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Sample records for snake bothrops atrox

  1. The role of TLR2 in the acute inflammatory response induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Vanessa; Teixeira, Catarina; Borges da Silva, Henrique; D'Império Lima, Maria Regina; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Envenomation by snakes of the species Bothrops atrox induces local and systemic effects. Local effects include drastic tissue damage and a marked inflammatory response as a result of the synthesis and release of a variety of protein and lipid mediators. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways can play an important role in this response, leading to synthesis of these inflammatory mediators. This study investigated the influence of TLR2 on the acute inflammatory response induced by Bothrops atrox venom. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice (WT) and TLR2 gene knockout mice (TLR2(-/-)) were injected with Bothrops atrox venom (BaV), and the following responses to the venom were assessed in peritoneal exudate: leukocyte accumulation; release of mediators, including CCL-2, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6 and LTB4; protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2; and quantification of their products PGE2 and TXA2. After injection with BaV, the TLR2(-/-) mice (TLR2(-/-)BaV) had higher levels of IL-6 and CCL-2 than WT animals kept under the same conditions (WTBaV), together with an accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), inhibition of IL-1β and LTB4 and reduced mononuclear leukocyte influx. However, no significant differences in COX-2 protein expression or PGE2, TXA2 and IL-10 production between the TLR2(-/-)BaV and WTBav animals were observed. Together, these results indicate that the signaling pathway activated by TLR2 acts by modulating the induced inflammatory response to BaV through the direct action of venom-associated molecular patterns (VAMPs) or indirectly by forming damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and that this may have important therapeutic implications. PMID:27109323

  2. Local and systemic biochemical alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom in mice.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Carlos At; Kayano, Anderson M; Setúbal, Sulamita S; Pontes, Adriana S; Furtado, Juliana L; Kwasniewski, Fábio H; Zaqueo, Kayena D; Soares, Andreimar M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2012-01-01

    The local and systemic alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom (BaV) injection in mice were studied. BaV induced superoxide production by migrated neutrophils, mast cell degranulation and phagocytosis by macrophages. Moreover, BaV caused hemorrhage in dorsum of mice after 2hr post- injection. Three hours post-injection in gastrocnemius muscle, we also observed myonecrosis, which was assessed by the determination of serum and tissue CK besides the release of urea, but not creatinine and uric acid, indicating kidney alterations. BaV also induced the release of LDH and transaminases (ALT and AST) indicating tissue and liver abnormalities. In conclusion, the data indicate that BaV induces events of local and systemic importance. PMID:23487552

  3. Local and systemic biochemical alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Carlos AT; Kayano, Anderson M; Setúbal, Sulamita S; Pontes, Adriana S; Furtado, Juliana L; Kwasniewski, Fábio H; Zaqueo, Kayena D; Soares, Andreimar M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2012-01-01

    The local and systemic alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom (BaV) injection in mice were studied. BaV induced superoxide production by migrated neutrophils, mast cell degranulation and phagocytosis by macrophages. Moreover, BaV caused hemorrhage in dorsum of mice after 2hr post- injection. Three hours post-injection in gastrocnemius muscle, we also observed myonecrosis, which was assessed by the determination of serum and tissue CK besides the release of urea, but not creatinine and uric acid, indicating kidney alterations. BaV also induced the release of LDH and transaminases (ALT and AST) indicating tissue and liver abnormalities. In conclusion, the data indicate that BaV induces events of local and systemic importance. PMID:23487552

  4. [Isolation and some properties of the proteinase atroxin from the venom of the snake Bothrops atrox].

    PubMed

    Pantigoso, C; Escobar, E; Málaga, O; Yarlequé, A

    1996-01-01

    A proteolytic enzyme from the venom of Bothrops atrox snake was isolated. It was designed as Atroxin, and three chromatography steps were used to purification: ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 equilibrated with 0.05 M Tris HCl buffer, 1 mM CaCl2 pH 7.4, followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and Sephadex G-100, respectively, using the same buffer. The enzyme was recovered with a 7.4 folds and 11% of yield. It had a high activity on casein being 7.4 optimus pH. A molecular weight was 19.9 Kd calculated by polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis, and head treatment showed that the enzyme preserves its activity in the range of 37-45 degrees C, while it was decrease when the temperature values were higher. On the other hand, 0.133 mumoles of Ca2+ and Mg2+, and Zn2+ ions (0.266 mumoles) were activators, while EDTA (0.20 mumoles) and sodium azide (0.053 mumoles) were inhibitors. The enzymatic activity was not affected by glicerol (1.33 mumoles) and phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride (PSMF) (0.16 mumoles). In addition, iodoacetic acid (0.08 mumoles) was slight inhibitor, but 0.16 mumoles of p-tosyl-1-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) was activator. Biological assays on mice showed that atroxin produced hemorrhagic and necrosis after 24 h of injection, which was increased by 5 mM calcium chloride. PMID:9334451

  5. Ontogenetic variations in the venom proteome of the Amazonian snake Bothrops atrox

    PubMed Central

    Guércio, Rafael AP; Shevchenko, Anna; Shevchenko, Andrej; López-Lozano, Jorge L; Paba, Jaime; Sousa, Marcelo V; Ricart, Carlos AO

    2006-01-01

    Background Bothrops atrox is responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in the Brazilian Amazon region. Previous studies have demonstrated that the biological and pharmacological activities of B. atrox venom alter with the age of the animal. Here, we present a comparative proteome analysis of B. atrox venom collected from specimens of three different stages of maturation: juveniles, sub-adults and adults. Results Optimized conditions for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of pooled venom samples were achieved using immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels of non-linear 3–10 pH range during the isoelectric focusing step and 10–20% gradient polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. Software-assisted analysis of the 2-DE gels images demonstrated differences in the number and intensity of spots in juvenile, sub-adult and adult venoms. Although peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) failed to identify even a minor fraction of spots, it allowed us to group spots that displayed similar peptide maps. The spots were subjected to a combination of tandem mass spectrometry and Mascot and MS BLAST database searches that identified several classes of proteins, including metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, lectins, phospholipases A2, L-amino oxidases, nerve growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factors and cysteine-rich secretory proteins. Conclusion The analysis of B. atrox samples from specimens of different ages by 2-DE and mass spectrometry suggested that venom proteome alters upon ontogenetic development. We identified stage specific and differentially expressed polypeptides that may be responsible for the activities of the venom in each developmental stage. The results provide insight into the molecular basis of the relation between symptomatology of snakebite accidents in humans and the venom composition. Our findings underscore the importance of the use of venoms from individual specimen at various stages of maturation for the production of

  6. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A Bothrops atrox reagent is a device made from snake venom and used to determine blood fibrinogen levels to aid in the evaluation of disseminated intravascular coagulation (nonlocalized clotting in the blood vessels) in patients receiving heparin therapy (the administration of the anticoagulant heparin...

  7. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A Bothrops atrox reagent is a device made from snake venom and used to determine blood fibrinogen levels to aid in the evaluation of disseminated intravascular coagulation (nonlocalized clotting in the blood vessels) in patients receiving heparin therapy (the administration of the anticoagulant heparin...

  8. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A Bothrops atrox reagent is a device made from snake venom and used to determine blood fibrinogen levels to aid in the evaluation of disseminated intravascular coagulation (nonlocalized clotting in the blood vessels) in patients receiving heparin therapy (the administration of the anticoagulant heparin...

  9. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bothrops atrox reagent. 864.8100 Section 864.8100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8100 Bothrops atrox reagent. (a) Identification. A Bothrops atrox reagent is...

  10. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bothrops atrox reagent. 864.8100 Section 864.8100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8100 Bothrops atrox reagent. (a) Identification. A Bothrops atrox reagent is...

  11. Use of a Synthetic Biosensor for Neutralizing Activity-Biased Selection of Monoclonal Antibodies against Atroxlysin-I, an Hemorrhagic Metalloproteinase from Bothrops atrox Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Francisco Santos; Nguyen, Dung Le; Castro, Karen Larissa; Cobo, Sandra; Machado de Avila, Ricardo Andrez; Ferreira, Nivia de Assis; Sanchez, Eladio Flores; Nguyen, Christophe; Granier, Claude; Galéa, Pascale; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Molina, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Background The snake Bothrops atrox is responsible for the majority of envenomings in the northern region of South America. Severe local effects, including hemorrhage, which are mainly caused by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), are not fully neutralized by conventional serum therapy. Little is known about the immunochemistry of the P-I SVMPs since few monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against these molecules have been obtained. In addition, producing toxin-neutralizing mAbs remains very challenging. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report on the set-up of a functional screening based on a synthetic peptide used as a biosensor to select neutralizing mAbs against SVMPs and the successful production of neutralizing mAbs against Atroxlysin-I (Atr-I), a P-I SVMP from B. atrox. Hybridomas producing supernatants with inhibitory effect against the proteolytic activity of Atr-I towards the FRET peptide Abz-LVEALYQ-EDDnp were selected. Six IgG1 Mabs were obtained (named mAbatr1 to mAbatr6) and also two IgM. mAbatrs1, 2, 3 and 6 were purified. All showed a high specific reactivity, recognizing only Atr-I and B. atrox venom in ELISA and a high affinity, showing equilibrium constants in the nM range for Atr-I. These mAbatrs were not able to bind to Atr-I overlapping peptides, suggesting that they recognize conformational epitopes. Conclusions/Significance For the first time a functional screening based on a synthetic biosensor was successfully used for the selection of neutralizing mAbs against SVMPs. PMID:24762927

  12. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops colombiensis, a medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela: Contributing to its taxonomy and snakebite management.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Juan J; Borges, Adolfo; Segura, Alvaro; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María; Diez, Nardy; De Sousa, Leonardo; Kiriakos, Demetrio; Sánchez, Eladio; Faks, José G; Escolano, José; Sanz, Libia

    2009-03-01

    The taxonomic status of the medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela, which has been classified as Bothrops colombiensis, remains incertae cedis. To help resolving this question, the venom proteome of B. colombiensis was characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venom contained proteins belonging to 8 types of families. PI Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases and K49 PLA(2) molecules comprise over 65% of the venom proteins. Other venom protein families comprised PIII Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (11.3%), D49 PLA(2)s (10.2%), l-amino acid oxidase (5.7%), the medium-sized disintegrin colombistatin (5.6%), serine proteinases (1%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (0.8%), a DC-fragment (0.5%), and a CRISP protein (0.1%). A comparison of the venom proteomes of B. colombiensis and B. atrox did not support the suggested synonymy between these two species. The closest homologues to B. colombiensis venom proteins appeared to be toxins from B. asper. A rough estimation of the similarity between the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper indicated that these species share approximately 65-70% of their venom proteomes. The close kinship of B. colombiensis and B. asper points at the ancestor of B. colombiensis as the founding Central American B. asper ancestor. This finding may be relevant for reconstructing the natural history and cladogenesis of Bothrops. Further, the virtually indistinguishable immunological crossreactivity of a Venezuelan ABC antiserum (raised against a mixture of B. colombiensis and Crotalus durissus cumanensis venoms) and the Costa Rican ICP polyvalent antivenom (generated against a mixture of B. asper, Crotalus simus, and Lachesis stenophrys venoms) towards the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper, supports this

  13. Galatrox is a C-type lectin in Bothrops atrox snake venom that selectively binds LacNAc-terminated glycans and can induce acute inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sartim, Marco A; Riul, Thalita B; Del Cistia-Andrade, Camillo; Stowell, Sean R; Arthur, Connie M; Sorgi, Carlos A; Faccioli, Lucia H; Cummings, Richard D; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Sampaio, Suely V

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that snake venom contains glycan-binding proteins (GBPs), although the binding specificity and biological activities of many of these GBPs is unclear. Here we report our studies on the glycan binding specificity and activities of galatrox, a Bothrops atrox snake venom-derived GBP. Glycan microarray analysis indicates that galatrox binds most strongly to glycans expressing N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc), with a significant preference for Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ over Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ compounds. Galatrox also bound immobilized laminin, a LacNAc-dense extracellular matrix component, suggesting that this GBP can bind LacNAc-bearing glycoproteins. As several endogenous mammalian GBPs utilize a similar binding LacNAc binding preference to regulate neutrophil and monocyte activity, we hypothesized that galatrox may mediate B. atrox toxicity through regulation of leukocyte activity. Indeed, galatrox bound neutrophils and promoted leukocyte chemotaxis in a carbohydrate-dependent manner. Similarly, galatrox administration into the mouse peritoneal cavity induced significant neutrophil migration and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6. Exposure of bone marrow-derived macrophages to galatrox induced generation of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-6, TNF-α, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. This signaling by galatrox was mediated via its carbohydrate recognition domain by activation of the TLR4-mediated MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. These results indicate that galatrox has pro-inflammatory activity through its interaction with LacNAc-bearing glycans on neutrophils, macrophages and extracellular matrix proteins and induce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. PMID:24973254

  14. Isotopic analysis of Bothrops atrox in Amazonian forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. G.; Silva, A. M.; Chalkidis, H.; de Oliveira Júnior, R. C.; Camargo, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    The poisoning of snakes is considered a public health problem, especially in populations from rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. In Brazil, the 26,000 snakebites, 90% are of the genus Bothrops, and Bothrops atrox species predominant in the Amazon region including all the Brazilian Amazon. Research shows that using stable isotopes, we can verify the isotopic composition of tissues of animals that depend mainly on food, water ingested and inhaled gases. For this study, samples taken from Bothrops atrox (B. atrox), in forest using pitfall traps and fall ("Pitt-fall traps with drift fence"). The analyzes were performed by mass spectrometry, where the analytical error is 0.3‰ for carbon and 0.5‰ to nitrogen. The results of the forest animals are significantly different from results of animal vivarium. The average values of the tissues and venoms of snakes of the forest for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are: δ13C = -24.68‰ and δ15N = 14.22‰ and mean values of tissue and poisons snakes vivarium (Instituto Butantan) to carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are δ13C = -20.47‰ and δ15N = 8.36‰, with a significantly different due to different sources of food animals. Based on all results isotopic δ13C and δ15N, we can suggest that changes as the power of the serpent, (nature and captivity), changes occur in relation to diet and environment as the means of the isotopic data are quite distinct, showing that these changes can also cause metabolic changes in the body of the animal itself and the different periods of turnover of each tissue analyzed.

  15. Snake population venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox: Paedomorphism along its transamazonian dispersal and implications of geographic venom variability on snakebite management.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Pérez, Alicia; Borges, Adolfo; Vargas, Alba M; Lomonte, Bruno; Angulo, Yamileth; Gutiérrez, José María; Chalkidis, Hipócrates M; Mourão, Rosa H V; Furtado, M Fatima D; Moura-Da-Silva, Ana M

    2011-04-01

    We describe two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes across the wide distribution range of Bothrops atrox, from the Colombian Magdalena Medio Valley through Puerto Ayacucho and El Paují, in the Venezuelan States of Amazonas and Orinoquia, respectively, and São Bento in the Brazilian State of Maranhão. Colombian and Venezuelan venoms show an ontogenetic toxin profile phenotype whereas Brazilian venoms exhibit paedomorphic phenotypes. Venoms from each of the 16 localities sampled contain both population-specific toxins and proteins shared by neighboring B. atrox populations. Mapping the molecular similarity between conspecific populations onto a physical map of B. atrox range provides clues for tracing dispersal routes that account for the current biogeographic distribution of the species. The proteomic pattern is consistent with a model of southeast and southwest dispersal and allopatric fragmentation northern of the Amazon Basin, and trans-Amazonian expansion through the Andean Corridor and across the Amazon river between Monte Alegre and Santarém. An antivenomic approach applied to assess the efficacy towards B. atrox venoms of two antivenoms raised in Costa Rica and Brazil using Bothrops venoms different than B. atrox in the immunization mixtures showed that both antivenoms immunodepleted very efficiently the major toxins (PIII-SVMPs, serine proteinases, CRISP, LAO) of paedomorphic venoms from Puerto Ayacucho (Venezuelan Amazonia) through São Bento, but had impaired reactivity towards PLA(2) and P-I SVMP molecules abundantly present in ontogenetic venoms. The degree of immunodepletion achieved suggests that each of these antivenoms may be effective against envenomations by paedomorphic, and some ontogenetic, B. atrox venoms. PMID:21278006

  16. Brainstem ischemic stroke after to Bothrops atrox snakebite.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Carlos A

    2016-09-15

    We report case of a 48 years old woman bitten on her right foot by a Bothrops atrox viper. As a result, she developed a severe coagulopathy which improved with application of polyvalent antivenom. Four days after bite she suffered a devastating brainstem ischemic stroke. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:27527269

  17. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-01

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil. PMID:19665598

  18. [Toxicity and neutralization of venoms from Peruvian snakes of the genera Bothrops and Lachesis (Serpentes: Viperidae)].

    PubMed

    Incio Ruiz, R; Incio Ruiz, L; Martínez-Vargas, A Z; Salas Arruz, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    1993-12-01

    The lethal potencies (Median Lethal Dose) of the venoms of Peruvian snakes (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops barnetti, Bothrops pictus and Lachesis muta muta) were determined in mice by using intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection. In addition, the neutralizing ability of three antivenoms (bothropic polyvalent, bothropic bivalent and lachetic) was studied by preincubation-type experiments. B. pictus venom had the highest lethality by the intraperitoneal route whereas B. atrox venom had the highest lethality when tested by the intravenous route. The three antivenoms were effective in neutralizing lethality of the homologous venoms. Bivalent antivenom was more effective than polyvalent antivenom in the neutralization of B. pictus venom. On the basis of these findings, the use of bivalent bothropic antivenom is recommended in the Pacific coastal regions of Perú, whereas polyvalent bothropic antivenom is recommended in the oriental jungle regions of the country. PMID:7701074

  19. Purification and variability in thrombin-like activity of Bothrops atrox venom from different geographic regions.

    PubMed

    Cavinato, R A; Remold, H; Kipnis, T L

    1998-02-01

    Bothrops atrox snake venoms from two different Amazon regions, i.e., Manaus, AM (3 degrees 0.6'40"S; 60 degrees 0.1'6.0"W) and Tucurui, PA (3 degrees 0.42'30"S; 49 degrees 0.41'45"W), were analyzed with respect to the thrombin-like activity component by elution profile on gel-filtration and reverse phase HPLC chromatography, electrophoretic mobility on SDS-PAGE, and enzymatic activity on fibrinogen. Despite some individual discrepancies among venom specimens, the thrombin-like activity present in the Manaus pool was eluted earlier compared with the Tucurui pool but its enzymatic specific activity on thrombin was lower (s.a. = 6.0) than that observed in the Tucurui pool (s.a. = 134.0). However, the electrophoretic mobilities of the pools were similar, with most protein bands being concentrated around three main regions, i.e., protein bands with an apparent mr of 100 kDa, of 38-37 kDa and 30 kDa. However, no significant differences were observed in amidolytic activity on the synthetic substrate Tos-Gly-Pro-Arg-pNa, and there was no correlation between thrombin-like and amidolytic activities. A 32 kDa protein endowed with thrombin-like activity and specific activity of 2444 recognized and neutralized by horse anti-B. atrox antivenom, was purified by the successive use of gel filtration, electrofocusing and reverse phase HPLC. PMID:9620574

  20. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes. PMID:26739285

  1. Toxicity of Bothrops sp snake venoms from Ecuador and preclinical assessment of the neutralizing efficacy of a polyspecific antivenom from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Laines, Johana; Segura, Álvaro; Villalta, Mauren; Herrera, María; Vargas, Mariángela; Alvarez, Gladys; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2014-09-01

    The toxicological profile of the venoms of the snakes Bothrops asper and Bothrops atrox from Ecuador was investigated, together with the venom of a population of B. asper formerly classified as 'Bothrops xanthogrammus'. The three venoms exerted lethal, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, coagulant and defibrinogenating effects, in agreement with the characteristic toxicological profile of Bothrops sp venoms. A polyspecific antivenom (bothropic-crotalic-lachesic) manufactured in Costa Rica was assessed for its preclinical efficacy against the toxic activities of these Ecuadorian venoms. Antivenom was effective in the neutralization of the five activities tested in the three venoms. These observations are in agreement with previous reports on the extensive cross-reactivity and paraspecific neutralization of antivenoms manufactured in Latin America against the venoms of Bothrops sp snakes. PMID:24950051

  2. Isotopic change in the tissues of Bothrops atrox in captivity collected from environments of the eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. G.; Chalkidis, H. D.; Amazonas, D. R.; da Silva, A. M.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Bothrops atrox is little studied because it is sympatric Amazonian animals, and very little is known about the ecology and natural history of this species. It has a generalist diet and the distribution of this species is very wide. The adult animals forage mostly on the ground, while the younger animals prefer to stay on the vegetation. They are easily find in the rainy months in areas near lakes and seasonally flooded and are difficult to find in the driest months, a period where there is less availability of preys in these environments. Due to its aggressiveness, is considered one of the most feared snakes in South America and in the eastern Amazon, being responsible for the largest number of snakebites in the region. Through stable isotope carbon-13 and nitrogen-15, is intended to characterize the variations of the feeding habits of these collected animals in different environments and also when they are kept in captivity, feeding the animal's bioterium. The serpents were collected in environments with different land uses, such as native forest, savannah, pasture and have been brought to the serpentarium Integrated College Tapajos (FIT), being retained in order to Samplings throughout the experiment with feeding mice's own bioterium. When these snakes came from different locations, samples were collected scales and blood (T0), before receiving the new supply (captive), and every time we fed the mice the vivarium, new tissue samples were collected, (T1, T2, T3) to exchange all the nature of food for the food captivity.Based on the results of δ13C and δ15N, the samples collected in the tissues of snakes of different environments (nature and captivity), it was observed that changes in food sources reflect changes in tissues (blood and scales), also reflecting the production of poison different periods of turnover of absorbed material in those tissues, contributing to the study of animal ecology and behavior in relation to habitat.

  3. Acute kidney injury caused by bothrops snake venom.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Sgrignolli, Lívia; Florido Mendes, Glória Elisa; Carlos, Carla Patricia; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2011-01-01

    Medically important venomous snakes in Latin America belong to the genus Bothrops, Crotalus, Lachesis and Micrurus. The Bothrops genus is responsible for the majority of accidents. The WHO globally estimates 2,500,000 poisonous snakebites and 125,000 deaths annually. In its last report in 2001, the Brazilian Ministry of Health accounted 359 deaths due to snakebites, of which the Bothrops genus was responsible for 185. Snake venoms cause local and systemic damage, including acute kidney injury, which is the most important cause of death among patients surviving the early effects of envenoming by the Crotalus and Bothrops genuses. Venom-induced acute kidney injury is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite, carrying relevant morbidity and mortality. PMID:21757950

  4. Neutralization of four Peruvian Bothrops sp. snake venoms by polyvalent antivenoms produced in Perú and Costa Rica: preclinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Ermila; Quesada, Lil; Arce, Viviana; Lomonte, Bruno; Rojas, Gustavo; Gutiérrez, José María

    2005-01-01

    Envenomations after bites inflicted by snakes of the genus Bothrops constitute a public health hazard in Perú, and the intravenous administration of equine-derived antivenoms represents the only scientifically validated treatment. This study presents a preclinical assessment of the efficacy of two whole IgG antivenoms, prepared in Perú and Costa Rica, to neutralize the most relevant toxic effects induced by the venoms of Bothrops atrox, B. brazili, B. barnetti and B. pictus from Perú. Peruvian antivenom is produced by immunizing horses with Bothrops sp. venoms from this country, whereas the production of Costa Rican antivenom involves immunization with venoms from Central American snakes. The neutralization of lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, myotoxic, coagulant and defibrinating activities was evaluated in assays involving incubation of venom and antivenom prior to testing. Both antivenoms were effective in the neutralization of these effects, with quantitative variations in the values of effective dose 50% depending on the effects being studied. Peruvian antivenom was more effective in the neutralization of lethality induced by B. atrox and B. barnetti venoms. However, Peruvian antivenom failed to neutralize coagulant activity of B. barnetti venom and edema-forming activity of B. brazili venom, whereas neutralization was achieved by Costa Rican antivenom. It is concluded that an extensive immunological cross-reactivity exists between Bothrops sp. venoms from Perú and Costa Rica, and that both antivenoms are effective in the neutralization of these four venoms in a rodent model of envenoming. PMID:15589801

  5. Exploring the proteomes of the venoms of the Peruvian pit vipers Bothrops atrox, B. barnetti and B. pictus.

    PubMed

    Kohlhoff, Markus; Borges, Marcia H; Yarleque, Armando; Cabezas, Cesar; Richardson, Michael; Sanchez, Eladio F

    2012-04-01

    We report the comparative proteomic characterization of the venoms of Bothrops atrox, B. barnetti and B. pictus. The venoms were subjected to RP-HPLC and the resulting fractions analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The proteins were cut from the gels, digested with trypsin and identified via peptide mass fingerprint and manual sequencing of selected peptides by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Around 20-25 proteins were identified belonging to only 6-7 protein families. Metalloproteinases of the classes P-I and P-III were the most abundant proteins in all venoms (58-74% based on peak area A214 nm), followed by phospholipases-A(2) (6.4-14%), disintegrins (3.2-9%) and serine proteinases (7-11%), and some of these proteins occurred in several isoforms. In contrast cysteine-rich secretory proteins and L-amino acid oxidases appeared only as single isoforms and were found only in B. atrox and B. barnetti. C-type lectins were also detected in all venoms but at low levels (~ 5%). Furthermore, the venoms contain variable numbers of peptides (<3 kDa) and non-protein compounds which were not considered in this work. The protein composition of the investigated Bothrops species is in agreement with their pharmacological and pathological effects. PMID:22300577

  6. Thrombin-like activity in snake venoms from Peruvian Bothrops and Lachesis genera.

    PubMed

    Orejuela, P; Zavaleta, A; Salas, M; Marsh, N

    1991-01-01

    Venoms from Lachesis muta muta, Bothrops pictus, B. barnetti, B. atrox and B. hyoprorus coagulate in vitro canine fibrinogen, and both bovine fibrinogen and bovine plasma. B. barnetti and L. muta muta venoms have greater activity on canine fibrinogen and B. atrox and B. hyoprorus venoms, a greater activity on bovine fibrinogen. Gel filtration showed one peak of coagulant activity in all venoms except B. atrox venom which possessed two peaks. The apparent mol. wt of these enzymes ranged from 45,000 to 69,000. PMID:1796478

  7. Ontogenetic Variation in Biological Activities of Venoms from Hybrids between Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops neuwiedi Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Marcelo Larami; do Carmo, Thaís; Cunha, Bruna Heloísa Lopes; Alves, André Fonseca; Zelanis, André; Serrano, Solange Maria de Toledo; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Sant’Anna, Savio Stefanini; Barbaro, Katia Cristina; Fernandes, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Lance-headed snakes are found in Central and South America, and they account for most snakebites in Brazil. The phylogeny of South American pitvipers has been reviewed, and the presence of natural and non-natural hybrids between different species of Bothrops snakes demonstrates that reproductive isolation of several species is still incomplete. The present study aimed to analyze the biological features, particularly the thrombin-like activity, of venoms from hybrids born in captivity, from the mating of a female Bothrops erythromelas and a male Bothrops neuwiedi, two species whose venoms are known to display ontogenetic variation. Proteolytic activity on azocoll and amidolytic activity on N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride (BAPNA) were lowest when hybrids were 3 months old, and increased over body growth, reaching values similar to those of the father when hybrids were 12 months old. The clotting activity on plasma diminished as hybrids grew; venoms from 3- and 6-months old hybrids showed low clotting activity on fibrinogen (i.e., thrombin-like activity), like the mother venom, and such activity was detected only when hybrids were older than 1 year of age. Altogether, these results point out that venom features in hybrid snakes are genetically controlled during the ontogenetic development. Despite the presence of the thrombin-like enzyme gene(s) in hybrid snakes, they are silenced during the first six months of life. PMID:26714190

  8. Ontogenetic Variation in Biological Activities of Venoms from Hybrids between Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops neuwiedi Snakes.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Marcelo Larami; do Carmo, Thaís; Cunha, Bruna Heloísa Lopes; Alves, André Fonseca; Zelanis, André; Serrano, Solange Maria de Toledo; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Sant'Anna, Savio Stefanini; Barbaro, Katia Cristina; Fernandes, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Lance-headed snakes are found in Central and South America, and they account for most snakebites in Brazil. The phylogeny of South American pitvipers has been reviewed, and the presence of natural and non-natural hybrids between different species of Bothrops snakes demonstrates that reproductive isolation of several species is still incomplete. The present study aimed to analyze the biological features, particularly the thrombin-like activity, of venoms from hybrids born in captivity, from the mating of a female Bothrops erythromelas and a male Bothrops neuwiedi, two species whose venoms are known to display ontogenetic variation. Proteolytic activity on azocoll and amidolytic activity on N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride (BAPNA) were lowest when hybrids were 3 months old, and increased over body growth, reaching values similar to those of the father when hybrids were 12 months old. The clotting activity on plasma diminished as hybrids grew; venoms from 3- and 6-months old hybrids showed low clotting activity on fibrinogen (i.e., thrombin-like activity), like the mother venom, and such activity was detected only when hybrids were older than 1 year of age. Altogether, these results point out that venom features in hybrid snakes are genetically controlled during the ontogenetic development. Despite the presence of the thrombin-like enzyme gene(s) in hybrid snakes, they are silenced during the first six months of life. PMID:26714190

  9. [Hemolytic activity of venoms from snakes of the genera Bothrop, Lachesis, Crotalus, and Micrurus (Serpentes: Viperidae and Elapidae].

    PubMed

    Martínez Cadillo, E; Bonilla Ferreyra, C; Zvealeta, A

    1991-11-01

    Hemolytic activity of eight Peruvian snake venoms from the families Viperidae and Elapidae (Bothrops atrox, B. pictus, B. hyoprorus, B. bilineatus, B. neuwedii, Lachesis m. muta, Crotalus d. terrificus, Micrurus tschudi), and three Brazilian viperids (B. jararacussu, B. alternatus and C. d. collilineatus) is described. None of the venoms caused direct lysis on washed human erythrocytes. However, all of them caused indirect hemolysis provided that the incubation medium contains an exogenous source of lecithin. Venom of Micrurus tschudi was the most hemolytic (HD50 2.8 ug/ml) while that of B. bilineatus was the least (HD50 681.3 ug/ml). Only six of eleven venoms showed parallel curves of hemolytic activity, and the HD50 varied from 198 to 681 ug/ml and the following decreasing order of hemolytic activity was obtained: L. muta, C. d. terrificus, C. d. collilineatus, B. hyoprorus, B. bilineatus, B. alternatus. PMID:1844159

  10. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  11. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy in a venomous snake (Bothrops asper) bite victim.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Miguel E; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2012-03-01

    An 18-year-old man developed posterior reversible leukoencephalopaty after being bitten by a venomous snake (Bothrops asper). It is possible that this previously unrecognized neurological complication of snake bite envenoming occurred as the result of endothelial dysfunction induced by the venom of the offending snake. This pathogenetic mechanism has also been implicated as the cause of cerebral infarctions in snake bite victims. Alternatively, the leukoencephalopathy might have been a complication of antivenom therapy. PMID:22403325

  12. Comparative analysis of local effects caused by Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni snake venoms: enzymatic contributions and inflammatory modulations.

    PubMed

    Mamede, Carla Cristine Neves; de Sousa, Bruna Barbosa; Pereira, Déborah Fernanda da Cunha; Matias, Mariana Santos; de Queiroz, Mayara Ribeiro; de Morais, Nadia Cristina Gomes; Vieira, Sâmela Alves Pereira Batista; Stanziola, Leonilda; de Oliveira, Fábio

    2016-07-01

    Bothropic envenomation is characterised by severe local damage caused by the toxic action of venom components and aggravated by induced inflammation. In this comparative study, the local inflammatory effects caused by the venoms of Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni, two snakes of epidemiological importance in Brazil, were investigated. The toxic action of venom components induced by bothropic venom was also characterised. Herein, the oedema, hyperalgesia and myotoxicity induced by bothropic venom were monitored for various lengths of time after venom injection in experimental animals. The intensity of the local effects caused by B. moojeni venom is considerably more potent than B. alternatus venom. Our results also indicate that metalloproteases and phospholipases A2 have a central role in the local damage induced by bothropic venoms, but serine proteases also contribute to the effects of these venoms. Furthermore, we observed that specific anti-inflammatory drugs were able to considerably reduce the oedema, the pain and the muscle damage caused by both venoms. The inflammatory reaction induced by B. moojeni venom is mediated by eicosanoid action, histamine and nitric oxide, with significant participation of bradykinin on the hyperalgesic and myotoxic effects of this venom. These mediators also participate to inflammation caused by B. alternatus venom. However, the inefficient anti-inflammatory effects of some local modulation suggest that histamine, leukotrienes and nitric oxide have little role in the oedema or myotoxicity caused by B. alternatus venom. PMID:26975252

  13. Comparison of Phylogeny, Venom Composition and Neutralization by Antivenom in Diverse Species of Bothrops Complex

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Pedro S.; Bernardoni, Juliana L.; Oliveira, Sâmella S.; Portes-Junior, José Antonio; Mourão, Rosa Helena V.; Lima-dos-Santos, Isa; Sano-Martins, Ida S.; Chalkidis, Hipócrates M.; Valente, Richard H.; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, Bothrops snakes account for most snake bites in humans, and the recommended treatment is administration of multispecific Bothrops antivenom (SAB – soro antibotrópico). However, Bothrops snakes are very diverse with regard to their venom composition, which raises the issue of which venoms should be used as immunizing antigens for the production of pan-specific Bothrops antivenoms. In this study, we simultaneously compared the composition and reactivity with SAB of venoms collected from six species of snakes, distributed in pairs from three distinct phylogenetic clades: Bothrops, Bothropoides and Rhinocerophis. We also evaluated the neutralization of Bothrops atrox venom, which is the species responsible for most snake bites in the Amazon region, but not included in the immunization antigen mixture used to produce SAB. Using mass spectrometric and chromatographic approaches, we observed a lack of similarity in protein composition between the venoms from closely related snakes and a high similarity between the venoms of phylogenetically more distant snakes, suggesting little connection between taxonomic position and venom composition. P-III snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are the most antigenic toxins in the venoms of snakes from the Bothrops complex, whereas class P-I SVMPs, snake venom serine proteinases and phospholipases A2 reacted with antibodies in lower levels. Low molecular size toxins, such as disintegrins and bradykinin-potentiating peptides, were poorly antigenic. Toxins from the same protein family showed antigenic cross-reactivity among venoms from different species; SAB was efficient in neutralizing the B. atrox venom major toxins. Thus, we suggest that it is possible to obtain pan-specific effective antivenoms for Bothrops envenomations through immunization with venoms from only a few species of snakes, if these venoms contain protein classes that are representative of all species to which the antivenom is targeted. PMID

  14. Partial in vitro analysis of toxic and antigenic activities of eleven Peruvian pitviper snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Duarte, C; Lopes-Peixoto, J; Fonseca-de-Souza, B R; Stransky, S; Oliveira, D; Schneider, F S; Lopes-de-Souza, L; Bonilla, C; Silva, W; Tintaya, B; Yarleque, A; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2015-12-15

    This work used eleven Peruvian snake venoms (Bothrops andianus, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops barnetti, Bothrops castelnaudi, Bothriopsis chloromelas, Bothrocophias microphthalmus, Bothrops neuwiedi, Bothriopsis oligolepis, Bothriopsis peruviana, Bothrops pictus and Bothriopsis taeniata) to perform in vitro experimentation and determine its main characteristics. Hyaluronidase (HYAL), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), snake venom serine protease (SVSP) and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) activities; toxicity by cell viability assays using MGSO3, VERO and HeLa cell lineages; and crossed immunoreactivity with Peruvian (PAV) and Brazilian (BAV) antibothropic polyvalent antivenoms, through ELISA and Western Blotting assays, were determined. Results show that the activities tested in this study were not similar amongst the venoms and each species present their own peculiarities, highlighting the diversity within Bothrops complex. All venoms were capable of reducing cell viability of all tested lineages. It was also demonstrated the crossed recognition of all tested venoms by both antivenoms. PMID:26365916

  15. Preliminary assessment of Hedychium coronarium essential oil on fibrinogenolytic and coagulant activity induced by Bothrops and Lachesis snake venoms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The search for new inhibitors of snake venom toxins is essential to complement or even replace traditional antivenom therapy, especially in relation to compounds that neutralize the local effects of envenomations. Besides their possible use as alternative to traditional antivenom therapy, some plant species possess bioactive secondary metabolites including essential oils, which can be extracted from weeds that are considered substantial problems for agriculture, such as Hedychium coronarium. Methods The essential oils of leaves and rhizomes from H. coronarium were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their potential inhibitory effects on the coagulant and fibrinogenolytic activities induced by the venoms of Lachesis muta, Bothrops atrox and Bothrops moojeni were analyzed. Citrated human plasma was used to evaluate the clotting time whereas changes in fibrinogen molecules were visualized by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. The experimental design used for testing coagulation inhibition was randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (concentration × essential oils), with three replications. The essential oils were compared since they were extracted from different organs of the same botanical species, H. coronarium. Results The results suggest that the oils interact with venom proteases and plasma constituents, since all oils evaluated, when previously incubated with venoms, were able to inhibit the clotting effect, with less inhibition when oils and plasma were preincubated prior to the addition of venoms. Conclusions Thus, after extensive characterization of their pharmacological and toxicological effects, the essential oils can be used as an alternative to complement serum therapy, especially considering that these plant metabolites generally do not require specific formulations and may be used topically immediately after extraction. PMID:26413083

  16. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia: Part II: neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Jiménez, S L; Fonnegra, R; Osorio, R G; García, M E; Díaz, A

    2000-08-01

    Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) and Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); and the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). The other five extracts showing partial neutralization (45-80%; 10-30% survival rate in the control group receiving the venom alone; P<0.05) were: leaves, branches and stem of Costus lasius (Costaceae); the whole plant of Sida acuta (Malvaceae); rhizomes of Dracontium croatii (Araceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) and Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae). When the extracts were independently administered per oral or i.p. route 60 min before an i.m. venom injection (204 microg=1.5 i.m. LD50), C. limon, T. elegans, B. orellana and T. rosea extracts had partial and significant neutralizing capacity against B. atrox venom lethal effect. C. limon extract was also partially effective when it was administered either i.v. 15 min before or i.p. 5 min after an i.m. venom injection. Three of the 12 extracts with anti-lethal effect (C. limon, D. croatii and S. acuta) were devoid of antiphospholipase A2 activity, when they were tested against one minimum indirect hemolytic dose of B. atrox venom (2 microg) in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels. PMID:10940590

  17. Purification and characterization of a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer-de-lance) snake venom.

    PubMed

    Stroka, Alessandra; Donato, José L; Bon, Cassian; Hyslop, Stephen; de Araújo, Albetiza Lôbo

    2005-03-15

    Bothrops snake venoms contain metalloproteinases that contribute to the local effects seen after envenoming. In this work, a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase (BlaH1) was purified from the venom of the snake Bothrops lanceolatus by a combination of gel filtration, affinity (metal chelating) and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The hemorrhagin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and had a molecular mass of 28 kDa that was unaltered by treatment with beta-mercaptoethanol. BlaH1 gave a single band in immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting using commercial bothropic antivenom. BlaH1 had hemorrhagic, caseinolytic, fibrinogenolytic, collagenolytic and elastinolytic activities, but no phospholipase A(2) activity. The hemorrhagic and caseinolytic activities were inhibited by EDTA, indicating that they were metal ion-dependent. In contrast, aprotinin, benzamidine and PMSF did not affect these activities. The caseinolytic activity of BlaH1 had a pH optimum of 8.0 and was stable in solution at up to 40 degrees C; activity was completely lost at > or =70 degrees C. The hemorrhagic activity was neutralized by commercial bothropic antivenom. These properties suggest that this new hemorrhagin belongs to class P-I snake venom metalloproteinases. PMID:15733562

  18. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  19. [Pulmonary embolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation after being bitten by a Bothrops lanceolatus snake. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Estrade, G; Garnier, D; Bernasconi, F; Donatien, Y

    1989-11-01

    The authors report the case of a Bothrops lanceolatus snake bite complicated by severe pulmonary embolism a few hours after admission. This thromboembolic complication developed despite heparin therapy and was followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Vascular thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are rare after Bothrops lanceolatus snake bite as patients are usually hypocoagulable due to DIC. In this case, the thromboembolism was probably caused by the procoagulant effect of the thrombin-like enzymes of the snake venom which may have been injected directly into the vein of a young woman taking a contraceptive pill. A specific antivenin which has recently become available fort treatment may decrease the complications of Bothrops lanceolatus snake bite. PMID:2514645

  20. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes da Silva, L. F. F.; Zamboni, C. B.; Bahovschi, V.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M. F.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [HIII line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of the Ontogenetic Variability in Plasma Composition of Juvenile and Adult Bothrops jararaca Snakes

    PubMed Central

    de Morais-Zani, Karen; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico

    2013-01-01

    The ontogenetic variability in venom composition of some snake genera, including Bothrops, as well as the biological implications of such variability and the search of new molecules that can neutralize the toxic components of these venoms have been the subject of many studies. Thus, considering the resistance of Bothrops jararaca to the toxic action of its own venom and the ontogenetic variability in venom composition described in this species, a comparative study of the plasma composition of juvenile and adult B. jararaca snakes was performed through a proteomic approach based on 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of proteins that might be present at different levels during ontogenetic development. Among the proteins identified by mass spectrometry, antihemorrhagic factor Bj46a was found only in adult plasma. Moreover, two spots identified as phospholipase A2 inhibitors were significantly increased in juvenile plasma, which can be related to the higher catalytic PLA2 activity shown by juvenile venom in comparison to that of adult snakes. This work shows the ontogenetic variability of B. jararaca plasma, and that these changes can be related to the ontogenetic variability described in its venom. PMID:24062950

  2. Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops fonsecai snake venom in vertebrate preparations

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carla T; Giaretta, Vânia MA; Prudêncio, Luiz S; Toledo, Edvana O; da Silva, Igor RF; Collaço, Rita CO; Barbosa, Ana M; Hyslop, Stephen; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Cogo, José C

    2014-01-01

    The neuromuscular activity of venom from Bothrops fonsecai, a lancehead endemic to southeastern Brazil, was investigated. Chick biventer cervicis (CBC) and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations were used for myographic recordings and mouse diaphragm muscle was used for membrane resting potential (RP) and miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) recordings. Creatine kinase release and muscle damage were also assessed. In CBC, venom (40, 80 and 160μg/ml) produced concentration- and time-dependent neuromuscular blockade (50% blockade in 85±9 min and 73±8 min with 80 and 160μg/ml, respectively) and attenuated the contractures to 110μM ACh (78–100% inhibition) and 40mM KCl (45–90% inhibition). The venom-induced decrease in twitch-tension in curarized, directly-stimulated preparations was similar to that in indirectly stimulated preparations. Venom (100 and 200μg/ml) also caused blockade in PND preparations (50% blockade in 94±13 min and 49±8 min with 100 and 200μg/ml, respectively) but did not alter the RP or MEPP amplitude. In CBC, venom caused creatine kinase release and myonecrosis. The venom-induced decrease in twitch-tension and in the contractures to ACh and K+ were abolished by preincubating venom with commercial antivenom. These findings indicate that Bothrops fonsecai venom interferes with neuromuscular transmission essentially through postsynaptic muscle damage that affects responses to ACh and KCl. These actions are effectively prevented by commercial antivenom. PMID:25028603

  3. Inactivation and fragmentation of lectin from Bothrops leucurus snake venom by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, E. S.; Souza, M. A. A.; Vaz, A. F. M.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.; Aguiar, J. S.; Silva, T. G.; Guarnieri, M. C.; Melo, A. M. M. A.; Oliva, M. L. V.; Correia, M. T. S.

    2012-04-01

    Gamma radiation alters the molecular structure of biomolecules and is able to mitigate the action of snake venoms and their isolated toxins. The effect of γ-radiation on the folding of Bothrops lecurus venom lectin was measured by a hemagglutinating assay, intrinsic and bis-ANS fluorescence. Intrinsic and bis-ANS fluorescence analyses indicated that irradiation caused unfolding followed by aggregation of the lectin. Our results suggest that irradiation can lead to significant changes in the protein structure, which may promote the loss of its binding property and toxic action.

  4. Nomenclatural instability in the venomous snakes of the Bothrops complex: Implications in toxinology and public health.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Paola Andrea; Venegas, Pablo Javier; Chaparro, Juan Carlos; Scrocchi, Gustavo José

    2016-09-01

    Since nomenclature is intended to reflect the evolutionary history of organisms, advances in our understanding of historical relationships may lead to changes in classification, and thus potentially in taxonomic instability. An unstable nomenclature for medically important animals like venomous snakes is of concern, and its implications in venom/antivenom research and snakebite treatment have been extensively discussed since the 90´s. The taxonomy of the pitvipers of the Bothrops complex has been historically problematic and different genus-level rearrangements were proposed to rectify the long-standing paraphyly of the group. Here we review the toxinological literature on the Bothrops complex to estimate the impact of recent proposals of classification in non-systematic research. This assessment revealed moderate levels of nomenclatural instability in the last five years, and the recurrence of some practices discussed in previous studies regarding the use of classifications and the information provided about the origin of venom samples. We briefly comment on a few examples and the implications of different proposals of classifications for the Bothrops complex. The aim of this review is to contribute to the reduction of adverse effects of current taxonomic instability in a group of medical importance in the Americas. PMID:27242040

  5. Screening of Bothrops snake venoms for L-amino acid oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Pessatti, M; Fontana, J D; Furtado, M F; Guimãraes, M F; Zanette, L R; Costa, W T; Baron, M

    1995-01-01

    Toxins, enzymes, and biologically active peptides are the main components of snake venoms from the genus Bothrops. Following the venom inoculation, the local effects are hemorrhage, edema, and myonecrosis. Nineteen different species of Brazilian Bothrops were screened for protein content and L-amino acid oxidase activity. B. cotiara, formerly found in the South of Brazil, is now threatened with extinction. Its venom contains a highly hemorrhagic fraction and, as expected from the deep yellow color of the corresponding lyophilized powder, a high L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activity was also characterized. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is its associate coenzyme. B. cotiara venom LAO catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several L-amino acids, and the best substrates were methionine, leucine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, hence, its potential application for the use of biosensors for aspartame determination and for the removal of amino acids from plasma. High levels for LAO were also found in other species than B. cotiara. In addition, the technique of isoelectric focusing (IEF) was employed as a powerful tool to study the iso- or multi-enzyme distribution for LAO activity in the B. cotiara snake venom. PMID:7668847

  6. Screening of Bothrops snake venoms for L-amino acid oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pessati, M.L.; Fontana, J.D.; Guimaraes, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Toxins, enzymes, and biologically active peptides are the main components of snake venoms from the genus Bothrops. Following the venom inoculation, the local effects are hemorrhage, edema, and myonecrosis. Nineteen different species of Brazilian Bothrops were screened for protein content and L-amino acid oxidase activity. B. cotiara, formerly found in the South of Brazil, is now threatened with extinction. Its venom contains a highly hemorrhagic fraction and, as expected from the deep yellow color of the corresponding lyophilized powder, a high L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activity was also characterized. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is its associate coenzyme. B. cotiara venom LAO catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several L-amino acids, and the best substrates were methionine, leucine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, hence, its potential application for the use in biosensors for aspartame determination and for the removal of amino acids from plasma. High levels for LAO were also found in other species than B. cotiara. In addition, the technique of isoelectric focusing (IEF) was employed as a powerful tool to study the iso- or multi-enzyme distribution for LAO activity in the B. cotiara snake venom.

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy after Bothrops lanceolatus snake bites in Martinique: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Hochedez, P; Thomas, L; Mehdaoui, H

    2010-01-01

    Every year 10 to 20 cases of snake bites are reported on the Caribbean island of Martinique. The only snake involved, Bothrops lanceolatus, is endemic on the island, and its bite may lead to systemic multifocal thrombotic complications in the'absence of the monospecific antivenom. Between January 1988 and January 2009, more than 250 snake bites have been reported, and five patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy for local complications. The patients were male, bitten on the leg or the hand, and presented with severe complications such as necrotizing soft tissue infections, compartment syndrome or abscesses despite prompt wound care and administration of antivenomous serum. Outcomes were favorable for these five patients, except for one who was left with a functional defect of the hand. Although snake bites are not part of the currently recommended indications for HBO2 therapy, local complications, namely compartment syndrome, necrotizing soft tissue infections and enhancement of healing in selected problem wounds, are approved uses of HBO2 therapy as defined by the Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Committee and would benefit from prospective studies. PMID:21226390

  8. Cystyl aminopeptidase activity in the plasma, viscera and brain of the snake Bothrops jararaca.

    PubMed

    Alponti, Rafaela Fadoni; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Murena-Nunes, Cristiane; Marinho, Camila Eduardo; do Amaral Olivo, Renata; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2005-07-01

    The relationship between plasma osmolality and cystyl aminopeptidase was characterized in the snake Bothrops jararaca and comparisons were made with the emerging picture of this relationship in rats. The profile of cystyl aminopeptidase activity under basal conditions was determined in the soluble and membrane-bound forms in visceral organs and in the central nervous system in comparison with that of alanyl aminopeptidase. The regional localization of cystyl and alanyl aminopeptidase activities was studied in the central nervous system. The basal level of plasma cystyl aminopeptidase, four- to six-fold higher than in rats, suggests its importance to help regulate circulating levels of neurohypophysial peptides in B. jararaca snake. The osmotic sensitivity of this plasma enzyme, undetectable in male, but about three-fold higher in female snakes than in rats, reveals a sexual dimorphism. In marked contrast to those observed in rats, low levels of soluble and particulate forms in the kidney indicate that cystyl aminopeptidase plays a minor metabolizing role at this anatomical location in B. jararaca. Despite of the regional-specific divergence between the levels of rat and snake enzymes, the bilaterally symmetric pattern of the diencephalic distribution of alanyl aminopeptidase reflects functional homologies between these two distantly related species. PMID:16006161

  9. A transcriptomic analysis of gene expression in the venom gland of the snake Bothrops alternatus (urutu)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Bothrops is widespread throughout Central and South America and is the principal cause of snakebite in these regions. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies have examined the venom composition of several species in this genus, but many others remain to be studied. In this work, we used a transcriptomic approach to examine the venom gland genes of Bothrops alternatus, a clinically important species found in southeastern and southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Results A cDNA library of 5,350 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was produced and assembled into 838 contigs and 4512 singletons. BLAST searches of relevant databases showed 30% hits and 70% no-hits, with toxin-related transcripts accounting for 23% and 78% of the total transcripts and hits, respectively. Gene ontology analysis identified non-toxin genes related to general metabolism, transcription and translation, processing and sorting, (polypeptide) degradation, structural functions and cell regulation. The major groups of toxin transcripts identified were metalloproteinases (81%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides/C-type natriuretic peptides (8.8%), phospholipases A2 (5.6%), serine proteinases (1.9%) and C-type lectins (1.5%). Metalloproteinases were almost exclusively type PIII proteins, with few type PII and no type PI proteins. Phospholipases A2 were essentially acidic; no basic PLA2 were detected. Minor toxin transcripts were related to L-amino acid oxidase, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, hyaluronidase, three-finger toxins and ohanin. Two non-toxic proteins, thioredoxin and double-specificity phosphatase Dusp6, showed high sequence identity to similar proteins from other snakes. In addition to the above features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellites, transposable elements and inverted repeats that could contribute to toxin diversity were observed. Conclusions Bothrops alternatus venom gland contains the major toxin

  10. Antivenom Effects of 1,2,3-Triazoles against Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Thaisa F. S.; Moura, Laura de A.; Carvalho, Carla; Campos, Vinícius R.; Jordão, Alessandro K.; Cunha, Anna C.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Sanchez, Eladio F.; Fuly, André L.

    2013-01-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins of both enzymes and nonenzymes, which are responsible for producing several biological effects. Human envenomation by snake bites particularly those of the viperid family induces a complex pathophysiological picture characterized by spectacular changes in hemostasis and frequently hemorrhage is also seen. The present work reports the ability of six of a series of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives to inhibit some pharmacological effects caused by the venoms of Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta. In vitro assays showed that these compounds were impaired in a concentration-dependent manner, the fibrinogen or plasma clotting, hemolysis, and proteolysis produced by both venoms. Moreover, these compounds inhibited biological effects in vivo as well. Mice treated with these compounds were fully protected from hemorrhagic lesions caused by such venoms. But, only the B. jararaca edema-inducing activity was neutralized by the triazoles. So the inhibitory effect of triazoles derivatives against some in vitro and in vivo biological assays of snake venoms points to promising aspects that may indicate them as molecular models to improve the production of effective antivenom or to complement antivenom neutralization, especially the local pathological effects, which are partially neutralized by antivenoms. PMID:23710441

  11. Purification and functional characterization of a new metalloproteinase (BleucMP) from Bothrops leucurus snake venom.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mário Sérgio R; de Queiroz, Mayara R; Mamede, Carla C N; Mendes, Mirian M; Hamaguchi, Amélia; Homsi-Brandeburgo, Maria I; Sousa, Marcelo V; Aquino, Elaine Nascimento; Castro, Mariana S; de Oliveira, Fábio; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2011-04-01

    A fibrino(geno)lytic nonhemorrhagic metalloproteinase (BleucMP) was purified from Bothrops leucurus snake venom by two chromatographic steps procedure on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 followed by CM-Sepharose Fast Flow column. BleucMP represented 1.75% (w/w) of the crude venom and was homogeneous on SDS-PAGE. BleucMP analyzed by MALDI TOF/TOF, showed a molecular mass of 23,057.54Da and when alkylated and reduced, the mass is 23,830.40Da. Their peptides analyzed in MS (MALDI TOF\\TOF) showed significant score when compared with those of other proteins by NCBI-BLAST2 alignment display. As regards their proteolytic activities, BleucMP efficiently acted on fibrinogen, fibrin, and was inhibited by EDTA and 1.10-phenanthroline. This enzyme was also able to decrease significantly the plasma fibrinogen level provoking blood incoagulability, however was devoid of hemorrhagic activity when tested in the mice skin and did not induce relevant biochemical, hematological and histopathological alterations in mice. The aspects addressed in this paper provide data on the effect of BleucMP in envenomation from B. leucurus snakes in order to better understand the effects caused by snake venom metalloproteinase. PMID:21130897

  12. The Triterpenoid Betulin Protects against the Neuromuscular Effects of Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Miriéle Cristina; de Oliveira, Jhones Luiz; de Oliveira Junior, Joel Reis; Cogo, José Carlos; dos Santos, Márcio Galdino; Franco, Luiz Madaleno; Puebla, Pilar; Ferraz, Helena Onishi; Ferraz, Humberto Gomes; da Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Hyslop, Stephen; San Feliciano, Arturo; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    We confirmed the ability of the triterpenoid betulin to protect against neurotoxicity caused by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations and examined its capability of in vivo protection using the rat external popliteal/sciatic nerve-tibialis anterior (EPSTA) preparation. Venom caused complete, irreversible blockade in PND (40 μg/mL), but only partial blockade (~30%) in EPSTA (3.6 mg/kg, i.m.) after 120 min. In PND, preincubation of venom with commercial bothropic antivenom (CBA) attenuated the venom-induced blockade, and, in EPSTA, CBA given i.v. 15 min after venom also attenuated the blockade (by ~70% in both preparations). Preincubation of venom with betulin (200 μg/mL) markedly attenuated the venom-induced blockade in PND; similarly, a single dose of betulin (20 mg, i.p., 15 min after venom) virtually abolished the venom-induced decrease in contractility. Plasma creatine kinase activity was significantly elevated 120 min after venom injection in the EPSTA but was attenuated by CBA and betulin. These results indicate that betulin given i.p. has a similar efficacy as CBA given i.v. in attenuating the neuromuscular effects of B. jararacussu venom in vivo and could be a useful complementary measure to antivenom therapy for treating snakebite. PMID:26633987

  13. The Triterpenoid Betulin Protects against the Neuromuscular Effects of Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Miriéle Cristina; de Oliveira, Jhones Luiz; de Oliveira Junior, Joel Reis; Cogo, José Carlos; Dos Santos, Márcio Galdino; Franco, Luiz Madaleno; Puebla, Pilar; Ferraz, Helena Onishi; Ferraz, Humberto Gomes; da Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Hyslop, Stephen; San Feliciano, Arturo; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    We confirmed the ability of the triterpenoid betulin to protect against neurotoxicity caused by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations and examined its capability of in vivo protection using the rat external popliteal/sciatic nerve-tibialis anterior (EPSTA) preparation. Venom caused complete, irreversible blockade in PND (40 μg/mL), but only partial blockade (~30%) in EPSTA (3.6 mg/kg, i.m.) after 120 min. In PND, preincubation of venom with commercial bothropic antivenom (CBA) attenuated the venom-induced blockade, and, in EPSTA, CBA given i.v. 15 min after venom also attenuated the blockade (by ~70% in both preparations). Preincubation of venom with betulin (200 μg/mL) markedly attenuated the venom-induced blockade in PND; similarly, a single dose of betulin (20 mg, i.p., 15 min after venom) virtually abolished the venom-induced decrease in contractility. Plasma creatine kinase activity was significantly elevated 120 min after venom injection in the EPSTA but was attenuated by CBA and betulin. These results indicate that betulin given i.p. has a similar efficacy as CBA given i.v. in attenuating the neuromuscular effects of B. jararacussu venom in vivo and could be a useful complementary measure to antivenom therapy for treating snakebite. PMID:26633987

  14. Preclinical assessment of the neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in six Latin American countries against medically-relevant Bothrops snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Segura, A; Castillo, M C; Núñez, V; Yarlequé, A; Gonçalves, L R C; Villalta, M; Bonilla, C; Herrera, M; Vargas, M; Fernández, M; Yano, M Y; Araújo, H P; Boller, M A A; León, P; Tintaya, B; Sano-Martins, I S; Gómez, A; Fernández, G P; Geoghegan, P; Higashi, H G; León, G; Gutiérrez, J M

    2010-11-01

    Species of the genus Bothrops induce the vast majority of snakebite envenomings in Latin America. A preclinical study was performed in the context of a regional network of public laboratories involved in the production, quality control and development of antivenoms in Latin America. The ability of seven polyspecific antivenoms, produced in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Costa Rica, to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, coagulant, defibrinogenating and myotoxic activities of the venoms of Bothrops neuwiedi (diporus) (Argentina), Bothrops jararaca (Brazil), B. neuwiedi (mattogrossensis) (Bolivia), Bothrops atrox (Peru and Colombia) and Bothrops asper (Costa Rica) was assessed using standard laboratory tests. Despite differences in the venom mixtures used in the immunization of animals for the production of these antivenoms, a pattern of extensive cross-neutralization was observed between these antivenoms and all the venoms tested, with quantitative differences in the values of effective doses. This study reveals the capacity of these antivenoms to neutralize, in preclinical tests, homologous and heterologous Bothrops venoms in Central and South America, and also highlight quantitative differences in the values of Median Effective Doses (ED50s) between the various antivenoms. PMID:20621114

  15. Characterization of allergens in four South American snake species.

    PubMed

    Madero, Mauro F; Gámez, Cristina; Madero, Mauro A; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    A 55-year-old herpetologist developed rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and anaphylaxis when handling 4 different viper snake venoms. Allergen characterizations were done using SDS-PAGE, IgE immunoblotting and IgE inhibition experiments. The most prominent immunoreactive proteins were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and peptide identity was demonstrated by homology with known peptide sequences. SDS-PAGE showed several protein bands ranging from 5 to 99 kDa in each of the 4 snake venoms. Immunoblotting demonstrated 4 IgE-binding bands in the Bothrops extract of about 60, 28, 14 and 7 kDa. The bands of 28 and 14 kDa were also present in Lachesis muta. Two IgE-binding proteins of about 50 and 35 kDa were found in Bothrops atrox and L. muta, respectively. A strong inhibition of IgE binding to immobilize Bothrops asper proteins was observed after preabsorption of sera with B. asper, B. atrox,Bothrops xanthograma and L. muta extracts. MALDI-TOF analysis showed a 14-kDa phospholipase and the 60- and 28-kDa proteins showed significant similarity with metalloproteinases. In this report we have characterized the snake venom allergens that can elicit IgE-mediated symptoms. PMID:19494529

  16. Experimental pathophysiology of systemic alterations induced by Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2009-12-01

    Moderate and severe envenomations by the snake Bothrops asper provoke systemic alterations, such as systemic bleeding, coagulopathy, hypovolemia, hemodynamic instability and shock, and acute renal failure. Systemic hemorrhage is a typical finding of these envenomations, and is primarily caused by the action of P-III snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). This venom also contains a thrombin-like serine proteinase and a prothrombin-activating P-III SVMP, both of which cause defibrin(ogen)ation. Thrombocytopenia, predominantly induced by a C-type lectin-like protein, and platelet hypoaggregation, caused by the two defibrin(ogen)ating enzymes, also contribute to hemostatic disturbances, which potentiate the systemic bleeding induced by hemorrhagic SVMPs. Cardiovascular disturbances leading to shock are due to the combined effects of hemorrhagic toxins, other venom components that increase vascular permeability, the action of hypotensive agents in the venom and of endogenous mediators, and the potential cardiotoxic effect of some toxins. Renal alterations are likely to be caused by direct cytotoxicity of venom components in the kidney, and by renal ischemia resultant from hypovolemia and hypoperfusion. Lethality induced by B. asper venom is the consequence of several combined effects among which the action of P-III SVMPs is especially relevant. PMID:19303034

  17. Biochemistry and toxicology of toxins purified from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno

    2009-12-01

    The isolation and study of individual snake venom components paves the way for a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of envenomings--thus potentially contributing to improved therapeutic modalities in the clinical setting--and also opens possibilities for the discovery of novel toxins that might be useful as tools for dissecting cellular and molecular processes of biomedical importance. This review provides a summary of the different toxins that have been isolated and characterized from the venom of Bothrops asper, the snake species causing the majority of human envenomings in Central America. This venom contains proteins belonging to at least eight families: metalloproteinase, serine proteinase, C-type lectin-like, L-amino acid oxidase, disintegrin, DC-fragment, cystein-rich secretory protein, and phospholipase A(2). Some 25 venom proteins within these families have been isolated and characterized. Their main biochemical properties and toxic actions are described, including, in some cases, their possible relationships to the pathologic effects induced by B. asper venom. PMID:19111755

  18. Absence of oxytocin in the central nervous system of the snake Bothrops jararaca.

    PubMed

    Lazari, Maria Fatima Magalhaes; Alponti, Rafaela Fadoni; Freitas, Thalma Ariani; Breno, Maria Cristina; da Conceicao, Isaltino Marcelo; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2006-11-01

    We used four complementary techniques to investigate the presence of oxytocin peptide in the hypophysis and brain of the snake Bothrops jararaca. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis failed to show oxytocin in extracts of hypophysial and brain tissues but provided estimative values of the amounts of vasotocin (12 ng/mg hypophysis and 0.5 ng/mg brain) and mesotocin (500 pg/mg hypophysis and 8 pg/mg brain). Western blots with a polyclonal anti-oxytocin antibody failed to detect oxytocin in both tissues but detected compounds with higher molecular weight than oxytocin, as well as a relatively weak cross-reactivity with mesotocin. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis failed to detect the expression of oxytocin gene transcript, but detected a transcript related to the mesotocin-neurophysin precursor in both tissues. Immunohistochemistry with the same anti-oxytocin antibody detected strong staining in the neurohypophysis and in few fibers in the inner zone of the median eminence, which was not abolished by pre-adsorption of this antibody with oxytocin, vasopressin, vasotocin or mesotocin and might not be attributed to oxytocin. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the absence of oxytocin in the central nervous system of the snake B. jararaca and underline the pitfalls that can result from the use of a single technique to investigate the presence of peptides in tissues. PMID:16838134

  19. Biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin: the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mário Sérgio R; Naves de Souza, Dayane L; Guimarães, Denise O; Lopes, Daiana S; Mamede, Carla C N; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie C; Achê, David C; Rodrigues, Renata S; Yoneyama, Kelly A G; Borges, Márcia H; de Oliveira, Fábio; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2015-03-01

    We present the biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin, the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. This protein was purified after three chromatographic steps on cation exchange CM-Sepharose fast flow, size-exclusion column Sephacryl S-300 and anion exchange Capto Q. Bothropoidin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and comprised a single chain of 49,558 Da according to MALDI TOF analysis. The protein presented an isoelectric point of 3.76, and the sequence of six fragments obtained by MS (MALDI TOF\\TOF) showed a significant score when compared with other PIII Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Bothropoidin showed proteolytic activity on azocasein, Aα-chain of fibrinogen, fibrin, collagen and fibronectin. The enzyme was stable at pH 6-9 and at lower temperatures when assayed on azocasein. Moreover, its activity was inhibited by EDTA, 1.10-phenanthroline and β-mercaptoethanol. Bothropoidin induced haemorrhage [minimum haemorrhagic dose (MHD) = 0.75 µg], inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP, and interfered with viability and cell adhesion when incubated with endothelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Our results showed that Bothropoidin is a haemorrhagic metalloproteinase that can play an important role in the toxicity of B. pauloensis envenomation and might be used as a tool for studying the effects of SVMPs on haemostatic disorders and tumour metastasis. PMID:25261583

  20. Bmoo FIBMP-I: A New Fibrinogenolytic Metalloproteinase from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Torres, F. S.; Rates, B.; Gomes, M. T. R.; Salas, C. E.; Pimenta, A. M. C.; Oliveira, F.; Santoro, M. M.; de Lima, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    A new fibrinogenolytic metalloproteinase (Bmoo FIBMP-I) was purified from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. This enzyme was isolated through a combination of three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange, molecular exclusion, and affinity chromatography). Analyses by reverse phase chromatography, followed by mass spectrometry, showed the presence of enzyme isoforms with average molecular mass of 22.8 kDa. The SDS-PAGE analyses showed a single chain of 27.6 kDa, in the presence and absence of reducing agent. The protein has a blocked N-terminal. One of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion of a reduced and S-alkylated isoform was completely sequenced by mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Bmoo FIBMP-I showed similarity with hemorrhagic factor and several metalloproteinases (MP). This enzyme degraded Aα-chain faster than the Bβ-chain and did not affect the γ-chain of bovine fibrinogen. The absence of proteolytic activity after treatment with EDTA, together with the observed molecular mass, led us to suggest that Bmoo FIBMP-I is a member of the P-I class of the snake venom MP family. Bmoo FIBMP-I showed pH-dependent proteolytic activity on azocasein, but was devoid of coagulant, defibrinating, or hemorrhagic activities. The kinetic parameters of proteolytic activity in azocasein were determined (Vmax = 0.4596 Uh−1nmol−1 ± 0.1031 and Km = 14.59 mg/mL ± 4.610). PMID:23762636

  1. Bothrops snake myotoxins induce a large efflux of ATP and potassium with spreading of cell damage and pain.

    PubMed

    Cintra-Francischinelli, Mariana; Caccin, Paola; Chiavegato, Angela; Pizzo, Paola; Carmignoto, Giorgio; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Montecucco, Cesare

    2010-08-10

    Myotoxins play a major role in the pathogenesis of the envenomations caused by snake bites in large parts of the world where this is a very relevant public health problem. We show here that two myotoxins that are major constituents of the venom of Bothrops asper, a deadly snake present in Latin America, induce the release of large amounts of K(+) and ATP from skeletal muscle. We also show that the released ATP amplifies the effect of the myotoxins, acting as a "danger signal," which spreads and causes further damage by acting on purinergic receptors. In addition, the release of ATP and K(+) well accounts for the pain reaction characteristic of these envenomations. As Bothrops asper myotoxins are representative of a large family of snake myotoxins with phospholipase A(2) structure, these findings are expected to be of general significance for snake bite envenomation. Moreover, they suggest potential therapeutic approaches for limiting the extent of muscle tissue damage based on antipurinergic drugs. PMID:20660736

  2. Snake venomics of the lancehead pitviper Bothrops asper: geographic, individual, and ontogenetic variations.

    PubMed

    Alape-Girón, Alberto; Sanz, Libia; Escolano, José; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Madrigal, Marvin; Sasa, Mahmood; Calvete, Juan J

    2008-08-01

    We report the comparative proteomic characterization of the venoms of adult and newborn specimens of the lancehead pitviper Bothrops asper from two geographically isolated populations from the Caribbean and the Pacific versants of Costa Rica. The crude venoms were fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC, followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The two B. asper populations, separated since the late Miocene or early Pliocene (8-5 mya) by the Guanacaste Mountain Range, Central Mountain Range, and Talamanca Mountain Range, contain both identical and different (iso)enzymes from the PLA 2, serine proteinase, and SVMP families. Using a similarity coefficient, we estimate that the similarity of venom proteins between the two B. asper populations may be around 52%. Compositional differences between venoms among different geographic regions may be due to evolutionary environmental pressure acting on isolated populations. To investigate venom variability among specimens from the two B. asper populations, the reverse-phase HPLC protein profiles of 15 venoms from Caribbean specimens and 11 venoms from snakes from Pacific regions were compared. Within each B. asper geographic populations, all major venom protein families appeared to be subjected to individual variations. The occurrence of intraspecific individual allopatric variability highlights the concept that a species, B. asper in our case, should be considered as a group of metapopulations. Analysis of pooled venoms of neonate specimens from Caribbean and Pacific regions with those of adult snakes from the same geographical habitat revealed prominent ontogenetic changes in both geographical populations. Major ontogenetic changes appear to be a shift from a PIII-SVMP-rich to a PI-SVMP-rich venom and the secretion in adults of a distinct set of PLA 2 molecules than in

  3. Envenomations by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes induce the release of mitochondrial alarmins.

    PubMed

    Zornetta, Irene; Caccin, Paola; Fernandez, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutierrez, José María; Montecucco, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle necrosis is a common manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomations. Venoms from snakes of the genus Bothrops, such as that of B. asper, induce muscle tissue damage at the site of venom injection, provoking severe local pathology which often results in permanent sequelae. In contrast, the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces a clinical picture of systemic myotoxicity, i.e., rhabdomyolysis, together with neurotoxicity. It is known that molecules released from damaged muscle might act as 'danger' signals. These are known as 'alarmins', and contribute to the inflammatory reaction by activating the innate immune system. Here we show that the venoms of B. asper and C. d. terrificus release the mitochondrial markers mtDNA (from the matrix) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) from the intermembrane space, from ex vivo mouse tibialis anterior muscles. Cyt c was released to a similar extent by the two venoms whereas B. asper venom induced the release of higher amounts of mtDNA, thus reflecting hitherto some differences in their pathological action on muscle mitochondria. At variance, injection of these venoms in mice resulted in a different time-course of mtDNA release, with B. asper venom inducing an early onset increment in plasma levels and C. d. terrificus venom provoking a delayed release. We suggest that the release of mitochondrial 'alarmins' might contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory events characteristic of snakebite envenomations. PMID:22363828

  4. Expression and partial biochemical characterization of a recombinant serine protease from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Isabel, Thais F; Costa, Guilherme Nunes Moreira; Pacheco, Isabela B; Barbosa, Luana G; Santos-Junior, Célio D; Fonseca, Fernando P P; Boldrini França, Johara; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Yoneyama, Kelly A G; Rodrigues, Renata S; Rodrigues, Veridiana de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs) are enzymes capable of interfering at several points of hemostasis. Some serine proteases present thrombin-like activity, which makes them targets for the development of therapeutics agents in the treatment of many hemostatic disorders. In this study, a recombinant thrombin-like serine protease, denominated rBpSP-II, was obtained from cDNA of the Bothrops pauloensis venom gland and was characterized enzymatically and biochemically. The enzyme rBpSP-II showed clotting activity on bovine plasma and proteolytic activity on fibrinogen, cleaving exclusively the Aα chain. The evaluation of rBpSP-II activity on chromogenic substrates demonstrated thrombin-like activity of the enzyme due to its capacity to hydrolyze the thrombin substrate. These characteristics make rBpSP-II an attractive molecule for additional studies. Further research is needed to verify whether rBpSP-II can serve as a template for the synthesis of therapeutic agents to treat hemostatic disorders. PMID:26965926

  5. Action of two phospholipases A2 purified from Bothrops alternatus snake venom on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Setúbal, S S; Pontes, A S; Furtado, J L; Xavier, C V; Silva, F L; Kayano, A M; Izidoro, L F M; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Stábeli, R G; Zuliani, J P

    2013-02-01

    The in vitro effects of BaltTX-I, a catalytically inactive Lys49 variant of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and BaltTX-II, an Asp49 catalytically active PLA2 isolated from Bothrops alternatus snake venom, on thioglycollate-elicited macrophages (TG-macrophages) were investigated. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, the secretory PLA2 BaltTX-I but not BaltTX-II stimulated complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Pharmacological treatment of TG-macrophages with staurosporine, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, showed that this kinase is involved in the increase of serum-opsonized zymosan phagocytosis induced by BaltTX-I but not BaltTX-II secretory PLA2, suggesting that PKC may be involved in the stimulatory effect of this toxin in serum-opsonized zymosan phagocytosis. Moreover, BaltTX-I and -II induced superoxide production by TG-macrophages. This superoxide production stimulated by both PLA2s was abolished after treatment of cells with staurosporine, indicating that PKC is an important signaling pathway for the production of this radical. Our experiments showed that, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, BaltTX-I may upregulate phagocytosis via complement receptors, and that both toxins upregulated the respiratory burst in TG-macrophages. PMID:23581990

  6. Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of a New Thrombin-Like Serine Protease from Bothrops pirajai Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Zaqueo, Kayena D.; Kayano, Anderson M.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Fuly, André L.; Maltarollo, Vinícius G.; Honório, Kathia M.; da Silva, Saulo L.; Acosta, Gerardo; Caballol, Maria Antonia O.; de Oliveira, Eliandre; Albericio, Fernando; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel serine protease (SP) isolated from Bothrops pirajai, a venomous snake found solely in Brazil that belongs to the Viperidae family. The identified SP, named BpirSP-39, was isolated by three chromatographic steps (size exclusion, bioaffinity, and reverse phase chromatographies). The molecular mass of BpirSP-39 was estimated by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by mass spectrometry (39,408.32 Da). The protein was able to form fibrin networks, which was not observed in the presence of serine protease inhibitors, such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Furthermore, BpirSP-39 presented considerable thermal stability and was apparently able to activate factor XIII of the blood coagulation cascade, unlike most serine proteases. BpirSP-39 was capable of hydrolyzing different chromogenic substrates tested (S-2222, S-2302, and S-2238) while Cu2+ significantly diminished BspirSP-39 activity on the three tested substrates. The enzyme promoted platelet aggregation and also exhibited fibrinogenolytic, fibrinolytic, gelatinolytic, and amidolytic activities. The multiple alignment showed high sequence similarity to other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. These results allow us to conclude that a new SP was isolated from Bothrops pirajai snake venom. PMID:24719874

  7. Peptidomics of Three Bothrops Snake Venoms: Insights Into the Molecular Diversification of Proteomes and Peptidomes*

    PubMed Central

    Tashima, Alexandre K.; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S.; Ianzer, Danielle; Melo, Robson L.; Rioli, Vanessa; Sant'anna, Sávio S.; Schenberg, Ana C. G.; Camargo, Antônio C. M.; Serrano, Solange M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Snake venom proteomes/peptidomes are highly complex and maintenance of their integrity within the gland lumen is crucial for the expression of toxin activities. There has been considerable progress in the field of venom proteomics, however, peptidomics does not progress as fast, because of the lack of comprehensive venom sequence databases for analysis of MS data. Therefore, in many cases venom peptides have to be sequenced manually by MS/MS analysis or Edman degradation. This is critical for rare snake species, as is the case of Bothrops cotiara (BC) and B. fonsecai (BF), which are regarded as near threatened with extinction. In this study we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the venom peptidomes of BC, BF, and B. jararaca (BJ) using a combination of solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase HPLC to fractionate the peptides, followed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) or direct infusion electrospray ionization-(ESI)-MS/MS or MALDI-MS/MS analyses. We detected marked differences in the venom peptidomes and identified peptides ranging from 7 to 39 residues in length by de novo sequencing. Forty-four unique sequences were manually identified, out of which 30 are new peptides, including 17 bradykinin-potentiating peptides, three poly-histidine-poly-glycine peptides and interestingly, 10 l-amino acid oxidase fragments. Some of the new bradykinin-potentiating peptides display significant bradykinin potentiating activity. Automated database search revealed fragments from several toxins in the peptidomes, mainly from l-amino acid oxidase, and allowed the determination of the peptide bond specificity of proteinases and amino acid occurrences for the P4-P4′ sites. We also demonstrate that the venom lyophilization/resolubilization process greatly increases the complexity of the peptidome because of the imbalance caused to the venom proteome and the consequent activity of proteinases on venom components. The use of proteinase inhibitors clearly showed

  8. Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops alcatraz snake venom in chick biventer cervicis preparations.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Delkia Seabra; Aparecido de Abreu, Valdemir; Rostelato-Ferreira, Sandro; Leite, Gildo B; Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Maria; Travaglia-Cardoso, Silvia R; Hyslop, Stephen; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2012-02-01

    Venom (10-100 μg/ml) from Bothrops alcatraz, a pitviper from the Alcatrazes Archipelago off the coast of southeastern Brazil, caused progressive, irreversible neuromuscular blockade in chick isolated biventer cervicis preparations. The venom also inhibited contractures to exogenous ACh (110 μM) and KCl (20 mM), caused myofiber damage and increased creatine kinase release. Commercial bothropic antivenom raised against mainland Bothrops species neutralized the neuromuscular activity, depending on the venom concentration. PMID:22155137

  9. Venom-related transcripts from Bothrops jararaca tissues provide novel molecular insights into the production and evolution of snake venom.

    PubMed

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Bastos, Carolina Mancini Val; Ho, Paulo Lee; Luna, Milene Schmidt; Yamanouye, Norma; Casewell, Nicholas R

    2015-03-01

    Attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of snake toxins in the context of their co-option to the venom gland rarely account for nonvenom snake genes that are paralogous to toxins, and which therefore represent important connectors to ancestral genes. In order to reevaluate this process, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic survey on body tissues from a venomous snake. A nonredundant set of 33,000 unigenes (assembled transcripts of reference genes) was independently assembled from six organs of the medically important viperid snake Bothrops jararaca, providing a reference list of 82 full-length toxins from the venom gland and specific products from other tissues, such as pancreatic digestive enzymes. Unigenes were then screened for nontoxin transcripts paralogous to toxins revealing 1) low level coexpression of approximately 20% of toxin genes (e.g., bradykinin-potentiating peptide, C-type lectin, snake venom metalloproteinase, snake venom nerve growth factor) in body tissues, 2) the identity of the closest paralogs to toxin genes in eight classes of toxins, 3) the location and level of paralog expression, indicating that, in general, co-expression occurs in a higher number of tissues and at lower levels than observed for toxin genes, and 4) strong evidence of a toxin gene reverting back to selective expression in a body tissue. In addition, our differential gene expression analyses identify specific cellular processes that make the venom gland a highly specialized secretory tissue. Our results demonstrate that the evolution and production of venom in snakes is a complex process that can only be understood in the context of comparative data from other snake tissues, including the identification of genes paralogous to venom toxins. PMID:25502939

  10. Venom-Related Transcripts from Bothrops jararaca Tissues Provide Novel Molecular Insights into the Production and Evolution of Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L.M.; Bastos, Carolina Mancini Val; Ho, Paulo Lee; Luna, Milene Schmidt; Yamanouye, Norma; Casewell, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of snake toxins in the context of their co-option to the venom gland rarely account for nonvenom snake genes that are paralogous to toxins, and which therefore represent important connectors to ancestral genes. In order to reevaluate this process, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic survey on body tissues from a venomous snake. A nonredundant set of 33,000 unigenes (assembled transcripts of reference genes) was independently assembled from six organs of the medically important viperid snake Bothrops jararaca, providing a reference list of 82 full-length toxins from the venom gland and specific products from other tissues, such as pancreatic digestive enzymes. Unigenes were then screened for nontoxin transcripts paralogous to toxins revealing 1) low level coexpression of approximately 20% of toxin genes (e.g., bradykinin-potentiating peptide, C-type lectin, snake venom metalloproteinase, snake venom nerve growth factor) in body tissues, 2) the identity of the closest paralogs to toxin genes in eight classes of toxins, 3) the location and level of paralog expression, indicating that, in general, co-expression occurs in a higher number of tissues and at lower levels than observed for toxin genes, and 4) strong evidence of a toxin gene reverting back to selective expression in a body tissue. In addition, our differential gene expression analyses identify specific cellular processes that make the venom gland a highly specialized secretory tissue. Our results demonstrate that the evolution and production of venom in snakes is a complex process that can only be understood in the context of comparative data from other snake tissues, including the identification of genes paralogous to venom toxins. PMID:25502939

  11. Effects of Bothrops asper Snake Venom on Lymphatic Vessels: Insights into a Hidden Aspect of Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Javier; Mora, Rodrigo; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María

    2008-01-01

    Background Envenomations by the snake Bothrops asper represent a serious medical problem in Central America and parts of South America. These envenomations concur with drastic local tissue pathology, including a prominent edema. Since lymph flow plays a role in the maintenance of tissue fluid balance, the effect of B. asper venom on collecting lymphatic vessels was studied. Methodology/Principal Findings B. asper venom was applied to mouse mesentery, and the effects were studied using an intravital microscopy methodology coupled with an image analysis program. B. asper venom induced a dose-dependent contraction of collecting lymphatic vessels, resulting in a reduction of their lumen and in a halting of lymph flow. The effect was reproduced by a myotoxic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) homologue isolated from this venom, but not by a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase or a coagulant thrombin-like serine proteinase. In agreement with this, treatment of the venom with fucoidan, a myotoxin inhibitor, abrogated the effect, whereas no inhibition was observed after incubation with the peptidomimetic metalloproteinase inhibitor Batimastat. Moreover, fucoidan significantly reduced venom-induced footpad edema. The myotoxic PLA2 homologue, known to induce skeletal muscle necrosis, was able to induce cytotoxicity in smooth muscle cells in culture and to promote an increment in the permeability to propidium iodide in these cells. Conclusions/Significance Our observations indicate that B. asper venom affects collecting lymphatic vessels through the action of myotoxic PLA2s on the smooth muscle of these vessels, inducing cell contraction and irreversible cell damage. This activity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the pronounced local edema characteristic of viperid snakebite envenomation, as well as in the systemic biodistribution of the venom, thus representing a potential therapeutical target in these envenomations. PMID:18923712

  12. Antigenic, microbicidal and antiparasitic properties of an l-amino acid oxidase isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

    PubMed

    Ciscotto, P; Machado de Avila, R A; Coelho, E A F; Oliveira, J; Diniz, C G; Farías, L M; de Carvalho, M A R; Maria, W S; Sanchez, E F; Borges, A; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2009-03-01

    Venoms from the bee Apis mellifera, the caterpillar Lonomia achelous, the spiders Lycosa sp. and Phoneutria nigriventer, the scorpions Tityus bahiensis and Tityus serrulatus, and the snakes Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops neuwiedi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta were assayed (800mug/mL) for activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Venoms from B. jararaca and B. jararacussu showed the highest S. aureus growth inhibition and also against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To characterize the microbicidal component(s) produced by B. jararaca, venom was fractionated through gel exclusion chromatography. The high molecular weight, anti-S. aureus P1 fraction was further resolved by anion exchange chromatography through Mono Q columns using a 0-0.5M NaCl gradient. Bactericidal Mono Q fractions P5 and P6 showed significant LAAO activity using l-leucine as substrate. These fractions were pooled and subjected to Heparin affinity chromatography, which rendered a single LAAO activity peak. The anti-S. aureus activity was abolished by catalase, suggesting that the effect is dependent on H(2)O(2) production. SDS-PAGE of isolated LAAO indicated the presence of three isoforms since deglycosylation with a recombinant N-glycanase rendered a single 38.2 kDa component. B. jararaca LAAO specific activity was 142.7 U/mg, based on the oxidation of l-leucine. The correlation between in vivo neutralization of lethal toxicity (ED(50)) and levels of horse therapeutic antibodies anti-LAAO measured by ELISA was investigated to predict the potency of Brazilian antibothropic antivenoms. Six horses were hyperimmunized with Bothrops venoms (50% from B. jararaca and 12.5% each from B. alternatus, B. jararacussu, B. neuwiedii and B. moojeni). To set up an indirect ELISA, B. jararaca LAAO and crude venom were used as antigens. Correlation coefficients (r) between ED(50) and ELISA antibody titers against B. jararaca

  13. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Three Myotoxins from Bothrops mattogrossensis Snake Venom with Toxicity against Leishmania and Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Andréa A.; Kayano, Anderson M.; Oliveira, George A.; Setúbal, Sulamita S.; Ribeiro, João G.; Barros, Neuza B.; Nicolete, Roberto; Moura, Laura A.; Fuly, Andre L.; Nomizo, Auro; da Silva, Saulo L.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Calderon, Leonardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Bothrops mattogrossensis snake is widely distributed throughout eastern South America and is responsible for snakebites in this region. This paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of three new phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), one of which is presumably an enzymatically active Asp49 and two are very likely enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2 homologues. The purification was obtained after two chromatographic steps on ion exchange and reverse phase column. The 2D SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the proteins have pI values around 10, are each made of a single chain, and have molecular masses near 13 kDa, which was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The N-terminal similarity analysis of the sequences showed that the proteins are highly homologous with other Lys49 and Asp49 PLA2s from Bothrops species. The PLA2s isolated were named BmatTX-I (Lys49 PLA2-like), BmatTX-II (Lys49 PLA2-like), and BmatTX-III (Asp49 PLA2). The PLA2s induced cytokine release from mouse neutrophils and showed cytotoxicity towards JURKAT (leukemia T) and SK-BR-3 (breast adenocarcinoma) cell lines and promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The structural and functional elucidation of snake venoms components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins during envenomation and their potential pharmacological and therapeutic applications. PMID:24724078

  14. Snake venomics of the Lesser Antillean pit vipers Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus: correlation with toxicological activities and immunoreactivity of a heterologous antivenom.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Escolano, José; Fernández, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno; Angulo, Yamileth; Rucavado, Alexandra; Warrell, David A; Calvete, Juan J

    2008-10-01

    The venom proteomes of the snakes Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus, endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands of Saint Lucia and Martinique, respectively, were characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation, followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venoms contain proteins belonging to seven ( B. caribbaeus) and five ( B. lanceolatus) types of toxins. B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms contain phospholipases A 2, serine proteinases, l-amino acid oxidases and zinc-dependent metalloproteinases, whereas a long disintegrin, DC-fragments and a CRISP molecule were present only in the venom of B. caribbaeus, and a C-type lectin-like molecule was characterized in the venom of B. lanceolatus. Compositional differences between venoms among closely related species from different geographic regions may be due to evolutionary environmental pressure acting on isolated populations. The venoms of these two species differed in the composition and the relative abundance of their component toxins, but they exhibited similar toxicological and enzymatic profiles in mice, characterized by lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, phospholipase A 2 and proteolytic activities. The venoms of B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus are devoid of coagulant and defibrinogenating effects and induce only mild local myotoxicity in mice. The characteristic thrombotic effect described in human envenomings by these species was not reproduced in the mouse model. The toxicological profile observed is consistent with the abundance of metalloproteinases, PLA 2s and serine proteinases in the venoms. A polyvalent (Crotalinae) antivenom produced in Costa Rica was able to immunodeplete approximately 80% of the proteins from both B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms, and was effective in neutralizing the lethal, hemorrhagic, phospholipase

  15. Bp-13 PLA2: Purification and Neuromuscular Activity of a New Asp49 Toxin Isolated from Bothrops pauloensis Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Sucasaca-Monzón, Georgina; Randazzo-Moura, Priscila; Rocha, Thalita; Vilca-Quispe, Augusto; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sérgio; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2015-01-01

    A new PLA2 (Bp-13) was purified from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom after a single chromatographic step of RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18. Amino acid analysis showed a high content of hydrophobic and basic amino acids and 14 half-cysteine residues. The N-terminal sequence showed a high degree of homology with basic Asp49 PLA2 myotoxins from other Bothrops venoms. Bp-13 showed allosteric enzymatic behavior and maximal activity at pH 8.1, 36°–45°C. Full Bp-13 PLA2 activity required Ca2+; its PLA2 activity was inhibited by Mg2+, Mn2+, Sr2+, and Cd2+ in the presence and absence of 1 mM Ca2+. In the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation, the time for 50% paralysis was concentration-dependent (P < 0.05). Both the replacement of Ca2+ by Sr2+ and temperature lowering (24°C) inhibited the Bp-13 PLA2-induced twitch-tension blockade. Bp-13 PLA2 inhibited the contractile response to direct electrical stimulation in curarized mouse PND preparation corroborating its contracture effect. In biventer cervicis preparations, Bp-13 induced irreversible twitch-tension blockade and the KCl evoked contracture was partially, but significantly, inhibited (P > 0.05). The main effect of this new Asp49 PLA2 of Bothrops pauloensis venom is on muscle fiber sarcolemma, with avian preparation being less responsive than rodent preparation. The study enhances biochemical and pharmacological characterization of B. pauloensis venom. PMID:25789175

  16. Assessment of metalloproteinase inhibitors clodronate and doxycycline in the neutralization of hemorrhage and coagulopathy induced by Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Rucavado, Alexandra; Henríquez, Mónica; García, Jonielle; Gutiérrez, José María

    2008-12-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play a prominent role in the local and systemic manifestations of viperid snakebite envenomations. Thus, the possibility of using metalloproteinase inhibitors in the treatment of these envenomations is a promising therapeutic alternative. This study assessed the ability of two metalloproteinase inhibitors, the biphosphonate clodronate and the tetracycline doxycycline, to inhibit proteolytic, hemorrhagic, coagulant and defibrinogenating effects of Bothrops asper venom. Both compounds were able to inhibit these activities, at concentrations in the mM range, when incubated with venom prior to testing. However, when inhibition of hemorrhage was assessed in assays involving independent injection of venom and drug, inhibition was poor, even when these compounds were injected immediately after envenomation. These findings support the concept that the effectiveness of compounds, such as clodronate and doxycycline, whose inhibitory action on SVMPs is based on zinc chelation alone, is limited, and stress the view that more specific molecules are required for an effective inhibition of SVMPs in vivo. PMID:18824013

  17. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J

    2006-06-01

    We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea) and root (Uncaria tomentosa) extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours. PMID:18494294

  18. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) Inhibits Enzymatic and Biological Actions of Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Silva, Juliana; Souza, Thiago; Menezes, Yamara A. S.; Cabral, Bárbara; Câmara, Rafael B. G.; Silva-Junior, Arnóbio A.; Rocha, Hugo A. O.; Rebecchi, Ivanise M. M.; Zucolotto, Silvana M.; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F.

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs), including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs), as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2). Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects, suggesting that

  19. Neutralization, by a monospecific Bothrops lanceolatus antivenom, of toxic activities induced by homologous and heterologous Bothírops snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Bogarín, G; Romero, M; Rojas, G; Lutsch, C; Casadamont, M; Lang, J; Otero, R; Gutiérrez, J M

    1999-03-01

    A monospecific Bothrops lanceolatus antivenom, currently used in Martinique, was tested for its efficacy in the neutralization of several toxic and enzymatic activities of the venoms of B. lanceolatus, B. atrox and B. asper. When tested by the i.p. route in mice, B. lanceolatus venom had an LD50 of 12.8 microg/g. In addition, it induced local tissue damage (hemorrhage, edema and myotoxicity) and showed indirect hemolytic activity, but was devoid of coagulant effect on human plasma in vitro and of defibrinating activity in mice. Antivenom was fully effective in the neutralization of lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, myotoxic and indirect hemolytic effects of B. lanceolatus venom in assays involving preincubation of venom and antivenom. When tested against the venoms of B. asper and B. atrox, the antivenom completely neutralized the lethal, hemorrhagic, myotoxic and indirect hemolytic effects, and was partially effective in neutralizing edema-forming activity. In contrast, the antivenom was ineffective in the neutralization of in vitro coagulant and in vivo defibrinating effects induced by these two venoms. PMID:10080358

  20. [Cytotoxicity induced by Peruvian snake venom on fibroblasts of mice].

    PubMed

    Goñi, M; Vaisberg, A; Zavaleta, A

    1992-04-01

    The cytotoxic effect of venoms from six crotalinae Peruvian snakes (Bothrops atrox; B. brazili; B. pictus; B. barnetti; Lachesis m. muta y Crotalus durissus terrificus) was studied in an in vitro system of BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts grown in Dulbecco modified minimal essential medium at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2-95% air. The viability of the cells was evaluated 24 hours after the treatment with the different venoms, using the method of exclusion of trypan blue. The six venoms produced cytotoxic effects at 24 hours on the 3T3 fibroblasts. The venom from B. atrox was the most potent (DE50 = 162 ng/ml) and that from B. barnetti the least (DE50 = 7182 ng/ml). PMID:1297169

  1. Natural resistance of opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) to the mapanare (Bothrops lanceolatus) snake venom.

    PubMed

    Pifano, F; Aguilar, I; Giron, M E; Gamboa, N; Rodriguez-Acosta, A

    1993-01-01

    The inactivation of local and general effects of the Mapanare (Bothrops lanceolatus) venom by Opossum's (Didelphis marsupialis) serum fractions was tested using an in vivo assay and an in vitro preincubation experiment. A serum fraction of the Opossum serum has been obtained by immunochemical purification. It is only present in opossum's protective opossum serum fraction (F-0.1). PMID:8186456

  2. Impact of regional variation in Bothrops asper snake venom on the design of antivenoms: integrating antivenomics and neutralization approaches.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Figueroa, Lucía; Madrigal, Marvin; Herrera, María; Villalta, Mauren; León, Guillermo; Estrada, Ricardo; Borges, Adolfo; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Calvete, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    Intraspecific snake venom variations have implications in the preparation of venom pools for the generation of antivenoms. The impact of such variation in the cross-reactivity of antivenoms against Bothrops asper venom was assessed by comparing two commercial and four experimental antivenoms. All antivenoms showed similar immunorecognition pattern toward the venoms from adult and neonate specimens. They completely immunodepleted most P-III snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), l-amino acid oxidases, serine proteinases, DC fragments, cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), and C-type lectin-like proteins, and partially immunodepleted medium-sized disintegrins, phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s), some serine proteinases, and P-I SVMPs. Although all antivenoms abrogated the lethal, hemorrhagic, coagulant, proteinase, and PLA(2) venoms activities, monospecific experimental antivenoms were more effective than the polyspecific experimental antivenom. In addition, the commercial antivenoms, produced in horses subjected to repeated immunization cycles, showed higher neutralization than experimental polyspecific antivenom, produced by a single round of immunization. Overall, a conspicuous pattern of cross-neutralization was evident for all effects by all antivenoms, and monospecific antivenoms raised against venom from the Caribbean population were effective against venom from the Pacific population, indicating that geographic variations in venom proteomes of B. asper from Costa Rica do not result in overt variations in immunological cross-reactivity between antivenoms. PMID:19911849

  3. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A V; Rucavado, A; Sanz, L; Calvete, J J; Gutiérrez, J M

    2008-01-01

    A serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity was isolated from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothrops asper. Isolation was performed by a combination of affinity chromatography on aminobenzamidine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The enzyme accounts for approximately 0.13% of the venom dry weight and has a molecular mass of 32 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE, and of 27 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its partial amino acid sequence shows high identity with snake venom serine proteinases and a complete identity with a cDNA clone previously sequenced from this species. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme is VIGGDECNINEHRSLVVLFXSSGFL CAGTLVQDEWVLTAANCDSKNFQ. The enzyme induces clotting of plasma (minimum coagulant dose = 4.1 microg) and fibrinogen (minimum coagulant dose = 4.2 microg) in vitro, and promotes defibrin(ogen)ation in vivo (minimum defibrin(ogen)ating dose = 1.0 microg). In addition, when injected intravenously in mice at doses of 5 and 10 microg, it induces a series of behavioral changes, i.e., loss of the righting reflex, opisthotonus, and intermittent rotations over the long axis of the body, which closely resemble the ;gyroxin-like' effect induced by other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. PMID:17994164

  4. Crotalid snake venom subproteomes unraveled by the antiophidic protein DM43.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Surza L G; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Trugilho, Monique R O; Chapeaurouge, Alex; León, Ileana R; Valente, Richard H; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2009-05-01

    Snake venoms are mixtures of proteins and peptides with different biological activities, many of which are very toxic. Several animals, including the opossum Didelphis aurita, are resistant to snake venoms due to the presence of neutralizing factors in their blood. An antihemorrhagic protein named DM43 was isolated from opossum serum. It inhibits snake venom metalloproteinases through noncovalent complex formation with these enzymes. In this study, we have used DM43 and proteomic techniques to explore snake venom subproteomes. Four crotalid venoms were chromatographed through an affinity column containing immobilized DM43. Bound fractions were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. With this approach, we could easily visualize and compare the metalloproteinase compositions of Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops insularis, and Crotalus atrox snake venoms. The important contribution of proteolytic processing to the complexity of this particular subproteome was demonstrated. Fractions not bound to DM43 column were similarly analyzed and were composed mainly of serine proteinases, C-type lectins, C-type lectin-like proteins, l-amino acid oxidases, nerve growth factor, cysteine-rich secretory protein, a few metalloproteinases (and their fragments), and some unidentified spots. Although very few toxin families were represented in the crotalid venoms analyzed, the number of protein spots detected was in the hundreds, indicating an important protein variability in these natural secretions. DM43 affinity chromatography and associated proteomic techniques proved to be useful tools to separate and identify proteins from snake venoms, contributing to a better comprehension of venom heterogeneity. PMID:19267469

  5. Food resources influence spatial ecology, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in an ambush-hunting snake (Viperidae: Bothrops asper): an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wasko, Dennis K; Sasa, Mahmood

    2012-06-01

    Prey availability affects many aspects of predators' life history and is considered a primary factor influencing individuals' decisions regarding spatial ecology and behavior, but few experimental data are currently available. Snakes may represent ideal model organisms relative to other animal groups for addressing such resource dependency, due to a presumably more direct link between food resources and many aspects of behavior and natural history. We experimentally investigated the relationship between food intake and spatial behavior in a population of the snake Bothrops asper in a Costa Rican lowland rainforest. Six adult snakes were allowed to forage naturally while six were offered supplemental food in the field, with both groups monitored using radiotelemetry. Mean home range size did not differ between groups presumably due to small sample size, but supplementally fed snakes demonstrated altered patterns of macro- and microhabitat selection, shorter and less frequent movements, and increased mass acquisition. Fed snakes also devoted less time to foraging efforts, instead more frequently remaining inactive and utilizing shelter. Because snakes were always fed in situ and not at designated feeding stations, observed shifts in habitat selection are not explained by animals simply moving to areas of higher food availability. Rather, B. asper may have moved to swamps in order to feed on amphibians when necessary, but remained in preferred forest habitat when food was otherwise abundant. The strong behavioral and spatiotemporal responses of snakes in this population may have been influenced by an overall scarcity of mammalian prey during the study period. PMID:22440190

  6. Heterologous expression and biochemical and functional characterization of a recombinant alpha-type myotoxin inhibitor from Bothrops alternatus snake.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, Norival A; Boldrini-França, Johara; Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Menaldo, Danilo L; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Sousa, Tiago S; Cintra, Adélia C O; Mamede, Carla C N; Oliveira, Fábio; Arantes, Eliane C; Antunes, Lusânia M Greggi; Cilli, Eduardo M; Sampaio, Suely V

    2014-10-01

    Venomous and non-venomous snakes possess phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitory proteins (PLIs) in their blood serum. This study shows the expression and biochemical and functional characterization of a recombinant alpha inhibitor from Bothrops alternatus snake, named rBaltMIP. Its expression was performed in Pichia pastoris heterologous system, resulting in an active recombinant protein. The expressed inhibitor was tested regarding its ability to inhibit the phospholipase activity of different PLA2s, showing slight inhibitions especially at the molar ratios of 1:1 and 1:3 (PLA2:PLI). rBaltMIP was also effective in decreasing the myotoxic activity of the tested toxins at molar ratios greater than 1:0.4 (myotoxin:PLI). The inhibition of the myotoxic activity of different Asp49 (BthTX-II and PrTX-III) and Lys49 (BthTX-I and PrTX-I) myotoxins was also performed without the prior incubation of myotoxins/inhibitor in order to analyze the real possibility of using snake plasma inhibitors or recombinant inhibitors as therapeutic agents for treating envenomations. As a result, rBaltMIP was able to significantly inhibit the myotoxicity of Lys49 myotoxins. Histopathological analysis of the gastrocnemius muscles of mice showed that the myotoxins are able to induce severe damage to the muscle fibers of experimental animals by recruiting a large number of leukocyte infiltrates, besides forming an intense accumulation of intercellular fluid, leading to local edema. When those myotoxins were incubated with rBaltMIP, a reduction of the damage site could be observed. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity of Asp49 PLA2s and Lys49 PLA2-like enzymes on C2C12 cell lines was decreased, as shown by the higher cell viabilities after preincubation with rBaltMIP. Heterologous expression would enable large-scale obtainment of rBaltMIP, thus allowing further investigations for the elucidation of possible mechanisms of inhibition of snake PLA2s, which have not yet been fully clarified. PMID:25047442

  7. Diversity of metalloproteinases in Bothrops neuwiedi snake venom transcripts: evidences for recombination between different classes of SVMPs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are widely distributed in snake venoms and are versatile toxins, targeting many important elements involved in hemostasis, such as basement membrane proteins, clotting proteins, platelets, endothelial and inflammatory cells. The functional diversity of SVMPs is in part due to the structural organization of different combinations of catalytic, disintegrin, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, which categorizes SVMPs in 3 classes of precursor molecules (PI, PII and PIII) further divided in 11 subclasses, 6 of them belonging to PII group. This heterogeneity is currently correlated to genetic accelerated evolution and post-translational modifications. Results Thirty-one SVMP cDNAs were full length cloned from a single specimen of Bothrops neuwiedi snake, sequenced and grouped in eleven distinct sequences and further analyzed by cladistic analysis. Class P-I and class P-III sequences presented the expected tree topology for fibrinolytic and hemorrhagic SVMPs, respectively. In opposition, three distinct segregations were observed for class P-II sequences. P-IIb showed the typical segregation of class P-II SVMPs. However, P-IIa grouped with class P-I cDNAs presenting a 100% identity in the 365 bp at their 5' ends, suggesting post-transcription events for interclass recombination. In addition, catalytic domain of P-IIx sequences segregated with non-hemorrhagic class P-III SVMPs while their disintegrin domain grouped with other class P-II disintegrin domains suggesting independent evolution of catalytic and disintegrin domains. Complementary regions within cDNA sequences were noted and may participate in recombination either at DNA or RNA levels. Proteins predicted by these cDNAs show the main features of the correspondent classes of SVMP, but P-IIb and P-IIx included two additional cysteines cysteines at the C-termini of the disintegrin domains in positions not yet described. Conclusions In B. neuwiedi venom gland

  8. Biochemical Characterization, Action on Macrophages, and Superoxide Anion Production of Four Basic Phospholipases A2 from Panamanian Bothrops asper Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Aristides Quintero; Rodríguez, Isela González; Arantes, Eliane C.; Setúbal, Sulamita S.; Calderon, Leonardo de A.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.; Soares, Andreimar M.

    2013-01-01

    Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) is the most important venomous snake in Central America, being responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents. Four basic PLA2s (pMTX-I to -IV) were purified from crude venom by a single-step chromatography using a CM-Sepharose ion-exchange column (1.5 × 15 cm). Analysis of the N-terminal sequence demonstrated that pMTX-I and III belong to the catalytically active Asp49 phospholipase A2 subclass, whereas pMTX-II and IV belong to the enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2s-like subclass. The PLA2s isolated from Panama Bothrops asper venom (pMTX-I, II, III, and IV) are able to induce myotoxic activity, inflammatory reaction mainly leukocyte migration to the muscle, and induce J774A.1 macrophages activation to start phagocytic activity and superoxide production. PMID:23509779

  9. Biochemical characterization, action on macrophages, and superoxide anion production of four basic phospholipases A2 from Panamanian Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Aristides Quintero; Rodríguez, Isela González; Arantes, Eliane C; Setúbal, Sulamita S; Calderon, Leonardo de A; Zuliani, Juliana P; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2013-01-01

    Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) is the most important venomous snake in Central America, being responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents. Four basic PLA2s (pMTX-I to -IV) were purified from crude venom by a single-step chromatography using a CM-Sepharose ion-exchange column (1.5 × 15 cm). Analysis of the N-terminal sequence demonstrated that pMTX-I and III belong to the catalytically active Asp49 phospholipase A2 subclass, whereas pMTX-II and IV belong to the enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2s-like subclass. The PLA2s isolated from Panama Bothrops asper venom (pMTX-I, II, III, and IV) are able to induce myotoxic activity, inflammatory reaction mainly leukocyte migration to the muscle, and induce J774A.1 macrophages activation to start phagocytic activity and superoxide production. PMID:23509779

  10. New methodology for the obtainment of antibothropic factors from the South American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and jararaca snake (Bothrops jararaca).

    PubMed

    Neves-Ferreira, A G; Valente, R H; Sá, P G; Rocha, S L; Moussatché, H; Domont, G B; Perales, J

    1999-10-01

    The antibothropic factor (ABF) from D. marsupialis was collected from perforated hollow plastic golf balls which were surgically implanted subcutaneously in anesthetized opossums, a technique originally described for the production of polyclonal antibodies. Two months after the implantation of the balls, approximately 15 ml of seromatous fluid from D. marsupialis (SFDm-50 mg total protein/ml) could be recovered monthly. Opossum serum as well as SFDm showed similar SDS-PAGE profiles and antihemorrhagic potencies against Bothrops jararaca snake venom (Bjv). The presence of ABF in SFDm was confirmed by immunoblotting, using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against ABF isolated from opossum serum. ABF isolated from SFDm or from serum by ion-exchange chromatography showed identical chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles. ABF fromboth sources displayed very similar antihemorrhagic and anticaseinolytic activities against Bjv. In the case of B. jararaca, polyethylene perforated tubes were inserted in the abdominal cavity and two months after implantation, approximately 4 ml of seromatous fluid from B. jararaca (SFBj-23 mg total protein/ml) were recovered. B.jararaca serum and SFBj showed the same native and SDS-PAGE band pattern. Both serum and SFBj inhibited Bjv hemorrhagic activity. We conclude that this new methodology is very suitable for continuously obtaining opossum ABF and SFBj, in large scale and in an easier way, avoiding animal suffering and eventual sacrifice. PMID:10414866

  11. A phospholipase A₂ from Bothrops asper snake venom activates neutrophils in culture: expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE₂ biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Vanessa; Gutiérrez, José María; Amaral, Rafaela Bacci; Lomonte, Bruno; Purgatto, Eduardo; Teixeira, Catarina

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the production of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and up-regulation in cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway induced by a phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂), myotoxin-III (MT-III), purified from Bothrops asper snake venom, in isolated neutrophils were investigated. The arachidonic acid (AA) production and the participation of intracellular PLA₂s (cytosolic PLA₂ and Ca(2+)-independent PLA₂) in these events were also evaluated. MT-III induced COX-2, but not COX-1 gene and protein expression in neutrophils and increased PGE₂ levels. Pretreatment of neutrophils with COX-2 and COX-1 inhibitors reduced PGE₂ production induced by MT-III. Arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF₃), an intracellular PLA₂ inhibitor, but not bromoenol lactone (BEL), an iPLA₂ inhibitor, suppressed the MT-III-induced AA and PGE₂ release. In conclusion, MT-III directly stimulates neutrophils inducing COX-2 mRNA and protein expression followed by production of PGE₂. COX-2 isoform is preeminent over COX-1 for production of PGE₂ stimulated by MT-III. PGE₂ and AA release by MT-III probably is related to cPLA₂ activation. PMID:21147147

  12. BbMP-1, a new metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops brazili snake venom with in vitro antiplasmodial properties.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Anderson M; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Medeiros, Patrícia S M; Maltarollo, Vinícius G; Honorio, Kathia M; Oliveira, Eliandre; Albericio, Fernando; da Silva, Saulo L; Aguiar, Anna Caroline C; Krettli, Antoniana U; Fernandes, Carla F C; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2015-11-01

    This study describes the biochemical and functional characterization of a new metalloproteinase named BbMP-1, isolated from Bothrops brazili venom. BbMP-1 was homogeneous on SDS-PAGE, presented molecular mass of 22,933Da and pI 6.4. The primary structure was partially elucidated with high identity with others metalloproteinases from Viperidae venoms. The enzymatic activity on azocasein was evaluated in different experimental conditions (pH, temperature). A significant reduction in enzyme activity after exposure to chelators of divalent cations (EDTA), reducing agents (DTT), pH less than 5.0 or temperatures higher than 45 °C was observed. BbMP-1 showed activity on fibrinogen degrading Aα chain quickly and to a lesser extent the Bβ chain. Also demostrated to be weakly hemorrhagic, presenting however, significant myotoxic and edematogenic activity. The in vitro activity of BbMP-1 against Plasmodium falciparum showed an IC50 of 3.2 ± 2.0 μg/mL. This study may help to understand the pathophysiological effects induced by this group of toxin and their participation in the symptoms observed in cases of snake envenomation. Moreover, this result is representative for this group of proteins and shows the biotechnological potential of BbMP-1 by the demonstration of its antiplasmodial activity. PMID:26363289

  13. Purification and Characterization of BmooAi: A New Toxin from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom That Inhibits Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro de Queiroz, Mayara; Mamede, Carla Cristine N.; de Morais, Nadia Cristina G.; Cortes Fonseca, Kelly; Barbosa de Sousa, Bruna; Migliorini, Thaís M.; Pereira, Déborah Fernanda C.; Stanziola, Leonilda; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Martins Soares, Andreimar; de Oliveira, Fábio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the purification/characterization of BmooAi, a new toxin from Bothrops moojeni that inhibits platelet aggregation. The purification of BmooAi was carried out through three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on a DEAE-Sephacel column, molecular exclusion on a Sephadex G-75 column, and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography on a C2/C18 column). BmooAi was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and shown to be a single-chain protein of 15,000 Da. BmooAi was analysed by MALDI-TOF Spectrometry and revealed two major components with molecular masses 7824.4 and 7409.2 as well as a trace of protein with a molecular mass of 15,237.4 Da. Sequencing of BmooAi by Edman degradation showed two amino acid sequences: IRDFDPLTNAPENTA and ETEEGAEEGTQ, which revealed no homology to any known toxin from snake venom. BmooAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate, or epinephrine in human platelet-rich plasma in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin. The effect on platelet aggregation induced by BmooAi remained active even when heated to 100°C. BmooAi could be of medical interest as a new tool for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. PMID:24971359

  14. Comparison of the adjuvant activity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response towards Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Hidekel; Herrera, María; Rojas, Leonardo; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Leiguez, Elbio; Teixeira, Catarina; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo; Montero, Mavis L

    2014-01-01

    The adjuvanticity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response in mice towards the venom of the snake Bothrops asper was studied. It was found that, in vitro, most of the venom proteins are similarly adsorbed by both mineral salts, with the exception of some basic phospholipases A2, which are better adsorbed by calcium phosphate. After injection, the adjuvants promoted a slow release of the venom, as judged by the lack of acute toxicity when lethal doses of venom were administered to mice. Leukocyte recruitment induced by the venom was enhanced when it was adsorbed on both mineral salts; however, venom adsorbed on calcium phosphate induced a higher antibody response towards all tested HPLC fractions of the venom. On the other hand, co-precipitation of venom with calcium phosphate was the best strategy for increasing: (1) the capacity of the salt to couple venom proteins in vitro; (2) the venom ability to induce leukocyte recruitment; (3) phagocytosis by macrophages; and (4) a host antibody response. These findings suggest that the chemical nature is not the only one determining factor of the adjuvant activity of mineral salts. PMID:23506358

  15. Humoral immune responses to venom and antivenom of patients bitten by Bothrops snakes.

    PubMed

    Morais, Víctor; Berasain, Patricia; Ifrán, Silvana; Carreira, Santiago; Tortorella, María Noel; Negrín, Alba; Massaldi, Hugo

    2012-02-01

    Snake envenomation and its treatment cause the entry of two kind of foreign antigens into the human body: snake toxins and antivenom from animal origin. Samples of patients bitten by snakes in Uruguay were assayed to determine levels of human antibodies against venom and antivenom. The ELISA results showed that most of the patients presented an important increase of IgG and IgM antibodies against antivenom at day 15 post accident. Antibodies were reactive against both equine immunoglobulin chains by western blot assay. In the case of the response against the venom, increase in titre at day 15 was of a minor degree as compared with the antivenom by ELISA. Only one of the patients showed an important increase of IgG and IgM levels against Bothropoides pubescens and only of IgG level against Rhinocerophis alternatus. This patient also showed an extensive reactivity against B. pubescens by western blot. PMID:22206812

  16. Data for a direct fibrinolytic metalloproteinase, barnettlysin-I from Bothrops barnetti (barnett,s pitviper) snake venom with anti-thrombotic effect

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Eladio Flores; Richardson, Michael; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Yarleque, Armando; Niland, Stephan; Lima, Augusto Martins; Estevao-Costa, Maria Inácia; Eble, Johannes Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Initial association of platelets after vascular injury is mediated by glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX-V binding to von Willebrand factor (vWf) immobilized on exposed collagens and eventually leads to thrombus formation. This article provides data about a new P-I class snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), barnettlysin-I (Bar-I), purified from the venom of Bothrops barnetti. This Data in Brief manuscript complements the main research article by providing additional data of the biochemical characterization of Bar-I 10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.12.021[1]. PMID:27222863

  17. Data for a direct fibrinolytic metalloproteinase, barnettlysin-I from Bothrops barnetti (barnett(,)s pitviper) snake venom with anti-thrombotic effect.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Eladio Flores; Richardson, Michael; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Yarleque, Armando; Niland, Stephan; Lima, Augusto Martins; Estevao-Costa, Maria Inácia; Eble, Johannes Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Initial association of platelets after vascular injury is mediated by glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX-V binding to von Willebrand factor (vWf) immobilized on exposed collagens and eventually leads to thrombus formation. This article provides data about a new P-I class snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), barnettlysin-I (Bar-I), purified from the venom of Bothrops barnetti. This Data in Brief manuscript complements the main research article by providing additional data of the biochemical characterization of Bar-I 10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.12.021[1]. PMID:27222863

  18. Experimental pathology of local tissue damage induced by Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra; Chaves, Fernando; Díaz, Cecilia; Escalante, Teresa

    2009-12-01

    Envenomations by Bothrops asper are often associated with complex and severe local pathological manifestations, including edema, blistering, dermonecrosis, myonecrosis and hemorrhage. The pathogenesis of these alterations has been investigated at the experimental level. These effects are mostly the consequence of the direct action of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and myotoxic phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s). SVMPs induce hemorrhage, blistering, dermonecrosis and general extracellular matrix degradation, whereas PLA(2)s induce myonecrosis and also affect lymphatic vessels. In addition, the prominent vascular alterations leading to hemorrhage and edema may contribute to ischemia and further tissue necrosis. The mechanisms of action of SVMPs and PLA(2)s are discussed in detail in this review. Venom-induced tissue damage plays also a role in promoting bacterial infection. A prominent inflammatory reaction develops as a consequence of these local pathological alterations, with the synthesis and release of abundant mediators, resulting in edema and pain. However, whether inflammatory cells and mediators contribute to further tissue damage is not clear at present. Muscle tissue regeneration after venom-induced pathological effects is often impaired, thus resulting in permanent tissue loss and dysfunction. SVMP-induced microvessel damage is likely to be responsible of this poor regenerative outcome. Antivenoms are only partially effective in the neutralization of B. asper-induced local effects, and the search for novel toxin inhibitors represents a potential avenue for improving the treatment of this serious aspect of snakebite envenomation. PMID:19303033

  19. Immunochemical and biological characterization of monoclonal antibodies against BaP1, a metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, I; Assumpção, G G; Silveira, C R F; Faquim-Mauro, E L; Tanjoni, I; Carmona, A K; Alves, M F M; Takehara, H A; Rucavado, A; Ramos, O H P; Moura-da-Silva, A M; Gutiérrez, J M

    2010-11-01

    BaP1 is a P-I class of Snake Venom Metalloproteinase (SVMP) relevant in the local tissue damage associated with envenomations by Bothrops asper, a medically-important species in Central America and parts of South America. Six monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against BaP1 (MABaP1) were produced and characterized regarding their isotype, dissociation constant (K(d)), specificity and ability to neutralize BaP1-induced hemorrhagic and proteolytic activity. Two MABaP1 are IgM, three are IgG1 and one is IgG2b. The K(d)s of IgG MoAbs were in the nM range. All IgG MoAbs recognized conformational epitopes of BaP1 and B. asper venom components but failed to recognize venoms from 27 species of Viperidae, Colubridae and Elapidae families. Clone 7 cross-reacted with three P-I SVMPs tested (moojeni protease, insularinase and neuwiedase). BaP1-induced hemorrhage was totally neutralized by clones 3, 6 and 8 but not by clone 7. Inhibition of BaP1 enzymatic activity on a synthetic substrate by MABaP1 was totally achieved by clones 3 and 6, and partially by clone 8, but not by clone 7. In conclusion, these neutralizing MoAbs against BaP1 may become important tools to understand structure-function relationships of BaP1 and the role of P-I class SVMP in snakebite envenomation. PMID:20674587

  20. Hemorrhagic, coagulant and fibrino(geno)lytic activities of crude venom and fractions from mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) snakes.

    PubMed

    Girón, María E; Salazar, Ana M; Aguilar, Irma; Pérez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Guerrero, Belsy

    2008-01-01

    Bothrops colombiensis venom from two similar geographical locations were tested for their hemostatic functions and characterized by gel-filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The snakes were from Caucagua and El Guapo towns of the Venezuelan state of Miranda. Fibrino(geno)lytic, procoagulant, hemorrhagic, lethal activities, gel-filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE profiles were analyzed and compared for both venoms. The highest hemorrhagic activity of 5.3 mug was seen in El Guapo venom while Caucagua venom had the lowest LD(50) of 5.8 mg/kg. Both venoms presented similar thrombin-like activity. El Guapo showed a factor Xa-like activity two times higher than Caucagua. Differences were observed in kallikrein-like and t-PA activities, being highest in El Guapo. Caucagua venom showed the maximum fibrin lysis. Both crude venom runs on Sephadex G-100 chromatography gave fraction SII with the high fibrinolytic activity. Proteases presented in SII fractions and eluted from Benzamidine-Sepharose (not bound to the column) provoked a fast degradation of fibrinogen alpha chains and a slower degradation of beta chains, which could possibly be due to a higher content of alpha fibrinogenases in these venoms. The fibrinogenolytic activity was decreased by metalloprotease inhibitors. The results suggested that metalloproteases in SII fractions were responsible for the fibrinolytic activity. The analysis of samples for fibrin-zymography of SII fractions showed an active band with a molecular mass of approximately 30 kDa. These results reiterate the importance of using pools of venoms for antivenom immunization, to facilitate the neutralization of the maximum potential number of toxins. PMID:17933591

  1. Snake venom galactoside-binding lectins: a structural and functional overview.

    PubMed

    Sartim, Marco A; Sampaio, Suely V

    2015-01-01

    Snake venom galactoside-binding lectins (SVgalLs) comprise a class of toxins capable of recognizing and interacting with terminal galactoside residues of glycans. In the past 35 years, since the first report on the purification of thrombolectin from Bothrops atrox snake venom, several SVgalLs from Viperidae and Elapidae snake families have been described, as has progressive improvement in the investigation of structural/functional aspects of these lectins. Moreover, the advances of techniques applied in protein-carbohydrate recognition have provided important approaches in order to screen for possible biological targets. The present review describes the efforts over the past 35 years to elucidate SVgalLs, highlighting their structure and carbohydrate recognition function involved in envenomation pathophysiology and potential biomedical applications. PMID:26413085

  2. Effect of diterpenes isolated of the marine alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis against some toxic effects of the venom of the bothrops jararaca snake.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Thaisa Francielle Souza; Vallim, Magui Aparecida; Cavalcanti, Diana Negrão; Sanchez, Eládio Flores; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Fuly, André Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins and peptides which induce a wide range of toxic effects. Envenomation by Bothrops jararaca venom results in hemorrhage, edema, pain, tissue necrosis and hemolysis. In this work, the effect of a mixture of two secodolastane diterpenes (linearol/isolinearol), previously isolated from the Brazilian marine brown alga, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, was evaluated against some of the toxic effects induced by B. jararaca venom. The mixture of diterpenes was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and incubated with venom for 30 min at room temperature, and then several in vivo (hemorrhage, edema and lethality) and in vitro (hemolysis, plasma clotting and proteolysis) assays were performed. The diterpenes inhibited hemolysis, proteolysis and hemorrhage, but failed to inhibit clotting and edema induced by B. jararaca venom. Moreover, diterpenes partially protected mice from lethality caused by B. jararaca venom. The search for natural inhibitors of B. jararaca venom in C. cervicornis algae is a relevant subject, since seaweeds are a rich and powerful source of active molecules which are as yet but poorly explored. Our results suggest that these diterpenes have the potential to be used against Bothropic envenomation accidents or to improve traditional treatments for snake bites. PMID:25699595

  3. Linear B-cell epitopes in BthTX-1, BthTX-II and BthA-1, phospholipase A₂'s from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, recognized by therapeutically neutralizing commercial horse antivenom.

    PubMed

    De-Simone, Salvatore G; Napoleão-Pego, Paloma; Teixeira-Pinto, Luiz A L; Santos, Jonathas D L; De-Simone, Thatiane S; Melgarejo, Anibal R; Aguiar, Aniesse S; Marchi-Salvador, Daniela P

    2013-09-01

    The benefits from treatment with antivenom sera are indubitable. However, the mechanism for toxin neutralization has not been completely elucidated. A mixture of anti-bothropic and anti-crotalic horse antivenom has been reported to be more effective in neutralizing the effects of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom than anti-bothropic antivenom alone. This study determined which regions in the three PLA₂s from B. jararacussu snake venom are bound by antibodies in tetravalent anti-bothropic and monovalent anti-crotalic commercial horse antivenom. Mapping experiments of BthTX-I, BthTX-II and BthA-I using two small libraries of 69 peptides each revealed six major IgG-binding epitopes that were recognized by both anti-bothropic and anti-crotalic horse antivenom. Two epitopes in BthTX-I were only recognized by the anti-bothropic horse antivenom, while anti-crotalic horse antivenom recognized four unique epitopes across the three PLA₂s. Our studies suggest that the harmful activities of the PLA₂s present in the venom of B. jararacussu are neutralized by the combinatorial treatment with both antivenom sera through their complementary binding sites, which provides a wide coverage on the PLA₂s. This is the first peptide microarray of PLA₂s from B. jararacussu snake venom to survey the performance of commercial horse antiophidic antivenom. Regions recognized by the protective antivenom sera are prime candidates for improved venom cocktails or a chimeric protein encoding the multiple epitopes to immunize animals as well as for designing future synthetic vaccines. PMID:23792452

  4. Cell death induced by Bothrops asper snake venom metalloproteinase on endothelial and other cell lines.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Oscar; Muñóz, Eduardo; Roldán-Rodríguez, Raquel; Díaz, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Two adherent cell lines, BAEC and HeLa, and non-adherent Jurkat, were treated with snake venom metalloproteinase BaP1 to determine whether cytotoxicity, previously reported for this toxin, could be mediated by the process of anoikis. It was observed that there was no correlation between the ability of this toxin to induce loss of adherence, and the cytotoxic effect, since concentrations that do not induce loss of adherence (3-6 microg/mL), were able to trigger 50% of cytotoxicity in BAEC. In the case of HeLa, where toxicity was very low (less than 20% at maximun concentrations and times of exposure), significant detachment and no toxicity was observed at concentrations of 1.5 microg/mL, showing also no correlation between both events. We also observed differences between BAEC toxicity measured by XTT reduction and DNA fragmentation determined by flow cytometry (as an indicator of apoptosis), since concentrations that induce 100% of cytotoxicity barely showed any DNA fragmentation (12% at 24h), suggesting that if apoptosis was involved, DNA damage is still not present, although chromatin condensation, another indicator of apoptosis, is observed in 40% of the cells. Inhibition of BAEC cytotoxicity by caspase inhibitors indicate that apoptosis is playing a role in this process, but other mechanisms of cell death could be participating also. Another way to determine whether the mechanism of cell death was related to anoikis was using a non-adherent cell line, which should show substrate independence. We determined by TUNEL that at 50 microg/ml BaP1 triggered 50% of apoptosis at 96 h, an effect that was seen earlier, suggesting also that if this toxin was inducing apoptosis in a non-adherent cell line, the mechanism could not be related to loss of attachment. Cell cycle arrest in S phase was also observed in Jurkat cells, an effect that could be leading to apoptosis. In conclusion, since there was no correlation between cell detachment and cytotoxicity (and apoptosis

  5. Determination of Toxic Activities in Bothrops spp. Snake Venoms Using Animal-Free Approaches: Correlation Between In Vitro Versus In Vivo Assays.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Letícia Lopes; Stransky, Stephanie; Guerra-Duarte, Clara; Flor-Sá, Ana; Schneider, Francisco Santos; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the in vitro toxic effects of 5 Bothrops spp. snake venoms, which are part of the antigenic mixture used for the production of Brazilian antivenom, and evaluate their correlation with the in vivo toxic activities of Bothrops spp. venoms. The correlation analysis could be helpful for the replacement of living animals experimentation for in vitro bioassay. Cytotoxicity, L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), proteolitic (serine and metalloproteinase), hyaluronidase (Hyal), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities were estimated and the correlation coefficient was determined for each activity in relation to lethality, edema, hemorrhage and necrosis induced in live animals by B. jararaca, B. alternatus, B. jararacussu, B. neuwiedi, and B. moojeni venoms. The lethal activity in mice was highly related to Hyal activity (r = 0.94, p < .05), edema related to PLA2 activity (r = 0.94, p < .05), whereas the necrotizing activity showed high correlation with LAAO activity (r = 0.83, p < .05). A very significant correlation between in vitro cytotoxicity and LAAO activities was also observed (r = 0.97, p < .05). PMID:26160116

  6. Preliminary studies of the effects of a Peruvian snake Bothrops pictus (jergon of the coast) venom upon fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Olascoaga, M E; Zavaleta, A; Marsh, N A

    1988-01-01

    Bothrops pictus (jergon of the coast) venom has a coagulant effect in vitro on both canine fibrinogen and on human and canine plasma, with a greater affinity for canine plasma. In vivo a single dose of venom produced partial defibrinogenation in conscious dogs, plasma fibrinogen being reduced to about 60% of control values after 6 hr. PMID:3188056

  7. Structural characterization and neuromuscular activity of a new Lys49 phospholipase A(2) homologous (Bp-12) isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Randazzo-Moura, Priscila; Ponce-Soto, L A; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2008-09-01

    Bp-12 was isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom in only one chromatographic step in reverse phase HPLC on micro-Bondapack C-18. The molecular mass of 13,789.56 Da was determined by mass spectrometry. The amino acids composition showed that Bp-12 presented high content of Lys, Tyr, Gly, Pro, and 14 half-Cys residues, typical of a basic PLA(2). The sequence of Bp-12 contains 122 amino acid residues: SLFELGKMIL QETGKNPAKS LGAFYCYCGW GSQGQPKDAV DRCCYVHKCC YKKITGCNPK KDRYSYSWKD KTLVCGEDNS CLKELCECDK AVAICLRENL NTYNKKYRYF LKPLCKKADA AC, with a pI value of 8.55 and with a high homology with Lys49 PLA(2) from other snake venoms. In mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm, the time needed for 50% paralysis was: 45 +/- 6 min (1.4 microM) and 16 +/- 6 min (3.6 microM). Bp-12 can induce indirect and directly blocked evoked twitches, even in the preparations in which Ca(2+) is replaced by Sr(2+), being the addition of d-tubocurarine required for direct blocking. These results identify Bp-12 as a new member of the Lys49 PLA(2) family and shows that this toxin might contribute to the effects of the crude venom on the neuromuscular junction. PMID:18769889

  8. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of phospholipases A2 and a phospholipase homologue isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan Carlos Quintana; Vargas, Leidy Johana; Segura, Cesar; Gutiérrez, José María; Pérez, Juan Carlos Alarcón

    2012-12-01

    The antimicrobial and antiparasite activity of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from snakes and bees has been extensively explored. We studied the antiplasmodial effect of the whole venom of the snake Bothrops asper and of two fractions purified by ion-exchange chromatography: one containing catalytically-active phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) (fraction V) and another containing a PLA(2) homologue devoid of enzymatic activity (fraction VI). The antiplasmodial effect was assessed on in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The whole venom of B. asper, as well as its fractions V and VI, were active against the parasite at 0.13 ± 0.01 µg/mL, 1.42 ± 0.56 µg/mL and 22.89 ± 1.22 µg/mL, respectively. Differences in the cytotoxic activity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells between the whole venom and fractions V and VI were observed, fraction V showing higher toxicity than total venom and fraction VI. Regarding toxicity in mice, the whole venom showed the highest lethal effect in comparison to fractions V and VI. These results suggest that B. asper PLA(2) and its homologue have antiplasmodial potential. PMID:23242318

  9. Structural and functional properties of Bp-LAAO, a new L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Renata S; da Silva, Juliana F; Boldrini França, Johara; Fonseca, Fernando P P; Otaviano, Antônio R; Henrique Silva, Flávio; Hamaguchi, Amélia; Magro, Angelo J; Braz, Antônio Sérgio K; dos Santos, Juliana I; Homsi-Brandeburgo, Maria Inês; Fontes, Marcos R M; Fuly, André L; Soares, Andreimar M; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2009-04-01

    An L-amino acid oxidase (Bp-LAAO) from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom was highly purified using sequential chromatography steps on CM-Sepharose, Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, Benzamidine Sepharose and C18 reverse-phase HPLC. Purified Bp-LAAO showed to be a homodimeric acidic glycoprotein with molecular weight around 65kDa under reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE. The best substrates for Bp-LAAO were L-Met, L-Leu, L-Phe and L-Ile and the enzyme showed a strong reduction of its catalytic activity upon L-Met and L-Phe substrates at extreme temperatures. Bp-LAAO showed leishmanicidal, antitumoral and bactericidal activities dose dependently. Bp-LAAO induced platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma and this activity was inhibited by catalase. Bp-LAAO-cDNA of 1548bp codified a mature protein with 516 amino acid residues corresponding to a theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 6.3 and 58kDa, respectively. Additionally, structural and phylogenetic studies identified residues under positive selection and their probable location in Bp-LAAO and other snake venom LAAOs (svLAAOs). Structural and functional investigations of these enzymes can contribute to the advancement of toxinology and to the elaboration of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:19135502

  10. Occurrence of sulfated fucose branches in fucosylated chondroitin sulfate are essential for the polysaccharide effect preventing muscle damage induced by toxins and crude venom from Bothrops jararacussu snake.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Tomaz, Marcelo A; Fonseca, Roberto J C; Strauch, Marcelo A; Cons, Bruno L; Borges, Paula A; Patrão-Neto, Fernando C; Tavares-Henriques, Matheus S; Teixeira-Cruz, Jhonatha M; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Cintra, Adélia C O; Martinez, Ana Maria B; Mourão, Paulo A S; Melo, Paulo A

    2015-05-01

    Snake envenoming is an important public health problem around the world, particularly in tropics. Beyond deaths, morbidity induced by snake venoms, such as myotoxicity, is of pivotal consequence to population. Bothrops jararacussu is the main venomous snake in southeast region of Brazil, and particularly presents strong myotoxic effect. The only available therapy, antibothropic antivenom, poorly affects venom-induced myotoxicity. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fucCS), a glycosaminoglycan with anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties, and its derivatives to inhibit toxic activities of B. jararacussu crude venom and its isolated toxins, named bothropstoxins (BthTX-I and BthTX-II). The in vitro myotoxic activities induced by crude venom, by BthTX-I alone and by toxins together were abolished by fucCS. Carboxyl reduction (fucCS-CR) kept this ability whereas defucosilation (defucCS) abrogates myoprotection. We observed the same pattern in the response of these polysaccharides in antagonizing the increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK) levels, the reduction of skeletal muscle CK content and the rise of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity induced by crude venom and isolated toxins. FucCS inhibited edematogenic activity and partially prevented the reduction of total leukocytes in blood when pre-incubated with crude venom. Furthermore, the venom procoagulant effect was completely antagonized by increasing concentrations of fucCS, although this polyanion could stop neither the tail bleeding nor the skin hemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom. The B. jararacussu phospholipase, hyaluronidase, proteolytic and collagenase activities were inhibited in vitro. The results suggest that fucCS could be able to interact with both toxins, and it is able to inhibit BthTX-II phospholipase activity. Light microscopy of extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) muscle showed myoprotection by fucCS, once necrotic areas, edema and

  11. Isolation of an acidic phospholipase A2 from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper of Costa Rica: biochemical and toxicological characterization.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Julián; Gutiérrez, José María; Angulo, Yamileth; Sanz, Libia; Juárez, Paula; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

    2010-03-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) are major components of snake venoms, exerting a variety of relevant toxic actions such as neurotoxicity and myotoxicity, among others. Since the majority of toxic PLA(2)s are basic proteins, acidic isoforms and their possible roles in venoms are less understood. In this study, an acidic enzyme (BaspPLA(2)-II) was isolated from the venom of Bothrops asper (Pacific region of Costa Rica) and characterized. BaspPLA(2)-II is monomeric, with a mass of 14,212 +/- 6 Da and a pI of 4.9. Its complete sequence of 124 amino acids was deduced through cDNA and protein sequencing, showing that it belongs to the Asp49 group of catalytically active enzymes. In vivo and in vitro assays demonstrated that BaspPLA(2)-II, in contrast to the basic Asp49 counterparts present in the same venom, lacks myotoxic, cytotoxic, and anticoagulant activities. BaspPLA(2)-II also differed from other acidic PLA(2)s described in Bothrops spp. venoms, as it did not show hypotensive and anti-platelet aggregation activities. Furthermore, this enzyme was not lethal to mice at intravenous doses up to 100 microg (5.9 microg/g), indicating its lack of neurotoxic activity. The only toxic effect recorded in vivo was a moderate induction of local edema. Therefore, the toxicological characteristics of BaspPLA(2)-II suggest that it does not play a key role in the pathophysiology of envenomings by B. asper, and that its purpose might be restricted to digestive functions. Immunochemical analyses using antibodies raised against BaspPLA(2)-II revealed that acidic and basic PLA(2)s form two different antigenic groups in B. asper venom. PMID:20026168

  12. Prevention of thromboses in human patients with Bothrops lanceolatus envenoming in Martinique: failure of anticoagulants and efficacy of a monospecific antivenom. Research Group on Snake Bites in Martinique.

    PubMed

    Thomas, L; Tyburn, B; Bucher, B; Pecout, F; Ketterle, J; Rieux, D; Smadja, D; Garnier, D; Plumelle, Y

    1995-05-01

    Envenomation by the Bothrops lanceolatus, a snake found only in Martinique, leads to swelling and pain, and occasionally to systemic signs and/or coagulopathy. Severe thromboses at some distance from the site of the bite may appear within 48 hr. Uncertainties as to the actual development of thrombotic complications in patients appearing to be suffering from moderate poisoning and as to the availability and the toxicity of a monospecific antivenom (AVS) initially led us to reserve antivenom for the most severe cases, and to use anticoagulants to prevent thromboses in all patients. This approach was modified after we observed serious thromboses in patients with moderate poisoning. Of 50 adult snake bite cases hospitalized between June 1991 and August 1994, 11 developed serious thrombotic complications at 36 /+- 27 hr (mean +/- SD) (range 12-96) following envenomation, despite early preventive anticoagulant therapy. Those included pulmonary embolism (two cases), cerebral infarction (six cases), myocardial infarction (one case), and cerebral and myocardial infarctions (two cases). Sixteen patients were not treated with AVS: 10 of these recovered without complications and six developed systemic thrombosis causing permanent disability in three cases. Thirty were treated with an intravenous infusion of 2-6 vials of AVS given 2-48 hr after the bite. Of these, three died of cerebral infarction that developed before the initiation of serotherapy. All others recovered. Among patients treated with AVS, three presented with mild anaphylactic reactions, while one developed serum sickness that responded to steroids. These data indicate that preventive anticoagulant therapy is of limited efficacy in Martinique.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7771608

  13. Effects of Bothrops asper snake venom on the expression of cyclooxygenases and production of prostaglandins by peritoneal leukocytes in vivo, and by isolated neutrophils and macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Vanessa; Gutiérrez, José María; Amaral, Rafaela Bacci; Zamunér, Stella Regina; Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima Pereira

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the ability of Bothrops asper snake venom (BaV) to increase the production of prostaglandins PGE(2) and PGD(2) was assessed in a mouse model in vivo and in inflammatory cells in vitro. In addition, the expressions of COX-1 and COX-2 were assessed. BaV induced an increment in the in vivo synthesis of PGE(2) and PGD(2), together with an enhanced expression of COX-2, but not of COX-1. However, enzymatic activities of COX-1 and COX-2 were increased. Incubation of isolated macrophages and neutrophils with a sub-cytotoxic concentration of BaV in vitro resulted in increased release of PGE(2) and PGD(2) by macrophages and PGE(2) by neutrophils, concomitantly with an increment in the expression of COX-2, but not of COX-1 by both cell types. Our results demonstrate the ability of BaV to promote the expression of COX-2 and to induce the synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandins. Macrophages and neutrophils may be important targets for this venom under in vivo situation. PMID:19155166

  14. Isolation and characterization of four medium-size disintegrins from the venoms of Central American viperid snakes of the genera Atropoides, Bothrops, Cerrophidion and Crotalus.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Yamileth; Castro, Adriana; Lomonte, Bruno; Rucavado, Alexandra; Fernández, Julián; Calvete, Juan J; Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-12-01

    Four disintegrins were isolated from the venoms of the Central American viperid snakes Atropoides mexicanus (atropoimin), Bothrops asper (bothrasperin), Cerrophidion sasai (sasaimin), and Crotalus simus (simusmin). Purifications were performed by reverse-phase HPLC. The four disintegrins have biochemical characteristics, i.e. molecular mass and location of Cys, which allow their classification within the group of medium-size disintegrins. All of them present the canonical RGD sequence, which determines their interaction with integrins in cell membranes. The disintegrins inhibited ADP and collagen-induced human platelet aggregation, with similar IC50s in the nM range. In addition, disintegrins inhibited the adhesion of an endothelial cell line and a melanoma cell line to the extracellular matrix proteins type I collagen, laminin, fibronectin, and vitronectin, albeit showing variable ability to exert this activity. This study expands the inventory of this family of viperid venom proteins, and reports, for the first time, disintegrins from the venoms of species of the genera Atropoides and Cerrophidion. PMID:25457103

  15. Study of the design and analytical properties of the lethality neutralization assay used to estimate antivenom potency against Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Solano, Gabriela; Segura, Alvaro; Herrera, María; Gómez, Aarón; Villalta, Mauren; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2010-09-01

    The lethality neutralization assay performed in mice is the standard recommended by the World Health Organization to estimate antivenom potency. The interpretation of its results without considering its analytical capacity may lead to erroneous conclusions. Therefore, laboratories that manufacture or control antivenoms must demonstrate the appropriateness of their models. A study of the method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Costa Rica, to estimate the potency of antivenoms against Bothrops asper snake venom was performed. Results show that venom doses ranging from 2 to 6 Median Lethal Doses (LD50) are appropriate to be used as challenge in this test. Variables such as the injection route, number of mice used per venom/antivenom level, and weight of the animals are critical in the estimation of the Median Effective Dose (ED50), whereas incubation time is not. The assay has an acceptable selectivity, linearity, and limits of detection and quantification. Accuracy of the lethality neutralization assay, expressed as percentage recovery, was between 71% and 127%. Intermediate precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was < or = 17%. It is concluded that the analytical characteristics of this assay are adequate enough to prove product compliance and to have statistical control over an industrial line of antivenom serial production. PMID:20638298

  16. Prognostic significance of clinical grading of patients envenomed by Bothrops lanceolatus in Martinique. Members of the Research Group on Snake Bite in Martinique.

    PubMed

    Thomas, L; Tyburn, B; Ketterlé, J; Biao, T; Mehdaoui, H; Moravie, V; Rouvel, C; Plumelle, Y; Bucher, B; Canonge, D; Marie-Nelly, C A; Lang, J

    1998-01-01

    The correlation between clinical grading of patients bitten by Bothrops lanceolatus and the subsequent development of their envenoming was examined. Severity of envenoming was graded using a 1-4 scale (minor to major). Patients were classified into 2 groups according to the time elapsed between bite and treatment with a specific purified equine F(ab')2 antivenom. The late/no treatment group (n = 33) was characterized by a systemic thrombotic complication rate of 14/33 (42.4%) leading to 4 deaths, which increased with the maximum severity assessed on the first day following the bite (P = 0.003). However, infarctions could develop in patients who presented initially with signs of moderate envenoming, normal blood clotting and low serum levels of venom antigens. No such complication of fatality occurred in the early (0.5-6 h) treatment group (n = 70). Multiple regression analysis showed that duration of stay in hospital in this group increased with the length of the snake (P = 0.017), venom antigenaemia (P = 0.016), initial grading (P < 0.001), and with the need for surgical debridement (n = 10/70, P < 0.001). Outcome was correlated with initial severity of envenoming. However, the only factor with a positive prognostic significance for the individual envenomed patient was the early infusion of specific antivenom, which led to 100% recovery in our series. PMID:9861375

  17. The lethality test used for estimating the potency of antivenoms against Bothrops asper snake venom: pathophysiological mechanisms, prophylactic analgesia, and a surrogate in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Francisco; Oviedo, Andrea; Escalante, Teresa; Solano, Gabriela; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María

    2015-01-01

    The potency of antivenoms is assessed by analyzing the neutralization of venom-induced lethality, and is expressed as the Median Effective Dose (ED50). The present study was designed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for lethality induced by the venom of Bothrops asper, in the experimental conditions used for the evaluation of the neutralizing potency of antivenoms. Mice injected with 4 LD50s of venom by the intraperitoneal route died within ∼25 min with drastic alterations in the abdominal organs, characterized by hemorrhage, increment in plasma extravasation, and hemoconcentration, thus leading to hypovolemia and cardiovascular collapse. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play a predominat role in lethality, as judged by partial inhibition by the chelating agent CaNa2EDTA. When venom was mixed with antivenom, there was a venom/antivenom ratio at which hemorrhage was significantly reduced, but mice died at later time intervals with evident hemoconcentration, indicating that other components in addition to SVMPs also contribute to plasma extravasation and lethality. Pretreatment with the analgesic tramadol did not affect the outcome of the neutralization test, thus suggesting that prophylactic (precautionary) analgesia can be introduced in this assay. Neutralization of lethality in mice correlated with neutralization of in vitro coagulant activity in human plasma. PMID:25447772

  18. Contribution of mast cells and snake venom metalloproteinases to the hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops jararaca venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Bonavita, André Gustavo C; da Costa, Aline S; Pires, Ana Lucia A; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Perales, Jonas; Cordeiro, Renato S B; Martins, Marco A; e Silva, Patrícia M R

    2006-06-15

    Bothrops jararaca venom (Bjv) is known to induce local inflammation and severe pain. Since, mast cells are able to secrete mediators involved in algesic processes, in this study we examined the putative role of these cells in the hyperalgesia triggered by Bjv in the rat paw. We noted that treatment with mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglicate as well as with histamine and 5-hydroxytriptamine receptor antagonists meclizine and methysergide, respectively, inhibited the Bjv-induced hyperalgesia. In addition, we showed that stimulation of isolated rat peritoneal mast cells with Bjv in vitro resulted in the release of stored and neo-generated inflammatory mediators such as histamine and leukotriene C(4), respectively. Bjv-induced histamine secretion was clearly sensitive to treatment with sodium cromoglicate and sodium nedocromil. We further observed that metalloproteinase inhibitors 1,10-phenantroline and DM43 inhibited mast cell degranulation in vitro, under conditions where inhibitors of phospholipase A(2) as well as of serine- and cysteine-proteinases were inactive. Altogether, our findings indicate that mast cells seem to contribute to the hyperalgesia caused by Bjv in the rat paw, and also provide evidence that this response might be dependent on the ability of the Bjv to activate directly mast cells. PMID:16730041

  19. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on myotoxin II, a Lys49 phospholipase A₂ homologue from Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Bruno

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge on toxin immunogenicity at the molecular level can provide valuable information for the improvement of antivenoms, as well as for understanding toxin structure-function relationships. The aims of this study are two-fold: first, to identify the linear B-cell epitopes of myotoxin II from Bothrops asper snake venom, a Lys49 phospholipase A₂ homologue; and second, to use antibodies specifically directed against an epitope having functional relevance in its toxicity, to probe the dimeric assembly mode of this protein in solution. Linear B-cell epitopes were identified using a library of overlapping synthetic peptides spanning its complete sequence. Epitopes recognized by a rabbit antiserum to purified myotoxin II, and by three batches of a polyvalent (Crotalidae) therapeutic antivenom (prepared in horses immunized with a mixture of B. asper, Crotalus simus, and Lachesis stenophrys venoms) were mapped using an enzyme-immunoassay based on the capture of biotinylated peptides by immobilized streptavidin. Some of the epitopes identified were shared between the two species, whereas others were unique. Differences in epitope recognition were observed not only between the two species, but also within the three batches of equine antivenom. Epitope V, located at the C-terminal region of this protein, is known to be relevant for toxicity and neutralization. Affinity-purified rabbit antibodies specific for this site were able to immunoprecipitate myotoxin II, suggesting that the two copies of epitope V are simultaneously available to antibody binding, which would be compatible with the mode of dimerization known as "conventional" dimer. PMID:22677805

  20. Inflammatory effects of BaP1 a metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom: leukocyte recruitment and release of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cristina Maria; Zamuner, Stella Regina; Zuliani, Juliana Pavan; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José Maria; Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima Pereira

    2006-04-01

    The inflammatory events induced by BaP1, a 22.7 kDa metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom, were studied. BaP1 i.p. injection in mice induced a marked inflammatory cell infiltrate into peritoneal cavity of animals with predominance of neutrophils in the early phase followed by mononuclear cells in the late period. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of BaP1 by chelation with EDTA resulted in a drastic reduction of this effect. In addition, BaP1 induced a significant increase of blood neutrophil numbers before its accumulation in peritoneal cavity, thus suggesting a stimulatory action of BaP1 on mechanisms of cell mobilization from bone marrow reserve compartments. A reduction in the number of neutrophils was observed in the exudate when antibodies against LECAM-1, CD18 and LFA-1 were used, suggesting the involvement of these adhesion molecules in the effects of BaP1. In contrast, there was no effect with antibodies against ICAM-1 and PECAM-1. Moreover, a conspicuous increment in the levels of IL-1 and TNF-alpha, but not of LTB4, was observed in peritoneal washes collected from mice injected with BaP1. It is concluded that BaP1 induces in vivo a marked leukocyte influx, which parallels an increased number of these cells in the blood, and is associated to the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules and release of chemotactic inflammatory cytokines. Since BaP1 is a P-I class metalloproteinase, these results indicate that the proteolytic domain of metalloproteinases per se can trigger specific inflammatory events. PMID:16529786

  1. A neutralizing recombinant single chain antibody, scFv, against BaP1, A P-I hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Castro, J M A; Oliveira, T S; Silveira, C R F; Caporrino, M C; Rodriguez, D; Moura-da-Silva, A M; Ramos, O H P; Rucavado, A; Gutiérrez, J M; Magalhães, G S; Faquim-Mauro, E L; Fernandes, I

    2014-09-01

    BaP1 is a P-I class snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) relevant in the local tissue damage associated with envenomings by Bothrops asper, a medically important snake species in Central America and parts of South and North America. The main treatment for these accidents is the passive immunotherapy using antibodies raised in horses. In order to obtain more specific and batch-to-batch consistent antivenons, recombinant antibodies are considered a good option compared to animal immunization. We constructed a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) from a monoclonal antibody against BaP1 (MABaP1) formerly secreted by a hybridoma clone. This recombinant antibody was cloned into pMST3 vector in fusion with SUMO protein and contains VH and VL domains linked by a flexible (G4S)3 polypeptide (scFvBaP1). The aim of this work was to produce scFvBaP1 and to evaluate its potential concerning the neutralization of biologically important activities of BaP1. The cytoplasmic expression of this construct was successfully achieved in C43 (DE3) bacteria. Our results showed that scFvBaP1-SUMO fusion protein presented an electrophoretic band of around 43 kDa from which SUMO alone corresponded to 13.6 kDa, and only the scFv was able to recognize BaP1 as well as the whole venom by ELISA. In contrast, neither an irrelevant scFv anti-LDL nor its MoAb partner recognized it. BaP1-induced fibrinolysis was significantly neutralized by scFvBaP1, but not by SUMO, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, scFvBaP1, as well as MaBaP1, completely neutralized in vivo hemorrhage, muscle necrosis, and inflammation induced by the toxin. Docking analyses revealed possible modes of interaction of the recombinant antibody with BaP1. Our data showed that scFv recognized BaP1 and whole B. asper venom, and neutralized biological effects of this SVMP. This scFv antibody can be used for understanding the molecular mechanisms of neutralization of SVMPs, and for exploring the potential of

  2. Inflammation induced by Bothrops asper venom.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Catarina; Cury, Yara; Moreira, Vanessa; Picolo, Gisele; Chaves, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    Inflammation is a major characteristic of envenomation by snakes from viperine and crotaline species. Bothrops asper snake venom elicits, among other alterations, a pronounced inflammatory response at the site of injection both in humans and experimental animals. This review describes the current status of our understanding of the inflammatory reaction, including pain, triggered by Bothrops asper venom. The experimental studies on the action of this venom as well as the complex network of chemical mediators involved are summarized. Moreover, aspects of the molecular mechanisms orchestrating this important response to envenomation by Bothrops asper are presented. Considering that isolated toxins are relevant tools for understanding the actions of the whole venom, studies dealing with the mechanisms of inflammatory and nociceptive properties of phospholipases A(2), a metalloproteinase and serine-proteases isolated from Bothrops asper venom are also described. PMID:19328821

  3. Snakes! Snakes! Snakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Naturally, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 4-6, the teaching unit presents illustrations and facts about snakes. Topics include common snakes found in the United States, how snakes eat, how snakes shed their skin, poisonous snakes, the Eastern Indigo snake, and the anatomy of a snake. A student page includes a crossword puzzle and surprising snake facts. A…

  4. Comparative study of anticoagulant and procoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms from families Elapidae, Viperidae, and purified Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X).

    PubMed

    Suntravat, Montamas; Nuchprayoon, Issarang; Pérez, John C

    2010-09-15

    Snake venoms consist of numerous molecules with diverse biological functions used for capturing prey. Each component of venom has a specific target, and alters the biological function of its target. Once these molecules are identified, characterized, and cloned; they could have medical applications. The activated clotting time (ACT) and clot rate were used for screening procoagulant and anticoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms. Crude venoms from Daboia russellii siamensis, Bothrops asper, Bothrops moojeni, and one Crotalus oreganus helleri from Wrightwood, CA, had procoagulant activity. These venoms induced a significant shortening of the ACT and showed a significant increase in the clot rate when compared to the negative control. Factor X activator activity was also measured in 28 venoms, and D. r. siamensis venom was 5-6 times higher than those of B. asper, B. moojeni, and C. o. helleri from Wrightwood County. Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X) was purified from D. r. siamensis venom, and then procoagulant activity was evaluated by the ACT and clot rate. Other venoms, Crotalus atrox and two Naja pallida, had anticoagulant activity. A significant increase in the ACT and a significant decrease in the clot rate were observed after the addition of these venoms; therefore, the venoms were considered to have anticoagulant activity. Venoms from the same species did not always have the same ACT and clot rate profiles, but the profiles were an excellent way to identify procoagulant and anticoagulant activities in snake venoms. PMID:20677373

  5. Comparison of the effect of Crotalus simus and Crotalus durissus ruruima venoms on the equine antibody response towards Bothrops asper venom: implications for the production of polyspecific snake antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; Arroyo, Cynthia; Solano, Sergio; Herrera, María; Villalta, Mauren; Segura, Alvaro; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    Antivenoms are preparations of immunoglobulins purified from the plasma of animals immunized with snake venoms. Depending on the number of venoms used during the immunization, antivenoms can be monospecific (if venom from a single species is used) or polyspecific (if venoms from several species are used). In turn, polyspecific antivenoms can be prepared by purifying antibodies from the plasma of animals immunized with a mixture of venoms, or by mixing antibodies purified from the plasma of animals immunized separately with single venom. The suitability of these strategies to produce polyspecific antibothropic-crotalic antivenoms was assessed using as models the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Crotalus durissus ruruima. It was demonstrated that, when used as co-immunogen, C. simus and C. durissus ruruima venoms exert a deleterious effect on the antibody response towards different components of B. asper venom and in the neutralization of hemorrhagic and coagulant effect of this venom when compared with a monospecific B. asper antivenom. Polyspecific antivenoms produced by purifying immunoglobulins from the plasma of animals immunized with venom mixtures showed higher antibody titers and neutralizing capacity than those produced by mixing antibodies purified from the plasma of animals immunized separately with single venom. Thus, despite the deleterious effect of Crotalus sp venoms on the immune response against B. asper venom, the use of venom mixtures is more effective than the immunization with separate venoms for the preparation of polyspecific bothropic-crotalic antivenoms. PMID:21130107

  6. Lachesis stenophrys venom reduces the equine antibody response towards Bothrops asper venom used as co-immunogen in the production of polyspecific snake antivenom.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Cynthia; Solano, Sergio; Herrera, María; Segura, Álvaro; Estrada, Ricardo; Vargas, Mariángela; Villalta, Mauren; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2015-09-01

    The anti-bothropic activity of an antivenom prepared from the plasma of horses immunized with Bothrops asper venom (anti-B antivenom) was compared with a similar formulation produced from the plasma of horses immunized with a mixture of B. asper and Lachesis stenophrys venoms (anti-BL antivenom). Likewise, a comparison between the anti-lachesic activity of the anti-BL antivenom and a similar formulation prepared from horses immunized only with L. stenophrys venom (anti-L antivenom) was performed. The anti-BL antivenom had lower concentration of anti-bothropic antibodies than the anti-B antivenom. This difference was associated to a lower response towards all components of B. asper venom, but particularly towards some D49-phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) and PIII-metalloproteinases. Consequently, the anti-BL antivenom was less effective neutralizing lethal, coagulant, defibrinogenating, PLA2, and myotoxic activities of B. asper venom. On the other hand, anti-BL and anti-L antivenoms showed similar concentration of anti-lachesic antibodies, and similar capacity to recognize the HPLC fractions of L. stenophrys venom and to neutralize lethal, coagulant, proteolytic, hemorrhagic, PLA2 and myotoxic activities induced by this venom. It is concluded that, when used as co-immunogens, the venom of L. stenophrys reduces the antibody response towards B. asper venom, whereas the latter does not affect the anti-lachesic response. PMID:26100664

  7. Moojenactivase, a novel pro-coagulant PIIId metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, activates coagulation factors II and X and induces tissue factor up-regulation in leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Sartim, Marco A; Costa, Tassia R; Laure, Helen J; Espíndola, Milena S; Frantz, Fabiani G; Sorgi, Carlos A; Cintra, Adélia C O; Arantes, Eliane C; Faccioli, Lucia H; Rosa, José C; Sampaio, Suely V

    2016-05-01

    Coagulopathies following snakebite are triggered by pro-coagulant venom toxins, in which metalloproteases play a major role in envenomation-induced coagulation disorders by acting on coagulation cascade, platelet function and fibrinolysis. Considering this relevance, here we describe the isolation and biochemical characterization of moojenactivase (MooA), a metalloprotease from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, and investigate its involvement in hemostasis in vitro. MooA is a glycoprotein of 85,746.22 Da, member of the PIIId group of snake venom metalloproteases, composed of three linked disulfide-bonded chains: an N-glycosylated heavy chain, and two light chains. The venom protease induced human plasma clotting in vitro by activating on both blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin) and X, which in turn generated α-thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. Additionally, MooA induced expression of tissue factor (TF) on the membrane surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which led these cells to adopt pro-coagulant characteristics. MooA was also shown to be involved with production of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1, suggesting an association between MooA pro-inflammatory stimulation of PBMC and TF up-regulation. We also observed aggregation of washed platelets when in presence of MooA; however, the protease had no effect on fibrinolysis. Our findings show that MooA is a novel hemostatically active metalloprotease, which may lead to the development of coagulopathies during B. moojeni envenomation. Moreover, the metalloprotease may contribute to the development of new diagnostic tools and pharmacological approaches applied to hemostatic disorders. PMID:26026608

  8. Secretory phospholipases A(2) isolated from Bothrops asper and from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms induce distinct mechanisms for biosynthesis of prostaglandins E2 and D2 and expression of cyclooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Vanessa; Gutiérrez, José Maria; Soares, Andreimar Martins; Zamunér, Stella Regina; Purgatto, Eduardo; Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima Pereira

    2008-09-01

    The effects of myotoxin III (MT-III), a phospholipase A(2) (sPLA2) from Bothrops asper snake venom, and crotoxin B (CB), a neurotoxic and myotoxic sPLA2 from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, on cyclooxygenases (COXs) expression and biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) were evaluated, together with the mechanisms involved in these effects. Upon intraperitoneal injection in mice, both sPLA(2)s promoted the synthesis of PGD2 and PGE2, with a different time-course. MT-III, but not CB, induced COX-2 expression by peritoneal leukocytes without modification on COX-1 constitutive expression, whereas CB increased the constitutive activity of COX-1. MT-III increased the enzymatic activity of COX-1 and COX-2. Similar effects were observed when these sPLA(2)s were incubated with isolated macrophages, evidencing a direct effect on these inflammatory cells. Moreover, both toxins elicited the release of arachidonic acid from macrophages in vitro. Inhibition of cPLA2 by AACOCF3, but not of iPLA2 by PACOCF3 or BEL, significantly reduced PGD2, PGE2 and arachidonic acid (AA) release promoted by MT-III. These inhibitors did not affect MT-III-induced COX-2 expression. In contrast, cPLA2 inhibition did not modify the effects of CB, whereas iPLA2 inhibition reduced PGD2 and AA production induced by CB. These findings imply that distinct regulatory mechanisms leading to PGs' synthesis are triggered by these snake venom sPLA(2)s. Such differences are likely to explain the dissimilar patterns of inflammatory reaction elicited by these sPLA(2)s in vivo. PMID:18619987

  9. Isolation and functional characterization of a new acidic PLA(2) Ba SpII RP4 of the Bothrops alternatus snake venom from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garcia Denegri, María E; Acosta, Ofelia C; Huancahuire-Vega, Salomón; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Marangoni, Sergio; Maruñak, Silvana L; Teibler, Gladys P; Leiva, Laura C; Ponce-Soto, Luis A

    2010-08-01

    An acidic protein with phospholipase A(2) activity was purified to homogeneity from the venom of the Northeast Argentinian viperid Bothrops alternatus by two chromatographic steps: a conventional gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and reversed phase on C18 HPLC column. A molecular mass of 14185.48 Da was determined by mass spectrometry, displaying a homodimer conformation. The kinetic assay demonstrated a catalytically active phospholipase A(2) in correspondence with Asp49 PLA(2) group. The enzyme designated Ba SpII RP4 contains an amino acid composition of 121 residues and a calculated theoretical pI value of 4.88. Amino acid sequence alignments with other Bothrops PLA(2) revealed a high degree of homology sequence (90-56%). Ba SpII RP4 did not show myotoxic activity upon muscular fibers at doses up to 100 microg i.m. route injection or lethal response when it was i.p. injected at the hightest dose of 200 microg. This toxin generates slight biological activities like paw edema inflammation and a delay in the clotting time, although Ba SpII RP4 exhibited catalytic activity. The primary amino acid sequence, determined a quadruple-time of flight (Q-TOF) hybrid mass spectrometer Q-TOF Ultima from Micromass (Manchester, UK) equipped with a nano Zspray source operating in a positive ion mode and tandem mass spectrum, an ESI/MS mass spectrum (TOF MS mode) "de novo amino acid sequencing", also provides more database about the small group of the non-myotoxic PLA(2)s isolated up to the present. PMID:20331996

  10. Sympathetic outflow activates the venom gland of the snake Bothrops jararaca by regulating the activation of transcription factors and the synthesis of venom gland proteins.

    PubMed

    Luna, Milene S A; Hortencio, Thiago M A; Ferreira, Zulma S; Yamanouye, Norma

    2009-05-01

    The venom gland of viperid snakes has a central lumen where the venom produced by secretory cells is stored. When the venom is lost from the gland, the secretory cells are activated and new venom is produced. The production of new venom is triggered by the action of noradrenaline on both alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptors in the venom gland. In this study, we show that venom removal leads to the activation of transcription factors NFkappaB and AP-1 in the venom gland. In dispersed secretory cells, noradrenaline activated both NFkappaB and AP-1. Activation of NFkappaB and AP-1 depended on phospholipase C and protein kinase A. Activation of NFkappaB also depended on protein kinase C. Isoprenaline activated both NFkappaB and AP-1, and phenylephrine activated NFkappaB and later AP-1. We also show that the protein composition of the venom gland changes during the venom production cycle. Striking changes occurred 4 and 7 days after venom removal in female and male snakes, respectively. Reserpine blocks this change, and the administration of alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor agonists to reserpine-treated snakes largely restores the protein composition of the venom gland. However, the protein composition of the venom from reserpinized snakes treated with alpha(1)- or beta-adrenoceptor agonists appears normal, judging from SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. A sexual dimorphism in activating transcription factors and activating venom gland was observed. Our data suggest that the release of noradrenaline after biting is necessary to activate the venom gland by regulating the activation of transcription factors and consequently regulating the synthesis of proteins in the venom gland for venom production. PMID:19411547

  11. Phylogeographic structure and historical demography of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox): A perspective on North American desert biogeography.

    PubMed

    Castoe, Todd A; Spencer, Carol L; Parkinson, Christopher L

    2007-01-01

    The western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) is a prominent member of North American desert and semi-arid ecosystems, and its importance extends from its impact on the region's ecology and imagery, to its medical relevance as a large deadly venomous snake. We used mtDNA sequences to identify population genetic structure and historical demographic patterns across the range of this species, and relate these to broader patterns of historical biogeography of desert and semi-arid regions of the southwestern USA and adjacent Mexico. We inferred a Late Pliocene divergence between peninsular and continental lineages of Crotalus, followed by an Early Mid Pleistocene divergence across the continental divide within C. atrox. Within desert regions (Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, Southern Plains, and Tamaulipan Plain) we observed population structure indicating isolation of populations in multiple Pleistocene refugia on either side of the continental divide, which we attempt to identify. Evidence of post-glacial population growth and range expansion was inferred, particularly in populations east of the continental divide. We observed clear evidence of (probably recent) gene flow across the continental divide and secondary contact of haplotype lineages. This recent gene flow appears to be particularly strong in the West-to-East direction. Our results also suggest that Crotalus tortugensis (Tortuga Island rattlesnake) and a population of 'C. atrox' inhabiting Santa Cruz Island (in the Gulf of California) previously suggested to be an unnamed species, are in fact deeply phylogenetically nested within continental lineages of C. atrox. Accordingly, we suggest C. tortugensis and 'C. atrox' from Santa Cruz Island be placed in the synonymy of C. atrox. PMID:16934495

  12. Clinical indicators of envenoming and serum levels of venom antigens in patients bitten by Bothrops lanceolatus in Martinique. Research Group on Snake Bites in Martinique.

    PubMed

    Bucher, B; Canonge, D; Thomas, L; Tyburn, B; Robbe-Vincent, A; Choumet, V; Bon, C; Ketterlé, J; Lang, J

    1997-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to measure venom antigen levels in the serum of 40 patients bitten by Bothrops lanceolatus. The grading system used for the severity of envenomation (grades 1 to 4, minor to major) was predominantly based on the presence of local signs. Serum venom levels increased with the grade of severity (P < 0.001, by Spearman's rank correlation test); they were 6 +/- 6 ng/mL (mean +/- SD) in clinically non-envenomed patients (grade 1, n = 3), 7.6 +/- 11.7 (n = 17), 44.3 +/- 41.8 (n = 17), and 80.3 +/- 34.1 ng/mL (n = 3) in patients diagnosed as grade 2, 3 and 4 respectively. However, venom antigens could not be detected in the serum of 54% of patients who showed clinical signs of envenomation. Most patients diagnosed as grade 2, 3 or 4 were given 20, 40 and 60 mL of a monospecific F(ab')2 antivenom, respectively. Venom concentrations > or = 15 ng/mL were observed in all patients with progressive aggravation of swelling despite the use of early antivenom therapy. No venom was detectable in blood samples taken after completion of serotherapy. All patients recovered. These results confirm the efficacy of both the clinical severity scoring system used and the therapeutic regimen. PMID:9196765

  13. Osteopontin, a chemotactic protein with cytokine-like properties, is up-regulated in muscle injury caused by Bothrops lanceolatus (fer-de-lance) snake venom.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Souza, Valéria; Contin, Daniel Kiss; Filho, Waldemar Bonventi; de Araújo, Albetiza Lôbo; Irazusta, Silvia Pierre; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2011-10-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a chemotactic, adhesive protein whose receptors include some integrins and matrix proteins known to have role in inflammatory and repair processes. We examined the time course of OPN expression at acute and chronic stages after intramuscular injection of Bothrops lanceolatus venom in rats. Additionally, we examined the expression of CD68 (a marker for phagocytic macrophages) and the myogenic factors, myoD and myogenin. There was a biphasic upregulation of OPN (6-48 h and 3-14 days post-venom), i.e., during acute inflammation and myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation phases. OPN was detected in CD68 + macrophages, fibroblasts, normal and damaged myofibers, myoblasts and myotubes. Myogenin was expressed in the cytoplasm (atypical pattern) and nucleus of myoblasts and myotubes from 18 h to 7 days, after which it was expressed only in nuclei. Macrophage numbers, OPN and myogenin expression were still elevated at 7, 14 and 7 days. At 3 days, when OPN achieved the peak, some clusters of myoblasts were within regions of intense collagen deposition. Fibrosis may represent limitation for repairing processes and may explain the small diameter of regenerated fibers at 21 days post-venom. The expression of OPN in the course of venom-induced damage and regeneration suggests stages-specific mediation role along the whole process. PMID:21839764

  14. Cytotoxicity induced in myotubes by a Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologue from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper: evidence of rapid plasma membrane damage and a dual role for extracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Juan Carlos; Mora, Rodrigo; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Angulo, Yamileth

    2007-12-01

    Acute muscle tissue damage, myonecrosis, is a typical consequence of envenomations by snakes of the family Viperidae. Catalytically-inactive Lys49 phospholipase A(2) homologues are abundant myotoxic components in viperid venoms, causing plasma membrane damage by a mechanism independent of phospholipid hydrolysis. However, the precise mode of action of these myotoxins remains unsolved. In this work, a cell culture model of C2C12 myotubes was used to assess the action of Bothrops asper myotoxin II (Mt-II), a Lys49 phospholipase A(2) homologue. Mt-II induced a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect associated with plasma membrane disruption, evidenced by the release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and the penetration of propidium iodide. A rapid increment in cytosolic Ca(2+) occurred after addition of Mt-II. Such elevation was associated with hypercontraction of myotubes and blebbing of plasma membrane. An increment in the Ca(2+) signal was observed in myotube nuclei. Elimination of extracellular Ca(2+) resulted in increased cytotoxicity upon incubation with Mt-II, suggesting a membrane-protective role for extracellular Ca(2+). Chelation of cytosolic Ca(2+) with BAPTA-AM did not modify the cytotoxic effect, probably due to the large increment induced by Mt-II in cytosolic Ca(2+) which overrides the chelating capacity of BAPTA-AM. It is concluded that Mt-II induces rapid and drastic plasma membrane lesion and a prominent Ca(2+) influx in myotubes. Extracellular Ca(2+) plays a dual role in this model: it protects the membrane from the cytolytic action of the toxin; at the same time, the Ca(2+) influx that occurs after membrane disruption is likely to play a key role in the intracellular degenerative events associated with Mt-II-induced myotube damage. PMID:17560765

  15. Recruitment of striatonigral disinhibitory and nigrotectal inhibitory GABAergic pathways during the organization of defensive behavior by mice in a dangerous environment with the venomous snake Bothrops alternatus (Reptilia, Viperidae).

    PubMed

    Almada, Rafael Carvalho; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2015-06-01

    The neuropsychopharmacological basis of fear- or panic-related behavior has been the focus of several studies. Some mesencephalic tectum (MT) structures, such as the superior colliculus (SC) and dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG), are considered to be responsible for the control of defensive responses evoked during threatening situations. Furthermore, the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra (SNpr) sends inputs to the SC that can work as a sensory channel to MT neurons fundamental for the elaboration of defensive responses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of striato-nigral GABAergic inputs in the activity of nigro-tectal outputs during the elaboration of defensive behavior using a GABA(A) receptor selective blockade in the MT of mice confronted pre-treated with Bothrops alternatus. Mice with injections of physiological saline into the SNpr and treated with a GABA(A) receptor selective antagonist in the MT displayed an increase in panic-related behavior, expressed by an increase in the duration of freezing, frequency of nonoriented escape and frequency of total escape responses during the confrontation with the snake. However, intra-SNpr injections of cobalt chloride followed by MT injections of bicuculline caused a significant decrease in the duration of freezing and total escape responses. In addition, intra-SNpr injections of lidocaine followed by MT injections of bicuculline caused an increase in panic-related behavior. The results highlight the involvement of SNpr and MT structures in the organization of defensive behaviors and suggest an inhibitory control of striatonigral-nigrotectal pathways during the elaboration of fear- and panic-related behavior. PMID:25727065

  16. Isolation and characterization of a new serine protease with thrombin-like activity (TLBm) from the venom of the snake Bothrops marajoensis.

    PubMed

    Vilca-Quispe, Augusto; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Winck, Flavia Vischi; Marangoni, Sergio

    2010-04-01

    The thrombin-like serine protease TLBm from Bothrops marajoensis was isolated in one chromatographic step in reverse phase HPLC. Its molecular mass was 33239.95 Da, as based on the determined primary structure and confirmed experimentally by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (33332.5 Da) and it contains 12 half-cysteine residues. This TLBm exhibited high specificity for BArhoNA, Michaelis-Menten behavior with K(m) 2.3x10(-1)M and the V(max) 0.52x10(-1) nmoles rho-NA/lt/min for this substrate. TLBm also showed ability to coagulate bovine fibrinogen and was inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor, EDTA and S(Dm) from the serum of the species Didelphis marsupialis. The primary structure of TLBm showed the presence of His(45), Asp(103) and Ser(228) residues in the corresponding positions of the catalytic triad established in the serine proteases and Ser(228) are inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Amino acid analysis showed a high content of Asp, Glu, Gly, Ser, Ala and Pro as well as 12 half-cysteine residues and calculated pI of 6.47; TLBm presented 285 amino acid residues. In this work, we investigated the ability of TLBm to degrade fibrinogen and we observed that it is able to cause alpha- and beta-chain cleavage. Enzymatic as well as the platelet aggregation activities were strongly inhibited when incubated with PMSF, a specific inhibitor of serine protease. Also, TLBm induced platelet aggregation in washed and platelet-rich plasma, and in both cases, PMSF inhibited its activity. PMID:19931298

  17. First report of hepatic hematoma after presumed Bothrops envenomation.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Fernanda Cristina; Heerdt, Maike; Torrez, Pasesa Pascuala Quispe; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira; Molin, Graziela Zibetti Dal; Battisti, Rúbia; Zannin, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    In Latin America, Bothrops envenomation is responsible for the majority of accidents caused by venomous snakes. Patients usually present local edema, bleeding and coagulopathy. Visceral hemorrhage is extremely rare and considered a challenge for diagnosis and management. We report the first case of hepatic hematoma owing to the bothropic envenomation in a 66-year-old man who was bitten in the left leg. He presented local edema, coagulopathy, and acute kidney injury. Radiological findings suggested hepatic hematoma, with a volume of almost 3 liters. The hepatic hematoma was gradually absorbed without the need for surgical intervention with complete resolution in 8 months. PMID:26516980

  18. Inflammation induced by Bothrops asper venom.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Catarina; Cury, Yara; Moreira, Vanessa; Picolob, Gisele; Chaves, Fernando

    2009-12-01

    Inflammation is a major characteristic of envenomation by snakes from viperine and crotaline species. Bothrops asper snake venom elicits, among other alterations, a pronounced inflammatory response at the site of injection both in humans and experimental animals. This review describes the current status of our understanding of the inflammatory reaction, including pain, triggered by B. asper venom. The experimental studies on the action of this venom as well as the complex network of chemical mediators involved are summarized. Moreover, aspects of the molecular mechanisms orchestrating this important response to envenomation by B. asper are presented. Considering that isolated toxins are relevant tools for understanding the actions of the whole venom, studies dealing with the mechanisms of inflammatory and nociceptive properties of phospholipases A2, a metalloproteinase and serine proteinases isolated from B. asper venom are also described. PMID:19774698

  19. [Snakes from the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: ecological aspects and associated snakebites].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, M A; Nogueira, F N

    1998-01-01

    This study presents data on snakes recorded in the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sources of information included specimens captured by local residents (1986-1993) and turned over to the Mato Grosso Regional Ophiological Center (Normat), and data from the Anti-Venom Information Center (Ciave), regarding urban snake bites (1988-1993). Thirty-seven species of snakes from 25 genera and three families were recorded. Diurnal and terrestrial habits predominated, as well as a diet based on amphibians and/or lizards. From a total of 307 snake bites recorded, some 56% were of no clinical importance, caused by non-venomous snakes, whereas 44% were clinically relevant. Approximately 99% of the latter were attributed to vipers of the genus Bothrops, and especially the Bothrops moojeni and Bothrops neuwiedi species The colubrids Philodryas olfersii and Waglerophis merremii were probably responsible for most of the non-venomous snake bites. PMID:9878908

  20. Crotaline snake bite in the Ecuadorian Amazon: randomised double blind comparative trial of three South American polyspecific antivenoms

    PubMed Central

    Smalligan, Roger; Cole, Judy; Brito, Narcissa; Laing, Gavin D; Mertz, Bruce L; Manock, Steven; Maudlin, Jeffrey; Quist, Brad; Holland, Gary; Nelson, Stephen; Lalloo, David G; Rivadeneira, Gonzalo; Barragan, Maria Elena; Dolley, Daniel; Eddleston, Michael; Warrell, David A; Theakston, R David G

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of three polyspecific antivenoms for bites by pit vipers. Design Randomised double blind comparative trial of three antivenoms. Setting Shell, Pastaza, southeastern Ecuador. Participants 210 patients with incoagulable blood were recruited from 221 consecutive patients admitted with snake bite between January 1997 and December 2001. Intervention One of three antivenoms manufactured in Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador, chosen for their preclinical potency against Ecuadorian venoms. Main outcome measures Permanent restoration of blood coagulability after 6 and 24 hours. Results The snakes responsible for the bites were identified in 187 cases: 109 patients (58%) were bitten by Bothrops atrox, 68 (36%) by B bilineatus, and 10 (5%) by B taeniatus, B brazili, or Lachesis muta. Eighty seven patients (41%) received Colombian antivenom, 82 (39%) received Brazilian antivenom, but only 41 (20%) received Ecuadorian antivenom because the supply was exhausted. Two patients died, and 10 developed local necrosis. All antivenoms achieved the primary end point of permanently restoring blood coagulability by 6 or 24 hours after the start of treatment in > 40% of patients. Colombian antivenom, however, was the most effective after initial doses of 20 ml (two vials), < 70 ml, and any initial dose at both 6 and 24 hours. An initial dose of 20 ml of Colombian antivenom permanently restored blood coagulability in 64% (46/72) of patients after 6 hours (P = 0.054 compared with the other two antivenoms) and an initial dose of < 70 ml was effective at 6 hours (65%, P = 0.045) and 24 hours (99%, P = 0.06). Early anaphylactoid reactions were common (53%, 73%, and 19%, respectively, for Brazilian, Colombian, and Ecuadorian antivenoms, P < 0.0001) but only three reactions were severe and none was fatal. Conclusions All three antivenoms can be recommended for the treatment of snakebites in this region, though the reactogenicity of Brazilian and Colombian

  1. Responses of infrared-sensitive tectal units of the pit viper Crotalus atrox to moving objects.

    PubMed

    Kaldenbach, Felix; Bleckmann, Horst; Kohl, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Rattlesnakes perceive IR radiation with their pit organs. This enables them to detect and strike towards warm-blooded prey even in the dark. In addition, the IR sense allows rattlesnakes to find places for thermoregulation. Animate objects (e.g., prey) tend to move and thus cause moving IR images across the pit membrane. Even when an object is stationary, scanning head movements of rattlesnakes will result in moving IR images across the pit membrane. We recorded the neuronal activity of IR-sensitive tectal neurons of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox while stimulating the snakes with an IR source that moved horizontally at various velocities. As long as object velocity was low (angular velocity of ~5°/s) IR-sensitive tectal neurons hardly showed any responses. With increasing object velocity though, neuronal activity reached a maximum at ~50°/s. A further increase in object velocity up to ~120°/s resulted in a slight decrease of neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate the importance of moving stimuli for the snake's IR detection abilities: in contrast to fast moving objects, stationary or slowly moving objects will not be detected when the snake is motionless, but might be detected by scanning head movements. PMID:26906281

  2. Interaction between TNF and BmooMP-Alpha-I, a Zinc Metalloprotease Derived from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom, Promotes Direct Proteolysis of This Cytokine: Molecular Modeling and Docking at a Glance.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maraisa Cristina; Lopes Silva, Tamires; Silva, Murilo Vieira; Mota, Caroline Martins; Santiago, Fernanda Maria; Fonseca, Kelly Cortes; Oliveira, Fábio; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Mineo, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major cytokine in inflammatory processes and its deregulation plays a pivotal role in several diseases. Here, we report that a zinc metalloprotease extracted from Bothrops moojeni venom (BmooMP-alpha-I) inhibits TNF directly by promoting its degradation. This inhibition was demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo assays, using known TLR ligands. These findings are supported by molecular docking results, which reveal interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF. The major cluster of interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF was confirmed by the structural alignment presenting Ligand Root Mean Square Deviation LRMS = 1.05 Å and Interactive Root Mean Square Deviation IRMS = 1.01 Å, this result being compatible with an accurate complex. Additionally, we demonstrated that the effect of this metalloprotease on TNF is independent of cell cytotoxicity and it does not affect other TLR-triggered cytokines, such as IL-12. Together, these results indicate that this zinc metalloprotease is a potential tool to be further investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders involving TNF deregulation. PMID:27447669

  3. Interaction between TNF and BmooMP-Alpha-I, a Zinc Metalloprotease Derived from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom, Promotes Direct Proteolysis of This Cytokine: Molecular Modeling and Docking at a Glance

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maraisa Cristina; Lopes Silva, Tamires; Silva, Murilo Vieira; Mota, Caroline Martins; Santiago, Fernanda Maria; Fonseca, Kelly Cortes; Oliveira, Fábio; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Mineo, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major cytokine in inflammatory processes and its deregulation plays a pivotal role in several diseases. Here, we report that a zinc metalloprotease extracted from Bothrops moojeni venom (BmooMP-alpha-I) inhibits TNF directly by promoting its degradation. This inhibition was demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo assays, using known TLR ligands. These findings are supported by molecular docking results, which reveal interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF. The major cluster of interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF was confirmed by the structural alignment presenting Ligand Root Mean Square Deviation LRMS = 1.05 Å and Interactive Root Mean Square Deviation IRMS = 1.01 Å, this result being compatible with an accurate complex. Additionally, we demonstrated that the effect of this metalloprotease on TNF is independent of cell cytotoxicity and it does not affect other TLR-triggered cytokines, such as IL-12. Together, these results indicate that this zinc metalloprotease is a potential tool to be further investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders involving TNF deregulation. PMID:27447669

  4. Kallikrein-kinin system in the plasma of snakes.

    PubMed

    Picarelli, Z P; Prezoto, B C; Hiraichi, E; Abdalla, F M

    1992-01-01

    Using pharmacological preparations suitable for assay of mammalian kinins, it was shown that Bothrops jararaca (Bj) venom and other kininogenases were unable to release kinins from snake plasma. The kallikrein-kinin system presents species-specificity in birds. In order to detect such a specificity in snakes, the effects of Bj venom on snake blood pressure and the effect of incubates of snake plasma with trypsin, on snake blood pressure and snake uterus, were studied. The possibility of activating snake plasma kallikrein with ellagic acid, glass beads or kaolin was also investigated. Whereas plasma of the snakes Waglerophis merremii (Wm) and Crotalus durissus (Cd), were shown to contain factor XII, prekallikrein, kininogen, kininases and to present a low but definite activation rate of the kinin system, the plasmas of Bj, Bothrops mojeni (Bm) and Oxyrophus trigeminus (Ot), yielded only kininogen and kininases. Activation of the system was not even detected by the sensitive substrate Ac-Phe-Arg-Nan (acetyl-phenylalanyl-arginyl-4nitro-anilide), indicating that the plasma of these species does not possess either factor XII and/or prekallikrein. Snake plasma may constitute an interesting model for the study of blood clotting, fibrinolytic and complement systems. PMID:1609651

  5. Molecular cloning of a hyaluronidase from Bothrops pauloensis venom gland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyaluronate is one of the major components of extracellular matrix from vertebrates whose breakdown is catalyzed by the enzyme hyaluronidase. These enzymes are widely described in snake venoms, in which they facilitate the spreading of the main toxins in the victim’s body during the envenoming. Snake venoms also present some variants (hyaluronidases-like substances) that are probably originated by alternative splicing, even though their relevance in envenomation is still under investigation. Hyaluronidases-like proteins have not yet been purified from any snake venom, but the cDNA that encodes these toxins was already identified in snake venom glands by transcriptomic analysis. Herein, we report the cloning and in silico analysis of the first hyaluronidase-like proteins from a Brazilian snake venom. Methods The cDNA sequence of hyaluronidase was cloned from the transcriptome of Bothrops pauloensis venom glands. This sequence was submitted to multiple alignment with other related sequences by ClustalW. A phylogenetic analysis was performed using MEGA 4 software by the neighbor joining (NJ) method. Results The cDNA from Bothrops pauloensis venom gland that corresponds to hyaluronidase comprises 1175 bp and codifies a protein containing 194 amino acid residues. The sequence, denominated BpHyase, was identified as hyaluronidase-like since it shows high sequence identities (above 83%) with other described snake venom hyaluronidase-like sequences. Hyaluronidases-like proteins are thought to be products of alternative splicing implicated in deletions of central amino acids, including the catalytic residues. Structure-based sequence alignment of BpHyase to human hyaluronidase hHyal-1 demonstrates a loss of some key secondary structures. The phylogenetic analysis indicates an independent evolution of BpHyal when compared to other hyaluronidases. However, these toxins might share a common ancestor, thus suggesting a broad hyaluronidase-like distribution among

  6. Inhibition of lung tumor colonization and cell migration with the disintegrin crotatroxin 2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Galán, Jacob A; Sánchez, Elda E; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Soto, Julio G; Bashir, Sajid; McLane, Mary Ann; Paquette-Straub, Carrie; Pérez, John C

    2008-06-01

    Disintegrins are low molecular weight proteins (4-15 kDa) with an RGD binding region at their binding loop. Disintegrin and disintegrin-like proteins are found in the venom of four families of snakes: Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae. This report describes the biological activity of a disintegrin, crotatroxin 2, isolated by a three-step chromatography procedure from the venom of the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). The intact molecular mass for crotatroxin 2 was 7.384 kDa and 71 amino acids. Crotatroxin 2 inhibited human whole blood platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 17.5 nM, inhibited cell (66.3p) migration by 63%, and inhibited experimental lung tumor colonization in BALB/c mice at 1000 microg/kg. Our data suggest that while crotatroxin 2 inhibits platelet aggregation, cancer cell migration, and lung tumor colonization, it is done via different integrins. PMID:18387648

  7. Glycolic acid inhibits enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom: insights from docking and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Pereañez, Jaime Andrés; Patiño, Arley Camilo; Rey-Suarez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Henao Castañeda, Isabel Cristina; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    Glycolic acid (GA) (2-Hydroxyethanoic acid) is widely used as chemical peeling agent in Dermatology and, more recently, as a therapeutic and cosmetic compound in the field of skin care and disease treatment. In this work we tested the inhibitory ability of glycolic acid on the enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper venom, which induces a variety of toxic actions. Glycolic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of BaP1 on azocasein, with an IC₅₀ of 1.67 mM. The compound was also effective at inhibiting the hemorrhagic activity of BaP1 in skin and muscle in experiments involving preincubation of enzyme and inhibitor prior to injection. When BaP1 was injected i.m. and then, at the same site, different concentrations of glycolic acid were administered at either 0 or 5 min, 7 mM solutions of the inhibitor partially abrogated hemorrhagic activity when administered at 0 min. Moreover, glycolic acid inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, edema-forming activity of BaP1 in the footpad. In order to have insights on the mode of action of glycolic acid, UV-vis and intrinsic fluorescence studies were performed. Results of these assays suggest that glycolic acid interacts directly with BaP1 and chelates the Zn²⁺ ion at the active site. These findings were supported by molecular docking results, which suggested that glycolic acid forms hydrogen bonds with residues Glu143, Arg110 and Ala111 of the enzyme. Additionally, molecular modeling results suggest that the inhibitor chelates Zn²⁺, with a distance of 3.58 Å, and may occupy part of substrate binding cleft of BaP1. Our results suggest that glycolic acid is a candidate for the development of inhibitors to be used in snakebite envenomation. PMID:23726855

  8. Snake bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... bites by any of the following: Cobra Copperhead Coral snake Cottonmouth (water moccasin) Rattlesnake Various snakes found ... Swelling Thirst Tiredness Tissue damage Weakness Weak pulse Coral snake bites may be painless at first. Major ...

  9. Mechanisms controlling venom expulsion in the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies have documented variation in the amount of venom expended during bites of venomous snakes, the mechanistic source of this variation remains uncertain. This study used experimental techniques to examine how two different features of the venom delivery system, the muscle surrounding the venom gland (the Compressor Glandulae in the rattlesnake) and the fang sheath, could influence venom flow in the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. Differential contraction of the Compressor Glandulae explained only approximately 30% of the variation in venom flow. Lifting (compression) of the fang sheath as occurs during a normal strike produced marked increases in venom flow; these changes were closely correlated and exceed in magnitude by almost 10 x those recorded from the Compressor Glandulae alone. These results suggest that variation in these two aspects of the venom delivery system--both in terms of magnitude and temporal patterning--explain most of the observed variation in venom injection. The lack of functional or mechanical links between the Compressor Glandulae and the fang sheath, and the lack of skeletal or smooth muscle within the fang sheath, make it unlikely that variation in venom flow is under direct neural control. Instead, differential venom injection results from differences in the pressurization by the Compressor Glandulae, the gate keeping effects of the fang sheath and enclosed soft-tissue chambers, and by differences in the pressure returned by peripheral resistance of the target tissue. PMID:17094108

  10. Zebrin II / Aldolase C Expression in the Cerebellum of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox)

    PubMed Central

    Aspden, Joel W.; Armstrong, Carol L.; Gutierrez-Ibanez, Cristian I.; Hawkes, Richard; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Kohl, Tobias; Graham, David J.; Wylie, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Aldolase C, also known as Zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+), alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). The patterns of ZII+ and ZII- stripes in the cerebellum of birds and mammals are strikingly similar, suggesting that it may have first evolved in the stem reptiles. In this study, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). In contrast to birds and mammals, the cerebellum of the rattlesnake is much smaller and simpler, consisting of a small, unfoliated dome of cells. A pattern of alternating ZII+ and ZII- sagittal stripes cells was not observed: rather all Purkinje cells were ZII+. This suggests that ZII stripes have either been lost in snakes or that they evolved convergently in birds and mammals. PMID:25692946

  11. Diagnostic uses of snake venom.

    PubMed

    Marsh, N A

    2001-01-01

    Snake venom toxins are invaluable for the assay of coagulation factors and for the study of haemostasis generally. Thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLE) are used for fibrinogen and fibrinogen breakdown product assays as well as detecting dysfibrinogenaemias. Since SVTLE are not inhibited by heparin, they can be used for assaying antithrombin III in samples containing heparin. Snake venom prothrombin activators are utilised in prothrombin assays, whilst Russell's viper venom (RVV) can be used to assay clotting factors V, VII, X and lupus anticoagulants (LA). Activators from the taipan, Australian brown snake and saw-scaled viper have also been used to assay LA. Protein C (PC) and activated PC (APC) resistance can be measured by means of RVV, Protac (from Southern copperhead snake venom) and STA-Staclot (from Crotalus viridis helleri) whilst von Willebrand factor can be studied with Botrocetin (Bothrops jararaca). Finally, snake venom C-type lectins and metalloproteinase disintegrins are being used to study platelet glycoprotein receptors and show great potential for use in the routine coagulation laboratory. PMID:11910187

  12. Antitumor effect of Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Reinaldo J; da Silva, Márcia G; Vilela, Lízia C; Fecchio, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Many experimental studies have been carried out using snake venoms for the treatment of animal tumors, with controversial results. While some authors have reported an antitumor effect of treatment with specific snake venom fractions, others have reported no effects after this treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo study, Swiss mice were inoculated with EAT cells by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route and treated with BjV venom (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.), on the 1st, 4th, 7th, 10th, and 13th days. Mice were evaluated for total and differential cells number on the 2nd, 5th, 8th, 11th and 14th days. The survival time was also evaluated after 60 days of tumor growth. In the in vitro study, EAT and normal peritoneal cells were cultivated in the presence of different BjV concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, and 80 microg) and viability was verified after 3, 6, 12 and 24 h of cultivation. Results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests at the 5% level of significance. It was observed that in vivo treatment with BjV induced tumor growth inhibition, increased animal survival time, decreased mortality, increased the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on the early stages of tumor growth, and did not affect the mononuclear cells number. In vitro treatment with BjV produced a dose-dependent toxic effect on EAT and peritoneal cells, with higher effects against peritoneal cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BjV has an important antitumor effect. This is the first report showing this in vivo effect for this venom. PMID:12061431

  13. Non-venomous snake bite and snake bite without envenoming in a Brazilian teaching hospital. Analysis of 91 cases.

    PubMed

    Silveria, P V; Nishioka, S de A

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 473 cases of snake bite admitted to a Brazilian teaching hospital from 1984 to 1990 revealed 91 cases of bite without envenoming and/or caused by non-venomous snakes. In 17 of these cases the snake was identified, and one patient was bitten by a snake-like reptile (Amphisbaena mertensii). In 43 cases diagnosis was made on clinical grounds (fang marks in the absence of signs of envenoming). The other 30 cases were of patients who complained of being bitten but who did not show any sign of envenoming or fang mark. Most cases occurred in men (66;73%), in the 10-19 years age group (26;29%), in the lower limbs (51/74;69%), between 6 A. M. and 2 P.M. (49;61%) and in the month of April (16;18%). One patient bitten by Philodryas olfersii developed severe local pain, swelling and redness at the site of the bite, with normal clotting time. The patient bitten by Drymarcon corais was misdiagnosed as being bitten by a snake of the genus Bothrops, was given the specific antivenom, and developed anaphylaxis. One patient bitten by Sibynomorphus mikanii presented prolonged clotting time, and was also given antivenom as a case of Bothrops bite. Correct identification of venomous snakes by physicians is necessary to provide correct treatment to victims of snake bite, avoiding unnecessary distress to the patient, and overprescription of antivenom, which may eventually cause severe untoward effects. PMID:1342117

  14. Effect of photobiomodulation on endothelial cell exposed to Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ana Tereza Barufi; Silva, Luciana Miato Gonçalves; Costa, Marcília Silva; Zamuner, Silvia Fernanda; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; de Fatima Pereira Teixeira, Catarina; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2016-07-01

    Bleeding is a common feature in envenoming caused by Bothrops snake venom due to extensive damage to capillaries and venules, producing alterations in capillary endothelial cell morphology. It has been demonstrated, in vivo, that photobiomodulation (PBM) decreases hemorrhage after venom inoculation; however, the mechanism is unknown. Thus, the objective was to investigate the effects of PBM on a murine endothelial cell line (tEnd) exposed to Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV). Cells were exposed to BjV and irradiated once with either 660- or 780-nm wavelength laser light at energy densities of 4 and 5 J/cm(2), respectively, and irradiation time of 10 s. Cell integrity was analyzed by crystal violet and cell viability/mitochondrial metabolism by MTT assay. The release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) was quantified as a measure of cell damage. In addition, cytokine IL1-β levels were measured in the supernatant. PBM at 660 and 780 nm wavelength was able to increase cellular viability and decrease the release of LDH and the loss of cellular integrity. In addition, the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1-β was reduced after PBM by both wavelengths. The data reported herein indicates that irradiation with red or near-infrared laser resulted in protection on endothelial cells after exposure to Bothrops venom and could be, at least in part, a reasonable explanation by the beneficial effects of PBM inhibiting the local effects induced by Bothrops venoms, in vivo. PMID:27147074

  15. Mating Systems, Reproductive Success, and Sexual Selection in Secretive Species: A Case Study of the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rulon W.; Schuett, Gordon W.; Repp, Roger A.; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F.; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa. PMID:24598810

  16. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rulon W; Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa. PMID:24598810

  17. Wide distribution of cysteine-rich secretory proteins in snake venoms: isolation and cloning of novel snake venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yasuo; Hyodo, Fumiko; Morita, Takashi

    2003-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are found in epididymis and granules of mammals, and they are thought to function in sperm maturation and in the immune system. Recently, we isolated and obtained clones for novel snake venom proteins that are classified as CRISP family proteins. To elucidate the distribution of snake venom CRISP family proteins, we evaluated a wide range of venoms for immuno-cross-reactivity. Then we isolated, characterized, and cloned genes for three novel CRISP family proteins (piscivorin, ophanin, and catrin) from the venom of eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Our results show the wide distribution of snake venom CRISP family proteins among Viperidae and Elapidae from different continents, indicating that CRISP family proteins compose a new group of snake venom proteins. PMID:12646276

  18. Comparative structural studies on Lys49-phospholipases A(2) from Bothrops genus reveal their myotoxic site.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Juliana I; Soares, Andreimar Martins; Fontes, Marcos R M

    2009-08-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) are membrane-associated enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids at the sn-2 position, releasing lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Phospholipase A(2) homologues (Lys49-PLA(2)s) are highly myotoxic and cause extensive tissue damage despite not showing measurable catalytic activity. They are found in different snake venoms and represent one third of bothropic venom composition. The importance of these toxins during envenomation is related to the pronounced local myotoxic effect they induce since this effect is not neutralized by serum therapy. We present herein three structures of Lys49-PLA(2)s from Bothrops genus snake venom crystallized under the same conditions, two of which were grown in the presence of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Comparative structural analysis of these and other Lys49-PLA(2)s showed two different patterns of oligomeric conformation that are related to the presence or absence of ligands in the hydrophobic channel. This work also confirms the biological dimer indicated by recent studies in which both C-termini are in the dimeric interface. In this configuration, we propose that the myotoxic site of these toxins is composed by the Lys 20, Lys115 and Arg118 residues. For the first time, a residue from the short-helix (Lys20) is suggested as a member of this site and the importance of Tyr119 residue to myotoxicity of bothropic Lys49-PLA(2)s is also discussed. These results support a complete hypothesis for these PLA(2)s myotoxic activity consistent with all findings on bothropic Lys49-PLA(2)s studied up to this moment, including crystallographic, bioinformatics, biochemical and biophysical data. PMID:19401234

  19. Intraspecific variation of biological activities in venoms from wild and captive Bothrops jararaca.

    PubMed

    Saad, Eduardo; Curtolo Barros, Luciana; Biscola, Natalia; Pimenta, Daniel C; Barraviera, Silvia R C S; Barraviera, Benedito; Seabra Ferreira, Rui

    2012-01-01

    The venom of Bothrops jararaca is composed of complex mixture of molecules, mainly lectins, metalloproteinases, serinoproteinases, desintegrins, phospholipases, and peptides. This composition may vary according to the snake's age, gender, and region of origin. The aim of the was to determine individual variation in Bothrops jararaca venom in the Botucatu region, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, by means of enzymatic, biochemical, and pharmacological characterization, utilizing in vitro tests and biological assays. The activities were compared with those of Brazilian Reference Venom (BRV). Protein concentration varied between adult and juvenile groups. The electrophoretic profiles were similar, with molecular masses ranging between 25 and 50 kD, but with intraspecific variations. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed protein concentration differences. Coagulant activity did not differ significantly among adult groups, but there was a large variation between juvenile venom and BRV, which coagulated more extensively. Venoms from adults displayed greater hemorrhagic activity, especially in males recently obtained from the wild. In contrast, juveniles kept in captivity and adult males showed higher values. Edematogenic activity displayed an increase in edema in all groups. At the mean lethal dose (LD₅₀), toxicity varied significantly between groups, with venom from captive females being threefold more toxic than juvenile venom. Data illustrate the intra- and interspecific complexity that occurs in snake venoms, which may be attributed to ontogenetic, sexual, and environmental factors that affect variability in Bothrops jararaca venom. Further, it is proposed that Brazilian public health authorities document the constitution of pooled venom employed in the immunization of serum-producing animals due to this variability in venom properties. Given the large Brazilian territory, this variability requires regional monitoring and evaluation of

  20. Venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops erythromelas from five geographic populations within the Caatinga ecoregion of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Monteiro, Helena S A; Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Guarnieri, Míriam C; Ximenes, Rafael M; Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Luna, Karla P de O; Zingali, Russolina B; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-30

    The Caatinga lancehead, Bothrops erythromelas, is a medically relevant species, responsible for most of the snakebite accidents in most parts of its distribution range in northeastern Brazil. The spectrum and geographic variability of its venom toxins were investigated applying a venomics approach to venom pools from five geographic areas within the Caatinga ecoregion. Despite its wide habitat, populations of B. erythromelas from Ceará, Pernambuco, Juazeiro, Paraiba, and Ilha de Itaparica exhibit highly conserved venom proteomes. Mirroring their compositional conservation, the five geographic venom pools also showed qualitatively and quantitatively overlapping antivenomic profiles against antivenoms generated in Vital Brazil (BR) and Clodomiro Picado (CR) Institutes, using different venoms in the immunization mixtures. The paraspecificity exhibited by the Brazilian SAB and the Costa Rican BCL antivenoms against venom toxins from B. erythromelas indicates large immunoreactive epitope conservation across genus Bothrops during the last ~14 million years, thus offering promise for the possibility of generating a broad-spectrum bothropic antivenom. Biological Significance Accidental snakebite envenomings represent an important public health hazard in Brazil. Ninety per cent of the yearly estimated 20-30,000 snakebite accidents are caused by species of the Bothrops genus. Bothrops erythromelas, a small, moderately stocky terrestrial venomous snake, is responsible for most of the snakebite accidents in its broad distribution range in the Caatinga, a large ecoregion in northeastern Brazil. To gain a deeper insight into the spectrum of medically important toxins present in the venom of the Caatinga lancehead, we applied a venomics approach to define the proteome and geographic variability of adult B. erythromelas venoms from five geographic regions. Although intraspecific compositional variation between venoms among specimens from different geographic regions has long been

  1. Action of anti-bothropic factor isolated from Didelphis marsupialis on renal effects of Bothrops erythromelas venom.

    PubMed

    Martins, Alice M C; Sousa, Fabiola C M; Barbosa, Paulo S F; Toyama, Marcos H; Toyama, Daniela O; Aprígio, Cleidiana C; Queiroz, Maria G R; Guarnieri, Mirian C; Havt, Alexandre; de Menezes, Dalgimar B; Fonteles, Manassés C; Monteiro, Helena S A

    2005-11-01

    Acute renal failure is the most common complication in the lethal cases caused by snakebites in Brazil. Among the Brazilian venom snakes, Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for the majority of accidents in Northeastern Brazil. Didelphis marsupialis serum could inhibit myonecrotic, hemorrhagic, edematogenic hyperalgesic and lethal effects of envenomation determined by ophidian bites. In the present study, we evaluated the action of the anti-bothropic factor isolated from D. marsupialis on the renal effects promoted by B. erythromelas venom without systemic interference. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6% bovine serum albumin. We analyzed renal perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary flow (UF), and the percentages of sodium and potassium tubular transport (%TNa+, %TK+). The B. erythromelas venom (10 microg mL(-1)) decreased the PP (ct = 108.71+/-5.09 mmHg; BE = 65.21+/-5.6 mmHg*) and RVR (ct = 5.76+/-0.65 mmHg mL(-1) g(-1) min(-1); BE = 3.10+/-0.45 mmHg mL(-1) g(-1) min(-1)*). On the other hand, the GFR decreased at 60 min (ct60 = 0.76+/-0.07 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE60 = 0.42+/-0.12 mL g(-1) min(-1)*) and increased at 120 min (ct120 = 0.72+/-0.01 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE120 = 1.24+/-0.26 mL g(-1) min(-1)*). The UF increased significantly when compared with the control group (ct = 0.14+/-0.01 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE = 0.47+/-0.08 mL g(-1) min(-1)*). The venom reduced the %TNa(+) (ct90 = 79.18+/-0.88%; BE90 = 58.35+/-4.86%*) and %TK+ (ct90 = 67.20+/-4.04%; BE90 = 57.32+/-5.26%*) The anti-bothropic factor from D. marsupialis (10 microg mL(-1)) incubated with B. erythromelas venom (10 microg mL(-1)) blocked the effects on PP, RVR, %TNa+, and %TK+, but was not able to reverse the effects in UF and GFR promoted by venom alone. However, the highest concentration of D. marsupialis serum (30 microg mL(-1)) reversed all the renal effects induced by the venom. In

  2. Nucleotidase and DNase activities in Brazilian snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Sales, Paulo Bruno Valadão; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2008-01-01

    Among the myriad of enzymes present in animal venoms, nucleotidases and nucleases are poorly investigated. Herein, we studied such enzymes in 28 crude venoms of animals found in Brazil. Higher levels of ATPase, 5'-nucleotidase, ADPase, phosphodiesterase and DNase activities were observed in snake venoms belonging to Bothrops, Crotalus and Lachesis genera than to Micrurus genus. The venom of Bothrops brazili snake showed the highest nucleotidase and DNase activities, whereas that of Micrurus frontalis snake the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. On the other hand, the venoms of the snake Philodryas olfersii and the spider Loxosceles gaucho were devoid of most nucleotidase and DNase activities. Species that exhibited similar nucleotidase activities by colorimetric assays showed different banding pattern by zymography, suggesting the occurrence of structural differences among them. Hydrolysis of nucleotides showed that 1 mol of ATP is cleaved in 1 mol of pyrophosphate and 1 mol of orthophosphate, whereas 1 mol of ADP is cleaved exclusively in 2 mol of orthophosphates. Pyrophosphate is barely hydrolyzed by snake venoms. Phosphodiesterase activity was better correlated with 5'-nucleotidase, ADPase and ATPase activities than with DNase activity, evidencing that phosphodiesterases are not the main agent of DNA hydrolysis in animal venoms. The omnipresence of nucleotidase and DNase activities in viperid venoms implies a role for them within the repertoire of enzymes involved in immobilization and death of preys. PMID:17904425

  3. Bothrops lanceolatus bites: guidelines for severity assessment and emergent management.

    PubMed

    Resiere, Dabor; Mégarbane, Bruno; Valentino, Ruddy; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Thomas, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 20-30 declared snakebite cases occurin Martinique each year. Bothrops lanceolatus, a member of the Crotalidae family, is considered to be the only involved snake. B. lanceolatus, commonly named "Fer-de-Lance", is endemic and only found on this Caribbean island. Envenomation local features include the presence of fang marks, swelling, pain, bleeding from punctures, and ecchymosis. Severe envenomation is associated with multiple systemic thromboses appearing within 48 h of the bite and resulting in cerebral, myocardial or pulmonary infarctions. Diagnosis requires first of all identification of the snake. Coagulation tests are helpful to identify thrombocytopenia or disseminated intravascular coagulation. A clinical score based on 4 grades is helpful to assess envonimation severity. A specific monovalent equine anti-venom (Bothrofav(®), Sanofi-Pasteur, France) to neutralize B. lanceolatus venom is available. Its early administration within 6h from the biting in case of progressive local injures, general signs or coagulation disturbances is effective to prevent severe thrombosis and coagulopathy. Its tolerance is considered to be good. Despite an increasing incidence of bites, no deaths have been recently attributed to B. lanceolatus in Martinique, probably due to the currently recommended strategy of early antivenom administration when required. PMID:22069552

  4. Haematopoiesis in snakes (Ophidia) in early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Z; Sano Martins, I S; Tabarowski, Z; Witkowska-Pelc, E; Spadacci Morena, D D; Spodaryk, K; Podkowa, D

    2007-05-01

    The occurrence of haematopoiesis has been studied in various parts of the spine and in the ribs in four species of snakes (Boa constrictor L., Elaphe guttata L., Lamprophis fulaginosus Boie., Bothrops jararaca Wied.) from hatching until 150 days of postnatal development. Marrow spaces are formed by chondrolysis with various time frames depending on the studied species. Marrow cells egress to the general circulation in two ways: via migration through the endothelial cells lining the venous sinuses or by the rupture of protrusions. Erythroblasts are present in the lumen of marrow sinuses suggesting their final maturation there. Various relationships of the spleen to the pancreas have been found. No myelopoietic foci occur in the spleen, liver or kidney of any of the studied species. However, erythropoiesis (sparse islets) has been observed in Bothrops jararaca spleen. PMID:17225172

  5. A novel synthetic quinolinone inhibitor presents proteolytic and hemorrhagic inhibitory activities against snake venom metalloproteases.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, Patrícia T; Magro, Angelo J; Matioli, Fábio F; Marcussi, Silvana; Lemke, Ney; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M; Correa, Arlene G; Fontes, Marcos R M

    2016-02-01

    Metalloproteases play a fundamental role in snake venom envenomation inducing hemorrhagic, fibrigen(ogen)olytic and myotoxic effects in their victims. Several snake venoms, such as those from the Bothrops genus, present important local effects which are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy. Consequently, these accidents may result in permanent sequelae and disability, creating economic and social problems, especially in developing countries, leading the attention of the World Health Organization that considered ophidic envenomations a neglected tropical disease. Aiming to produce an efficient inhibitor against bothropic venoms, we synthesized different molecules classified as quinolinones - a group of low-toxic chemical compounds widely used as antibacterial and antimycobacterial drugs - and tested their inhibitory properties against hemorrhage caused by bothropic venoms. The results from this initial screening indicated the molecule 2-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxy-1,4-dihydro-4-quinolinone (Q8) was the most effective antihemorrhagic compound among all of the assayed synthetic quinolinones. Other in vitro and in vivo experiments showed this novel compound was able to inhibit significantly the hemorrhagic and/or proteolytic activities of bothropic crude venoms and isolated snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) even at lower concentrations. Docking and molecular dynamic simulations were also performed to get insights into the structural basis of Q8 inhibitory mechanism against proteolytic and hemorrhagic SVMPs. These structural studies demonstrated that Q8 may form a stable complex with SVMPs, impairing the access of substrates to the active sites of these toxins. Therefore, both experimental and structural data indicate that Q8 compound is an interesting candidate for antiophidic therapy, particularly for the treatment of the hemorrhagic and necrotic effects induced by bothropic venoms. PMID:26700145

  6. Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (Colubridae): neutralization of local and systemic effects by commercial bothropic antivenom (Bothrops genus).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marisa M Teixeira; Paixão-Cavalcante, Danielle; Tambourgi, Denise V; Furtado, Maria de Fátima D

    2006-01-01

    Colubrids involved in human envenomation in Brazil are mainly from the genera Helicops, Oxyrhopus, Thamnodynastes and Philodryas. There is a relatively large number of clinical descriptions involving the Xenodontinae snakes, Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis, in human accidents. The most common manifestations of envenomation are local pain, swelling, erythema and ecchymosis and regional lymphadenopathy with normal coagulation. The aims of this study were to characterize the biochemical and biological properties of P. olfersii and P. patagoniensis venoms, and to investigate their immunological cross-reactivities by using both specific antisera and anti-Bothrops sp serum used for human serum therapy in Brazil, in neutralizing the lethal and hemorrhagic effects of these venoms. We show here that P. olfersii e P. patagoniensis venoms present proteolytic and haemorrhagic activities but are devoid of phospholipase A2 activity. Haemorrhage and lethality induced by P. olfersii and P. patagoniensis are associated with metal-dependent proteinases, since EDTA could block these toxic activities. P. olfersii and P. patagoniensis venoms were immunogenic and the antisera produced were able to recognize several bands in P. olfersii, P. patagoniensis venoms in Bothrops jararaca venom. PMID:16360723

  7. Interaction of Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases with protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Asega, Amanda F; Oliveira, Ana K; Menezes, Milene C; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C; Serrano, Solange M T

    2014-03-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play important roles in the local and systemic hemorrhage observed upon envenomation. In a previous study on the structural elements important for the activities of HF3 (highly hemorrhagic, P-III-SVMP), bothropasin (hemorrhagic, P-III-SVMP) and BJ-PI (non-hemorrhagic, P-I-SVMP), from Bothrops jararaca, it was demonstrated that they differ in their proteolysis profile of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study, we evaluated the ability of proteins DM43 and α2-macroglobulin to interfere with the proteolytic activity of these SVMPs on fibrinogen and collagen VI and with their ability to induce hemorrhage. DM43 inhibited the proteolytic activity of bothropasin and BJ-PI but not that of HF3, and was not cleaved the three proteinases. On the other hand, α2-macroglobulin did not inhibit any of the proteinases and was rather cleaved by them. In agreement with these findings, binding analysis showed interaction of bothropasin and BJ-PI but not HF3 to DM43 while none of the proteinases bound to α2-macroglobulin. Moreover, DM43 promoted partial inhibition of the hemorrhagic activity of bothropasin but not that of HF3. Our results demonstrate that metalloproteinases of B. jararaca venom showing different domain composition, glycosylation level and hemorrhagic potency show variable susceptibilities to protein inhibitors. PMID:24433992

  8. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida) as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, G; Sánchez-Monge, A

    2015-11-01

    Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884) was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845). This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM) of the specimens are given. PMID:26628232

  9. Use of snake venom fractions in the coagulation laboratory.

    PubMed

    Marsh, N A

    1998-07-01

    Snake venom toxins are now regularly used in the coagulation laboratory for assaying haemostatic parameters and as coagulation reagents. Snake venom thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLE) are used for fibrinogen and fibrinogen breakdown product assay as well as detecting dysfibrinogenaemias. Significantly, because SVTLE are not inhibited by heparin, they can be used for defibrinating samples that contain the anticoagulant before assay of haemostatic variables. Prothrombin activators are found in many snake venoms and are used in prothrombin assays, for studying dysprothrombinaemias and preparing meizothrombin and non-enzymic prothrombin. Russell's viper (Daboia russelli) venom (RVV) contains a number of compounds useful in the assay of factors V, VII, X, platelet factor 3 and lupus anticoagulants. Activators from the taipan, Australian brown snake and saw-scaled viper have been used to assay lupus anticoagulants. Protein C and activated protein C resistance can be measured by means of RVV and Protac, a fast acting inhibitor from Southern copperhead snake venom and von Willebrand factor can be studied with Botrocetin from Bothrops jararaca venom. Finally, phospholipase A2 enzymes and the disintegrins, a family of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing proteins found in snake venoms, show great potential for the study of haemostasis including, notably, platelet glycoprotein receptors GPIIb/IIIa and Ib. PMID:9712287

  10. Practical applications of snake venom toxins in haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Neville; Williams, Vaughan

    2005-06-15

    Snake venom toxins affecting haemostasis have facilitated extensively the routine assays of haemostatic parameters in the coagulation laboratory. Snake venom thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLE) are used for fibrinogen/fibrinogen breakdown product assay and for the detection of fibrinogen dysfunction. SVTLE are not inhibited by heparin and can thus can be used for assaying antithrombin III and other haemostatic variables in heparin-containing samples. Snake venoms are a rich source of prothrombin activators and these are utilised in prothrombin assays, for studying dysprothrombinaemias and for preparing meizothrombin and non-enzymic forms of prothrombin. Russell's viper (Daboia russelli) venom (RVV) contains toxins which have been used to assay blood clotting factors V, VII, X, platelet factor 3 and, importantly, lupus anticoagulants (LA). Other prothrombin activators (from the taipan, Australian brown snake and saw-scaled viper) have now been used to assay LA. Protein C and activated protein C resistance can be measured by means of RVV and Protac, a fast acting inhibitor from Southern copperhead snake venom and von Willebrand factor can be studied with botrocetin from Bothrops jararaca venom. The disintegrins, a large family of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing snake venom proteins, show potential for studying platelet glycoprotein receptors, notably, GPIIb/IIIa and Ib. Snake venom toxins affecting haemostasis are also used in the therapeutic setting: Ancrod (from the Malayan pit viper, Calloselasma rhodostoma), in particular, has been used as an anticoagulant to achieve 'therapeutic defibrination'. Other snake venom proteins show promise in the treatment of a range of haemostatic disorders. PMID:15922782

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a new tRNA arrangement in Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Hong, Eui Jeong; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which is only distributed in Korea. The genome was 16 540 bp in size and contained typical sets of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs). The C. atrox A+T-rich region, at 1402 bp, was the longest of all sequenced ant genomes and was composed of an identical tandem repeat consisting of six 100-bp copies and one 96-bp copy. A total of 315 bp of intergenic spacer sequence was spread over 23 regions. An alignment of the spacer sequences in ants was largely feasible among congeneric species, and there was substantial sequence divergence, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for congeneric species. The A/T contents at the first and second codon positions of protein-coding genes (PCGs) were similar for ant species, including C. atrox (73.9% vs. 72.3%, on average). With increased taxon sampling among hymenopteran superfamilies, differences in the divergence rates (i.e., the non-synonymous substitution rates) between the suborders Symphyta and Apocrita were detected, consistent with previous results. The C. atrox mt genome had a unique gene arrangement, trnI-trnM-trnQ, at the A+T-rich region and ND2 junction (underline indicates inverted gene). This may have originated from a tandem duplication of trnM-trnI, resulting in trnM-trnI-trnM-trnI-trnQ, and the subsequent loss of the first trnM and second trnI, resulting in trnI-trnM-trnQ. PMID:26731510

  12. [Neutralization of the hemorrhagic effect induced by Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae) venom with tropical plant extracts].

    PubMed

    Castro, O; Gutiérrez, J M; Barrios, M; Castro, I; Romero, M; Umaña, E

    1999-09-01

    Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom's hemorrhagic metalloproteinases. PMID:10883329

  13. Incipient speciation with biased gene flow between two lineages of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox).

    PubMed

    Schield, Drew R; Card, Daren C; Adams, Richard H; Jezkova, Tereza; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Proctor, F Nicole; Spencer, Carol L; Herrmann, Hans-Werner; Mackessy, Stephen P; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-02-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA sequence data from 151 individuals to estimate population genetic structure across the range of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), a widely distributed North American pit viper. We also tested hypotheses of population structure using double-digest restriction site associated DNA (ddRADseq) data, incorporating thousands of nuclear genome-wide SNPs from 42 individuals. We found strong mitochondrial support for a deep divergence between eastern and western C. atrox populations, and subsequent intermixing of these populations in the Inter-Pecos region of the United States and Mexico. Our nuclear RADseq data also identify these two distinct lineages of C. atrox, and provide evidence for nuclear admixture of eastern and western alleles across a broad geographic region. We identified contrasting patterns of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across this genetic fusion zone that indicate partially restricted patterns of gene flow, which may be due to either pre- or post-zygotic isolating mechanisms. The failure of these two lineages to maintain complete genetic isolation, and evidence for partially-restricted gene flow, imply that these lineages were in the early stages of speciation prior to secondary contact. PMID:25534232

  14. Bothrops jararaca Venom Metalloproteinases Are Essential for Coagulopathy and Increase Plasma Tissue Factor Levels during Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Karine M.; Alves, André F.; Barbaro, Katia C.; Santoro, Marcelo L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Methods/Principal Findings Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. Conclusions SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering

  15. Practical applications of snake venom toxins in haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Marsh, N A; Fyffe, T L

    1996-01-01

    Snake venom toxins have an established role in the coagulation laboratory for the assay of haemostatic parameters and a potential role for therapeutic treatment of thrombotic disorders. In the laboratory, snake venom thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLEs) are used for the assay of fibrinogen and detection of fibrinogen breakdown products and dysfibrinogenaemias. Importantly, because SVTLEs are not inhibited by heparin, they can be used for assaying antithrombin III and other parameters in samples which contain heparin. Prothrombin activators occur in many snake venoms and these have become established in the assay of prothrombin, in the study of dysprothrombinaemias and in the preparation of meizothrombin and non enzymic forms of prothrombin. Russell's viper (Daboia russelli) venom contains a number of useful compounds including toxins which can be used to assay blood clotting factors V, VII, X, platelet factor 3 and lupus anticoagulants (LA). More recently, activators from the taipan, Australian brown snake and saw-scaled viper have been used to assay LA. Proteins C and S can be measured by means of protac, a fast acting inhibitor from Southern copperhead snake venom and von Willebrand factor can be studied with botrocetin from Bothrops jararaca venom. The disintegrins, a large family of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing proteins found in snake venoms, show great potential for the study of platelet glycoprotein receptors, notably, GPIIb/IIIa and Ib, and in the treatment of arterial thrombotic disease. Established SVTLEs used in clinical practice include ancrod and defibrase although success with these agents has been limited. A further group of enzymes under consideration as thrombolytic agents are the fibrinogenases. PMID:9425723

  16. Response of Western Diamondback Rattlesnakes ("Crotalus atrox") to Chemical Cues of Mice ("Mus musculus") of Different Genders and Reproductive Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saviola, Anthony J.; Chiszar, David; Bealor, Matthew T.; Smith, Hobart M.

    2010-01-01

    Eight western diamondback rattlesnakes ("Crotalus atrox") were exposed to 6 stimuli: (1) clean, unused bedding; (2) an adult male mouse; (3) an adult lactating female mouse; (4) an adult lactating female mouse with a litter; (5) 2 adult nonlactating female mice, to control for the extra surface area in Condition 4; and (6) a litter of newborn…

  17. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as the size of the population at risk – that may vary from one region to another. PMID:24099013

  18. Annual changes in seminal variables of golden lanchead pitvipers (Bothrops insularis) maintained in captivity.

    PubMed

    Silva, K B; Zogno, M A; Camillo, A B; Pereira, R J G; Almeida-Santos, S M

    2015-12-01

    Bothrops insularis is an endemic and critically endangered snake with an estimated population of 2000 individuals restricted to Queimada Grande Island, in southeastern Brazil. Brazilian researchers established a captive breeding program for the species that includes the application of assisted reproductive technologies. The present study, therefore, aimed to evaluate semen samples from captive B. insularis throughout the year to ascertain seasonal differences in semen traits as well as correlations with body size and weight. Eighteen males with snout-vent length (SVL) ranging from 43.5 to 73.7 cm were collected at quarterly basis between August 2012 and May 2013. Macroscopic analysis revealed semen volumes ranging from 0.5 to 6.0 μL with samples featuring whitish to yellowish color and creamy and thick consistency. Viable sperm was obtained from all males indicating that individuals with SVL equal to or greater than 43.5 cm are sexually developed. However, adult and immature males (estimated by SVL) exhibited different seasonal profiles for motility and progressive motility. Adult males had a decrease in sperm motility and progressive motility during summer and spring, respectively, whereas the same variables did not vary throughout the year in immature snakes. Sperm concentration in all individuals was less (0.5 × 10(9) μL) during the winter, but no seasonal fluctuations were detected in semen volume. These findings are of particular importance to the development of reproductive tools such as male selection, artificial insemination and sperm freezing for the genetic management of this critically endangered snake. PMID:26559333

  19. Muscle phospholipid hydrolysis by Bothrops asper Asp49 and Lys49 phospholipase A₂ myotoxins--distinct mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Julián; Caccin, Paola; Koster, Grielof; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José M; Montecucco, Cesare; Postle, Anthony D

    2013-08-01

    Bothrops snakes are the major cause of ophidian envenomings in Latin America. Their venom contains myotoxins that cause prominent muscle damage, which may lead to permanent disability. These toxins include myotoxins Mt-I and Mt-II, which share the phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) fold, but Mt-II lacks enzymatic activity because the essential active site Asp49 is replaced by Lys. Both myotoxins cause sarcolemma alterations, with Ca²⁺ entry and loss of ATP and K⁺ from muscle cells, but the molecular lesions at the basis of their cellular action are not known, particularly the role of phospholipid hydrolysis. Here we tested their PLA₂ activity in vivo, and evaluated the hypothesis that Ca²⁺-activated endogenous PLA₂s may be involved in the action of Mt-II. The time course of phospholipid hydrolysis by Mt-I and Mt-II in myotubes in culture and in tibialis anterior mouse muscles was determined. Mt-I rapidly hydrolyzed phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine but not phosphatidylserine, but no phospho-lipids were hydrolyzed in the presence of Mt-II. Whole Bothrops asper venom induced a higher extent of phospholipid hydrolysis than Mt-I alone. These results demonstrate in vivo PLA₂ activity of Mt-I for the first time, and indicate that it acts only on the external monolayer of the sarcolemma. They also exclude activation of endogenous PLA₂s in the action of Mt-II, implying that plasma membrane disruption by this toxin does not depend on phospholipid hydrolysis. Therefore, both Bothrops myotoxins induce Ca²⁺ entry and release of ATP and cause myonecrosis, but through different biochemical mechanisms. PMID:23763831

  20. SNAKE CALIBRATION IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    RANJBAR,V.; BAI,M.; LUCCIO,A.; MACKAY,W.W.; ROSER,T.; LEET,S.Y.

    2002-06-02

    A proper understanding of the response of the spin orientation due to the currents in the four helices which make up each snake is necessary to control spin tune, avoid snake resonances and facilitate the operation of the RHIC spin flipper. The effect of the helical dipole snakes in RHIC is to rotate the spin orientation an angle {mu} about an axis at an angle {phi} in the horizontal plane. With two snakes the combined effect gives rise to a spin precession frequency which is determined by the {mu} and {phi} angles at each snake. Depolarization or spin flipping can occur when this spin tune is near an external driving frequency. We employed the RHIC spin flipper in this way to determine the spin tune and thus verify spin tune predictions based upon previous field measurements of the snake. We also considered the response of snake resonances locations to spin tune as another way of verifying spin tune predictions.

  1. An alternative micromethod to access the procoagulant activity of Bothrops jararaca venom and the efficacy of antivenom.

    PubMed

    Oguiura, N; Kapronezai, J; Ribeiro, T; Rocha, M M T; Medeiros, C R; Marcelino, J R; Prezoto, B C

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of the capacity of antivenoms to neutralize the lethal activity of snake venoms still relies largely on traditional rodent lethality assay (LD50). However, adequately validated in vitro tests should be introduced for assessing antivenom neutralizing capacity in plasma of immunized horses as well as for in-process quality control. The dynamic of fibrin formation in recalcified avian plasma samples is extremely slow, when compared to that presented by mammalian plasmas. In this study, we present one new coagulant assay, by performing dose-response curve after plotting the clotting time (CT) parameter of the ROTEM profile of recalcified chicken plasma samples (target) against semi-logarithmic doses of Bothrops jararaca venom (agonist), either in absence or in presence of the semi-logarithmic doses of anti-bothropic serum (ABS) (antagonist). The mean coagulant dose 50% (CD50) was defined as the quantity of venom (in μg) which reduces CT to 900 s, between minimum and maximum responses. The CT induced by 5CD50 of the venom was used as the control for calculating the effective dose (ED) of each batch of ABS. ED was defined as the ABS dose (nanoliters, nL) at which CT induced by one amount of venom corresponding to 5CD50 is displaced to the maximum threshold (1800 s). Five batches of the ABS, previously assayed for their lethality neutralizing activity (ED50) were assayed. The correlation coefficient (r) between both in vitro (ED) and in vivo (ED50) values was 0.87 (p value < 0.05). We propose this micro method as highly sensitive for characterization and quantification of possible procoagulant activity of small doses of snake venoms (nanograms) and for detecting small doses (nanoliters) of specific antibodies against this effect in little volume samples of biological fluids. PMID:25128708

  2. Why myotoxin-containing snake venoms possess powerful nucleotidases?

    PubMed

    Caccin, Paola; Pellegatti, Patrizia; Fernandez, Julián; Vono, Maria; Cintra-Francischinelli, Mariana; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Montecucco, Cesare

    2013-01-25

    The venom of the snake Bothrops asper causes muscle necrosis, pain and inflammation. This venom contains myotoxins which cause an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and release of K(+) and ATP from myotubes. ATP is a key danger molecule that triggers a variety of reactions, including activation of the innate immune response. Here, using ATP-luciferase bioluminescence imaging technique, we show for the first time in vivo, that the purified myotoxins induce rapid release of ATP, whilst the complete venom of B. asper does at a very small extent. This apparent contradiction is explained by the finding that the venom contains powerful nucleotidases that in vivo convert ATP into ADP, AMP and Adenosine. These findings indicate that high concentrations of adenosine are generated by the double action of the venom and provide the experimental basis to the suggestion that in situ generated adenosine plays an important role in envenomation via its hypotensive, paralyzing and anti-coagulant activities. PMID:23261426

  3. Hematopoiesis in snakes (Ophidia).

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Z; Tabarowski, Z; Sano-Martins, I S; Spadacci-Morena, D D; Witkowska-Pelc, E; Krzysztofowicz, E; Spodaryk, K

    2002-01-01

    Locations of the hematopoietic tissue have been described in the following ophidian species: Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacusu, Waglerophis merremii, Elaphe teniura teniura, Boa constrictor, and Python reticulatus. Studies were carried out on perfusion fixed vertebrae, ribs, spleen, liver, thymus, and kidney. Routine histological technique was applied using both light and electron microscopy. Hematopoietic tissue was found in the following locations of the vertebrae: neural spine, neural arch, postzygophysis processes, hypapophysis, vertebral centre. Moreover, intense hematopoiesis was found inside the ribs. In the spleen and thymus, only lymphopoiesis was found. Hematopoietic islets in the spleen were sporadically found only in young specimens. No hematopoiesis was observed in the liver and kidney. In the studied species, there were no differences in the location of hematopoietic tissue. A new model of mature and immature blood cell release to the lumen of marrow sinuses different from that known to operate in higher vertebrates is proposed. PMID:12056654

  4. BbrzSP-32, the first serine protease isolated from Bothrops brazili venom: Purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Zaqueo, Kayena D; Kayano, Anderson M; Domingos, Thaisa F S; Moura, Laura A; Fuly, André L; da Silva, Saulo L; Acosta, Gerardo; Oliveira, Eliandre; Albericio, Fernando; Zanchi, Fernando B; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2016-05-01

    Snake venom toxins are related not only in detention, death and the promotion of initial digestion of prey but also due to their different biochemical, structural and pharmacological effects they can result in new drugs. Among these toxins snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs) should be highlighted because they are responsible for inducing changes in physiological functions such as blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation. This article presents the first serine protease (SP) isolated from Bothrops brazili: BbrzSP-32. The new SP showed 36 kDa of relative molecular mass and its absolute mass was confirmed by mass spectrometry as 32,520 Da. It presents 79.48% identity when compared to other SVSPs and was able to degrade the α-chain of fibrinogen, in in vitro models, because of this it is considered a SVTLE-A. It showed dose-dependent activity in the process of degradation of fibrin networks demonstrating greater specificity for this activity when compared to its thrombolytic action. BbrzSP-32 demonstrated proteolytic activity on gelatin and chromogenic substrates for serine proteases and thrombin-like enzymes (S-2288 and S-2238 respectively), besides having coagulant activity on human plasma. After pre-incubation with PMSF and benzamidine the coagulant and proteolytic activities on the S-2288 and S-2238 substrates were reduced. BbrzSP-32 shows stability against pH and temperature variations, demonstrating optimum activity between 30 and 40 °C and in the pH range 7.5 to 8.5. A new SP with potential biotechnological application was isolated. PMID:26827743

  5. The clavicles of Smilodon fatalis and Panthera atrox (Mammalia: Felidae) from Rancho La Brea, Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Long, Ryan C; Farrell, Aisling B; Shaw, Christopher A

    2012-09-01

    The Rancho La Brea collections at the George C. Page Museum in Los Angeles, California, contain the largest single inventory of Smilodon fatalis remains representing virtually every bone in the skeleton. Eighteen clavicles of two distinctive shapes have been recovered from historical and recent excavations at Rancho La Brea. In this study, we identify these specimens to species through comparison of their morphology and morphological variability with clavicles found in modern felids. This study includes a reevaluation of clavicles that have been previously assigned to S. fatalis, which are more likely to be those of Panthera atrox, and the description of pantherine cat clavicles. A previously undescribed sample of clavicles not only includes some of the same pantherine morph but also 10 specimens, herein assigned to S. fatalis, which are morphologically distinctive and significantly smaller than the previously described specimens. In addition, we report unexpected variations between clavicles of Panthera leo and P. tigris: the clavicles of P. leo closely resemble those of the large Rancho La Brea clavicle morph-which presumably belongs to P. atrox-thus supporting a P. leo/P. atrox clade. We report distinctive morphology of the clavicles of Acinonyx jubatus. Possible functional and phylogenic significance of felid clavicles is suggested. PMID:22592918

  6. Snaking through Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin, Sam S.

    1983-01-01

    Suggestions are provided for using animals (particularly snakes) as the focus of studies and activities in the science classroom. For example, cages with animals can serve as a learning center on various aspects of the animal. A list of suggestions for the care and feeding of snakes is provided. (JN)

  7. Appraisal of antiophidic potential of marine sponges against Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta venom.

    PubMed

    Faioli, Camila Nunes; Domingos, Thaisa Francielle Souza; de Oliveira, Eduardo Coriolano; Sanchez, Eládio Flores; Ribeiro, Suzi; Muricy, Guilherme; Fuly, Andre Lopes

    2013-10-01

    Snakebites are a health problem in many countries due to the high incidence of such accidents. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century, however, this does not neutralize tissue damage and may even increase the severity and morbidity of accidents. Thus, it has been relevant to search for new strategies to improve antiserum therapy, and a variety of molecules from natural sources with antiophidian properties have been reported. In this paper, we analyzed the ability of ten extracts from marine sponges (Amphimedon viridis, Aplysina fulva, Chondrosia collectrix, Desmapsamma anchorata, Dysidea etheria, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Mycale angulosa, Petromica citrina, Polymastia janeirensis, and Tedania ignis) to inhibit the effects caused by Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta venom. All sponge extracts inhibited proteolysis and hemolysis induced by both snake venoms, except H. heliophila, which failed to inhibit any biological activity. P. citrina inhibited lethality, hemorrhage, plasma clotting, and hemolysis induced by B. jararaca or L. muta. Moreover, other sponges inhibited hemorrhage induced only by B. jararaca. We conclude that Brazilian sponges may be a useful aid in the treatment of snakebites caused by L. muta and B. jararaca and therefore have potential for the discovery of molecules with antiophidian properties. PMID:24141284

  8. Population Dynamics of the Critically Endangered Golden Lancehead Pitviper, Bothrops insularis: Stability or Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Murilo; Munguía-Steyer, Roberto; Doherty, Paul F.; Martins, Marcio; Sawaya, Ricardo J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about vital rates of snakes generally because of the difficulty in collecting data. Here we used a robust design mark-recapture model to estimate survival, behavioral effects on capture probability, temporary emigration, abundance and test the hypothesis of population decline in the golden lancehead pitviper, Bothrops insularis, an endemic and critically endangered species from southeastern Brazil. We collected data at irregular intervals over ten occasions from 2002 to 2010. Survival was slightly higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Temporal emigration was high, indicating the importance of accounting for this parameter both in the sampling design and modeling. No behavioral effects were detected on capture probability. We detected an average annual population decrease ( = 0.93, CI = 0.47–1.38) during the study period, but estimates included high uncertainty, and caution in interpretation is needed. We discuss the potential effects of the illegal removal of individuals and the implications of the vital rates obtained for the future persistence and conservation of this endemic, endangered species. PMID:24755842

  9. Homicidal Snake Bite in Children.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Melad G; Faheem, Ayman L

    2016-03-01

    Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake. Killing a victim by direct snake bite is so rare. There was one reported case where an old couple was killed by snake bite. Here is the first reported case of killing three children by snake bite. It appeared that the diagnosis of such cases is so difficult and depended mainly on the circumstantial evidences. PMID:27404632

  10. Neutralization of Bothrops asper venom by antibodies, natural products and synthetic drugs: contributions to understanding snakebite envenomings and their treatment.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Bruno; León, Guillermo; Angulo, Yamileth; Rucavado, Alexandra; Núñez, Vitelbina

    2009-12-01

    Interest in studies on the neutralization of snake venoms and toxins by diverse types of inhibitors is two-fold. From an applied perspective, results enclose the potential to be translated into useful therapeutic products or procedures, to benefit patients suffering from envenomings. From a basic point of view, on the other hand, neutralizing agents may be used as powerful dissecting tools to determine the relative role of toxins within the context of the overall pathology induced by a venom, or to increase our understanding on the molecular mechanisms by which toxins exert their harmful actions upon particular targets. The venom of the snake Bothrops asper has been the subject of a number of experimental studies addressing its neutralization by antibodies, as well as by non-immunologic inhibitors, including natural products derived from plants or animals, or synthetic drugs. As summarized in the present review, neutralization studies on this venom and some of its isolated toxins have contributed to a better understanding of envenomings by this species, and their treatment. In addition, such studies have provided valuable knowledge on the mechanisms of action and the relative functional importance of particular toxins of this venom, especially in the case of its myotoxic phospholipases A(2) and hemorrhagic metalloproteinases. PMID:19324064

  11. Iron and carbon monoxide attenuate degradation of plasmatic coagulation by Crotalus atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Boyer, Leslie V

    2016-07-01

    Hypofibrinogenemia is an important clinical consequence following envenomation by Crotalus species, usually attenuated or prevented by administration of antivenom. It has been determined that iron and carbon monoxide (CO) enhance fibrinogen as a thrombin substrate, likely secondary to conformational changes in molecular structure. We tested the hypothesis that pretreatment of plasma with iron and CO could attenuate the effects of exposure to Crotalus atrox venom. Human plasma was exposed to 0 to 10 μmol/l ferric chloride (iron source) and 0 to 100 μmol/l CO-releasing molecule-2 (CO source) followed by exposure to 0 to 0.5 μg/ml venom for 5 to 20 min. Changes in coagulation kinetics were determined with thrombelastography. Iron and CO significantly attenuated venom-mediated degradation of plasmatic coagulation in terms of onset time, velocity of clot growth and final clot strength. Further preclinical investigation of iron and CO administration as a 'bridge-to-antivenom' to preserve plasmatic coagulation is justified. PMID:26575491

  12. Snake Filament Eruption

    NASA Video Gallery

    A very long solar filament that had been snaking around the Sun erupted on Dec. 6, 2010 with a flourish. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) caught the action in dramatic detail in extreme ultr...

  13. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A.; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  14. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2016-04-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  15. Inhibition of the Myotoxicity Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Venom and Isolated Phospholipases A2 by Specific Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Nidiane D. R.; Pereira, Soraya S.; da Silva, Michele P.; Morais, Michelle S. S.; Kayano, Anderson M.; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S.; Luiz, Marcos B.; Zanchi, Fernando B.; Fuly, André L.; E. F. Huacca, Maribel; Fernandes, Cleberson F.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Stabeli, Rodrigo G.; F. C. Fernandes, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Antivenoms, produced using animal hyperimmune plasma, remains the standard therapy for snakebites. Although effective against systemic damages, conventional antivenoms have limited efficacy against local tissue damage. Additionally, the hypersensitivity reactions, often elicited by antivenoms, the high costs for animal maintenance, the difficulty of producing homogeneous lots, and the instability of biological products instigate the search for innovative products for antivenom therapy. In this study, camelid antibody fragments (VHH) with specificity to Bothropstoxin I and II (BthTX-I and BthTX-II), two myotoxic phospholipases from Bothrops jararacussu venom, were selected from an immune VHH phage display library. After biopanning, 28 and 6 clones recognized BthTX-I and BthTX-II by ELISA, respectively. Complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and immunoglobulin frameworks (FRs) of 13 VHH-deduced amino acid sequences were identified, as well as the camelid hallmark amino acid substitutions in FR2. Three VHH clones (KF498607, KF498608, and KC329718) were capable of recognizing BthTX-I by Western blot and showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range against both toxins. VHHs inhibited the BthTX-II phospholipase A2 activity, and when tested for cross-reactivity, presented specificity to the Bothrops genus in ELISA. Furthermore, two clones (KC329718 and KF498607) neutralized the myotoxic effects induced by B. jararacussu venom, BthTX-I, BthTX-II, and by a myotoxin from Bothrops brazili venom (MTX-I) in mice. Molecular docking revealed that VHH CDRs are expected to bind the C-terminal of both toxins, essential for myotoxic activity, and to epitopes in the BthTX-II enzymatic cleft. Identified VHHs could be a biotechnological tool to improve the treatment for snake envenomation, an important and neglected world public health problem. PMID:27028872

  16. Inhibition of the Myotoxicity Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Venom and Isolated Phospholipases A2 by Specific Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments.

    PubMed

    Prado, Nidiane D R; Pereira, Soraya S; da Silva, Michele P; Morais, Michelle S S; Kayano, Anderson M; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Luiz, Marcos B; Zanchi, Fernando B; Fuly, André L; Huacca, Maribel E F; Fernandes, Cleberson F; Calderon, Leonardo A; Zuliani, Juliana P; Pereira da Silva, Luiz H; Soares, Andreimar M; Stabeli, Rodrigo G; Fernandes, Carla F C

    2016-01-01

    Antivenoms, produced using animal hyperimmune plasma, remains the standard therapy for snakebites. Although effective against systemic damages, conventional antivenoms have limited efficacy against local tissue damage. Additionally, the hypersensitivity reactions, often elicited by antivenoms, the high costs for animal maintenance, the difficulty of producing homogeneous lots, and the instability of biological products instigate the search for innovative products for antivenom therapy. In this study, camelid antibody fragments (VHH) with specificity to Bothropstoxin I and II (BthTX-I and BthTX-II), two myotoxic phospholipases from Bothrops jararacussu venom, were selected from an immune VHH phage display library. After biopanning, 28 and 6 clones recognized BthTX-I and BthTX-II by ELISA, respectively. Complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and immunoglobulin frameworks (FRs) of 13 VHH-deduced amino acid sequences were identified, as well as the camelid hallmark amino acid substitutions in FR2. Three VHH clones (KF498607, KF498608, and KC329718) were capable of recognizing BthTX-I by Western blot and showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range against both toxins. VHHs inhibited the BthTX-II phospholipase A2 activity, and when tested for cross-reactivity, presented specificity to the Bothrops genus in ELISA. Furthermore, two clones (KC329718 and KF498607) neutralized the myotoxic effects induced by B. jararacussu venom, BthTX-I, BthTX-II, and by a myotoxin from Bothrops brazili venom (MTX-I) in mice. Molecular docking revealed that VHH CDRs are expected to bind the C-terminal of both toxins, essential for myotoxic activity, and to epitopes in the BthTX-II enzymatic cleft. Identified VHHs could be a biotechnological tool to improve the treatment for snake envenomation, an important and neglected world public health problem. PMID:27028872

  17. Iron and carbon monoxide attenuate Crotalus atrox venom-enhanced tissue-type plasminogen activator-initiated fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Boyer, Leslie V; Matika, Ryan W; Amos, Quinlan; Redford, Daniel T

    2016-07-01

    In addition to degrading fibrinogen as a source of consumptive coagulopathy, rattlesnake venom has also been demonstrated to enhance fibrinolysis and degrade alpha-2-antiplasmin. The goals of this investigation was to characterize the kinetic fibrinolytic profile of Crotalus atrox venom in the absence and presence of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and to also ascertain if iron and carbon monoxide (CO, a positive modulator of alpha-2-antiplasmin) could attenuate venom-enhanced fibrinolysis. Utilizing thrombelastographic methods, the coagulation and fibrinolytic kinetic profiles of human plasma exposed to C. atrox venom (0-2 μg/ml) were determined in the absence or presence of tPA (0-100 IU/ml). Then, either separately or in combination, plasma was exposed to iron (ferric chloride, 10 μmol/l) or CO (carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2, 100 μmol/l) prior to incubation with venom; the plasma sample was subsequently subjected to thrombelastographic analysis with addition of tPA. Venom exposure in the absence of tPA did not result in detectable fibrinolysis. In the presence of tPA, venom markedly enhanced fibrinolysis. Iron and CO, markedly attenuated venom enhancement of fibrinolysis. C. atrox venom enhances tPA-mediated fibrinolysis, and interventions that enhance/protect alpha-2-antiplasmin activity significantly attenuate venom-enhanced fibrinolysis. Future preclinical investigation is required to determine if iron and CO can attenuate venom-mediated degradation of alpha-2-antiplasmin-dependent fibrinolytic resistance. PMID:26575490

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of myotoxin I, a Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} from Bothrops moojeni

    SciTech Connect

    Marchi-Salvador, D. P.; Silveira, L. B.; Soares, A. M.

    2005-10-01

    A new myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase from B. moojeni has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.18 Å resolution. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit, leading to a possible new oligomeric structure for Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. A new myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.18 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to space group C2. The unit-cell parameters are a = 56.8, b = 125.0, c = 64.7 Å, β = 105.5°. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit. This may suggest a new quaternary structure for this Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} in contrast to the dimeric and monomeric structures solved so far for this class of proteins.

  19. Isolation, structural and functional characterization of a new Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologue from Bothrops neuwiedi urutu with bactericidal potential.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Edailson A; Kayano, Anderson M; Diniz-Sousa, Rafaela; Setúbal, Sulamita S; Zanchi, Fernando B; Zuliani, Juliana P; Matos, Najla B; Almeida, José R; Resende, Letícia M; Marangoni, Sérgio; da Silva, Saulo L; Soares, Andreimar M; Calderon, Leonardo A

    2016-06-01

    Snake venom is a complex mixture of active compounds consisting of 80-90% proteins and peptides that exhibit a variety of biological actions that are not completely clarified or identified. Of these, phospholipase A2 is one of the molecules that has shown great biotechnological potential. The objectives of this study were to isolate, biochemically and biologically characterize a Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologue from the venom of Bothrops neuwiedi urutu. The protein was purified after two chromatographic steps, anion exchange and reverse phase. The purity and relative molecular mass were assessed by SDS-PAGE, observing a molecular weight typical of PLA2s, subsequently confirmed by mass spectrometry obtaining a mass of 13,733 Da. As for phospholipase activity, the PLA2 proved to be enzymatically inactive. The analyses by Edman degradation and sequencing of the peptide fragments allowed for the identification of 108 amino acid residues; this sequence showed high identity with other phospholipases A2 from Bothrops snake venoms, and identified this molecule as a novel PLA2 isoform from B. neuwiedi urutu venom, called BnuTX-I. In murine models, both BnuTX-I as well as the venom induced edema and myotoxic responses. The cytotoxic effect of BnuTX-I in murine macrophages was observed at concentrations above 12 μg/mL. BnuTX-I also presented antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, having the greatest inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results allowed for the identification of a new myotoxin isoform with PLA2 structure with promising biotechnological applications. PMID:26927324

  20. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  1. High-level expression, purification, characterization and structural prediction of a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Ji, Ming-Kai; Xu, Jian-Wen; Lin, Xu; Lin, Jian-Yin

    2012-03-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor BJ46a is from the serum of the venomous snake Bothrops jararaca. It has been proven to possess the capacity to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), likely based on its structural similarity to MMPs. This report describes the successful expression, purification, and characterization of the recombinant protein BJ46a in Pichia pastoris. Purified recombinant protein BJ46a was found to inhibit MMPs. Structural modeling was completed and should provide the foundation for further functional research. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the large scale expression of BJ46a, and it provides promise as a method for generation of BJ46a and investigation of its potential use as a new drug for treatment of antitumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:22307654

  2. Sidewinding snakes on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Dimenichi, Dante; Chrystal, Robert; Mendelson, Joseph; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David; Georgia Tech and Zoo Atlanta Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    Desert snakes such as the rattlesnake Crotalus cerastes propel themselves over sand using sidewinding, a mode of locomotion relying upon helical traveling waves. While sidewinding on hard ground has been described, the mechanics of movement on more natural substrates such as granular media remain poorly understood. In this experimental study, we use 3-D high speed video to characterize the motion of a sidewinder rattlesnake as it moves on a granular bed. We study the movement both on natural desert sand and in an air-fluidized bed trackway which we use to challenge the animal on different compactions of granular media. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the snake's thrust on this media using friction and normal forces on the piles of sand created by the snake's body. The authors thank the NSF (PHY-0848894), Georgia Tech, and the Elizabeth Smithgall Watts endowment for support. We would also like to thank Zoo Atlanta staff for their generous help with this project.

  3. Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Leitão-De-Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M; Alvares, Diego Janisch; De Miranda, Joari; Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Morais-Zani, Karen; Fernandes, Wilson; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico; Fernández, Julián; Zingali, Russolina B; Gutiérrez, José María; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-03-01

    Bothrops jararaca is a slender and semi-arboreal medically relevant pit viper species endemic to tropical and subtropical forests in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (Misiones). Within its geographic range, it is often abundant and is an important cause of snakebite. Although no subspecies are currently recognized, geographic analyses have revealed the existence of two well-supported B. jararaca clades that diverged during the Pliocene ~3.8Mya and currently display a southeastern (SE) and a southern (S) Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) distribution. The spectrum, geographic variability, and ontogenetic changes of the venom proteomes of snakes from these two B. jararaca phylogroups were investigated applying a combined venom gland transcriptomic and venomic analysis. Comparisons of the venom proteomes and transcriptomes of B. jararaca from the SE and S geographic regions revealed notable interpopulational variability that may be due to the different levels of population-specific transcriptional regulation, including, in the case of the southern population, a marked ontogenetic venom compositional change involving the upregulation of the myotoxic PLA2 homolog, bothropstoxin-I. This population-specific marker can be used to estimate the proportion of venom from the southern population present in the B. jararaca venom pool used for the Brazilian soro antibotrópico (SAB) antivenom production. On the other hand, the southeastern population-specific D49-PLA2 molecules, BinTX-I and BinTX-II, lend support to the notion that the mainland ancestor of Bothrops insularis was originated within the same population that gave rise to the current SE B. jararaca phylogroup, and that this insular species endemic to Queimada Grande Island (Brazil) expresses a pedomorphic venom phenotype. Mirroring their compositional divergence, the two geographic B. jararaca venom pools showed distinct bioactivity profiles. However, the SAB antivenom manufactured in Vital Brazil

  4. A C-Type Lectin from Bothrops jararacussu Venom Disrupts Staphylococcal Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Raphael Contelli; Fabres-Klein, Mary Hellen; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Feio, Renato Neves; Malouin, François; Ribon, Andréa de Oliveira Barros

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a major threat to animal health and the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a contagious pathogen that is usually associated with persistent intramammary infections, and biofilm formation is a relevant aspect of the outcome of these infections. Several biological activities have been described for snake venoms, which led us to screen secretions of Bothrops jararacussu for antibiofilm activity against S. aureus NRS155. Crude venom was fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography, and the fractions were tested against S. aureus. Biofilm growth, but not bacterial growth, was affected by several fractions. Two fractions (15 and 16) showed the best activities and were also assayed against S. epidermidis NRS101. Fraction 15 was identified by TripleTOF mass spectrometry as a galactose-binding C-type lectin with a molecular weight of 15 kDa. The lectin was purified from the crude venom by D-galactose affinity chromatography, and only one peak was observed. This pure lectin was able to inhibit 75% and 80% of S. aureus and S. epidermidis biofilms, respectively, without affecting bacterial cell viability. The lectin also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both bacterial biofilms. The antibiofilm activity was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. A pre-formed S. epidermidis biofilm was significantly disrupted by the C-type lectin in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, the lectin demonstrated the ability to inhibit biofilm formation by several mastitis pathogens, including different field strains of S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. chromogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. These findings reveal a new activity for C-type lectins. Studies are underway to evaluate the biological activity of these lectins in a mouse mastitis model. PMID:25811661

  5. A C-type lectin from Bothrops jararacussu venom disrupts Staphylococcal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Klein, Raphael Contelli; Fabres-Klein, Mary Hellen; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Feio, Renato Neves; Malouin, François; Ribon, Andréa de Oliveira Barros

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a major threat to animal health and the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a contagious pathogen that is usually associated with persistent intramammary infections, and biofilm formation is a relevant aspect of the outcome of these infections. Several biological activities have been described for snake venoms, which led us to screen secretions of Bothrops jararacussu for antibiofilm activity against S. aureus NRS155. Crude venom was fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography, and the fractions were tested against S. aureus. Biofilm growth, but not bacterial growth, was affected by several fractions. Two fractions (15 and 16) showed the best activities and were also assayed against S. epidermidis NRS101. Fraction 15 was identified by TripleTOF mass spectrometry as a galactose-binding C-type lectin with a molecular weight of 15 kDa. The lectin was purified from the crude venom by D-galactose affinity chromatography, and only one peak was observed. This pure lectin was able to inhibit 75% and 80% of S. aureus and S. epidermidis biofilms, respectively, without affecting bacterial cell viability. The lectin also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both bacterial biofilms. The antibiofilm activity was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. A pre-formed S. epidermidis biofilm was significantly disrupted by the C-type lectin in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, the lectin demonstrated the ability to inhibit biofilm formation by several mastitis pathogens, including different field strains of S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. chromogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. These findings reveal a new activity for C-type lectins. Studies are underway to evaluate the biological activity of these lectins in a mouse mastitis model. PMID:25811661

  6. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  7. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  8. Proteomic and Glycoproteomic Profilings Reveal That Post-translational Modifications of Toxins Contribute to Venom Phenotype in Snakes.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Reis, Marcelo S; Lopes, Aline S; Serrano, Solange M T

    2016-08-01

    Snake venoms are biological weapon systems composed of secreted proteins and peptides that are used for immobilizing or killing prey. Although post-translational modifications are widely investigated because of their importance in many biological phenomena, we currently still have little understanding of how protein glycosylation impacts the variation and stability of venom proteomes. To address these issues, here we characterized the venom proteomes of seven Bothrops snakes using a shotgun proteomics strategy. Moreover, we compared the electrophoretic profiles of native and deglycosylated venoms and, in order to assess their subproteomes of glycoproteins, we identified the proteins with affinity for three lectins with different saccharide specificities and their putative glycosylation sites. As proteinases are abundant glycosylated toxins, we examined the effect of N-deglycosylation on their catalytic activities and show that the proteinases of the seven venoms were similarly affected by removal of N-glycans. Moreover, we prospected putative glycosylation sites of transcripts of a B. jararaca venom gland data set and detected toxin family related patterns of glycosylation. Based on our global analysis, we report that Bothrops venom proteomes and glycoproteomes contain a core of components that markedly define their composition, which is conserved upon evolution in parallel to other molecular markers that determine their phylogenetic classification. PMID:27297130

  9. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming.

    The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars.

    The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake.

    Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky!

    Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope

  10. Neuromuscular action of venom from the South American colubrid snake Philodryas patagoniensis.

    PubMed

    Carreiro da Costa, Roberta S; Prudêncio, Luiz; Ferrari, Erika Fonseca; Souza, Gustavo H M F; de Mello, Sueli Moreira; Prianti Júnior, Antonio Carlos Guimarães; Ribeiro, Wellington; Zamunér, Stella Regina; Hyslop, Stephen; Cogo, José Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Snakes of the opisthoglyphous genus Philodryas are widespread in South America and cause most bites by colubrids in this region. In this study, we examined the neurotoxic and myotoxic effects of venom from Philodryas patagoniensis in biventer cervicis and phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations and we compared the biochemical activities of venoms from P. patagoniensis and Philodryas olfersii. Philodryas patagoniensis venom (40 microg/mL) had no effect on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations but caused time-dependent neuromuscular blockade of chick biventer cervicis preparations. This blockade was not reversed by washing. The highest concentration of venom tested (40 microg/mL) significantly reduced (p<0.05) the contractures to exogenous acetylcholine (55 microM and 110 microM) and K(+) (13.4 mM) after 120 min; lower concentrations of venom had no consistent or significant effect on these responses. Venom caused a concentration- and time-dependent release of creatine kinase (CK) from biventer cervicis preparations. Histological analysis showed contracted muscle fibers at low venom concentrations and myonecrosis at high concentrations. Philodryas venoms had low esterase and phospholipase A(2) but high proteolytic activities compared to the pitviper Bothrops jararaca. SDS-PAGE showed that the Philodryas venoms had similar electrophoretic profiles, with most proteins having a molecular mass of 25-80 kDa. Both of the Philodryas venoms cross-reacted with bothropic antivenom in ELISA, indicating the presence of proteins immunologically related to Bothrops venoms. RP-HPLC of P. patagoniensis venom yielded four major peaks, each of which contained several proteins, as shown by SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that P. patagoniensis venom has neurotoxic and myotoxic components that may contribute to the effects of envenoming by this species. PMID:18455482

  11. Isolation and characterization of cotiaractivase, a novel low molecular weight prothrombin activator from the venom of Bothrops cotiara.

    PubMed

    Senis, Yotis A; Kim, Paul Y; Fuller, Gemma L J; García, Angel; Prabhakar, Sripadi; Wilkinson, Mark C; Brittan, Helen; Zitzmann, Nicole; Wait, Robin; Warrell, David A; Watson, Steve P; Kamiguti, Aura S; Theakston, R David G; Nesheim, Michael E; Laing, Gavin D

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we isolated a novel prothrombin activator from the venom of Bothrops cotiara, a Brazilian lance-headed pit viper (Cotiara, Jararaca preta, Biocotiara), which we have designated "cotiaractivase" (prefix: cotiar- from B. cotiara; suffix: -activase, from prothrombin activating activity). Cotiaractivase was purified using a phenyl-Superose hydrophobic interaction column followed by a Mono-Q anion exchange column. It is a single-chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of 22,931 Da as measured by mass spectroscopy. Cotiaractivase generated active alpha-thrombin from purified human prothrombin in a Ca2+-dependent manner as assessed by S2238 chromogenic substrate assay and SDS-PAGE. Cotiaractivase cleaved prothrombin at positions Arg271-Thr272 and Arg320-Ile321, which are also cleaved by factor Xa. However, the rate of thrombin generation by cotiaractivase was approximately 60-fold less than factor Xa alone and 17 x 10(6)-fold less than the prothrombinase complex. The enzymatic activity of cotiaractivase was inhibited by the chelating agent EDTA, whereas the serine protease inhibitor PMSF had no effect on its activity, suggesting that it is a metalloproteinase. Interestingly, S2238 inhibited cotiaractivase activity non-competitively, suggesting that this toxin contains an exosite that allows it to bind prothrombin independently of its active site. Tandem mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing of purified cotiaractivase identified peptides that were identical to regions of the cysteine-rich and disintegrin-like domains of known snake venom metalloproteinases. Cotiaractivase is a unique low molecular weight snake venom prothrombin activator that likely belongs to the metalloproteinase family of proteins. PMID:16647309

  12. [Epidemiological profile of snake poisoning accidents in the State of Amapá].

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Cristina Silva Ferreira; Campos, Carlos Eduardo Costa; Ribeiro, José Renato

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the epidemiological profile of snake poisoning accidents notified to the Health Department of the State of Amapá. For this, 909 records over the period from 2003 to 2006 were analyzed. The greatest frequency of bites was in the year 2004, with 255 cases recorded, followed by the year 2006 with 246 cases. The largest numbers of patients were in the age range between 20 and 34 years (30%). The genera Bothrops and Crotalus accounted for 67.5% and 0.7% of the accidents, respectively. Snakes that are considered non-venomous caused 0.2% of the accidents, and it was not possible to identify the species in 31.2% of the cases. Male individuals were more affected (80.6%). The highest incidence of bites was on the lower limbs (68%). The accidents mostly occurred in rural areas (62.7%), during balanced work circumstances (60%) or leisure activities (15.6%). The time elapsed from the bite to attending the patient was 12 hours (29%). Among the snake poisoning accidents, 263 were classified as mild, 187 as moderate and 193 as serious. PMID:19684984

  13. Bothrops asper envenoming in cattle: Clinical features and management using equine-derived whole IgG antivenom.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C; Estrada, R; Herrera, M; Gómez, A; Segura, Á; Vargas, M; Villalta, M; León, G

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is an important problem in the livestock industry in Costa Rica. Of the 22 species of venomous snakes in the country, Bothrops asper is involved in most animal envenomings. Envenomation is typically characterised by swelling and bleeding at the bite site, coagulopathy, systemic haemorrhage, and, in some cases, death. The aims of the present study were to describe the clinical manifestations of B. asper envenomation in cattle and to evaluate the treatment efficacy of antivenom administration. The clinical effects of naturally occurring envenomation were reproduced experimentally in cattle by giving an intramuscular injection of either 10 mg or 50 mg venom to replicate mild and severe envenomings, respectively. Intravenous antivenom given 6 h after experimental venom injection controlled the symptoms; a dose of 120 mL was found to be appropriate for moderate and 200 mL for severe naturally occurring envenomings. Although administration of antivenom within the first 6 h following a snakebite prevented systemic effects, it did not reduce the extent of swelling at the bite site. Delayed administration of antivenom was not effective in saving naturally envenomed animals. The results indicate that, when promptly administered, antivenom constitutes an effective treatment for B. asper snakebite envenomation in cattle. PMID:27152384

  14. Evaluation of the local inflammatory events induced by BpirMP, a metalloproteinase from Bothrops pirajai venom.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Carolina P; Menaldo, Danilo L; Mamede, Carla C N; Zoccal, Karina F; Cintra, Adélia C O; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Stanziola, Leonilda; de Oliveira, Fabio; Sampaio, Suely V

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the edema and hyperalgesic response induced by BpirMP, a P-I class metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops pirajai snake venom. The animals were injected with the metalloproteinase or sterile PBS (control group) and evaluated for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24h. The intraplantar injection of BpirMP (5-50μg/paw) induced a dose- and time-dependent response. BpirMP (50μg) induced paw edema in rats rapidly, with peak response two hours after injection of the toxin. Also, BpirMP injection caused a significant reduction in the nociceptive threshold of the animals tested, with peak response three hours after injection of the toxin. The inflammatory mediators involved in these responses were assayed by pretreatment of animals with synthesis inhibitors or receptor antagonists. Peak responses were significantly reduced by pretreatment of animals with pyrilamine, a histamine receptor antagonist, sodium cromoglycate, a mast cell degranulation inhibitor and valeryl salicylate and meloxicam, cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The analysis of the peritoneal cavity exudate revealed an acute inflammatory response with recruitment of leukocytes, increased levels of total proteins, nitric oxide and the cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that BpirMP induces inflammation mediated by mast cell degranulation, histamine, prostaglandins and cytokine production. PMID:26468034

  15. Identification of new snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors using compound screening and rational Peptide design.

    PubMed

    Villalta-Romero, Fabián; Gortat, Anna; Herrera, Andrés E; Arguedas, Rebeca; Quesada, Javier; de Melo, Robson Lopes; Calvete, Juan J; Montero, Mavis; Murillo, Renato; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Pérez-Payá, Enrique

    2012-07-12

    The majority of snakebite envenomations in Central America are caused by the viperid species Bothrops asper, whose venom contains a high proportion of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases that play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of hemorrhage characteristic of these envenomations. Broad metalloproteinase inhibitors, such as the peptidomimetic hydroxamate Batimastat, have been shown to inhibit snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP). However, the difficulty in having open public access to Batimastat and similar molecules highlights the need to design new inhibitors of SVMPs that could be applied in the treatment of snakebite envenomations. We have chosen the SVMP BaP1 as a model to search for new inhibitors using different strategies, that is, screening of the Prestwick Chemical Library and rational peptide design. Results from these approaches provide clues on the structural requirements for efficient BaP1 inhibition and pave the way for the design of new inhibitors of SVMP. PMID:24900507

  16. Identification of New Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Inhibitors Using Compound Screening and Rational Peptide Design

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The majority of snakebite envenomations in Central America are caused by the viperid species Bothrops asper, whose venom contains a high proportion of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases that play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of hemorrhage characteristic of these envenomations. Broad metalloproteinase inhibitors, such as the peptidomimetic hydroxamate Batimastat, have been shown to inhibit snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP). However, the difficulty in having open public access to Batimastat and similar molecules highlights the need to design new inhibitors of SVMPs that could be applied in the treatment of snakebite envenomations. We have chosen the SVMP BaP1 as a model to search for new inhibitors using different strategies, that is, screening of the Prestwick Chemical Library and rational peptide design. Results from these approaches provide clues on the structural requirements for efficient BaP1 inhibition and pave the way for the design of new inhibitors of SVMP. PMID:24900507

  17. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies. PMID:12803888

  18. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Robert Ross

    2001-01-01

    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  19. Irreversible inactivation of snake venom l-amino acid oxidase by covalent modification during catalysis of l-propargylglycine.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Jyotirmoy; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2013-01-01

    Snake venom l-amino acid oxidase (SV-LAAO, a flavor-enzyme) has attracted considerable attention due to its multifunctional nature, which is manifest in diverse clinical and biological effects such as inhibition of platelet aggregation, induction of cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity against various cells. The majority of these effects are mediated by H2O2 generated during the catalytic conversion of l-amino acids. The substrate analog l-propargylglycine (LPG) irreversibly inhibited the enzyme from Crotalus adamanteus and Crotalus atrox in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Inactivation was irreversible which was significantly protected by the substrate l-phenylalanine. A Kitz-Wilson replot of the inhibition kinetics suggested formation of reversible enzyme-LPG complex, which occurred prior to modification and inactivation of the enzyme. UV-visible and fluorescence spectra of the enzyme and the cofactor strongly suggested formation of covalent adduct between LPG and an active site residue of the enzyme. A molecular modeling study revealed that the FAD-binding, substrate-binding and the helical domains are conserved in SV-LAAOs and both His223 and Arg322 are the important active site residues that are likely to get modified by LPG. Chymotrypsin digest of the LPG inactivated enzyme followed by RP-HPLC and MALDI mass analysis identified His223 as the site of modification. The findings reported here contribute towards complete inactivation of SV-LAAO as a part of snake envenomation management. PMID:23772385

  20. ELISA assays for the detection of Bothrops lanceolatus venom in envenomed patient plasmas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Acosta, A; Uzcategui, W; Azuaje, R; Giron, M E; Aguilar, I

    1998-01-01

    A double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was carried out to detect Bothrops Ianceolatus venom in plasma from envenomed patients at various time intervals (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hrs). The test could detect Bothrops lanceolatus levels up to 12 ng/mL of envenomed patient plasmas. Elaboration of an easy, fast and species-diagnostic based on this ELISA technique useful to physicians is discussed. PMID:11845439

  1. Potential environmental influences on variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism among Arizona populations of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amarello, M.; Nowak, E.M.; Taylor, E.N.; Schuett, G.W.; Repp, R.A.; Rosen, P.C.; Hardy, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in resource availability and quality along environmental gradients are important influences contributing to intraspecific variation in body size, which influences numerous life-history traits. Here, we examined variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in relation to temperature, seasonality, and precipitation among 10 populations located throughout Arizona of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Specifically, in our analyses we addressed the following questions: (i) Are adult males larger in cooler, wetter areas? (ii) Does female body size respond differently to environmental variation? (iii) Is seasonality a better predictor of body size variation? (iv) Is SSD positively correlated with increased resources? We demonstrate that male and female C. atrox are larger in body size in cooler (i.e., lower average annual maximum, minimum, and mean temperature) and wetter areas (i.e., higher average annual precipitation, more variable precipitation, and available surface water). Although SSD in C. atrox appeared to be more pronounced in cooler, wetter areas, this relationship did not achieve statistical significance. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Quantum snake walk on graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosmanis, Ansis

    2011-02-15

    I introduce a continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First, I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states that most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next, I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem, which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. To the best of my knowledge, no efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

  3. Snake bite: pit vipers.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    Pit vipers are the largest group of venomous snakes in the United States and are involved in an estimated 150,000 bites annually of dogs and cats. The severity of any pit viper bite is related to the volume and toxicity of the venom injected as well as the location of the bite, which may influence the rate of venom uptake. The toxicity of rattlesnake venom varies widely. It is possible for pit vipers' venom to be strictly neurotoxic with virtually no local signs of envenomation. Venom consists of 90% water and has a minimum of 10 enzymes and 3 to 12 nonenzymatic proteins and peptides in any individual snake. The onset of clinical signs after envenomation may be delayed for several hours. The presence of fang marks does not indicate that envenomation has occurred, only that a bite has taken place. Systemic clinical manifestations encompass a wide variety of problems including pain, weakness, dizziness, nausea, severe hypotension, and thrombocytopenia. The victim's clotting abnormalities largely depend upon the species of snake involved. Venom induced thrombocytopenia occurs in approximately 30% of envenomations. Many first aid measures have been advocated for pit viper bite victims, none has been shown to prevent morbidity or mortality. Current recommendations for first aid in the field are to keep the victim calm, keep the bite site below heart level if possible, and transport the victim to a veterinary medical facility for primary medical intervention. The patient should be hospitalized and monitored closely for a minimum of 8 hours for the onset of signs of envenomation. The only proven specific therapy against pit viper envenomation is the administration of antivenin. The dosage of antivenin needed is calculated relative to the amount of venom injected, the body mass of the victim, and the bite site. The average dosage in dogs and cats is 1 to 2 vials of antivenin. PMID:17265901

  4. Self-assembling magnetic "snakes"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Nickel particles float peacefully in a liquid medium until a giant snake seems to swim by and snatch several particles up, adding to its own mass. The self-assembled "snakes" act like biological systems, but they are not alive and are driven by a magnetic field. The research may someday offer some insight into the organization of life itself. Read more at Wired: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/03/snakes/ Research and video by Alex Snezhko and Igor Aronson, Argonne National Laboratory.

  5. Occipital infarction revealed by quadranopsia following snakebite by Bothrops lanceolatus.

    PubMed

    Merle, Harold; Donnio, Angélique; Ayeboua, Lucas; Plumelle, Yves; Smadja, Didier; Thomas, Laurent

    2005-09-01

    We report a case of snakebite in which envenomation was manifested through impairment of the visual field. The patient, a 46-year-old man, was bitten on the right thumb by Bothrops lanceolatus. Treatment with a specific equine antivenom (Bothrofav) was administered one hour after the bite. With the exception of fang marks, the results of a clinical examination, particularly the neurologic component, were normal. The day after the bite, the patient developed an inferior left lateral homonymous quadranopsia with macular epargne. T2 magnetic resonance imaging showed a right occipital infarction. His condition improved clinically and biologically. This observation of snakebite is the first in which envenomation was accompanied exclusively by an impairment of the visual field. Envenomation by B. lanceolatus is distinct in its incidence of significant thrombotic complications at a distance from the site of the bite. PMID:16172485

  6. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of Bothrops asper bites.

    PubMed

    Otero-Patiño, Rafael

    2009-12-01

    Bothrops asper inflicts the majority of snakebites in Central America and in the northern regions of South America, mostly affecting young agricultural workers in rural settings. This species is capable of provoking severe envenomings associated with local and systemic manifestations. The main clinical features are: local edema, ecchymoses, blisters, dermonecrosis, myonecrosis, defibrinogenation, thrombocytopenia, systemic bleeding, hypotension and renal alterations. In addition, soft-tissue infection, acute renal failure, compartmental syndrome, central nervous system hemorrhage and, in pregnant women, abortion, fetal wastage and abruptio placentae have been described as complications. Intravenous administration of antivenom constitutes the mainstay in the therapy. Antivenoms composed of either whole IgG or F(ab')(2) fragments, manufactured in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica and Mexico, have been tested in controlled clinical trials, and rational protocols for antivenom administration have been developed. In addition to antivenom therapy, a number of ancillary interventions are recommended in the treatment of B. asper bites. PMID:19591857

  7. Increased infectivity of Staphylococcus aureus in an experimental model of snake venom-induced tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Saravia-Otten, Patricia; Gutierrez, Jose Maria; Arvidson, Staffan; Thelestam, Monica; Flock, Jan-Ingmar

    2007-09-01

    Soft-tissue infection is commonly found in patients bitten by Latin American Bothrops snakes. Staphylococcus aureus, which is not present in the mouth of the snake, is frequently isolated from these infections. The effects of B. asper venom on infection with S. aureus were analyzed in a model of infection in envenomated mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Inoculation of 50 colony-forming units (cfu) of S. aureus was enough to cause infection in envenomated muscle, compared with >5x104 cfu without venom. This effect was also achieved by injection of venom myotoxin III (an A(2) phospholipase). A sarA mutant strain in which production of extracellular toxins and enzymes is up-regulated and binding of fibronectin, fibrinogen, and other host proteins is down-regulated was much less virulent than the corresponding parental strain, indicating that the ability of S. aureus to mask itself with host molecules might be more important than the effects of secreted toxins and enzymes in this kind of infection. PMID:17674318

  8. [The epidemiology of accidental bites by venomous snakes in the state of Ceará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Feitosa, R F; Melo, I M; Monteiro, H S

    1997-01-01

    From 1992 to 1995, 688 accidents by venomous snakes (mean of 192 cases/year) have been notified to the Health Ministry of the State of Ceará, with an incidence between 0.9 and 5.8/100.000 inhabitants. Among 473 cases, 88.3% were of the genus. Bothrops, 10.7% Crotalus, 0.8% Micrurus and 0.2% Lachesis. The highest incidence occurred from April to September. Male (75.6%) predominated with ages from 10 to 49 years old (72.3%). The more frequently bitten anatomical region were the lower limbs (81.9%) and upper limbs (14.7%). The attendance at health unit which notified the accident took place within 6 hours in 66.9% of the cases. Lethality was 0.7%. The afflicted people were mainly peasants (62.7%), and most of the accidents took place in their own work place. The authors emphasize that the snake bites in the state of Ceará may be considered work accidents, concern mainly peasants and constitute a cause of death. PMID:9265225

  9. Identification of Lys49-PLA2 from crude venom of Crotalus atrox as a human neutrophil-calcium modulating protein

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Md. Tipu; Li, Hong-Mei; Lee, Yong Zu

    2016-01-01

    We fortuitously observed a human neutrophil intracellular free-calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) increasing activity in the commercially available phosphodiesterase I (PDE I), which is actually dried crude venom of Crotalus atrox. As this activity was not observed with another commercially available pure PDE I, we tried to find out the causative molecule(s) present in 'crude' PDE, and identified Lys49-phospholipase A2 (Lys49-PLA2 or K49-PLA2), a catalytically inactive protein which belongs to the phospholipase A2 family, by activity-driven three HPLC (reverse phase, size exclusion, reverse phase) steps followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. K49-PLA2 induced Ca2+ infl ux in human neutrophils without any cytotoxic eff ect. Two calcium channel inhibitors, 2-aminoetoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (30 µM) and SKF-96365 (20 µM) signifi cantly inhibited K49-PLA2-induced [Ca2+]i increase. These results suggest that K49-PLA2 modulates [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils via 2-APB- and SKF-96365-sensitive calcium channels without causing membrane disruption. PMID:26937214

  10. Identification of Lys49-PLA2 from crude venom of Crotalus atrox as a human neutrophil-calcium modulating protein.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Md Tipu; Li, Hong-Mei; Lee, Yong Zu; Lim, Soon Sung; Song, Dong-Keun

    2016-03-01

    We fortuitously observed a human neutrophil intracellular free-calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) increasing activity in the commercially available phosphodiesterase I (PDE I), which is actually dried crude venom of Crotalus atrox. As this activity was not observed with another commercially available pure PDE I, we tried to find out the causative molecule(s) present in 'crude' PDE, and identified Lys49-phospholipase A2 (Lys49-PLA2 or K49-PLA2), a catalytically inactive protein which belongs to the phospholipase A2 family, by activity-driven three HPLC (reverse phase, size exclusion, reverse phase) steps followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. K49-PLA2 induced Ca(2+) infl ux in human neutrophils without any cytotoxic eff ect. Two calcium channel inhibitors, 2-aminoetoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (30 µM) and SKF-96365 (20 µM) signifi cantly inhibited K49-PLA2-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase. These results suggest that K49-PLA2 modulates [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils via 2-APB- and SKF-96365-sensitive calcium channels without causing membrane disruption. PMID:26937214

  11. Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom induces oedema formation and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, A L; de Souza, A O; da Cruz-Höfling, M A; Flores, C A; Bon, C

    2000-02-01

    The ability of snake venoms to increase vascular permeability and to induce oedema through the release of pharmacologically active substances is well known. We have studied the oedema and vascular permeability induced by Bothrops lanceolatus venom in male Swiss white mice. Paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of B. lanceolatus venom (125-1000 ng/paw) and was quantified as the increase in paw weight. Changes in vascular permeability were assessed by measuring the amount of Evans blue dye extravasation. The oedema and the increase in vascular permeability were maximal within 2 h and had resolved after 24 h. The administration of the vasodilator iloprost (20 ng/paw) immediately after B. lanceolatus venom potentiated the oedema and the increase in vascular permeability by approximately four-fold. Pretreating the mice with indomethacin, dexamethasone, NDGA or BW A4C inhibited the venom-induced oedema and the increase in vascular permeability. In contrast, histamine, serotonin and PAF-acether antagonists (mepyramine, cyproheptadine and WEB 2086, respectively) were ineffective. Histological examination showed that B. lanceolatus venom (250 ng and 500 ng/paw) caused thickening of the inner dermal layers which was accompanied by extensive intercellular spaces indicative of oedema. In addition, there was a marked infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils, into the underlying muscle layer. The latter, however, remained morphologically unaffected during the 3 h of observation. Venom doses larger than 500 ng/paw produced intense haemorrhage. These results indicate that B. lanceolatus venom induces oedema and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw. The principal mediators of this inflammatory response are cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products. PMID:10665802

  12. Subpopulations of mononuclear leukocytes associated with inhibition of Ehrlich ascites tumor growth by treatment with Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed Central

    de Vieira Santos, Mariana Morena; da Silva, Reinaldo José; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Fecchio, Denise

    2004-01-01

    Snake venoms have been used as antineoplastic substances in several experimental models. We demonstrated in previous studies that Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) induces inhibition of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) growth accompanied by an increase of mononuclear (MN) leukocytes in all groups inoculated with EAT and/or venom. The objective of the present study was to characterize the subpopulations of MN leukocytes involved in the inhibition of EAT growth by treatment with BjV. Swiss mice were inoculated with 1.0x10(3) EAT cells by the intraperitoneal route and treated with 0.4 mg/kg of BjV by the same route (Group TV). Treatment was started 24 h after tumor cell inoculation and consisted of five intraperitoneal injections performed at 72 h intervals. After 2, 8 and 14 days, groups of animals were sacrificed and the number of B, TCD4 and TCD8 lymphocytes, macrophages and natural killer cells present in the peritoneal cavity was determined by flow cytometry. The control group consisted of animals inoculated with EAT and treated with 0.1 ml of saline under the same conditions as the experimental group (Group T). Two additional control groups consisted of animals not inoculated with EAT and treated with saline or venom. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for independent samples. On the 2nd and 8th day we observed a difference between groups T and TV (group T > group TV) for all cell types, except natural killer cells, that only differed on the 2nd day. However, on the 14th day there was no difference in MN cells among groups. These data suggest that the inhibition of EAT is related to the toxic action of BjV on tumor cells and/or to the proteolytic effect of the venom on the mediators produced by the cells for growth modulation. PMID:15203562

  13. The burrowing origin of modern snakes

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hongyu; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern snakes probably originated as habitat specialists, but it controversial unclear whether they were ancestrally terrestrial burrowers or marine swimmers. We used x-ray virtual models of the inner ear to predict the habit of Dinilysia patagonica, a stem snake closely related to the origin of modern snakes. Previous work has shown that modern snakes perceive substrate vibrations via their inner ear. Our data show that D. patagonica and modern burrowing squamates share a unique spherical vestibule in the inner ear, as compared with swimmers and habitat generalists. We built predictive models for snake habit based on their vestibular shape, which estimated D. patagonica and the hypothetical ancestor of crown snakes as burrowers with high probabilities. This study provides an extensive comparative data set to test fossoriality quantitatively in stem snakes, and it shows that burrowing was predominant in the lineages leading to modern crown snakes. PMID:26702436

  14. 33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco and Burbank...

  15. 33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco and Burbank...

  16. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  17. Coyotes Are Afraid of Little Snakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Wichita tale of a contest between Coyote and Small Snake to see whose teeth are strongest. They bite each other, and soon big, strong Coyote is dead from the poisoned bite of the tiny snake. Explains why, from that time onward, coyotes have been afraid of little snakes. (DS)

  18. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  19. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  20. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  1. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  2. A Lys49-PLA2 myotoxin of Bothrops asper triggers a rapid death of macrophages that involves autocrine purinergic receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Tonello, F; Simonato, M; Aita, A; Pizzo, P; Fernández, J; Lomonte, B; Gutiérrez, J M; Montecucco, C

    2012-01-01

    Lys49-PLA(2) myotoxins, an important component of various viperid snake venoms, are a class of PLA(2)-homolog proteins deprived of catalytic activity. Similar to enzymatically active PLA(2) (Asp49) and to other classes of myotoxins, they cause severe myonecrosis. Moreover, these toxins are used as tools to study skeletal muscle repair and regeneration, a process that can be very limited after snakebites. In this work, the cytotoxic effect of different myotoxins, Bothrops asper Lys49 and Asp49-PLA(2), Notechis scutatus notexin and Naja mossambica cardiotoxin, was evaluated on macrophages, cells that have a key role in muscle regeneration. Only the Lys49-myotoxin was found to trigger a rapid asynchronous death of mouse peritoneal macrophages and macrophagic cell lines through a process that involves ATP release, ATP-induced ATP release and that is inhibited by various purinergic receptor antagonists. ATP leakage is induced also at sublytical doses of the Lys49-myotoxin, it involves Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, and is reduced by inhibitors of VSOR and the maxi-anion channel. The toxin-induced cell death is different from that caused by high concentration of ATP and appears to be linked to localized purinergic signaling. Based on present findings, a mechanism of cell death is proposed that can be extended to other cytolytic proteins and peptides. PMID:22764102

  3. Extracts of Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) MAAS Protect against Lethality and Systemic Hemorrhage Induced by Bothrops asper Venom: Insights from a Model with Extract Administration before Venom Injection.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Arley Camilo; Quintana, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra; Benjumea, Dora María; Pereañez, Jaime Andrés

    2015-05-01

    Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) MAAS, obtained by micropropagation (in vitro) and wild forms have previously been shown to inhibit some toxic activities of Bothrops asper snake venom if preincubated before injection. In this study, assays were performed in a murine model in which extracts were administered for three days before venom injection. R. alpinia extracts inhibited lethal activity of B. asper venom injected by intraperitoneal route. Median Effective Dose (ED50) values were 36.6 ± 3.2 mg/kg and 31.7 ± 5.4 mg/kg (p > 0.05) for R. alpinia wild and in vitro extracts, respectively. At a dose of 75 mg/kg, both extracts totally inhibited the lethal activity of the venom. Moreover, this dose prolonged survival time of mice receiving a lethal dose of venom by the intravenous route. At 75 mg/kg, both extracts of R. alpinia reduced the extent of venom-induced pulmonary hemorrhage by 48.0% (in vitro extract) and 34.7% (wild extract), in agreement with histological observations of lung tissue. R. alpinia extracts also inhibited hemorrhage in heart and kidneys, as evidenced by a decrease in mg of hemoglobin/g of organ. These results suggest the possibility of using R. alpinia as a prophylactic agent in snakebite, a hypothesis that needs to be further explored. PMID:25941768

  4. Extracts of Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) MAAS Protect against Lethality and Systemic Hemorrhage Induced by Bothrops asper Venom: Insights from a Model with Extract Administration before Venom Injection

    PubMed Central

    Patiño, Arley Camilo; Quintana, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra; Benjumea, Dora María; Pereañez, Jaime Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) MAAS, obtained by micropropagation (in vitro) and wild forms have previously been shown to inhibit some toxic activities of Bothrops asper snake venom if preincubated before injection. In this study, assays were performed in a murine model in which extracts were administered for three days before venom injection. R. alpinia extracts inhibited lethal activity of B. asper venom injected by intraperitoneal route. Median Effective Dose (ED50) values were 36.6 ± 3.2 mg/kg and 31.7 ± 5.4 mg/kg (p > 0.05) for R. alpinia wild and in vitro extracts, respectively. At a dose of 75 mg/kg, both extracts totally inhibited the lethal activity of the venom. Moreover, this dose prolonged survival time of mice receiving a lethal dose of venom by the intravenous route. At 75 mg/kg, both extracts of R. alpinia reduced the extent of venom-induced pulmonary hemorrhage by 48.0% (in vitro extract) and 34.7% (wild extract), in agreement with histological observations of lung tissue. R. alpinia extracts also inhibited hemorrhage in heart and kidneys, as evidenced by a decrease in mg of hemoglobin/g of organ. These results suggest the possibility of using R. alpinia as a prophylactic agent in snakebite, a hypothesis that needs to be further explored. PMID:25941768

  5. Bites by the colubrid snake Philodryas patagoniensis: a clinical and epidemiological study of 297 cases.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Carlos R; Hess, Priscila L; Nicoleti, Alessandra F; Sueiro, Leticia R; Duarte, Marcelo R; de Almeida-Santos, Selma M; França, Francisco O S

    2010-11-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 297 proven cases of Philodryas patagoniensis bites admitted to Hospital Vital Brazil (HVB), Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1959 and 2008. Only cases in which the causative animal was brought and identified were included. Part of the snakes brought by the patients was still preserved in the collection maintained by the Laboratory of Herpetology. Of the 297 cases, in 199 it was possible to describe the gender of the snake, and seventy three (61.3%) of them were female. The length of snakes (snout-vent length) ranged from 160 to 1080 mm. In 117 snakes their state of preservation enabled the dissection and examination of their stomach contents. The stomach was empty in 106 snakes (89.1%). Most bites occurred in the seasons of spring and summer (n = 196, 66.0%) and during warmer periods of the day. The mean age of the victims was 24.1 +/- 15.1 years old and 206 (69.4%) patients were men. Around 92% of the patients sought medical care within 6 h after the bite. Both lower (n = 188, 63.3%) and upper limbs (n = 102, 34.3%) were most frequently bitten, especially the feet and hands (n = 205, 69.0%). The local clinical manifestations were pain (n = 151, 50.8%), transitory bleeding (n = 106, 35.7%), erythema (n = 47, 15.8%) and edema (n = 39, 13.1%). Ecchymosis was not observed. Only 7 (2.4%) patients reported systemic symptoms characterized by mild dizziness and 88 patients (29.6%) showed no evidence of envenoming. The whole blood clotting time was performed in 76 (25.6%) patients on admission and all of them had coagulable blood. Supportive treatment was offered to only 13.4% of patients, namely administration of antihistamines (n = 19, 6.4%) and analgesics (n = 12, 4.1%). Eight patients (2.7%) were mistreated with Bothrops antivenom before their admission to HVB. No sequels or relevant complications were observed in patients, and the prognostic was benign. Therefore, although P. patagoniensis accidents can cause mild local

  6. Multiple Partial Siberian Snakes in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, J.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Gardner, C. J.; Glenn, J. W.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Hattori, T.; Lin, F.

    2007-06-13

    Polarized protons are accelerated up to 24.3 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). To accelerate the beam with preserving the polarization, two different types of helical dipole partial Siberian snake have been installed to the AGS. One is a superconducting magnet (Cold Snake, CSNK), and the other is a normal conducting one (Warm Snake, WSNK). With these snake magnets, the polarization at the AGS extraction achieved 65%. However, the AGS has spin mismatches at the injection and extraction. This description shows calculated results to have better spin matching with using two or three snakes.

  7. Snake venom toxins: toxicity and medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Xia, Lixin; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun; Chan, Wai Yee

    2016-07-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of small molecules and peptides/proteins, and most of them display certain kinds of bioactivities. They include neurotoxic, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic, myotoxic, and many different enzymatic activities. Snake envenomation is a significant health issue as millions of snakebites are reported annually. A large number of people are injured and die due to snake venom poisoning. However, several fatal snake venom toxins have found potential uses as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agent, or drug leads. In this review, different non-enzymatically active snake venom toxins which have potential therapeutic properties such as antitumor, antimicrobial, anticoagulating, and analgesic activities will be discussed. PMID:27245678

  8. Species identification from dried snake venom.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chandra S; Gaur, Ajay; Sreenivas, Ara; Singh, Lalji

    2012-05-01

    Illegal trade in snake parts has increased enormously. In spite of strict protection under wildlife act, a large number of snakes are being killed ruthlessly in India for venom and skin. Here, an interesting case involving confiscation of crystallized dried snake venom and subsequent DNA-based species identification is reported. The analysis using the universal primers for cytochrome b region of the mitochondrial DNA revealed that the venom was extracted from an Indian cobra (Naja naja). On the basis of this report, the forwarding authority booked a case in the court of law against the accused for illegal hunting of an endangered venomous snake and smuggling of snake venom. This approach thus has immense potential for rapid identification of snake species facing endangerment because of illegal trade. This is also the first report of DNA isolation from dried snake venom for species identification. PMID:22268640

  9. NAA TECHNIQUE FOR CLINICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICE IMMUNIZED WITH BOTHROP VENOM

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C. B.; Aguiar, R. O.; Kovacs, L.; Suzuki, M.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2009-06-03

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was used to determine sodium concentration in whole blood of mice immunized with Bothrops venom. With this value it was possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood.

  10. Spin Motion Near Snake Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D. P.; Vogt, M.

    2007-06-13

    We give a brief account of on-going work on the loss of polarisation during acceleration close to so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. We show that within the model studied here the polarisation can be preserved if the rate of acceleration is low enough.

  11. Tolerance of Snakes to Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to +Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration was studied in six species of snakes hypothesized to show varied adaptive cardiovascular responses to gravity. Blood flow in the proximal carotid artery was measured in 15 snakes before, during and following stepwise increments of +0.25Gz force produced on a 2.4 m diameter centrifuge. During centrifugation each snake was confined to a straight position within an individually- fitted acrylic tube with the head facing the center of rotation. We measured the centrifugal force at the tail of the snake in order to quantify the maximum intensity of force gradient promoting antero-posterior pooling of blood. Tolerance to increased gravity was quantified as the acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased. This parameter varied according to the gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing gravity and approached zero near +1Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2Gz. Surprisingly, tolerant (arboreal) species withstood hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 G. for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or apparent loss of consciousness. Data suggest that relatively tight skin of the tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit which is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  12. 4. HEADGATE AND FLUME AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SNAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. HEADGATE AND FLUME AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SNAKE RIVER DITCH PASSING THROUGH BEAVER POND AREA, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  13. 5. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK OF SNAKE RIVER LYONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK OF SNAKE RIVER LYONS FERRY BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, JOSO HIGH (UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD) BRIDGE TO THE LEFT - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  14. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  15. 3. NORTH SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER SHOWING HEADGATE ON THE NORTH BANK. VIEW IS TO THE NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  16. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. NOTE BANK REINFORCEMENT ON LEFT AND SPILLWAY ON RIGHT. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  17. OBSERVATIONS OF SNAKE RESONANCE IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI, M.; HUANG, H.; MACKAY, W.W.; PITISYN, V.; ROSER, T.; TEPIKIAN, S.

    2005-05-16

    Siberian snakes now become essential in the polarized proton acceleration. With proper configuration of Siberian snakes, the spin precession tune of the beam becomes 1/2 which avoids all the spin depolarizing resonance. However, the enhancement of the perturbations on the spin motion can still occur when the spin precession tune is near some low order fractional numbers, called snake resonances, and. the beam can be depolarized when passing through the resonance. The snake resonances have been confirmed in the spin tracking calculations, and observed in RHIC with polarized proton beam. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, RHIC provides us a perfect facility for snake resonance studies. This paper presents latest experimental results. New insights are also discussed.

  18. Fluorometric assay using naphthylamide substrates for assessing novel venom peptidase activities.

    PubMed

    Gasparello-Clemente, Elaine; Silveira, Paulo Flávio

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we examined the feasibility of using the fluorometry of naphthylamine derivatives for revealing peptidase activities in venoms of the snakes Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops insularis, Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bitis arietans, of the scorpions Tityus serrulatus and Tityus bahiensis, and of the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Loxosceles intermedia. Neutral aminopeptidase (APN) and prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP IV) activities were presented in all snake venoms, with the highest levels in B. alternatus. Although all examined peptidase activities showed relatively low levels in arthropod venoms, basic aminopeptidase (APB) activity from P. nigriventer venom was the exception. Compared to the other peptidase activities, relatively high levels of acid aminopeptidase (APA) activity were restricted to B. arietans venom. B. arietans also exhibited a prominent content of APB activity which was lower in other venoms. Relatively low prolyl endopeptidase and proline iminopeptidase activities were, respectively, detectable only in T. bahiensis and B. insularis. Pyroglutamate aminopeptidase activity was undetectable in all venoms. All examined peptidase activities were undetectable in T. serrulatus venom. In this study, the specificities of a diverse array of peptidase activities from representative venoms were demonstrated for the first time, with a description of their distribution which may contribute to guiding further investigations. The expressive difference between snake and arthropod venoms was indicated by APN and DPP IV activities while APA and APB activities distinguished the venom of B. arietans from those of Brazilian snakes. The data reflected the relatively uniform qualitative distribution of the peptidase activities investigated, together with their unequal quantitative distribution, indicating the evolutionary divergence in the processing of peptides in these different

  19. 20% PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKE IN THE AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H; Bai, M; Brown, K A; Glenn, W; Luccio, A U; Mackay, W W; Montag, C; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T; Tsoupas, N; Zeno, K; Ranjbar, V; Spinka, H; Underwood, D

    2002-11-06

    An 11.4% partial Siberian snake was used to successfully accelerate polarized proton through a strong intrinsic depolarizing spin resonance in the AGS. No noticeable depolarization was observed. This opens up the possibility of using a 20% to 30% partial Siberian snake in the AGS to overcome all weak and strong depolarizing spin resonances. Some design and operation issues of the new partial Siberian snake are discussed.

  20. Recombinant snake venom prothrombin activators.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Three prothrombin activators; ecarin, which was originally isolated from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, trocarin from the rough-scaled snake Tropidechis carinatus, and oscutarin from the Taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus, were expressed in mammalian cells with the purpose to obtain recombinant prothrombin activators that could be used to convert prothrombin to thrombin. We have previously reported that recombinant ecarin can efficiently generate thrombin without the need for additional cofactors, but does not discriminate non-carboxylated prothrombin from biologically active γ-carboxylated prothrombin. Here we report that recombinant trocarin and oscutarin could not efficiently generate thrombin without additional protein co-factors. We confirm that both trocarin and oscutarin are similar to human coagulation Factor X (FX), explaining the need for additional cofactors. Sequencing of a genomic fragment containing 7 out of the 8 exons coding for oscutarin further confirmed the similarity to human FX. PMID:23111318

  1. Siberian Snake solenoid for the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, L. G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) have demonstrated that Siberian Snakes'' can be used to preserve the polarization of an accelerated polarized beam in a circular accelerator. Retrofitting full snakes into accelerators such as the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven is almost impossible due to space limitations, but a partial snake that can correct depolarization due to imperfection resonances with 1/20 to 1/30 of a full strength snake seems to present a viable option. We describe such a device for the AGS and give the design criteria in terms of simplicity of accelerator operation and level of achievable polarization. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Snake Bite in South Asia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alirol, Emilie; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Kuch, Ulrich; Chappuis, François

    2010-01-01

    Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities living in the tropics. Because of serious misreporting, the true worldwide burden of snake bite is not known. South Asia is the world's most heavily affected region, due to its high population density, widespread agricultural activities, numerous venomous snake species and lack of functional snake bite control programs. Despite increasing knowledge of snake venoms' composition and mode of action, good understanding of clinical features of envenoming and sufficient production of antivenom by Indian manufacturers, snake bite management remains unsatisfactory in this region. Field diagnostic tests for snake species identification do not exist and treatment mainly relies on the administration of antivenoms that do not cover all of the important venomous snakes of the region. Care-givers need better training and supervision, and national guidelines should be fed by evidence-based data generated by well-designed research studies. Poorly informed rural populations often apply inappropriate first-aid measures and vital time is lost before the victim is transported to a treatment centre, where cost of treatment can constitute an additional hurdle. The deficiency of snake bite management in South Asia is multi-causal and requires joint collaborative efforts from researchers, antivenom manufacturers, policy makers, public health authorities and international funders. PMID:20126271

  3. Haematopoiesis and a new mechanism for the release of mature blood cells from the bone marrow into the circulation in snakes (Ophidia).

    PubMed

    Sano-Martins, I Sigueko; Dabrowski, Z; Tabarowski, Z; Witkowska-Pelc, E; Spadacci Morena, D Denelle; Spodaryk, K

    2002-10-01

    This is the first description of haematopoiesis in snakes. Studies were carried out on the following species belonging to Ophidia: Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacusu, Waglerophis merremii, Elaphe taeniura taeniura, Boa constrictor,and Python reticulatus. Smears of the peripheral blood and histological preparations from the vertebrae, ribs, liver, and spleen were studied under a light and electron microscope. Myeloid cells were present in the following locations in the vertebrae: the neural spine, zygoapophysial processes, floor of the neural canal, lacunae in the bodies of vertebrae and also inside the ribs. Although the vascular system was well developed, especially around the ribs, vessels inside the marrow cavities were scarce, both in the ribs and elsewhere where haematopoiesis was found. Venous sinuses were well developed in the vertebrae and in the rib regions from their costal head towards the middle area. They consisted of one layer of fine endothelial cells. Mature cells in the process of migration into the general circulation were only sporadically encountered when venous sinuses were studied on perfusion-fixed specimens. In contrast, almost every sinus venosus contained protrusions directed towards the lumen, filled mostly with mature and immature blood cells. Various stages of their formation were seen in the cross sections of venous sinuses ranging from small, newly formed to large, elongated ones, filled with many fully developed and some maturing blood cells. In many cases the apices of the protrusions were ruptured, and mature blood cells, as well as a few immature ones, were seen in their vicinity. This observation led us to a new hypothesis that blood cells are released from the extravascular space into the lumen of venous sinuses. In snakes, these cells are released into the systemic circulation mainly via the rupture of protrusions filled with mature blood cells and, to a lesser degree, by transcytosis as known in mammals. In the spleens

  4. PO41, a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor isolated from Philander opossum serum.

    PubMed

    Jurgilas, Patrícia B; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2003-11-01

    PO41 was isolated from Philander opossum serum by DEAE-Sephacel, Phenyl Superose and Superdex 200 chromatographies and showed a molecular mass of 41,330 Da by MALDI-TOF MS. Molecular masses of 81.5 and 84.5 kDa were obtained by size exclusion chromatography and dynamic laser light scattering, respectively, suggesting that PO41 is dimeric. Its isoelectric point was estimated to be lower than 3.5. PO41 presented similar amino terminal sequence to those of DM40 and DM43, two antihaemorrhagins previously isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum and was recognized by polyclonal antibodies raised against D. marsupialis antibothropic fraction. To study the inhibitory properties of this protein, the metalloproteinases bothrolysin and jararhagin were isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom by chromatographies on Superdex 200 and Phenyl Superose. Jararhagin was further submitted to a Mono Q column. The proteolytic and haemorrhagic effects of these haemorrhagins were neutralized by PO41. Both snake venom metalloproteinases formed stable complexes with PO41. The stoichiometry of the complex PO41-jararhagin was one inhibitor subunit to one molecule of the enzyme. These results show that PO41 has physicochemical, structural, immunoreactive and biological properties similar to other metalloproteinase inhibitors belonging to the supergene family of immunoglobulins. PMID:14602117

  5. Inhibition of melanoma cells tumorigenicity by the snake venom toxin jararhagin.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Mário César; Maria, Durvanei A; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M; Pizzocaro, Kazumi F; Ruiz, Itamar R G

    2002-06-01

    Skmel-28 human melanoma cells were treated with jararhagin (Jara), a metalloproteinase disintegrin isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, and Jari (Jara with the catalytic domain inactivated). Following treatments, monolayer cells lost cytoplasmic expansions acquiring round shapes, detached and formed cell clusters in suspension. Cytotoxicity effect of Jari was dramatically increased at concentrations higher than 0.4 microM, whereas cell adhesion responses did not differ significantly between similar concentrations of Jara and Jari. Treated cells were significantly inhibited to adhere to non-coated wells, as to ECM proteins-coated plates. Migration and invasion were also significantly inhibited in vitro. A decreased proliferation rate was observed in toxin-treated cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed a wide distribution of Jari across the cells. Jara treated cells (67.5%) steady bound anti-jara antibodies after 90 min, while Jari treated cells steady bound only after 6h (57.3%), as determined by FACS. Skmel-28 melanoma cells tumorigenicity was evaluated 180 days after s.c. injections in AIRmin mice. A statistically significant decrease in the ability of Jara and Jari treated cells to promote lung metastasis was observed. These results point to the potential use of this toxin as a tool for applied researches in the clinical field. PMID:12175610

  6. Detection of an antibothropic fraction in opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) milk that neutralizes Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed

    Jurgilas, P B; Neves-Ferreira, A G; Domont, G B; Moussatché, H; Perales, J

    1999-01-01

    An antibothropic fraction (ABF) from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum) serum, which is responsible for the neutralization of Bothrops jararaca venom was isolated by Perales et al. [Perales, J., Moussatché, H., Marangoni, S., Oliveira, B. and Domont, G. B. (1994). Isolation and partial characterization of an antibothropic complex from the serum of South American Didelphidae. Toxicon 32, 1237-1249]. The aim of this work was to verify the presence of this factor in opossum's milk, which could represent an additional protection for the neonatal opossum against bothropic venoms. An active milk fraction was isolated and showed similar physicochemical, structural, antigenic and biological properties when compared to ABF, indicating that they are probably the same protein. PMID:9920488

  7. Coral snake mimicry: does it occur?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H.W.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Field observations and experimental evidence refute previous objections to the coral snake mimicry hypothesis. Concordant color pattern variation spanning hundreds of miles and several presumed venemous models strongly suggests that several harmless or mildly venemous colubrid snakes are indeed mimics of highly venemous elapids.

  8. Evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in snakes.

    PubMed

    Rovatsos, Michail; Vukić, Jasna; Lymberakis, Petros; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-22

    Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy. However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) across 37 snake species (our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes). We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes (Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae). The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than 3000 species. The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are (pseudo)autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms. PMID:26702042

  9. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  10. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  11. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  12. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  13. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  14. Purification and renal effects of phospholipase A(2) isolated from Bothrops insularis venom.

    PubMed

    Machado Braga, Marcus Davis; Costa Martins, Alice Maria; Alves, Claudênio Diógenes; de Menezes, Dalgimar Beserra; Martins, René Duarte; Ferreira Barbosa, Paulo Sérgio; de Sousa Oliveira, Isadora Maria; Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Toyama, Daniela Oliveira; Dos Santos Diz Filho, Eduardo Brito; Ramos Fagundes, Fabio Henrique; Fonteles, Manassés Claudino; Azul Monteiro, Helena Serra

    2008-02-01

    Bothrops insularis venom contains a variety of substances presumably responsible for several pharmacological effects. We investigated the biochemical and biological effects of phospholipase A(2) protein isolated from B. insularis venom and the chromatographic profile showed 7 main fractions and the main phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) enzymatic activity was detected in fractions IV and V. Fraction IV was submitted to a new chromatographic procedure on ion exchange chromatography, which allowed the elution of 5 main fractions designated as IV-1 to IV-5, from which IV-4 constituted the main fraction. The molecular homogeneity of this fraction was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and demonstrated by mass spectrometry (MS), which showed a molecular mass of 13984.20 Da; its N-terminal sequence presented a high amino acid identity (up to 95%) with the PLA(2) of Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops asper. Phospholipase A(2) isolated from B. insularis (Bi PLA(2) ) venom (10 microg/mL) was also studied as to its effect on the renal function of isolated perfused kidneys of Wistar rats (n=6). Bi PLA(2) increased perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary flow (UF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Sodium (%TNa(+)) and chloride tubular reabsorption (%TCl(-)) decreased at 120 min, without alteration in potassium transport. In conclusion, PLA(2) isolated from B. insularis venom promoted renal alterations in the isolated perfused rat kidney. PMID:17953979

  15. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba Extract on Experimental Bothrops Venom-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Martines, Monique Silva; Mendes, Mirian M.; Shimizu, Maria H. M.; Melo Rodrigues, Veridiana; de Castro, Isac; Filho, Sebastião R. Ferreira; Malheiros, Denise M. A. C.; Yu, Luis; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP) extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV)-induced AKI. Methodology Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C), SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T) in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance), renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler), blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point), urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method), hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit), fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified) and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score). Principal Findings BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. Conclusion SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR. PMID:24551041

  16. Membrane cholesterol modulates the cytolytic mechanism of myotoxin II, a Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologue from the venom of Bothrops asper.

    PubMed

    Rangel, José; Quesada, Orestes; Gutiérrez, José María; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Lys49 phospholipase A2 (PLA2) homologues present in crotalid snake venoms lack enzymatic activity, yet they induce skeletal muscle necrosis by a membrane permeabilizing mechanism whose details are only partially understood. The present study evaluated the effect of altering the membrane cholesterol content on the cytolytic activity of myotoxin II, a Lys49 PLA2 isolated from the venom of Bothrops asper, using the myogenic cell line C2C12 as a model target. Cell membrane cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) treatment enhanced the cytolytic action of myotoxin II, as well as of its bioactive C-terminal synthetic peptide p(115-129) . Conversely, cell membrane cholesterol enrichment by preformed cholesterol-MβCD complexes reduced the cytolytic effect of myotoxin II. The toxic actions of myotoxin I, a catalytically active PLA2 from the same venom, as well as of the cytolytic peptide melittin from bee venom, also increased in cholesterol-depleted cells. Although physical and functional changes resulting from variations in membrane cholesterol are complex, these findings suggest that membrane fluidity could be a relevant parameter to explain the observed modulation of the cytolytic mechanism of myotoxin II, possibly influencing bilayer penetration. In concordance, the cytolytic effect of myotoxin II decreased in direct proportion to lower temperature, a physical factor that affects membrane fluidity. In conclusion, physicochemical properties that depend on membrane cholesterol content significantly influence the cytolytic mechanism of myotoxin II, reinforcing the concept that the primary site of action of Lys49 PLA2 myotoxins is the plasma membrane. PMID:21506137

  17. Brain nitric oxide production by a proline-rich decapeptide from Bothrops jararaca venom improves baroreflex sensitivity of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lameu, Claudiana; Pontieri, Vera; Guerreiro, Juliano R; Oliveira, Eduardo F; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; Giglio, Joyce M; Melo, Robson L; Campos, Ruy R; de Camargo, Antonio Carlos Martins; Ulrich, Henning

    2010-12-01

    Baroreflex sensitivity is disturbed in many people with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Brain deficiency of nitric oxide (NO), which is synthesized by NO synthase (NOS) in the citrulline-NO cycle (with argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) activity being the rate-limiting step), contributes to impaired baroreflex. We recently showed that a decapeptide isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, denoted Bj-PRO-10c, exerts powerful and sustained antihypertensive activity. Bj-PRO-10c promoted vasodilatation dependent on the positive modulation of ASS activity and NO production in the endothelium, and also acted on the central nervous system, inducing the release of GABA and glutamate, two important neurotransmitters in the regulation of autonomic systems. We evaluated baroreflex function using the regression line obtained by the best-fit points of measured heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) data from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) treated with Bj-PRO-10c. We also investigated molecular mechanisms involved in this effect, both in vitro and in vivo. Bj-PRO-10c mediated an increase in baroreflex sensitivity and a decrease in MAP and HR. The effects exerted by the peptide include an increase in the gene expression of endothelial NOS and ASS. Bj-PRO-10c-induced NO production depended on intracellular calcium fluxes and the activation of a G(i/o)-protein-coupled metabotropic receptor. Bj-PRO-10c induced NO production and the gene expression of ASS and endothelial NOS in the brains of SHRs, thereby improving baroreflex sensitivity. Bj-PRO-10c may reveal novel approaches for treating diseases with impaired baroreflex function. PMID:21132021

  18. Anti-parasitic effect on Toxoplasma gondii induced by BnSP-7, a Lys49-phospholipase A2 homologue from Bothrops pauloensis venom.

    PubMed

    Borges, Isabela Pacheco; Castanheira, Letícia Eulalio; Barbosa, Bellisa Freitas; de Souza, Dayane Lorena Naves; da Silva, Rafaela José; Mineo, José Roberto; Tudini, Kelly Aparecida Yoneyama; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; Ferro, Eloísa Amália Vieira; de Melo Rodrigues, Veridiana

    2016-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis affects a third of the global population and presents high incidence in tropical areas. Its great relevance in public health has led to a search for new therapeutic approaches. Herein, we report the antiparasitic effects of BnSP-7 toxin, a Lys49 phospholipase A2 (PLA2) homologue from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom, on Toxoplasma gondii. In an MTT assay, BnSP-7 presented significant cytotoxicity against host HeLa cells at higher doses (200 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL), whereas lower doses (25 μg/mL to 1.56 μg/mL) produced low cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the toxin showed no effect on T. gondii tachyzoite viability when evaluated by trypan blue exclusion, but decreased both adhesion and parasite proliferation when tachyzoites were treated before infection. We also measured cytokines in supernatants collected from HeLa cells infected with T. gondii tachyzoites previously treated with RPMI or BnSP-7, which revealed enhancement of only MIF and IL-6 cytokines levels in supernatants of HeLa cells after BnSP-7 treatment. Our results showed that the BnSP-7 PLA2 exerts an anti-Toxoplasma effect at a lower dose than that required to induce cytotoxicity in HeLa cells, and also modulates the immune response of host cells. In this sense, the anti-parasitic effect of BnSP-7 PLA2 demonstrated in the present study opens perspectives for use of this toxin as a tool for future studies on toxoplasmosis. PMID:27212627

  19. Phylogenetic relationships within Bothrops neuwiedi group (Serpentes, Squamata): geographically highly-structured lineages, evidence of introgressive hybridization and Neogene/Quaternary diversification.

    PubMed

    Machado, Taís; Silva, Vinícius X; Silva, Maria José de J

    2014-02-01

    Eight current species of snakes of the Bothrops neuwiedi group are widespread in South American open biomes from northeastern Brazil to southeastern Argentina. In this paper, 140 samples from 93 different localities were used to investigate species boundaries and to provide a hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships among the members of this group based on 1122bp of cyt b and ND4 from mitochondrial DNA and also investigate the patterns and processes occurring in the evolutionary history of the group. Combined data recovered the B. neuwiedi group as a highly supported monophyletic group in maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses, as well as four major clades (Northeast I, Northeast II, East-West, West-South) highly-structured geographically. Monophyly was recovered only for B. pubescens. By contrast, B. diporus, B. lutzi, B. erythromelas, B. mattogrossensis, B. neuwiedi, B. marmoratus, and B. pauloensis, as currently defined on the basis of morphology, were polyphyletic. Sympatry, phenotypic intergrades and shared mtDNA haplotypes, mainly between B. marmoratus and B. pauloensis suggest recent introgressive hybridization and the possible occurrence of a narrow hybrid zone in Central Brazil. Our data suggest at least three candidate species: B. neuwiedi from Espinhaço Range, B. mattogrossensis (TM173) from Serra da Borda (MT) and B. diporus (PT3404) from Castro Barros, Argentina. Divergence estimates highlight the importance of Neogene events in the origin of B. neuwiedi group, and the origin of species and diversification of populations of the Neotropical fauna from open biomes during the Quaternary climate fluctuations. Data reported here represent a remarkable increase of the B. neuwiedi group sampling size, since representatives of all the current recognized species from a wide geographic range are included in this study, providing basic information for understanding the evolution and conservation of Neotropical biodiversity. PMID:24140980

  20. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY... of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek, in Islamorada, Florida. The regulation is set... Sheriff's Office has requested a temporary modification to the operating schedule of Snake Creek Bridge...

  1. 4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROPOSED SECTION OF DIVERSION DAM ACROSS SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 1 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  2. 3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROFILE AND ALIGNMENT OF DAM ACROSS WEST CHANNEL OF SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 3 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  3. The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin C, a disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich protein isolated from Crotalus atrox venom.

    PubMed Central

    Calvete, J. J.; Moreno-Murciano, M. P.; Sanz, L.; Jürgens, M.; Schrader, M.; Raida, M.; Benjamin, D. C.; Fox, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin-C was determined by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The N-terminal disintegrin-like domain is a compact structure including eight disulfide bonds, seven of them in the same pattern as the disintegrin bitistatin. The protein has two extra cysteine residues (XIII and XVI) that form an additional disulfide bond that is characteristically found in the disintegrin-like domains of cellular metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and PIII snake venom Zn-metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of catrocollastatin-C contains five disulfide bonds between nearest-neighbor cysteines and a long range disulfide bridge between CysV and CysX. These results provide structural evidence for a redefinition of the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain boundaries. An evolutionary pathway for ADAMs, PIII, and PII SVMPs based on disulfide bond engineering is also proposed. PMID:10933502

  4. Homicide by direct snake bite: a case of contract killing.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Borkar, Jaydeo Laxman; Meshram, Satin Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that five million snake bite cases occur worldwide every year, causing about 100,000 deaths. Snake bite is exclusively accidental in nature. Suicide by snake bite is very rare and homicidal snake bite is not reported. In the present case, a contract killer was hired, who used a poisonous snake to kill an elderly couple by way of direct snake bite. We believe this to be the first case reported where a snake was directly used for the murder of two victims through a contract killer. PMID:22399029

  5. Optimization of the AGS superconducting helical partial snake strength.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin,F.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A.U.; Roser, T.

    2008-06-23

    Two helical partial snakes, one super-conducting (a.k.a cold snake) and one normal conducting (a.k.a warm snake), have preserved the polarization of proton beam up to 65% in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the extraction energy from 85% at injection. In order to overcome spin resonances, stronger partial snakes would be required. However, the stronger the partial snake, the more the stable spin direction tilted producing a stronger horizontal intrinsic resonance. The balance between increasing the spin tune gap generated by the snakes and reducing the tilted stable spin direction has to be considered to maintain the polarization. Because the magnetic field of the warm snake has to be a constant, only the cold snake with a maximum 3T magnetic field can be varied to find out the optimum snake strength. This paper presents simulation results by spin tracking with different cold snake magnetic fields. Some experimental data are also analyzed.

  6. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  7. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  8. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  9. Lift enhancement in flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John; Vlachos, Pavlos; Barba, Lorena

    2013-11-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. We present a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, which show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, for Reynolds numbers 2000 and above. Previous experiments on physical models also demonstrated an increased lift and at the same angle of attack. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift. In physical experiments, the flow is inherently 3-D due to fluid instabilities, and it is intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations.

  10. Coral snakes predict the evolution of mimicry across New World snakes

    PubMed Central

    Davis Rabosky, Alison R.; Cox, Christian L.; Rabosky, Daniel L.; Title, Pascal O.; Holmes, Iris A.; Feldman, Anat; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2016-01-01

    Batesian mimicry, in which harmless species (mimics) deter predators by deceitfully imitating the warning signals of noxious species (models), generates striking cases of phenotypic convergence that are classic examples of evolution by natural selection. However, mimicry of venomous coral snakes has remained controversial because of unresolved conflict between the predictions of mimicry theory and empirical patterns in the distribution and abundance of snakes. Here we integrate distributional, phenotypic and phylogenetic data across all New World snake species to demonstrate that shifts to mimetic coloration in nonvenomous snakes are highly correlated with coral snakes in both space and time, providing overwhelming support for Batesian mimicry. We also find that bidirectional transitions between mimetic and cryptic coloration are unexpectedly frequent over both long- and short-time scales, challenging traditional views of mimicry as a stable evolutionary ‘end point' and suggesting that insect and snake mimicry may have different evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27146100

  11. Coral snakes predict the evolution of mimicry across New World snakes.

    PubMed

    Davis Rabosky, Alison R; Cox, Christian L; Rabosky, Daniel L; Title, Pascal O; Holmes, Iris A; Feldman, Anat; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2016-01-01

    Batesian mimicry, in which harmless species (mimics) deter predators by deceitfully imitating the warning signals of noxious species (models), generates striking cases of phenotypic convergence that are classic examples of evolution by natural selection. However, mimicry of venomous coral snakes has remained controversial because of unresolved conflict between the predictions of mimicry theory and empirical patterns in the distribution and abundance of snakes. Here we integrate distributional, phenotypic and phylogenetic data across all New World snake species to demonstrate that shifts to mimetic coloration in nonvenomous snakes are highly correlated with coral snakes in both space and time, providing overwhelming support for Batesian mimicry. We also find that bidirectional transitions between mimetic and cryptic coloration are unexpectedly frequent over both long- and short-time scales, challenging traditional views of mimicry as a stable evolutionary 'end point' and suggesting that insect and snake mimicry may have different evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27146100

  12. cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects

    PubMed Central

    Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Pérez, John C.

    2013-01-01

    A 5′ truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, C. atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC50 of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC50s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

  13. SNAKE DEPLORIZING RESONANCE STUDY IN RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; CAMERON, P.; LUCCIO, A.; HUANG, H.; PITISYN, V.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    Snake depolarizing resonances due to the imperfect cancellation of the accumulated perturbations on the spin precession between snakes were observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). During the RHIC 2005 and 2006 polarized proton runs, we mapped out the spectrum of odd order snake resonance at Q{sub y} = 7/10. Here, Q, is the beam vertical betatron tune. We also studied the beam polarization after crossing the 7/10th resonance as a function of resonance crossing rate. This paper reports the measured resonance spectrum as well as the results of resonance crossing.

  14. Large and limbless: the locomotion of snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David

    2008-03-01

    In efforts to understand snake locomotion, we consider one of their various gaits. By contracting and extending their bodies unidirectionally like a slinky, large snakes propel themselves in a straight line. In a combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we here report on the dynamics of a boa constrictor alongside the analysis of an n-linked extensible crawler model. Constraints on their locomotion are quantified and discussed, such as the elasticity, frictional anisotropy and abrasive wear of their skin. Also presented are certain snake behaviors that culminate in their tying themselves into knots.

  15. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sandra C; Lindström, Björn; Esteves, Francisco; Ohman, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009), the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as "evolutionary fear-relevant". Across four experiments (N = 205) we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines. PMID:25493937

  16. First documented case of snake fungal disease in a free-ranging wild snake in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Green, David E.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is a recently documented mycotic disease characterized by scabs or crusty scales, subcutaneous nodules, abnormal molting, cloudiness of the eyes (not associated with molting), and localized thickening or crusting of the skin. SFD has been documented in many species in the Eastern and Midwestern United States within the last decade. SFD has proven lethal in many snakes, and the disease is recognized as an emerging threat to wild snake populations. Here, we describe the first documented case of SFD in Louisiana in a free-ranging wild snake.

  17. Trapping the arboreal snake Boiga irregularis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodda, G.H.; Rondeau, R.J.; Fritts, T.H.; Maughan, O.E.

    1992-01-01

    The snake Boiga irregularis, an exotic on Guam, has eliminated the majority of the native vertebrates there. We tested traps designed to control this arboreal snake during three periods of 20-41 days in 1988 and 1989. The relative trapping successes with different baits and trap configurations indicated that this snake will not readily push through a visually obstructed entrance. However, under some conditions, 80% of the snakes escaped from traps lacking a physical blockage at the entrance. Live bait was more successful than odoriferous bait alone, and odoriferous guide ropes that led to trap entrances did not enhance capture rates. These findings corroborate laboratory experiments indicating an unusually strong dependence on visual cues in this highly successful nocturnal predator.

  18. New progress in snake mitochondrial gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nian; Zhao, Shujin

    2009-08-01

    To further understand the evolution of snake mitochondrial genomes, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were determined for representative species from two snake families: the Many-banded krait, the Banded krait, the Chinese cobra, the King cobra, the Hundred-pace viper, the Short-tailed mamushi, and the Chain viper. Thirteen protein-coding genes, 22-23 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 control regions were identified in these mtDNAs. Duplication of the control region and translocation of the tRNAPro gene were two notable features of the snake mtDNAs. These results from the gene rearrangement comparisons confirm the correctness of traditional classification schemes and validate the utility of comparing complete mtDNA sequences for snake phylogeny reconstruction. PMID:19479623

  19. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes

    PubMed Central

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386

  20. Cardiovascular responses of snakes to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Rosenberg, H. I.

    1997-01-01

    Snakes have provided useful vertebrate models for understanding circulatory adaptation to gravity, attributable to their elongate body shape and evolutionary diversificaton in terms of ecology and behavior. Recently we have studied cardiovascular responses of snakes to hypergravic acceleration forces produced acutely in the head-to-tail direction (+Gz) on a short-arm centrifuge. Snakes were held in a nearly straight position within a horizontal plastic tube and subjected to a linear force gradient during acceleration. Carotid blood flow provided an integrated measure of cardiovascular performance. Thus, cardiovascular tolerance of snakes to stepwise increments of Gz was measured as the caudal Gz force at which carotid blood flow ceased. Tolerance to increasing Gz varies according to adaptive evolutionary history inferred from the ecology and behavior of species. With respect to data for six species we investigated, multiple regression analysis demonstrates that Gz tolerance correlates with gravitational habitat, independently of body length. Relative to aquatic and non-climbing species, carotid blood flow is better maintained in arboreal or scansorial species, which tolerate hypergravic forces of +2 to +3.5 Gz. Additionally, semi-arboreal rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) exhibit plasticity of responses to long-term, intermittent +1.5 Gz stress. Compared to non-acclimated controls, acclimated snakes show greater increases of heart rate during head-up tilt or acceleration, greater sensitivity of arterial pressure to circulating catecholamines, higher blood levels of prostaglandin ratios favorable to maintenance of arterial blood pressure, and medial hypertrophy in major arteries and veins. As in other vertebrates, Gz tolerance of snakes is enhanced by acclimation, high arterial pressure, comparatively large blood volume, and body movements. Vascular studies of snakes suggest the importance to acclimation of local responses involving vascular tissue, in addition to

  1. Pharmacological characterization of the rat paw edema induced by Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom.

    PubMed

    de Faria L; Antunes, E; Bon, C; de Araújo, A L

    2001-06-01

    The inflammatory response induced by Bothrops lanceolatus venom (BLV) in the rat hind-paw was studied measuring paw edema. Non-heated BLV (75microg/paw) caused a marked paw edema accompanied by intense haemorrhage whereas heated venom (97 degrees C, 30s; 12.5-100microg/paw) produced a dose- and time-dependent non-haemorrhagic edema. The response with heated BLV was maximal within 15min disappearing over 24h. Heated venom was then routinely used at the dose of 75microg/paw. The prostacyclin analogue iloprost (0.1microg/paw) potentiated by 125% the venom-induced edema. The histamine H(1) receptor antagonist mepyramine (6mg/kg) or the serotonin/histamine receptor antagonist cyproheptadine (6mg/kg) partially inhibited BLV-induced edema whereas the combination of both compounds virtually abolished the edema. The lipoxygenase inhibitor BWA4C (10mg/kg), but not the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg), significantly inhibited the edema (35% reduction; P<0.05). Dexamethasone (1mg/kg) also markedly (P<0.001) reduced venom-induced edema. The bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.6mg/kg) reduced by 30% (P<0.05) the venom induced edema, whereas the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (300microg/paw) potentiated by 42% (P<0.05) the edema. Bothrops lanceolatus antivenon (anti-BLV) reduced by 28% (P<0.05) the venom-induced edema while intravenous administration of antivenom failed to affect the edema. In conclusion, BLV-induced rat paw edema involves mast cell degranulation causing local release of histamine and serotonin, a phenomenon mediated mainly by kinins and lipoxygenase metabolites. Additionally, the use of a specific Bothrops lanceolatus antivenom, given subplantarily or intravenously, revealed to be little effective to prevent BLV-induced edema. PMID:11137542

  2. Molecular evidence for a terrestrial origin of snakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Nicolas; Hedges, S. Blair

    2004-01-01

    Biologists have debated the origin of snakes since the nineteenth century. One hypothesis suggests that snakes are most closely related to terrestrial lizards, and reduced their limbs on land. An alternative hypothesis proposes that snakes are most closely related to Cretaceous marine lizards, such as mosasaurs, and reduced their limbs in water. A presumed close relationship between living monitor lizards, believed to be close relatives of the extinct mosasaurs, and snakes has bolstered the marine origin hypothesis. Here, we show that DNA sequence evidence does not support a close relationship between snakes and monitor lizards, and thus supports a terrestrial origin of snakes.

  3. Corn Snake Genetics: Students Learn about the Fundamentals of Mendelism by Studying Corn Snakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to generate student enthusiasm on the subject of genetics, the author developed a Punnett square activity centered on the genetics of corn snakes to teach students about Mendelism and genetic diversity. As they began the activity, however, some unexpected twists occurred that allowed for investigation into corn snake anatomy and…

  4. Experimental infection of snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola causes pathological changes that typify snake fungal disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lankton, Julia S.; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Skin infections in snakes, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), have been reported with increasing frequency in wild snakes in the eastern United States. While most of these infections are associated with the fungusOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, there has been no conclusive evidence to implicate this fungus as a primary pathogen. Furthermore, it is not understood why the infections affect different host populations differently. Our experiment demonstrates that O. ophiodiicola is the causative agent of SFD and can elicit pathological changes that likely impact fitness of wild snakes. This information, and the laboratory model we describe, will be essential in addressing unresolved questions regarding disease ecology and outcomes of O. ophiodiicola infection and helping to conserve snake populations threatened by the disease. The SFD model of infection also offers utility for exploring larger concepts related to comparative fungal virulence, host response, and host-pathogen evolution.

  5. Biological and immunological properties of the venom of Bothrops alcatraz, an endemic species of pitviper from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, M F D

    2005-06-01

    Bothrops alcatraz is a new pitviper species derived from the Bothrops jararaca group, whose natural habitat is situated in Alcatrazes Archipelago, a group of marine islands near São Paulo State coast in Brazil. Herein, the biological and biochemical properties of venoms of four adult specimens of B. alcatraz were examined comparatively to a reference pool of Bothrops jararaca venom. Both venoms showed similar activities and electrophoretic patterns, but B. alcatraz venom showed three protein bands of molecular masses of 97, 80 and 38 kDa that were not present in B. jararaca reference venom. The i.p. median lethal dose of B. alcatraz venom ranged from 5.1 to 6.6 mg/kg, while it was 1.5 mg/kg for B. jararaca venom. The minimum hemorrhagic dose of B. jararaca venom was 0.63, whereas 2.28 mug/mouse for B. alcatraz venom. In contrast, B. alcatraz venom was more potent in regard to procoagulant and proteolytic activities. These differences were supported by western blotting and neutralization tests, employing commercial bothropic antivenom, which showed that hemorrhagic and lethal activities of B. alcatraz venom were less effectively inhibited than B. jararaca venom. Such results evidence that B. alcatraz shows quantitative and qualitative differences in venom composition in comparison with its B. jararaca relatives, which might represent an optimization of venom towards a specialized diet. PMID:16002343

  6. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. PMID:26578676

  7. The interaction of the antitoxin DM43 with a snake venom metalloproteinase analyzed by mass spectrometry and surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Brand, Guilherme D; Salbo, Rune; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Bloch, Carlos; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Robinson, Carol V; Tanjoni, Isabelle; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas; Valente, Richard H; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C

    2012-05-01

    DM43 is a circulating dimeric antitoxin isolated from Didelphis aurita, a South American marsupial naturally immune to snake envenomation. This endogenous inhibitor binds non-covalently to jararhagin, the main hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, and efficiently neutralizes its toxicity. The aim of this study was to apply mass spectrometry (MS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to improve the molecular characterization of this heterocomplex. The stoichiometry of the interaction was confirmed by nanoelectrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS; from native solution conditions, the complex showed a molecular mass of ~94 kDa, indicating that one molecule of jararhagin (50 kDa) interacts with one monomer of DM43 (43 kDa). Although readily observed in solution, the dimeric structure of the inhibitor was barely preserved in the gas phase. This result suggests that, in contrast to the toxin-antitoxin complex, hydrophobic interactions are the primary driving force for the inhibitor dimerization. For the real-time interaction analysis, the toxin was captured on a sensor chip derivatized with the anti-jararhagin monoclonal antibody MAJar 2. The sensorgrams obtained after successive injections of DM43 in a concentration series were globally fitted to a simple bimolecular interaction, yielding the following kinetic rates for the DM43/jararhagin interaction: k(a) = 3.54 ± 0.03 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and k(d) = 1.16 ± 0.07 × 10(-5) s(-1), resulting in an equilibrium dissociation constant (K(D) ) of 0.33 ± 0.06 nM. Taken together, MS and SPR results show that DM43 binds to its target toxin with high affinity and constitute the first accurate quantitative study on the extent of the interaction between a natural inhibitor and a metalloproteinase toxin, with unequivocal implications for the use of this kind of molecule as template for the rational development of novel antivenom therapies. PMID:22549991

  8. Cardiovascular Responses of Snakes to Gravitational Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Shi-Tong T.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Snakes are useful vertebrates for studies of gravitational adaptation, owing to their elongate body and behavioral diversification. Scansorial species have evolved specializations for regulating hemodynamics during exposure to gravitational stress, whereas, such adaptations are less well developed in aquatic and non-climbing species. We examined responses of the amphibious snake,\\italicize (Nerodia rhombifera), to increments of Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration force on both a short- and long-arm centrifuge (1.5 vs. 3.7 m radius, from the hub to tail end of snake). We recorded heart rate, dorsal aortic pressure, and carotid arterial blood flow during stepwise 0.25 G increments of Gz force (referenced at the tail) in conscious animals. The Benz tolerance of a snake was determined as the Gz level at which carotid blood flow ceased and was found to be significantly greater at the short- than long-arm centrifuge radius (1.57 Gz vs. 2.0 Gz, respectively; P=0.016). A similar pattern of response was demonstrated in semi-arboreal rat snakes,\\italicize{Elaphe obsoleta}, which are generally more tolerant of Gz force (2.6 Gz at 1.5m radius) than are water snakes. The tolerance differences of the two species reflected cardiovascular responses, which differed quantitatively but not qualitatively: heart rates increased while arterial pressure and blood flow decreased in response to increasing levels of Gz. Thus, in both species of snakes, a reduced gradient of Gz force (associated with greater centrifuge radius) significantly decreases the Gz level that can be tolerated.

  9. 9. VIEW OF VILLAGE FROM LEFT BANK (SOUTH) OF SNAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF VILLAGE FROM LEFT BANK (SOUTH) OF SNAKE RIVER, FACING NORTHEAST. FOREGROUND SHOWS TYPICAL ROCK FORMATIONS. COTTAGE 281, NOT VISIBLE IN PHOTO #8, IS VISIBLE. - Swan Falls Village, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  10. Skin pathology induced by snake venom metalloproteinase: acute damage, revascularization, and re-epithelization in a mouse ear model.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Natalia; Escalante, Teresa; Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2008-10-01

    Viperid snakebite envenomation induces blistering and dermonecrosis. The pathological alterations induced by a snake venom metalloproteinase in the skin were investigated in a mouse ear model. Metalloproteinase BaP1, from Bothrops asper, induced rapid edema, hemorrhage, and blistering; the latter two effects were abrogated by preincubation with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat. Neutrophils did not play a role in the pathology, as depletion of these cells resulted in a similar histological picture. Blisters are likely to result from the direct proteolytic activity of BaP1 of proteins at the dermal-epidermal junction, probably at the lamina lucida, as revealed by immunostaining for type IV collagen and laminin. Widespread apoptosis of keratinocytes was detected by the TUNEL assay, whereas no apoptosis of capillary endothelial cells was observed. BaP1 induced a drastic reduction in the microvessel density, revealed by immunostaining for the endothelial marker vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. This was followed by a rapid angiogenic response, leading to a partial revascularization. Skin damage was followed by inflammation and granulation tissue formation. Then, a successful re-epithelization process occurred, and the skin of the ear regained its normal structure by 2 weeks. Venom metalloproteinase-induced skin damage reproduces the pathological changes described in snakebitten patients. PMID:18449209

  11. Proteomics of wound exudate in snake venom-induced pathology: search for biomarkers to assess tissue damage and therapeutic success.

    PubMed

    Rucavado, Alexandra; Escalante, Teresa; Shannon, John; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2011-04-01

    Tissue damage analysis by traditional laboratory techniques is problematic. Proteomic analysis of exudates collected from affected tissue constitutes a powerful approach to assess tissue alterations, since biomarkers associated with pathologies can be identified in very low concentrations. In this study we proteomically explore the pathological effects induced by the venom of the viperid snake Bothrops asper in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice. Predominant proteins identified in the exudates included intracellular proteins, plasma proteins, extracellular matrix proteins and cell membrane-associated proteins. The presence of such proteins indicates cytotoxicity, plasma exudation, extracellular matrix degradation and shedding of membrane proteins. Some of these proteins may represent useful biomarkers for myonecrosis and microvascular damage. The effect of fucoidan, an inhibitor of myotoxic phospholipases A(2), and batimastat, an inhibitor of metalloproteinases, on the pathological effects induced by B. asper venom were also investigated. Fucoidan reduced the presence of intracellular proteins in exudates, whereas batimastat reduced the amount of relevant extracellular matrix proteins. The combination of these inhibitors resulted in the abrogation of the most relevant pathological effects of this venom. Thus, proteomic analysis of exudates represents a valuable approach to assess the characteristics of tissue damage in pathological models and the success of therapeutic interventions. PMID:21306181

  12. Freeze-dried snake antivenoms formulated with sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol: comparison of their stability in an accelerated test.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María; Tattini, Virgilio; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Gutiérrez, José María; Borgognoni, Camila; Vega-Baudrit, José; Solera, Federico; Cerdas, Maykel; Segura, Alvaro; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; León, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    Freeze-drying is used to improve the long term stability of pharmaceutical proteins. Sugars and polyols have been successfully used in the stabilization of proteins. However, their use in the development of freeze-dried antivenoms has not been documented. In this work, whole IgG snake antivenom, purified from equine plasma, was formulated with different concentrations of sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol. The glass transition temperatures of frozen formulations, determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), ranged between -13.5 °C and -41 °C. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the different stabilizers, the freeze-dried samples were subjected to an accelerated stability test at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. After six months of storage at 40 °C, all the formulations presented the same residual humidity, but significant differences were observed in turbidity, reconstitution time and electrophoretic pattern. Moreover, all formulations, except antivenoms freeze-dried with mannitol, exhibited the same potency for the neutralization of lethal effect of Bothrops asper venom. The 5% (w:v) sucrose formulation exhibited the best stability among the samples tested, while mannitol and sorbitol formulations turned brown. These results suggest that sucrose is a better stabilizer than mannitol and sorbitol in the formulation of freeze-dried antivenoms under the studied conditions. PMID:25091348

  13. Phospholipases a2 from Viperidae snakes: Differences in membranotropic activity between enzymatically active toxin and its inactive isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ghazaryan, Narine A; Ghulikyan, Lusine; Kishmiryan, Arsen; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Utkin, Yuri N; Tsetlin, Victor I; Lomonte, Bruno; Ayvazyan, Naira M

    2015-02-01

    We describe the interaction of various phospholipases A2 (PLA2) from snake venoms of the family Viperidae (Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, Vipera ursinii renardi, Bothrops asper) with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of natural brain phospholipids mixture, visualized through fluorescence microscopy. The membrane fluorescent probes 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonicacid (ANS), LAUDRAN and PRODAN were used to assess the state of the membrane and specifically mark the lipid packing and membrane fluidity. Our results have shown that the three PLA2s which contain either of aspartic acid, serine, or lysine residues at position 49 in the catalytic center, have different effects on the vesicles. The PLA2 with aspartic acid at this position causes the oval deformation of the vesicles, while serine and lysine-containing enzymes lead to an appreciable increase of fluorescence intensity in the vesicles membrane, wherein the shape and dimensions of GUVs have not changed, but in this case GUV aggregation occurs. LAURDAN and PRODAN detect the extent of water penetration into the bilayer surface. We calculated generalized polarization function (GP), showing that for all cases (D49 PLA2, S49 PLA2 and K49 PLA2) both LAUDRAN and PRODAN GP values decrease. A higher LAURDAN GP is indicative of low water penetration in the lipid bilayer in case of K49 PLA2 compared with D49 PLA2, whereas the PRODAN mainly gives information when lipid is in liquid crystalline phase. PMID:25450350

  14. Detection of calcium-binding proteins in venom and Duvernoy's glands of South American snakes and their secretions.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, L R; Yamanouye, N; Nuñez-Burgos, G B; Furtado, M F; Britto, L R; Nicolau, J

    1997-10-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) have been described as involved in the stimulus-secretion coupling mechanisms in secretory glands. CaBPs were revealed with 45Ca, after electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE and transference to Zeta probe membranes, in Duvernoy's or venom gland homogenates from three families of South American snakes: Viperidae (Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus); Elapidae (Micrurus corallinus), and Colubridae (Phylodrias patagoniensis and Oxyrhopus trigeminus). A band with an estimated molecular weight of 12 KDa was found in all glands studied. Bands with 17, 28, and 67 KDa were found in all glands, except in O. trigeminus Duvernoy's gland. A 18 KDa band was found in Viperidae and Elapidae venom glands, and a 88 KDa band was observed only in Viperidae venom gland homogenates. Some of these CaBPs were identified by Western blotting or by immunohistochemistry, as parvalbumin (12 KDa) and calbindin (28 KDa). When the secretion of these glands were analyzed, CaBPs were detected only in B. jararaca venom, with bands of 14, 35, 42, and 72 KDa. The profile of CaBPs was not modified at different phases of the secretory cycle of the glands, as well as after isoproterenol treatment. PMID:9440247

  15. IRIS: Integrated Robotic Intraocular Snake*

    PubMed Central

    He, Xingchi; van Geirt, Vincent; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

    2015-01-01

    Retinal surgery is one of the most technically challenging surgical disciplines. Many robotic systems have been developed to enhance the surgical capabilities. However, very few of them provide the surgeon the dexterity within the patient’s eye to enable more flexible, more advanced surgical procedures. This paper presents a sub-millimeter intraocular dexterous robot, the Integrated Robotic Intraocular Snake (IRIS). The variable neutral-line mechanism is used to provide very high dexterity with a very small form factor. The IRIS distal dexterous unit is 0.9 mm in diameter and about 3 mm in length. It enables two rotational degrees of freedom at the distal end of the ophthalmic instruments. The analysis on contact mechanics provides a reference for the adjustment of the wire pretension. Redundant actuation is implemented by using one motor for each wire. A motion scaling transmission is developed to overcome the suboptimal resolution of the motors. A scale-up model of the IRIS is built for initial experimental evaluation. Preliminary results show that the scale-up IRIS can provide large range of motion. For given bending angle, the kinematic model can estimate the desired wire translation when the friction is not significant. The first prototype of the actual-scale IRIS is assembled and tested. PMID:26405561

  16. Tolerance of snakes to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to increased gravitational force acting in the head-to-tail direction(+Gz) was studied in diverse species of snakes hypothesized to show adaptive variation of response. Tolerance to increased gravity was measured red as the maximum graded acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased and was shown to vary according to gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. Multiple regression analysis showed that gravitational habitat, but not body length, had a significant effect on Gz tolerance. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing G force and approached zero near +1 Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2 Gz. Tolerant (arboreal) species were able to withstand hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 Gz for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or loss of body movement and tongue flicking. Data suggest that the relatively tight skin characteristic of tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit and is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  17. Free energy calculations on snake venom metalloproteinase BaP1.

    PubMed

    Lingott, Torsten; Merfort, Irmgard; Steinbrecher, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    BaP1 is a snake venom metalloproteinase from the venom of Bothrops asper, showing high structural homology with the catalytic domain of human adamalysins and matrix metalloproteinases. It induces the release of cytokines, like interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Recently, the high-resolution crystal structure of BaP1 with a bound inhibitor became available, representing an interesting model concerning inhibitor design for medicinally important metalloproteinases such as tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme and MMP13. We here use computational modeling to gain a better understanding about the binding properties of various ligands to BaP1, with a focus on computing ligand binding free energies. The obtained results should be of general significance for future research on medicinally important metalloproteinases. We have investigated the binding of the original inhibitor in detail and calculated its binding strength using MMP/GBSA free energy calculations. Additionally, the binding strengths of alternative ligands have been computed, and two of them are predicted and experimentally verified to strongly inhibit the enzyme. A suggestion for chemical modifications of BaP1 inhibitors could be made to guide future synthesis efforts. Furthermore, a contribution to the proteolytic reaction mechanism of metzincins is given. The pK value of the catalytically active glutamic acid residue 143 has been found to be significantly raised when compared with a free glutamate side chain. Calculations on other matrix metalloproteinases confirmed that this is not confined to BaP1, but seems to be a common feature of metzincins. PMID:22385614

  18. Early significant ontogenetic changes in snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Wray, Kenneth P; Margres, Mark J; Seavy, Margaret; Rokyta, Darin R

    2015-03-01

    Snake venom plays a critical role in food acquisition, digestion, and defense. Venoms are known to change throughout the life of some snake species, but nothing is known about the venom composition of hatchling/neonate snakes prior to and just after their first shedding cycle, despite this being a critical time in the life of the snake. Using a cohort of Crotalus horridus and two cohorts of Crotalus adamanteus, we showed for the first time that snakes undergo significant changes in venom composition after the postnatal shedding event. The number of changes among cohorts ranged widely and there was wide variation in the direction of protein regulation, which appeared to be on a locus-specific level rather than protein-family level. These significant venom composition changes that take place in the first few weeks of life most likely play critical roles in venom economy and resource conservation and may partially explain the rare, post-birth maternal care found in some venomous species. PMID:25600640

  19. Blood flow dynamics in the snake spectacle.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Kevin; Sivak, Jacob G

    2013-11-15

    The eyes of snakes are shielded beneath a layer of transparent integument referred to as the 'reptilian spectacle'. Well adapted to vision by virtue of its optical transparency, it nevertheless retains one characteristic of the integument that would otherwise prove detrimental to vision: its vascularity. Given the potential consequence of spectacle blood vessels on visual clarity, one might expect adaptations to have evolved that mitigate their negative impact. Earlier research demonstrated an adaptation to their spatial layout in only one species to reduce the vessels' density in the region serving the foveal and binocular visual fields. Here, we present a study of spectacle blood flow dynamics and provide evidence of a mechanism to mitigate the spectacle blood vessels' deleterious effect on vision by regulation of blood flow through them. It was found that when snakes are at rest and undisturbed, spectacle vessels undergo cycles of dilation and constriction, such that the majority of the time the vessels are fully constricted, effectively removing them from the visual field. When snakes are presented with a visual threat, spectacle vessels constrict and remain constricted for longer periods than occur during the resting cycles, thus guaranteeing the best possible visual capabilities in times of need. Finally, during the snakes' renewal phase when they are generating a new stratum corneum, the resting cycle is abolished, spectacle vessels remain dilated and blood flow remains strong and continuous. The significance of these findings in terms of the visual capabilities and physiology of snakes is discussed. PMID:24172887

  20. Snake and staff symbolism, and healing.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2002-07-01

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake emblem of Asklepios, or as the double-snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of healing. Whether he was also an historical figure as healer in earlier ages is less certain. The origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. In classical times it became the herald's wand of Hermes, messenger of the gods who guided departed souls to the underworld, and was seen as protector of travellers, shepherds and merchants. In the latter capacity Hermes also conveyed a negative connotation as protector of thieves. During the Middle Ages the caduceus became a symbol of the healing sciences (pharmacy and alchemy in particular), and today, although mythologically incorrect, it is in common usage in the health care field. PMID:12197200

  1. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in snakes.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Vahid; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Nasiri, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is responsible for one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases in almost all warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide, and it is estimated that about one-third of the world human population is chronically infected with this parasite. Little is known about the circulation of T. gondii in snakes and this study for the first time aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by this parasite by PCR methods. The brain of 68 Snakes, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2015 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of this parasite. DNA was extracted and Nested-PCR method was carried out with two of pairs of primers to detect the 344 bp fragment of T. gondii GRA6 gene. Five positive nested-PCR products were directly sequenced in the forward and reverse directions by Sequetech Company (Mountain View, CA). T. gondii GRA6 gene were detected from 55 (80.88%) of 68 snakes brains. Sequencing of the GRA6 gene revealed 98-100% of similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study of molecular detection of T. gondii in snakes and our findings show a higher frequency of this organism among them. PMID:27522027

  2. 2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  3. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  4. UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

  5. Molecular basis of infrared detection by snakes.

    PubMed

    Gracheva, Elena O; Ingolia, Nicholas T; Kelly, Yvonne M; Cordero-Morales, Julio F; Hollopeter, Gunther; Chesler, Alexander T; Sánchez, Elda E; Perez, John C; Weissman, Jonathan S; Julius, David

    2010-04-15

    Snakes possess a unique sensory system for detecting infrared radiation, enabling them to generate a 'thermal image' of predators or prey. Infrared signals are initially received by the pit organ, a highly specialized facial structure that is innervated by nerve fibres of the somatosensory system. How this organ detects and transduces infrared signals into nerve impulses is not known. Here we use an unbiased transcriptional profiling approach to identify TRPA1 channels as infrared receptors on sensory nerve fibres that innervate the pit organ. TRPA1 orthologues from pit-bearing snakes (vipers, pythons and boas) are the most heat-sensitive vertebrate ion channels thus far identified, consistent with their role as primary transducers of infrared stimuli. Thus, snakes detect infrared signals through a mechanism involving radiant heating of the pit organ, rather than photochemical transduction. These findings illustrate the broad evolutionary tuning of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as thermosensors in the vertebrate nervous system. PMID:20228791

  6. Molecular Basis of Infrared Detection by Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Gracheva, Elena O.; Ingolia, Nicolas T.; Kelly, Yvonne M.; Cordero-Morales, Julio F.; Hollopeter, Gunther; Chesler, Alexander T.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Perez, John C.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Julius, David

    2010-01-01

    Snakes possess a unique sensory system for detecting infrared radiation, enabling them to generate a ‘thermal image’ of predators or prey. Infrared signals are initially received by the pit organ, a highly specialized facial structure that is innervated by nerve fibers of the somatosensory system. How this organ detects and transduces infrared signals into nerve impulses is not known. Here we use an unbiased transcriptional profiling approach to identify TRPA1 channels as infrared receptors on sensory nerve fibers that innervate the pit organ. TRPA1 orthologues from pit bearing snakes (vipers, pythons, and boas) are the most heat sensitive vertebrate ion channels thus far identified, consistent with their role as primary transducers of infrared stimuli. Thus, snakes detect infrared signals through a mechanism involving radiant heating of the pit organ, rather than photochemical transduction. These findings illustrate the broad evolutionary tuning of TRP channels as thermosensors in the vertebrate nervous system. PMID:20228791

  7. [The threat of snake and scorpion venoms].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz; Smędzik, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Venoms of snakes and scorpions pose a significant threat to the health and life of humans. The speed and range of their actions causes damage of the organ responsible for the maintenance of vital signs. Venomous snake venoms cause blood clotting disorders, tissue necrosis and hemolysis, and the release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines and impair antibody synthesis. Availability of antitoxins is limited and in the most cases supportive treatment is recommended. In turn, the venom of scorpions beside intestinal symptoms cause significant impairment of neuromuscular conduction, causing severe respiratory disorders. Action venom poses a particular threat to sensitive patients. The degree of threat to life caused by the venom of snakes and scorpions authorizes the treatment of these substances as a potential biological weapon. PMID:26449581

  8. Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Gabriel E A; Hicks, James W; Manzani, Paulo R; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias; Secor, Stephen M; Garland, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of all animals is affected by gravitational pressure gradients, the intensity of which varies according to organismic features, behavior, and habitat occupied. A previous nonphylogenetic analysis of heart position in snakes-which often assume vertical postures-found the heart located 15%-25% of total body length from the head in terrestrial and arboreal species but 25%-45% in aquatic species. It was hypothesized that a more anterior heart in arboreal species served to reduce the hydrostatic blood pressure when these animals adopt vertical postures during climbing, whereas an anterior heart position would not be needed in aquatic habitats, where the effects of gravity are less pronounced. We analyzed a new data set of 155 species from five major families of Alethinophidia (one of the two major branches of snakes, the other being blind snakes, Scolecophidia) using both conventional and phylogenetically based statistical methods. General linear models regressing log(10) snout-heart position on log(10) snout-vent length (SVL), as well as dummy variables coding for habitat and/or clade, were compared using likelihood ratio tests and the Akaike Information Criterion. Heart distance to the tip of the snout scaled isometrically with SVL. In all instances, phylogenetic models that incorporated transformation of the branch lengths under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution (to mimic stabilizing selection) better fit the data as compared with their nonphylogenetic counterparts. The best-fit model predicting snake heart position included aspects of both habitat and clade and indicated that arboreal snakes in our study tend to have hearts placed more posteriorly, opposite the trend identified in previous studies. Phylogenetic signal in relative heart position was apparent both within and among clades. Our results suggest that overcoming gravitational pressure gradients in snakes most likely involves the combined action of several cardiovascular and

  9. [Local complications after poisonous snake bite].

    PubMed

    Kuzbari, R; Seidler, D; Deutinger, M

    1994-01-01

    The case of a zoo keeper who was bitten on the left finger by a venomous snake (Vipera xanthina) is reported. The administration of antivenom prevented the development of systemic poisoning but had no effect on the extent of the local complications. A compartment syndrome with a concomitant severe reaction at the bite site required fasciotomy of the upper and lower arm. The extensor tendon of the involved finger ruptured spontaneously, many weeks after wound healing was completed. Therefore, delayed local complications following snake bites may occur, even if signs of systemic poisoning are missing. PMID:8150389

  10. Effects of snake envenomation: a guide for emergency nurses.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Stephen; Finnegan, Alan; Clochesy, John M; Visovsky, Constance

    2015-02-01

    Only one species of venomous snake, the adder, is indigenous to the UK, but many people keep venomous snakes as pets and others travel to places, such as the United States, where a wider variety of venomous snakes can be found. Emergency nurses should therefore be prepared to treat bite wounds caused by venomous and non-venomous snakes. This article offers an overview of the most common forms of envenomation in the UK and makes recommendations for the clinical care of people who have sustained snake bites. PMID:25659795

  11. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  12. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  13. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  14. Study of spin resonances in the accelerators with snakes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Spin resonances in the circular accelerators with snakes are studied to understand the nature of snake resonances. We analyze the effect of snake configuration, and the snake superperiod on the resonance. Defining the critical resonance strength epsilon/sub c/ as the maximum tolerable resonance strength without losing the beam polarization after passing through the resonance, we found that epsilon/sub c/ is a sensitive function of the snake configuration, the snake superperiod at the first order snake resonance, the higher order snake resonance conditions and the spin matching condition. Under properly designed snake configuration, the critical resonance strength epsilon/sub c/ is found to vary linearly with N/sub S/ as = (1/..pi..)sin/sup /minus/1/(/vert bar/cos ..pi nu../sub z//vert bar//sup /1/2//)N/sub S/, where ..nu../sub z/ and N/sub S/ are the betatron tune and the number of snakes respectively. We also study the effect of overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. The imperfection resonance should be corrected to a magnitude of insignificance (e.g., epsilonless than or equal to0.1 for two snakes case) to maintain proper polarization. 23 refs., 25 figs.

  15. Gnathostomiasis in frog-eating snakes from Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, K; Nakao, H; Nose, R; Komiya, M; Hanada, S; Enomoto, Y; Nawa, Y

    1997-10-01

    Gnathostoma doloresi parasitizes the gastric wall of wild (boars) and domestic (pigs) swine (Sus scrofa). Its larvae cause cutaneous larva migrans in humans. Amphibians, reptiles and a freshwater fish are infected with the advanced 3rd stage larvae. Prevalence of G. doloresi larvae were surveyed in several snakes, especially in a common frog-eating snake (Rhabdophis tigrinus). All species of snakes examined were infected with G. doloresi larvae suggesting that snakes are important reservoir hosts. Prevalence of G. doloresi larvae in frog-eating snakes was lower than that found in mammal-eating snakes. Thus, as a source of infection to snakes, small mammals may be more important than frogs in the natural life cycle of G. doloresi in Japan. PMID:9391975

  16. Sea snake harvest in the gulf of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia; Montoya, Alfred; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Broad, Kenneth; Voris, Harold K; Takacs, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human-snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Squid vessels return to ports once per lunar synodic cycle and fishers sell snakes to merchants who sort, package, and ship the snakes to various destinations in Vietnam and China for human consumption and as a source of traditional remedies. Annually, 82 t, roughly equal to 225,500 individuals, of live sea snakes are brought to ports. To our knowledge, this rate of harvest constitutes one of the largest venomous snake and marine reptile harvest activities in the world today. Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctus constituted about 85% of the snake biomass, and Acalyptophis peronii, Aipysurus eydouxii, Hydrophis atriceps, H. belcheri, H. lamberti, and H. ornatus made up the remainder. Our results establish a quantitative baseline for characteristics of catch, trade, and uses of sea snakes. Other key observations include the timing of the trade to the lunar cycle, a decline of sea snakes harvested over the study period (approximately 30% decline in mass over 4 years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation. PMID:25388500

  17. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  18. A variable parameter parametric snake method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marouf, A.; Houacine, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to parametric snake method by using variable snake parameters. Adopting fixed parameter values for all points of the snake, as usual, constitutes by itself a limitation that leads to poor performances in terms of convergence and tracking properties. A more adapted choice should be the one that allows selection depending on the image region properties as on the contour shape and position. However, such variability is not an easy task in general and a precise method need to be defined to assure contour point dependent tuning at iterations. We were particularly interested in applying this idea to the recently presented parametric method [1]. In the work mentioned, an attraction term is used to improve the convergence of the standard parametric snake without a significant increase in computational load. We show here, that improved performances can ensue from applying variable parameter concepts. For this purpose, the method is first analyzed and then a procedure is developed to assure an automatic variable parameter tuning. The interest of our approach is illustrated through object segmentation results.

  19. WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clear Spring Foods, Inc., conducted a year-long study in the Middle Snake River to provide a perspective on water quality issues and the impact of aquaculture activities on water quality. The study area extended from Shoshone Falls Park to below Box Canyon. Physical and chemical ...

  20. MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER PRODUCTIVITY AND NUTRIENT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1992 to 1994, the University of Idaho conducted a research project on the water quality- limited section of the MIddle Snake River from Twin Falls downstream to Upper Salmon Falls Dam in an effort to determine the relationship between the nutrients and sediments entering thi...

  1. Subcutaneous compliance and gravitational adaptation in snakes.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, H B

    1993-12-15

    Previous studies have implicated morphological adaptations as important counter-measures to gravitational stresses on the circulatory systems of arboreal or climbing snakes. Such features include tight skin and relatively non-compliant tissue compartments that oppose edema formation, but these traits have not been previously studied quantitatively. To provide information on this subject, interstitial fluid pressures were measured in eleven species of snakes using slit-end catheters positioned in subcutaneous tissue located at the base of the tail. Interstitial pressures in all species were typically 0 to +2 mm Hg in normally hydrated tissue, but varied widely when snakes were active or when the tail was curved at the site of measurement. Local compliance of the free fluid space was determined from measurements of pressure while saline was infused via the catheter tip. Such measurements varied from 0.18 microliters/mm Hg in Philodryas baroni, an arboreal species, to 2.3 microliters/mm Hg in Crotalus adamanteus, a ground-dwelling, terrestrial species. In general, compliance of the subcutaneous tissue space was greatest (P < 0.05) in non-climbing and aquatic species of snakes that do not face problems of gravitational edema in dependent tissues. Presumably, the compliance measurements reflect adaptive structural differences related to requirements for counteracting gravitational stresses in the various species. PMID:8277230

  2. A Schoolwide Endeavor: Our Exquisite Snake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The author was originally inspired by "The Exquisite Snake" exhibit she saw at a local museum. Two hundred contemporary artists contributed to this exhibit, which was an adaptation of the old parlor game called "The Exquisite Corpse" that Surrealist artists used to play in the late 1920s and '30s. The author just loved this idea and decided to…

  3. Hematologic effects and complications of snake envenoming.

    PubMed

    Berling, Ingrid; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2015-04-01

    Hematologic abnormalities are the most common effects of snake envenoming globally. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) is the commonest and most important. Other hematologic abnormalities are an anticoagulant coagulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy is a venom-induced activation of the clotting pathway by procoagulant toxins, resulting in clotting factor consumption and coagulopathy. The type of procoagulant toxin differs between snakes and can activate prothrombin, factor X, and factor V or consume fibrinogen. The most useful investigation in VICC is a prothrombin time/international normalized ratio. The d-dimer may assist in early diagnosis, but fibrinogen levels often add little in the clinical setting. Bedside investigations would be ideal, but point-of-care testing international normalized ratio and whole blood clotting tests have been shown to be unreliable in VICC. The major complication of VICC is hemorrhage, including intracranial hemorrhage which is often fatal. The role of antivenom in VICC is controversial and may only be beneficial for some types of snakes including Echis spp where the duration of abnormal clotting is reduced from more than a week to 24 to 48 hours. In contrast, antivenom does not appear to speed the recovery of VICC in Australian snake envenoming. Other treatments for VICC include factor replacement, observation and prevention of trauma, and heparin. An Australian study showed that fresh-frozen plasma speeds recovery of VICC, but early use may increase consumption. There is no evidence to support heparin. PMID:25556574

  4. Role of collagens and perlecan in microvascular stability: exploring the mechanism of capillary vessel damage by snake venom metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Teresa; Ortiz, Natalia; Rucavado, Alexandra; Sanchez, Eladio F; Richardson, Michael; Fox, Jay W; Gutiérrez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhage is a clinically important manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomings, and is induced by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic SVMPs hydrolyze some basement membrane (BM) and associated extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Nevertheless, only hemorrhagic SVMPs are able to disrupt microvessels; the mechanisms behind this functional difference remain largely unknown. We compared the proteolytic activity of the hemorrhagic P-I SVMP BaP1, from the venom of Bothrops asper, and the non-hemorrhagic P-I SVMP leucurolysin-a (leuc-a), from the venom of Bothrops leucurus, on several substrates in vitro and in vivo, focusing on BM proteins. When incubated with Matrigel, a soluble extract of BM, both enzymes hydrolyzed laminin, nidogen and perlecan, albeit BaP1 did it at a faster rate. Type IV collagen was readily digested by BaP1 while leuc-a only induced a slight hydrolysis. Degradation of BM proteins in vivo was studied in mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Western blot analysis of muscle tissue homogenates showed a similar degradation of laminin chains by both enzymes, whereas nidogen was cleaved to a higher extent by BaP1, and perlecan and type IV collagen were readily digested by BaP1 but not by leuc-a. Immunohistochemistry of muscle tissue samples showed a decrease in the immunostaining of type IV collagen after injection of BaP1, but not by leuc-a. Proteomic analysis by LC/MS/MS of exudates collected from injected muscle revealed higher amounts of perlecan, and types VI and XV collagens, in exudates from BaP1-injected tissue. The differences in the hemorrhagic activity of these SVMPs could be explained by their variable ability to degrade key BM and associated ECM substrates in vivo, particularly perlecan and several non-fibrillar collagens, which play a mechanical stabilizing role in microvessel structure. These results underscore the key role played by these ECM components in the mechanical stability of microvessels. PMID

  5. Toxins not neutralized by brown snake antivenom

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Roopwant K.; Henry, Peter J.; Mirtschin, Peter; Jelinek, George; Wilce, Jacqueline A. . E-mail: Jackie.Wilce@med.monash.edu.au

    2006-06-01

    The Australian snakes of the genus Pseudonaja (dugite, gwardar and common brown) account for the majority of snake bite related deaths in Australia. Without antivenom treatment, the risk of mortality is significant. There is an accumulating body of evidence to suggest that the efficacy of the antivenom is limited. The current study investigates the protein constituents recognized by the antivenom using 2-DE, immuno-blot techniques and rat tracheal organ bath assays. The 2-DE profiles for all three snake venoms were similar, with major species visualized at 78-132 kDa, 32-45 kDa and 6-15 kDa. Proteins characterized by LC-MS/MS revealed a coagulant toxin ({approx}42 kDa) and coagulant peptide ({approx}6 kDa), as well as two PLA{sub 2} ({approx}14 kDa). Peptides isolated from {approx}78 kDa and 15-32 kDa protein components showed no similarity to known protein sequences. Protein recognition by the antivenom occurred predominantly for the higher molecular weight components with little recognition of 6-32 kDa MW species. The ability of antivenom to neutralize venom activity was also investigated using rat tracheal organ bath assays. The venoms of Pseudonaja affinis affinis and Pseudonaja nuchalis incited a sustained, significant contraction of the trachea. These contractions were attributed to PLA{sub 2} enzymatic activity as pre-treatment with the PLA{sub 2} inhibitor 4-BPB attenuated the venom-induced contractions. The venom of Pseudonaja textilis incited tracheal contractility through a non-PLA{sub 2} enzymatic activity. Neither activity was attenuated by the antivenom treatment. These results represent the first proteomic investigation of the venoms from the snakes of the genus Pseudonaja, revealing a possible limitation of the brown snake antivenom in binding to the low MW protein components.

  6. Purification of an acidic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops lanceolatus (fer de lance) venom: molecular and enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, A L; Radvanyi, F; Bon, C

    1994-09-01

    The acidic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops lanceolatus venom has been purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose. Analysis by FPLC on Mono-Q column of the purified phospholipase A2 indicated that it is a mixture of several isoenzymes. The two major isoforms consist of a single polypeptide chain with mol. wts of 14,500 and 15,000, which slightly differ in their isoelectric point (4.9 and 5.3) and amino acid composition. However, enzymatic and pharmacological properties of the various isoenzymes are identical. The phospholipase from B. lanceolatus venom is characterized by a progressive increase in the rate of hydrolysis when enzymatic activity is determined with crude egg yolk as substrate in the absence of detergent. This phenomenon, which is not observed with mixed micelles of lecithin-detergent, is not due to the presence of a phospholipase A2 inhibitor in the venom, as previously suggested by several investigators in the case of other Bothrops and Cobra venoms. It is rather a catalytic characteristics of B. lanceolatus venom phospholipase, the enzymatic activity of which depends on the physical state of phospholipids. Bothrops lanceolatus acidic phospholipase A2 is non-toxic. PMID:7801343

  7. Phylogeography of the Bothrops jararaca complex (Serpentes: Viperidae): past fragmentation and island colonization in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin, Felipe G; Monzel, Markus; Echeverrigaray, Sergio; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2006-11-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's major biodiversity hotspots and is threatened by a severe habitat loss. Yet little is known about the processes that originated its remarkable richness of endemic species. Here we present results of a large-scale survey of the genetic variation at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the pitviper, jararaca lancehead (Bothrops jararaca), and two closely related insular species (Bothrops insularis and Bothrops alcatraz), endemic of this region. Phylogenetic and network analyses revealed the existence of two well-supported clades, exhibiting a southern and a northern distribution. The divergence time of these two phylogroups was estimated at 3.8 million years ago, in the Pliocene, a period of intense climatic changes and frequent fragmentation of the tropical rainforest. Our data also suggest that the two groups underwent a large size expansion between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. However, the southern group showed a more marked signal of population size fluctuation than the northern group, corroborating evidences that southern forests may have suffered a more pronounced reduction in area in the late Pleistocene. The insular species B. alcatraz and B. insularis presented very low diversity, each one sharing haplotypes with mainland individuals placed in different subclades. Despite their marked morphological and behavioural uniqueness, these two insular species seem to have originated very recently and most likely from distinct costal B. jararaca populations, possibly associated with late Pleistocene or Holocene sea level fluctuations. PMID:17054497

  8. Effects of Graduated Exposure with Feedback of Exposure Times on Snake Phobias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Horst G.; Costello, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    The subject-controlled graduated exposure of a snake with feedback of exposure times resulted in significantly less avoidance behaviors for snake-phobic subjects than for control snake-phobic subjects who did not receive therapy. (Author)

  9. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan. PMID:26044884

  10. Presynaptic Proteins as Markers of the Neurotoxic Activity of BmjeTX-I and BmjeTX-II Toxins from Bothrops marajoensis (Marajó Lancehead) Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Antonio; Melaré, Rodolfo; Franco, Junia R. B.; Bis, Carolina V.; Gracia, Marta; Ponce-Soto, Luis A.; Marangoni, Sérgio; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular preparations exposed to B. marajoensis venom show increases in the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials and twitch tension facilitation followed by presynaptic neuromuscular paralysis, without evidences of muscle damage. Considering that presynaptic toxins interfere into the machinery involved in neurotransmitter release (synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and SNAP25 proteins), the main objective of this communication is to analyze, by immunofluorescence and western blotting, the expression of the synaptic proteins, synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and SNAP25 and by myography, light, and transmission electron microscopy the pathology of motor nerve terminals and skeletal muscle fibres of chick biventer cervicis preparations (CBC) exposed in vitro to BmjeTX-I and BmjeTX-II toxins from B. marajoensis venom. CBC incubated with toxins showed irreversible twitch tension blockade and unaffected KCl- and ACh-evoked contractures, and the positive colabelling of acetylcholine receptors confirmed that their action was primarily at the motor nerve terminal. Hypercontraction and loose myofilaments and synaptic vesicle depletion and motor nerve damage indicated that the toxins displayed both myotoxic and neurotoxic effect. The blockade resulted from interference on synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and SNAP25 proteins leading to the conclusion that BmjeTX-I and BmjeTX-II affected neurotransmitter release machinery by preventing the docking of synaptic vesicles to the axolemma of the nerve terminal.

  11. Multiplicative and additive Adelson's snake illusions.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Two different versions of Adelson's snake lightness illusion are quantitatively investigated. In one experiment an additive version of the illusion is investigated by varying the additive component of the atmosphere transfer function (ATF) introduced by Adelson [2000, in The New Cognitive Neuroscience Ed. M Gazzaniga (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) pp 339-351]. In the other, a multiplicative version of the illusion is examined by varying the multiplicative component of the ATE In both experiments four observers matched the targets' lightness of the snake patterns with Munsell samples. Increasing the additive or the multiplicative component elicited an approximately equal increase in the magnitude of the lightness illusion. The results show that both components, in the absence of other kinds of information, can be used as heuristics by our visual system to anchor luminance of the object when converting it into lightness. PMID:19189728

  12. Reading color barcodes using visual snakes.

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, Hanspeter

    2004-05-01

    Statistical pressure snakes are used to track a mono-color target in an unstructured environment using a video camera. The report discusses an algorithm to extract a bar code signal that is embedded within the target. The target is assumed to be rectangular in shape, with the bar code printed in a slightly different saturation and value in HSV color space. Thus, the visual snake, which primarily weighs hue tracking errors, will not be deterred by the presence of the color bar codes in the target. The bar code is generate with the standard 3 of 9 method. Using this method, the numeric bar codes reveal if the target is right-side-up or up-side-down.

  13. Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M. R.; Word, J. Q.; Barrows, E. S.; Mayhew, H. L.; Clark, D. R.

    1992-12-01

    The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  14. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED BEAMS USING MULTIPLE STRONG PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES.

    SciTech Connect

    ROSER,T.AHRENS,L.BAI,M.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20-30% partial Siberian snake both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical superconducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction.

  15. Snake-bites: appraisal of the global situation.

    PubMed Central

    Chippaux, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    The true global incidence of envenomations and their severity remain largely misunderstood, except for a few countries where these accidents are rare or are correctly reported. Nevertheless, this information is essential for drawing up guidelines for dealing with snake-bites, to plan drug supplies, particularly antivenin, and to train medical staff on snake-bite treatments. Since the comprehensive review by Swaroop & Grab in 1954 no global survey has been carried out on snake-bite epidemiology. The present article is an attempt to draw the attention of health authorities to snake envenomations and urges them to prepare therapeutic protocols adapted to their needs. PMID:9868843

  16. A fatal cobra-bite in a snake expert.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Z; Atiqullah, S; Saha, A C; Chowdhury, A J; Jahangir, K M; Faiz, M A

    2010-04-01

    A 35-year-old so called snake-expert from Thakurgaon district was admitted in Medicine department of Rangpur Medical College Hospital (RpMCH), Rangpur, Bangladesh on 2nd November 2007 with history of bites by a cobra snake. He was famous for his outstanding works to establish a snake farm first ever in Bangladesh. He had a collection of more than one hundred snakes of different species. He used to hatch eggs of the snakes, feed the young-snakes, collect venoms and sell those. Everyday many visitors used to visit his farm to watch exciting games with poisonous snakes. Several satellite television (TV) channels and some daily newspapers had covered him on different occasions. He was accidentally bitten by a newly caught hungry cobra snake while recording for a satellite TV channel. Following bites he was brought to the hospital three and a half hours later. By that time, neurotoxicity developed. Repeated doses of Anti Snake Venom (ASV) along with respiratory support and other supportive cares were provided. Despite utmost care feasible at RpMCH, patient expired around 49 hours later. PMID:20395931

  17. Field of a helical Siberian Snake

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.

    1995-02-01

    To preserve the spin polarization of a beam of high energy protons in a circular accelerator, magnets with periodic magnetic field, called Siberian Snakes are being used. Recently, it was proposed to build Siberian Snakes with superconducting helical dipoles. In a helical, or twisted dipole, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the helix and rotates around it as one proceeds along the magnet. In an engineering study of a 4 Tesla helical snake, the coil geometry is derived, by twisting, from the geometry of a cosine superconducting dipole. While waiting for magnetic measurement data on such a prototype, an analytical expression for the field of the helice is important, to calculate the particle trajectories and the spin precession in the helix. This model will also allow to determine the optical characteristics of the snake, as an insertion in the lattice of the accelerator. In particular, one can calculate the integrated multipoles through the magnet and the equivalent transfer matrix. An expression for the field in the helix body, i.e., excluding the fringe field was given in a classical paper. An alternate expression can be found by elaborating on the treatment of the field of a transverse wiggler obtained under the rather general conditions that the variables are separable. This expression exactly satisfies Maxwell`s div and curl equations for a stationary field, {del} {center_dot} B = 0, {del} x B = 0. This approach is useful in that it will allow one to use much of the work already done on the problem of inserting wigglers and undulators in the lattice of a circular accelerator.

  18. ELISA for the detection of toxic antigens in experimental and clinical envenoming by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Fonseca, S C; Campolina, D; Amaral, C F; Diniz, C R

    1994-12-01

    An ELISA was developed for identification of circulating toxic antigens from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom. The toxic fraction from the scorpion venom was purified by Sephadex G-50 chromatography and immunoaffinity techniques were used for identifying antibodies that reacted with this fraction. These antibodies were used to develop a sandwich-type ELISA. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by its capacity for identifying mice that were experimentally inoculated with T. serrulatus venom from those inoculated with Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom, Apis mellifera bee venom and Bothrops atrox, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Lachesis muta muta and Micrurus frontalis snake venoms. Measurable absorbance signals were obtained with 0.1 ng of venom per assay. The ELISA also detected antigens in the sera of patients systemically envenomed by T. serrulatus. Therefore, this ELISA could be a valuable tool for clinicians and epidemiologists, owing to its sensitivity and specificity. PMID:7725332

  19. ENGINEERING OF THE AGS SNAKE COIL ASSEMBLY.

    SciTech Connect

    ANERELLA,M.GUPTA,R.KOVACH,P.MARONE,A.PLATE,S.POWER,K.SCHMALZLE,J.WILLEN,E.

    2003-05-12

    A 30% Snake superconducting magnet is proposed to maintain polarization in the AGS proton beam, the magnetic design of which is described elsewhere. The required helical coils for this magnet push the limits of the technology developed for the RHIC Snake coils. First, fields must be provided with differing pitch along the length of the magnet. To accomplish this, a new 3-D CAD system (''Pro/Engineer'' from PTC), which uses parametric techniques to enable fast iterations, has been employed. Revised magnetic field calculations are then based on the output of the mechanical model. Changes are made in turn to the model on the basis of those field calculations. To ensure that accuracy is maintained, the final solid model is imported directly into the CNC machine programming software, rather than by the use of graphics translating software. Next, due to the large coil size and magnetic field, there was concern whether the structure could contain the coil forces. A finite element analysis was performed, using the 3-D model, to ensure that the stresses and deflections were acceptable. Finally, a method was developed using ultrasonic energy to improve conductor placement during coil winding, in an effort to minimize electrical shorts due to conductor misplacement, a problem that occurred in the RHIC helical coil program. Each of these activities represents a significant improvement in technology over that which was used previously for the RHIC snake coils.

  20. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C.; Meik, J. M.; Dashevsky, D.; Card, D. C.; Castoe, T. A.; Schaack, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  1. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  2. Ability of fucoidan to prevent muscle necrosis induced by snake venom myotoxins: comparison of high- and low-molecular weight fractions.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Karol; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno

    2008-03-01

    Fucoidan, a natural polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibits the myotoxic phospholipases A(2) present in the venoms of crotalid snakes. This study evaluated the influence of molecular weight on the ability of fucoidan to prevent muscle necrosis when rapidly administered after injection of a purified myotoxin or crude venom of Bothrops asper, in a mouse model. It was hypothesized that smaller fucoidan fragments, being of higher diffusibility to tissues, might have a better neutralizing efficiency in vivo. Fucoidan was subjected to acid hydrolysis to obtain low-molecular weight fragments (F(L)), or to gel filtration to isolate its high-molecular weight fraction (F(H)). These two preparations were standardized to the same neutralizing potency by preincubation assays, and subsequently tested in vivo, by independent administration assays. Local i.m. administration of either F(H) or F(L), immediately after i.m. injection of myotoxin II, prevented nearly 50% of muscle necrosis, albeit with no difference between the two preparations. Muscle necrosis was not reduced when either F(H) or F(L) was administered by i.v. route, immediately after i.m. toxin injection. When tested against crude venom, which contains several myotoxin isoforms, the immediate in situ i.m. injection of F(H) still inhibited myonecrosis by nearly one-half of the effect recorded in the untreated group, whereas F(L) was ineffective. It is concluded that, in this model, and in contrast to expectations, the use of smaller fucoidan fragments to prevent muscle damage induced by snake venom myotoxins is not advantageous, when compared with larger fucoidan molecules. PMID:18061642

  3. Natural history of the terciopelo Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sasa, Mahmood; Wasko, Dennis K; Lamar, William W

    2009-12-01

    The terciopelo Bothrops asper is the only lancehead species widely distributed in the humid lowlands of Middle America and northwestern South America. Its large body size, relative abundance and cryptic habits contribute to the high incidence of snakebites induced by this species throughout its distribution. The terciopelo plays an important role in ecosystems, both as prey and as a generalist predator. Diet comprises a great variety of prey items, including some species that are considered nuisances. B. asper, as other lancehead species, exhibits a notable ontogenetic shift in diet, consuming ectotherms (mainly frogs and lizards) when young, and increasingly incorporating birds, rodents, and other small mammals with maturity. Adult terciopelos also consume large anurans, especially when endothermic prey availability is low. Using radiotelemetry we determined home range and movement patterns from 28 individual B. asper at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Overall home range estimates are relatively small compared with other pitvipers, averaging between 3.71ha and 5.95ha; home range size did not differ between males and females. Movement patterns are largely aseasonal and consist of short (<10 m) movements between daytime shelter and nocturnal ambush sites within a given area, interspersed with longer distance (>50 m) movements to new foraging areas. Habitat use is related to prey availability and therefore to foraging strategy. Our data support a strong preference for areas near swamps by both sexes. Reproduction in B. asper is highly seasonal, and--apparently--biannual. Reproductive cycles in Costa Rica are tightly related to rainfall patterns. Therefore, the timing of breeding differs between populations in the Caribbean and Pacific lowlands. Bothrops asper is adapted to areas with low levels of disturbance along the agricultural frontier, and consequently it is not rare to find it in or near human dwellings. However, despite popular belief, no evidence

  4. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    PubMed

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage. PMID:23229464

  5. The partial Siberian snake experiment at the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Caussyn, D.D.; Ellison, T.; Jones, B.; Lee, S.Y.; Schwandt, P.; Ahren, L.; Alessi, J.; Bleser, E.J.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.D.; Foelsche, H.W.; Gardner, C.J.; Geller, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Makdisi, Y.I.; Mane, S.R.; Ratner, L.; Reece, K.; Roser, T.; Skelly, J.F.; Soukas, A.; Tepikian, S.; Thern, R.E.; van Asselt, W.; Spinka, H.; Teng, L.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Wienands, U.; Bharadwaj, V.; Hsueh, S.; Hiramatsu, S.; Mori, Y.; Sato, H.; Yokoya, K.

    1992-12-31

    We are building a 4.7 Tesla-meter room temperature solenoid to be installed in a 10-foot long AGS straight section. This experiment will test the idea of using a partial snake to correct all depolarizing imperfection resonances and also test the feasibility of betatron tune jump in correction intrinsic resonances in the presence of a partial snake.

  6. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecological risk assessment was completed for the Middle Snake River, Idaho. In this assessment, mathematical simulations and field observations were used to analyze exposure and ecological effects and to estimate risk.

    The Middle Snake River which refers to a 100 km stret...

  7. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208 Section 9.208 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.208 Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of...

  8. IRRIGATION WASTEWATER DISPOSAL WELL STUDIES--SNAKE PLAIN AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of irrigation disposal well practices on the water quality of the Snake Plain aquifer. A study site was selected where the geology was determined to be characteristic of areas in the Snake River Plain where irrigation disposal...

  9. A taping method for external transmitter attachment on aquatic snakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, G.D.; Smith, J.J.; Amarello, M.; Casazza, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Radio telemetry is extremely useful for studying habitat use and movements of free ranging snakes. Surgically implanting radio transmitters into the body cavity of snakes is standard practice in most studies (e.g., Reinert and Cundall 1982; Weatherhead and Blouin-Demers 2004), but this implanting method has its drawbacks. Surgery itself is risky for individual snakes because of the potential for infection or incomplete healing of the incision site. Also, transmitters that are small enough to be carried by small or slender snakes have a relatively short battery life and need to be removed or replaced often, thus requiring frequent surgeries. In rare or endangered snake species, the risk of using invasive implantation surgery may not be merited. External attachment methods are relatively non-invasive and allow removal and replacement of radio transmitters on smaller snakes. The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is a semi-aquatic snake endemic to wetlands of the Central Valley of California, USA, and is federally and state listed as threatened (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1999). Telemetry studies of the habitat use and movements of this species typically used surgically implanted radio transmitters, but this method is limited to larger snakes, primarily females, because of size requirements for surgery (> 250 g). To overcome difficulties and biases associated with radio telemetry of T. gigas, we developed and evaluated several alternative techniques to attach external radio transmitters using tape.

  10. Snake modulates constriction in response to prey's heartbeat.

    PubMed

    Boback, Scott M; Hall, Allison E; McCann, Katelyn J; Hayes, Amanda W; Forrester, Jeffrey S; Zwemer, Charles F

    2012-06-23

    Many species of snakes use constriction-the act of applying pressure via loops of their trunk-to subdue and kill their prey. Constriction is costly and snakes must therefore constrict their prey just long enough to ensure death. However, it remains unknown how snakes determine when their prey is dead. Here, we demonstrate that boas (Boa constrictor) have the remarkable ability to detect a heartbeat in their prey and, based on this signal, modify the pressure and duration of constriction accordingly. We monitored pressure generated by snakes as they struck and constricted warm cadaveric rats instrumented with a simulated heart. Snakes responded to the beating heart by constricting longer and with greater total pressure than when constricting rats with no heartbeat. When the heart was stopped midway through the constriction, snakes abandoned constriction shortly after the heartbeat ceased. Furthermore, snakes naive to live prey also responded to the simulated heart, suggesting that this behaviour is at least partly innate. These results are an example of how snakes integrate physiological cues from their prey to modulate a complex and ancient behavioural pattern. PMID:22258447

  11. Report from the First Snake Genomics and Integrative Biology Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Castoe, Todd A.; Braun, Edward L.; Bronikowski, Anne M.; Cox, Christian L.; Rabosky, Alison R. Davis; Jason de Koning, A.P.; Dobry, Jason; Fujita, Matthew K.; Giorgianni, Matt W; Hargreaves, Adam; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Mackessy, Stephen P.; O’Meally, Denis; Rokyta, Darin R.; Secor, Stephen M.; Streicher, Jeffrey W.; Wray, Kenneth P.; Yokoyama, Ken D.; Pollock, David D.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 1st Snake Genomics and Integrative Biology Meeting held in Vail, CO USA, 5-8 October 2011. The meeting had over twenty registered participants, and was conducted as a single session of presentations. Goals of the meeting included coordination of genomic data collection and fostering collaborative interactions among researchers using snakes as model systems. PMID:23451292

  12. Irradiation of the Crude Venom of Bothrops jararacussu to Obtain Toxoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Camila G.; Avalloni, Tânia M.; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; de J. Oliveira, Sara; de Oliveira, José M.; Cogo, José C.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to reduce the toxicity of Bothrops jararacussu venom using gamma-rays of low-energy coming from a source of Americium-241 (E = 59.6 keV and 3.7×109 Bq of activity) in order to obtain a toxoid. The radiation dose that each sample received was controlled by exposure time of the venom to the radiation beam. Mouse nerve phrenic-diaphragm preparation was used for testing the loss of venom toxicity, since the venom causes an irreversible neuromuscular blockade. In this condition, the several samples of irradiated venom, when assayed in neuromuscular preparation showed that with a dose of 0.051 Gy the paralysis caused by the irradiated venom was of 91%, at 0.360 Gy was of 79%, at 1.662 Gy was of 50% and at 2.448 Gy was of 42%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the irradiation model was able to induce a progressive loss of the venom toxicity.

  13. Inhibition of Bothrops jararacussu venom activities by Plathymenia reticulata Benth extracts

    PubMed Central

    Farrapo, Nicole M; Silva, Gleidy AA; Costa, Karine N; Silva, Magali G; Cogo, José C; Belo, Cháriston A Dal; dos Santos, Márcio G; Groppo, Francisco C; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DM), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (M) extracts (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4mg/ml) were obtained via Soxhlet from Plathymenia reticulata barks (Pr). These extracts were evaluated against the myotoxicity (58%) and the irreversible in vitro neuromuscular blockade of Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom (40μg/ml) in a mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation, by using light-microscopy and conventional myographic techniques. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to access the basic composition of extracts. The efficacy of the extracts was analyzed by Student's t-test or repeated measures ANOVA. The significance level was set at 5%. The Pr extracts showed a higher polyphenols content (3.75%), from which tannins take part, around 20 times more than flavonoids content (0.16%). Qualitatively, via TLC, DM and EA extracts showed higher tannins concentration than the HEX and M extracts. Pharmacologically, at 0.4mg/ml, DM was more effective (92 ± 6.2%) than EA (81.3 ±10%) = HEX, 77.2 ±4.7%) > M (54 ±10%) against the toxic effects of the venom. Morphologically, DM extract preserved intact 52.8% of the muscle fibers in the presence of the venom. We concluded that P. reticulata extracts are able to inhibit toxic effects of B. jararacussu venom, whose protective mechanism could be mediated by tannins. PMID:22331992

  14. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Marcos; Chérigo, Lilia; Acosta, Hildaura; Otero, Rafael; Martínez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 μg of venom kg-1 b.m.) lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1) and quercetrin (2). The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY). A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 μmol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract. PMID:25531787

  15. Studies on the venom proteome of Bothrops asper: perspectives and applications.

    PubMed

    Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Sanz, Libia; Madrigal, Marvin; Escolano, José; Sasa, Mahmood; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-12-01

    Bothrops asper is responsible for the vast majority of snakebite accidents in Central America and several studies have demonstrated that specific toxic and enzymatic activities of its venom vary with the geographic origin and age of the specimens. Variability in venom proteins and enzymes between specimens from the Caribbean and the Pacific versants of Costa Rica has been reported since 1964. Recently, we performed a comparative proteomic characterization of the venoms from one population of each versant. Proteins belonging to several families, including disintegrin, phospholipases A(2), serine proteinases, C-type lectins, CRISP, l-amino acid oxidase, and Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinases show a variable degree of relative occurrence in the venoms of both populations. The occurrence of prominent differences in the protein profile between venoms from adults and newborns, and among venom samples from individual specimens of the same region or developmental stage, further demonstrated the existence of geographic, ontogenetic and individual variability in the venom proteome of this species. These findings provide new insights towards understanding the biology of B. asper, contribute to a deeper understanding of the pathology induced by its venom and underscore the importance of the use of venoms pooled from specimens from both regions for producing antivenom exhibiting the broadest cross-reactivity. Furthermore, knowledge of the protein composition of B. asper venom paves the way for detailed future structure-function studies of individual toxins as well as for the development of new protocols to study the reactivity of therapeutic antivenoms. PMID:19539636

  16. Pulsed ultrasound therapy accelerates the recovery of skeletal muscle damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom.

    PubMed

    Saturnino-Oliveira, J; Tomaz, M A; Fonseca, T F; Gaban, G A; Monteiro-Machado, M; Strauch, M A; Cons, B L; Calil-Elias, S; Martinez, A M B; Melo, P A

    2012-06-01

    We studied the effect of pulsed ultrasound therapy (UST) and antibothropic polyvalent antivenom (PAV) on the regeneration of mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle following damage by Bothrops jararacussu venom. Animals (Swiss male and female mice weighing 25.0 ± 5.0 g; 5 animals per group) received a perimuscular injection of venom (1 mg/kg) and treatment with UST was started 1 h later (1 min/day, 3 MHz, 0.3 W/cm(2), pulsed mode). Three and 28 days after injection, muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy. The venom caused complete degeneration of muscle fibers. UST alone and combined with PAV (1.0 mL/kg) partially protected these fibers, whereas muscles receiving no treatment showed disorganized fascicules and fibers with reduced diameter. Treatment with UST and PAV decreased the effects of the venom on creatine kinase content and motor activity (approximately 75 and 48%, respectively). Sonication of the venom solution immediately before application decreased the in vivo and ex vivo myotoxic activities (approximately 60 and 50%, respectively). The present data show that UST counteracts some effects of B. jararacussu venom, causing structural and functional improvement of the regenerated muscle after venom injury. PMID:22415117

  17. Influence of thyroid states on the local effects induced by Bothrops envenoming.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Raquel Moreira; Caldas, Adriele Souza; Rodriguez, Tania Tavares; Casais-e-Silva, Luciana Lyra

    2015-08-01

    Bothrops leucurus venom causes significant local effects, such as necrosis, pain, hemorrhage and edema. These effects are important because of their high frequency and severity. The treatment of these local effects is not simple because of their quick triggering and a variety of components that induce these effects. Myonecrosis, dermonecrosis and edema are primarily caused by the action of hemorrhagins and myotoxins. A number of investigators have demonstrated the influence of thyroid hormones on inflammatory processes, particularly on wound healing. We investigated the edematogenic, hemorrhagic and necrotic activity of the B. leucurus venom in the hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and euthyroid of rats. The CK (creatine kinase) plasma level decreased in the animals in a hypothyroid state. The hypothyroid condition also significantly reduced the hemorrhagic and dermonecrotic area compared to the euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism states. It also mitigated the rat paw edema compared to that found in the euthyroid and hyperthyroid animals. The hyperthyroid animals showed no significant differences in the three treatments compared to the euthyroid animals. Our results suggest that the triggering of local effects induced by envenomation by B. leucurus is attenuated in hypothyroid animals, possibly by the effect of hypothyroidism on the immune system and blood flow. PMID:26003795

  18. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities of Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom.

    PubMed

    Lôbo de Araújo, A; Kamiguti, A; Bon, C

    2001-01-01

    Bothrops lanceolatus venom contains caseinolytic, phospholipase, esterase and haemorrhagic activities. We have investigated the coagulant and anticoagulant actions of B. lanceolatus venom on human citrated plasma and on purified plasma components. Although B. lanceolatus venom up to 50 microg/ml was unable to clot citrated plasma, at concentrations > or = 5 microg/ml the venom dose-dependently clotted purified human fibrinogen, indicating the presence of a thrombin-like enzyme. Human plasma (final concentration > or = 12.5%) dose-dependently inhibited the venom-induced fibrinogen clotting. This finding suggested that endogenous plasma protease inhibitors can affect the venom's action on fibrinogen. To investigate this possibility, B. lanceolatus venom was incubated with different plasma protease inhibitors and the activity on fibrinogen tested. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin and alpha(1)-antitrypsin did not interfere with the coagulant activity of the venom whereas the antithrombin-III/heparin complex partially inhibited this activity. A non-toxic, acidic phospholipase A(2) purified from B. lanceolatus venom prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time in human plasma from 39.7+/-0.5 s (control with saline) to 60.2+/-0.9 s with 50 microg of PLA(2) (p<0.001), suggesting an anticoagulant activity associated with this enzyme. This anticoagulant activity may account for some of the effects of the venom on blood coagulation. PMID:10978756

  19. Neuromuscular action of Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom and a caseinolytic fraction.

    PubMed

    Lôbo de Araújo, Albetiza; Donato, José Luiz; Leite, Gildo Bernardo; Prado-Franceschi, Júlia; Fontana, Marcos Dias; Bon, Cassian; Rodrigues Simioni, Léa

    2002-09-01

    A protein capable of inducing neuromuscular blockade in avian preparations and of depolarizing mouse diaphragm muscle was isolated from Bothrops lanceolatus venom using gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was a single chain polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 27.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE and had caseinolytic activity (13.3 units/mg), but no phospholipase A(2). B.lanceolatus venom (50 micro g/ml) and the caseinolytic protein (20 micro g/ml) produced contracture and progressive irreversible blockade (50% in 25+/-5 min (SEM) and 45+/-15 min, respectively), in indirectly stimulated chick biventer cervicis preparations. The contractile responses to acetylcholine (ACh; 37 and 74 micro M, n=6) were inhibited by venom and the caseinolytic protein, whereas those to potassium (13.4mM, n=6) were not. Membrane resting potential measurements in mouse hemidiaphragm preparations showed that B.lanceolatus venom and the purified protein caused depolarization which was prevented by D-tubocurarine (14.6mM). The venom produced a slight increase in the amplitude and frequency of miniature end-plate potentials, but this effect was not seen with the purified fraction. These results suggest that the purified protein acts exclusively post-synaptically. PMID:12220713

  20. L-Aminoacid Oxidase from Bothrops leucurus Venom Induces Nephrotoxicity via Apoptosis and Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Isabel C. O.; Pereira, Gustavo J. S.; Orzáez, M.; Jorge, Roberta J. B.; Bincoletto, Claudia; Toyama, Marcos H.; Monteiro, Helena S. A.; Smaili, Soraya S.; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Martins, Alice M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a common complication caused by Bothrops viper envenomation. In this study, the nefrotoxicity of a main component of B. leucurus venom called L-aminoacid oxidase (LAAO-Bl) was evaluated by using tubular epithelial cell lines MDCK and HK-2 and perfused kidney from rats. LAAO-Bl exhibited cytotoxicity, inducing apoptosis and necrosis in MDCK and HK-2 cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. MDCK apoptosis induction was accompanied by Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial dysfunction with enhanced expression of Bax protein levels. LAAO-Bl induced caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation in both cell lines. LAAO-Bl (10 μg/mL) exerts significant effects on the isolated kidney perfusion increasing perfusion pressure and urinary flow and decreasing the glomerular filtration rate and sodium, potassium and chloride tubular transport. Taken together our results suggest that LAAO-Bl is responsible for the nephrotoxicity observed in the envenomation by snakebites. Moreover, the cytotoxic of LAAO-Bl to renal epithelial cells might be responsible, at least in part, for the nephrotoxicity observed in isolated kidney. PMID:26193352

  1. Abarema cochliacarpos Extract Decreases the Inflammatory Process and Skeletal Muscle Injury Induced by Bothrops leucurus Venom

    PubMed Central

    Saturnino-Oliveira, Jeison; Santos, Daiana Do Carmo; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Santos Dias, Antônio; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Estevam, Charles Santos; Lucca Júnior, Waldecy De; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Melo, Paulo A.; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Pereira de Oliveira, Aldeidia; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc) to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation. PMID:25136627

  2. Profiling the venom gland transcriptomes of Costa Rican snakes by 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A long term research goal of venomics, of applied importance for improving current antivenom therapy, but also for drug discovery, is to understand the pharmacological potential of venoms. Individually or combined, proteomic and transcriptomic studies have demonstrated their feasibility to explore in depth the molecular diversity of venoms. In the absence of genome sequence, transcriptomes represent also valuable searchable databases for proteomic projects. Results The venom gland transcriptomes of 8 Costa Rican taxa from 5 genera (Crotalus, Bothrops, Atropoides, Cerrophidion, and Bothriechis) of pitvipers were investigated using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 100,394 out of 330,010 masked reads produced significant hits in the available databases. 5.165,220 nucleotides (8.27%) were masked by RepeatMasker, the vast majority of which corresponding to class I (retroelements) and class II (DNA transposons) mobile elements. BLAST hits included 79,991 matches to entries of the taxonomic suborder Serpentes, of which 62,433 displayed similarity to documented venom proteins. Strong discrepancies between the transcriptome-computed and the proteome-gathered toxin compositions were obvious at first sight. Although the reasons underlaying this discrepancy are elusive, since no clear trend within or between species is apparent, the data indicate that individual mRNA species may be translationally controlled in a species-dependent manner. The minimum number of genes from each toxin family transcribed into the venom gland transcriptome of each species was calculated from multiple alignments of reads matched to a full-length reference sequence of each toxin family. Reads encoding ORF regions of Kazal-type inhibitor-like proteins were uniquely found in Bothriechis schlegelii and B. lateralis transcriptomes, suggesting a genus-specific recruitment event during the early-Middle Miocene. A transcriptome-based cladogram supports the large divergence between A. mexicanus

  3. Multi-terrain locomotor interactions in flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeaton, Isaac; Baumgardner, Grant; Ross, Shane; Socha, John

    Arboreal snakes of the genus Chrysopelea are the only known snakes to glide. To execute aerial locomotion, a snake uses one of several stereotyped jumps from a tree into the air, while simultaneously flattening its body into an aerodynamically favorable shape. Large amplitude traveling waves are propagated posteriorly during the stable glide, while landing involves body wrapping, passive body compression, and energy absorption through compliance in the landing substrate to dissipate the accumulated kinetic energy from the glide. In all of these locomotor events, from interacting with cylindrical branches, falling through the air, grasping compliant tree branches and leaves, to landing on solid ground, snakes appropriate the same body morphology and perhaps the same basic neural mechanisms. Here we discuss our use of computational models and animal experiments to understand how flying snakes interact with and locomote on and through multiple media, potentially providing principles for legless locomotor designs. Supported by NSF 1351322.

  4. Research on Snake-Like Robot with Controllable Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kailin; Zhao, Yuting; Chen, Shuping

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new structure for a snake-like robot. This type of snake-like robot is different from the normal snake-like robot because it has lots of controllable scales which have a large role in helping moving. Besides, a new form of robot gait named as linear motion mode is developed based on theoretical analysis for the new mechanical structure. Through simulation and analysis in simmechanics of matlab, we proved the validity of theories about the motion mode of snake-like robot. The proposed machine construction and control method for the designed motion is verified experimentally by the independent developed snake robot.

  5. Observation of snake resonances at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Alessi, J.; et al

    2010-09-27

    The Siberian snakes are powerful tools in preserving polarization in high energy accelerators has been demonstrated at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the Siberian snakes also introduce a new set of depolarization resonances, i.e. snake resonances as first discovered by Lee and Tepikian. The intrinsic spin resonances above 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV which raises the challenge to preserve the polarization up to 250 GeV. In 2009, polarized protons collided for the first time at the RHIC design store energy of 250 GeV. This paper presents the experimental measurements of snake resonances at RHIC. The plan for avoiding these resonances is also presented.

  6. Venomous snakebite in Thailand. I: Medically important snakes.

    PubMed

    Chanhome, L; Cox, M J; Wilde, H; Jintakoon, P; Chaiyabutr, N; Sitprija, V

    1998-05-01

    Thailand has an abundance of venomous snakes. Among the neurotoxic family Elapidae, there are three species of the genus Naja (cobras), three of the genus Bungarus (kraits), and the king cobra of the genus Ophiophagus. Other Elapidae snakes in Thailand include sea snakes and Asian coral snakes of the genus Calliophis. They have potent venoms but rarely bite humans. Tissue and hemotoxic snakes are represented by family Viperidae, subfamilies Viperinae and Crotalinae. They remain an occupational hazard for farmers and rubber tappers, causing serious morbidity but only rare deaths, since competent treatment is now widely available throughout Thailand. Purified equine antivenin is manufactured locally for the monocled and Siamese spitting cobras (Naja kaouthia and N. siamensis), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), most green pit vipers (Trimeresurus sp.), Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma), and the Siamese Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis). PMID:9597848

  7. Genetic assemblage of Sarcocystis spp. in Malaysian snakes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sarcocystis species are protozoan parasites with a wide host range including snakes. Although there were several reports of Sarcocytis species in snakes, their distribution and prevalence are still not fully explored. Methods In this study, fecal specimens of several snake species in Malaysia were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis by PCR of 18S rDNA sequence. Microscopy examination of the fecal specimens for sporocysts was not carried as it was difficult to determine the species of the infecting Sarcocystis. Results Of the 28 snake fecal specimens, 7 were positive by PCR. BLASTn and phylogenetic analyses of the amplified 18S rDNA sequences revealed the snakes were infected with either S. nesbitti, S. singaporensis, S. zuoi or undefined Sarcocystis species. Conclusion This study is the first to report Sarcocystis infection in a cobra, and S. nesbitti in a reticulated python. PMID:24010903

  8. Snakes as hazards: modelling risk by chasing chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    McGrew, William C

    2015-04-01

    Snakes are presumed to be hazards to primates, including humans, by the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell in J Hum Evol 51:1-35, 2006; Isbell, The fruit, the tree, and the serpent. Why we see so well, 2009). Quantitative, systematic data to test this idea are lacking for the behavioural ecology of living great apes and human foragers. An alternative proxy is snakes encountered by primatologists seeking, tracking, and observing wild chimpanzees. We present 4 years of such data from Mt. Assirik, Senegal. We encountered 14 species of snakes a total of 142 times. Almost two-thirds of encounters were with venomous snakes. Encounters occurred most often in forest and least often in grassland, and more often in the dry season. The hypothesis seems to be supported, if frequency of encounter reflects selective risk of morbidity or mortality. PMID:25600837

  9. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Hydrologic unit name Hydrologic unit number Sockeye salmon...

  10. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Hydrologic unit name Hydrologic unit number Sockeye salmon...

  11. The Narrow Fellow in the Grass: Human Infants Associate Snakes and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoache, Judy S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Why are snakes such a common target of fear? One current view is that snake fear is one of several innate fears that emerge spontaneously. Another is that humans have an evolved predisposition to learn to fear snakes. In the first study reported here, 9- to 10-month-old infants showed no differential spontaneous reaction to films of snakes versus…

  12. Inhibition of the hyperalgesic activity of Bothrops jararaca venom by an antibothropic fraction isolated from opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum.

    PubMed

    Rocha, S L; Frutuoso, V S; Domont, G B; Martins, M A; Moussatché, H; Perales, J

    2000-06-01

    The antibothropic fraction (ABF) already isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum, inhibits the haemorrhagic, oedematogenic, myonecrotic and lethal activities of Bothrops jararaca venom (Bjv). The aim of this work was to verify the capability of ABF to inhibit the hyperalgesic activity of Bjv. Intraplantar injection of Bjv induced hyperalgesia in a time- and dose-dependent manner and ABF administered in situ concomitantly with Bjv or i.v. 30 min before venom injection reduced the induced hyperalgesia. This same effect was observed when ABF was intravenously injected at 5 and 15 min after Bjv. Our results show that ABF inhibits also the hyperalgesia induced by Bjv. PMID:10695972

  13. Spin rotators and split Siberian Snakes

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, Thomas

    1994-03-01

    The study of spin effects in the collision of polarized high energy beams requires flexible and compact spin rotators to manipulate the beam polarization direction. Design criteria and specific examples are presented for high energy, orbit transparent spin rotators ranging from small angle rotators to be used for the excitation of spin resonances to large angle rotators to be used as Siberian Snakes. It is shown that all the requirements for spin rotators can be met with a simple 6-magnet spin rotator design, for which a complete continuous solution is presented.

  14. [Case report: Snake bite - an odd case].

    PubMed

    Evers, Bettina; Muth, Claus-Martin; Georgieff, Michael; Dinse-Lambracht, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Emergency medical service is called by a 54-year-old man bitten by his rattlesnake. Upon initial survey we find the patient in a cardiopulmonary stable condition. He has bite marks and pain on his rapidly swelling middle finger of his right hand. Our initial treatment is immobilization of the patient. The snake raiser has already called the poison control center in Munich. By the help of this institution we bring him to a hospital having the right antivenom on hand. PMID:26510104

  15. Aerobic bacterial oral flora of garter snakes: development of normal flora and pathogenic potential for snakes and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, E J; Agyare, E O; Vagvolgyi, A E; Halpern, M

    1981-01-01

    Garter snakes that are used for scientific laboratory studies or kept as exotic pets often become ill and die early in captivity. They may also act as reservoirs of potential human pathogens or transmit infection to man. A total of 126 strains of aerobic and facultative bacteria, most potential human and snake pathogens, were isolated from 82 garter snake oropharyngeal cultures. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were the most common species isolated. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Hafnia alvei, Arizona hinshawii, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the potential pathogens isolated. The spectrum of bacteria with potential for causing oral and pulmonary infections in garter snakes is greater than has been previously appreciated. Garter snakes should also be considered reservoirs of human pathogens, and appropriate precautions should be taken by laboratory personnel and pet owners. PMID:7240404

  16. Snake River Plain FORGE Site Characterization Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2016-04-18

    The site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. This collection includes data on seismic events, groundwater, geomechanical models, gravity surveys, magnetics, resistivity, magnetotellurics (MT), rock physics, stress, the geologic setting, and supporting documentation, including several papers. Also included are 3D models (Petrel and Jewelsuite) of the proposed site. Data for wells INEL-1, WO-2, and USGS-142 have been included as links to separate data collections. These data have been assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Other contributors include the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CEAS), the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, University of Wyoming, University of Oklahoma, Energy and Geoscience Institute-University of Utah, US Geothermal, Baker Hughes Campbell Scientific Inc., Chena Power, US Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho Department of Water Resources, Idaho Geological Survey, and Mink GeoHydro.

  17. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Barba, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies, and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. Two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at a 35° angle of attack, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift.

  18. Snake states and their symmetries in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Brada, Matej; Bruder, C.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Mele, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Snake states are open trajectories for charged particles propagating in two dimensions under the influence of a spatially varying perpendicular magnetic field. In the quantum limit they are protected edge modes that separate topologically inequivalent ground states and can also occur when the particle density rather than the field is made nonuniform. We examine the correspondence of snake trajectories in single-layer graphene in the quantum limit for two families of domain walls: (a) a uniform doped carrier density in an antisymmetric field profile and (b) antisymmetric carrier distribution in a uniform field. These families support different internal symmetries but the same pattern of boundary and interface currents. We demonstrate that these physically different situations are gauge equivalent when rewritten in a Nambu doubled formulation of the two limiting problems. Using gauge transformations in particle-hole space to connect these problems, we map the protected interfacial modes to the Bogoliubov quasiparticles of an interfacial one-dimensional p -wave paired state. A variational model is introduced to interpret the interfacial solutions of both domain wall problems.

  19. A snail-eating snake recognizes prey handedness.

    PubMed

    Danaisawadi, Patchara; Asami, Takahiro; Ota, Hidetoshi; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Specialized predator-prey interactions can be a driving force for their coevolution. Southeast Asian snail-eating snakes (Pareas) have more teeth on the right mandible and specialize in predation on the clockwise-coiled (dextral) majority in shelled snails by soft-body extraction. Snails have countered the snakes' dextral-predation by recurrent coil reversal, which generates diverse counterclockwise-coiled (sinistral) prey where Pareas snakes live. However, whether the snake predator in turn evolves any response to prey reversal is unknown. We show that Pareas carinatus living with abundant sinistrals avoids approaching or striking at a sinistral that is more difficult and costly to handle than a dextral. Whenever it strikes, however, the snake succeeds in predation by handling dextral and sinistral prey in reverse. In contrast, P. iwasakii with little access to sinistrals on small peripheral islands attempts and frequently misses capturing a given sinistral. Prey-handedness recognition should be advantageous for right-handed snail-eating snakes where frequently encountering sinistrals. Under dextral-predation by Pareas snakes, adaptive fixation of a prey population for a reversal gene instantaneously generates a sinistral species because interchiral mating is rarely possible. The novel warning, instead of sheltering, effect of sinistrality benefitting both predators and prey could further accelerate single-gene ecological speciation by left-right reversal. PMID:27046345

  20. Fear the serpent: A psychometric study of snake phobia.

    PubMed

    Polák, Jakub; Sedláčková, Kristýna; Nácar, David; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2016-08-30

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from specific phobias. Almost any stimulus may trigger a phobic reaction, but snakes are among the most feared objects. Half of the population feel anxious about snakes and 2-3% meet the diagnostic criteria for snake phobia. Despite such a high ratio, only one instrument is commonly used, the Snake Questionnaire (SNAQ). The aim of this study was to develop a standardized Czech translation, describe its psychometric properties and analyze the distribution of snake fears. In a counter-balanced design 755 respondents were asked to complete the English and Czech SNAQ (first or last) with a 2-3 month delay; 300 of them completed both instruments. We found excellent test-retest reliability (0.94), although the total scores differed significantly when the English version was administered first. The mean score was 5.80 and Generalized Linear Models revealed significant effects of sex and field of study (women and people with no biology education scored higher than men and biologists). A cut-off point for snake phobia as derived from a previous study identified 2.6% of the subjects as phobic. Finally, the score distribution was similar to other countries supporting the view that fear of snakes is universal. PMID:27280527

  1. Chemosensory age discrimination in the snake Boa constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae).

    PubMed

    Gabirot, Marianne; Picerno, Pablo; Valencia, Jorge; Lopez, Pilar; Martin, José

    2012-12-01

    Many snakes are able to use their chemosensory system to detect scent of conspecifics, which is important in many social contexts. Age discrimination based on chemical cues may be especially important to ensure access to sexually mature potential partners. In this study, we used 24 individual Boa constrictor snakes (12 adults mature and 12 non-mature individuals) that had been captured in different areas of Ecuador, and were maintained in captivity at the Vivarium of Quito. We used tongue-flick experiments to examine whether these snakes were able to discriminate between scents from mature and non-mature individuals. Results showed that B. constrictor snakes used chemical cues to recognize conspecifics and that the scent of individuals of different ages elicited chemosensory responses of different magnitudes. The scents from adult conspecifics elicited the quickest and highest chemosensory responses (i.e., short latency times and high tongue-flick rates), although we did not find differential responses to scent of males and females. The magnitude of the responses was lower to scent of sub adult individuals, and then even lower to scent of juvenile snakes, but in all cases the scent of snakes was discriminated from a blank control. We discuss the potential chemical mechanisms that may allow age recognition and its implications for social and sexual behavior of this snake species. PMID:23342514

  2. Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics☆

    PubMed Central

    Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M.; O’Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

  3. Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M; O'Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

  4. Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom stimulates leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity of mice.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Vanessa Alves; de Queiroz Guimarães, Alessandra; Hyslop, Stephen; de Araújo, Paulo Maria Ferreira; Bon, Cassian; de Araújo, Albetiza Lôbo

    2003-01-01

    The ability of Bothrops lanceolatus venom to induce neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity of mice was investigated. Intraperitoneal injection of venom caused dose- and time-dependent neutrophil migration, which peaked with 750 ng of venom/cavity 4h after venom injection. The neutrophil migration was significantly reduced by pretreatment with dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.), an indirect inhibitor of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), and AA861 (0.01 mg/kg, s.c.), a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, but in contrast, was not modified by pretreatment with indomethacin (2 mg/kg, s.c.), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, meloxicam (5 mg/kg, s.c.), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, or the PAF inhibitor WEB2086 (40 mg/kg, s.c.). Dexamethasone and AA861 also inhibited the neutrophil migration by 60% when administered immediately after venom injection, and the coadministration of these two drugs caused a 75% reduction in migration. BLV-induced neutrophil migration was not due to contamination by endotoxin since polymyxin B-treated venom retained its activity. Heating the venom (97 degrees C, 2 min) reduced the PLA(2) activity by 64% and this was accompanied by a corresponding reduction (68%) in neutrophil migration. These results suggest that arachidonate-derived lipoxygenase metabolites (possibly leukotriene B(4)) are involved in the chemotaxis observed. Macrophages may be an important source of these metabolites since the migratory response to venom was potentiated in mice pretreated with thioglycollate, but reduced when the peritoneal cavity was washed with sterile saline. PMID:12467667

  5. Inflammation induced by Bothrops asper venom: release of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids, and role of adhesion molecules in leukocyte infiltration.

    PubMed

    Zamuner, Stella Regina; Zuliani, Juliana Pavan; Fernandes, Cristina Maria; Gutiérrez, José Maria; de Fátima Pereira Teixeira, Catarina

    2005-12-01

    Bothrops asper venom (BaV) causes systemic and local effects characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction with accumulation of leukocytes and release of endogenous mediators. In this study, the effects of BaV on the release of the cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha and the eicosanoids LTB4 and TXA2 in the peritoneal cavity of mice were analyzed. We also investigated the participation of beta2 integrin chain, l-selectin, LFA-1, ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 adhesion molecules in the BaV-induced leukocyte accumulation. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, as well as eicosanoids LTB4 and TXA2 were significantly increased after BaV injection (250 microg/kg), whereas no increment in IL-1 was observed. Anti-mouse l-selectin, LFA-1, ICAM-1, PECAM-1 and beta2 integrin chain monoclonal antibodies resulted in a reduction of neutrophil accumulation induced by BaV injection compared with isotype-matched control injected animals. These data suggest that BaV is able to induce the activation of leukocytes and endothelium to express adhesion molecules involved in the recruitment of neutrophils into the inflammed site. Furthermore, these results showed that BaV induces the release of cytokines and eicosanoids in the local of the venom injection; these inflammatory mediators may be important for the initiation and amplification of the inflammatory reaction characteristic from Bothrops sp envenomation. PMID:16198389

  6. [Snake bite in a 53-year-old female tourist].

    PubMed

    Bertheau, S; Aghdassi, A; Otto, M; Hegenscheid, K; Runge, S; Lerch, M M; Simon, P

    2015-02-01

    Snake bites are rare events in Germany and are not life-threatening with usually only mild clinical symptoms. The most widespread venomous snake is the common European adder (Vipera berus). Here we present the case of a 53-year-old woman who was bitten by a common adder. Although the patient was initially in stable condition she developed edematous swelling of the complete lower limb, subcutaneous bleeding, and rhabdomyolysis. The aim of this report is to raise awareness that even in a central European country like Germany snake bites with a life-threatening course can occur and need immediate attention and medical care. PMID:25617003

  7. Mast Cells Can Enhance Resistance to Snake and Honeybee Venoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Martin; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Lammel, Verena; Åbrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2006-07-01

    Snake or honeybee envenomation can cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and it has been proposed that the activation of mast cells by snake or insect venoms can contribute to these effects. We show, in contrast, that mast cells can significantly reduce snake-venom-induced pathology in mice, at least in part by releasing carboxypeptidase A and possibly other proteases, which can degrade venom components. Mast cells also significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality induced by honeybee venom. These findings identify a new biological function for mast cells in enhancing resistance to the morbidity and mortality induced by animal venoms.

  8. The phylogeny of varanoid lizards and the affinities of snakes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M. S. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Evidence that platynotan squamates (living varanoid lizards, snakes and their fossil relatives) are monophyletic is presented. Evolutionary relationships within this group are then ascertained through a cladistic analysis of 144 osteological characters. Mosasauroids (aigialosaurs and mosasaurs), a group of large marine lizards, are identified as the nearest relatives of snakes, thus resolving the long-standing problem of snake affinities. The mosasauroid–snake clade (Pythonomorpha) is corroborated by 40 derived characters, including recumbent replacement teeth, thecodonty, four or fewer premaxillary teeth, supratemporal–prootic contact, free mandibular tips, crista circumfenestralis, straight vertical splenio-angular joint, loss of posterior ramus of the coronoid, reduced basipterygoid processes, reduced interpterygoid vacuity, zygosphene–zygantral articulations, and absence of epiphyses on the axial skeleton and skull. After mosasauroids, the next closest relatives of snakes are varanids (Varanus, Saniwa and Saniwides) and lanthanotids (Lanthanotus and Cherminotus). Derived features uniting varanids and lanthanotids include nine cervical vertebrae and three or fewer pairs of sternal ribs. The varanid–lanthanotid–pythonomorph clade, here termed Thecoglossa, is supported by features such as the anteriorly positioned basal tubera, and the loss of the second epibranchial. Successive outgroups to thecoglossans are Telmasaurus, an unresolved polytomy (Estesia, Gobidermatidae and Helodermatidae), Paravaranus and Proplatynota. The 'necrosaurs' are demonstrated to be an artificial (polyphyletic) assemblage of primitive platynotans that are not particularly closely related to each other. Snakes are presumed to have evolved from small, limbless, burrowing lizards and the inability of previous analyses to resolve the affinities of snakes has been attributed to extensive convergence among the numerous lineages of such lizards. The present study contradicts this claim

  9. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for USGS-142

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2015-11-23

    Well data for the USGS-142 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, and photos of rhyolite core samples. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  10. Formation and Stability of Impurity "snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    L. Delgado-Aparicio, et. al.

    2013-01-28

    New observations of the formation and dynamics of long-lived impurity-induced helical "snake" modes in tokamak plasmas have recently been carried-out on Alcator C-Mod. The snakes form as an asymmetry in the impurity ion density that undergoes a seamless transition from a small helically displaced density to a large crescent-shaped helical structure inside q < 1, with a regularly sawtoothing core. The observations show that the conditions for the formation and persistence of a snake cannot be explained by plasma pressure alone. Instead, many features arise naturally from nonlinear interactions in a 3D MHD model that separately evolves the plasma density and temperature

  11. Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes

    PubMed Central

    Pahari, Susanta; Bickford, David; Fry, Bryan G; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2007-01-01

    Background Snake venom composition varies widely both among closely related species and within the same species, based on ecological variables. In terrestrial snakes, such variation has been proposed to be due to snakes' diet. Land snakes target various prey species including insects (arthropods), lizards (reptiles), frogs and toads (amphibians), birds (aves), and rodents (mammals), whereas sea snakes target a single vertebrate class (fishes) and often specialize on specific types of fish. It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in sea snake venoms compared to that of land snakes. Results Here we describe the expression of toxin genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus (Spine-bellied Sea Snake) and Acalyptophis peronii (Horned Sea Snake), two members of a large adaptive radiation which occupy very different ecological niches. We constructed cDNA libraries from their venom glands and sequenced 214 and 192 clones, respectively. Our data show that despite their explosive evolutionary radiation, there is very little variability in the three-finger toxin (3FTx) as well as the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes, the two main constituents of Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii venom. To understand the evolutionary trends among land snakes, sea snakes and sea kraits, pairwise genetic distances (intraspecific and interspecific) of 3FTx and PLA2 sequences were calculated. Results show that these proteins appear to be highly conserved in sea snakes in contrast to land snakes or sea kraits, despite their extremely divergent and adaptive ecological radiation. Conclusion Based on these results, we suggest that streamlining in habitat and diet in sea snakes has possibly kept their toxin genes conserved, suggesting the idea that prey composition and diet breadth may contribute to the diversity and evolution of venom components. PMID:17900344

  12. A retrospective study of use of polyvalent anti-snake venom and risk factors for mortality from snake bite in a tertiary care setting

    PubMed Central

    Pore, Shraddha M.; Ramanand, Sunita J.; Patil, Praveenkumar T.; Gore, Alka D.; Pawar, Mayur P.; Gaidhankar, Smita L.; Ghanghas, Ravi R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Envenomation with poisonous snakes is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The present study was undertaken with the objectives of assessing anti-snake venom (ASV) use, early adverse reactions to ASV, premedication and clinical outcomes in snake bite patients. Association of various risk factors (age, gender, dose of ASV, time gap between snake bite and ASV administration, use of mechanical ventilation and type of snake bite) with mortality was also assessed. Settings and Design: This retrospective study was conducted at two Tertiary Care Teaching Hospitals. Subjects and Methods: The medical records of 176 patients of snake bite with documented use of ASV were retrospectively analyzed to retrieve relevant data. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics was used to express results about ASV use, early adverse reactions to ASV, premedication and clinical outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to find out significant risk factors associated with mortality. Results: The main indication for ASV was vasculotoxic snake bite (75%) followed by neurotoxic snake bite (16%). Mean dose of ASV was 18.63 ± 14.52 vials. Prophylactic premedication with corticosteroids alone or in combination with antihistaminic was used in more than 70% patients. Early adverse reactions to ASV were seen in 4% patients. Neurotoxic snake bite was a significant risk factor associated with mortality in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Neurotoxic snake bite is an independent predictor of mortality in snake bite patients. Currently used polyvalent ASV may be less effective in treating neurotoxic snake bite. PMID:26069363

  13. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a collection of captive snakes and response to treatment with marbofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Rüegg, S R; Regenscheit, N; Origgi, F C; Kaiser, C; Borel, N

    2015-09-01

    In a collection of 58 snakes comprising predominantly Eurasian vipers in Switzerland, five snakes died unexpectedly during hibernation from 2009 to 2012. In one snake, organisms resembling chlamydiae were detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple histiocytic granulomas. Real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis were used to determine the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue samples and cloacal/choanal swabs from snakes in the collection; 8/53 (15.1%) of the remaining snakes were positive. Although one infected snake had suppurative periglossitis, infection with C. pneumoniae did not appear to be associated with specific clinical signs in snakes. Of seven snakes treated with 5 mg/kg marbofloxacin IM once daily, five became PCR negative for C. pneumoniae following treatment, whereas one animal remained positive and one snake was lost to follow-up. PMID:26049258

  14. Extremely low nerve growth facior (NGF) activity of sea snake (Hydrophiidae) venoms.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Khafizova; Tu, Anthony T

    2002-12-01

    Sea snake venoms contain less protein than those of land snakes (Toom et al., 1969). Sea snake venoms lack arginine ester hydrolyzing activity, whereas those of Crotalidae and Viperidae have such activity (Tu et al., 1966). Sea snakes live in salty water, and their venoms may be different from those of land snakes. Because of the difficulty in obtaining sea snake venoms, information about sea snake venoms is quite incomplete. NGF is commonly present in the venoms of land snakes such as Elapidae, Viperidae, and Crotalidae (Cohen and Levi-Montalcini, 1956; Lipps, 2002). It is therefore of interest to investigate the presence or absence of NGF in sea snake venoms. In order to investigate the presence or absence of NGF, five sea snake venoms were selected. Lapemis hardwickii (Hardwick's sea snake) and Acalyptophis peronii venom were obtained from the Gulf of Thailand. Hydrophis cyanocinctus (common sea snake) and Enhydrina schistosa (beaked sea snake) venom were obtained from the Strait of Malacca. Laticauda semifasciata (broad band blue sea snake) venom was also examined and the venom was obtained from Gato Island in the Philippines. PMID:12503884

  15. Delayed disengagement of attention from snakes in children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Isomura, Tomoko; Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Masataka, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    In the visual search task, it is well known that detection of a tilted straight line as the target among vertical lines that act as distractors is easier than vice versa, and that detection of a snake image as the target among flower images is easier than vice versa. In this study, the degree of such search asymmetry was compared between 18 children with autism and 14 typically developing (TD) children. The results revealed that compared to TD children, children with autism were disproportionally slow when asked to detect the flower among the snake images, suggesting the possibility that they experienced difficulty of disengaging their attention from the snake images. This delayed disengagement would serve itself as an enhanced attentional bias toward snakes in children with autism that is similar to characteristics of visual search performance in anxiety patients. PMID:25784895

  16. UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

  17. Non-conservative perturbations of homoclinic snaking scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Jürgen; Vielitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Homoclinic snaking refers to the continuation of homoclinic orbits to an equilibrium E near a heteroclinic cycle connecting E and a periodic orbit P. Typically homoclinic snaking appears in one-parameter families of reversible, conservative systems. Here we discuss perturbations of this scenario which are both non-reversible and non-conservative. We treat this problem analytically in the spirit of the work [3]. The continuation of homoclinic orbits happens with respect to both the original continuation parameter μ and the perturbation parameter λ. The continuation curves are parametrised by the dwelling time L of the homoclinic orbit near P. It turns out that λ (L) tends to zero while the μ vs. L diagram displays isolas or criss-cross snaking curves in a neighbourhood of the original snakes-and-ladder structure. In the course of our studies we adapt both Fenichel coordinates near P and the analysis of Shilnikov problems near P to the present situation.

  18. MODELING SNAKE MICROHABITAT FROM RADIOTELEMETRY STUDIES USING POLYTOMOUS LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multivariate analysis of snake microhabitat has historically used techniques that were derived under assumptions of normality and common covariance structure (e.g., discriminant function analysis, MANOVA). In this study, polytomous logistic regression (PLR which does not require ...

  19. 221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail fence. The pond was a manipulated landscape element. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on snake venoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, N.; Spencer, P. J.; Andrade, H. F.; Guarnieri, M. C.; Rogero, J. R.

    1998-06-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venoms, without affecting significantly their immunogenic properties. Inn order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative pharmacological study between native and irradiated (2,000 Gy) crotoxin, the main toxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and, susbequentely submitted to irradiaiton. Gel filtration of the irradiated toxin resulted in some high molecular weight aggregates formation. Crotoxin toxicity decreased two folds after irradiation, as determined by LD 50 in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution ocured in the same general manner, with renal elimination. However, in contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native form was initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3 hr) appeared in phagocytic mononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junction rich organs (muscle and brain).

  1. Snake oil for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Bigby, M

    1998-12-01

    Dermatology has been associated with quackery for at least a century. The dictionary defines a quack as "a pretender to medical knowledge or skill; ignorantly or falsely pretending to cure." The term quack is derived from quacksalver, or one who quacks like a duck in promoting his salves. Quacksalvers hacked many potions, including snake oil, with claims that it cured everything from dermatitis to rheumatism. With the current promulgation of skin "products" and their promotion and even sale by dermatologists, and the use of treatments of no proven efficacy, this association between dermatology and quackery is set to continue well into the 21st century. The list of offending treatments includes silicone gel sheets and onion extract cream (Mederma) for keloids, alpha-hydroxy acid creams and peels, topical ascorbic acid and phytonadione, "laser resurfacing," and cimetidine for warts, to name only a few. PMID:9875187

  2. Visual servoing using statistical pressure snakes.

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, Hanspeter

    2004-05-01

    A nonlinear visual servoing steering law is presented which is used to align a camera view with a visual target. A full color version of statistical pressure snakes is used to identify and track the target with a series of video frames. The nonlinear steering law provides camera-frame centric speed commands to a velocity based servo sub-system. To avoid saturating the subsystem, the commanded speeds are smoothly limited to remain within a finite range. Analytical error analysis is also provided illustrating how the two control gains contribute to the stiffness of the control. The algorithm is demonstrated on a pan and tilt camera system. The control law is able to smoothly realign the camera to point at the target.

  3. Diadophis Puntatus Puntatus (Southern Ring-neck Snake) Predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotte, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    DIADOPHIS PUNCTATUS PUNCTATUS (Southern Ring-necked Snake). PREDATION. Here I present the first record of Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) predator on a Diadophis p. punctatus. At ca. 1100h on l2 February2 013,I observed a B. lineatus eating a katydid in Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary (26.2730'N, 81.6079"W;WGS 84), Collier Co., Florida, USA. The hawk was in a Pond Cypress tree on the edge of a small prairie bordered on one side by a cypress swamp and by pine woodland on the other. Immediately upon consuming the katydid, the hawk flew to the ground ca. 1.5 m from an elevated boardwalk to grab an adult D. punctatus. It then flew with the snake in its talons to a branch 3 m high ca. l0 m from the boardwalk. The hawk stretched and otherwise manipulated the struggling snake (Fig.1) before consuming the still moving snake. Although snakes are a well-known component of B. lineatus diet (Clark1 987A. Field Guide to the Hawks of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, Massachusetts 198 pp.), I found only one literature reference to Red-shouldered Hawks eating Ring-neck Snakes (Fisher 1893.Hawks and Owls of the United States in their Relation to Agriculture. U.S. Dept. Agric., Div Ornith. Mamm. Bull. 3). That specimen was from Canton, New York (taken 26 Oct IBBB) and would be a D. p. edwardisii (Northern Ring-necked Snake), while the snake reported on here is a Diadophis p. punctatus (USNM Herp Image 2847a -c). Based on evidence presented by Fontanella et al. (2008. Mol. Phylogenet Evol.46:1049-1070), D. p. edwardisii and D. p. punctatus are likely different species.

  4. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. PMID:26354849

  5. Fourier transform Raman and IR spectra of snake skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, B. W.; Williams, A. C.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    1993-06-01

    The Fourier transform (FT) Raman and IR spectra of the shed dorsal skin of the snake Elaphe obsoleta (American black rat snake) are reported. Vibrational spectroscopic assignments are proposed for the first time. Although good quality Raman spectra were obtained from the hinge regions using an FT Raman microscope, the dorsal scale regions fluoresced even with 1064 nm IR excitation. This was ascribed to pigmentation markings on the scales.

  6. A snail-eating snake recognizes prey handedness

    PubMed Central

    Danaisawadi, Patchara; Asami, Takahiro; Ota, Hidetoshi; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Specialized predator-prey interactions can be a driving force for their coevolution. Southeast Asian snail-eating snakes (Pareas) have more teeth on the right mandible and specialize in predation on the clockwise-coiled (dextral) majority in shelled snails by soft-body extraction. Snails have countered the snakes’ dextral-predation by recurrent coil reversal, which generates diverse counterclockwise-coiled (sinistral) prey where Pareas snakes live. However, whether the snake predator in turn evolves any response to prey reversal is unknown. We show that Pareas carinatus living with abundant sinistrals avoids approaching or striking at a sinistral that is more difficult and costly to handle than a dextral. Whenever it strikes, however, the snake succeeds in predation by handling dextral and sinistral prey in reverse. In contrast, P. iwasakii with little access to sinistrals on small peripheral islands attempts and frequently misses capturing a given sinistral. Prey-handedness recognition should be advantageous for right-handed snail-eating snakes where frequently encountering sinistrals. Under dextral-predation by Pareas snakes, adaptive fixation of a prey population for a reversal gene instantaneously generates a sinistral species because interchiral mating is rarely possible. The novel warning, instead of sheltering, effect of sinistrality benefitting both predators and prey could further accelerate single-gene ecological speciation by left-right reversal. PMID:27046345

  7. Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves.

    PubMed

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Bridges, Jacob; Hu, David L

    2013-07-01

    In rectilinear locomotion, snakes propel themselves using unidirectional travelling waves of muscular contraction, in a style similar to earthworms. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we film rectilinear locomotion of three species of snakes, including red-tailed boa constrictors, Dumeril's boas and Gaboon vipers. The kinematics of a snake's extension-contraction travelling wave are characterized by wave frequency, amplitude and speed. We find wave frequency increases with increasing body size, an opposite trend than that for legged animals. We predict body speed with 73-97% accuracy using a mathematical model of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler that uses friction as the dominant propulsive force. We apply our model to show snakes have optimal wave frequencies: higher values increase Froude number causing the snake to slip; smaller values decrease thrust and so body speed. Other choices of kinematic variables, such as wave amplitude, are suboptimal and appear to be limited by anatomical constraints. Our model also shows that local body lifting increases a snake's speed by 31 per cent, demonstrating that rectilinear locomotion benefits from vertical motion similar to walking. PMID:23635494

  8. Clinical Predictors of Acute Kidney Injury Following Snake Bite Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Dharod, Mrudul V; Patil, Tushar B; Deshpande, Archana S; Gulhane, Ragini V; Patil, Mangesh B; Bansod, Yogendra V

    2013-01-01

    Background: Snake bite envenomation is a major public health concern in developing countries. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is as important cause of mortality in patients with vasculotoxic snake bite. Aims: This study was to evaluate the clinical profile of snake bite patients and to determine the predictors of developing AKI following snake bite. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty-one patients with snake envenomation were included. Eighty-seven patients developed AKI (Group A) and 194 (Group B) did not. History, examination findings and investigations results were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results: In group A, 61 (70.11%) patients were male and in group B, 117 (60.30%) patients were male. Out of 281 patients, 232 had cellulitis, 113 had bleeding tendencies, 87 had oliguria, 76 had neuroparalysis, and 23 had hypotension at presentation. After multivariate analysis, bite to hospital time (P = 0.016), hypotension (P = 0.000), albuminuria (P = 0.000), bleeding time (P = 0.000), prothrombin time (P = 0.000), hemoglobin (P = 0.000) and total bilirubin (P = 0.010) were significant independent predictors of AKI. Conclusions: AKI developed in 30.96% of patients with snake bite, leading to mortality in 39.08% patients. Factors associated with AKI are bite to hospital time, hypotension, albuminuria, prolonged bleeding time, prolonged prothrombin time, low hemoglobin and a high total bilirubin. PMID:24350071

  9. Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves

    PubMed Central

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Bridges, Jacob; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rectilinear locomotion, snakes propel themselves using unidirectional travelling waves of muscular contraction, in a style similar to earthworms. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we film rectilinear locomotion of three species of snakes, including red-tailed boa constrictors, Dumeril's boas and Gaboon vipers. The kinematics of a snake's extension–contraction travelling wave are characterized by wave frequency, amplitude and speed. We find wave frequency increases with increasing body size, an opposite trend than that for legged animals. We predict body speed with 73–97% accuracy using a mathematical model of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler that uses friction as the dominant propulsive force. We apply our model to show snakes have optimal wave frequencies: higher values increase Froude number causing the snake to slip; smaller values decrease thrust and so body speed. Other choices of kinematic variables, such as wave amplitude, are suboptimal and appear to be limited by anatomical constraints. Our model also shows that local body lifting increases a snake's speed by 31 per cent, demonstrating that rectilinear locomotion benefits from vertical motion similar to walking. PMID:23635494

  10. Curvilinear shapes and the snake detection hypothesis: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, Jan W; Christiaans, Gerwin; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2016-02-01

    Consistent with the snake detection hypothesis, previous ERP studies have established a larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Here, we examined to what extent the curvilinear shape of the snake's body drives the larger EPN. To this end, we employed pictures of threatening and nonthreatening species with or without typical curvature. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of snake, worm, spider, and beetle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225-300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Across electrodes, the EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for spider, worm, and beetle pictures, and for spider and worm pictures than for beetle pictures. The results suggest that curvilinear body shapes may partly drive the enhanced EPN. However, the unique cortical response to snakes is not fully explained by this mechanism, and is most probably also determined by other threat-relevant cues. PMID:26481589

  11. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Connor, William P.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

  12. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon becoming aware of venomous and non-venomous snakes; but in northern Michigan and Minnesota where venomous snakes have been absent for millennia, black bears showed little or no fear in four encounters with non-venomous snakes of three species. The possible roles of experience and evolution in bear reactions to snakes and vice versa are discussed. In all areas studied, black bears had difficulty to recognize non-moving snakes by smell or sight. Bears did not react until snakes moved in 11 of 12 encounters with non-moving timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four species of harmless snakes. However, in additional tests in this study, bears were repulsed by garter snakes that had excreted pungent anal exudates, which may help explain the absence of snakes, both venomous and harmless, in bear diets reported to date. PMID:25635152

  13. Hemorrhagic, fibrinogenolytic and edema-forming activities of the venom of the colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii (green snake).

    PubMed

    Assakura, M T; Salomão, M G; Puorto, G; Mandelbaum, F R

    1992-04-01

    The venom of P. olfersii has high hemorrhagic, edema-inducing and fibrin(ogen)olytic activities. It is devoid of thrombin-like, procoagulant, phospholipase A2 and platelet aggregating enzymes. The main activities are metalloproteinases inhibited by metal chelators (EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline) and sulfhydryl compounds (DTT and cysteine). The hemorrhagic and fibrinogenolytic enzymes were partially purified by gel filtration on HPLC. The hemorrhagic activity of the venom was neutralized by commercial horse antivenoms to Bothrops species, as well as by rabbit antisera specific for hemorrhagic factors isolated from these Bothrops venoms. No immunoprecipitin reactions were obtained, indicating that the few epitopes of the P. olfersii hemorrhagin are involved in these neutralization reactions. The fibrinogenolytic enzyme cleaves A alpha-chain more quickly than the B beta-chain of human fibrinogen. The venom also solubilizes fibrin. This solubilization appears to occur from the hydrolysis of unpolymerized alpha-chain and cross-linked gamma-gamma dimer. The fibrin peptide products are distinct from those produced by plasmin. PMID:1626324

  14. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbo, Fausto E; Gasparini, João Luiz; Almeida, Antonio P; Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Gusmão, Rodrigo B; Ferrarini, José Mário G; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    A new insular species of the genus Bothrops is described from Ilha dos Franceses, a small island off the coast of Espírito Santo State, in southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from mainland populations of B. jararaca mainly by its small size, relative longer tail, relative smaller head length, and relative larger eyes. The new species is distinguished from B. alcatraz, B. insularis and B. otavioi by the higher number of ventral and subcaudal scales, relative longer tail and smaller head. The new species is highly abundant on the island, being nocturnal, semiarboreal, and feeding on small lizards and centipeds. Due its unique and restricted area of occurrence, declining quality of habitat, and constant use of the island for tourism, the new species may be considered as critically endangered. PMID:27394563

  15. Numerical studies of Siberian snakes and spin rotators for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.

    1995-04-17

    For the program of polarized protons in RHIC, two Siberian snakes and four spin rotators per ring will be used. The Snakes will produce a complete spin flip. Spin Rotators, in pairs, will rotate the spin from the vertical direction to the horizontal plane at a given insertion, and back to the vertical after the insertion. Snakes, 180{degrees} apart and with their axis of spin precession at 90{degrees} to each other, are an effective means to avoid depolarization of the proton beam in traversing resonances. Classical snakes and rotators are made with magnetic solenoids or with a sequence of magnetic dipoles with fields alternately directed in the radial and vertical direction. Another possibility is to use helical magnets, essentially twisted dipoles, in which the field, transverse the axis of the magnet, continuously rotates as the particles proceed along it. After some comparative studies, the authors decided to adopt for RHIC an elegant solution with four helical magnets both for the snakes and the rotators proposed by Shatunov and Ptitsin. In order to simplify the construction of the magnets and to minimize cost, four identical super conducting helical modules will be used for each device. Snakes will be built with four right-handed helices. Spin rotators with two right-handed and two left-handed helices. The maximum field will be limited to 4 Tesla. While small bore helical undulators have been built for free electron lasers, large super conducting helical magnets have not been built yet. In spite of this difficulty, this choice is dictated by some distinctive advantages of helical over more conventional transverse snakes/rotators: (i) the devices are modular, they can be built with arrangements of identical modules, (ii) the maximum orbit excursion in the magnet is smaller, (iii) orbit excursion is independent from the separation between adjacent magnets, (iv) they allow an easier control of the spin rotation and the orientation of the spin precession axis.

  16. Cloning and expression of an acidic platelet aggregation inhibitor phospholipase A2 cDNA from Bothrops jararacussu venom gland.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Patrícia G; Kashima, Simone; Soares, Andreimar M; Chioato, Lucimara; Faça, Victor M; Fuly, André L; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Pereira, José O; França, Suzelei C

    2004-09-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2, E.C. 3.1.1.4) superfamily is defined by enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the sn-2 bond of phosphoglycerides. Most PLA2s from the venom of Bothrops species are basic proteins, which have been well characterized both structurally and functionally, however, little is known about acidic PLA2s from this venom. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that they are non-toxic, with high catalytic and hypotensive activities and show the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. To further understand the function of these proteins, we have isolated a cDNA that encodes an acidic PLA2 from a cDNA library prepared from the poly(A)+ RNA of venom gland of Bothrops jararacussu. The full-length nucleotide sequence of 366 base pairs encodes a predicted gene product with 122 amino acid with theoretical isoelectric point and size of 5.28 and 13,685 kDa, respectively. This acidic PLA2 sequence was cloned into expression vector pET11a (+) and expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 14 kDa recombinant protein was determined. The recombinant acidic PLA2 protein was submitted to refolding and to be purified by RP-HPLC chromatography. The structure and function of the recombinant protein was compared to that of the native protein by circular dichroism (CD), enzymatic activity, edema-inducing, and platelet aggregation inhibition activities. PMID:15294287

  17. Efficacy of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms to neutralize snake venom-induced local tissue damage as assessed by the proteomic analysis of wound exudate.

    PubMed

    Rucavado, Alexandra; Escalante, Teresa; Shannon, John D; Ayala-Castro, Carla N; Villalta, Mauren; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2012-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of wound exudates represents a valuable tool to investigate tissue pathology and to assess the therapeutic success of various interventions. In this study, the ability of horse-derived IgG and F(ab')(2) antivenoms to neutralize local pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in mouse muscle was investigated by the proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of affected tissue. In experiments involving the incubation of venom and antivenom prior to injection in mice, hemorrhagic activity was completely abolished and local muscle-damaging activity was significantly reduced by the antivenoms. In these conditions, the relative amounts of several intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins were reduced by the action of antivenoms, whereas the relative amounts of various plasma proteins were not modified. Because not all intracellular proteins were reduced, it is likely that there is a residual cytotoxicity not neutralized by antivenoms. In experiments designed to more closely reproduce the actual circumstances of envenoming, that is, when antivenom is administered after envenomation, the number of proteins whose amounts in exudates were reduced by antivenoms decreased, underscoring the difficulty in neutralizing local pathology due to the very rapid onset of venom-induced pathology. In these experiments, IgG antivenom was more efficient than F(ab')(2) antivenom when administered after envenomation, probably as a consequence of differences in their pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:22004524

  18. Energy Scaling of Spin Tune due to RHIC Snakes

    SciTech Connect

    MacKay,W.W.

    2009-01-02

    For a ring like RHIC with two full Siberian snakes on opposite sides of the ring, the spin tune for a flat orbit will be 1/2 if the snake rotation axes are perpendicular, {Delta}{phi} = {phi}{sub 9}-{phi}{sub 3} = {pi}/2. Here {phi}{sup 9} and {phi}{sub 3} are respectively the direction of the rotation axes of the 9 o'clock and 3 o'clock snakes relative to the design trajectory as shown in Figure 1. If the two snakes are slightly detuned by the same amount such that the rotation axes are no longer perpendicular, then the deviation of the closed-orbit spin tune {nu}{sub 0} from 1/2 is given by {Delta}{nu}{sub 0} {approx_equal} ({Delta}{mu}){sup 2}/4{pi} cosG{gamma}{pi} - 2{Delta}{phi}/{pi} {approx_equal} 2{Delta}{phi}/180{sup o} with G{gamma} at a half integer, and where {Delta}{mu} is the deviation of snake rotation angle from 180{sup o}. It should be noted that there is a sign ambiguity in {Delta}{mu}{sub 0} since a spin tune of 0.495 is also a spin tune of 0.505, depending on the direction taken along the stable spin axis. In order to understand the effect of energy scaling on the snake axis direction, I have integrated the trajectory and spin rotation through a model of a RHIC snake (bi9-snk7) and found the energy (U) dependence of the snake axis angle {phi}{sub 9} and rotation angle {mu} as shown. A {approx_equal} p{sup -2} scaling of errors is typical in helical snakes. To first order, the orbit excursion drops as p{sup -1} and the spin precessions about transverse fields increase as {gamma} giving an approximate cancellation with energy, so we do not expect much change during the field ramp. The next order term which comes in is primarily proportional to p{sup -2}; although naively one might expect a slight effect inversely proportional to the velocity since {gamma}/p {proportional_to} c/{nu} {approx_equal} 1 + 1/2{gamma}{sup 2}.

  19. Snake states and their symmetries in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Rakesh; Liu, Yang; Brada, Matej; Bruder, C.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Mele, E. J.

    Snake states are open trajectories for charged particles moving in two dimensions under the influence of a spatially varying perpendicular magnetic field. They can also occur in a constant perpendicular magnetic field when the particle density is made nonuniform as realized at a pn junction in a semiconductor, or in graphene. We examine the correspondence of such trajectories in monolayer graphene in the quantum limit for two families of domain walls: (a) a uniform doped carrier density in an antisymmetric perpendicular magnetic field and (b) antisymmetric carrier density distribution in a uniform perpendicular magnetic field. Although, these families support different internal symmetries, the pattern of the boundary and interface currents is the same in both cases. We demonstrate that these two physically different situations are gauge equivalent when rewritten in a Nambu doubled formulation of the two limiting problems. Using gauge transformations in particle-hole space to connect these two problems, we map the protected interfacial modes to the Bogoliubov quasiparticles of an interfacial one-dimensional p-wave paired state.

  20. Statistical pressure snakes based on color images.

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, Hanspeter

    2004-05-01

    The traditional mono-color statistical pressure snake was modified to function on a color image with target errors defined in HSV color space. Large variations in target lighting and shading are permitted if the target color is only specified in terms of hue. This method works well with custom targets where the target is surrounded by a color of a very different hue. A significant robustness increase is achieved in the computer vision capability to track a specific target in an unstructured, outdoor environment. By specifying the target color to contain hue, saturation and intensity values, it is possible to establish a reasonably robust method to track general image features of a single color. This method is convenient to allow the operator to select arbitrary targets, or sections of a target, which have a common color. Further, a modification to the standard pixel averaging routine is introduced which allows the target to be specified not only in terms of a single color, but also using a list of colors. These algorithms were tested and verified by using a web camera attached to a personal computer.

  1. A group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2 from snake venom induces lipid body formation in macrophages: the roles of intracellular phospholipases A2 and distinct signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Leiguez, Elbio; Zuliani, Juliana Pavan; Cianciarullo, Aurora Marques; Fernandes, Cristina Maria; Gutiérrez, José Maria; Teixeira, Catarina

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the ability of the sPLA(2), known as MT-III, isolated from the viperid snake Bothrops asper, to induce LB formation in macrophages and the major cellular signaling pathways involved in this process. The effects of MT-III on ADRP localization and expression and macrophage ultrastructure were assessed. Our results showed that this sPLA(2) induced a marked increase in LB numbers in macrophages, induced the recruitment of ADRP in macrophages, and up-regulated ADRP expression. Ultrastructural analysis showed the presence of weakly and strongly osmiophilic LBs in sPLA(2)-stimulated cells. Enlargement of the ER and Golgi cisterns was also observed. Pretreatment of cells with H7 or staurosporine (PKC inhibitors), LY294002 or wortmannin (PI3K inhibitors), SB202190 or PD98059 (p38(MAPK) and ERK1/2 inhibitors, respectively), or Pyr-2 or Bel (cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) inhibitors, respectively) significantly reduced sPLA(2)-induced LB formation. Herbimycin (a PTK inhibitor) and indomethacin or etoricoxib (COX inhibitors) failed to alter sPLA(2)-induced effects. In conclusion, our results show for the first time the ability of a venom sPLA(2) to induce the formation of LBs and the expression of ADRP in macrophages. Venom PLA(2)-induced LB formation is dependent on PKC, PI3K, p38(MAPK), ERK1/2, cPLA(2), and iPLA(2) signaling pathways but not on PTK, COX-1, or COX-2 pathways. Activation of the ER and Golgi complex may play an important role in the formation of LBs induced by this sPLA(2) in macrophages. PMID:21478270

  2. Synergism between basic Asp49 and Lys49 phospholipase A2 myotoxins of viperid snake venom in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mora-Obando, Diana; Fernández, Julián; Montecucco, Cesare; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Two subtypes of phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) with the ability to induce myonecrosis, 'Asp49' and 'Lys49' myotoxins, often coexist in viperid snake venoms. Since the latter lack catalytic activity, two different mechanisms are involved in their myotoxicity. A synergism between Asp49 and Lys49 myotoxins from Bothrops asper was previously observed in vitro, enhancing Ca2+ entry and cell death when acting together upon C2C12 myotubes. These observations are extended for the first time in vivo, by demonstrating a clear enhancement of myonecrosis by the combined action of these two toxins in mice. In addition, novel aspects of their synergism were revealed using myotubes. Proportions of Asp49 myotoxin as low as 0.1% of the Lys49 myotoxin are sufficient to enhance cytotoxicity of the latter, but not the opposite. Sublytic amounts of Asp49 myotoxin also enhanced cytotoxicity of a synthetic peptide encompassing the toxic region of Lys49 myotoxin. Asp49 myotoxin rendered myotubes more susceptible to osmotic lysis, whereas Lys49 myotoxin did not. In contrast to myotoxic Asp49 PLA2, an acidic non-toxic PLA2 from the same venom did not markedly synergize with Lys49 myotoxin, revealing a functional difference between basic and acidic PLA2 enzymes. It is suggested that Asp49 myotoxins synergize with Lys49 myotoxins by virtue of their PLA2 activity. In addition to the membrane-destabilizing effect of this activity, Asp49 myotoxins may generate anionic patches of hydrolytic reaction products, facilitating electrostatic interactions with Lys49 myotoxins. These data provide new evidence for the evolutionary adaptive value of the two subtypes of PLA2 myotoxins acting synergistically in viperid venoms. PMID:25290688

  3. Molecular Characterization of Lys49 and Asp49 Phospholipases A2 from Snake Venom and Their Antiviral Activities against Dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Cecilio, Alzira B.; Caldas, Sergio; De Oliveira, Raiana A.; Santos, Arthur S. B.; Richardson, Michael; Naumann, Gustavo B.; Schneider, Francisco S.; Alvarenga, Valeria G.; Estevão-Costa, Maria I.; Fuly, Andre L.; Eble, Johannes A.; Sanchez, Eladio F.

    2013-01-01

    We report the detailed molecular characterization of two PLA2s, Lys49 and Asp49 isolated from Bothrops leucurus venom, and examined their effects against Dengue virus (DENV). The Bl-PLA2s, named BlK-PLA2 and BlD-PLA2, are composed of 121 and 122 amino acids determined by automated sequencing of the native proteins and peptides produced by digestion with trypsin. They contain fourteen cysteines with pIs of 9.05 and 8.18 for BlK- and BlD-PLA2s, and show a high degree of sequence similarity to homologous snake venom PLA2s, but may display different biological effects. Molecular masses of 13,689.220 (Lys49) and 13,978.386 (Asp49) were determined by mass spectrometry. DENV causes a prevalent arboviral disease in humans, and no clinically approved antiviral therapy is currently available to treat DENV infections. The maximum non-toxic concentration of the proteins to LLC-MK2 cells determined by MTT assay was 40 µg/mL for Bl-PLA2s (pool) and 20 µg/mL for each isoform. Antiviral effects of Bl-PLA2s were assessed by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Bl-PLA2s were able to reduce DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3 serotypes in LLC-MK2 cells infection. Our data provide further insight into the structural properties and their antiviral activity against DENV, opening up possibilities for biotechnological applications of these Bl-PLA2s as tools of research. PMID:24131891

  4. Synergism between Basic Asp49 and Lys49 Phospholipase A2 Myotoxins of Viperid Snake Venom In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Obando, Diana; Fernández, Julián; Montecucco, Cesare; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Two subtypes of phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) with the ability to induce myonecrosis, ‘Asp49’ and ‘Lys49’ myotoxins, often coexist in viperid snake venoms. Since the latter lack catalytic activity, two different mechanisms are involved in their myotoxicity. A synergism between Asp49 and Lys49 myotoxins from Bothrops asper was previously observed in vitro, enhancing Ca2+ entry and cell death when acting together upon C2C12 myotubes. These observations are extended for the first time in vivo, by demonstrating a clear enhancement of myonecrosis by the combined action of these two toxins in mice. In addition, novel aspects of their synergism were revealed using myotubes. Proportions of Asp49 myotoxin as low as 0.1% of the Lys49 myotoxin are sufficient to enhance cytotoxicity of the latter, but not the opposite. Sublytic amounts of Asp49 myotoxin also enhanced cytotoxicity of a synthetic peptide encompassing the toxic region of Lys49 myotoxin. Asp49 myotoxin rendered myotubes more susceptible to osmotic lysis, whereas Lys49 myotoxin did not. In contrast to myotoxic Asp49 PLA2, an acidic non-toxic PLA2 from the same venom did not markedly synergize with Lys49 myotoxin, revealing a functional difference between basic and acidic PLA2 enzymes. It is suggested that Asp49 myotoxins synergize with Lys49 myotoxins by virtue of their PLA2 activity. In addition to the membrane-destabilizing effect of this activity, Asp49 myotoxins may generate anionic patches of hydrolytic reaction products, facilitating electrostatic interactions with Lys49 myotoxins. These data provide new evidence for the evolutionary adaptive value of the two subtypes of PLA2 myotoxins acting synergistically in viperid venoms. PMID:25290688

  5. Interspecific Aggression and Habitat Partitioning in Garter Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Edgehouse, Michael; Latta, Leigh C.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Brodie, Edmund D.

    2014-01-01

    Defense of a limited resource, such as space or food, has recently been discovered in snakes and has been widely documented in lizards. Garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.) are historically considered generalist predators such that food is not a limiting resource. However, in this study we show that the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) and the aquatic garter snake (Thamnophis atratus) show a strong preference for amphibians as their primary food source at the Santa Lucia Preserve (SLP), Monterey County, California. This food preference forces these snake species at SLP to exploit aquatic habitats. Our principle goal was to investigate the aggressive behavior of T. sirtalis and the potential that this aggression displaces T. atratus from its preferred habitat. We found that when individuals from either species are alone, a 100% preference for aquatic or near aquatic habitat is observed. In contrast, when these species are together, T. sirtalis occupy the aquatic habitat and T. atratus occupy an area far removed from water. Thamnophis sirtalis often physically force T. atratus from the aquatic habitat through repeated biting and other displays of aggression. PMID:24465962

  6. Gravity and the Evolution of Cardiopulmonary Morphology in Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Albert, James S.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological investigations of snakes have established the importance of heart position and pulmonary structure in contexts of gravity effects on blood circulation. Here we investigate morphological correlates of cardiopulmonary physiology in contexts related to ecology, behavior and evolution. We analyze data for heart position and length of vascular lung in 154 species of snakes that exhibit a broad range of characteristic behaviors and habitat associations. We construct a composite phylogeny for these species, and we codify gravitational stress according to species habitat and behavior. We use conventional regression and phylogenetically independent contrasts to evaluate whether trait diversity is correlated with gravitational habitat related to evolutionary transitions within the composite tree topology. We demonstrate that snake species living in arboreal habitats, or which express strongly climbing behaviors, possess relatively short blood columns between the heart and the head, as well as relatively short vascular lungs, compared to terrestrial species. Aquatic species, which experience little or no gravity stress in water, show the reverse – significantly longer heart–head distance and longer vascular lungs. These phylogenetic differences complement the results of physiological studies and are reflected in multiple habitat transitions during the evolutionary histories of these snake lineages, providing strong evidence that heart–to–head distance and length of vascular lung are co–adaptive cardiopulmonary features of snakes. PMID:22079804

  7. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    PubMed

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals. PMID:27581887

  8. Clinical Profile of Snake Bite in Children in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Minhajuddin; Colaco, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A high incidence of snake bite envenomation has been reported from rural India. Due to inadequate epidemiological data, the incidence is underestimated. This study analyses the pattern of snake bite and their management in children in rural areas of Maharashtra, India. To determine the age, mode of presentation, seasonal variation, clinical profile and outcome of patients with snake bite less than 15 years of age. Methods This study is a retrospective, descriptive study including 162 patients, who presented with history of snake bite. Clinical data about age, sex, clinical manifestations, complications and outcome were obtained from case records and were analyzed. Findings Out of the 162 patients 98 (60.49%) were males. The bites were vasculotoxic in 147 (90.74%) and neuroparalytic in 15 (9.25%) patients. Mainly bites occurred from July to September with 84 (51.85%) bites. Bites were more common in males in age more than 5 years (89%) with bite marks mainly on lower limbs in 120 (74.04%) patients. Deaths were reported in patients who reported late to the hospital with a mortality rate of 1.85%. Conclusion Snake bite is a life threatening emergency. The key to minimizing mortality and severe morbidity is aggressive management of the ABC‘s of resuscitation, and timely and judicious administration of adequate dose of anti-venom. PMID:24910739

  9. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    PubMed

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. PMID:26979562

  10. Phylogenomic analyses reveal novel relationships among snake families.

    PubMed

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; Wiens, John J

    2016-07-01

    Snakes are a diverse and important group of vertebrates. However, relationships among the major groups of snakes have remained highly uncertain, with recent studies hypothesizing very different (and typically weakly supported) relationships. Here, we address family-level snake relationships with new phylogenomic data from 3776 nuclear loci from ultraconserved elements (1.40million aligned base pairs, 52% missing data overall) sampled from 29 snake species that together represent almost all families, a dataset ∼100 times larger than used in previous studies. We found relatively strong support from species-tree analyses (NJst) for most relationships, including three largely novel clades: (1) a clade uniting the boas, pythons and their relatives, (2) a clade placing cylindrophiids and uropeltids with this clade, and (3) a clade uniting bolyeriids (Round Island boas) with pythonids and their relatives (xenopeltids and loxocemids). Relationships among families of advanced snakes (caenophidians) were also strongly supported. The results show the potential for phylogenomic analyses to resolve difficult groups, but also show a surprising sensitivity of the analyses to the inclusion or exclusion of outgroups. PMID:27083862

  11. Prevalence of neutralising antibodies against adenoviruses in lizards and snakes.

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Ofner, Sabine; Funk, Richard S; Griffin, Chris; Riedel, Ulf; Möhring, Jens; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-10-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are relatively common in lizards and snakes, and several genetically distinct AdVs have been isolated in cell culture. The aims of this study were to examine serological relationships among lizard and snake AdVs and to determine the frequency of AdV infections in these species. Isolates from a boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), a corn snake (Pantherophis gutattus) and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and two isolates from helodermatid lizards (Heloderma horridum and H. suspectum) were used in neutralisation tests for the detection of antibodies in plasma from 263 lizards from seven families (including 12 species) and from 141 snakes from four families (including 28 species) from the USA and Europe. Most lizard and snake samples had antibodies against a range of AdV isolates, indicating that AdV infection is common among these squamates. Neutralisation tests with polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits demonstrated serological cross-reactivity between both helodermatid lizard isolates. However, squamate plasma showed different reactions to each of these lizard isolates in neutralisation tests. PMID:25163614

  12. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of BthTX-II, a myotoxic Asp49-phospholipase A{sub 2} with low catalytic activity from Bothrops jararacussu venom

    SciTech Connect

    Corrêa, L. C.; Marchi-Salvador, D. P.; Cintra, A. C. O.; Soares, A. M.

    2006-08-01

    A myotoxic Asp49-PLA{sub 2} with low catalytic activity from B. jararacussu (BthTX-II) was crystallized in the monoclinic crystal system; a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected and a molecular-replacement solution was obtained. The oligomeric structure of BthTX-II resembles those of the Asp49-PLA{sub 2} PrTX-III and all bothropic Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. For the first time, a complete X-ray diffraction data set has been collected from a myotoxic Asp49-phospholipase A{sub 2} (Asp49-PLA{sub 2}) with low catalytic activity (BthTX-II from Bothrops jararacussu venom) and a molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with a dimer in the asymmetric unit. The quaternary structure of BthTX-II resembles the myotoxin Asp49-PLA{sub 2} PrTX-III (piratoxin III from B. pirajai venom) and all non-catalytic and myotoxic dimeric Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. In contrast, the oligomeric structure of BthTX-II is different from the highly catalytic and non-myotoxic BthA-I (acidic PLA{sub 2} from B. jararacussu). Thus, comparison between these structures should add insight into the catalytic and myotoxic activities of bothropic PLA{sub 2}s.

  13. 75 FR 18235 - Meeting Notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Meeting Notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Meeting notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) John Day-Snake Resource...

  14. 75 FR 37461 - Notice of Public Meeting, John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Meeting notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory... Committee Act, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) John Day-Snake...

  15. 75 FR 27359 - Meeting Notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Meeting Notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Meeting Notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) John Day-Snake Resource...

  16. 78 FR 64236 - Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day; Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day; Snake Resource Advisory Council... U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the John Day--Snake Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below: DATES: The John Day--Snake RAC will hold a...

  17. 76 FR 46321 - Notice of Public Meeting, John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Bureau Of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council AGENCY... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as...: A joint meeting of the John Day-Snake and the Southeast Oregon RACs will be held at 1 Sunridge...

  18. 75 FR 69701 - Notice of Public Meeting, John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Meeting notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory... Committee Act, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) John Day-Snake...

  19. 78 FR 76175 - Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council... U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below: DATES: The John Day-Snake RAC will hold a...

  20. 75 FR 5803 - John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Meeting Notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council. SUMMARY.... Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council...

  1. 75 FR 50779 - Notice of Public Meeting, John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Meeting Notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory... Committee Act, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) John Day-Snake...

  2. Hypopituitarism and AutoimmuneThyroiditis Following Snake Bite: An Unusual Clinical Scenario.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sahana; Abi, Manesh S; Hickson, Ravali; David, Thambu; Rajaratnam, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Snake venom can cause local tissue damage and lead to coagulopathy, shock, neurotoxicity and acute kidney injury. Hypopituitarism is a rare complication following snake bite. It has been described following Russell's viper bite from Burma and South India. Herein we describe a patient who presented with severe thyrotoxicosis and partial hypopituitarism following snake bite. PMID:26281485

  3. Hibernation Site Philopatry in Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Zappalorti, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) are one of the few snakes that spend the winter in underground hibernacula that they excavate. We report the use of hibernacula by Pine Snakes from 1986 to 2012 in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. We determined whether philopatry to a specific hibernaculum varied as a function of age, sex, and location of the hibernaculum. Three hibernacula were occupied nearly continuously for 27 yr by 1 to 27 snakes each year. With known-age snakes (N = 120), captured mainly as hatchlings and 2-yr-olds, we found that 23% were always philopatric. Philopatry was related to age of last capture, sex, and capture location. Philopatry was higher for 1) females compared with males, 2) snakes at two solitary hibernacula compared with a hibernaculum complex, and 3) snakes 6 yr old or younger, compared with older snakes. Of hatchlings found hibernating, 24% used the same hibernation site the next year, and 38% were located at year 4 or later. The number of snakes that always used the same hibernation site declined with the age of last capture. Snakes that entered hibernacula as hatchlings were found more often than those that entered as 2-yr-olds. For the seven snakes that were 14 yr or older, females were found 64– 86 % of the time, whereas males were found 15 to 50% of the time. Understanding the behavior and habitat requirements of snakes during different seasons is central to life-history analysis and for conserving viable populations. PMID:27011392

  4. Are Diet Preferences Associated to Skulls Shape Diversification in Xenodontine Snakes?

    PubMed Central

    Klaczko, Julia; Sherratt, Emma; Setz, Eleonore Z. F.

    2016-01-01

    Snakes are a highly successful group of vertebrates, within great diversity in habitat, diet, and morphology. The unique adaptations for the snake skull for ingesting large prey in more primitive macrostomatan snakes have been well documented. However, subsequent diversification in snake cranial shape in relation to dietary specializations has rarely been studied (e.g. piscivory in natricine snakes). Here we examine a large clade of snakes with a broad spectrum of diet preferences to test if diet preferences are correlated to shape variation in snake skulls. Specifically, we studied the Xenodontinae snakes, a speciose clade of South American snakes, which show a broad range of diets including invertebrates, amphibians, snakes, lizards, and small mammals. We characterized the skull morphology of 19 species of xenodontine snakes using geometric morphometric techniques, and used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the association between diet and skull morphology. Using phylogenetic partial least squares analysis (PPLS) we show that skull morphology is highly associated with diet preferences in xenodontine snakes. PMID:26886549

  5. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    PubMed Central

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225–300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention. PMID:25237303

  6. Muscle and skin necrotizing and edema-forming activities of Duvernoy's gland secretion of the xenodontine colubrid snake Philodryas patagoniensis from the north-east of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Peichoto, M E; Acosta, O; Leiva, L; Teibler, P; Maruñak, S; Ruíz, R

    2004-11-01

    (which inhabits the north-east region of Argentina) and that the local lesions caused by this colubrid snake are very similar to those found in bothropic accidents. This latter suggests a more careful evaluation of the victims when considering the medical treatment to be adopted. PMID:15501284

  7. Metastatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a Western Hognose snake (Heterodon nasicus).

    PubMed

    Stern, Adam W; Velguth, Karen E; D'Agostino, Jennifer

    2010-06-01

    A 17-yr-old Western Hognose snake (Heterodon nasicus) presented with a prominent midcoelomic swelling. Surgical exploration revealed a large, multicystic, irregular, tan, and firm mass grossly effacing the splenopancreas. The mass was subsequently removed. Histologically, the mass was composed of tubules of columnar to flattened neoplastic cells with an abundant stroma and moderate cellular atypia consistent with a scirrhous adenocarcinoma, likely ductal in origin, given the location of the neoplastic mass. Bloodwork revealed anemia, monocytosis, marked hypercalcemia, and, postoperatively, persistent hyperglycemia. After postoperative recovery, the snake was diagnosed with iatrogenically induced diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Due to the inability to clinically control the diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and when additional palpable masses were noted, the snake was euthanatized. Necropsy and histopathologic examination confirmed metastasis of the previously removed adenocarcinoma to the liver, right kidney, and large intestine. PMID:20597225

  8. Antibacterial properties of KwaZulu natal snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, R S

    2000-11-01

    The objective was to ascertain whether local snake venoms have antibacterial properties. The venoms of the common night adder (Causus rhombeatus), gaboon adder (Bitis gabonica), puff adder (Bitis arietans), black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis augusticeps), forest cobra (Naja melanoleuca), snouted cobra (Naja annulifera) and Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica) were collected and, by gel diffusion, tested against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeriginosa, Bacteriodes fragilis, Bacteroides intermedius, Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens. All snake venoms showed antibacterial activity, with the adders showing most activity against the aerobes while the cobras showed lesser, but equal activity against the aerobes and anaerobes. Black mamba venom only showed activity against C. perfringens. In conclusion, local snake venoms have antibacterial properties which are dependent on the venom and bacterial type; and in the Naja spp., for anaerobic bacteria, diminish in winter. There is liable to be more than one toxin component responsible. PMID:10775753

  9. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for WO-2

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    1991-07-29

    Well data for the WO-2 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, and rock strength parameters for the WO-2 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  10. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for INEL-1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    1979-03-01

    Well data for the INEL-1 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes caliper logs, lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, full color logs, fracture analysis, photos, and rock strength parameters for the INEL-1 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  11. Envenoming by the viperid snake Proatheris superciliaris: a case report.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Jiri; Stach, Zdenek; Fricova, Dagmar; Zak, Jaroslav; Balik, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Snake bites caused by viperid snakes of Atheris genus are extremely rare, envenoming of a bite of related viper Proatheris superciliaris was described only once in the literature. The present case study depicts the envenoming of a 57 years old Czech man, a private herpetologist, who was bitten to his finger. He developed painful local reaction, nausea, hematuria, hypertension, chest and lumbar pain. Coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia subsequently developed as well as acute renal failure, hepatic and lung lesion. Intensive care therapy was purely symptomatic and supportive as no antisera exists. Treatment included haemodialysis, substitution of fresh frozen plasma and platelets. Patient completely recovered during 1 month. PMID:18619480

  12. Antioxidant activity and phytochemical compounds of snake fruit (Salacca Zalacca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suica-Bunghez, I. R.; Teodorescu, S.; Dulama, I. D.; Voinea, O. C.; imionescu, S.; Ion, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a palm tree species, which is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the composition, total phenolic, flavonoid, tanins and monoterpenoids contents in the core and shell fruits. Concentration values of extracts were obtained from standard curves obtained. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method. For all methods it was used the UV-VIS Specord M40, using different wavelength. The infrared spectral analysis was carried out to caracterized the type of functional group existent in snake fruit parts (shell and core).

  13. Helical FOFO Snake for 6D Ionization Cooling of Muons

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.

    2010-03-30

    A channel for 6D ionization cooling of muons is described which consists of periodically inclined solenoids of alternating polarity, liquid hydrogen absorbers placed inside the solenoids and RF cavities between them. An important feature of such a channel (called Helical FOFO snake) is that it can cool simultaneously muons of both signs. Theoretical considerations as well as results of simulations with G4beamline are presented which show that a 200 MHz HFOFO snake has sufficient acceptance to be used for initial 6D cooling in muon colliders and neutrino factories.

  14. Spectroscopy of snake states using a graphene Hall bar

    SciTech Connect

    Milovanović, S. P. Ramezani Masir, M. Peeters, F. M.

    2013-12-02

    An approach to observe snake states in a graphene Hall bar containing a pn-junction is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the bend resistance in a ballistic graphene Hall bar structure containing a tilted pn-junction oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field. We show that each oscillation is due to a specific snake state that moves along the pn-interface. Furthermore, depending on the value of the magnetic field and applied potential, we can control the lead in which the electrons will end up and hence control the response of the system.

  15. Do Herbal Medicines Have Potential for Managing Snake Bite Envenomation?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Y. K.; Peshin, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Snake envenomation is a global public health problem, with highest incidence in Southeast Asia. Inadequate health services, difficult transportation and consequent delay in antisnake venom administration are the main reasons for high mortality. Adverse drug reactions and inadequate storage conditions limit the use of antisnake venom. The medicinal plants, available locally and used widely by traditional healers, therefore need attention. A wide array of plants and their active principles have been evaluated for pharmacological properties. However, numerous unexplored plants claimed to be antidotes in folklore medicine need to be studied. The present article reviews the current status of various medicinal plants for the management of snake bite. PMID:22778503

  16. Inhibition of Hemorragic Snake Venom Components: Old and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Panfoli, Isabella; Calzia, Daniela; Ravera, Silvia; Morelli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Snake venoms are complex toxin mixtures. Viperidae and Crotalidae venoms, which are hemotoxic, are responsible for most of the envenomations around the world. Administration of antivenins aimed at the neutralization of toxins in humans is prone to potential risks. Neutralization of snake venom toxins has been achieved through different approaches: plant extracts have been utilized in etnomedicine. Direct electric current from low voltage showed neutralizing properties against venom phospholipase A2 and metalloproteases. This mini-review summarizes new achievements in venom key component inhibition. A deeper knowledge of alternative ways to inhibit venom toxins may provide supplemental treatments to serum therapy. PMID:22069593

  17. Helical FOFO snake for 6D ionization cooling of muons

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    A channel for 6D ionization cooling of muons is described which consists of periodically inclined solenoids of alternating polarity, liquid hydrogen absorbers placed inside solenoids and RF cavities between them. Important feature of such channel (called Helical FOFO snake) is that it can cool simultaneously muons of both signs. Theoretical considerations as well as results of simulations with G4Beamline are presented which show that 200MHz HFOFO snake has sufficient acceptance to be used for initial 6D cooling in muon colliders and neutrino factories.

  18. A geometric snake model for segmentation of medical imagery.

    PubMed

    Yezzi, A; Kichenassamy, S; Kumar, A; Olver, P; Tannenbaum, A

    1997-04-01

    In this note, we employ the new geometric active contour models formulated in [25] and [26] for edge detection and segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound medical imagery. Our method is based on defining feature-based metrics on a given image which in turn leads to a novel snake paradigm in which the feature of interest may be considered to lie at the bottom of a potential well. Thus, the snake is attracted very quickly and efficiently to the desired feature. PMID:9101329

  19. Snake bite envenomation at Aysha refugee camp health center.

    PubMed

    Tameru, Kassa

    2006-01-01

    Snake bite remains one of the major public health problems in many countries including Ethiopia. This case report comprises four snake bite envenomation incidents presented to Aysha refugee camp health center in the eastern part of the country between May and August 1999 (hottest season of the year). All the four this cases had systemic manifestations one of whom died at arrival, the rest being successfully treated and discharged. In the body of the report, each case is described, relevant literature reviewed briefly, discussed, and finally conclusions are made. PMID:17447366

  20. Presence of Porocephalus clavatus (Arthropoda: Porocephalidae) in Peruvian Boidae snakes.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, María T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2011-09-27

    The pentastome species, Porocephalus clavatus, has been found to infect the lungs of two species of snakes in the family Boidae family (Boa constrictor and Epicrates cenchria). The individual of B. constrictor was collected in the Amazonian rainforest of Departamento Loreto, Peru. The E. cenchria was recovered from the pet trade in Lima, Peru's capital city. A total of 22 P. clavatus were collected and examined from these two snakes. This is the first report of P. clavatus in Peru. The morphology of the parasites and the possible importance in public and animal health are discussed. PMID:21531511

  1. EVOLUTION. A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Martill, David M; Tischlinger, Helmut; Longrich, Nicholas R

    2015-07-24

    Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known. We describe a four-limbed snake from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of Brazil. The snake has a serpentiform body plan with an elongate trunk, short tail, and large ventral scales suggesting characteristic serpentine locomotion, yet retains small prehensile limbs. Skull and body proportions as well as reduced neural spines indicate fossorial adaptation, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing rather than marine ancestors. Hooked teeth, an intramandibular joint, a flexible spine capable of constricting prey, and the presence of vertebrate remains in the guts indicate that this species preyed on vertebrates and that snakes made the transition to carnivory early in their history. The structure of the limbs suggests that they were adapted for grasping, either to seize prey or as claspers during mating. Together with a diverse fauna of basal snakes from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and India, this snake suggests that crown Serpentes originated in Gondwana. PMID:26206932

  2. The calculus of snakes and the combinatorics of Bernoulli, Euler and Springer numbers of Coxeter groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnol'd, Vladimir I.

    1992-02-01

    CONTENTSIntroduction Chapter I. The enumerative combinatorics of snakes § 1. Combinatorics of Springer cones § 2. Numbers and triangles of snakes § 3. Combinatorial identities for triangles of snakes § 4. Combinatorial identities for numbers of A-snakes § 5. Combinatorial identities for numbers of D-snakes and B-snakes § 6. Exponential generating functions of triangles of snakesChapter II. Proofs of combinatorial theorems § 7. Proof of recurrence relations § 8. Proofs of the relations between triangles b and β § 9. Numbers of assignments § 10. Proof of the relations between triangles b and d § 11. Proofs of the theorems on D-snakes § 12. Comparison of the numbers of D-snakes and B-snakes with a given beginning § 13. Properties of numbers of snakes modulo prChapter III. Springer cones and bifurcation diagrams of singularities § 14. Morsification spaces and Maxwell strata § 15. Modifications of singularities of B-series § 16. Topological classification of odd functionsReferences

  3. Sublingual plicae (anterior processes) are not necessary for garter snake vomeronasal function.

    PubMed

    Halpern, M; Borghjid, S

    1997-09-01

    The anterior processes of snakes may transfer odorants from the tongue to the vomeronasal (VN) organ. To test whether the anterior processes are required for a vomeronasally mediated behavior, the authors tested garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) preoperatively and after cauterization of the anterior processes or control cauterization with artificial earthworms covered with earthworm wash (EWW) or distilled water. Snakes in both groups attacked EWW-covered artificial worms but not controls both pre- and postoperatively. In addition, snakes with anterior processes cauterization or control cauterization tongue flicked 3H-proline. Radioautographs of the VN organs of snakes with and without anterior processes were indistinguishable: Snakes in both groups had reduced silver grains over the VN sensory epithelium as had been reported previously with intact snakes. These findings indicate that the anterior processes are unnecessary both for a behavior known to require a functional VN system and for delivery of odorants to the VN organ. PMID:9286097

  4. Human Young Children as well as Adults Demonstrate ‘Superior’ Rapid Snake Detection When Typical Striking Posture Is Displayed by the Snake

    PubMed Central

    Masataka, Nobuo; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Humans as well as some nonhuman primates have an evolved predisposition to associate snakes with fear by detecting their presence as fear-relevant stimuli more rapidly than fear-irrelevant ones. In the present experiment, a total of 74 of 3- to 4-year-old children and adults were asked to find a single target black-and-white photo of a snake among an array of eight black-and-white photos of flowers as distracters. As target stimuli, we prepared two groups of snake photos, one in which a typical striking posture was displayed by a snake and the other in which a resting snake was shown. When reaction time to find the snake photo was compared between these two types of the stimuli, its mean value was found to be significantly smaller for the photos of snakes displaying striking posture than for the photos of resting snakes in both the adults and children. These findings suggest the possibility that the human perceptual bias for snakes per se could be differentiated according to the difference of the degree to which their presence acts as a fear-relevant stimulus. PMID:21152050

  5. Of Mice and Snakes: A Tail of Oct4.

    PubMed

    Shylo, Natalia A; Weatherbee, Scott D

    2016-08-01

    The vertebrate axial skeleton comprises regions of specialized vertebrae, which vary in length between lineages. Aires et al. (2016) uncover a key role for Oct4 in determining trunk length in mice. Additionally, a heterochronic shift in Oct4 expression may underlie the extreme elongation of the trunk in snakes. PMID:27505413

  6. MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project was to collect, analyze, assemble, and assess water quality data and resulting chemical/nutrient loads entering and transported in the Middle Snake River Reach of Idaho, between Milner Dam and King Hill. Studies were conducted during the period of 1990 ...

  7. Critical Thinking as Miracle Tonic: Selling Snake Oil in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.

    This paper proposes that the current interest in critical thinking is based on important conceptual, epistemological, and procedural confusions. It suggests that the attempt to identify a successful critical thinking construct mirrors the search for miracle tonics often peddled by snake oil salesmen as a medicinal cure-all. It goes to suggest that…

  8. COLUMBIA/SNAKE RIVER TEMPERATURE TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and the States of Idaho, Oregon and Washington are working in coordination with the Columbia River Tribes to establish a temperature TMDL for the mainstems of the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Both rivers are on state 303(d) lists of impaired waters for exceedances of water qua...

  9. Neurological manifestations in speech after snake bite: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Vir, Dharam; Sachin; Gupta, Dipti; Modi, Munish; Panda, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    The patient was admitted after reporting a snake bite from which he later developed neurological signs and symptoms among which a flaccid dysarthria. The patient underwent speech therapy and showed significant improvement over a short period of time. The favorable outcome of the present study highlights the role of speech therapy in such a case, where it often remains un-emphasized. PMID:21119998

  10. Natural Inhibitors of Snake Venom Metalloendopeptidases: History and Current Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Viviane A; Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Perales, Jonas; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C; Valente, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    The research on natural snake venom metalloendopeptidase inhibitors (SVMPIs) began in the 18th century with the pioneering work of Fontana on the resistance that vipers exhibited to their own venom. During the past 40 years, SVMPIs have been isolated mainly from the sera of resistant animals, and characterized to different extents. They are acidic oligomeric glycoproteins that remain biologically active over a wide range of pH and temperature values. Based on primary structure determination, mammalian plasmatic SVMPIs are classified as members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) supergene protein family, while the one isolated from muscle belongs to the ficolin/opsonin P35 family. On the other hand, SVMPIs from snake plasma have been placed in the cystatin superfamily. These natural antitoxins constitute the first line of defense against snake venoms, inhibiting the catalytic activities of snake venom metalloendopeptidases through the establishment of high-affinity, non-covalent interactions. This review presents a historical account of the field of natural resistance, summarizing its main discoveries and current challenges, which are mostly related to the limitations that preclude three-dimensional structural determinations of these inhibitors using "gold-standard" methods; perspectives on how to circumvent such limitations are presented. Potential applications of these SVMPIs in medicine are also highlighted. PMID:27571103

  11. The brain and behavior of the tentacled snake.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2011-04-01

    Tentacled snakes (Erpeton tentaculatum) are aquatic predators that feed exclusively on fish. They have a unique pair of tentacles projecting from the face and an unusual J-shaped hunting posture. These features have been the subject of speculation for over a century. In a series of behavioral studies, tentacled snakes were found to exploit fish escape responses by startling fish toward their strike. This remarkable, deceptive behavior takes advantage of the stereotyped C-start escape response of fish. For some fish approach angles, snakes predicted future fish behavior and accurately struck at their moving head. These findings suggest tentacled snakes are acting as "rare enemies"--taking advantage of prey behavior that is usually adaptive for the prey species. Anatomical and physiological analysis showed the tentacles are densely innervated by the trigeminal nerve and are sensitive mechanoreceptors that respond to water movements. Mechanosensory information from the tentacles projects to the optic tectum in approximate register with vision, providing a mechanism for integrating visual and mechanosensory cues for identifying, localizing, and capturing prey. PMID:21534995

  12. Snake trajectories in ultraclean graphene p–n junctions

    PubMed Central

    Rickhaus, Peter; Makk, Péter; Liu, Ming-Hao; Tóvári, Endre; Weiss, Markus; Maurand, Romain; Richter, Klaus; Schönenberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Snake states are trajectories of charge carriers curving back and forth along an interface. There are two types of snake states, formed by either inverting the magnetic field direction or the charge carrier type at an interface. The former has been demonstrated in GaAs–AlGaAs heterostructures, whereas the latter has become conceivable only with the advance of ballistic graphene where a gap-less p–n interface governed by Klein tunnelling can be formed. Such snake states were hidden in previous experiments due to limited sample quality. Here we report on magneto-conductance oscillations due to snake states in a ballistic suspended graphene p–n junction, which occur already at a very small magnetic field of 20 mT. The visibility of 30% is enabled by Klein collimation. Our finding is firmly supported by quantum transport simulations. We demonstrate the high tunability of the device and operate it in different magnetic field regimes. PMID:25732244

  13. WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY, MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    On February 5, 1964, the Federal Power Commission issued a license to Pacific Northwest Power Company for construction and operation of its proposed High Mountain Sheep Project on the Snake River (170602, 170501). This investigation by the Federal Water Pollution Control Adminis...

  14. Effects of oceanic salinity on body condition in sea snakes.

    PubMed

    Brischoux, François; Rolland, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Caillaud, Matthieu; Shine, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Since the transition from terrestrial to marine environments poses strong osmoregulatory and energetic challenges, temporal and spatial fluctuations in oceanic salinity might influence salt and water balance (and hence, body condition) in marine tetrapods. We assessed the effects of salinity on three species of sea snakes studied by mark-recapture in coral-reef habitats in the Neo-Caledonian Lagoon. These three species include one fully aquatic hydrophiine (Emydocephalus annulatus), one primarily aquatic laticaudine (Laticauda laticaudata), and one frequently terrestrial laticaudine (Laticauda saintgironsi). We explored how oceanic salinity affected the snakes' body condition across various temporal and spatial scales relevant to each species' ecology, using linear mixed models and multimodel inference. Mean annual salinity exerted a consistent and negative effect on the body condition of all three snake species. The most terrestrial taxon (L. saintgironsi) was sensitive to salinity over a short temporal scale, corresponding to the duration of a typical marine foraging trip for this species. In contrast, links between oceanic salinity and body condition in the fully aquatic E. annulatus and the highly aquatic L. laticaudata were strongest at a long-term (annual) scale. The sophisticated salt-excreting systems of sea snakes allow them to exploit marine environments, but do not completely overcome the osmoregulatory challenges posed by oceanic conditions. Future studies could usefully explore such effects in other secondarily marine taxa such as seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals. PMID:22710931

  15. The neurotoxins of the sea snake Laticauda schistorhynchus.

    PubMed Central

    Guinea, M L; Tamiya, N; Cogger, H G

    1983-01-01

    Erabutoxins a and b, the major neurotoxins in the venom of the sea snake Laticauda semifasciata, were detected in the venom of Laticauda schistorhynchus. The identity of the toxins was confirmed on the basis of elution position on CM-cellulose column chromatography, disc electrophoretic mobility, amino acid analysis and toxicity measurement. PMID:6615432

  16. The Egg-Eating Snake, Introductory Problem, Explorations in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Kansas City, MO.

    The booklet is designed as an introduction to a series of topics which use the same format, and which are published separately. A series of photographs of a snake eating an egg are used to ask students to identify a puzzling event that they would want to investigate if they were biologists. A scrambled programed text format is used to direct…

  17. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  18. Aerial target recognition using MRA, GVF snakes, and polygon approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhen Z.; Zhang, Taiyi; Xu, Jian

    2003-04-01

    The traditional method to extract target contour from aerial target image is changing the aerial image into a gray level image with multiple thresholds or binary image with single threshold. From the edge of target, contour can be extracted according to the changed value. The traditional method is useful only when contrast between target and background is in the proper degree. Snakes are curves defined within an image domain that can move under the influence of internal force coming from within the curve itself and external forces are defined so that the snake will conform to an object boundary or other desired features within an image. Snakes have been proved an effective method and widely used in image processing and computer vision. Snakes synthesize parametric curves within an image domain and allow them to move toward desired edges. Particular advantages of the GVF(Gradient Vector Flow) snakes over a traditional snakes are its insensitivity to initialization and its ability to move into boundary concavities. Its initializations can be inside, outside, or across the object"s boundary. The GVF snake does not need prior knowledge about whether to shrink or expand toward the boundary. This increased capture range is achieved through a diffusion process that does not blur the edges of themselves. Affected by the light from different incident angle, the brightness of aerial target surface changed greatly in a complicate mode. So the GVF snakes is not fast, accurate and effective all the time for this kind of images. A new contour extracting method, GVF Snakes Combined with wavelet multi-resolution Analysis is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, bubble wavelet is used iteratively to do the multi resolution analysis in the order of degressive scale before GVF Snakes is used every time to extract accurate contour of target. After accurate contour is extracted, polygon approximation is used to extract characteristics to realize the recognition of aerial target

  19. Mitochondrial divergence between slow- and fast-aging garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Tonia S; Arendsee, Zebulun W; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial function has long been hypothesized to be intimately involved in aging processes--either directly through declining efficiency of mitochondrial respiration and ATP production with advancing age, or indirectly, e.g., through increased mitochondrial production of damaging free radicals with age. Yet we lack a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of mitochondrial genotypes and phenotypes across diverse animal models, particularly in species that have extremely labile physiology. Here, we measure mitochondrial genome-types and transcription in ecotypes of garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) that are adapted to disparate habitats and have diverged in aging rates and lifespans despite residing in close proximity. Using two RNA-seq datasets, we (1) reconstruct the garter snake mitochondrial genome sequence and bioinformatically identify regulatory elements, (2) test for divergence of mitochondrial gene expression between the ecotypes and in response to heat stress, and (3) test for sequence divergence in mitochondrial protein-coding regions in these slow-aging (SA) and fast-aging (FA) naturally occurring ecotypes. At the nucleotide sequence level, we confirmed two (duplicated) mitochondrial control regions one of which contains a glucocorticoid response element (GRE). Gene expression of protein-coding genes was higher in FA snakes relative to SA snakes for most genes, but was neither affected by heat stress nor an interaction between heat stress and ecotype. SA and FA ecotypes had unique mitochondrial haplotypes with amino acid substitutions in both CYTB and ND5. The CYTB amino acid change (Isoleucine → Threonine) was highly segregated between ecotypes. This divergence of mitochondrial haplotypes between SA and FA snakes contrasts with nuclear gene-flow estimates, but correlates with previously reported divergence in mitochondrial function (mitochondrial oxygen consumption, ATP production, and reactive oxygen species consequences). PMID:26403677

  20. Development of hemipenes in the ball python snake Python regius.

    PubMed

    Leal, Francisca; Cohn, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Within amniotes, external copulatory organs have undergone extensive morphological diversification. One of the most extreme examples is squamate (lizards and snakes) hemipenes, which are paired copulatory organs that extend from the lateral margins of the cloaca. Here, we describe the development of hemipenes in a basal snake, the ball python (Python regius). Snake hemipenes arise as a pair of lateral swellings on either side of the caudal part of the cloaca, and these paired outgrowths persist to form the left and right hemipenes. In non-squamate amniotes, external genitalia form from paired swellings that arise on the anterior side of the cloaca, which then fuse medially to form a single genital tubercle, the anlagen of the penis or clitoris. Whereas in non-squamate amniotes, Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-expressing cells of the cloacal endoderm form the urethral or sulcus epithelium and are required for phallus outgrowth, the hemipenes of squamates lack an endodermal contribution, and the sulcus does not express Shh. Thus, snake hemipenes differ from the genital tubercles of non-squamate amniotes both in their embryonic origins and in at least part of patterning mechanisms, which raises the possibility that hemipenes may not be direct homologs of the unpaired amniote penis. Nonetheless, we find that some developmental genes show similar expression patterns in snake hemipenes buds and non-squamate genital tubercles, suggesting that homologous developmental mechanisms are involved in aspects of external genital development across amniotes, even when these structures may have different developmental origins and may have arisen independently during evolution. PMID:24970309