will have to learn how to design, sell, and deliver experiences that customers will readily pay for. An experience occurs when a company uses services as the stage--and goods as props--for engaging individuals in a way that creates a memorable event. And while experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business, any company stages an experience when it engages customers in a personal, memorable way. The lessons of pioneering experience providers, including the Walt Disney Company, can help companies learn how to compete in the experience economy. The authors offer five design principles that drive the creation of memorable experiences. First, create a consistent theme, one that resonates throughout the entire experience. Second, layer the theme with positive cues--for example, easy-to-follow signs. Third, eliminate negative cues, those visual or aural messages that distract or contradict the theme. Fourth, offer memorabilia that commemorate the experience for the user. Finally, engage all five senses--through sights, sounds, and so on--to heighten the experience and thus make it more memorable. PMID:10181589

  15. Towards A Hydrogen Economy, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-05-15

    The report provides a study of the movement towards using hydrogen as a key energy carrier in the future and takes a high-level look at the current state of hydrogen and addresses the infrastructure requirements needed to make the hydrogen economy a reality. The report offers a detailed look at the move to a hydrogen economy by: identifying the current status of hydrogen production and use; discussing the key business drivers of the move towards hydrogen; discussing the barriers to implementation that stand in the way of a transition; providing a critical look at whether the hydrogen economy can succeed; describing the options that exist for a hydrogen infrastructure; identifying the key government initiatives making the hydrogen economy a reality; providing company-by-company profiles of automobile manufacturer efforts to develop and commercialize hydrogen vehicles; and, providing profiles of key hydrogen infrastructure manufacturers.

  16. Towards a hydrogen economy. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-15

    The report is a study of the movement towards using hydrogen as a key energy carrier in the future. It takes a look at the current state of hydrogen and addresses the infrastructure requirements needed to make the hydrogen economy a reality. The report offers a detailed look at the move to a hydrogen economy by: Identifying the current status of hydrogen production and use; Discussing the key business drivers of the move towards hydrogen; Discussing the barriers to implementation that stand in the way of a transition; Providing a critical look at whether the hydrogen economy can succeed; Describing the options that exist for a hydrogen infrastructure; Identifying the key government initiatives making the hydrogen economy a reality; Providing company-by-company profiles of automobile manufacturer efforts to develop and commercialize hydrogen vehicles; and Providing profiles of key hydrogen infrastructure manufacturers.

  17. Albanian: Basic Course. Development of Albanian Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to "Albanian: Basic Course." The development of the Albanian economy and its status at the time the document was published are discussed in terms of industry, agriculture, and foreign trade. (JB)

  18. Fuel economy of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Kumar, R.

    On the basis of on-road energy consumption, fuel economy (FE) of hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles is projected to be 2.5-2.7 times the fuel economy of the conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) on the same platforms. Even with a less efficient but higher power density 0.6 V per cell than the base case 0.7 V per cell at the rated power point, the hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are projected to offer essentially the same fuel economy multiplier. The key to obtaining high fuel economy as measured on standardized urban and highway drive schedules lies in maintaining high efficiency of the fuel cell (FC) system at low loads. To achieve this, besides a high performance fuel cell stack, low parasitic losses in the air management system (i.e., turndown and part load efficiencies of the compressor-expander module) are critical.

  19. Power from space and the hydrogen economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Philip K.; Haynes, William E.

    2005-07-01

    Recent discoveries of methane hydrates under the Arctic permafrost and on continental shelves have revealed an immense energy resource. This has two major implications for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS). First, the SPS will not be built unless it can produce electricity at a price competitive with that generated using methane from hydrates (perhaps with sequestration of carbon dioxide). Second, steam reformation of methane is much cheaper than water electrolysis as a source of hydrogen, so there is little role for the SPS (or any other electric power technology) in the proposed hydrogen economy. On the other hand, an economy based on methane-electric hybrid vehicles offers advantages quite comparable to the hydrogen economy, without its technical problems and immense capital requirements. The methane economy also offers a transitional path to increasing direct use of electricity in transportation, a development that could create a major market for the SPS.

  20. Traffic airships with special reference to economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyensetter, Walther

    1921-01-01

    The first part of this report details the efficiency and economy of airship travel, while the second part presents methods of economic efficiency with regards to construction, cost of upkeep and operation, and the establishment of airship lines.

  1. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  2. The Configuration of Local Economic Power and Civic Participation in the Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Troy; Mathews, Todd L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors test the hypothesis that local economic concentration is associated with decreased levels of civic participation. They define economic concentration as a social context in which a small number of corporate establishments or industries dominate a local economy. They argue that economic concentration leads to a monolithic…

  3. PWC Opens up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a small or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "open" up. In creating PwC Open University, the professional…

  4. The Role of Agriculture in Turkish Economy at the Beginning of the European Union Accession Negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrivermis, Harun; Bulbul, Mehmet

    In this study, Turkish economy and importance of agriculture in the economy on the way of accession negotiations to the European Union (EU) are discussed. Compliance with EU norms based on macroeconomic indicators is evaluated. Turkish economy exhibits the characteristics of a developing economy based on per capita income, economic growth, employment, income distribution, foreign trade volume and economic structure. Long-term economic growth rate of Turkey is quite low and it is negatively affected by economic crises. Income distribution among the households and the regions (both of the geographical and rural-urban regions) is imbalanced. Income per capita is about ¼ of an average developed country and the economy is still characterized by a high degree of dualism in the economic sectors, regions as well as social segments. Economy suffers from trade deficit and the level of agricultural import has almost reached to agricultural export`s level in 2004. From the point of view of all socio-economic indicators, the contribution of agricultural production to domestic economy is essential in terms of employment, contributing to national income and export earnings. The enterprise size is relatively small, duality in socio-economic structure is common, population is high, productivity level is low, costs are high and competition power of some sub-sectors is low in Turkish agricultural sector. Small family farms are the main unit of crops and livestock production and household members provide most of the labor requirements of the farms. Turkey launched a radical change in agricultural policy instead of unsustainable and costly system of support policies including input subsidies and support prices and issued a policy paper for 2006-2010 in line with the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU. Reevaluation of the agricultural policies is needed in order to minimize the regional development differences and to control the migration from rural areas to cities.

  5. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... grams/mile values for HC, CO and CO2 for both the city fuel economy test and the highway fuel economy...) Calculate the weighted grams/mile values for the city fuel economy test for HC, CO, and CO2 as specified in... paragraph (c) of this section. (2) Calculate the grams/mile values for the highway fuel economy test for...

  6. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... economy calculations. The calculations of vehicle fuel economy values require the weighted grams/mile values for HC, CO, and CO2 for the city fuel economy test and the grams/mile values for HC, CO, and CO2... weighted grams/mile values for the city fuel economy test for HC, CO, and CO2 as specified in § 86.144...

  7. Effects of the charge-transfer reorganization energy on the open-circuit voltage in small-molecular bilayer organic photovoltaic devices: comparison of the influence of deposition rates of the donor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chien; Su, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Wen-Chang

    2016-05-14

    The theoretical maximum of open-circuit voltage (VOC) of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has yet to be determined, and its origin remains debated. Here, we demonstrate that VOC of small-molecule OPV devices can be improved by controlling the deposition rate of a donor without changing the interfacial energy gap at the donor/acceptor interface. The measurement of external quantum efficiency and electroluminescence spectra facilitates the observation of the existence of charge transfer (CT) states. A simplified approach by reusing the reciprocity relationship for obtaining the properties of the CT states is proposed without introducing complex techniques. We compare experimental and fitting results and propose that reorganization energy is the primary factor in determining VOC instead of either the CT energy or electronic coupling term in bilayer OPV devices. Atomic force microscopy images indicate a weak molecular aggregation when a higher deposition rate is used. The results of temperature-dependent measurements suggest the importance of molecular stacking for the CT properties. PMID:27095179

  8. The Economics of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines from an economic perspective the ways in which Open Educational Resources (OER) can be linked to economic growth, equality of access to knowledge, and the improvement of teaching and learning. In leading economies, technology and knowledge are the critical factors of economic growth, which is a significant shift from the…

  9. Open File: New Modalities for Educational Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene, Ed.; Epskamp, Kees, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal focuses on comparative education and has four major sections. The "Viewpoint/Controversy" section contains one article: "Is the Globalization of the Economy Creating Values for a New Civilization?" (Koichiro Matsuura). The "Open File: Rethinking Educational Aid" section contains the following articles: "From Project to Programme to…

  10. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  11. The use of small advanced turbine units in distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    There is a tremendous future for the application of small- and medium-sized advanced gas turbine systems in the world markets. Modern, industrialized countries; developing countries like China and the former republics of the Soviet Union; as well as island-based economies, such as those in Southeast Asia -- Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia--will be able to realize the economic advantages and environmental benefits of what is now becoming known as {open_quotes}distributed resources{close_quotes}. I am more convinced of this opinion after delivering s similar speech and conversing with conferees at POWER-GEN Asia 1995 held in Singapore in late September of this year; and discussing the subject with a high level delegation from China that visited the Energy Commission in early October. The interest, at least amongst this small group of people was nothing short of a market researcher`s dream. While my focus today is on small turbines, we should realize that when these advanced, clean units become commercially available, perhaps as early as four or five years from now, other distributed generation resources such as solar photovoltaic, and fuel cells, will become competitors at the distribution level of electrical service.

  12. Youth and the New Economy=Les jeunes et la nouvelle economie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspective Series document includes statements about young people in the new economy of Toronto made by three participants in the October 2000 annual general meeting of the Toronto Training Board. "A Hitchhiker's Guide to the New Economy" (Olivia Chow) suggests that training programs available to young people are fragmented and…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting the Nation's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting Hawaii's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Alaska's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting Alabama's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Kentucky's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Massachusetts' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Colorado's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting Missouri's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting Delaware's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Jersey's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting Georgia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting Wyoming's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting Arizona's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting California's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting Wisconsin's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting Louisiana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting Minnesota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Education and the Economy: Boosting Mississippi's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  12. Education and the Economy: Boosting Utah's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Nebraska's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting South Carolina's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Indiana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Hampshire's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Arkansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting Iowa's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Connecticut's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting the District of Columbia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting West Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting Tennessee's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting Ohio's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting Montana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting Pennsylvania's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting New York's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting Oklahoma's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting Texas's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting Michigan's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting Vermont's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Education and the Economy: Boosting Illinois's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  12. Education and the Economy: Boosting Oregon's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Nevada's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting Maryland's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Rhode Island's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting Maine's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Washington's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting North Carolina's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting North Dakota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Kansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting Florida's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting Idaho's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under paragraph (c) of this section and has been determined and approved under 40 CFR part 600, the...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not exist... section for which a fuel economy value has been neither determined nor approved under 40 CFR part 600,...

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting South Dakota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Mexico's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  7. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under paragraph (c) of this section and has been determined and approved under 40 CFR part 600, the...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not exist... section for which a fuel economy value has been neither determined nor approved under 40 CFR part 600,...

  8. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... under paragraph (c) of this section and has been determined and approved under 40 CFR part 600, the...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not exist... section for which a fuel economy value has been neither determined nor approved under 40 CFR part 600,...

  9. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under paragraph (c) of this section and has been determined and approved under 40 CFR part 600, the...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not exist... section for which a fuel economy value has been neither determined nor approved under 40 CFR part 600,...

  10. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under paragraph (c) of this section and has been determined and approved under 40 CFR part 600, the...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not exist... section for which a fuel economy value has been neither determined nor approved under 40 CFR part 600,...

  11. 78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings, 77 FR 38553 (June 28, 2012) (``Proposed..., 71 FR 61716 (October 19, 2006). \\3\\ See Countervailing Duty Investigation of Coated Free Sheet Paper... Republic of China; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 63 FR 63834, 63838 (Nov....

  12. An entropic framework for modeling economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caticha, Ariel; Golan, Amos

    2014-08-01

    We develop an information-theoretic framework for economic modeling. This framework is based on principles of entropic inference that are designed for reasoning on the basis of incomplete information. We take the point of view of an external observer who has access to limited information about broad macroscopic economic features. We view this framework as complementary to more traditional methods. The economy is modeled as a collection of agents about whom we make no assumptions of rationality (in the sense of maximizing utility or profit). States of statistical equilibrium are introduced as those macrostates that maximize entropy subject to the relevant information codified into constraints. The basic assumption is that this information refers to supply and demand and is expressed in the form of the expected values of certain quantities (such as inputs, resources, goods, production functions, utility functions and budgets). The notion of economic entropy is introduced. It provides a measure of the uniformity of the distribution of goods and resources. It captures both the welfare state of the economy as well as the characteristics of the market (say, monopolistic, concentrated or competitive). Prices, which turn out to be the Lagrange multipliers, are endogenously generated by the economy. Further studies include the equilibrium between two economies and the conditions for stability. As an example, the case of the nonlinear economy that arises from linear production and utility functions is treated in some detail.

  13. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  14. Automotive fuel economy and emissions program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Baisley, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental data were generated to support an assessment of the relationship between automobile fuel economy and emissions control systems. Tests were made at both the engine and vehicle levels. Detailed investigations were made on cold-start emissions devices, exhaust gas recirculation systems, and air injection reactor systems. Based on the results of engine tests, an alternative emission control system and modified control strategy were implemented and tested in the vehicle. With the same fuel economy and NOx emissions as the stock vehicle, the modified vehicle reduced HC and CO emissions by about 20 percent. By removing the NOx emissions constraint, the modified vehicle demonstrated about 12 percent better fuel economy than the stock vehicle.

  15. Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Krul, W. F. J. M.

    1957-01-01

    The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development. The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance. PMID:13472427

  16. The Correlation between Running Economy and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships in Highly Trained Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Andrew J.; Ingham, Stephen A.; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently. PMID:25849090

  17. Remuneration differences in the emerging economies of China and India.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Erhua Iris; Lu, Zhao; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Tian; Papola, T S; Pais, Jesim; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2010-10-01

    Emerging economies by definition tend to be less dependent on expatriate skills and labour than lower-income countries, yet remuneration (pay plus benefits) differences between expatriate and local workers persist in them to some degree. According to relative deprivation theory, economic development paradoxically elevates the salience of relatively small gaps in remuneration. We therefore expected workers to report injustice and demotivation regarding relative remuneration, despite the closing of remuneration gaps between expatriate and local workers due to the economic development of recent years. To explore that possibility, 482 skilled professionals from a variety of sectors and organizations in two emerging economies, India (n = 233, response rate = 54%) and China (n = 249, response rate = 58%), participated in the research. International salaries were greater than local salaries by a factor of 2.73:1 in India and 1.90:1 in China; these mean ratios bordered on intolerable in the India sample and were largely tolerable among the sample from China. In both countries, differently remunerated workers differed in their justice cognitions and their demotivation, with lowered motivation and fewer justice cognitions in the locally salaried, local workers. These differences were however more statistically significant between people working in India than in China. Insofar as the motivational and justice gaps persisted, the findings support relative deprivation theory. Insofar as the same gaps appear to be sharper in the country with the higher-not lower-mean remuneration differential, they do not. An in-country workshop with local experts who interpreted the findings (in India), and content analysis of the participants' recommendations (in China) jointly recommended linking remuneration to (i) workplace performance instead of (ii) economy-of-origin, to help promote (iii) fairness. PMID:22044057

  18. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  19. When does inequality freeze an economy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerico, João Pedro; Landes, François P.; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac; Volpati, Valerio

    2016-07-01

    Inequality and its consequences are the subject of intense recent debate. Using a simplified model of the economy, we address the relation between inequality and liquidity, the latter understood as the frequency of economic exchanges. Assuming a Pareto distribution of wealth for the agents, that is consistent with empirical findings, we find an inverse relation between wealth inequality and overall liquidity. We show that an increase in the inequality of wealth results in an even sharper concentration of the liquid financial resources. This leads to a congestion of the flow of goods and the arrest of the economy when the Pareto exponent reaches one.

  20. An inquiry into the household economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuelson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The value of the time which people devote to each activity of their lives is compared with the money they spend on the activity. After tax wage rates are used to value an individual's time. The enormous size of the household economy and the fact that for most activities the value of the consumer's time devoted to an activity exceeds the money expenditures on the activity, suggest that there are many opportunities for productivity improvements in the household economy which have been overlooked in most traditional thinking on productivity.

  1. APPLYING ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES TO SMALL WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a discipline, economics is often misunderstood in the water supply field. Economies-of-scale, i.e., increasing unit costs with decreasing capacity, is a prevailing characteristic of water supply technology, and small utilities that serve fewer than 10,000 persons account for m...

  2. [Towards a new vaccine economy?].

    PubMed

    Poirot, P; Martin, J F

    1994-01-01

    When Jonas Salk announced in the mid-50s the availability of a new vaccine against poliomyelitis, the world had the impression that it was now controlling infectious diseases. In fact, the success of this vaccine has been considerable and although some innovations lead to the launch of vaccines against flu, measles, rubella or mumps, the world vaccine market remained remarkably stable till the mid-80s. However, since 1984 (launch of the hepatitis B vaccine) there have been very substantial changes and further change is expected in the next ten years in the world market. Today, big companies are making a concentrated supply: Pasteur Mérieux with its subsidiary Connaught, SmithKline Beecham who acquired the Belgian company RIT, and Merck & Co. who is joining its forces with Pasteur Mérieux. Medium sized and small companies remain and reflect the situation of the past, but must work hard to secure their long term existence eventhough the world demand is going to double before the year 2000. Very substantial technological innovations explain to a large extent the development of the supply: progress in molecular biology, and particularly genetic engineering, lead to recombinant vaccines of which hepatitis B is the best example with worldwide sales in the range of $600 million a year. Similarly, conjugation technologies have allowed the development of new vaccines against meningitis, particularly Haemophilus influenzae type b. More recently, an efficacious vaccine against hepatitis A has been launched and many new products will be marketed in the next years against herpes, Lyme disease, and agents of other meningitis, etc.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921683

  3. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  4. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  5. Biotech Tradeoffs in the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttel, Frederick H.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesizes findings with personal estimates of likely impacts of biotechnology on nonmetropolitan economy, farming, public research institutions. Indicates biotechnology's benefit to rural America may come in expanded demand for raw materials although drawbacks may include declining farm numbers and displacement of rural workers in…

  6. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  7. Valid Knowledge: The Economy and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    The future of Western universities as public institutions is the subject of extensive continuing debate, underpinned by the issue of what constitutes "valid knowledge". Where in the past only propositional knowledge codified by academics was considered valid, in the new economy enabled by information and communications technology, the procedural…

  8. The Learning Region between Pedagogy and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Economic growth is stimulated through learning. In "the learning economies" of those European regions that chose to develop their human and intellectual capital wisely, benefits have been visible. But this is a one-dimensional outlook in a multi-dimensional world. A "Learning Region" is an entirely different entity, pooling and mobilising its…

  9. Economy's Troubles Could Hit Colleges Unusually Hard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Financial experts everywhere agree that the economy appears headed toward a recession. The question is how long it will last and how deep it will be. The last recession, in 2001, lasted less than a year. Most sectors, including higher education, shrugged it off. During lengthier downturns, colleges have often benefited from increased enrollments.…

  10. Physical sciences contribute 22% to Australian economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineley, Jude

    2015-05-01

    Advances in the physical and mathematical sciences over the last two decades contributed some A292bn (about £151bn) to the Australian economy each year, according to a report carried out by the Centre for International Economics, an economic consultancy.

  11. California Community Colleges: Vital to the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The California Community Colleges play an important role in boosting the state's economy by serving more than 2.3 million students a year. In fact, one out of three community college students in the U.S. is enrolled in a California community college, making it the nation's largest system of higher education. Their 112 colleges provide students…

  12. Leading Indicator: New England's Higher Education Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    In few places is higher education so ingrained in a region's economic vitality as in New England. Students from all over the world enroll in New England's institutions of learning and research, bringing resources to finance their education and living expenses that reverberate throughout local and state economies. Human capital-based industries…

  13. The Information Economy--A European Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmot, R.

    From a European perspective, this paper focuses on a set of issues affecting the emerging information economy. Among the issues covered are: developing a means of measuring the value of information and knowledge; studying other institutions such as the United States Department of Defense and the United States venture capital industry which are…

  14. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  15. Essays on Industrial Organization and Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Odilon Roberto VG de a

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on industrial organization and political economy. In the first essay, I show how the attributes of a managerial workforce affect firms' placement decisions and wage offers, and managers' quit decisions. My OLG model features two division managers and a CEO, where each executive may be at a different point in his…

  16. Cities and Communities in the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen, Saskia

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that analysis and interpretation of the global economy should consider its effects on cities and communities. Asserts that this relationship is more complex and symbiotic than generally perceived. Argues that this relationship is creating new socioeconomic structures of class, work, and power. (MJP)

  17. Your Institution in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, William

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers his reflections on the American economy and its "slow, gradual, and tedious" recovery. What the American people are experiencing now is not one of the ordinary recessions that have been experienced since World War II. What they have seen is a bursting of a bubble in the credit markets and in financial…

  18. The Socialist Market Economy and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yixian, Li

    2006-01-01

    The [Chinese Communist] Party's Fourteenth Congress unequivocally confirmed the building of a socialist market system. The Third Plenary Session of the Party's Twelfth Congress in 1984 propounding the market led to economic reforms and the advancing of the theory of a socialist market economy. It constitutes a deepened understanding of the…

  19. Alternative resources for the methanol economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reschetilowski, W.

    2013-07-01

    Generally, methanol produced for chemical applications is made predominantly via fossil resources. But it can also be obtained from any carbon-containing feedstock, including biomass, biogas, forest residues, and municipal or other waste products. Perspective viewing and critical assessment show the possibilities and constraints of such alternative resources for the realization of the methanol economy with high sustainability. The bibliography includes 57 references.

  20. The Information Economy: Definition and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, Marc Uri

    This report series defines and measures the "information activity" within the national economy. "Information activity" is defined to include those specific industries and occupations whose primary function is to produce, process, or transmit economically valuable information. Changes in the national labor force are analyzed over a 120-year span.…

  1. The Economy of a Lucky Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tony

    1984-01-01

    Australia has one of the highest standards of living in the world. Agriculture, grazing, and mining are the mainstays of the country's economy. Since the end of World War II, Australia has developed an advanced industrial base that manufactures a wide range of goods, from automobiles to clothespins. (RM)

  2. Employment Opportunities in Poland's Changing Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialecki, Ireneusz; Domanski, Henryk

    1995-01-01

    Dramatic changes in Poland's economy since adoption of a free market and parliamentary democracy in 1989 are chronicled, and resulting changes in the occupation structure, vocational and higher education, earnings, and unemployment are examined. The experiences of other Western countries suggest that a strategy of flexibility and adaptation in…

  3. Employment Policy in the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eddy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This special issue on employment policy in the global economy looks at macroeconomic policies and employment, institutional requirements for full employment, the world trade system, foreign investment, the marginalism of Africa, productivity enhancing policies, influence of information and communication technology, industrialized countries, and…

  4. Reconsidering an Economy of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayanagi, Mitsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    This article has an overall aim as follows: to develop an alternative understanding to a narrow view of education, and in particular teacher training--preparatory and continuing--in terms of economy, as well as the competencies needed for the teaching profession. It takes the view that such an alternative is or could be found in the ideas put…

  5. Apparel Graduate Course Focuses on Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnock, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Students at all levels of study must understand the impact and consequences of globalization. Because of technology innovations, integration of world economies through trade and cash flows, and the movement of people from one location to another, the world is becoming flatter. Based on this growing need to study globalization, a graduate course,…

  6. Library Automation in a Difficult Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    The downturn in the economy has taken its toll on libraries. Even in the best of times, most libraries have to work with budgets that are barely adequate to support their essential activities. In these recent months, the recession has subtracted significant funds from the parent organizations of many libraries: city, county, and state governments;…

  7. Universities, Regional Policy and the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; May, Tim

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the spatial clustering dimension of new information and communications technology (ICT)-driven economic activity based on knowledge industries and especially the tacit knowledge synergies to be achieved through networking in geographical space. The article first details the new knowledge economy, reviewing claims made for…

  8. A Home-School Token Economy Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Charles L.; Fairchild, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Presents a workable plan for all counselors who wish to establish cooperation and collaboration between parents and teachers concerning children's problems that involve achievement and misbehavior. A basic outline of how to implement a home-school token economy plan is presented with two case examples illustrating its use and effectiveness.…

  9. Peer Managed Token Economies: Evaluation and Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedell, Jeffrey R.; Archer, Robert P.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate equivalent levels of patient performance when contingent reinforcement in a residential token economy program was controlled by either patient peer groups or staff. Patients in a peer-managed program showed positive ward behavior, reductions in psychosocial problems, and increase in potential for adjusting to community life.…

  10. Establishing and Balancing a Classroom Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.; Arnault, Lynne

    The paper presents a classroom token economy system for providing classroom structure, eliminating or controlling a variety of problem behaviors, and for demonstration and teaching purposes. The first section addresses income production (payment for productive work using classroom work periods as payment periods). A percentage method in paying for…

  11. A Cooperative Home-School Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Belinda D.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes token economy systems for use with students with severe behavioral disorders, including systems extending from the classroom into home life. Techniques for soliciting parent participation, training parents, and maintaining the system are put forth. Variations on the system and a sample checklist are also included. (PB)

  12. The "Celtic Tiger" and a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Gerard M.; O'Sullivan, Eoin

    2006-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Ireland has proactively marketed its educated workforce, its favourable corporate tax rates, membership of the European common market, and other advantages, to multinational technology corporations. The resulting foreign direct investment in high-tech manufacturing operations has driven a booming Irish economy that has…

  13. Technology transfer to the broader economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Gordon; Clark, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approaches to the transfer of government-funded civil space technology to the broader commercial economy were addressed by Working Panel no. 4. Some of the problems related to current strategies for technology transfer and recommendations for new approaches are described in outline form.

  14. Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…

  15. Adult Education and the Irish Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Sexton

    2004-01-01

    The Irish Economy is at an interesting and dynamic phase of its development and people are faced with major decisions that will impact on the Irish society for many years to come. These decisions are and must be made by all who are in a position to influence. Economic evolution or revolution is not new and is most certainly not new to these…

  16. Educating for the Knowledge Economy? Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Young, Michael, Ed.; Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Balarin, Maria, Ed.; Lowe, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The promise, embraced by governments around the world, is that the knowledge economy will provide knowledge workers with a degree of autonomy and permission to think which enables them to be creative and to attract high incomes. What credence should we give to this promise? The current economic crisis is provoking a reappraisal of both economic…

  17. Building New York City's Innovation Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Jim; Bowles, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Academic research institutions have long been important economic anchors for New York City. They provide thousands of jobs and serve as a magnet for talented students and faculty, who inject hundreds of millions of dollars into the local economy through federal research grants. Yet, even though New York's concentration of top-fight scientific…

  18. Open, Openness, Opening, Opened--What is Your Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Renee

    This paper presents in descriptive and practical terms a rationale for working towards openness in the classroom. Open education is defined as a humanistic approach designed to offer support to the children in their move towards self-realization. More than classroom structure, open education is a way of thinking about children, learning, self and…

  19. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    PubMed

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century. PMID:12884668

  20. East Tennessee`s 21st century jobs initiative: Creating wealth for a sustainable economy

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.V.; Jarrett, J.E.; Kozmetsky, G.; Seline, R.

    1996-03-01

    East Tennessee was given a {open_quotes}wake-up call{close_quotes} with regards to its current economic situation and its future employment opportunities in the report, East Tennessee`s 21st Century Jobs Initiatives: Building the Foundations for a 21st Century Economy, by DRI/McGraw-Hill and IC{sup 2} Institute. The foundations of the East Tennessee economy were analyzed and measured to raise awareness of immediate and future challenges for the region`s policy makers and business leaders. The region is technology rich with a nationally and internationally competitive knowledge base. The challenge is to develop this capacity and to exploit existing and new-to-the-world technologies for commercial purposes. How the region organizes itself to incubate, fund, and build an economic infrastructure around emerging technologies will reflect its commitment to shift from a public-sector-driven economy to a private-sector-driven economy. While the region has survived and thrived on federally funded, large-scale programs and projects, this report - East Tennessee`s 21st Century Jobs Initiative: Creating Wealth for a Sustainable Economy - suggests that incremental steps within the region are necessary to enhance the quality of the region`s education, infrastructure, business support and finance; maintain the region`s natural assets and quality of life; and overcome independence and competitiveness challenges. The proposed course is focused and measurable. It takes into account the three elements of technology-based regional economic development discussed throughout the 21st Century Jobs Initiative: (1) industry retention, relocation, and expansion; (2) entrepreneurship; and (3) alliance building for leveraged economic development This report provides an overview of regional research capabilities and technology development activities and suggests a scorecard on which progress can be measured in the transition from a public to a private sector-driven economy.

  1. China’s new-age small farms and their vertical integration: agribusiness or co-ops?

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    The future of Chinese agriculture lies not with large mechanized farms but with small capital-labor dual intensifying family farms for livestock-poultry-fish raising and vegetable-fruit cultivation. Chinese food consumption patterns have been changing from the old 8:1:1 pattern of 8 parts grain, 1 part meat, and 1 part vegetables to a 4:3:3 pattern, with a corresponding transformation in agricultural structure. Small family-farming is better suited for the new-age agriculture, including organic farming, than large-scale mechanized farming, because of the intensive, incremental, and variegated hand labor involved, not readily open to economies of scale, though compatible with economies of scope. It is also better suited to the realities of severe population pressure on land. But it requires vertical integration from cultivation to processing to marketing, albeit without horizontal integration for farming. It is against such a background that co-ops have arisen spontaneously for integrating small farms with processing and marketing. The Chinese government, however, has been supporting aggressively capitalistic agribusinesses as the preferred mode of vertical integration. At present, Chinese agriculture is poised at a crossroads, with the future organizational mode for vertical integration as yet uncertain. PMID:21539027

  2. Instabilities in large economies: aggregate volatility without idiosyncratic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonart, Julius; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Landier, Augustin; Thesmar, David

    2014-10-01

    We study a dynamical model of interconnected firms which allows for certain market imperfections and frictions, restricted here to be myopic price forecasts and slow adjustment of production. Whereas the standard rational equilibrium is still formally a stationary solution of the dynamics, we show that this equilibrium becomes linearly unstable in a whole region of parameter space. When agents attempt to reach the optimal production target too quickly, coordination breaks down and the dynamics becomes chaotic. In the unstable, ‘turbulent’ phase, the aggregate volatility of the total output remains substantial even when the amplitude of idiosyncratic shocks goes to zero or when the size of the economy becomes large. In other words, crises become endogenous. This suggests an interesting resolution of the ‘small shocks, large business cycles’ puzzle.

  3. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  4. Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men: Study But similar link not seen for women ... drinking may fuel the risk of suicide among men when the economy is sinking, new research suggests. ...

  5. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  6. Small Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhatigan, James J.; Schuh, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines how it easy for people to overlook small successes when they are overwhelmed by and preoccupied with large projects and goals. Explores the concept of "small wins" in organizational theory, which have the potential to become a prominent part of institutional culture and impact organizational behavior and change. (GCP)

  7. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out

  8. An open-label phase 2 trial of dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with previously treated BRAF V600E–mutant metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, David; Besse, Benjamin; Groen, Harry J M; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Quoix, Elisabeth; Baik, Christina S; Barlesi, Fabrice; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Novello, Silvia; Rigas, James R; Upalawanna, Allison; D’Amelio, Anthony M; Zhang, Pingkuan; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Johnson, Bruce E

    2016-01-01

    Background BRAF mutations act as an oncogenic driver via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). BRAF inhibition has demonstrated antitumor activity in patients with BRAF V600E (Val600Glu)–mutant NSCLC. Dual MAPK pathway inhibition with BRAF and MEK inhibitors in BRAF V600E–mutant NSCLC may improve efficacy over BRAF-inhibitor monotherapy based on observations in BRAF V600–mutant melanoma. Methods In this phase 2, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label study of patients with pretreated metastatic BRAF V600E–mutant NSCLC, antitumor activity and safety of oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily) plus oral trametinib (2 mg once daily) were evaluated. Adult patients (≥ 18 years) with documented progression following at least one prior platinum-based chemotherapy and no more than three prior systemic anticancer therapies were enrolled. Patients with prior BRAF or MEK inhibitor treatment were ineligible. Patients with brain metastases were permitted to enroll only if the lesions were asymptomatic, untreated (or stable > 3 weeks after local therapy if treated), and measured < 1 cm. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response, which was assessed by intention-to-treat in the protocol-defined population (≥ second-line); safety was also assessed in this population. The study is ongoing but no longer recruiting patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Findings Fifty-seven patients previously treated with systemic chemotherapy for metastatic BRAF V600E–mutant NSCLC were enrolled. The investigator-assessed overall response was 63·2% (36 of 57; 95% CI 49·3–75·6). Serious adverse events were reported in 32 (56%) of 57 patients and included pyrexia (16%; 9 of 57), anemia (5%; 3 of 57), confusional state (4%; 2 of 57), decreased appetite (4%; 2 of 57), hemoptysis (4%; 2 of 57), hypercalcemia (4%; 2 of 57), nausea (4%; 2 of 57), and cutaneous squamous cell

  9. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to μs) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals that generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to μs charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.

  10. Economies of Scale and Scope in Japanese Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Keiji; Cohn, Elchanan

    1997-01-01

    Employs a fixed-cost quadratic function to estimate multiple-output cost functions for 94 private universities in Japan for 1991. Outputs were undergraduate teaching, graduate teaching, and research. Results indicate ray economies of scale and both global and product-specific economies of scope. Product-specific economies of scale are shown for…

  11. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  12. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  13. Discussion and Conclusion: A Global Perspective on the World Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    Important changes are taking place in the world economy which are not adequately dealt with by either Keynesian or monetarist theories. Too much emphasis placed on what is happening in the American and western European economies can blind us to important developments in such nonwestern economies as the OPEC nations. (IS)

  14. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  15. Opportunity Knocks: Training the Commonwealth's Workers for the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, John D.; Lynch, Lisa M.; Whitehead, Ralph, Jr.

    The current situation regarding training Massachusetts' workers for the new economy was reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following topics: Massachusetts and the skill-centered economy; opportunities for workforce system reform; skills demanded in the new economy; ways other states are building workers' skills; and the fragile setting…

  16. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  17. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  18. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  19. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  20. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  1. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  2. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations. The calculations of vehicle fuel economy values require the weighted grams/mile values for HC, CO, and CO2 for...

  3. Globalisation, Knowledge and the Myth of the Magnet Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the dominant view of the changing relationship between education, jobs and rewards in the global knowledge economy. This asserts that the developed economies can resolve issues of individual aspirations, economic efficiency and social justice through the creation of a high-skills, high-wage "magnet" economy. Here the authors…

  4. University and Business Relations: Connecting the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, J. Stanley

    2010-01-01

    It is commonplace to say that the modern economy is knowledge based but a moment's reflection points to the vacuity of this notion. For all economies are knowledge based and could not be otherwise. The question is rather how is one kind of knowledge based economy to be distinguished from another? This essay proposes that the answer may lie in…

  5. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  6. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  7. Analysis on Inclusion of Social Studies Economy Concepts in Coursebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa; Osmanoglu, Ahmet Emin

    2015-01-01

    Having an efficient and satisfactory economy education may enable an individual to actively participate in decision making process about economy-related issues. This is very important for democratic societies. This research aims to search methods and levels of teaching "economy" concepts prepared for Turkey 2005 Social Studies Program in…

  8. English and the Knowledge Economy: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on knowledge economy discourse and considers the appeal of this discourse to English educators. Knowledge economy discourse is defined as a mode of thought and expression that assumes a broad-based economy driven by innovation will soon emerge in the USA. This discourse, it is argued, offers English teachers solutions to some…

  9. The token economy: an evaluative review1

    PubMed Central

    Kazdin, Alan E.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    1972-01-01

    Token economies have been applied in a wide range of settings. While there are several advantages to the use of this procedure, there are obstacles that may impede its implementation and therapeutic efficacy. These include: staff training, client resistance, circumvention of the contingencies, and non-responsiveness of subjects. Studies employing token programs with psychiatric patients, retardates, children in classroom settings, delinquents, and autistic children are reviewed. Although token economies are successful while in operation, the issue of generalization of behavior gains or resistance to extinction has not been given careful consideration. Inasmuch as generalization is perhaps the most crucial issue, several procedures are presented that are designed to facilitate maintenance of performance when reinforcement is withdrawn. Methodological suggestions for investigations on token reinforcement in applied settings are presented. PMID:16795358

  10. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary. PMID:22468510

  11. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  12. Small-Town School Boards: Arduous Challenges and Exemplary Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Patricia A.; Schmuck, Richard A.

    Small town school boards are made up of conscientious, hardworking, and caring citizens who face arduous economic challenges and difficult educational dilemmas. The changing economy of small towns has led to fewer professionals and business owners participating in boards of education, a rift between educators who are bureaucrats and board members…

  13. When Less Is More: The Role of Small (Really Small) Colleges in Today's Educational Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In his best-selling book, "Deep Economy," Bill McKibben comments on the benefits of "small" education. Smaller institutions, he argues, resemble farmers' markets--one gets wonderful and quality seasonal food from people he knows and trusts. But, one cannot get everything there that he may want precisely when he wants it. Given personal preferences…

  14. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  15. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for

  16. Effects of economy type and nicotine on the essential value of food in rats.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Rachel N; Dallery, Jesse

    2012-03-01

    The exponential demand equation proposed by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) provides an estimate of the essential value of a good as a function of price. The model predicts that essential value should remain constant across changes in the magnitude of a reinforcer, but may change as a function of motivational operations. In Experiment 1, rats' demand for food across a sequence of fixed-ratio schedules was assessed during open and closed economy conditions and across one- and two-pellet per reinforcer delivery conditions. The exponential equation was fitted to the relation between fixed-ratio size and the logarithm of the absolute number of reinforcers. Estimates of the rate of change in elasticity of food, the proposed measure of essential value, were compared across conditions. Essential value was equivalent across magnitudes during the closed economy, but showed a slight decrease across magnitudes during the open economy. Experiment 2 explored the behavioral mechanisms of nicotine's effects on consumption with the results from Experiment 1 serving as a within-subject frame of reference. The same subjects were administered nicotine via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day and exposed to both the one- and two-pellet conditions under a closed economy. Although nicotine produced large decreases in demand, essential value was not significantly changed. The data from the present experiments provide further evidence for the adequacy of the exponential demand equation as a tool for quantifying the rate of change in elasticity of a good and for assessing behavioral mechanisms of drug action. PMID:22389525

  17. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove

  18. Soccer-specific endurance and running economy in soccer players with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kloyiam, Saichon; Breen, Sarah; Jakeman, Philip; Conway, Joe; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe running economy, soccer specific endurance, and selected kinematic running criteria in soccer players with cerebral palsy (SPCP) and to compare them with values of position-matched players without CP. Fourteen international, male soccer players with cerebral palsy completed the "Yo-Yo" intermittent recovery run level 1 (IRL-1) test to assess soccer-specific endurance and a submaximal running test on a treadmill to determine running economy. The mean IRL-1 distance covered by the SPCP of the Irish CP team was found to be 43-50% below the mean distance attained by position-matched soccer players without disability, while running economy was found to be within the range of that reported for able-bodied athletes. No relationship could be found between the level of CP-ISRA classification and soccer-specific endurance or running economy in this group of elite level SPCP. Though small in number, these data support a further examination of the relationship between CP classification and sport-specific performance. PMID:21914907

  19. Small ethics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, ethics in the professions has focused on big problems that could be found on other peoples' back porches. Small, habitual, frequent, and personal lapses get little attention. In this essay, the literature on opportunism is applied to dentistry with a view toward bringing matters of "near ethics" within reach. Examples of small lapses are discussed under the headings of shirking, free riding, shrinkage, pressing, adverse selection, moral hazard, and risk shifting. The conditions that support opportunism include relationships with small numbers of transactions and uneven access to information. Practical limits on understanding all the consequences of agreements and the costs of supervising others and enforcing corrections of breaches are inescapable aspects of opportunism. Opportunism may not be accepted by all as the subject matter of ethical, but curbing it is a worthy goal and understanding the causes and management of opportunism casts some light on the ethical enterprise. Four suggestions are offered for addressing issue of opportunism. PMID:17691498

  20. Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

  1. Health care reform and the new economy.

    PubMed

    Starr, P

    2000-01-01

    The objectives and assumptions of health care reform have changed repeatedly during the past century and may now be entering a new historical phase as a result of the "new economy" rooted in information technology. In a high-growth context, proponents of reform may no longer feel obliged to bundle expanded coverage with tighter cost containment. At the same time, the new digital environment may facilitate innovations intended to inform and expand consumer choice and to improve quality. The new environment elevates "transparency" to a guiding principle. Health informatics has long been peripheral to reform and must now become more central. PMID:11192407

  2. VEEP - Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    VEEP is a general-purpose discrete event simulation program being developed to study the performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions of a vehicle modeled as a collection of its separate components. It is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5. The purpose of this paper is to present the design methodology, describe the simulation model and its components, and summarize the preliminary results. Topics include chief programmer team concepts, the SDDL design language, program portability, user-oriented design, the program's user command syntax, the simulation procedure, and model validation.

  3. Population studies should reflect the criterion of productive forces and the viewpoint of a market-oriented economy.

    PubMed

    Peng, X

    1989-01-01

    This commentary is on the role of population studies in a market oriented economy which reflects Marxist theories on productive forces. Population development must not be viewed unidimensionally. Prior thinking focused on the mode of social production determining population development and vice versa. The assumption prevalent prior to 1978 was that there was no common pattern among different societies. This view was openly challenged in the 2nd national population science symposium in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. It was stated that population development is affected by production techniques in either capitalist or socialist countries. Further understanding of this relationship based on quantitative and qualitative research was required. Public ownership is the basis of a socialist economy. Marxist views were that populations in market or nonmarket economies are different, and population scholars need to study these relationships. There was a mistaken belief that a socialist economy was nonmarket oriented. Correcting the mistake meant taking into consideration migration, urbanization, employment, expenditure, and the relationship to reproduction, as well as rethinking the development patterns. When the price of the labor force differs from its value, the investment in population and population quality will be affected. This has led to rampant commercialization and higher school dropout rates. Short term interests predominate. The trend does not benefit the quality of the population or the promotion of social productive forces. Further examination is needed of the effects of urbanization on a planned market oriented economy with socialist public ownership. PMID:12316994

  4. Small Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhnke, Falko; Musmann, Gunter; Glassmeier, K. H.; Tsurutani, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Small, lightweight, low-power magnetometer measures three-dimensional magnetic field. Includes three toroidal cores - one for each dimension. Exhibits high sensitivity, low zero-point drift, and low noise. Magnetometer circuit includes driver circuit and three analog signal-processing circuits. Output of analog signal-processing circuit proportional to one of components of external magnetic field.

  5. The Knowledge Economy and Innovation: Certain Uncertainty and the Risk Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge economy is a dominant force in today's world, and innovation policy and national systems of innovation are central to it. In this article, we draw on different sociological and economic theories of risk to engage critically with innovation policy and national systems of innovation. Beck's understanding of a risk society, Schumpeter's…

  6. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy.

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels capitalism" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis. PMID:20873026

  7. [Environmental governance and the green economy].

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Sinisgalli, Paulo Antonio de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 Conference will mobilize the global community in 2012 to participate in a challenging debate on the global environmental reality and the existing modus operandi with respect to the broad and generic topics of development and the environment. One of the core themes of this meeting is the transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. The issue of Global Environmental Governance will top the agenda of the Rio +20 discussions, with a view to promoting and accelerating the transition to sustainable societies. It presents, often in a controversial way, the creation of conditions to define new institutional spaces and shared decision-making processes. Before embarking on the discussion about what king of sustainability should be behind the Green Economy, and its applicability, the scope of this article is to ask readers to reflect on what should be the priority in the discussion on environmental governance This should be explained to the extent that there is a need to change the existing mechanisms of profoundly unequal exploitation of resources, which blocks progress in decision-making processes, as decisions of the few create a perverse logic of appropriation of natural resources and the non-resolution of social exclusion. PMID:22699638

  8. 3 CFR 8994 - Proclamation 8994 of June 14, 2013. National Small Business Week, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... boost our exports and level the playing field for American workers. We are implementing the Affordable... small businesses to the competitiveness of the American economy with appropriate programs and...

  9. Opening the books.

    PubMed

    Case, J

    1997-01-01

    For years, small companies have experimented with forms of open-book management. Open-book systems have smoothed change efforts by giving workers the why instead of just the how of initiatives; they have enabled employees to think like owners. Now divisions of large organizations such as R.R. Donnelley & Sons and Amoco Canada are finding opening the books can work for them, too. It isn't easy, and companies must adapt the principles to their own situations. AES Corporation, for example, found that it had to declare all its employees "insiders" when it went public. One of the reasons for large companies' interest in open-book management is the success of a role-model company, Missouri-based Springfield ReManufacturing. Leaders of divisions of large companies have been able to visit and ask questions. Other early adopters are also showing competitive advantages. Among them are Wabash National, now the nation's leading truck and tractor manufacturer, and Physician Sales & Service, a distributor of supplies to doctors' office. Open-book principles are the same whether a company is large or small: every employee must receive all relevant financial information and be taught to understand it; managers must hold employees accountable for making their unit's goals; and the compensation system must reward everyone for the overall success of the business. Hexacomb Corporation is one large organization that has done well. Workers at the company's seven plants are inspired by a system of splitting profits over budget fifty-fifty: half goes to the company and half to the bonus pool. Such companies are learning the benefits of having everyone work to push the numbers in the right direction. PMID:10165446

  10. Small satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Dermott, S.

    1986-01-01

    Satellites smaller than Mimas (r = 195 km) are distinguished by irregular overall shapes and by rough limb topography. Material properties and impact cratering dominate the shaping of these objects. Long fragmentation histories can produce a variety of internal structures, but so far there is no direct evidence that any small satellite is an equilibrium ellipsoid made up of noncohesive gravitationally bound rubble. One many bodies that orbit close to their primary the tidal and rotational components of surface gravity strongly affect the directions of local g and thereby affect the redistribution of regolith by mass wasting. Downslope movement of regolith is extensive on Deimos, and is probably effective on many other small satellites. It is shown that in some cases observed patterns of downslope mass wasting cold produce useful constraints on the satellite's mean density. The diversity of features seen in the few high-resolution images of small satellites currently available suggests that these objects have undergone complex histories of cratering, fragmentation, and regolith evolution.

  11. Safety Characteristics of LBE Cooled Long-Life Small Reactor, 'LSPR'

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Sekimoto; Shinichi Makino

    2002-07-01

    Lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) shows a good performance on neutron economy, and LBE cooled fast reactor can be designed as an excellent long-life small reactor. LBE is good not only for neutron economy but for chemical inertness and high boiling point, which may realize a much safer reactor than conventional sodium-cooled reactor. We have designed such a long-life small reactor and name it LSPR. This paper presents safety characteristics of LSPR. (authors)

  12. Small Towns and Small Computers: Can a Match Be Made? A Public Policy Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Towns and Townships, Washington, DC.

    A public policy seminar discussed how to match small towns and small computers. James K. Coyne, Special Assistant to the President and Director of the White House Office of Private Sector Initiatives, offered opening remarks and described a database system developed by his office to link organizations and communities with small computers to…

  13. Emerging Issues in the Rural Economy of the South. Proceedings of a Regional Workshop (Birmingham, Alabama, January 13-14, 1986). SRDC Series No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    The papers in this monograph represent the collective comments of speakers at a January 1986 conference addressing emerging issues in the rural economy of the South. The opening paper suggests that prospects for rural southern economic development are tied to new business development, new agricultural products, automated traditional manufacturing,…

  14. An Exploration of Open Innovation: An Environmental Scanning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elci, Nuray

    2009-01-01

    Globalization and direction toward a knowledge economy, along with an economic downturn, is creating a competitive environment that calls for corporations to become more innovative. As the business environment becomes more competitive and dynamic, corporations are looking for new ways of achieving innovation. Open innovation is one approach that…

  15. A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe's transition to a One Planet Economy.

    PubMed

    Galli, Alessandro; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, Ertug

    2013-09-01

    Currently, the European economy is using nearly three times the ecological assets that are locally available. This situation cannot be sustained indefinitely. Tools are needed that can help reverse the unsustainable trend. In 2010, an EC funded One Planet Economy Network: Europe (OPEN:EU) project was launched to develop the evidence and innovative practical tools that will allow policy-makers and civil society to identify policy interventions to transform Europe into a One Planet Economy, by 2050. Building on the premise that no indicator alone is able to comprehensively monitor (progress towards) sustainability, the project has drawn on the Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprints to define a Footprint Family suite of indicators, to track human pressure on the planet. An environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model has then been developed to group the Footprint Family under a common framework and combine the indicators in the family with national economic accounts and trade statistics. Although unable to monitor the full spectrum of human pressures, once grouped within the MRIO model, the Footprint Family is able to assess the appropriation of ecological assets, GHG emissions as well as freshwater consumption and pollution associated with consumption of specific products and services within a specified country. Using MRIO models within the context of Footprint analyses also enables the Footprint Family to take into account full production chains with technologies specific to country of origin. PMID:23273807

  16. Gendered Organizations in the New Economy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christine L.; Muller, Chandra; Kilanski, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Gender scholars draw on the “theory of gendered organizations” to explain persistent gender inequality in the workplace. This theory argues that gender inequality is built into work organizations in which jobs are characterized by long-term security, standardized career ladders and job descriptions, and management controlled evaluations. Over the past few decades, this basic organizational logic has been transformed. in the so-called new economy, work is increasingly characterized by job insecurity, teamwork, career maps, and networking. Using a case study of geoscientists in the oil and gas industry, we apply a gender lens to this evolving organization of work. This article extends Acker's theory of gendered organizations by identifying the mechanisms that reproduce gender inequality in the twenty-first-century workplace, and by suggesting appropriate policy approaches to remedy these disparities. PMID:25419048

  17. Gendered Organizations in the New Economy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christine L; Muller, Chandra; Kilanski, Kristine

    2012-08-01

    Gender scholars draw on the "theory of gendered organizations" to explain persistent gender inequality in the workplace. This theory argues that gender inequality is built into work organizations in which jobs are characterized by long-term security, standardized career ladders and job descriptions, and management controlled evaluations. Over the past few decades, this basic organizational logic has been transformed. in the so-called new economy, work is increasingly characterized by job insecurity, teamwork, career maps, and networking. Using a case study of geoscientists in the oil and gas industry, we apply a gender lens to this evolving organization of work. This article extends Acker's theory of gendered organizations by identifying the mechanisms that reproduce gender inequality in the twenty-first-century workplace, and by suggesting appropriate policy approaches to remedy these disparities. PMID:25419048

  18. Decarbonization Pathways for the US Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, F. H.; Kammen, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    The ability to lower GHG emissions by 80% from current levels - the 'ecological target' is already possible in the stationary power sector through strategies that include efficiency, renewable energy, and nuclear power. For light vehicle transportation, mileage standards, biofuels, and engine technology will play critical roles to drastically reduce emissions. Air travel remains problematic and in dire need of additional innovations. Advanced energy storage technologies coupled with affordable renewable energy sources could potentially eliminate emissions for both stationary power and vehicles. Given the cost curves of key energy technologies, our analysis for the US economy shows that deploying emissions abating options is not only cost effective, it also affords enormous socioeconomic and environmental returns.

  19. Environmental policy in economies in transition.

    PubMed

    Zylicz, T

    1999-01-01

    Considerable improvement in environmental pollution has been achieved, primarily due to targeted environmental policies rather than general economic developments. Some countries in central and eastern Europe have managed to reduce emissions even after the gross domestic product once again began to increase. Everywhere in the region, however, the cost-effectiveness of environmental spending is questionable. Most countries have established systems of earmarked resource and pollution taxes, which provide a sizable share in financing environmental investment. With stationary sources of pollution brought under increasingly effective control, the environmental problems in central and eastern Europe, and eventually in the newly independent states, will start to resemble those of developed market economies. As more activities become affected by environmental protection measures, cost-effectiveness considerations deserve increased attention. PMID:10546809

  20. Potential improvements in turbofan engine fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, R. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1976-01-01

    The method developed for initial evaluation of possible performance improvements in the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program, directed toward improving the fuel economy of turbofan engines, is outlined, and results of the evaluation of 100 candidate engine modifications are presented. The study indicates that fuel consumption improvements of as much as 5% may be possible in current JT3D, JT8D, and JT9D turbofan engines. Aerodynamic, thermodynamic, material, and structural advances are expected to yield fuel consumption improvements on the order of 10 to 15% in advanced turbofan engines, with the greatest improvement stemming from significantly higher cycle pressure ratios. Higher turbine temperature and fan bypass ratios are also expected to contribute to fuel conservation.

  1. Monitoring, reporting and verifying emissions in the climate economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Stephan, Nicolas; Afriat, Marion; Alberola, Emilie; Barker, Alexandra; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Chiquet, Caspar; Cochran, Ian; Deheza, Mariana; Dimopoulos, Christopher; Foucherot, Claudine; Jacquier, Guillaume; Morel, Romain; Robinson, Roderick; Shishlov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse-gas emissions is the cornerstone of carbon pricing and management mechanisms. Here we consider peer-reviewed articles and 'grey literature' related to existing MRV requirements and their costs. A substantial part of the literature is the regulatory texts of the 15 most important carbon pricing and management mechanisms currently implemented. Based on a comparison of key criteria such as the scope, cost, uncertainty and flexibility of procedures, we conclude that conventional wisdom on MRV is not often promoted in existing carbon pricing mechanisms. Quantification of emissions uncertainty and incentives to reduce this uncertainty are usually only partially applied, if at all. Further, the time and resources spent on small sources of emissions would be expected to be limited. Although provisions aiming at an effort proportionate to the amount of emissions at stake -- 'materiality' -- are widespread, they are largely outweighed by economies of scale: in all schemes, MRV costs per tonne are primarily driven by the size of the source.

  2. Evolutionary Tradeoffs between Economy and Effectiveness in Biological Homeostasis Systems

    PubMed Central

    Szekely, Pablo; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Biological regulatory systems face a fundamental tradeoff: they must be effective but at the same time also economical. For example, regulatory systems that are designed to repair damage must be effective in reducing damage, but economical in not making too many repair proteins because making excessive proteins carries a fitness cost to the cell, called protein burden. In order to see how biological systems compromise between the two tasks of effectiveness and economy, we applied an approach from economics and engineering called Pareto optimality. This approach allows calculating the best-compromise systems that optimally combine the two tasks. We used a simple and general model for regulation, known as integral feedback, and showed that best-compromise systems have particular combinations of biochemical parameters that control the response rate and basal level. We find that the optimal systems fall on a curve in parameter space. Due to this feature, even if one is able to measure only a small fraction of the system's parameters, one can infer the rest. We applied this approach to estimate parameters in three biological systems: response to heat shock and response to DNA damage in bacteria, and calcium homeostasis in mammals. PMID:23950698

  3. Managing health care system in small island countries: Palau.

    PubMed

    Kuartei, Stevenson

    2006-09-01

    Managing health systems in small island countries carry with it challenges that are common with other small communities around the world but also articulates for unique challenges that are intrinsically that of small island countries. Sustainability of economies and the small population in small island countries in the Pacific dictates how health care services align and organize to meet the needs of their population. This paper is an attempt to outline possible strategies that could be implemented in view of the ever decreasing meager resources. It will outline a step approach toward realignment and reengineering a viable health care system that is hopefully both cost effective and outcome oriented. PMID:18181405

  4. Open-Source Colorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

  5. Elderly Consumers and the Used Goods Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Ralph C.

    A study examined the used goods market as it affects older adults. A set of open-ended questions was administered to 100 respondents over sixty years of age who were either retired or near retirement, married or widowed, and suburban or rural. Interviews were conducted to derermine the effects of the used goods market on the elderly consumer, to…

  6. Improvement in Running Economy after 6 Weeks of Plyometric Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Amanda M.; Owings, Matt; Schwane, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated whether a 6-week regimen of plyometric training would improve running economy. Data were collected on 18 regular but not highly trained distance runners who participated in either regular running training or plyometric training. Results indicated that 6 weeks of plyometric training improved running economy at selected speeds in this…

  7. Returns to Scale and Economies of Scale: Further Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Gregory M.; Mitchell, Douglas W.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that most economics textbooks continue to repeat past mistakes concerning returns to scale and economies of scale under assumptions of constant and nonconstant input prices. Provides an adaptation for a calculus-based intermediate microeconomics class that demonstrates the pointwise relationship between returns to scale and economies of…

  8. Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsche, W. E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Advocates the development of a hydrogen fuel economy as an alternative to the predominately electric economy based upon nuclear plants and depleting fossil fuel supplies. Evaluates the economic and environmental benefits of hydrogen energy delivery systems in the residential and transportation sectors. (JR)

  9. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42 Section 610.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  10. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42 Section 610.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  11. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42 Section 610.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  12. 40 CFR 1066.840 - Highway fuel economy test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, and in 40 CFR part 600. See § 1066.801 for further information on... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highway fuel economy test procedure... Highway fuel economy test procedure. This section describes the procedure for the highway fuel...

  13. 75 FR 55739 - Cybersecurity, Innovation and the Internet Economy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration RIN 0660-XA18 Cybersecurity, Innovation and the... innovation in the Internet economy has been extended until 5 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) on September 20... cybersecurity challenges in the commercial sector and innovation in the Internet economy, with a closing...

  14. 75 FR 36633 - Cybersecurity and Innovation in the Information Economy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Cybersecurity and Innovation in the Information Economy AGENCY: National... cybersecurity in the commercial space and innovation in the Internet economy. DATES: The meeting will be held on... growth and innovation, the Department has made it a top priority to ensure that the Internet remains...

  15. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 531.5 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel... automobiles shall comply with the average fuel economy standards in Table I, expressed in miles per gallon,...

  16. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 531.5 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel... automobiles shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy standards in Table I, expressed in miles...

  17. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 531.5 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel... automobiles shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy standards in Table I, expressed in miles...

  18. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 531.5 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel... automobiles shall comply with the average fuel economy standards in Table I, expressed in miles per gallon,...

  19. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 531.5 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel... automobiles shall comply with the average fuel economy standards in Table I, expressed in miles per gallon,...

  20. Rates of Return to Educational Qualifications in the Transitional Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Andrew; Reilly, Barry

    1999-01-01

    Provides cross-country estimates on private rates of return to higher-education qualifications across various transitional economies spanning Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and the former Soviet Union. Rates tend to rise in most transitional economies over the period considered. Rate variabilities help explain variabilities in wage…

  1. Working Economics: Labor Policy and Conducive Economy in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korver, Ton

    2004-01-01

    The conducive economy challenges both the conceptual foundations and the practices of present-day economies. In the Netherlands, a few initiatives during the 1980s and early 1990s looked promising, in particular, as these initiatives focused on work quality as one major precondition for reducing disability and enhancing labor participation.…

  2. Education, Globalisation and the Future of the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh; Ashton, David

    2008-01-01

    The dominant view today is of a global knowledge-based economy, driven by the application of new technologies, accelerating the shift to high-skilled, high-waged European economies. This view is reflected in the expansion of higher education and the key role of higher education in national and European economic policy. The Lisbon agenda seeks to…

  3. Pushing Economies (and Students) outside the Factor Price Equalization Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslington, Paul; Towers, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Despite overwhelming empirical evidence of the failure of factor price equalization, most teaching of international trade theory (even at the graduate level) assumes that economies are incompletely specialized and that factor price equalization holds. The behavior of trading economies in the absence of factor price equalization is not well…

  4. Managing Reward in Developing Economies: The Challenge for Multinational Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opute, John

    2010-01-01

    Reward has been, and continues to be, subject to significant changes in developing economies; the industrial relations model prevalent being driven by the complex socio-economic and cultural paradigms and the increasing demands of globalisation. The issue of reward in developing economies is therefore central and dependent on numerous contextual…

  5. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42 Section 610.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  6. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42 Section 610.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  7. How to Assemble a Knowledge Economy: Singapore's Transnational Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    This article takes Singapore, an emerging education hub, as a focal point from which to investigate its attempts to become a global city and knowledge-based economy. It outlines how discourses of the knowledge economy are used to rationalise particular policy interventions and the transnational education forms arising from them. It speculates on…

  8. Living in the Classroom: The Currency-Based Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, James S.; And Others

    Various types of token economies and contingency contract systems are emerging throughout private and public educational programs. The basic idea of this book is that a token economy based on currency creates a real-life situation for children in the classroom. The goal of this book is to help the teacher establish a currency-based token economy…

  9. Paying Attention to Attention: New Economies for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Challenging formal education's traditional monopoly over the mass-scale acculturation of youth, the technological infrastructure of the new economy brings in its wake a new attentional economy in which any connected adult or child owns and controls a full economic share of her or his own attention. For youth who have never known the text-bound…

  10. Shaping the Curriculum: Values, Community, and a Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrey, John N.

    Five major trends are shaping curricula in two-year colleges today, including clear shifts in emphasis from teaching to learning; from the college degree as a terminal point to learning as a lifelong activity; from solitary instruction to learning communities; from management to leadership; and from a national economy to a global economy. The…

  11. Universities' Entrepreneurial Performance: The Role of Agglomeration Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping Penny

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the extensive research on universities' entrepreneurship, whether research strength fosters or dampens their entrepreneurial performance remains controversial. Much research claims an influential role of research universities in regional economy, however, little has been said about what a part that the agglomeration economies may play…

  12. Game Time: The Educator's Playbook for the New Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessinger, Leon; Salowe, Allen

    This book serves as a "playbook" to help business leaders and educators understand, build, and adapt to the changes converging upon them from an emerging information-rich global economy. The book uses football as a metaphor to understand the obstacles to becoming successful in today's changing economy. This football metaphoric theme is used in the…

  13. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations. The Administrator will use the calculation procedure set forth in this paragraph for all official EPA tests. For...

  14. The Cost Function and Scale Economies in Academic Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis Guodo

    2002-01-01

    This empirical research examined scale economies of academic research libraries that belong to the Association of Research Libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. Argues that libraries are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices and compares this study with previous…

  15. The Cost Function and Scale Economies in Academic Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2003-01-01

    This empirical research examined scale economies of academic research libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. Suggests that libraries in general, and academic research libraries in particular, are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices. Findings indicate that slight…

  16. Malaysia Transitions toward a Knowledge-Based Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustapha, Ramlee; Abdullah, Abu

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of a knowledge-based economy (k-economy) has spawned a "new" notion of workplace literacy, changing the relationship between employers and employees. The traditional covenant where employees expect a stable or lifelong employment will no longer apply. The retention of employees will most probably be based on their skills and…

  17. Career Education for a Global Economy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Preparation for productive employment in a global economy is one aspect of National Education Goals 3 and 5. Career education can help people realize the opportunities and meet the challenges of the international workplace. The emergence of flexible, information-based technologies is a primary factor in the evolution of the global economy. New…

  18. Knowledge Work: The Rise of the Office Economy. Full Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Leonie; Kurth, Brian; Kerr, Ella

    The rise of the office economy and its impact on vocational education and training (VET) in Australia were examined by replicating the methodology used in Carnevale and Rose's U.S. study on the impact of the new office economy. Both studies took a functional approach to analyzing economic activities and the work force and focused primarily on…

  19. Canada in the International Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William T.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's role in the world economy. Ten sections contain readings and suggestions for activities related to Canadian trade, tariffs, the Canada-United States automobile pact, Canada-United…

  20. Methodology in Token Economy Evaluation: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gary L.

    Major problem areas in evaluating token economies for psychiatric inpatients are identified and discussed. Three categories of methodological deficiencies frequently encountered in the token economy literature are described: (1) inadequate specification of treatment procedures; (2) insufficient or inadequately described dependent measures; and (3)…

  1. Use of the Systems Approach for Successful Token Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Catherine C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The three basic steps of the systems approach are described: the mission profile, the functional analysis, and the method-means. The advantageous use of these steps in planning a token economy is illustrated by a systematic evaluation of a token economy implemented in a sixth-grade setting. (Author)

  2. Five Ways to Economy-Proof Your Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassom, Julie

    2012-01-01

    When customers are facing job loss or tighter budgets, prospects are attempting to negotiate tuition fees, and subsidies are being cut, smart child care managers are studying the essential moves directors must take to increase and retain enrollment despite the volatile economy. Instead of using a tough economy as a reason enrollment drops, they…

  3. A Stay-Rich View of the New Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusteeship, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…

  4. Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

  5. Opening Remarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldin, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    In these opening remarks to a symposium reflecting on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, reviews the impact that Alan Shepard had on him personally, to NASA, and to the whole idea of manned spaceflight. Mr Goldin cites Shepard as an example of the past and future of manned spaceflight.

  6. Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    Included in this paper are the opening remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.

  7. South Korea’s entry to the global food economy: Shifts in consumption of food between 1998 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Korea has undergone a major opening of its food markets and economy in the past decade. Little is understood about the impact of these shifts on the diet of Koreans. This analysis studies the shifts in consumption of foods between 1998 and 2009 to provide a thorough understanding of the transition and insights into directions in the next decades in Korea. Data are from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationally representative sample of individuals age ≥2 in 1998 and 2009 (n=10,267 and 9,264, respectively). The data are corrected for seasonality, and the original raw food data are regrouped into 53 food groups. SAS is used to adjust for design effects and weight the results. Despite a decade of efforts to increase whole grains intake and fruit and vegetable intake, the mean intake of whole grains increased only a small amount (+16 kcal/person/d); however, the proportion consuming any whole grains doubled from 24% to 46.3%. Rice declined significantly, and several important less healthful food trends emerged: total Alcohol intake increased from 39 kcal/person/d to 82 kcal/person/d. Also, energy from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages increased among teens and energy from Tea & Coffee increased among adults. Remarkably, compared to other Asian countries and a general worldwide trend, vegetable intake remained very high in South Korea during this last decade while fat energy increased modestly from very low levels. Dynamic causes of these trends and the government’s response are discussed. PMID:23017321

  8. Lobster Town Saves Economy and Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, George D.

    1979-01-01

    The small coastal city of Rockland, Maine solved its pollution problems by building a treatment plant to handle the combined domestic and industrial wastewaters that were being discharged into Rockland Harbor. (BB)

  9. The Economy Goes to College: The Hidden Promise of Higher Education in the Post-Industrial Service Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This report explores the crucial transformation of the United States from an industrial to a post-industrial economy, with a particular focus on the shifting skill levels and incomes of American workers. It shows the increasing value of postsecondary education in today's economy and examines how workers have fared as the nation's focus has shifted…

  10. The Economic Impact of a Rural Higher Education Institution on the Local Economy and the Nonlocal Metropolitan Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Troy M.

    This case study examines the impacts of South Plains College (SPC) (Levelland, Texas) on the local rural economy of Hockley County in which it is situated, as well as on the economy of neighboring, more metropolitan Lubbock County. The study addressed both business volume and employment impacts. Direct business volume impact was derived from four…

  11. The impact of health on Kentucky's economy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Danielle; Asher, Linda M; Whitler, Elmer; Wilson, Emery A

    2008-07-01

    All states are strongly committed to economic development policies and activities as participants in national and global competition. However, a sometimes overlooked and perhaps under appreciated influence on economic development is the health of a state's citizens. This study focuses on how the health status of Kentucky profoundly influences its economy, workforce, productivity, and general quality of life. If Kentucky's economy is to improve significantly, as compared to other states, significant improvements in the health status of its citizens must be achieved in the near future and sustained over time. In an era of growing concern about rising health insurance costs and maintaining a reliable and productive workforce, employers are increasingly likely to locate in communities where measures of health status are strongly positive. The latest report from the United Health Foundation indicates that in 2007 Kentucky had the 8th worst health status in the nation based on a set of risk factors and outcomes. These risk factors include personal behaviors, community and environment, and public health policies that culminate in key health outcomes related to quality of life and longevity. While it is a serious challenge, our research demonstrates that many of these risk factors can be lowered through relatively low cost and effective interventions that produce substantial improvements in health and Kentucky's rank. Health education is very effective when it begins early in life and continues to emphasize the importance of healthy behaviors, such as not smoking, healthy diets and exercise, and weight control. Preventive health services that identify and treat diseases and conditions that lead to premature death increase both longevity and economic growth through lower treatment costs for chronic diseases and an increase in human capital. Policy changes, such as primary enforcement of motor vehicle seat belt use and encouragement of the use of safety equipment at work

  12. 76 FR 3827 - Regulatory Flexibility, Small Business, and Job Creation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, January 18, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-1387 Filed 1-20-11; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of January 18, 2011 Regulatory Flexibility, Small Business, and Job Creation... American economy; they help to fuel productivity, economic growth, and job creation. More than half of...

  13. Status and Prospects of Small Farmers in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray; Thompson, Allen

    The large scale displacement of small farmers in the South is an important concern to all persons interested in the problems of low-income people. Despite a decline in the numerical significance of farming, a large part of the South remains rural, and agriculture continues to significantly influence the rural economy and rural labor markets. The…

  14. The Carter Administration: Small Community and Rural Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jimmy

    The Carter Administration is adopting a Small Community and Rural Development Policy because: (1) rural America's human and natural resources are a mainstay of the nation's economy and way of life; (2) many rural areas are in the midst of significant economic and demographic change; (3) rural people and communities have greater unmet basic human…

  15. The Political economy of world energy

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The continuous growth in global energy consumption has created international concern about the linkage between energy and socioeconomic development. Provoked by awareness of the potential effects of long-term growth in energy use on fuel availability, economics, geopolitics, and environmental quality, considerable scholarly attention has focused on assessing historical patterns as well as generating plausible estimates of alternative energy futures. While conservation projections to the middle of the next century suggest the existing developed countries will then be using about one-half of the world's energy with the US share declining to roughly one-sixth of the world's total, overall consumption is likely to increase due to population growth as well as economic modernization among the current set of developing countries. Not surprisingly, scenarios such as this raise the question of the social, political, and economic implications of varying energy supply systems. This book seeks to provide answers to that question by presenting a broad, historical analysis of the role played by changing energy management systems in the international political economy of this century. In the study, the author primarily concentrates on attempting to identify institutional factors and salient events shaping the politics and economics of global energy supply and utilization patterns from approximately 1900 to 1980. While the primary emphasis is on the Western industrialized countries and the less-developed countries (LDCs) which are energy-producing states, some attention also is devoted to the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and the energy-importing LDCs.

  16. Health benefits of a low carbon economy.

    PubMed

    Haines, A

    2012-09-01

    This article summarizes a presentation given at 'Health and Well-being: the 21st Century Agenda', which focused on the potential to make progress by making appropriate connections between activity to promote health and respond to the threat of climate change. It argues that a transition to a low carbon economy would bring together two of our greatest public health challenges, supporting action to improve public health within resource constraints and action to avert climate change as far as possible. Deep cuts in emissions are needed to prevent dangerous consequences arising from climate change. In addition, many of the policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will, in themselves, have beneficial effects on public health. This article provides an overview of several modelling studies which demonstrate that well-designed initiatives that curb greenhouse gas emissions in energy, residential construction, urban transport and agricultural systems can enhance global public health, including improving health among poor populations. Some of these health co-benefits can be achieved in a relatively short time frame, and they can help offset the costs of climate change mitigation policies. PMID:22784582

  17. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Külahoglu, Canan; Tazelaar, Anne O E; Kurz, Samantha; Nierop, Klaas G J; van der Werf, Adrie; Weber, Andreas P M; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2014-05-01

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome. Methods for dissemination, cross-fertilization and cryopreservation of the symbiosis Azolla filiculoides-Nostoc azollae are tested based on the fern spores. To study molecular processes in Azolla including spore induction, a database of 37 649 unigenes from RNAseq of microsporocarps, megasporocarps and sporophytes was assembled, then validated. Spores obtained year-round germinated in vitro within 26 d. In vitro fertilization rates reached 25%. Cryopreservation permitted storage for at least 7 months. The unigene database entirely covered central metabolism and to a large degree covered cellular processes and regulatory networks. Analysis of genes engaged in transition to sexual reproduction revealed a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like protein in ferns with special features induced in sporulating Azolla fronds. Although domestication of a fern-cyanobacteria symbiosis may seem a daunting task, we conclude that the time is ripe and that results generated will serve to more widely access biochemicals in fern biomass for a biobased economy. PMID:24494738

  18. Income and poverty in a developing economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Ackland, G. J.; Mallick, S. K.

    2010-09-01

    We present a stochastic agent-based model for the distribution of personal incomes in a developing economy. We start with the assumption that incomes are determined both by individual labour and by stochastic effects of trading and investment. The income from personal effort alone is distributed about a mean, while the income from trade, which may be positive or negative, is proportional to the trader's income. These assumptions lead to a Langevin model with multiplicative noise, from which we derive a Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the income probability density function (IPDF) and its variation in time. We find that high earners have a power law income distribution while the low-income groups have a Levy IPDF. Comparing our analysis with the Indian survey data (obtained from the world bank website: http://go.worldbank.org/SWGZB45DN0) taken over many years we obtain a near-perfect data collapse onto our model's equilibrium IPDF. Using survey data to relate the IPDF to actual food consumption we define a poverty index (Sen A. K., Econometrica., 44 (1976) 219; Kakwani N. C., Econometrica, 48 (1980) 437), which is consistent with traditional indices, but independent of an arbitrarily chosen "poverty line" and therefore less susceptible to manipulation.

  19. Laos: rural economy threatened by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zola, A M

    1994-01-01

    Laos is a rural country in which more than 70% of the work force depends upon the agricultural sector for its livelihood. Crop production in Laos is a low-productivity, labor-intensive affair which is highly vulnerable to disruption by natural disasters and outbreaks of disease. Laos is also a crossroads for trade from Cambodia, China, Thailand, and Vietnam. While such trade has some positive effect upon the domestic economy, it also facilitates the spread of sexually transmitted diseases into Laos from neighboring countries with high rates of HIV infection. The northwestern trading corridor bordering Thailand, Myanmar, and China is of particular concern with regard to the spread of HIV. The Lao government identified eleven individuals infected with HIV and had officially reported only one case of AIDS to the World Health Organization (WHO) as of April 1992. Although WHO has not yet confirmed or projected the number of HIV-seropositive and AIDS cases in Laos, scant available data suggest that AIDS is concentrated in urban areas. Poverty and isolation will not, however, protect rural villages from HIV. The implications of a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic for rural social structures are considered. It is clear that such a situation could lead to agroeconomic dislocation and jeopardize national food security. The following measures are recommended to confront HIV/AIDS in the agricultural sector: change cropping systems, provide AIDS prevention education and technical assistance, and recruit village cadres to increase AIDS awareness among young Lao and care for the very ill. PMID:12287639

  20. Fair process: managing in the knowledge economy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the traditional factors of production--land, labor, and capital--knowledge is a resource that can't be forced out of people. But creating and sharing knowledge is essential to fostering innovation, the key challenge of the knowledge-based economy. To create a climate in which employees volunteer their creativity and expertise, managers need to look beyond the traditional tools at their disposal. They need to build trust. The authors have studied the links between trust, idea sharing, and corporate performance for more than a decade. They have explored the question of why managers of local subsidiaries so often fail to share information with executives at headquarters. They have studied the dynamics of idea sharing in product development teams, joint ventures, supplier partnerships, and corporate transformations. They offer an explanation for why people resist change even when it would benefit them directly. In every case, the decisive factor was what the authors call fair process--fairness in the way a company makes and executes decisions. The elements of fair process are simple: Engage people's input in decisions that directly affect them. Explain why decisions are made the way they are. Make clear what will be expected of employees after the changes are made. Fair process may sound like a soft issue, but it is crucial to building trust and unlocking ideas. Without it, people are apt to withhold their full cooperation and their creativity. The results are costly: ideas that never see daylight and initiatives that are never seized. PMID:10168337