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Sample records for smooth thin films

  1. Smoothing of mirror substrates by thin-film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S; Parra, E; Spiller, E; Tarrio, C

    1999-08-03

    Superpolished optical flats with high spatial frequency roughness below 0.1 nm have been commercially available for years. However, it is much more difficult to obtain figured optics of similar quality. We have obtained and tested the finish of figured optics from different vendors by atomic force microscopy and optical profilometry and have investigated how the substrate quality can be improved by the deposition of thin films. We have determined the growth parameters of several thin-film structures. From these parameters we can determine how the surface topography of a coated mirror differs from that of the substrate, select the best thin-film structure, and predict the possible improvement. Keywords: Smoothing films, multilayer coatings, finish of mirror substrates

  2. Post-growth surface smoothing of thin films of diindenoperylene

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderhofer, A.; Hosokai, T.; Yonezawa, K.; Kato, K.; Kera, S.; Ueno, N.; Gerlach, A.; Broch, K.; Frank, C.; Schreiber, F.; Novak, J.

    2012-07-16

    We applied in situ x-ray reflectivity and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to study the impact of annealing on low temperature (200 K) deposited organic thin films of diindenoperylene (DIP) on SiO{sub 2} and indium tin oxide (ITO). At 200 K, DIP is crystalline on SiO{sub 2} and amorphous on ITO. Upon heating to room temperature, the roughness of DIP is reduced on both substrates, from 1.5 nm to 0.75 nm (SiO{sub 2}) and from 0.90 nm to 0.45 nm (ITO). The smoothing is accompanied by crystallization of the surface molecules, whereas the bulk structure of the films does not strongly reorganize.

  3. ADVANCING THE ION BEAM THIN FILM PLANARIZATION PROCESS FOR THE SMOOTHING OF SUBSTRATE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkarimi, P B; Spiller, E; Baker, S L; Robinson, J C; Stearns, D G; Liddle, J A; Salmassi, F; Liang, T; Stivers, A R

    2004-10-19

    For a number of technologies small substrate contaminants are undesirable, and for one technology in particular, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), they can be a very serious issue. We have demonstrated that the Ion Beam Thin Film Planarization Process, a coating process designed to planarize substrate asperities, can be extended to smooth {approx}70 nm and {approx}80 nm diameter particles on EUVL reticle substrates to a height of {approx}0.5 nm, which will render them noncritical in an EUVL printing process. We demonstrate this smoothing process using controlled nanoscale substrate particles and lines fabricated with an e-beam lithography process. The above smoothing process was also modified to yield an excellent reflectance/wavelength uniformity and a good EUV reflectivity for the multilayer, which is required for EUVL reticles. Cross-sectional TEM on a smoothed substrate line defect shows excellent agreement with results obtained from our multilayer growth model.

  4. Thin-film dielectric elastomer sensors to measure the contraction force of smooth muscle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araromi, O.; Poulin, A.; Rosset, S.; Favre, M.; Giazzon, M.; Martin-Olmos, C.; Liley, M.; Shea, H.

    2015-04-01

    The development of thin-film dielectric elastomer strain sensors for the characterization of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction is presented here. Smooth muscle disorders are an integral part of diseases such as asthma and emphysema. Analytical tools enabling the characterization of SMC function i.e. contractile force and strain, in a low-cost and highly parallelized manner are necessary for toxicology screening and for the development of new and more effective drugs. The main challenge with the design of such tools is the accurate measurement of the extremely low contractile cell forces expected as a result of SMC monolayer contraction (as low as ~ 100 μN). Our approach utilizes ultrathin (~5 μm) and soft elastomer membranes patterned with elastomer-carbon composite electrodes, onto which the SMCs are cultured. The cell contraction induces an in-plane strain in the elastomer membrane, predicted to be in the order 1 %, which can be measured via the change in the membrane capacitance. The cell force can subsequently be deduced knowing the mechanical properties of the elastomer membrane. We discuss the materials and fabrication methods selected for our system and present preliminary results indicating their biocompatibility. We fabricate functional capacitive senor prototypes with good signal stability over the several hours (~ 0.5% variation). We succeed in measuring in-plane strains of 1 % with our fabricated devices with good repeatability and signal to noise ratio.

  5. Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulliac, G.; Calero, V.; Ndao, A.; Baida, F. I.; Bernal, M.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Lithium Niobate (LN) exhibits unique physical properties such as remarkable electro-optical coefficients and it is thus an excellent material for a wide range of fields like optic communications, lasers, nonlinear optical applications, electric field optical sensors etc. In order to further enhance the optical device performance and to be competitive with silicon photonics, sub-micrometric thickness lithium niobate films are crucial. A big step has been achieved with the development of LN thin films by using smart cut technology and wafer bonding and these films are nowadays available in the market. However, it is a challenge to obtain the requirements of the high quality thin LN film waveguide. In this letter, we show smooth ridge waveguides fabricated on 700 nm thickness thin film lithium niobate (TFLN). The fabrication has been done by developing and optimizing three steps of the technological process, the mask fabrication, the plasma etching, and a final cleaning wet etching step in order to remove the lithium niobate redeposition on the side walls. We have obtained single mode propagation with light overall losses of only 5 dB/cm.

  6. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  7. Thin Film?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariper, İ. Afşin

    2014-09-01

    This study focuses on the critical surface tension of lead sulfite (PbSO3) crystalline thin film produced with chemical bath deposition on substrates (commercial glass).The PbSO3 thin films were deposited at room temperature at different deposition times. The structural properties of the films were defined and examined according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the XRD results such as dislocation density, average grain size, and no. of crystallites per unit area. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the film thickness and the surface properties. The critical surface tension of the PbSO3 thin films was measured with an optical tensiometer instrument and calculated using the Zisman method. The results indicated that the critical surface tension of films changed in accordance with the average grain size and film thickness. The film thickness increased with deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension. The average grain size increased according to deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension.

  8. Optical constants, dispersion energy parameters and dielectric properties of ultra-smooth nanocrystalline BiVO4 thin films prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, S.; Das, N. S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    BiVO4 thin films have been prepared through radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering of a pre-fabricated BiVO4 target on ITO coated glass (ITO-glass) substrate and bare glass substrates. BiVO4 target material was prepared through solid-state reaction method by heating Bi2O3 and V2O5 mixture at 800 °C for 8 h. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, LCR meter, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. BiVO4 thin films deposited on the ITO-glass substrate are much smoother compared to the thin films prepared on bare glass substrate. The rms surface roughness calculated from the AFM images comes out to be 0.74 nm and 4.2 nm for the films deposited on the ITO-glass substrate and bare glass substrate for the deposition time 150 min respectively. Optical constants and energy dispersion parameters of these extra-smooth BiVO4 thin films have been investigated in detail. Dielectric properties of the BiVO4 thin films on ITO-glass substrate were also investigated. The frequency dependence of dielectric constant of the BiVO4 thin films has been measured in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 2 MHz. It was found that the dielectric constant increased from 145 to 343 at 20 Hz as the film thickness increased from 90 nm to 145 nm (deposition time increased from 60 min to 150 min). It shows higher dielectric constant compared to the literature value of BiVO4.

  9. Ultra smooth NiO thin films on flexible plastic (PET) substrate at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering and effect of oxygen partial pressure on their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, S.; Goswami, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2010-03-01

    Transparent p-type nickel oxide thin films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique in argon + oxygen atmosphere with different oxygen partial pressures at room temperature. The morphology of the NiO thin films grown on PET and glass substrates was studied by atomic force microscope. The rms surface roughnesses of the films were in the range 0.63-0.65 nm. These ultra smooth nanocrystalline NiO thin films are useful for many applications. High resolution transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that the grains of NiO films on the highly flexible PET substrate were purely crystalline and spherical in shape with diameters 8-10 nm. XRD analysis also supported these results. NiO films grown on the PET substrates were found to have better crystalline quality with fewer defects than those on the glass substrates. The sheet resistances of the NiO films deposited on PET and glass substrates were not much different; having values 5.1 and 5.3 kΩ/□ and decreased to 3.05, 3.1 kΩ/□ respectively with increasing oxygen partial pressure. The thicknesses of the films on both substrates were ˜700 nm. It was also noted that further increase in oxygen partial pressure caused increase in resistivity due to formation of defects in NiO.

  10. Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali; Gholipur, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of sol-gel-driven Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin film spin-coated on Si substrate as a high- k gate dielectric was studied. Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin films with different amounts of a were prepared (as-prepared samples). X-ray diffraction measurements of the as-prepared samples indicated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x Oy film had an amorphous structure. Therefore, Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film was chosen to continue the present studies. The morphology of Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The obtained results showed that the size of grain boundaries on Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film surfaces was increased with increasing annealing temperature. Electrical and optical characterizations of the as-prepared and annealed films were investigated as a function of annealing temperature using capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current density-voltage ( J- V) measurements and the Tauc method. The obtained results demonstrated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films had high dielectric constant (≈27), wide band gap (≈4.5 eV), and low leakage current density (≈10-6 A/cm2 at 1 V).

  11. Layer by layer growth of BaTiO 3 thin films with extremely smooth surfaces by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. S.; Ma, K.; Cui, D. F.; Peng, Z. Q.; Zhou, Y. L.; Lu, H. B.; Chen, Z. H.; Li, L.; Yang, G. Z.

    1997-05-01

    Using pure ozone-assisted laser molecular beam epitaxy, we have grown c-axis-oriented single crystal BaTiO 3 thin films on SrTiO 3 substrates at temperatures ( Ts) of 400-750°C and under ambient gas pressures of 5 × 10 -5 to 1 × 10 -1 Pa, respectively. Stripy reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns and regular RHEED intensity oscillations reveal the smooth surface and layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of the films. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that the films are free of pinholes, grain boundaries and outgrowths on the surface. In addition, we found a strong dependence of the film lattice constant c on Ts, which might be related to the strain in the film.

  12. Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naffouti, Wafa; Nasr, Tarek Ben; Mehdi, Ahmed; Kamoun-Turki, Najoua

    2014-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were synthesized on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The effect of solution flow rate on the physical properties of the films was investigated by use of x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectrophotometry techniques. XRD analysis revealed the tetragonal anatase phase of TiO2 with highly preferred (101) orientation. AFM images showed that grain size on top of TiO2 thin films depended on solution flow rate. An indirect band gap energy of 3.46 eV was determined by means of transmission and reflection measurements. The envelope method, based on the optical transmission spectrum, was used to determine film thickness and optical constants, for example real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, refractive index, and extinction coefficient. Ultraviolet and visible photoluminescence emission peaks were observed at room temperature. These peaks were attributed to the intrinsic emission and to the surface defect states, respectively.

  13. Optimization of atomically smooth and metallic surface of SrTiO3 for the growth of ultra-thin manganite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, In Hae; Varnoosfaderan, Sima; Hebard, Arthur; Biswas, Amlan

    2014-03-01

    Atomically smooth, TiO2 terminated SrTiO3 substrates can be prepared using a combination of chemical and thermal annealing treatments. Such substrates have been widely used to grow sharp oxide interfaces between SrTiO3 and materials such as LaAlO3. Insulating SrTiO3 can also be made metallic by inducing oxygen vacancies or by doping with metals such as niobium. However, such treatments usually generate a rough surface. Thus, further growth of epitaxial thin films or study of the surface itself has been limited. Here, we report the optimal conditions to fabricate atomically smooth and metallic SrTiO3 surfaces which show steps of one unit cell height. We directly confirmed the metallic characteristic of SrTiO3 using sheet resistance vs. temperature (R(T)) measurements. The R(T) data provides information on the physical origin of metallic behavior in SrTiO3, which might also be relevant to the current research interest in 2DEG SrTiO3 and oxide interfaces. We will also discuss the thin film growth of strain-induced insulating manganites on top of atomically smooth and metallic SrTiO3 using pulsed laser deposition. NSF DMR-0804452.

  14. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  15. Thin film metrology.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Gerald; Flinn, Gregory

    2007-10-01

    Thin film metrology is suitable for characterising and performing quality control of a variety of coatings and films used in medical applications. The capabilities of today's systems are described. PMID:18078184

  16. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  17. Carbon thin film thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Sparks, L. L.; Strobridge, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    The work concerning carbon thin film thermometry is reported. Optimum film deposition parameters were sought on an empirical basis for maximum stability of the films. One hundred films were fabricated for use at the Marshall Space Flight Center; 10 of these films were given a precise quasi-continuous calibration of temperature vs. resistance with 22 intervals between 5 and 80 K using primary platinum and germanium thermometers. Sensitivity curves were established and the remaining 90 films were given a three point calibration and fitted to the established sensitivity curves. Hydrogen gas-liquid discrimination set points are given for each film.

  18. Microstructure and dielectric properties of (Ba 0.6Sr 0.4)TiO 3 thin films grown on super smooth glazed-Al 2O 3 ceramics substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren; Zheng, Shanxue; Zhang, Jihua; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Lei, Guanhuan; Lou, Feizhi; Yang, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    Modified substrates with nanometer scale smooth surface were obtained via coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CaAlSi) high temperature glaze with proper additives on the rough-95% Al2O3 ceramics substrates. (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited on modified Al2O3 substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, dielectric, and insulating properties of BST thin films grown on glazed-Al2O3 substrates were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), and dielectric properties measurement. These results showed that microstructure and dielectric properties of BST thin films grown on glazed-Al2O3 substrates were almost consistent with that of BST thin films grown on LaAlO3 (1 0 0) single-crystal substrates. Thus, the expensive single-crystal substrates may be substituted by extremely cheap glazed-Al2O3 substrates.

  19. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  20. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  1. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  2. Multifunctional thin film surface

    SciTech Connect

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  3. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  4. Evaporated VOx Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapinski, Tomasz; Leja, E.

    1989-03-01

    VOx thin films on glass were obtained by thermal evaporation of V205, powder. The structural investigations were carried out with the use of X-ray diffractometer. The electrical properties of the film were examined by means of temperature measurements of resistivity for the samples heat-treated in various conditions. Optical transmission and reflection spectra of VOX films of various composition showed the influence of the heat treatment.

  5. Thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K; Ullal, H S

    1989-05-01

    Thin films are considered a potentially attractive technological approach to making cost-effective electricity by photovoltaics. Over the last twenty years, many have been investigated and some (cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, amorphous silicon) have become leading candidates for future large-scale commercialization. This paper surveys the past development of these key thin films and gives their status and future prospects. In all cases, significant progress toward cost-effective PV electricity has been made. If this progress continues, it appears that thin film PV could provide electricity that is competitive for summer daytime peaking power requirements by the middle of the 1990s; and electricity in a range that is competitive with fossil fuel costs (i.e., 6 cents/kilowatt-hour) should be available from PV around the turn of the century. 22 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Thin film temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Thin film surface temperature sensors were developed. The sensors were made of platinum-platinum/10 percent rhodium thermocouples with associated thin film-to-lead wire connections and sputtered on aluminum oxide coated simulated turbine blades for testing. Tests included exposure to vibration, low velocity hydrocarbon hot gas flow to 1250 K, and furnace calibrations. Thermal electromotive force was typically two percent below standard type S thermocouples. Mean time to failure was 42 hours at a hot gas flow temperature of 1250 K and an average of 15 cycles to room temperature. Failures were mainly due to separation of the platinum thin film from the aluminum oxide surface. Several techniques to improve the adhesion of the platinum are discussed.

  7. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  8. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  9. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  10. Epitaxial thin films

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  11. Thin film solar cell workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

    1993-01-01

    A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

  12. Thin films for material engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Thin films are defined as two-dimensional materials formed by condensing one by one atomic/molecular/ionic species of matter in contrast to bulk three-dimensional sintered ceramics. They are grown through atomic collisional chemical reaction on a substrate surface. Thin film growth processes are fascinating for developing innovative exotic materials. On the basis of my long research on sputtering deposition, this paper firstly describes the kinetic energy effect of sputtered adatoms on thin film growth and discusses on a possibility of room-temperature growth of cubic diamond crystallites and the perovskite thin films of binary compound PbTiO3. Secondly, high-performance sputtered ferroelectric thin films with extraordinary excellent crystallinity compatible with MBE deposited thin films are described in relation to a possible application for thin-film MEMS. Finally, the present thin-film technologies are discussed in terms of a future material science and engineering.

  13. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  14. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  15. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  16. Selective inorganic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  17. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  18. Thin film scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Warren; McKinney, George; Tzolov, Marian

    2015-03-01

    Scintillating materials convert energy flux (particles or electromagnetic waves) into light with spectral characteristic matching a subsequent light detector. Commercial scintillators such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) are commonly used. These are inefficient at lower energies due to the conductive coating present on their top surface, which is needed to avoid charging. We hypothesize that nano-structured thin film scintillators will outperform the commercial scintillators at low electron energies. We have developed alternative thin film scintillators, zinc tungstate and zinc oxide, which show promise for higher sensitivity to lower energy electrons since they are inherently conductive. Zinc tungstate films exhibit photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 74%. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was applied in transmission and reflection geometries. The comparison between the thin films and the YAG and YAP commercial scintillators shows much higher light output from the zinc tungstate and zinc oxide at electron energies less than 5 keV. Our films were integrated in a backscattered electron detector. This detector delivers better images than an identical detector with commercial YAG scintillator at low electron energies. Dr. Nicholas Barbi from PulseTor LLC, Dr. Anura Goonewardene, NSF Grants: #0806660, #1058829, #0923047.

  19. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, B.R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet mounted to the shaft, and a stator in proximity to the shaft. The stator has a superconductor thin film assembly positioned to interact with the magnet to produce a levitation force on the shaft that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly includes at least two superconductor thin films and at least one substrate. Each thin film is positioned on a substrate and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly is mounted on the shaft and the magnet is part of the stator also can be constructed. 8 figs.

  20. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOEpatents

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  1. Chiral atomically thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm–1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  2. Chiral atomically thin films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm(-1)) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra. PMID:26900756

  3. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  4. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-10-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  5. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  6. Niobium Thin Film Characterization for Thin Film Technology Used in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yishu; Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Superconducting RadioFrequency (SRF) penetrates about 40-100 nm of the top surface, making thin film technology possible in producing superconducting cavities. Thin film is based on the deposition of a thin Nb layer on top of a good thermal conducting material such as Al or Cu. Thin film allows for better control of the surface and has negligible response to the Earth's magnetic field, eliminating the need for magnetic shielding of the cavities. Thin film superconductivity depends heavily on coating process conditions, involving controllable parameters such as crystal plane orientation, coating temperature, and ion energy. MgO and Al2O3 substrates are used because they offer very smooth surfaces, ideal for studying film growth. Atomic Force Microscopy is used to characterize surface's morphology. It is evident that a lower nucleation energy and a long coating time increases the film quality in the r-plane sapphire crystal orientation. The quality of the film increases with thickness. Nb films coated on r-plane, grow along the (001) plane and yield a much higher RRR compared to the films grown on a- and c-planes. This information allows for further improvement on the research process for thin film technology used in superconducting cavities for the particle accelerators. National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University.

  7. thin films as absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. O.; Shaji, S.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Krishnan, B.

    2014-09-01

    Photovoltaic structures were prepared using AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 as absorber and CdS as window layer at various conditions via a hybrid technique of chemical bath deposition and thermal evaporation followed by heat treatments. Silver antimony sulfo selenide thin films [AgSb(S x Se1- x )2] were prepared by heating multilayers of sequentially deposited Sb2S3/Ag dipped in Na2SeSO3 solution, glass/Sb2S3/Ag/Se. For this, Sb2S3 thin films were deposited from a chemical bath containing SbCl3 and Na2S2O3. Then, Ag thin films were thermally evaporated on glass/Sb2S3, followed by selenization by dipping in an acidic solution of Na2SeSO3. The duration of dipping was varied as 3, 4 and 5 h. Two different heat treatments, one at 350 °C for 20 min in vacuum followed by a post-heat treatment at 325 °C for 2 h in Ar, and the other at 350 °C for 1 h in Ar, were applied to the multilayers of different configurations. X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 thin films as the primary phase and AgSb(S,Se)2 and Sb2S3 as secondary phases. Morphology and elemental detection were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies showed the depthwise composition of the films. Optical properties were determined by UV-vis-IR transmittance and reflection spectral analysis. AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 formed at different conditions was incorporated in PV structures glass/FTO/CdS/AgSb(S x Se1- x )2/C/Ag. Chemically deposited post-annealed CdS thin films of various thicknesses were used as window layer. J- V characteristics of the cells were measured under dark and AM1.5 illumination. Analysis of the J- V characteristics resulted in the best solar cell parameters of V oc = 520 mV, J sc = 9.70 mA cm-2, FF = 0.50 and η = 2.7 %.

  8. Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H. S.; Mitchell, R. L.

    Significant progress has recently been made towards improving the efficiencies of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules using CuInSe2 and CdTe. The history of using CuInSe2 and CdTe for solar cells is reviewed. Initial outdoor stability tests of modules are encouraging. Progress in semiconductor deposition techniques has also been substantial. Both CuInSe2 and CdTe are positioned for commercialization during the 1990s. The major participants in developing these materials are described. The US DOE/SERI (Solar Energy Research Institute) program recognizes the rapid progress and important potential of polycrystalline thin films to meet ambitious cost and performance goals. US DOE/SERI is in the process of funding an initiative in this area with the goal of ensuring US leadership in the development of these technologies. The polycrystalline thin-film module development initiative, the modeling and stability of the devices, and health and safety issues are discussed.

  9. Thin film mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Ryan C.

    This doctoral thesis details the methods of determining mechanical properties of two classes of novel thin films suspended two-dimensional crystals and electron beam irradiated microfilms of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Thin films are used in a variety of surface coatings to alter the opto-electronic properties or increase the wear or corrosion resistance and are ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical system fabrication. One of the challenges in fabricating thin films is the introduction of strains which can arise due to application techniques, geometrical conformation, or other spurious conditions. Chapters 2-4 focus on two dimensional materials. This is the intrinsic limit of thin films-being constrained to one atomic or molecular unit of thickness. These materials have mechanical, electrical, and optical properties ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems with truly novel device functionality. As such, the breadth of applications that can benefit from a treatise on two dimensional film mechanics is reason enough for exploration. This study explores the anomylously high strength of two dimensional materials. Furthermore, this work also aims to bridge four main gaps in the understanding of material science: bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and finite element analysis, bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and experimental results, nanoscale to microscale, and microscale to mesoscale. A nonlinear elasticity model is used to determine the necessary elastic constants to define the strain-energy density function for finite strain. Then, ab initio calculations-density functional theory-is used to calculate the nonlinear elastic response. Chapter 2 focuses on validating this methodology with atomic force microscope nanoindentation on molybdenum disulfide. Chapter 3 explores the convergence criteria of three density functional theory solvers to further verify the numerical calculations. Chapter 4 then uses this model to investigate

  10. Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L.; Noufi, R.

    1991-03-01

    Low-cost, high-efficiency thin-film modules are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. In this paper we review the significant technical progress made in the following thin films: copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline thin silicon films. Also, the recent US DOE/SERI initiative to commercialize these emerging technologies is discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Center for thin film studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Robert P.; Gibson, Ursula J.

    1987-11-01

    This report covers the first year of operation of the URI Thin Film Center (TFC), and describes a diverse array of studies on thin-film materials, substrates, and their processing and analysis. Individual efforts are highlighted in sections on nucleation studies, ion-assisted deposition, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Brillouin scattering, a continuum theory of the evolution of structure in thin films, a study of polishing parameters relevant to the preparation of substrates, and the setup of a characterization facility for the Center.

  12. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  13. Polycrystalline thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.

    1986-02-01

    This annual report summarizes the status, accomplishments, and projected future research directions of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Task in the Photovoltaic Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Electric Research Division. Major subcontracted work in this area has concentrated on development of CuInSe2 and CdTe technologies. During FY 1985, major progress was achieved by subcontractors in: (1) developing a new, low-cost method of fabricating CuInSe2, and (2) improving the efficiency of CuInSe2 devices by about 10% (relative). The report also lists research planned to meet the Department of Energy's goals in these technologies.

  14. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  15. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  16. Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

  17. Polysilicon thin films and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kamins, T. ); Raicu, B. ); Thompson, C.V. )

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a symposium on polysilicon thin films and interfaces, held as part of the 1990 Materials Research Society Spring Meeting. Topics covered include: crystal grown fo silicon and germanium wafers for photovoltaic devices, microanalysis of tungsten silicide interface, thermal processing of polysilicon thin films, and electrical and optical properties of polysilicon sheets for photovoltaic devices.

  18. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  19. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for droplet and film flow on smooth and rough fracture surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kordilla, Jannes; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Geyer, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    Flow on fracture surfaces has been identified by many authors as an important flow process in unsaturated fractured rock formations. Given the complexity of flow dynamics on such small scales, robust numerical methods have to be employed in order to capture the highly dynamic interfaces and flow intermittency. In this work we present microscale free-surface flow simulations using a three-dimensional multiphase Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code. Pairwise solid-fluid and fluid-fluid interaction forces are used to control the wetting behavior and cover a wide range of static and transient contact angles as well as Reynolds numbers encountered in droplet flow on rock surfaces. We validate our model via comparison with existing empirical and semi-analyical solutions for droplet flow. We use the model to investigate the occurence of adsorbed trailing films of droplets under various flow conditions and its importance for the flow dynamics when films and droplets coexist. We show that flow velocities are higher on prewetted surfaces covered by a thin film which is qualitatively attributed to the enhanced dynamic wetting and dewetting at the trailing and advancing contact line.

  20. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, Kannan M.

    1994-01-01

    A ferromagnetic .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4 .+-.0.05.

  1. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1994-12-20

    A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

  2. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  3. Polycrystalline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.; Ullal, H.

    1987-02-01

    This annual report for fiscal year 1986 summarizes the status, accomplishments, and projected future research directions of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Task in the Photovoltaic Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Electric Research Division. Subcontracted work in this area has concentrated on the development of CuInSe2 and CdTe technologies. During FY 1986, major progress was achieved by subcontractors in (1) achieving 10.5% (SERI-verified) efficiency with CdTe, (2) improving the efficiency of selenized CuInSe2 solar cells to nearly 8%, and (3) developing a transparent contact to CdTe cells for potential use in the top cells of tandem structures.

  4. Thin-film microextraction.

    PubMed

    Bruheim, Inge; Liu, Xiaochuan; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2003-02-15

    The properties of a thin sheet of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane as an extraction phase were examined and compared to solid-phase microextraction (SPME) PDMS-coated fiber for application to semivolatile analytes in direct and headspace modes. This new PDMS extraction approach showed much higher extraction rates because of the larger surface area to extraction-phase volume ratio of the thin film. Unlike the coated rod formats of SPME using thick coatings, the high extraction rate of the membrane SPME technique allows larger amounts of analytes to be extracted within a short period of time. Therefore, higher extraction efficiency and sensitivity can be achieved without sacrificing analysis time. In direct membrane SPME extraction, a linear relationship was found between the initial rate of extraction and the surface area of the extraction phase. However, for headspace extraction, the rates were somewhat lower because of the resistance to analyte transport at the sample matrix/headspace barrier. It was found that the effect of this barrier could be reduced by increasing either agitation, temperature, or surface area of the sample matrix/headspace interface. A method for the determination of PAHs in spiked lake water samples was developed based on the membrane PDMS extraction coupled with GC/MS. A linearity of 0.9960 and detection limits in the low-ppt level were found. The reproducibility was found to vary from 2.8% to 10.7%. PMID:12622398

  5. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  6. Thin film cell development workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The Thin Film Development Workshop provided an opportunity for those interested in space applications of thin film cells to debate several topics. The unique characteristics of thin film cells as well as a number of other issues were covered during the discussions. The potential of thin film cells, key research and development issues, manufacturing issues, radiation damage, substrates, and space qualification of thin film cells were discussed.

  7. Thin blend films of cellulose and polyacrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Mao, Yimin; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard

    Cellulose is the most abundant renewable, biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer. Cellulose exhibits excellent chemical and mechanical stability, which makes it useful for applications such as construction, filtration, bio-scaffolding and packaging. To further expand the potential applications of cellulose materials, their alloying with synthetic polymers has been investigated. In this study, thin films of cotton linter cellulose (CLC) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blends with various compositions spanning the entire range from neat CLC to neat PAN were spun cast on silicon wafers from common solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide / ionic liquid mixtures. The morphologies of thin films were characterized using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. Morphologies of as-cast films are highly sensitive to the film preparation conditions; they vary from featureless smooth films to self-organized ordered nano-patterns to hierarchical structures spanning over multiple length scales from nanometers to tens of microns. By selectively removing the PAN-rich phase, the structures of blend films were studied to gain insights in their very high stability in hot water, acid and salt solutions.

  8. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  9. Fabrication and optical characterizations of smooth silver-silica nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Thoreson, M. D.; Kildishev, A. V.; Shalaev, V. M.

    2010-09-01

    We have studied the surface-smoothing effect of an ultrathin germanium (Ge) layer on silver (Ag)-silica (SiO2) nanocomposite films for superlensing applications. Our experimental results indicate that inserting a thin Ge layer below the silver-silica composite films can reduce the final surface root-mean-squared (RMS) roughness to under 1 nm. Additionally, the metal nanostructure plays a role in both the smoothing effect and the optical properties of the nanocomposite films. Our experimental results show that the Bruggeman effective medium theory (EMT) is not sufficiently accurate to describe some properties of our nanocomposite films. In addition to the constituent materials and their filling fraction within the composites, the detailed geometries of the metal nanostructures also show a significant influence on the optical properties of the composite films. This influence has not been taken into account by the EMT formulation.

  10. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David C.; Pattillo, Stevan G.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  11. Calorimetry of epitaxial thin films.

    PubMed

    Cooke, David W; Hellman, F; Groves, J R; Clemens, B M; Moyerman, S; Fullerton, E E

    2011-02-01

    Thin film growth allows for the manipulation of material on the nanoscale, making possible the creation of metastable phases not seen in the bulk. Heat capacity provides a direct way of measuring thermodynamic properties of these new materials, but traditional bulk calorimetric techniques are inappropriate for such a small amount of material. Microcalorimetry and nanocalorimetry techniques exist for the measurements of thin films but rely on an amorphous membrane platform, limiting the types of films which can be measured. In the current work, ion-beam-assisted deposition is used to provide a biaxially oriented MgO template on a suspended membrane microcalorimeter in order to measure the specific heat of epitaxial thin films. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction showed the biaxial order of the MgO template. X-ray diffraction was also used to prove the high quality of epitaxy of a film grown onto this MgO template. The contribution of the MgO layer to the total heat capacity was measured to be just 6.5% of the total addenda contribution. The heat capacity of a Fe(.49)Rh(.51) film grown epitaxially onto the device was measured, comparing favorably to literature data on bulk crystals. This shows the viability of the MgO∕SiN(x)-membrane-based microcalorimeter as a way of measuring the thermodynamic properties of epitaxial thin films. PMID:21361612

  12. The Thin Oil Film Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James L.; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    A thin film of oil on a surface responds primarily to the wall shear stress generated on that surface by a three-dimensional flow. The oil film is also subject to wall pressure gradients, surface tension effects and gravity. The partial differential equation governing the oil film flow is shown to be related to Burgers' equation. Analytical and numerical methods for solving the thin oil film equation are presented. A direct numerical solver is developed where the wall shear stress variation on the surface is known and which solves for the oil film thickness spatial and time variation on the surface. An inverse numerical solver is also developed where the oil film thickness spatial variation over the surface at two discrete times is known and which solves for the wall shear stress variation over the test surface. A One-Time-Level inverse solver is also demonstrated. The inverse numerical solver provides a mathematically rigorous basis for an improved form of a wall shear stress instrument suitable for application to complex three-dimensional flows. To demonstrate the complexity of flows for which these oil film methods are now suitable, extensive examination is accomplished for these analytical and numerical methods as applied to a thin oil film in the vicinity of a three-dimensional saddle of separation.

  13. Thin-film metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis. PMID:18980236

  14. Thin film of biocompatible polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Ludovic; Lavalle, Philippe; Schaaf, Pierre; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Picart, Catherine

    2003-03-01

    The layer-by-layer deposition method proposed by Decher et al. (1991) is a very simple and versatile method used to build thin films. These films are of interest for bioengineering because of their unique properties and of the possible insertion of bioactive molecules. We present here the peculiar properties of a new kind of film formed with natural biopolymers, namely hyaluronan (HA)and chitosan (CHI). The films may be used as biomimetic substrates to control bacterial and cell adhesion. These polysaccharides are of particular interest because they are biodegradable, non toxic, and can be found in various tissues. Hyaluronan is also a natural ligand for a numerous type of cells through the CD44 receptor. Chitosan has already largely been used for its biological and anti-microbial properties. (CHI/HA) films were built in acidic pH at different ionic strength. The buildup was followed in situ by optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS), quartz crystal microbalance, streaming potential measurements and atomic force microscopy. The kinetics of adsorption and desorption of the polyelectrolytes depended on the ionic strength. Small islands were initially present on the surface which grew by mutual coalescence until becoming a flat film. The films were around 200 nm in thickness. These results suggest that different types of thin films constituted of polysaccharides can be built on any type of surface. These films are currently investigated toward their cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion properties.

  15. (Thin films under chemical stress)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    As stated above the purpose of this research is to enable workers in a variety of fields to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin films (primarily organic films) are placed under chemical stress. This stress may occur because the film is being swelled by penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). These questions are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers, which might have unique functional properties. In the past year we have concentrated on the following objectives: (1) understanding how the two possible diffusion mechanisms contribute to the swelling of thin films of organic polymers place in solution, (2) identifying systems which are appropriate polymer media for the construction of composite membranes for use in aqueous environments, and (3) understanding the self-assembly process for long chain fatty acids at model surfaces. Progress in meeting each of these objectives will be described in this report. 4 figs.

  16. Thin-film forces in pseudoemulsion films

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. |

    1991-06-01

    Use of foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has shown recent success in steam-flooding field applications. Foam can also provide an effective barrier against gas coning in thin oil zones. Both of these applications stem from the unique mobility-control properties a stable foam possesses when it exists in porous media. Unfortunately, oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important for EOR applications to understand how oil destroys foam. Studies all indicate that stabilization of the pseudoemulsion film is critical to maintain foam stability in the presence of oil. Hence, to aid in design of surfactant formulations for foam insensitivity to oil the authors pursue direct measurement of the thin-film or disjoining forces that stabilize pseudoemulsion films. Experimental procedures and preliminary results are described.

  17. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  18. Thin films under chemical stress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

  19. An overview of thin film nitinol endovascular devices.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae

    2015-07-01

    Thin film nitinol has unique mechanical properties (e.g., superelasticity), excellent biocompatibility, and ultra-smooth surface, as well as shape memory behavior. All these features along with its low-profile physical dimension (i.e., a few micrometers thick) make this material an ideal candidate in developing low-profile medical devices (e.g., endovascular devices). Thin film nitinol-based devices can be collapsed and inserted in remarkably smaller diameter catheters for a wide range of catheter-based procedures; therefore, it can be easily delivered through highly tortuous or narrow vascular system. A high-quality thin film nitinol can be fabricated by vacuum sputter deposition technique. Micromachining techniques were used to create micro patterns on the thin film nitinol to provide fenestrations for nutrition and oxygen transport and to increase the device's flexibility for the devices used as thin film nitinol covered stent. In addition, a new surface treatment method has been developed for improving the hemocompatibility of thin film nitinol when it is used as a graft material in endovascular devices. Both in vitro and in vivo test data demonstrated a superior hemocompatibility of the thin film nitinol when compared with commercially available endovascular graft materials such as ePTFE or Dacron polyester. Promising features like these have motivated the development of thin film nitinol as a novel biomaterial for creating endovascular devices such as stent grafts, neurovascular flow diverters, and heart valves. This review focuses on thin film nitinol fabrication processes, mechanical and biological properties of the material, as well as current and potential thin film nitinol medical applications. PMID:25839120

  20. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOEpatents

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  1. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  2. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  3. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  4. Formation of diamond nanoparticle thin films by electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yosuke; Ohishi, Fujio; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Usui, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    Thin films of diamond nanoparticles were prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) using 0.5 wt % dispersions in water, ethanol, and 2-propanol. The film growth rate increased with increasing voltage applied to the electrodes. However, an excessive increase in voltage caused the degradation of film morphology. The optimum voltage was 4 V with an electrode separation of 5 mm. The film growth rate was higher in organic solvents than in water. The deposited film had a smooth surface with an average surface roughness comparable to the size of primary particles of the source material. It is notable that the EPD films had a considerably higher physical stability than spin-coated and cast films. The stability was further improved by thermally annealing the films. IR analysis revealed that the diamond nanoparticles have carboxy and amino groups on their surfaces. It is considered that the stability of the EPD films originate from a chemical reaction between these functional groups.

  5. Thin Film Solid Lubricant Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoy, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Tribological coatings for high temperature sliding applications are addressed. A sputter-deposited bilayer coating of gold and chromium is investigated as a potential solid lubricant for protection of alumina substrates during sliding at high temperature. Evaluation of the tribological properties of alumina pins sliding against thin sputtered gold films on alumina substrates is presented.

  6. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  7. Hybrid thin-film amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, G.

    1977-01-01

    Miniature amplifier for bioelectronic instrumentation consumes only about 100 mW and has frequency response flat to within 0.5 dB from 0.14 to 450 Hz. Device consists of five thin film substrates, which contain eight operational amplifiers and seven field-effect transistor dice.

  8. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  9. Thin films and uses

    DOEpatents

    Baskaran, Suresh; Graff, Gordon L.; Song, Lin

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

  10. Polyimide thin-film dielectrics on ferroelectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galiardi, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Conducting layers of multi-layered thin-film ferroelectric device, such as is used in liquid crystal/ferroelectric display, can be electrically isolated using thin-film layer of polyimide. Ease of application and high electrical-breakdown strength allow dependable and economical means of providing dielectric for other thin-film microelectronic devices.

  11. Phase Coarsening in Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. G.; Glicksman, M. E.

    2015-08-01

    Phase coarsening (Ostwald ripening) phenomena are ubiquitous in materials growth processes such as thin film formation. The classical theory explaining late-stage phase coarsening phenomena was developed by Lifshitz and Slyozov, and by Wagner in the 1960s. Their theory is valid only for a vanishing volume fraction of the second phase in three dimensions. However, phase coarsening in two-dimensional systems is qualitatively different from that in three dimensions. In this paper, the many-body concept of screening length is reviewed, from which we derive the growth law for a `screened' phase island, and develop diffusion screening theory for phase coarsening in thin films. The coarsening rate constant, maximum size of phase islands in films, and their size distribution function will be derived from diffusion screening theory. A critical comparison will be provided of prior coarsening concepts and improvements derived from screening approaches.

  12. Calcium ion-regulated thin filaments from vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Marston, S B; Trevett, R M; Walters, M

    1980-01-01

    Myosin and actin competition tests indicated the presence of both thin-filament and myosin-linked Ca2+-regulatory systems in pig aorta and turkey gizzard smooth-muscle actomyosin. A thin-filament preparation was obtained from pig aortas. The thin filaments had no significant ATPase activity [1.1 +/- 2.6 nmol/mg per min (mean +/- S.D.)], but they activated skeletal-muscle myosin ATPase up to 25-fold [500 nmol/mg of myosin per min (mean +/- S.D.)] in the presence of 10(-4) M free Ca2+. At 10(-8) M-Ca2+ the thin filaments activated myosin ATPase activity only one-third as much. Thin-filament activation of myosin ATPase activity increased markedly in the range 10(-6)-10(-5) M-Ca2+ and was half maximal at 2.7 x 10(-6) M (pCa2+ 5.6). The skeletal myosin-aorta-thin-filament mixture gave a biphasic ATPase-rate-versus-ATP-concentration curve at 10(-8) M-Ca2+ similar to the curve obtained with skeletal-muscle thin filaments. Thin filaments bound up to 9.5 mumol of Ca2+/g in the presence of MgATP2-. In the range 0.06-27 microM-Ca2+ binding was hyperbolic with an estimated binding constant of (0.56 +/- 0.07) x 10(6) M-1 (mean +/- S.D.) and maximum binding of 8.0 +/- 0.8 mumol/g (mean +/- S.D.). Significantly less Ca2+ bound in the absence of ATP. The thin filaments contained actin, tropomyosin and several other unidentified proteins. 6 M-Urea/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at pH 8.3 showed proteins that behaved like troponin I and troponin C. This was confirmed by forming interspecific complexes between radioactive skeletal-muscle troponin I and troponin C and the aorta thin-filament proteins. The thin filaments contained at least 1.4 mumol of a troponin C-like protein/g and at least 1.1 mumol of a troponin I-like protein/g. PMID:6446898

  13. Selective inorganic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  14. Crystalline Indium Sulphide thin film by photo accelerated deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanya, A. C.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2015-02-01

    Indium sulfide thin films deserve special attention because of its potential application as buffer layers in CIGS based solar cells. Highly transparent indium sulfide (InS) thin films were prepared using a novel method called photo accelerated chemical deposition (PCD). Ultraviolet source of 150 W was used to irradiate the solution. Compared to all other chemical methods, PCD scores its advantage for its low cost, flexible substrate and capable of large area of deposition. Reports on deposition of high quality InS thin films at room temperature are very rare in literature. The precursor solution was initially heated to 90°C for ten minutes and then deposition was carried out at room temperature for two hours. The appearance of the film changed from lemon yellow to bright yellow as the deposition time increased. The sample was characterized for its structural and optical properties. XRD profile showed the polycrystalline behavior of the film with mixed phases having crystallite size of 17 nm. The surface morphology of the films exhibited uniformly distributed honey comb like structures. The film appeared to be smooth and the value of extinction coefficient was negligible. Optical measurements showed that the film has more than 80% transmission in the visible region. The direct band gap energy was 2.47eV. This method is highly suitable for the synthesis of crystalline and transparent indium sulfide thin films and can be used for various photo voltaic applications.

  15. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  16. Surface structure analysis of atomically smooth BaBiO{sub 3} Films

    SciTech Connect

    Gozar, A.; Logvenov, G.; Butko, V. Y.; Bozovic, I.

    2007-05-15

    Using low-energy time-of-flight scattering and recoil spectroscopy (TOFSARS) and mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI) we analyze the surface structure of an atomically smooth BaBiO{sub 3} film grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate high sensitivity of the TOFSARS and MSRI spectra to slight changes in the orientation of the ion scattering plane with respect to the crystallographic axes. The observed angle dependence allows us to clearly identify the termination layer as BiO{sub 2}. Our data also indicate that angle-resolved MSRI data can be used for high-resolution studies of the surface structure of complex oxide thin films.

  17. Thin film concentrator panel development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, D. K.

    1982-07-01

    The development and testing of a rigid panel concept that utilizes a thin film reflective surface for application to a low-cost point-focusing solar concentrator is discussed. It is shown that a thin film reflective surface is acceptable for use on solar concentrators, including 1500 F applications. Additionally, it is shown that a formed steel sheet substrate is a good choice for concentrator panels. The panel has good optical properties, acceptable forming tolerances, environmentally resistant substrate and stiffeners, and adaptability to low to mass production rates. Computer simulations of the concentrator optics were run using the selected reflector panel design. Experimentally determined values for reflector surface specularity and reflectivity along with dimensional data were used in the analysis. The simulations provided intercept factor and net energy into the aperture as a function of aperture size for different surface errors and pointing errors. Point source and Sun source optical tests were also performed.

  18. SnS2 Thin Film Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia Jaber, Abdallah; Noaiman Alamri, Saleh; Salah Aida, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films have been synthesized using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer. The films were deposited using two different solutions prepared by the dilution of SnCl2 and thiourea in distilled water and in methanol. The obtained films have a microcrystalline structure. The film deposited using methanol as the solvent is nearly stochiometric SnS2 with a spinel phase having a (001) preferential orientation. The film prepared with an aqueous solution is Sn-rich. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images reveal that the film deposited with the aqueous solution is rough and is formed with large wires. However, the film deposited with methanol is dense and smooth. Conductivity measurements indicate that the aqueous solution leads to an n-type semiconductor, while methanol leads to a p-type semiconductor.

  19. Superconducting UBe 13 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quateman, J. H.; Tedrow, P. M.

    1985-12-01

    Of the known heavy fermion superconductors only UBe 13 can have a low resistivity ratio and still go superconducting. In addition, it is a line compound with a melting temperature of nearly twice that of the constituents. These facts make UBe 13 a promising choice for fabrication in thin film form. We have successfully made 2000 Å UBe 13 films by coevaporation of uranium and beryllium on 700°C substrates which were then heated in situ to 1100°C. These films were polycrystalline as shown by X-ray diffraction and have Tc's of 0.85 K, that of the bulk. The resistivity rise at approximately 2 K and the strong negative magnetoresistance were also of the same magnitude as that of the bulk, as were both the perpendicular and parallel critical fields. Thin films of UBe 13 will make more accessible tunneling and proximity effect experiments which can help elucidate the nature of the superconductivity of this compound.

  20. Methods and electrolytes for electrodeposition of smooth films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei; Shao, Yuyan

    2015-03-17

    Electrodeposition involving an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and/or film surface. For electrodeposition of a first conductive material (C1) on a substrate from one or more reactants in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second conductive material (C2), wherein cations of C2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the reactants.

  1. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Mansour, Hazim Louis; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  2. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah; Mansour, Hazim Louis

    2013-12-16

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  3. Nanomechanical Behavior of High Gas Barrier Multilayer Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Humood, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Shahla; Song, Yixuan; Tzeng, Ping; Grunlan, Jaime C; Polycarpou, Andreas A

    2016-05-01

    Nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were performed on thin multilayer films manufactured using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. These films are known to exhibit high gas barrier, but little is known about their durability, which is an important feature for various packaging applications (e.g., food and electronics). Films were prepared from bilayer and quadlayer sequences, with varying thickness and composition. In an effort to evaluate multilayer thin film surface and mechanical properties, and their resistance to failure and wear, a comprehensive range of experiments were conducted: low and high load indentation, low and high load scratch. Some of the thin films were found to have exceptional mechanical behavior and exhibit excellent scratch resistance. Specifically, nanobrick wall structures, comprising montmorillonite (MMT) clay and polyethylenimine (PEI) bilayers, are the most durable coatings. PEI/MMT films exhibit high hardness, large elastic modulus, high elastic recovery, low friction, low scratch depth, and a smooth surface. When combined with the low oxygen permeability and high optical transmission of these thin films, these excellent mechanical properties make them good candidates for hard coating surface-sensitive substrates, where polymers are required to sustain long-term surface aesthetics and quality. PMID:27045231

  4. Morphology dependent electrochemical performance of sputter deposited Sn thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nimisha, C.S.; Venkatesh, G.; Rao, K. Yellareswara; Rao, G. Mohan; Munichandraiah, N.

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Smooth homogenous anode surface results in better electrochemical performance in terms of capacity and cycle life. Highlights: ► Controlling rate of deposition of Sn thin films for different surface morphology. ► Higher deposition rate results in poor capacity retention. ► Lower deposition rate of 0.25 nm s{sup −1} helps in higher capacity retention. ► Electrochemical performance correlated homogeneity and interparticle contact area. -- Abstract: This study deals with tailoring of the surface morphology, microstructure, and electrochemical properties of Sn thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering with different deposition rates. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to characterize the film surface morphology. Electrochemical properties of Sn thin film are measured and compared by cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge cycle data at a constant current density. Sn thin film fabricated with a higher deposition rate exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 798 mAh g{sup −1} but reduced to 94 mAh g{sup −1} at 30th cycle. Film deposited with lower deposition rate delivered 770 mAh g{sup −1} during 1st cycle with improved capacity retention of 521 mAh g{sup −1} on 30th cycle. Comparison of electrochemical performances of these films has revealed important distinctions, which are associated with the surface morphology and hence on rate of deposition.

  5. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  6. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film on stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  7. Thin film based plasmon nanorulers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alexander D.; Lu, Chang; Geyer, Scott; Carroll, D. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, isolated metal nanoparticles are supported on a dielectric thin film that is placed on a conducting plane. The optical scattering characteristics of these metal nanoparticles are directly correlated with the localized surface plasmon states of the nanoparticle—image particle dimer, formed in the conducting plane below. Quantification of plasmon resonance shifts can be directly correlated with the application of the plasmon nanoruler equation. This simple geometry shows that direct optical techniques can be used to resolve thickness variations in dielectrics of only a few nanometers.

  8. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  9. An ultrathin, smooth, and low-loss Al-doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Dewei; Gu, Deen; Kim, Hyunsoo; Ling, Tao; Wu, Yi-Kuei Ryan; Guo, L Jay

    2014-08-27

    An ultrathin, smooth, and low-loss Ag film without a wetting layer is achieved by co-depositing a small amount of Al into Ag. The film can be as thin as 6 nm, with a roughness below 1 nm and excellent mechanical flexibility. Organic photovoltaics that use these thin films as transparent electrode show superior efficiency to their indium tin oxide (ITO) counterparts because of improved photon management. PMID:24943876

  10. Shape instability in thin viscous films and jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of viscous liquid films and thin jets as two- and one-dimensional continua is examined. Theoretical results are presented concerning a special type of instability which leads to the loss of smoothness of the shape (wrinkling) and associated with the failure of hyperbolicity of the governing equations. The conditions for different types of such an instability are formulated in the closed analytical form.

  11. New devices using ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.; Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in the fabrication technologies of ferroelectric thin films in general and of PZT (lead zirconate titanate) and PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) thin films in particular have suggested the feasibility of several new devices. Integrated optical devices for information processing and high-speed switching, high-density optical information processing and storage devices and spatial light modulators are some of the applications currently being investigated for these films. Ongoing studies of the longitudinal electrooptic effects and the photosensitivities of PZT and PLZT thin films have established the feasibility of erasable/rewritable optical memories with fast switching and potentially long lifetimes compared to current magneto-optic thin film devices. Some properties of PZT thin films and of new devices based on those properties are described in this paper. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Surface relief of TiNiCu thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiulan; Xu, Dong; Cai, Bingchu; Wang, Li; Chen, Jian; Li, Gang; Xu, Shi

    2001-10-01

    TiNiCu thin film shape memory alloys are potential materials for microactuator. In our previous research, the various natural surface relief of crystallized TiNiCu thin film was observed, and it was related with compositions and the sputtering deposition conditions. In order to understand the origin and nature of the surface relief, the temperature-resistance measurement, X-ray diffraction and atomic fore microscopic study were performed. For Ti48.4Ni46.3Cu5.3 thin films, the transformation temperatures are below 0 degree(s)C, and the natural surface is smooth at 12 degree(s)C since the microstructure is austenite. For Ti51Ni44Cu5 thin films, two typical kinds of surface relief, e.g., chrysanthemum and rock candy, were observed at 12 degree(s)C. The chrysanthemum on the martensitic block relief is Ti-rich G.P. zone and will not disappear in thermal cycles later. It is also found that the Ti-rich G.P. zone is related with the thin films formed under lower sputtering Ar pressure. The rock candy relief is a typical martensite surface relief and will disappear when heating to the austenite phase. During crystallization process, the inherent compressive stress introduced under the condition of higher sputtering pressure is helpful to the transition from G.P. zones to Ti2(NiCu) precipitates and the increase of the transformation temperatures.

  13. A dynamic rheological model for thin-film lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Jun; Huang, Ying; Guo, Yan-Bao; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yong-Gang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the non-Newtonian rheological properties of the lubricant in a thin-film lubrication regime between smooth surfaces were investigated. The thin-film lubrication regime typically appears in Stribeck curves with a clearly observable minimum coefficient of friction (COF) and a low-COF region, which is desired for its lower energy dissipation. A dynamic rheology of the lubricant from the hydrodynamic lubrication regime to the thin-film lubrication regime was proposed based on the convected Maxwell constitutive equation. This rheology model includes the increased relaxation time and the yield stress of the confined lubricant thin film, as well as their dependences on the lubricant film thickness. The Deborah number (De number) was adopted to describe the liquid-solid transition of the confined lubricant thin film under shearing. Then a series of Stribeck curves were calculated based on Tichy's extended lubrication equations with a perturbation of the De number. The results show that the minimum COF points in the Stribeck curve correspond to a critical De number of 1.0, indicating a liquid-to-solid transition of the confined lubricant film. Furthermore, the two proposed parameters in the dynamic rheological model, namely negative slipping length b (indicating the lubricant interfacial effect) and the characteristic relaxation time λ0, were found to determine the minimum COF and the width of the low-COF region, both of which were required to optimize the shape of the Stribeck curve. The developed dynamic rheological model interprets the correlation between the rheological and interfacial properties of lubricant and its lubrication behavior in the thin-film regime.

  14. Comparative study of the mechanical properties of nanostructured thin films on stretchable substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Djaziri, S.; Renault, P.-O.; Le Bourhis, E.; Goudeau, Ph.; Faurie, D.; Geandier, G.; Mocuta, C.; Thiaudière, D.

    2014-09-07

    Comparative studies of the mechanical behavior between copper, tungsten, and W/Cu nanocomposite based on copper dispersoïd thin films were performed under in-situ controlled tensile equi-biaxial loadings using both synchrotron X-ray diffraction and digital image correlation techniques. The films first deform elastically with the lattice strain equal to the true strain given by digital image correlation measurements. The Cu single thin film intrinsic elastic limit of 0.27% is determined below the apparent elastic limit of W and W/Cu nanocomposite thin films, 0.30% and 0.49%, respectively. This difference is found to be driven by the existence of as-deposited residual stresses. Above the elastic limit on the lattice strain-true strain curves, we discriminate two different behaviors presumably footprints of plasticity and fracture. The Cu thin film shows a large transition domain (0.60% true strain range) to a plateau with a smooth evolution of the curve which is associated to peak broadening. In contrast, W and W/Cu nanocomposite thin films show a less smooth and reduced transition domain (0.30% true strain range) to a plateau with no peak broadening. These observations indicate that copper thin film shows some ductility while tungsten/copper nanocomposites thin films are brittle. Fracture resistance of W/Cu nanocomposite thin film is improved thanks to the high compressive residual stress and the elimination of the metastable β-W phase.

  15. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  16. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  17. Pit initiation in AlO{sub x}/Al thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Son, K.A.; Barbour, J.C.; Missert, N.; Wall, F.D.; Copeland, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.; Minor, K.G.; Buchheit, R.G.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1998-12-31

    The electrochemical responses of AlO{sub x}/Al thin films have been investigated as a function of film growth conditions which produce films with different grain orientation, size and morphology. Films with smooth, 150 nm diameter, randomly oriented grains show a higher pitting potential and lower passive current than those films with large grain-boundary grooving from a mixture of smooth micron-sized, (200)-oriented grains and 300--500 nm diameter, (220)-oriented grains. These results suggest that surface roughness from grain-boundary grooving affects the pitting resistance more strongly than does the grain boundary density.

  18. Characteristics Of Vacuum Deposited Sucrose Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, F.; Predoi, D.; Ghita, R. V.; Vatasescu-Balcan, R. A.; Costache, M.

    Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11) were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique (p ~ 10-5 torr). The surface morphology was putted into evidence by FT-IR and SEM analysis. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent sucrose layer. The biological tests (e.g., cell morphology and cell viability evaluated by measuring mitochondrial dehydrogenise activity with MTT assay) confirm the properties of sucrose thin films as bioactive material. The human fetal osteoblast system grown on thin sucrose film was used for the determination of cell proliferation, cell viability and cell morphology studies.

  19. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  20. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  1. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. . Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. ); Yu, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  2. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of PZT Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Sreemany, M.; Bhattacharyya, D. K.; Sen, Suchitra; Halder, S. K.

    2008-07-29

    In analogy with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors (PWAS), Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) thin films also seem to be promising for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) due to a number of reasons. Firstly, PZT thin films with well oriented domains show enhanced piezoelectric response. Secondly, PWAS requires comparatively large voltage leading to a demand for thin PZT films (<< {mu}m in thickness) for low voltage operation at {<=}10 V. This work focuses on two different aspects: (a) growing oriented PZT thin films in ferroelectric perovskite phase in the range of (80-150) nm thickness on epitaxial Si/Pt without a seed layer and (b) synthesizing perovskite phase in PZT thin films on Corning glass 1737 using a seed layer of TiO{sub x} (TiO{sub x} thickness ranging between 30 nm to 500 nm)

  4. Some studies on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) grown indium sulphide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Pathan, H.M.; Lokhande, C.D. . E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com; Kulkarni, S.S.; Amalnerkar, D.P.; Seth, T.; Han, Sung-Hwan . E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2005-06-15

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were grown on amorphous glass substrate by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS) were applied to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and compositional properties of the indium sulphide thin films. Utilization of triethanolamine and hydrazine hydrate complexed indium sulphate and sodium sulphide as precursors resulted in nanocrystalline In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film. The optical band gap was found to be 2.7 eV. The film appeared to be smooth and homogeneous from SEM study.

  5. Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Deepak; Waks, Edo; Solomon, Glenn; Fourkas, John T.

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate reversible tuning of a photonic crystal cavity resonance using a thin photochromic film composed of spiropyran and polymethylmethacrylate that serves as a photosensitive cladding layer. Exposure of spiropyran to ultraviolet light results in smooth redshift of the cavity resonance that can be reversed by exposure to visible wavelength light. We achieve a reversible resonance shift of up to 2.7 nm, which can be performed locally on individual cavities. The resonance shift over multiple successive UV and visible light exposures is studied to determine the repeatability of the photochromic film.

  6. Hardening of smooth pulsed laser deposited PMMA films by heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Britta; Schlenkrich, Felix; Seyffarth, Susanne; Meschede, Andreas; Rotzoll, Robert; Vana, Philipp; Großmann, Peter; Mann, Klaus; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-03-01

    Smooth poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films without any droplets were pulsed laser deposited at a wavelength of 248 nm and a laser fluence of 125 mJ/cm2. After deposition at room temperature, the films possess low universal hardness of only 3 N/mm2. Thermal treatments up to 200°C, either during deposition or afterwards, lead to film hardening up to values of 200 N/mm2. Using a combination of complementary methods, two main mechanisms could be made responsible for this temperature induced hardening effect well above the glass transition temperature of 102°C. The first process is induced by the evaporation of chain fragments and low molecular mass material, which are present in the film due to the ablation process, leading to an increase of the average molecular mass and thus to hardening. The second mechanism can be seen in partial cross-linking of the polymer film as soon as chain scission occurs at higher temperatures and the mobility and reactivity of the polymer material is high enough.

  7. Radiation flux enhancement and absorption in thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, V.; Lodenquai, J.; Mctavish, J.

    1984-03-01

    Flux enhancement of (solar) radiation in dielectric thin films with textured upper surfaces and diffuse, perfectly reflecting lower surfaces is investigated. In the case of a completely rough surface, considered as a set of randomly oriented smooth microscopic surfaces or facets, the flux enhancement is shown to be n-squared in the absence of absorption, where n is the refractive index of the film. In cases when the upper surface is not completely rough but may be approximated by a set of facets whose orientations follow a Gaussian distribution, the enhancement is studied numerically and is found to be generally less than n-squared. Absorption is examined, and a general expression for the absorption efficiency of the thin film is derived. Numerical results for efficiency versus absorption coefficient are presented. 8 references.

  8. Radiation flux enhancement and absorption in thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, V.; Lodenquai, J.; McTavish, J.

    1984-03-01

    Flux enhancement of (solar) radiation in dielectric thin films with textured upper surfaces ad diffuse, perfectly reflecting lower surfaces is investigated. In the case of a completely rough surface, considered as a set of randomly oriented smooth microscopic surfaces or facets, the flux enhancement is shown to be n/sup 2/ in the absence of absorption, where n is the refractive index of the film. In cases when the upper surface is not completely rough but may be approximated by a set of facets whose orientations follow a Gaussian distribution, the enhancement is studied numerically and is found to be generally less than n/sup 2/. Absorption is examined, and a general expression for the absorption efficiency of the thin film is derived. Numerical results for efficiency versus absorption coefficiet are presented.

  9. Smoothing of ultrathin silver films by transition metal seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, André; Byon, Eungsun; Kim, Dong-Ho; Fukuda, Kentaro; Lim, Sunnie H. N.

    2006-11-01

    The nucleation and coalescence of silver islands on coated glass was investigated by in situ measurements of the sheet resistance. Sub-monolayer amounts of niobium and other transition metals were deposited prior to the deposition of silver. It was found that in some cases, the transition metals lead to coalescence of silver at nominally thinner films with smoother topology. The smoothing or roughening effects by the presence of the transition metal can be explained by kinetically limited transition metal islands growth and oxidation, followed by defect-dominated nucleation of silver.

  10. Smoothing of ultrathin silver films by transition metalseeding

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Byon, Eungsun; Kim, Dong-Ho; Fukuda, Kentaro; Lim,Sunnie H.N.

    2006-02-10

    The nucleation and coalescence of silver islands on coated glass was investigated by in-situ measurements of the sheet resistance. Sub-monolayer amounts of transition metals (Nb, Ti, Ni, Cr, Zr, Ta, and Mo) were deposited prior to the deposition of silver. It was found that some, but not all, of the transition metals lead to coalescence of silver at nominally thinner films with smoother topology. The smoothing effect of the transition metal at sub-monolayer thickness can be explained by a thermodynamic model of surface energies.

  11. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  12. Thin-film optical shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlow, S. L.

    1981-02-01

    The ideal solution to the excessive solar gain problem is an optical shutter, a device which switches from being highly transmissive to solar radiation to being highly reflective to solar radiation when a critical temperature is reached in the enclosure. The switching occurs because one or more materials in the device undergo a phase transition at the critical temperature. A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, was chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the thin film optical shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is explored. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a quantum mechanical method, the equilibrium bond length (EBL) theory, was developed. Some results of EBL theory are included.

  13. BDS thin film damage competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  14. Wrinkle motifs in thin films

    PubMed Central

    Budrikis, Zoe; Sellerio, Alessandro L.; Bertalan, Zsolt; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    On length scales from nanometres to metres, partial adhesion of thin films with substrates generates a fascinating variety of patterns, such as ‘telephone cord’ buckles, wrinkles, and labyrinth domains. Although these patterns are part of everyday experience and are important in industry, they are not completely understood. Here, we report simulation studies of a previously-overlooked phenomenon in which pairs of wrinkles form avoiding pairs, focusing on the case of graphene over patterned substrates. By nucleating and growing wrinkles in a controlled way, we characterize how their morphology is determined by stress fields in the sheet and friction with the substrate. Our simulations uncover the generic behaviour of avoiding wrinkle pairs that should be valid at all scales. PMID:25758174

  15. Dynamic delamination of patterned thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandula, Soma S. V.; Tran, Phuong; Geubelle, Philippe H.; Sottos, Nancy R.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate laser-induced dynamic delamination of a patterned thin film on a substrate. Controlled delamination results from our insertion of a weak adhesion region beneath the film. The inertial forces acting on the weakly bonded portion of the film lead to stable propagation of a crack along the film/substrate interface. Through a simple energy balance, we extract the critical energy for interfacial failure, a quantity that is difficult and sometimes impossible to characterize by more conventional methods for many thin film/substrate combinations.

  16. Infrared radiation of thin plastic films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, C. L.; Chan, C. K.; Cunnington, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    A combined analytical and experimental study is presented for infrared radiation characteristics of thin plastic films with and without a metal substrate. On the basis of the thin-film analysis, a simple analytical technique is developed for determining band-averaged optical constants of thin plastic films from spectral normal transmittance data for two different film thicknesses. Specifically, the band-averaged optical constants of polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide were obtained from transmittance measurements of films with thicknesses in the range of 0.25 to 3 mil. The spectral normal reflectance and total normal emittance of the film side of singly aluminized films are calculated by use of optical constants; the results compare favorably with measured values.

  17. AES analysis of barium fluoride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, G. N.; Makhnjuk, V. I.; Rumjantseva, S. M.; Shchekochihin, Ju. M.

    1993-06-01

    AES analysis of thin films of metal fluorides is a difficult problem due to charging and decomposition of such films under electron bombardment. We have developed a simple algorithm for a reliable quantitative AES analysis of metal fluoride thin films (BaF 2 in our work). The relative AES sensitivity factors for barium and fluorine were determined from BaF 2 single-crystal samples. We have investigated the dependence of composition and stability of barium fluoride films on the substrate temperature during film growth. We found that the instability of BaF 2 films grown on GaAs substrates at high temperatures (> 525°C) is due to a loss of fluorine. Our results show that, under the optimal electron exposure conditions, AES can be used for a quantitative analysis of metal fluoride thin films.

  18. Thin film nitinol microstent for aneurysm occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chun, Youngjae; Levi, Daniel S; Mohanchandra, K P; Vinuela, Fernando; Vinuela, Fernando; Carman, Gregory P

    2009-05-01

    Thin film nitinol produced by sputter deposition was used in the design of microstents intended to treat small vessel aneurysms. Thin film microstents were fabricated by "hot-target" dc sputter deposition. Both stress-strain curves and differential scanning calorimetry curves were generated for the film used to fabricate stents. The films used for stents had an A(f) temperature of approximately 36 degrees C allowing for body activated response from a microcatheter. The 10 microm film was only slightly radio-opaque; thus, a Td marker was attached to the stents to guide fluoroscopic delivery. Thin film microstents were tested in a flow loop with and without nitinol support skeletons to give additional radial support. Stents could be compressed into and easily delivered with <3 Fr catheters. Theoretical frictional and wall drag forces on a thin film nitinol small vessel vascular stent were calculated, and the radial force exerted by thin film stents was evaluated theoretically and experimentally. In vivo studies in swine confirmed that thin film nitinol microstents could be deployed accurately and consistently in the swine cranial vasculature. PMID:19388784

  19. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    DOEpatents

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-12-23

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

  20. Sputter deposited Terfenol-D thin films for multiferroic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanchandra, K. P.; Prikhodko, S. V.; Wetzlar, K. P.; Sun, W. Y.; Nordeen, P.; Carman, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the sputter deposition and crystallization process to produce high quality Terfenol-D thin film (100 nm) with surface roughness below 1.5 nm. The Terfenol-D thin film was produced using DC magnetron sputtering technique with various sputtering parameters and two different crystallization methods, i.e. substrate heating and post-annealing. Several characterization techniques including WDS, XRD, TEM, AFM, SQUID and MOKE were used to determine the physical and magnetic properties of the Terfenol-D films. TEM studies reveal that the film deposited on the heated substrate has large grains grown along the film thickness producing undesirable surface roughness while the film crystallized by post-annealing method shows uniformly distributed small grains producing a smooth surface. The Terfenol-D film was also deposited onto (011) cut PMN-PT single crystal substrate. With the application of an electric field the film exhibited a 1553 Oe change in coercivity with an estimated saturation magnetostriction of λs = 910 x 10-6.

  1. Optical information storage in PLZT thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of storing and reading high density optical information in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and in lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films depends on both the longitudinal electrooptic coefficients and the photosensitivities of the films. This paper describes the methods used to measure both the longitudinal electrooptic effects and the photosensitivities of the thin films. The results of these measurements were used to evaluate a longitudinal quadratic electrooptic R coefficient, a linear electrooptic r/sub c/ coefficient and the wavelength dependence of the photosensitivity of a composition of PZT polycrystalline thin film. The longitudinal electrooptic R and r/sub c/ coefficients are about an order of magnitude less than the transverse R and R/sub c/ coefficients of the bulk ceramics of similar compositions. This is attributed to clamping of the film by the rigid substrate. The large birefringence after poling (>10/sup /minus/2/) suggests that the optic axes of the films are preferentially oriented normal to the film surface. The techniques used for evaluating the photosensitivities of the thin films are based on measuring the photocurrent generated rather than the reduction in coercive voltage (used previously for bulk ceramics) when the film is exposed to light. The thin film photosensitivities appear to be about three orders of magnitude higher than those of bulk ceramics of similar compositions. 14 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Thin film solar cell module

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.R.

    1987-01-20

    A thin film solar cell module is described comprising a first solar cell panel containing an array of solar cells consisting of a TFS semiconductor sandwiched between a transparent conductive zinc oxide layer and a transparent conductive layer selected from the group consisting of tin oxide, indium tin oxide, and zinc oxide deposited upon a transparent superstrate, and a second solar cell panel containing an array of solar cells consisting of a CIS semiconductor layer sandwiched between a zinc oxide semiconductor layer and a conductive metal layer deposited upon an insulating substrate. The zinc oxide semiconductor layer contains a first relatively thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide adjacent the CIS semiconductor and a second relatively thick layer of low resistivity zinc oxide overlying the high resistivity zinc oxide layer. The transparent conductive zinc oxide layer of the first panel faces the low resistivity zinc oxide layer of the second panel, the first and second panels being positioned optically in series and separated by a transparent insulating layer.

  3. VUV thin films, chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    The application of thin film technology to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region from 120 nm to 230 nm has not been fully exploited in the past because of absorption effects which complicate the accurate determination of the optical functions of dielectric materials. The problem therefore reduces to that of determining the real and imaginary parts of a complex optical function, namely the frequency dependent refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. We discuss techniques for the inverse retrieval of n and k for dielectric materials at VUV wavelengths from measurements of their reflectance and transmittance. Suitable substrate and film materials are identified for application in the VUV. Such applications include coatings for the fabrication of narrow and broadband filters and beamsplitters. The availability of such devices open the VUV regime to high resolution photometry, interferometry and polarimetry both for space based and laboratory applications. This chapter deals with the optics of absorbing multilayers, the determination of the optical functions for several useful materials, and the design of VUV multilayer stacks as applied to the design of narrow and broadband reflection and transmission filters and beamsplitters. Experimental techniques are discussed briefly, and several examples of the optical functions derived for selected materials are presented.

  4. Effects of interfacial roughness on phonon transport in bilayer silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiyu; Yang, Juekuan; Wei, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenhan; Bi, Kedong; Xu, Dongyan; Li, Deyu; Chen, Yunfei

    2015-10-01

    We report on molecular dynamics studies of phonon (lattice vibrations) transport in bilayer silicon thin films stuck together via van der Waals interactions. Results indicate that for bilayer thin films with an atomically smooth interface, the in-plane thermal conductivity of the bilayer films is the same as that of a single layer; however, the in-plane thermal conductivity of bilayer films is higher than that of single films if roughness is introduced at the interface. These observations are explained by the effects of interfacial roughness on phonon specularity parameters for transmitted and reflected phonons.

  5. Sputtered magnesium diboride thin films: Growth conditions and surface morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, April; Villegas, Brendon; Gu, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2) thin films were deposited on C-plane sapphire substrates by sputtering pure B and Mg targets at different substrate temperatures, and were followed by in situ annealing. A systematic study about the effects of the various growth and annealing parameters on the physical properties of MgB 2 thin films showed that the substrate temperature is the most critical factor that determines the superconducting transition temperature ( Tc), while annealing plays a minor role. There was no superconducting transition in the thin films grown at room temperature without post-annealing. The highest Tc of the samples grown at room temperature after the optimized annealing was 22 K. As the temperature of the substrate ( Ts) increased, Tc rose. However, the maximum Ts was limited due to the low magnesium sticking coefficient and thus the Tc value was limited as well. The highest Tc, 29 K, was obtained for the sample deposited at 180 °C, annealed at 620 °C, and was subsequently annealed a second time at 800 °C. Three-dimensional (3D) AFM images clearly demonstrated that the thin films with no transition, or very low Tc, did not have the well-developed MgB 2 grains while the films with higher Tc displayed the well-developed grains and smooth surface. Although the Tc of sputtered MgB 2 films in the current work is lower than that for the bulk and ex situ annealed thin films, this work presents an important step towards the fabrication of MgB 2 heterostructures using rather simple physical vapor deposition method such as sputtering.

  6. Synthesis of periodic mesoporous silica thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.G.; Newcomer, P.

    1996-06-01

    We have synthesized periodic mesoporous silica thin films from homogeneous solutions. To synthesize the films, a thin layer of a pH 7 micellar coating solution that contains TMOS (tetramethoxysilane) is dip or spin-coated onto Si wafers, borosilicate glass, or quartz substrates. NH3 gas is diffused into the solution and causes rapid hydrolysis and condensation of the TMOS and the formation of periodic mesoporous thin films within 10 seconds. Combination of homogenous solutions and rapid product formation maximizes the concentration of the desired product and provides a controlled, predictable microstructure. The films have been made continuous and crack-free by optimizing initial silica concentration and film thickness. The films are being evaluated as high surface area, size-selective coatings for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors.

  7. Atomically-Smooth MgO films grown on Epitaxial Graphene by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Sean; Sandin, Andreas; Rowe, Jack; Dougherty, Dan; Ulrich, Marc

    2013-03-01

    The growth of high quality insulating films on graphene is a crucial materials science task for graphene electronic and spintronic applications. It has been demonstrated that direct spin injection from a magnetic electrode to graphene is possible using MgO tunnel barriers of sufficient quality. We have used pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to grow thin magnesium oxide films directly on epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). We observe very smooth film morphologies (typical rms roughness of ~ 0.4 nm) that are nearly independent of film thickness and conform to the substrate surface which had ~ 0.2 nm rms roughness. Surface roughness of 0.04 nm have been recorded for ~ 1nm films with no pinholes seen by AFM. XPS and XRD data show non crystalline, hydroxylated MgO films with uniform coverage. This work shows that PLD is a good technique to produce graphene-oxide interfaces without pre-deposition of an adhesion layer or graphene functionalization. The details and kinetics of the deposition process will be described with comparisons being made to other dielectric-on-graphene deposition approaches. Funded by ARO Staff Research Contract # W911NF.

  8. Flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A self-metallized polymeric film has a polymeric film region and a metal surface disposed thereon. A layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto the self-metallized polymeric film's metal surface. Coupled to at least one of the metal surface and the layer of electrically-conductive metal is a device/system for measuring an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  9. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    SciTech Connect

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  10. Surface roughness evolution of nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Turkin, A. A.; Pei, Y. T.; Shaha, K. P.; Chen, C. Q.; Vainshtein, D. I.; Hosson, J. Th. M. de

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of dynamic roughening and smoothening mechanisms of thin films grown with pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering is presented. The roughness evolution has been described by a linear stochastic equation, which contains the second- and fourth-order gradient terms. Dynamic smoothening of the growing interface is explained by ballistic effects resulting from impingements of ions to the growing thin film. These ballistic effects are sensitive to the flux and energy of impinging ions. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data, and it is concluded that the thin film roughness can be further controlled by adjusting waveform, frequency, and width of dc pulses.

  11. Brush plating of tin(II) selenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, B.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Jayachandran, M.

    2002-01-01

    Brush plating technique has been adopted for the first time to coat tin selenide thin film on tin oxide coated conducting substrates at room temperature, 50°C and 60°C. Uniform and pinhole free films were deposited at potentials 5.0 V. XRD analyses show the polycrystalline nature of the films with orthorhombic structure. Optical studies show the indirect nature with a bandgap of 1.0 eV. SEM pictures show smooth and uniform surface morphology with a grain size of about 0.3 μm. Film roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy. Mott-Schottky plot has been drawn to evaluate the semiconductor parameters.

  12. Characterization on RF magnetron sputtered niobium pentoxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Usha, N.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-10-15

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films with amorphous nature were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 100°C by rf magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of rf power on the structural, morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films have been investigated. Optical study shows the maximum average transmittance of about 87% and the optical energy band gap (indirect allowed) changes between 3.70 eV and 3.47 eV. AFM result indicates the smooth surface nature of the samples. Photoluminescence measurement showed the better optical quality of the deposited films. Raman spectra show the LO-TO splitting of Nb-O stretching of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films.

  13. Photonics applications of nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Scott Ronald

    Using an advanced thin film fabrication technique known as Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD), it is possible to fabricate unique thin film nanostructures with characteristic dimensions on the order of a wavelength of light. By tailoring the morphologies of the films, they can be designed to exhibit particular optical properties that can be customized through advanced substrate motion and highly oblique flux incidence angles. In applications to photonics, controlling the flow of light for a specified task, GLAD thin films can be fabricated to provide the ability to manipulate incident light through controlled interactions of optical frequency electromagnetic radiation with the thin film nanostructures. Tetragonal square spiral photonic band gap crystals, a new class of periodic dielectric material that is characterized by the elimination of the density of states for frequencies lying in the stop gap of the crystal, can be fabricated using GLAD in a virtual single step process. The design and fabrication of these unique devices has been performed and the resultant crystals characterized in terms of optical response with respect to forbidden propagation modes, material properties, and advanced deposition techniques used to improve the overall structure. Chiral or helical thin films deposited using GLAD were also investigated, and have been shown to exhibit optical activity and circular birefringence due to their inherent structural anisotropy. It has been shown that the addition of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) to chiral thin films enhances the overall device performance due to order induced in the LCs by the film structure. This effect was investigated for a variety of materials and film structures. Finally, by developing a modified GLAD technique whereby the deposited film porosity is controlled through the angle of flux incidence, porous broadband antireflection coatings were produced. Using an appropriate effective medium theory to describe the index of refraction

  14. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederhirn, G.; Nucci, J.; Richter, G.; Arzt, E.; Balk, T. J.; Dehm, G.

    2006-02-07

    We studied the influence of a 10 nm AlxOy passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 {mu}m thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm film; however, its effect on the 1 {mu}m film is negligible. At high temperatures, the opposite behavior is observed; while the passivation does not change the 100 nm film behavior, it strengthens the 1 {mu}m film by driving it deeper into compression. These observations are explained in light of a combination of constrained diffusional creep and dislocation dynamics unique to ultra-thin films.

  15. Research on Advanced Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, Ronald B.

    2003-11-24

    During the past 7 years, the Tufts group has been carrying out research on advanced thin film batteries composed of a thin film LiCo02 cathode (positive electrode), a thin film LiPON (lithium phosphorous oxynitride) solid electrolyte, and a thin film graphitic carbon anode (negative electrode), under grant DE FG02-95ER14578. Prior to 1997, the research had been using an rfsputter deposition process for LiCoOi and LiPON and an electron beam evaporation or a controlled anode arc evaporation method for depositing the carbon layer. The pre-1997 work led to the deposition of a single layer cell that was successfully cycled for more than 400 times [1,2] and the research also led to the deposition of a monolithic double-cell 7 volt battery that was cycled for more than 15 times [3]. Since 1997, the research has been concerned primarily with developing a research-worthy and, possibly, a production-worthy, thin film deposition process, termed IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) for depositing each ofthe electrodes and the electrolyte of a completely inorganic solid thin film battery. The main focus has been on depositing three materials - graphitic carbon as the negative electrode (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (nominally LiCoCb) as the positive electrode (cathode), and lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) as the electrolyte. Since 1998, carbon, LiCoOa, and LiPON films have been deposited using the IBAD process with the following results.

  16. Performance Characterization of Monolithic Thin Film Resistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Rong

    Thin film resistors have a large resistance range and stable performance under high temperature operating condition. Thin film resistors trimmed by laser beam are able to achieve very high precision on resistance value. As a result, thin film resistors have been widely used to improve the performance of integrated circuits such as operational amplifier, analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital -to-analog (D/A) converters, etc. In this dissertation, a new class of thin film resistors, silicon chrome (SiCr) thin film resistors, has been investigated at length. From thin film characterization to aging behavior modelling, we have carried out a series of engineering activities. The characteristics of the SiCr thin film incorporated into three bipolar processes were first determined. After laser trimming, we have measured a couple of physical parameters of the SiCr film in the heat affected zone (HAZ). This is the first time the sheet resistance and the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of thin film in the HAZ have been characterized. Both thermal and d.c. load accelerated aging tests were performed. The test structures were subjected to the aging for 1000 hours. Based on the test data, we not only evaluated the classical thermal aging model for untrimmed thin film resistors, but also established several empirical thermal aging models for trimmed resistors and d.c. load aging models for both trimmed and untrimmed thin film resistors. All the experiments were carried out for both conventional bar resistors and our new Swiss Cheese (SC) resistors. For the first time, the performance of laser trimmed SC resistors, which was experimentally evaluated, shown a clear superiority over that of trimmed bar resistors. Besides these experiments, we have examined different die attach techniques and their effects on thin film resistors. Also, we have developed a number of hardware systems and software tools, such as a temperature controller, d.c. current source, temperature

  17. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Campbell, John H.; Staggs, Michael; Rainer, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  18. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  19. Growth of ZnO:Al thin films onto different substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Prepelita, Petronela; Medianu, R.; Garoi, F.; Moldovan, A.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we present some results regarding undoped and doped ZnO thin films deposited on various substrates like glass, silicon and kapton by rf magnetron sputtering. The influence of the amount of aluminum as well as the usage of different substrates on the final photovoltaic properties of the thin films is studied. For this, structural-morphological and optical investigations on the thin films are conducted. It was found that three important factors must be taken into account for adjusting the final desired application intended for the deposited thin films. These factors are: deposition conditions, the nature of both the dopant material and the substrate. A comparison study between undoped and doped case is also realized. Smooth Al doped ZnO thin films with a polycrystalline structure and a lower roughness than undoped ZnO are obtained.

  20. Ferromagnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, T. P. Passamani, E. C.; Larica, C.; Nascimento, V. P.; Takeuchi, A. Y.

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered Gd thin films grown on Si (100) substrates kept at two different temperatures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, ac magnetic susceptibility, and dc magnetization measurements. The obtained Gd thin films have a mixture of hcp and fcc structures, but with their fractions depending on the substrate temperature T{sub S} and film thickness x. Gd fcc samples were obtained when T{sub S} = 763 K and x = 10 nm, while the hcp structure was stabilized for lower T{sub S} (300 K) and thicker film (20 nm). The fcc structure is formed on the Ta buffer layer, while the hcp phase grows on the fcc Gd layer as a consequence of the lattice relaxation process. Spin reorientation phenomenon, commonly found in bulk Gd species, was also observed in the hcp Gd thin film. This phenomenon is assumed to cause the magnetization anomalous increase observed below 50 K in stressed Gd films. Magnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films are: Curie temperature above 300 K, saturation magnetization value of about 175 emu/cm{sup 3}, and coercive field of about 100 Oe at 300 K; features that allow us to classify Gd thin films, with fcc structure, as a soft ferromagnetic material.

  1. Inverse bilayer magnetoelectric thin film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarar, E.; Salzer, S.; Hrkac, V.; Piorra, A.; Höft, M.; Knöchel, R.; Kienle, L.; Quandt, E.

    2016-07-01

    Prior investigations on magnetoelectric (ME) thin film sensors using amorphous FeCoSiB as a magnetostrictive layer and AlN as a piezoelectric layer revealed a limit of detection (LOD) in the range of a few pT/Hz1/2 in the mechanical resonance. These sensors are comprised of a Si/SiO2/Pt/AlN/FeCoSiB layer stack, as dictated by the temperatures required for the deposition of the layers. A low temperature deposition route of very high quality AlN allows the reversal of the deposition sequence, thus allowing the amorphous FeCoSiB to be deposited on the very smooth Si substrate. As a consequence, the LOD could be enhanced by almost an order of magnitude reaching 400 fT/Hz1/2 at the mechanical resonance of the sensor. Giant ME coefficients (αME) as high as 5 kV/cm Oe were measured. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed highly c-axis oriented growth of the AlN starting from the Pt-AlN interface with local epitaxy.

  2. Thin film production method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Moravsky, Alexander P.; Hassen, Charles N.

    2010-08-10

    A method for forming a thin film material which comprises depositing solid particles from a flowing suspension or aerosol onto a filter and next adhering the solid particles to a second substrate using an adhesive.

  3. Thermally tunable ferroelectric thin film photonic crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P. T.; Wessels, B. W.; Imre, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Thermally tunable PhCs are fabricated from ferroelectric thin films. Photonic band structure and temperature dependent diffraction are calculated by FDTD. 50% intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. This device has potential in active ultra-compact optical circuits.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Carbonitride Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xingfang; Wang, Wei; Song, Lixin

    2003-02-01

    Silicon carbonitride thin films were synthesized by reactive rf sputtering a silicon carbide target in nitrogen and argon atmosphere, or sputtering a silicon nitride target in methane and argon atmosphere, respectively. The Nanoindentation technique (Nanoindenter XP system with a continuous stiffness measurement technique) was employed to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of thin films. The effects of sputtering power on the mechanical properties are different for the two SiCN thin films. With increasing sputtering power, the hardness and the elastic modulus decrease for the former but increase for the latter. The tendency is similar to the evolution trend of Si-C bonds in SiCN materials. This reflects that Si-C bonds provide greater hardness for SiCN thin films than Si-N and C-N bonds.

  5. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D.; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-01

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  6. Recent developments in thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    The present status of the development of thin film solar cells is reviewed, with emphasis on important areas for further research. The following aperture-area efficiencies were measured for thin film modules: a-Si:H, 9.8 percent, 933 sq cm; CuIn(Ga)Se2, 11.1 percent, 938 sq cm; and CdTe, 7.3 percent, 838 sq cm. CuIn(Ga)Se2 cells and modules demonstrated excellent efficiencies and stability. The cost advantage of thin film modules and the higher efficiency and improved stability resulting from multijunctions are shown. Engineering solutions are found to minimize light-induced degradation of a-Si:H solar cells. CdTe cells and modules, and cleaved epitaxial thin film III-V compound cells showed remarkable efficiencies.

  7. Microstructure Related Properties of Optical Thin Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, John James, Jr.

    Both the optical and physical properties of thin film optical interference coatings depend upon the microstructure of the deposited films. This microstructure is strongly columnar with voids between the columns. Computer simulations of the film growth process indicate that the two most important factors responsible for this columnar growth are a limited mobility of the condensing molecules and self-shadowing by molecules already deposited. During the vacuum deposition of thin films, the microstructure can be influenced by many parameters, such as substrate temperature and vacuum pressure. By controlling these parameters and introducing additional ones, thin film coatings can be improved. In this research, ultraviolet irradiation and ion bombardment were examined as additional parameters. Past studies have shown that post-deposition ultraviolet irradiation can be used to relieve stress and reduce absorption in the far ultraviolet of silicon dioxide films. Ion bombardment has been used to reduce stress, improve packing density, and increase resistance to moisture penetration. Three refractory oxide materials commonly used in thin film coatings were studied; they are silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, and zirconium dioxide. Both single-layer films and narrowband filters made of these materials were examined. A 1000-watt mercury-xenon lamp was used to provide ultraviolet irradiation. An inverted magnetron ion source was used to produce argon and oxygen ions. Ultraviolet irradiation was found to reduce the absorption and slightly increase the index of refraction in zirconium oxide films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that ultraviolet irradiation caused titanium oxide films to become more amorphous; their absorption in the ultraviolet was slightly reduced. No changes were noted in film durability. Ion bombardment enhanced the tetragonal (lll) peak of zirconium oxide but increased the absorption of both zirconium oxide and titanium oxide films. The titanium oxide

  8. Cratering Studies in Thin Plastic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Anthony; Bugiel, S.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T.; Srama, R.; Colorado CenterLunar Dust; Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) Team

    2013-10-01

    Thin plastic films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), have been used as protective coatings or dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission, and the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons. These types of detectors can be used on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit to detect dust grain size distributions and velocities. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The SDC dust detector is made up of a permanently polarized layer of PVDF coated on both sides with a thin layer (≈ 1000 Å) of aluminum nickel. The operation principle is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer exposing the permanently polarized PVDF underneath. This causes a local potential near the crater changing the surface charge of the metal layer. The dimensions of the crater determine the strength of the potential and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. The theoretical basis for signal interpretation uses a crater diameter scaling law which was not intended for use with PVDF. In this work, a crater size scaling law has been experimentally determined, and further simulation work is being done to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of crater formation. Two Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) codes are being evaluated for use as a simulator for hypervelocity impacts: Ansys Autodyn and LS-Dyna from the Livermore Software Technology Corp. SPH is known to be well suited to the large deformities found in hypervelocity impacts. It is capable of incorporating key physics phenomena, including fracture, heat transfer, melting, etc. Furthermore, unlike Eulerian methods, SPH is gridless allowing large deformities without the inclusion of unphysical erosion algorithms. Experimental results and preliminary simulation results and conclusions will be

  9. Review of CdO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandiramouli, R.; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

    2013-02-01

    Cadmium Oxide (CdO) thin film is one of the first transparent conducting oxide semiconductors. Its excellent optical and electronic properties have made CdO a promising material for flat panel displays. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities related to the 'preparation-property-application' triangle of CdO thin films.

  10. Thin-film reliability and engineering overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The reliability and engineering technology base required for thin film solar energy conversions modules is discussed. The emphasis is on the integration of amorphous silicon cells into power modules. The effort is being coordinated with SERI's thin film cell research activities as part of DOE's Amorphous Silicon Program. Program concentration is on temperature humidity reliability research, glass breaking strength research, point defect system analysis, hot spot heating assessment, and electrical measurements technology.

  11. Epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin-film epitaxial growth. The unique LEO space environment is expected to yield 10-ftorr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume (about 100 cu m) without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and throughput of epitaxially grown materials, including semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin-film high-temperature superconductors.

  12. Advances in CZTS thin films and nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N.; Ahmed, R.; Bakhtiar-Ul-Haq; Shaari, A.

    2015-06-01

    Already published data for the optical band gap (Eg) of thin films and nanostructured copper zinc tin sulphide (CZTS) have been reviewed and combined. The vacuum (physical) and non-vacuum (chemical) processes are focused in the study for band gap comparison. The results are accumulated for thin films and nanostructured in different tables. It is inferred from the re- view that the nanostructured material has plenty of worth by engineering the band gap for capturing the maximum photons from solar spectrum.

  13. Thin wetting film lensless imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allier, C. P.; Poher, V.; Coutard, J. G.; Hiernard, G.; Dinten, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Lensless imaging has recently attracted a lot of attention as a compact, easy-to-use method to image or detect biological objects like cells, but failed at detecting micron size objects like bacteria that often do not scatter enough light. In order to detect single bacterium, we have developed a method based on a thin wetting film that produces a micro-lens effect. Compared with previously reported results, a large improvement in signal to noise ratio is obtained due to the presence of a micro-lens on top of each bacterium. In these conditions, standard CMOS sensors are able to detect single bacterium, e.g. E.coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis, with a large signal to noise ratio. This paper presents our sensor optimization to enhance the SNR; improve the detection of sub-micron objects; and increase the imaging FOV, from 4.3 mm2 to 12 mm2 to 24 mm2, which allows the detection of bacteria contained in 0.5μl to 4μl to 10μl, respectively.

  14. Microstructural evolution of tungsten oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hembram, K. P. S. S.; Thomas, Rajesh; Rao, G. Mohan

    2009-10-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films are of great interest due to their promising applications in various optoelectronic thin film devices. We have investigated the microstructural evolution of tungsten oxide thin films grown by DC magnetron sputtering on silicon substrate. The structural characterization and surface morphology were carried out using X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The as deposited films were amorphous, where as, the films annealed above 400 °C were crystalline. In order to explain the microstructural changes due to annealing, we have proposed a "instability wheel" model for the evolution of the microstructure. This model explains the transformation of mater into various geometries within them selves, followed by external perturbation.

  15. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2014-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell under study.

  16. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2013-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film solar cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to crystalline silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity conversion efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication methods of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation and sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a solution method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be competitive to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, and quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of composition chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste was prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film on substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se followed by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to complete a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-electricity conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell are under study.

  17. Laser processing for thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compaan, Alvin D.

    1995-04-01

    Over the past decade major advances have occurred in the field of thin- film photovoltaics (PV) with many of them a direct consequence of the application of laser processing. Improved cell efficiencies have been achieved in crystalline and polycrystalline Si, in hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and in two polycrystalline thin-film materials. The use of lasers in photovoltaics includes laser hole drilling for emitter wrap-through, laser trenching for buried bus lines, and laser texturing of crystalline and polycrystalline Si cells. In thin-film devices, laser scribing is gaining increased importance for module interconnects. Pulsed laser recrystallization of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon is used to form highly conductive p-layers in p-i-n amorphous silicon cells and in thin-film transistors. Optical beam melting appears to be an attractive method for forming metal semiconductor alloys for contact formation. Finally, pulsed lasers are used for deposition of the entire semiconductor absorber layer in two types of polycrystalline thin-film cells-those based on copper indium diselenide and those based on cadmium telluride. In our lab we have prepared and studied heavily doped polycrystalline silicon thin films and also have used laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) to prepare 'all-LPVD' CdS/CdTe solar cells on glass with efficiencies tested at NREL at 10.5%. LPVD is highly flexible and ideally suited for prototyping PV cells using ternary or quaternary alloys and for exploring new dopant combinations.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Antennas.

    PubMed

    Puchades, Ivan; Rossi, Jamie E; Cress, Cory D; Naglich, Eric; Landi, Brian J

    2016-08-17

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dipole antennas have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Antennas of varying lengths were fabricated using flexible bulk MWCNT sheet material and evaluated to confirm the validity of a full-wave antenna design equation. The ∼20× improvement in electrical conductivity provided by chemically doped SWCNT thin films over MWCNT sheets presents an opportunity for the fabrication of thin-film antennas, leading to potentially simplified system integration and optical transparency. The resonance characteristics of a fabricated chlorosulfonic acid-doped SWCNT thin-film antenna demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and indicate that when the sheet resistance of the thin film is >40 ohm/sq no power is absorbed by the antenna and that a sheet resistance of <10 ohm/sq is needed to achieve a 10 dB return loss in the unbalanced antenna. The dependence of the return loss performance on the SWCNT sheet resistance is consistent with unbalanced metal, metal oxide, and other CNT-based thin-film antennas, and it provides a framework for which other thin-film antennas can be designed. PMID:27454334

  19. Thin-Film Nanocapacitor and Its Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David N.; Pickering, Shawn L.; Jia, Dongdong

    2007-01-01

    An undergraduate thin-film nanotechnology laboratory was designed. Nanocapacitors were fabricated on silicon substrates by sputter deposition. A mask was designed to form the shape of the capacitor and its electrodes. Thin metal layers of Au with a 80 nm thickness were deposited and used as two infinitely large parallel plates for a capacitor.…

  20. Thin transparent films formed from powdered glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Glass film less than five mils thick is formed from powdered glass dispersed in an organic liquid, deposited on a substrate, and fused into place. The thin films can be cut and shaped for contact lenses, optical filters and insulating layers.

  1. An Extension of Thin Film Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apell, P.

    1985-10-01

    The classical McIntyre formula for p-polarized light incident on a thin film on a substrate is extended in general terms to include a realistic description of the interfaces and the possible excitation of plasma waves in the film. An earlier extension is critized and criteria are given for when the classical result is applicable.

  2. Thin films, asphaltenes, and reservoir wettability

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, R.; Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. |

    1993-04-01

    Reservoir wettability impacts the success of oil recovery by waterflooding and other methods. To understand wettability and its alteration, thin-film forces in solid-aqueous-oil systems must be elucidated. Upon rupture of thick aqueous films separating the oil and rock phases, asphaltene components in the crude oil adsorb irreversibly on the solid surface, changing it from water-wet to oil-wet. Conditions of wettability alteration can be found by performing adhesion tests, in which an oil droplet is brought into contact with a solid surface. Exceeding a critical capillary pressure destabilizes the film, causing spontaneous film rupture to a molecularly adsorbed layer and oil adhesion accompanied by pinning at the three-phase contact line. The authors conduct adhesion experiments similar to those of Buckley and Morrow and simultaneously examine the state of the underlying thin film using optical microscopy and microinterferometry. Aqueous thin films between an asphaltic Orcutt crude oil and glass surfaces are studied as a function of aqueous pH and salinity. For the first time, they prove experimentally that strongly water-wet to strongly oil-wet wettability alteration and contact-angle pinning occur when thick aqueous films thin to molecularly adsorbed films and when the oil phase contains asphaltene molecules.

  3. Liquid phase deposition of electrochromic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Rubin, Michael D.

    2000-08-18

    Thin films of titanium, zirconium and nickel oxides were deposited on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by immersion in aqueous solutions. The films are transparent, conformal, of uniform thickness and appearance, and adhere strongly to the substrates. On electrochemical cycling, TiO2, mixed TiO2-ZrO2, and NiOx films exhibited stable electrochromism with high coloration efficiencies. These nickel oxide films were particularly stable compared with films prepared by other non-vacuum techniques. The method is simple, inexpensive, energy efficient, and readily scalable to larger substrates.

  4. Induced electronic anisotropy in bismuth thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Albert D.; Yao, Mengliang; Opeil, Cyril; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Li, Mingda; Tang, Shuang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2014-08-11

    We use magneto-resistance measurements to investigate the effect of texturing in polycrystalline bismuth thin films. Electrical current in bismuth films with texturing such that all grains are oriented with the trigonal axis normal to the film plane is found to flow in an isotropic manner. By contrast, bismuth films with no texture such that not all grains have the same crystallographic orientation exhibit anisotropic current flow, giving rise to preferential current flow pathways in each grain depending on its orientation. Extraction of the mobility and the phase coherence length in both types of films indicates that carrier scattering is not responsible for the observed anisotropic conduction. Evidence from control experiments on antimony thin films suggests that the anisotropy is a result of bismuth's large electron effective mass anisotropy.

  5. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  6. Simulation of film and droplet flow on wide aperture fracture using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordilla, J.; Tartakovsky, A.; Geyer, T.

    2012-04-01

    Fractured media provide rapid flow pathways for water percolating through the unsaturated zone. Film flow has been widely acknowledged as a major rapid flow process with average velocities of 3x10-7m/s (Tokunaga, 1997). Further flow regimes such as droplets, rivulets and falling films may reach much higher velocities while coexisting with films (Ghezzehei, 2004). In order to establish a unified description of multiphase flow at such small scales simulation approaches have to be able to deal with the highly dynamical interfaces and reproduce the physical behavior dominated by capillary, surface tension and gravitational forces. In this work we show simulations of free-surface flow on inclined fracture surfaces using a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model (Tartakovsky, 2005). The three-dimensional Lagrangian code employs an interpolation kernel in order to solve the Navier-Stokes equation at an arbitrary set of points (particles). Pairwise fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction forces are used to simulate a wide range of wetting conditions and Reynolds numbers encountered in laboratory experiments. Model results are verified with empirical and semianalytical solutions. Contact angles of droplets in a critical state, i.e. at the verge of movement, are compared with laboratory experiments reported in literature. Transient droplet dynamics are shown to reproduce the linear scaling proposed by Podgorski (2001). Depending on Reynolds number and static contact angles droplets leave behind trailing films. In order to investigate the influence of adsorbed films on droplet flow surfaces are prewetted with a thin film and simulations repeated. The results indicate a strong dependence of droplet flow dynamics on the existence of adsorbed films with droplet velocities being tripled under certain conditions. Despite their relatively slow velocities, adsorbed films are shown to be an essential part of unsaturated droplet flow dynamics as they enhance the wetting and

  7. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  8. Microcrystalline organic thin-film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Verreet, Bregt; Heremans, Paul; Stesmans, Andre; Rand, Barry P

    2013-10-11

    Microcrystalline organic films with tunable thickness are produced directly on an indium-tin-oxide substrate, by crystallizing a thin amorphous rubrene film followed by its use as a template for subsequent homoepitaxial growth. These films, with exciton diffusion lengths exceeding 200 nm, produce solar cells with increasing photocurrents at thicknesses up to 400 nm with a fill factor >65%, demonstrating significant potential for microcrystalline organic electronic devices. PMID:23939936

  9. Process for making thin film solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Ermer, J.H.; Mitchell, K.W.

    1991-09-03

    This paper describes a semiconducting thin film forced on a substrate by the method. It comprises: depositing a composite film of copper and indium on a substrate, the film having an atomic copper to indium ratio of about one, depositing a film of selenium on the composite copper indium film, the selenium film thickness selected to provide an atomic ratio of selenium to copper and indium of less than one, and heating the substrate with the composite copper indium film and the selenium film in the presence of H{sub 2}S gas for a time and at a temperature sufficient to cause interdiffusion of copper, indium, selenium and sulfur to form a semiconductor of the class CuInSe{sub 2{minus}x}S{sub x} where x is less than two.

  10. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  11. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

  12. Thin Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-07-21

    Ice films formed at mineral surfaces are of widespread occurrence in nature and are involved in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial processes. In this study, we studied thin ice films at surfaces of 19 synthetic and natural mineral samples of varied structure and composition. These thin films were formed by sublimation of thicker hexagonal ice overlayers mostly produced by freezing wet pastes of mineral particles at -10 and -50 °C. Vibration spectroscopy revealed that thin ice films contained smaller populations of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules than in hexagonal ice and liquid water. Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work [i.e., metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust] produced intense O-H stretching bands at ∼3400 cm(-1), attenuated bands at ∼3200 cm(-1), and liquid-water-like bending band at ∼1640 cm(-1) irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a nonexpandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C. As mineral-bound thin ice films are the substrates upon which ice grows from water vapor or aqueous solutions, this study provides new constraints from which their natural occurrences can be understood. PMID:27377606

  13. The preparation of ACEL thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecht, Aron

    1990-05-01

    Although thin film ACEL devices have become commercially available, the number of companies producing these displays has continued to diminish. The cause of their demise was not display performance, as both sufficient brightness and efficiency has been achieved, but the low return on the heavy capital investment due to the poor yields obtained in production. In order to make ACEL thin film devices more viable, the capital investment needs to be low and/or the production yields high. Opting for relatively expensive sputtering or ALE techniques as the sole methods of fabricating EL structures, is both commercially and scientifically ill-advised. Considerable effort was spent in developing cheaper alternative techniques for thin film deposition. The main objectives of the contract can be summarized as follows: (1) to deposit high quality ZnS thin films by MOCVD, (2) to dope the ZnS thin film with Mn, (3) to deposit high quality dielectric films using a novel spray pyrolysis process, (4) to evaluate optimized insulator/ZnS-Mn/insulator structures, and (5) the fabrication of large area XY matrix ACEL structures.

  14. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  15. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  16. Adhesive transfer of thin viscoelastic films.

    PubMed

    Shull, Kenneth R; Martin, Elizabeth F; Drzal, Peter L; Hersam, Mark C; Markowitz, Alison R; McSwain, Rachel L

    2005-01-01

    Micellar suspensions of acrylic diblock copolymers are excellent model materials for studying the adhesive transfer of viscoelastic solids. The micellar structure is maintained in films with a variety of thicknesses, giving films with a well-defined structure and viscoelastic character. Thin films were cast onto elastomeric silicone substrates from micellar suspensions in butanol, and the adhesive interactions between these coated elastomeric substrates and a rigid indenter were quantified. By controlling the adhesive properties of the film/indenter and film/substrate interfaces we were able to obtain very clean transfer of the film from the substrate to the portion of the glass indenter with which the film was in contact. Adhesive failure at the film/substrate interface occurs when the film/indenter interface is able to support an applied energy release rate that is sufficient to result in cavity nucleation at the film/substrate interface. Cavity formation is rapidly followed by delamination of the entire region under the indenter. The final stage in the transfer process involves the failure of the film that bridges the indenter and the elastomeric substrate. This film is remarkably robust and is extended to three times its original width prior to failure. Failure of this film occurs at the periphery of the indenter, giving a transferred film that conforms to the original contact area between the indenter and the coated substrate. PMID:15620300

  17. Simulated Thin-Film Growth and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Thin-films have become the cornerstone of the electronics, telecommunications, and broadband markets. A list of potential products includes: computer boards and chips, satellites, cell phones, fuel cells, superconductors, flat panel displays, optical waveguides, building and automotive windows, food and beverage plastic containers, metal foils, pipe plating, vision ware, manufacturing equipment and turbine engines. For all of these reasons a basic understanding of the physical processes involved in both growing and imaging thin-films can provide a wonderful research project for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students. After producing rudimentary two- and three-dimensional thin-film models incorporating ballsitic deposition and nearest neighbor Coulomb-type interactions, the QM tunneling equations are used to produce simulated scanning tunneling microscope (SSTM) images of the films. A discussion of computational platforms, languages, and software packages that may be used to accomplish similar results is also given.

  18. Coalescence and percolation in thin metal films

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, X.; Duxbury, P.M.; Jeffers, G.; Dubson, M.A. Center for Fundamental Materials Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 )

    1991-12-15

    Metals thermally evaporated onto warm insulating substrates evolve to the thin-film state via the morphological sequence: compact islands, elongated islands, percolation, hole filling, and finally the thin-film state. The coverage at which the metal percolates ({ital p}{sub {ital c}}) is often considerably higher than that predicted by percolation models, such as inverse swiss cheese or lattice percolation. Using a simple continuum model, we show that high-{ital p}{sub {ital c}}'s arise naturally in thin films that exhibit a crossover from full coalescence of islands at early stages of growth to partial coalescence at later stages. In this interrupted-coalescence model, full coalescence of islands occurs up to a critical island radius {ital R}{sub {ital c}}, after which islands overlap, but do not fully coalesce. We present the morphology of films and the critical area coverages generated by this model.

  19. Method for making thin polypropylene film

    DOEpatents

    Behymer, R.D.; Scholten, J.A.

    1985-11-21

    An economical method is provided for making uniform thickness polypropylene film as thin as 100 Angstroms. A solution of polypropylene dissolved in xylene is formed by mixing granular polypropylene and xylene together in a flask at an elevated temperature. A substrate, such as a glass plate or microscope slide is immersed in the solution. When the glass plate is withdrawn from the solution at a uniform rate, a thin polypropylene film forms on a flat surface area of the glass plate as the result of xylene evaporation. The actual thickness of the polypropylene film is functional of the polypropylene in xylene solution concentration, and the particular withdrawal rate of the glass plate from the solution. After formation, the thin polypropylene film is floated from the glass plate onto the surface of water, from which it is picked up with a wire hoop.

  20. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  1. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey; Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  2. Effect of solvent on morphological properties of TiOx thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng-Yueh; Chang, Chih-Hua; Chang, Chin-Hsiang; Huang, Jing-Shun; Chao, Chia-Shin; Lin, Yu-Hong; Lin, Wen-Han; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2009-08-01

    Sol-gel preparation of amorphous titanium oxide (TiOx) thin films with distinct morphological properties on the hydrophobic substrate was obtained by solution spin coating method. The TiOx thin films were deposited by three precursors using 2-methoxyethanol (2MOE), isopropanol (IPA) and mixture of 2MOE and hexane as solvents. We demonstrate evidence that the morphology of TiOx thin film is strongly related to the employment of dissimilar solvent. Among these three solvents, TiOx film obtained from 2MOE/hexane mixed solvent is a superior choice for the preparation of TiOx thin film on the hydrophobic substrate because of its smooth surface morphology.

  3. Patterning Thin Polymer Films by Photodirecting the Marangoni Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Christopher; Kim, Chae Bin; Janes, Dustin; Katzenstein, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    New methodologies for patterning micro- and nano- scale features in polymer thin films are desired because of their high technological relevance to a range of applications, including microelectronics fabrication. A new non-contact strategy for high-speed patterning of arbitrary shapes in polymer films that involves photochemically directing the Marangoni effect will be described. The Marangoni effect drives the formation of thin film topography by causing liquid flow in response to surface energy gradients. In this approach, a topographical pattern can be preprogrammed and stored in a smooth glassy film using light activated chemistry to pattern surface energy gradients. The topography can be later revealed by heating the film to the liquid state without use of a wet or dry etch step, unlike traditional photoresist methods. The use of grafting reactions from small molecule photosensitizers to change the surface energy locally in polymers that do not intrinsically undergo photochemical reactions will also be discussed. Judicious selection of the photosensitizing compound in an otherwise transparent polymer expands the use of this method to more readily available light sources. We believe this methodology will be potentially useful as a facile and ubiquitous patterning technique for many polymers.

  4. Corrosion Behaviour of Sputtered Alumina Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, I. Neelakanta; Dey, Arjun; Sridhara, N.; Anoop, S.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Rani, R. Uma; Anandan, Chinnasamy; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Corrosion studies of sputtered alumina thin films grown on stainless steel (SS) 304 were carried out by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Noticeable changes were not observed in morphology and surface roughness of films after carrying out the corrosion test. Corrosion current density (icorr) of alumina coated SS decreased up to 10-10 A cm-2 while icorr value in the range of 10-5-10-6 A cm-2 was observed for bare SS. The direct sputtered film showed superior corrosion resistance behaviour than the reactive sputtered film. This might be attributed to the difference in thickness of the films sputtered by direct and reactive methods. The electronic structure of deposited alumina films was studied both before and after corrosion test by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique which also confirmed no structural changes of alumina film after exposing it to corrosive environment.

  5. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Mostako, A. T. T.; Khare, Alika; Rao, C. V. S.

    2011-01-15

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10{sup -5} Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness {approx}782 nm.

  6. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film.

    PubMed

    Mostako, A T T; Rao, C V S; Khare, Alika

    2011-01-01

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10(-5) Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness ∼782 nm. PMID:21280810

  7. A high performance thin film thermoelectric cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.M.; Min, G.; Volklein, F.

    1998-07-01

    Thin film thermoelectric devices with small dimensions have been fabricated using microelectronics technology and operated successfully in the Seebeck mode as sensors or generators. However, they do not operate successfully in the Peltier mode as coolers, because of the thermal bypass provided by the relatively thick substrate upon which the thermoelectric device is fabricated. In this paper a processing sequence is described which dramatically reduces this thermal bypass and facilitates the fabrication of high performance integrated thin film thermoelectric coolers. In the processing sequence a very thin amorphous SiC (or SiO{sub 2}SiN{sub 4}) film is deposited on a silicon substrate using conventional thin film deposition and a membrane formed by removing the silicon substrate over a desired region using chemical etching or micro-machining. Thermoelements are deposited on the membrane using conventional thin film deposition and patterning techniques and configured so that the region which is to be cooled is abutted to the cold junctions of the Peltier thermoelements while the hot junctions are located at the outer peripheral area which rests on the silicon substrate rim. Heat is pumped laterally from the cooled region to the silicon substrate rim and then dissipated vertically through it to an external heat sink. Theoretical calculations of the performance of a cooler described above indicate that a maximum temperature difference of about 40--50K can be achieved with a maximum heat pumping capacity of around 10 milliwatts.

  8. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-11-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 {Angstrom}), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 {Angstrom} of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films.

  9. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  10. Smoothing of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} films by ion cluster beam bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.K.; Li, Y.P.; Liu, J.R.; Wu, J.Z.; Tidrow, S.C.; Toyoda, N.; Matsuo, J.; Yamada, I.

    1998-01-01

    Smoothing high-temperature superconductor (HTS) surfaces, especially HTS thin-film surfaces, is crucial for HTS thin-film device processing. In this letter, we describe a method to planarize the surface of a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} HTS film down to a smoothness with a standard deviation of 1 nm or better. The method includes first smoothing the HTS surface by ion cluster beam bombardment, followed by annealing in oxygen ambient to regrow the damaged surface layer. Additional YBCO layers can be grown epitaxially on the treated surface, even without removing the top surface layer, which contained some residual damage after annealing. This method can be integrated into HTS circuit fabrication as a key step of planarization. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Chemical stability of highly (0001) textured Sm(CoCu)5 thin films with a thin Ta capping layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haibao; Wang, Hao; Liu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-04-01

    With the highest magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (Ku) among practical magnetic materials, SmCo5 could be a very attractive candidate for future high areal density magnetic recording. However, its corrosion resistance is always a concern in recording media applications. In this paper, the chemical stability and microstructures of highly (0001) textured Sm(CoCu)5 thin films with and without a 3 nm Ta capping layer were reported. For Sm(CoCu)5 thin films without a capping layer, the coercivity decreases significantly (from 8kOe to 1kOe) within one month. Sm(CoCu)5 thin films capped with a thin Ta layer (3 nm) behave differently. Even exposed to a laboratory environment (25 °C) over 3 years, the Ta-capped Sm(CoCu)5 thin films are stable in terms of structural and magnetic properties, i.e., there were no changes in X-ray diffraction peaks and vibrating sample magnetometer hysteresis loops. Microstructure of Ta-capped Sm(CoCu)5 thin films showed that Sm(CoCu)5 formed a domelike particle assembly structure on a smooth Ru underlayer and were well covered by partially oxidized Ta capping layer, as shown by TEM cross-section micrographs. Accelerated corrosion treatment (130 °C, 95% relative humidity, 6 h) was performed on Ta-capped Sm(CoCu)5 thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that no Co was detected on the sample surface before the corrosion treatment, but strong XPS signals of CoOx and Co(OH)x were observed after treatment. Therefore, none of our Sm(CoCu)5 thin films can pass the accelerated corrosion test. Hcp-phased CoPt-alloys are proposed as better capping materials for Sm(CoCu)5 thin films in future high-density magnetic recording applications.

  12. Crystallization of zirconia based thin films.

    PubMed

    Stender, D; Frison, R; Conder, K; Rupp, J L M; Scherrer, B; Martynczuk, J M; Gauckler, L J; Schneider, C W; Lippert, T; Wokaun, A

    2015-07-28

    The crystallization kinetics of amorphous 3 and 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3YSZ and 8YSZ) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), spray pyrolysis and dc-magnetron sputtering are explored. The deposited films were heat treated up to 1000 °C ex situ and in situ in an X-ray diffractometer. A minimum temperature of 275 °C was determined at which as-deposited amorphous PLD grown 3YSZ films fully crystallize within five hours. Above 325 °C these films transform nearly instantaneously with a high degree of micro-strain when crystallized below 500 °C. In these films the t'' phase crystallizes which transforms at T > 600 °C to the t' phase upon relaxation of the micro-strain. Furthermore, the crystallization of 8YSZ thin films grown by PLD, spray pyrolysis and dc-sputtering are characterized by in situ XRD measurements. At a constant heating rate of 2.4 K min(-1) crystallization is accomplished after reaching 800 °C, while PLD grown thin films were completely crystallized already at ca. 300 °C. PMID:26119755

  13. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  14. Capillary stress in microporous thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, J.; Hurd, A.J.; Frink, L.J.D.; Swol, F. van; Brinker, C.J. |; Raman, N.K.

    1996-06-01

    Development of capillary stress in porous xerogels, although ubiquitous, has not been systematically studied. The authors have used the beam bending technique to measure stress isotherms of microporous thin films prepared by a sol-gel route. The thin films were prepared on deformable silicon substrates which were then placed in a vacuum system. The automated measurement was carried out by monitoring the deflection of a laser reflected off the substrate while changing the overlying relative pressure of various solvents. The magnitude of the macroscopic bending stress was found to reach a value of 180 MPa at a relative pressure of methanol, P/Po = 0.001. The observed stress is determined by the pore size distribution and is an order of magnitude smaller in mesoporous thin films. Density Functional Theory (DFT) indicates that for the microporous materials, the stress at saturation is compressive and drops as the relative pressure is reduced.

  15. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  16. Thin film ferroelectric electro-optic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An electrically programmable, optically readable data or memory cell is configured from a thin film of ferroelectric material, such as PZT, sandwiched between a transparent top electrode and a bottom electrode. The output photoresponse, which may be a photocurrent or photo-emf, is a function of the product of the remanent polarization from a previously applied polarization voltage and the incident light intensity. The cell is useful for analog and digital data storage as well as opto-electric computing. The optical read operation is non-destructive of the remanent polarization. The cell provides a method for computing the product of stored data and incident optical data by applying an electrical signal to store data by polarizing the thin film ferroelectric material, and then applying an intensity modulated optical signal incident onto the thin film material to generate a photoresponse therein related to the product of the electrical and optical signals.

  17. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  18. Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-03-13

    A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

  19. Cratering Studies in Thin Plastic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, A. J.; Bugiel, S.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T. L.; Srama, R.

    2014-12-01

    Thin plastic films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), have been used as protective coatings or dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission, and the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons. These types of detectors can be used on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit to detect dust grain size distributions and velocities. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The SDC dust detector is made up of a permanently polarized layer of PVDF coated on both sides with a thin layer (≈ 1000 Å) of aluminum nickel. The operation principle is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer exposing the permanently polarized PVDF underneath. This causes a local potential near the crater changing the surface charge of the metal layer. The dimensions and shape of the crater determine the strength of the potential and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. The theoretical basis for signal interpretation uses a crater diameter scaling law which was not intended for use with PVDF. In this work, a crater size scaling law has been experimentally determined, and further simulation work is being done to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of crater formation. LS-Dyna, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code from the Livermore Software Technology Corp. was chosen to simulate micrometeorite impacts. It is capable of incorporating key physics phenomena, including fracture, heat transfer, melting, etc. Furthermore, unlike Eulerian methods, SPH is gridless allowing large deformities without the inclusion of unphysical erosion algorithms. Material properties are accounted for using the Grüneisen Equation of State. The results of the SPH model can then be fed into electrostatic relaxation models to enhance the fidelity of interpretation

  20. Cratering Studies in Thin Plastic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, A. J.; Bugiel, S.; Gruen, E.; Hillier, J.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T. L.; Srama, R.

    2013-12-01

    Thin plastic films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), have been used as protective coatings or dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission, and the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons. These types of detectors can be used on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit to detect dust grain size distributions and velocities. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The SDC dust detector is made up of a permanently polarized layer of PVDF coated on both sides with a thin layer (≈ 1000 Å) of aluminum nickel. The operation principle is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer exposing the permanently polarized PVDF underneath. This causes a local potential near the crater changing the surface charge of the metal layer. The dimensions and shape of the crater determine the strength of the potential and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. The theoretical basis for signal interpretation uses a crater diameter scaling law which was not intended for use with PVDF. In this work, a crater size scaling law has been experimentally determined, and further simulation work is being done to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of crater formation. LS-Dyna, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code from the Livermore Software Technology Corp. was chosen to simulate micrometeorite impacts. SPH is known to be well suited to the large deformities found in hypervelocity impacts. It is capable of incorporating key physics phenomena, including fracture, heat transfer, melting, etc. Furthermore, unlike Eulerian methods, SPH is gridless allowing large deformities without the inclusion of unphysical erosion algorithms. Material properties are accounted for using the Grüneisen Equation of State. The results of the SPH model can

  1. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  2. Solid-state thin-film supercapacitor with ruthenium oxide and solid electrolyte thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Y. S.; Cho, W. I.; Lim, J. H.; Choi, D. J.

    Direct current reactive sputtering deposition of ruthenium oxide thin films (bottom and top electrodes) at 400°C are performed to produce a solid-state thin-film supercapacitor (TFSC). The supercapacitor has a cell structure of RuO 2/Li 2.94PO 2.37N 0.75 (Lipon)/RuO 2/Pt. Radio frequency, reactive sputtering deposition of an Li 2.94PO 2.37N 0.75 electrolyte film is performed on the bottom RuO 2 film at room temperature to separate the bottom and top RuO 2 electrodes electrically. The stoichiometry of the RuO 2 thin film is investigated by Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry (RBS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the as-deposited RuO 2 thin film is an amorphous phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements reveal that the RuO 2/Lipon/RuO 2 hetero-interfaces have no inter-diffusion problems. Charge-discharge measurements with constant current at room temperature clearly reveal typical supercapacitor behaviour for a RuO 2/Lipon/RuO 2/Pt cell structure. Since the electrolyte thin film has low ionic mobility, the capacity and cycle performance are inferior to those of a bulk type of supercapacitor. These results indicate that a high performance, TFSC can be fabricated by a solid electrolyte thin film with high ionic conductivity.

  3. Borocarbide thin films and tunneling measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Iavarone, M.; Andreone, A.; Cassinese, A.; Dicapual, R.; giannil, L.; Vagliol, R.; DeWilde, Y.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2000-06-15

    The results obtained by their group in thin film fabrication and STM tunneling on superconducting borocarbides YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C have been be briefly reviewed. Results concerning the microwave surface impedance and the S/N planar junctions on LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C thin films have been also presented and analyzed. These new data unambiguously confirm the full BCS nature of the superconducting gap in borocarbides and the absence of significant pair-breaking effects in LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C.

  4. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  5. Emittance Theory for Thin Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of high temperature garnet materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) doped with rare earths are currently being investigated as selective emitters. This paper presents a radiative transfer analysis of the thin film emitter. From this analysis the emitter efficiency and power density are calculated. Results based on measured extinction coefficients for erbium-YAG and holmium-YAG are presented. These results indicated that emitter efficiencies of 50 percent and power densities of several watts/sq cm are attainable at moderate temperatures (less than 1750 K).

  6. Synthesis and Oxidation Resistance of h-BN Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, David; Meulenberg, Robert; Lad, Robert

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an exciting 2D material for use in sensors and other electronic devices that operate in harsh, high temperature environments. Not only is h-BN a wide band gap material with excellent wear resistance and high temperature stability, but recent reports indicate that h-BN can prevent metallic substrates from oxidizing above 600°C in low O2 pressures. However, the PVD of highly crystalline h-BN films required for this oxidation protection has proven challenging. In this work, we have explored the growth of h-BN thin films by reactive RF magnetron sputtering from an elemental B target in an Ar/N2 atmosphere. The film growth rate is extremely slow and the resulting films are atomically smooth and homogeneous. Using DC biasing during deposition and high temperature annealing treatments, the degree of film crystallinity can be controlled. The oxidation resistance of h-BN films deposited on inert sapphire and reactive metal substrates such as Zr and ZrB2 has been examined by techniques such as XPS, XRD, and SEM after oxidation between 600 and 1200°C under varying oxygen pressures. The success of h-BN as a passivation layer for metallic substrates in harsh environments is shown to depend greatly on its crystalline quality and defects. Supported by the NSF SusChEM program.

  7. Annealed CVD molybdenum thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Gary E.; Seraphin, Bernhard O.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of Mo(CO).sub.6 attain, after anneal in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures greater than 700.degree. C., infrared reflectance values greater than reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum. Black molybdenum films deposited under oxidizing conditions and annealed, when covered with an anti-reflecting coating, approach the ideal solar collector characteristic of visible light absorber and infrared energy reflector.

  8. Dynamics of liquid films and thin jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of liquid films and thin jets as one- and two-dimensional continuums is examined. The equations of motion have led to solutions for the characteristic speeds of wave propagation for the parameters characterizing the shape. The formal analogy with a compressible fluid indicates the possibility of shock wave generation in films and jets and the formal analogy to the theory of threads and membranes leads to the discovery of some new dynamic effects. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  9. Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates

    DOEpatents

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  10. Spectroscopy of smooth deuterated carbon films redeposited from plasma discharge in the tokamak T-10

    SciTech Connect

    Svechnikov, N. Yu. Stankevich, V. G.; Lebedev, A. M.; Men'shikov, K. A.; Kolbasov, B. N.; Kriventsov, V. V.

    2006-12-15

    Smooth deuterated carbon films redeposited from a deuterium plasma discharge in the tokamak T-10 vacuum chamber have been investigated by different spectroscopic methods and temperature measurements. The photoluminescence excitation spectra of sp{sup 3}-sp{sup 2} nanostructures of tokamak films and sp{sup 2} nanostructures of fullerite C60 films are compared. The effect of defect states on the photoluminescence and its temperature quenching is discussed. It is concluded that the mechanism of thermal luminescence quenching for smooth deuterated tokamak films is close to the corresponding mechanism for amorphous a-C:H films.

  11. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Thin Films from Liquid Crystal Polyelectrolyte Inks.

    PubMed

    Tune, Daniel D; Blanch, Adam J; Shearer, Cameron J; Moore, Katherine E; Pfohl, Moritz; Shapter, Joseph G; Flavel, Benjamin S

    2015-11-25

    Single walled carbon nanotube thin films are fabricated by solution shearing from high concentration sodium nanotubide polyelectrolyte inks. The solutions are produced by simple stirring of the nanotubes with elemental sodium in dimethylacetamide, and the nanotubes are thus not subject to any sonication-induced damage. At such elevated concentrations (∼4 mg mL(-1)), the solutions exist in the liquid crystal phase and during deposition this order is transferred to the films, which are well aligned in the direction of shear with a 2D nematic order parameter of ∼0.7 determined by polarized absorption measurements. Compared to similarly formed films made from superacids, the polyelectrolyte films contain smaller bundles and a much narrower distribution of bundle diameters. After p-doping with an organic oxidizer, the films exhibit a very high DC electrical to optical conductivity ratio of σ(DC)/σ(OP) ∼ 35, corresponding to a calculated DC conductivity of over 7000 S cm(-1). When very thin (T550 ∼ 96%), smooth (RMS roughness, R(q) ∼ 2.2 nm), and highly aligned films made via this new route are used as the front electrodes of carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells, the power conversion efficiency is almost an order of magnitude greater than that obtained when using the much rougher (R(q) ∼ 20-30 nm) and less conductive (peak σ(DC)/σ(OP) ∼ 2.5) films formed by common vacuum filtration of the same starting material, and having the same transmittance. PMID:26511159

  12. Superconducting thin film cavities and base electrode planarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher Doyle

    1997-11-01

    This study concerns two separate projects. The first deals with a new technique to improve superconducting tunnel junction fabrication technology through the use of planarized base electrodes. Planarization, resulting in smooth film surfaces, is realized by coating a conventional niobium base electrode with a multilayer of niobium and aluminum. Very low leakage tunnel junctions were made using this method. The second project involves electromagnetic coupling to a superconducting thin film cavity. A novel device, potentially useful as an x-ray detector, has been fabricated and characterized. The theory of operation of this closed superconducting cavity, or "Fiske Cavity", is presented along with experimental results. Current - voltage measurements reveal current steps at selected voltages that are predicted theoretically and indicate electromagnetic coupling in this system. This form of coupling motivates new devices with arrays of phase locked junctions that interact through an underlying resonant waveguide and with no external microwave source.

  13. Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander M; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

    2013-10-01

    Ionic liquids - salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions - are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition. PMID:23942943

  14. Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon germanium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, A. R. M.; Syahrul, M. N.; Henkel, K.

    2007-08-01

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon germanium thin films (nc-SiGe:H) is an interesting alternative material to replace hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) as the narrow bandgap absorber in an a-Si/a-SiGe/nc-SiGe(nc-Si) triple-junction solar cell due to its higher optical absorption in the wavelength range of interest. In this paper, we present results of optical, structural investigations and electrical characterization of nc-SiGe:H thin films made by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) with a coil-shaped tungsten filament and with a disilane/germane/hydrogen gas mixture. The optical band gaps of a-SiGe:H and nc-SiGe:H thin-films, which are deposited with the same disilane/germane/hydrogen gas mixture ratio of 3.4:1.7:7, are about 1.58 eV and 2.1 eV, respectively. The nc-SiGe:H thin film exhibits a larger optical absorption coefficient of about 2-4 in the 600-900 nm range when compared to nc-Si:H thin film. Therefore, a thinner nc-SiGe:H layer of sim500 nm thickness may be sufficient for the narrow bandgap absorber in an a-Si based multiple-junction solar cell. We enhanced the transport properties as measured by the photoconductivity frequency mixing technique. These improved alloys do not necessarily show an improvement in the degree of structural heterogeneity on the nanometer scale as measured by small-angle X-ray scattering. Decreasing both the filament temperature and substrate temperature produced a film with relatively low structural heterogeneity while photoluminescence showed an order of magnitude increase in defect density for a similar change in the process.

  15. Oriented thin films of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide on frictiontransferred polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Heck, Claire; Mizokuro, Toshiko

    Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) is a promising material for application in organic electronics. In this study we report on the preparation of oriented thin films of PTCDI on the surface of oriented polymer substrates, which were prepared by friction transfer method. Two polymers, poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) were used as the orienting substrate for PTCDI for comparison studies. Characterization by polarized UV-vis absorption shows that the orienting ability of PPP is larger than that of PTFE substrate. Furthermore, polarization-sensitive photoelectric conversion devices were fabricated by using the oriented PTCDI thin film on the PPP substrate.

  16. ALD/MLD processes for Mn and Co based hybrid thin films.

    PubMed

    Ahvenniemi, E; Karppinen, M

    2016-06-28

    Here we report the growth of novel transition metal-organic thin-film materials consisting of manganese or cobalt as the metal component and terephthalate as the rigid organic backbone. The hybrid thin films are deposited by the currently strongly emerging atomic/molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) technique using the combination of a metal β-diketonate, i.e. Mn(thd)3, Co(acac)3 or Co(thd)2, and terephthalic acid (1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) as precursors. All the processes yield homogeneous and notably smooth amorphous metal-terephthalate hybrid thin films with growth rates of 1-2 Å per cycle. The films are stable towards humidity and withstand high temperatures up to 300 or 400 °C under an oxidative or a reductive atmosphere. The films are characterized with XRR, AFM, GIXRD, XPS and FTIR techniques. PMID:27277668

  17. Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film grown by pulse laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Bhaumik V.; Joshi, U. S.

    2016-05-01

    Highly electrically conducting and transparent in visible light IGZO thin film were grown on glass substrate at substrate temperature of 400 C by a pulse laser deposition techniques. Structural, surface, electrical, and optical properties of IGZO thin films were investigated at room temperature. Smooth surface morphology and amorphous nature of the film has been confirmed from the AFM and GIXRD analysis. A resistivity down to 7.7×10-3 V cm was reproducibly obtained while maintaining optical transmission exceeding 70% at wavelengths from 340 to 780 nm. The carrier densities of the film was obtain to the value 1.9×1018 cm3, while the Hall mobility of the IGZO thin film was 16 cm2 V-1S-1.

  18. Gas adsorption on microporous carbon thin films

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, S.; Pailthorpe, B.A.; Collins, R.E.; Furlong, D.N. )

    1992-05-01

    A gas adsorption study was performed on amorphous hydrogenated carbon thin films which are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering using acetylene gas. It is found that the films are highly microporous. Annealing significantly increases the adsorption capacity of the films and decreases the effects of low-pressure hysteresis in the adsorption isotherms. The general gas adsorption behavior closely resembles that of powdered activated carbons. The Dubinin-Radushkevich equation can be used to model the submonolayer adsorption isotherm for a variety of gases. 38 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Study of iron mononitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, Akhil Gupta, Mukul Phase, D. M. Reddy, V. R. Gupta, Ajay

    2014-04-24

    In this work we have studied the crystal structural and local ordering of iron and nitrogen in iron mononitride thin films prepared using dc magnetron sputtering at sputtering power of 100W and 500W. The films were sputtered using pure nitrogen to enhance the reactivity of nitrogen with iron. The x-ray diffraction (XRD), conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) studies shows that the film crystallizes in ZnS-type crystal structure.

  20. Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, Frances

    1998-10-03

    OAK B204 Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films. The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and hTi-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials.

  1. Microstructural characterization in nanocrystalline ceramic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hakkwan

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate the effects of process variables on microstructure in several fluoride and oxide thin films prepared by vapor deposition, in order to predict the properties and behaviors of nanocrystalline thin film materials. There are three distinct stages of this research. The first stage focuses on measuring of the porosity in polycrystalline thin films of a variety of fluorides as a function of the substrate temperature during deposition, and discussing the mechanism by which the porosity varies as a function of the process variables. We have measured the porosity in thin films of lithium fluoride (LiF), magnesium fluoride (MgF2), barium fluoride (BaF 2) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a quartz crystal thickness monitor. The porosity is very sensitive to the substrate temperature and decreases as the substrate temperature increases. Consistent behavior is observed among all of the materials in this study. The second stage is to understand the film microstructure including grain growth and texture development, because these factors are known to influence the behavior and stability of polycrystalline thin films. This study focuses on grain growth and texture development in polycrystalline lithium fluoride thin films using dark field (DF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is demonstrated that we can isolate the size distribution of <111> surface normal grains from the overall size distribution, based on simple and plausible assumptions about the texture. The {111} texture formation and surface morphology were also observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and AFM, respectively. The grain size distributions become clearly bimodal as the annealing time increases, and we deduce that the short-time size distributions are also a sum of two overlapping peaks. The smaller grain-size peak in the distribution corresponds to the {111}-oriented grains which do not grow significantly, while

  2. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  3. Residual stress measurement in YBCO thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, J. H.; Singh, J. P.

    2002-05-13

    Residual stress in YBCO films on Ag and Hastelloy C substrates was determined by using 3-D optical interferometry and laser scanning to measure the change in curvature radius before and after film deposition. The residual stress was obtained by appropriate analysis of curvature measurements. Consistent with residual thermal stress calculations based on the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the substrates and YBCO film, the measured residual stress in the YBCO film on Hastelloy C substrate was tensile, while it was compressive on the Ag substrate. The stress values measured by the two techniques were generally in good agreement, suggesting that optical interferometry and laser scanning have promise for measuring residual stresses in thin films.

  4. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Microwave-enhanced thin-film deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitre, S.

    1984-01-01

    The deposition of semiconducting and insulating thin films at low temperatures using microwave technology was explored. The method of plasma formations, selection of a power source, the design of the microwave plasma cavity, the microwave circuitry, impedance matching, plasma diagnostics, the deposition chamber and the vacuum system were studied.

  6. Thin film thermocouples for high temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, Kenneth G.

    1989-05-01

    Thin film thermocouples have unique capabilities for measuring surface temperatures at high temperatures (above 800 K) under harsh conditions. Their low mass, approximately 2 x 10(-5) g/mm permits very rapid response and very little disturbance of heat transfer to the surface being measured. This has led to applications inside gas turbine engines and diesel engines measuring the surface temperature of first stage turbine blades and vanes and ceramic liners in diesel cylinders. The most successful high temperature (up to 1300 K) thin film thermocouples are sputter deposited from platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium targets although results using base metal alloys, gold, and platinel will also be presented. The fabrication techniques used to form the thermocouples, approaches used to solve the high temperature insulation and adherence problems, current applications, and test results using the thin film thermocouples are reviewed. In addition a discussion will be presented on the current problems and future trends related to applications of thin film thermocouples at higher temperatures up to 1900 K.

  7. US polycrystalline thin film solar cells program

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L. )

    1989-11-01

    The Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells Program, part of the United States National Photovoltaic Program, performs R D on copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films. The objective of the Program is to support research to develop cells and modules that meet the US Department of Energy's long-term goals by achieving high efficiencies (15%-20%), low-cost ($50/m{sup 2}), and long-time reliability (30 years). The importance of work in this area is due to the fact that the polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells and modules have made rapid advances. They have become the leading thin films for PV in terms of efficiency and stability. The US Department of Energy has increased its funding through an initiative through the Solar Energy Research Institute in CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe with subcontracts to start in Spring 1990. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  9. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  10. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.