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1

TNF-alpha SNP haplotype frequencies in equidae.  

PubMed

Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. In all vertebrate species the genes encoding TNF-alpha are located within the major histocompatability complex. In the horse TNF-alpha has been ascribed a role in a variety of important disease processes. Previously two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported within the 5' un-translated region of the equine TNF-alpha gene. We have examined the equine TNF-alpha promoter region further for additional SNPs by analysing DNA from 131 horses (Equus caballus), 19 donkeys (E. asinus), 2 Grant's zebras (E. burchellii boehmi) and one onager (E. hemionus). Two further SNPs were identified at nucleotide positions 24 (T/G) and 452 (T/C) relative to the first nucleotide of the 522 bp polymerase chain reaction product. A sequence variant at position 51 was observed between equidae. SNaPSHOT genotyping assays for these and the two previously reported SNPs were performed on 457 horses comprising seven different breeds and 23 donkeys to determine the gene frequencies. SNP frequencies varied considerably between different horse breeds and also between the equine species. In total, nine different TNF-alpha promoter SNP haplotypes and their frequencies were established amongst the various equidae examined, with some haplotypes being found only in horses and others only in donkeys or zebras. The haplotype frequencies observed varied greatly between different horse breeds. Such haplotypes may relate to levels of TNF-alpha production and disease susceptibility and further investigation is required to identify associations between particular haplotypes and altered risk of disease. PMID:16671944

Brown, J J; Ollier, W E R; Thomson, W; Matthews, J B; Carter, S D; Binns, M; Pinchbeck, G; Clegg, P D

2006-05-01

2

SNP frequency and allelic haplotype structure of Beta vulgaris expressed genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on EST sequences, fragments of 37 genes have been amplified and sequenced in two inbred lines of sugar beet. The rate of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) corresponded to 1 every 130 bp, with an average p (nucleotide diversity) value of 7.6×10-3. When extrapolated to the whole sugar beet genome, randomly compared lines differ at 5.4×106 SNPs in the genetic pool

Katharina Schneider; Bernd Weisshaar; Dietrich C. Borchardt; Francesco Salamini

2001-01-01

3

Global haplotype partitioning for maximal associated SNP pairs  

PubMed Central

Background Global partitioning based on pairwise associations of SNPs has not previously been used to define haplotype blocks within genomes. Here, we define an association index based on LD between SNP pairs. We use the Fisher's exact test to assess the statistical significance of the LD estimator. By this test, each SNP pair is characterized as associated, independent, or not-statistically-significant. We set limits on the maximum acceptable proportion of independent pairs within all blocks and search for the partitioning with maximal proportion of associated SNP pairs. Essentially, this model is reduced to a constrained optimization problem, the solution of which is obtained by iterating a dynamic programming algorithm. Results In comparison with other methods, our algorithm reports blocks of larger average size. Nevertheless, the haplotype diversity within the blocks is captured by a small number of tagSNPs. Resampling HapMap haplotypes under a block-based model of recombination showed that our algorithm is robust in reproducing the same partitioning for recombinant samples. Our algorithm performed better than previously reported models in a case-control association study aimed at mapping a single locus trait, based on simulation results that were evaluated by a block-based statistical test. Compared to methods of haplotype block partitioning, we performed best on detection of recombination hotspots. Conclusion Our proposed method divides chromosomes into the regions within which allelic associations of SNP pairs are maximized. This approach presents a native design for dimension reduction in genome-wide association studies. Our results show that the pairwise allelic association of SNPs can describe various features of genomic variation, in particular recombination hotspots.

Katanforoush, Ali; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Elahi, Elahe

2009-01-01

4

The frequency of an IL-18-associated haplotype in Africans  

PubMed Central

Variation within the gene for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 has been associated with inter-individual differences in levels of free protein and disease risk. We investigated the frequency of function-associated IL18 gene haplotypes in an extensive sample (n=2357) of African populations from across the continent. A previously identified five tagging SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) haplotype (here designated hGTATA), known to be associated with lower levels of IL-18, was observed at a frequency of 27% in a British population of recent European ancestry, but was found at low frequency (<8%) or completely absent in African populations. Potentially protective variants may, as a consequence, be found at low frequency in African individuals and may confer a difference in disease risk.

Thompson, Simon R; Humphries, Steve E; Thomas, Mark G; Ekong, Rosemary; Tarekegn, Ayele; Bekele, Endeshaw; Creemer, Olivia; Bradman, Neil; Veeramah, Krishna R

2013-01-01

5

The frequency of an IL-18-associated haplotype in Africans.  

PubMed

Variation within the gene for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 has been associated with inter-individual differences in levels of free protein and disease risk. We investigated the frequency of function-associated IL18 gene haplotypes in an extensive sample (n=2357) of African populations from across the continent. A previously identified five tagging SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) haplotype (here designated hGTATA), known to be associated with lower levels of IL-18, was observed at a frequency of 27% in a British population of recent European ancestry, but was found at low frequency (<8%) or completely absent in African populations. Potentially protective variants may, as a consequence, be found at low frequency in African individuals and may confer a difference in disease risk. PMID:22929027

Thompson, Simon R; Humphries, Steve E; Thomas, Mark G; Ekong, Rosemary; Tarekegn, Ayele; Bekele, Endeshaw; Creemer, Olivia; Bradman, Neil; Veeramah, Krishna R

2013-04-01

6

A sequential Monte Carlo framework for haplotype inference in CNV/SNP genotype data  

PubMed Central

Copy number variations (CNVs) are abundant in the human genome. They have been associated with complex traits in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and expected to continue playing an important role in identifying the etiology of disease phenotypes. As a result of current high throughput whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, we currently have datasets that simultaneously have integer copy numbers in CNV regions as well as SNP genotypes. At the same time, haplotypes that have been shown to offer advantages over genotypes in identifying disease traits even though available for SNP genotypes are largely not available for CNV/SNP data due to insufficient computational tools. We introduce a new framework for inferring haplotypes in CNV/SNP data using a sequential Monte Carlo sampling scheme ‘Tree-Based Deterministic Sampling CNV’ (TDSCNV). We compare our method with polyHap(v2.0), the only currently available software able to perform inference in CNV/SNP genotypes, on datasets of varying number of markers. We have found that both algorithms show similar accuracy but TDSCNV is an order of magnitude faster while scaling linearly with the number of markers and number of individuals and thus could be the method of choice for haplotype inference in such datasets. Our method is implemented in the TDSCNV package which is available for download at http://www.ee.columbia.edu/~anastas/tdscnv.

2014-01-01

7

Estimating Haplotype Frequency and Coverage of Databases  

PubMed Central

A variety of forensic, population, and disease studies are based on haploid DNA (e.g. mitochondrial DNA or Y-chromosome data). For any set of genetic markers databases of conventional size will normally contain only a fraction of all haplotypes. For several applications, reliable estimates of haplotype frequencies, the total number of haplotypes and coverage of the database (the probability that the next random haplotype is contained in the database) will be useful. We propose different approaches to the problem based on classical methods as well as new applications of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). We also discuss previous proposals based on saturation curves. Several conclusions can be inferred from simulated and real data. First, classical estimates of the fraction of unseen haplotypes can be seriously biased. Second, there is no obvious way to decide on required sample size based on traditional approaches. Methods based on testing of hypotheses or length of confidence intervals may appear artificial since no single test or parameter stands out as particularly relevant. Rather the coverage may be more relevant since it indicates the percentage of different haplotypes that are contained in a database; if the coverage is low, there is a considerable chance that the next haplotype to be observed does not appear in the database and this indicates that the database needs to be expanded. Finally, freeware and example data sets accompany the methods discussed in this paper: http://folk.uio.no/thoree/nhap/.

Egeland, Thore; Salas, Antonio

2008-01-01

8

A new SNP haplotype associated with blue disease resistance gene in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Resistance to cotton blue disease (CBD) was evaluated in 364 F(2.3) families of three populations derived from resistant variety 'Delta Opal'. The CBD resistance in 'Delta Opal' was controlled by one single dominant gene designated Cbd. Two simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified as linked to Cbd by bulked segregant analysis. Cbd resides at the telomere region of chromosome 10. SSR marker DC20027 was 0.75 cM away from Cbd. DC20027 marker fragments amplified from 3 diploid species and 13 cotton varieties whose CBD resistance was known were cloned and sequenced. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified at the 136 th position by sequence alignment analysis. Screening SNP markers previously mapped on chromosome 10 identified an additional 3 SNP markers that were associated with Cbd. A strong association between a haplotype based on four SNP markers and Cbd was developed. This demonstrates one of the first examples in cotton where SNP markers were used to effectively tag a trait enabling marker-assisted selection for high levels of CBD resistance in breeding programs. PMID:19960336

Fang, David D; Xiao, Jinhua; Canci, Paulo C; Cantrell, Roy G

2010-03-01

9

Common SNP-Based Haplotype Analysis of the 4p16.3 Huntington Disease Gene Region  

PubMed Central

Age at the onset of motor symptoms in Huntington disease (HD) is determined largely by the length of a CAG repeat expansion in HTT but is also influenced by other genetic factors. We tested whether common genetic variation near the mutation site is associated with differences in the distribution of expanded CAG alleles or age at the onset of motor symptoms. To define disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we compared 4p16.3 SNPs in HD subjects with population controls in a case:control strategy, which revealed that the strongest signals occurred at a great distance from the HD mutation as a result of “synthetic association” with SNP alleles that are of low frequency in population controls. Detailed analysis delineated a prominent ancestral haplotype that accounted for ?50% of HD chromosomes and extended to at least 938 kb on about half of these. Together, the seven most abundant haplotypes accounted for ?83% of HD chromosomes. Neither the extended shared haplotype nor the individual local HTT haplotypes were associated with altered CAG-repeat length distribution or residual age at the onset of motor symptoms, arguing against modification of these disease features by common cis-regulatory elements. Similarly, the 11 most frequent control haplotypes showed no trans-modifier effect on age at the onset of motor symptoms. Our results argue against common local regulatory variation as a factor influencing HD pathogenesis, suggesting that genetic modifiers be sought elsewhere in the genome. They also indicate that genome-wide association analysis with a small number of cases can be effective for regional localization of genetic defects, even when a founder effect accounts for only a fraction of the disorder.

Lee, Jong-Min; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi Srinidhi; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Myers, Richard H.; Hayden, Michael R.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Nance, Martha; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russell L.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Griguoli, Annamaria; Di Donato, Stefano; Gomez-Tortosa, Estrella; Ayuso, Carmen; Suchowersky, Oksana; Trent, Ronald J.; McCusker, Elizabeth; Novelletto, Andrea; Frontali, Marina; Jones, Randi; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Frank, Samuel; Saint-Hilaire, Marie-Helene; Hersch, Steven M.; Rosas, Herminia D.; Lucente, Diane; Harrison, Madaline B.; Zanko, Andrea; Abramson, Ruth K.; Marder, Karen; Sequeiros, Jorge; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.

2012-01-01

10

Common SNP-based haplotype analysis of the 4p16.3 Huntington disease gene region.  

PubMed

Age at the onset of motor symptoms in Huntington disease (HD) is determined largely by the length of a CAG repeat expansion in HTT but is also influenced by other genetic factors. We tested whether common genetic variation near the mutation site is associated with differences in the distribution of expanded CAG alleles or age at the onset of motor symptoms. To define disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we compared 4p16.3 SNPs in HD subjects with population controls in a case:control strategy, which revealed that the strongest signals occurred at a great distance from the HD mutation as a result of "synthetic association" with SNP alleles that are of low frequency in population controls. Detailed analysis delineated a prominent ancestral haplotype that accounted for ?50% of HD chromosomes and extended to at least 938 kb on about half of these. Together, the seven most abundant haplotypes accounted for ?83% of HD chromosomes. Neither the extended shared haplotype nor the individual local HTT haplotypes were associated with altered CAG-repeat length distribution or residual age at the onset of motor symptoms, arguing against modification of these disease features by common cis-regulatory elements. Similarly, the 11 most frequent control haplotypes showed no trans-modifier effect on age at the onset of motor symptoms. Our results argue against common local regulatory variation as a factor influencing HD pathogenesis, suggesting that genetic modifiers be sought elsewhere in the genome. They also indicate that genome-wide association analysis with a small number of cases can be effective for regional localization of genetic defects, even when a founder effect accounts for only a fraction of the disorder. PMID:22387017

Lee, Jong-Min; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi Srinidhi; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Myers, Richard H; Hayden, Michael R; Morrison, Patrick J; Nance, Martha; Ross, Christopher A; Margolis, Russell L; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Griguoli, Annamaria; Di Donato, Stefano; Gomez-Tortosa, Estrella; Ayuso, Carmen; Suchowersky, Oksana; Trent, Ronald J; McCusker, Elizabeth; Novelletto, Andrea; Frontali, Marina; Jones, Randi; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Frank, Samuel; Saint-Hilaire, Marie-Helene; Hersch, Steven M; Rosas, Herminia D; Lucente, Diane; Harrison, Madaline B; Zanko, Andrea; Abramson, Ruth K; Marder, Karen; Sequeiros, Jorge; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F

2012-03-01

11

A common SNP haplotype provides molecular proof of a founder effect of Huntington disease linking two South African populations.  

PubMed

This study involved the detailed investigation of the region surrounding the huntingtin gene in families with a history of Huntington Disease (HD) in South Africa. The primary aim was to investigate the origins of the HD mutation in South Africa by constructing a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype around the HD gene and to determine how many haplotypes there are in two different South African populations. Haplotypes were created by genotyping six SNPs in a total of 13 HD families--seven Caucasian and six Mixed Ancestry. Of the six Mixed Ancestry families, four shared a common SNP haplotype, which was observed in two Afrikaans-speaking Caucasian HD families thus indicating that a founder effect was present in the South African population. The genotyping of a recently identified highly polymorphic marker close to the HD disease-causing mutation further corroborated the SNP haplotype results. Computational analysis was used to analyze the extent of the common haplotype identified in the study cohort in additional South African HD individuals. The results strongly suggest that the common haplotype extends further into the South African Mixed Ancestry HD population and is predominant in the Mixed Ancestry HD families. PMID:17327878

Scholefield, Janine; Greenberg, Jacquie

2007-05-01

12

Single Nucleotide Differences (SNDs) in the dbSNP Database May Lead to Errors in Genotyping and Haplotyping Studies  

PubMed Central

The creation of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) databases (such as NCBI dbSNP) has facilitated scientific research in many fields. SNP discovery and detection has improved to the extent that there are over 17 million human reference (rs) SNPs reported to date (Build 129 of dbSNP). SNP databases are unfortunately not always complete and/or accurate. In fact, half of the reported SNPs are still only candidate SNPs and are not validated in a population. We describe the identification of SNDs (Single Nucleotide Differences) in humans, that may contaminate the dbSNP database. These SNDs, reported as real SNPs in the database, do not exist as such, but are merely artifacts due to the presence of a paralogue (highly similar duplicated) sequence in the genome. Using sequencing we showed how SNDs could originate in two paralogous genes and evaluated samples from a population of 100 individuals for the presence/absence of SNPs. Moreover using bioinformatics, we predicted as many as 8.32% of the biallelic, coding SNPs in the dbSNP database to be SNDs. Our identification of SNDs in the database will allow researchers to not only select truly informative SNPs for association studies, but also aid in determining accurate SNP genotypes and haplotypes.

Musumeci, Lucia; Arthur, Jonathan W; Cheung, Florence SG; Hoque, Ashraful; Lippman, Scott; Reichardt, Juergen KV

2009-01-01

13

Fast and accurate haplotype frequency estimation for large haplotype vectors from pooled DNA data  

PubMed Central

Background Typically, the first phase of a genome wide association study (GWAS) includes genotyping across hundreds of individuals and validation of the most significant SNPs. Allelotyping of pooled genomic DNA is a common approach to reduce the overall cost of the study. Knowledge of haplotype structure can provide additional information to single locus analyses. Several methods have been proposed for estimating haplotype frequencies in a population from pooled DNA data. Results We introduce a technique for haplotype frequency estimation in a population from pooled DNA samples focusing on datasets containing a small number of individuals per pool (2 or 3 individuals) and a large number of markers. We compare our method with the publicly available state-of-the-art algorithms HIPPO and HAPLOPOOL on datasets of varying number of pools and marker sizes. We demonstrate that our algorithm provides improvements in terms of accuracy and computational time over competing methods for large number of markers while demonstrating comparable performance for smaller marker sizes. Our method is implemented in the "Tree-Based Deterministic Sampling Pool" (TDSPool) package which is available for download at http://www.ee.columbia.edu/~anastas/tdspool. Conclusions Using a tree-based determinstic sampling technique we present an algorithm for haplotype frequency estimation from pooled data. Our method demonstrates superior performance in datasets with large number of markers and could be the method of choice for haplotype frequency estimation in such datasets.

2012-01-01

14

Family-based linkage disequilibrium mapping using SNP marker haplotypes: application to a potential locus for schizophrenia at chromosome 22q11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family-based linkage disequilibrium mapping using SNP markers is expected to be a major route to the identification of susceptibility alleles for complex diseases. However there are a number of methodological issues yet to be resolved, including the handling of extended haplotype data and analysis of haplotype transmission in sib-pair or family trio samples. In the present study, we have analysed

T Li; D Ball; J Zhao; R M Murray; X Liu; P C Sham; D A Collier

2000-01-01

15

Computational Problems in Noisy SNP and Haplotype Analysis: Block Scores, Block Identification, and Population Stratification  

Microsoft Academic Search

he study of haplotypes and their diversity in a population is central to disease-association research. We study several problems arising in haplotype block partitioning. Our objective function is the total number of distinct haplotypes in blocks. We show that the problem is NP-hard when there are errors or missing data, and provide approximation algorithms for several of its variants. We

Gad Kimmel; Roded Sharan; Ron Shamir

2004-01-01

16

A Novel Class of Simple PCR Markers with SNP-Level Sensitivity for Mapping and Haplotype Characterization in Solanum Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RB gene from wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum imparts broad-spectrum late blight resistance to cultivated potato. To explore marker associations and haplotype frequencies\\u000a near RB, we developed, optimized, validated, and employed a set of markers specific to the haplotype associated with the RB resistance allele. Our markers, developed using a mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA)-PCR approach, have single\\u000a nucleotide polymorphism-level

Ryan L. Syverson; James M. Bradeen

2011-01-01

17

Rapid gene-based SNP and haplotype marker development in non-model eukaryotes using 3'UTR sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), a non-model crop with narrow genetic diversity, is an important member of sub-family Amygdoloideae within Rosaceae. Compared to other important members like peach and apple, sweet cherry lacks in genetic and genomic information, impeding understanding of important biological processes and development of efficient breeding approaches. Availability of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based molecular markers can greatly benefit breeding efforts in such non-model species. RNA-seq approaches employing second generation sequencing platforms offer a unique avenue to rapidly identify gene-based SNPs. Additionally, haplotype markers can be rapidly generated from transcript-based SNPs since they have been found to be extremely utile in identification of genetic variants related to health, disease and response to environment as highlighted by the human HapMap project. Results RNA-seq was performed on two sweet cherry cultivars, Bing and Rainier using a 3' untranslated region (UTR) sequencing method yielding 43,396 assembled contigs. In order to test our approach of rapid identification of SNPs without any reference genome information, over 25% (10,100) of the contigs were screened for the SNPs. A total of 207 contigs from this set were identified to contain high quality SNPs. A set of 223 primer pairs were designed to amplify SNP containing regions from these contigs and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was performed with eight important parental sweet cherry cultivars. Six of the parent cultivars were distantly related to Bing and Rainier, the cultivars used for initial SNP discovery. Further, HRM analysis was also performed on 13 seedlings derived from a cross between two of the parents. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 84 (38.7%) primer sets that demonstrated variation among the tested germplasm. Reassembly of the raw 3'UTR sequences using upgraded transcriptome assembly software yielded 34,620 contigs containing 2243 putative SNPs in 887 contigs after stringent filtering. Contigs with multiple SNPs were visually parsed to identify 685 putative haplotypes at 335 loci in 301 contigs. Conclusions This approach, which leverages the advantages of RNA-seq approaches, enabled rapid generation of gene-linked SNP and haplotype markers. The general approach presented in this study can be easily applied to other non-model eukaryotes irrespective of the ploidy level to identify gene-linked polymorphisms that are expected to facilitate efficient Gene Assisted Breeding (GAB), genotyping and population genetics studies. The identified SNP haplotypes reveal some of the allelic differences in the two sweet cherry cultivars analyzed. The identification of these SNP and haplotype markers is expected to significantly improve the genomic resources for sweet cherry and facilitate efficient GAB in this non-model crop.

2012-01-01

18

Family study of Rh haplotype frequencies in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Two hundred and two families (404 parents and 448 children) were typed for Rh antigens. The most common Rh haplotype is R1R1 followed by R1R2 and R1r. R1r', R2r', R0r', R0r and r'r are all very rare. The results of observed and expected haplotype frequencies do not differ significantly except few rare phenotypes. However, there are some major differences between Caucasian and Chinese populations in certain Rh genotypes. Although r is the second common genotype in Rh system among Caucasian but is rather rare in Chinese. PMID:2176919

Yung, C H; Chow, M P; Hu, H Y; Mo, L L

1990-07-01

19

Y-chromosome SNP haplotypes suggest evidence of gene flow among caste, tribe, and the migrant Siddi populations of Andhra Pradesh, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

From observations of lack of haplotype sharing based on Y-chromosome specific short tandem repeat (STR) loci, previous reports suggested negligible gene flow among different geographic populations of India. Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sites in combination with STRs, we observed evidence of haplotype sharing across caste-tribe boundaries in South India. We examined 27 SNPs in the non-recombining region of the

Gutala Venkata Ramana; Bing Su; Li Jin; Lalji Singh; Ning Wang; Peter Underhill; Ranajit Chakraborty

2001-01-01

20

SNP and haplotype analysis reveal IGF2 variants associated with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a potent cell growth and differentiation factor and is implicated in mammals' growth and development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the mutations in the bovine IGF2 with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected of the bovine IGF2 by DNA pool sequencing and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (forced PCR-RFLP) methods. We also investigated haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) coefficients for four SNPs in 817 individuals representing two main cattle breeds from China. The result of haplotype analysis showed eight different haplotypes and 27 combined genotypes within the study population. The statistical analyses indicated that the four SNPs, combined genotypes and haplotypes are associated with the withers height, body length, chest breadth, chest depth and body weight in Qinchuan cattle population (P < 0.05 or <0.01). The mutant-type variants and mutant haplotype (Hap 8: ATGG; likely to be the beneficial QTN allele) was superior for growth traits; the heterozygote diplotype was associated with higher growth traits compared to wild-type homozygote. Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms in the IGF2 gene are associated with growth traits, and may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program. PMID:24374893

Huang, Yong-Zhen; Zhan, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xin-Yi; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Sun, Yu-Jia; Xue, Jing; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Jia, Yu-Tang; Chen, Hong

2014-02-01

21

Maximum likelihood model based on minor allele frequencies and weighted Max-SAT formulation for haplotype assembly.  

PubMed

Human haplotypes include essential information about SNPs, which in turn provide valuable information for such studies as finding relationships between some diseases and their potential genetic causes, e.g., for Genome Wide Association Studies. Due to expensiveness of directly determining haplotypes and recent progress in high throughput sequencing, there has been an increasing motivation for haplotype assembly, which is the problem of finding a pair of haplotypes from a set of aligned fragments. Although the problem has been extensively studied and a number of algorithms have already been proposed for the problem, more accurate methods are still beneficial because of high importance of the haplotypes information. In this paper, first, we develop a probabilistic model, that incorporates the Minor Allele Frequency (MAF) of SNP sites, which is missed in the existing maximum likelihood models. Then, we show that the probabilistic model will reduce to the Minimum Error Correction (MEC) model when the information of MAF is omitted and some approximations are made. This result provides a novel theoretical support for the MEC, despite some criticisms against it in the recent literature. Next, under the same approximations, we simplify the model to an extension of the MEC in which the information of MAF is used. Finally, we extend the haplotype assembly algorithm HapSAT by developing a weighted Max-SAT formulation for the simplified model, which is evaluated empirically with positive results. PMID:24491253

Mousavi, Sayyed R; Khodadadi, Ilnaz; Falsafain, Hossein; Nadimi, Reza; Ghadiri, Nasser

2014-06-01

22

Genetic determinants of plasma von Willebrand factor antigen levels: a target gene SNP and haplotype analysis of ARIC cohort  

PubMed Central

von Willebrand factor (VWF) is an essential component of hemostasis and has been implicated in thrombosis. Multimer size and the amount of circulating VWF are known to impact hemostatic function. We associated 78 VWF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes constructed from those SNPs with VWF antigen level in 7856 subjects of European descent. Among the nongenomic factors, age and body mass index contributed 4.8% and 1.6% of VWF variation, respectively. The SNP rs514659 (tags O blood type) contributed 15.4% of the variance. Among the VWF SNPs, we identified 18 SNPs that are associated with levels of VWF. The correlative SNPs are either intronic (89%) or silent exonic (11%). Although SNPs examined are distributed throughout the entire VWF gene without apparent cluster, all the positive SNPs are located in a 50-kb region. Exons in this region encode for VWF D2, D?, and D3 domains that are known to regulate VWF multimerization and storage. Mutations in the D3 domain are also associated with von Willebrand disease. Fifteen of these 18 correlative SNPs are in 2 distinct haplotype blocks. In summary, we identified a cluster of intronic VWF SNPs that associate with plasma levels of VWF, individually or additively, in a large cohort of healthy subjects.

Campos, Marco; Sun, Wei; Yu, Fuli; Barbalic, Maja; Tang, Weihong; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Wu, Kenneth K.; Ballantyne, Christie; Folsom, Aaron R.; Boerwinkle, Eric

2011-01-01

23

An efficient haplotyping method with DNA pools  

PubMed Central

Determination of haplotype frequencies (the joint distribution of genetic markers) in large population samples is a powerful tool for association studies. This is due to their greater extent of polymorphism since any two bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generate a potential four-allele genetic marker. Therefore, a haplotype may capture a given functional polymorphism with higher statistical power than its SNP components. The statistical estimation of haplotype frequencies, usually employed in linkage disequilibrium studies, requires individual genotyping for each SNP in the haplotype, thus making it an expensive process. In this study, we describe a new method for direct measurement of haplotype frequencies in DNA pools by allele-specific, long-range haplotype amplification. The proposed method allows the efficient determination of haplotypes composed of two SNPs in close vicinity (up to 20 kb).

Inbar, Ester; Yakir, Benjamin; Darvasi, Ariel

2002-01-01

24

Detection of recombination events, haplotype reconstruction and imputation of sires using half-sib SNP genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying recombination events and the chromosomal segments that constitute a gamete is useful for a number of applications in genomic analyses. In livestock, genotypic data are commonly available for half-sib families. We propose a straightforward but computationally efficient method to use single nucleotide polymorphism marker genotypes on half-sibs to reconstruct the recombination and segregation events that occurred during meiosis in a sire to form the haplotypes observed in its offspring. These meiosis events determine a block structure in paternal haplotypes of the progeny and this can be used to phase the genotypes of individuals in single half-sib families, to impute haplotypes of the sire if they are not genotyped or to impute the paternal strand of the offspring’s sequence based on sequence data of the sire. Methods The hsphase algorithm exploits information from opposing homozygotes among half-sibs to identify recombination events, and the chromosomal regions from the paternal and maternal strands of the sire (blocks) that were inherited by its progeny. This information is then used to impute the sire’s genotype, which, in turn, is used to phase the half-sib family. Accuracy (defined as R2) and performance of this approach were evaluated by using simulated and real datasets. Phasing results for the half-sibs were benchmarked to other commonly used phasing programs – AlphaPhase, BEAGLE and PedPhase 3. Results Using a simulated dataset with 20 markers per cM, and for a half-sib family size of 4 and 40, the accuracy of block detection, was 0.58 and 0.96, respectively. The accuracy of inferring sire genotypes was 0.75 and 1.00 and the accuracy of phasing was around 0.97, respectively. hsphase was more robust to genotyping errors than PedPhase 3, AlphaPhase and BEAGLE. Computationally, hsphase was much faster than AlphaPhase and BEAGLE. Conclusions In half-sib families of size 8 and above, hsphase can accurately detect block structure of paternal haplotypes, impute genotypes of ungenotyped sires and reconstruct haplotypes in progeny. The method is much faster and more accurate than other widely used population-based phasing programs. A program implementing the method is freely available as an R package (hsphase).

2014-01-01

25

SNP\\/haplotype associations in cytokine and cytokine receptor genes and immunity to rubella vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective immune response to vaccination is, in part, a complex interaction of alleles of multiple genes regulating cytokine\\u000a networks. We conducted a genotyping study of Th1\\/Th2\\/inflammatory cytokines\\/cytokine receptors in healthy children (n?=?738, 11–19 years) to determine associations between individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)\\/haplotypes and immune\\u000a outcomes after two doses of rubella vaccine. SNPs (n?=?501) were selected using the ldSelect-approach and genotyped

Neelam Dhiman; Iana H. Haralambieva; Richard B. Kennedy; Robert A. Vierkant; Megan M. O’Byrne; Inna G. Ovsyannikova; Robert M. Jacobson; Gregory A. Poland

2010-01-01

26

The Structure of Haplotype Blocks in the Human Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haplotype-based methods offer a powerful approach to disease gene mapping, based on the association between causal mutations and the ancestral haplotypes on which they arose. As part of The SNP Consortium Allele Frequency Projects, we characterized haplotype patterns across 51 autosomal regions (spanning 13 megabases of the human genome) in samples from Africa, Europe, and Asia. We show that the

Stacey B. Gabriel; Stephen F. Schaffner; Huy Nguyen; Jamie M. Moore; Jessica Roy; Brendan Blumenstiel; John Higgins; Matthew DeFelice; Amy Lochner; Maura Faggart; Shau Neen Liu-Cordero; Charles Rotimi; Adebowale Adeyemo; Richard Cooper; Ryk Ward; Eric S. Lander; Mark J. Daly; David Altshuler

2002-01-01

27

Molecular mapping of soybean rust resistance in soybean accession PI 561356 and SNP haplotype analysis of the Rpp1 region in diverse germplasm.  

PubMed

Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is one of the most economically important and destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and the discovery of novel SBR resistance genes is needed because of virulence diversity in the pathogen. The objectives of this research were to map SBR resistance in plant introduction (PI) 561356 and to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes within the region on soybean chromosome 18 where the SBR resistance gene Rpp1 maps. One-hundred F(2:3) lines derived from a cross between PI 561356 and the susceptible experimental line LD02-4485 were genotyped with genetic markers and phenotyped for resistance to P. pachyrhizi isolate ZM01-1. The segregation ratio of reddish brown versus tan lesion type in the population supported that resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene. The gene was mapped to a 1-cM region on soybean chromosome 18 corresponding to the same interval as Rpp1. A haplotype analysis of diverse germplasm across a 213-kb interval that included Rpp1 revealed 21 distinct haplotypes of which 4 were present among 5 SBR resistance sources that have a resistance gene in the Rpp1 region. Four major North American soybean ancestors belong to the same SNP haplotype as PI 561356 and seven belong to the same haplotype as PI 594538A, the Rpp1-b source. There were no North American soybean ancestors belonging to the SNP haplotypes found in PI 200492, the source of Rpp1, or PI 587886 and PI 587880A, additional sources with SBR resistance mapping to the Rpp1 region. PMID:22837016

Kim, Ki-Seung; Unfried, Jair R; Hyten, David L; Frederick, Reid D; Hartman, Glen L; Nelson, Randall L; Song, Qijian; Diers, Brian W

2012-10-01

28

Multi-allelic haplotype association identifies novel information different from single-SNP analysis: A new protective haplotype in the LRP8 gene is against familial and early-onset CAD and MI  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies identified a functional SNP, R952Q in the LRP8 gene, that was associated with increased platelet activation and familial and early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in American and Italian Caucasian populations. In this study, we analyzed four additional SNPs near R952Q (rs7546246, rs2297660, rs3737983, rs5177) to identify a specific LRP8 SNP haplotype that is associated with familial and early-onset CAD and MI. We employed a case–control association design involving 381 premature CAD and MI probands and 560 controls in GeneQuest, 441 individuals from 22 large pedigrees in GeneQuest II, and 248 MI patients with family history and 308 controls in an Italian cohort. Like R952Q, LRP8 SNPs rs7546246, rs2297660, rs3737983, and rs5177 were significantly associated with early-onset CAD/MI in both population-based and family-based association studies in GeneQuest. The results were replicated in the GeneQuest II family-based population and the Italian population. We then carried out a haplotype analysis for all five SNPs including R952Q. One common haplotype (TCCGC) was significantly associated with CAD (P = 4.0 × 10?11) and MI (P = 6.5 × 10?12) in GeneQuest with odds ratios of 0.53 and 0.42, respectively. The results were replicated in the Italian cohort (P = 0.004, OR = 0.71). The sib-TDT analysis also showed significant association between the TCCGC haplotype and CAD in GeneQuest II (P = 0.001). These results suggest that a common LRP8 haplotype TCCGC confers a significant protective effect on the development of familial, early-onset CAD and/or MI.

Shen, Gong-Qing; Girelli, Domenico; Li, Lin; Olivieri, Oliviero; Martinelli, Nicola; Chen, Qiuyun; Topol, Eric J.; Wang, Qing K.

2014-01-01

29

Dynamics of haplotype frequency change in a CD8+TL epitope of simian immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

Deep pyrosequencing of a CD8+TL epitope from the Tat protein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from four infected rhesus macaques carrying the restricting MHC allele (Mamu-A*01) for that epitope, revealed that natural selection favoring escape mutations led to an increase in the frequency of haplotypes in the epitope region that differed from the inoculum. After 20 weeks of infection, a new sequence haplotype in the epitope region had increased to a frequency greater than 50% in each of the four monkeys (range 57.9-98.9%); but the predominant haplotype was not the same in all four monkeys. Thus, even under strong selection favoring escape from CD8+TL recognition, the random nature of mutation itself is the primary factor affecting which escape mutation is likely to become predominant within an individual host. The relationship between the frequency of the inoculum haplotype in the epitope region and time post-infection approximated a simple hyperbola. On this assumption, the expected ratio of the frequencies at the inoculum at two times t(1) and t(2), f(i)(t(2))/f(i)(t(1)), will be given by t(1)/t(2). Because standard phylogenetic methods for reconstructing ancestral sequences failed to predict the inoculum sequence correctly, we used this relationship to predict the inoculum sequence with 100% accuracy, given data on haplotype frequencies at different time periods. PMID:20149896

Hughes, Austin L; O'Connor, Shelby; Dudley, Dawn M; Burwitz, Benjamin J; Bimber, Benjamin N; O'Connor, David

2010-05-01

30

Dynamics of Haplotype Frequency Change in a CD8+TL Epitope of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Deep pyrosequencing of a CD8+TL epitope from the Tat protein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from four infected rhesus macaques carrying the restricting MHC allele (Mamu-A*01) for that epitope, revealed that natural selection favoring escape mutations led to an increase in the frequency of haplotypes in the epitope region that differed from the inoculum. After 20 weeks of infection, a new sequence haplotype in the epitope region had increased to a frequency greater than 50% in each of the four monkeys (range 57.9%–98.9%); but the predominant haplotype was not the same in all four monkeys. Thus, even under strong selection favoring escape from CD8+TL recognition, the random nature of mutation itself is the primary factor affecting which escape mutation is likely to become predominant within an individual host. The relationship between the frequency of the inoculum haplotype in the epitope region and time post infection approximated a simple hyperbola. On this assumption, the expected ratio of the frequencies at the inoculum at two times t1 and t2, fi (t2)/fi (t1), will be given by t1 / t2. Because standard phylogenetic methods for reconstructing ancestral sequences failed to predict the inoculum sequence correctly, we used this relationship to predict the inoculum sequence with 100% accuracy, given data on haplotype frequencies at different time periods.

Hughes, Austin L.; O'Connor, Shelby; Dudley, Dawn M.; Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Bimber, Benjamin N.; O'Connor, David

2010-01-01

31

Maximum-parsimony haplotype frequencies inference based on a joint constrained sparse representation of pooled DNA  

PubMed Central

Background DNA pooling constitutes a cost effective alternative in genome wide association studies. In DNA pooling, equimolar amounts of DNA from different individuals are mixed into one sample and the frequency of each allele in each position is observed in a single genotype experiment. The identification of haplotype frequencies from pooled data in addition to single locus analysis is of separate interest within these studies as haplotypes could increase statistical power and provide additional insight. Results We developed a method for maximum-parsimony haplotype frequency estimation from pooled DNA data based on the sparse representation of the DNA pools in a dictionary of haplotypes. Extensions to scenarios where data is noisy or even missing are also presented. The resulting method is first applied to simulated data based on the haplotypes and their associated frequencies of the AGT gene. We further evaluate our methodology on datasets consisting of SNPs from the first 7Mb of the HapMap CEU population. Noise and missing data were further introduced in the datasets in order to test the extensions of the proposed method. Both HIPPO and HAPLOPOOL were also applied to these datasets to compare performances. Conclusions We evaluate our methodology on scenarios where pooling is more efficient relative to individual genotyping; that is, in datasets that contain pools with a small number of individuals. We show that in such scenarios our methodology outperforms state-of-the-art methods such as HIPPO and HAPLOPOOL.

2013-01-01

32

Estimating haplotype frequencies by combining data from large DNA pools with database information.  

PubMed

We assume that allele frequency data have been extracted from several large DNA pools, each containing genetic material of up to hundreds of sampled individuals. Our goal is to estimate the haplotype frequencies among the sampled individuals by combining the pooled allele frequency data with prior knowledge about the set of possible haplotypes. Such prior information can be obtained, for example, from a database such as HapMap. We present a Bayesian haplotyping method for pooled DNA based on a continuous approximation of the multinomial distribution. The proposed method is applicable when the sizes of the DNA pools and/or the number of considered loci exceed the limits of several earlier methods. In the example analyses, the proposed model clearly outperforms a deterministic greedy algorithm on real data from the HapMap database. With a small number of loci, the performance of the proposed method is similar to that of an EM-algorithm, which uses a multinormal approximation for the pooled allele frequencies, but which does not utilize prior information about the haplotypes. The method has been implemented using Matlab and the code is available upon request from the authors. PMID:21071795

Gasbarra, Dario; Kulathinal, Sangita; Pirinen, Matti; Sillanpää, Mikko J

2011-01-01

33

Novel Quantitative Real-Time LCR for the Sensitive Detection of SNP Frequencies in Pooled DNA: Method Development, Evaluation and Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSingle nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have proven to be powerful genetic markers for genetic applications in medicine, life science and agriculture. A variety of methods exist for SNP detection but few can quantify SNP frequencies when the mutated DNA molecules correspond to a small fraction of the wild-type DNA. Furthermore, there is no generally accepted gold standard for SNP quantification, and,

Androniki Psifidi; Chrysostomos Dovas; Georgios Banos; Katy C. Kao

2011-01-01

34

Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in populations of the East European Plain  

PubMed Central

Background It was demonstrated previously that the three-locus RFLP haplotype, TaqI B-TaqI D-TaqI A (B-D-A), at the DRD2 locus constitutes a powerful genetic marker and probably reflects the most ancient dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Results We investigated TaqI B, BclI, MboI, TaqI D, and TaqI A RFLPs in 17 contemporary populations of the East European Plain and Siberia. Most of these populations belong to the Indo-European or Uralic language families. We identified three common haplotypes, which occurred in more than 90% of chromosomes investigated. The frequencies of the haplotypes differed according to linguistic and geographical affiliation. Conclusion Populations in the northwestern (Byelorussians from Mjadel'), northern (Russians from Mezen' and Oshevensk), and eastern (Russians from Puchezh) parts of the East European Plain had relatively high frequencies of haplotype B2-D2-A2, which may reflect admixture with Uralic-speaking populations that inhabited all of these regions in the Early Middle Ages.

Flegontova, Olga V; Khrunin, Andrey V; Lylova, Olga I; Tarskaia, Larisa A; Spitsyn, Victor A; Mikulich, Alexey I; Limborska, Svetlana A

2009-01-01

35

Comparative validation of computer programs for haplotype frequency estimation from donor registry data.  

PubMed

Estimation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype frequencies from unrelated stem cell donor registries presents a challenge because of large sample sizes and heterogeneity of HLA typing data. For the 14th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop, five bioinformatics groups initiated the 'Registry Diversity Component' aiming to cross-validate and improve current haplotype estimation tools. Five datasets were derived from different donor registries and then used as input for five different computer programs for haplotype frequency estimation. Because of issues related to heterogeneity and complexity of HLA typing data identified in the initial phase, the same five implementations, and two new ones, were used on simulated datasets in a controlled experiment where the correct results were known a priori. These datasets contained various fractions of missing HLA-DR modeled after European haplotype frequencies. We measured the contribution of sampling fluctuation and estimation error to the deviation of the frequencies from their true values, finding equivalent contributions of each for the chosen samples. Because of patient-directed activities, selective prospective typing strategies and the variety and evolution of typing technology, some donors have more complete and better HLA data. In this setting, we show that restricting estimation to fully typed individuals introduces biases that could be overcome by including all donors in frequency estimation. Our study underlines the importance of critical review and validation of tools in registry-related activity and provides a sustainable framework for validating the computational tools used. Accurate frequencies are essential for match prediction to improve registry operations and to help more patients identify suitably matched donors. PMID:23849067

Eberhard, H-P; Madbouly, A S; Gourraud, P A; Balère, M L; Feldmann, U; Gragert, L; Torres, H Maldonado; Pingel, J; Schmidt, A H; Steiner, D; van der Zanden, H G M; Oudshoorn, M; Marsh, S G E; Maiers, M; Müller, C R

2013-08-01

36

SNP and haplotype analysis of paired box 3 (PAX3) gene provide evidence for association with growth traits in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

Paired box 3 (PAX3) belongs to the PAX superfamily of transcription factors and plays essential roles in the embryogenesis and postnatal formation of limb musculature through affecting the survival of muscle progenitor cells. By genetic mapping, PAX3 gene is assigned in the interval of quantitative trait loci for body weight on bovine BTA2. The objectives of this study were to detect polymorphisms of PAX3 gene in 1,241 cattle from five breeds and to investigate their effects on growth traits. Initially, three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by DNA pool sequencing and aCRS-RFLP methods (AC_000159: g.T-580G, g.A4617C and g.79018Ins/del G), which were located at 5'-UTR, exon 4 and intron 6, respectively. A total of eight haplotypes were constructed and the frequency of the three main haplotypes H1 (TAG), H2 (GCG) and H3 (GAG) accounted for over 81.7 % of the total individuals. Statistical analysis revealed that the three SNPs were associated with body height and body length of Nanyang and Chinese Caoyuan cattle at the age of 6 and/or 12 months old (P < 0.05), and consistently significant effects were also found in the haplotype combination analysis on these traits (P < 0.05). This study presented a complete scan of variations within bovine PAX3 gene, which could provide evidence for improving the economic traits of cattle by using these variations as potentially genetic markers in early marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:24570025

Xu, Yao; Cai, Hanfang; Zhou, Yang; Shi, Tao; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Lei, Chuzhao; Jia, Yutang; Chen, Hong

2014-07-01

37

High-Throughput SNP Allele-Frequency Determination in Pooled DNA Samples by Kinetic PCR  

PubMed Central

We have developed an accurate, yet inexpensive and high-throughput, method for determining the allele frequency of biallelic polymorphisms in pools of DNA samples. The assay combines kinetic (real-time quantitative) PCR with allele-specific amplification and requires no post-PCR processing. The relative amounts of each allele in a sample are quantified. This is performed by dividing equal aliquots of the pooled DNA between two separate PCR reactions, each of which contains a primer pair specific to one or the other allelic SNP variant. For pools with equal amounts of the two alleles, the two amplifications should reach a detectable level of fluorescence at the same cycle number. For pools that contain unequal ratios of the two alleles, the difference in cycle number between the two amplification reactions can be used to calculate the relative allele amounts. We demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the assay on samples with known predetermined SNP allele frequencies from 5% to 95%, including pools of both human and mouse DNAs using eight different SNPs altogether. The accuracy of measuring known allele frequencies is very high, with the strength of correlation between measured and known frequencies having an r2?=?0.997. The loss of sensitivity as a result of measurement error is typically minimal, compared with that due to sampling error alone, for population samples up to 1000. We believe that by providing a means for SNP genotyping up to thousands of samples simultaneously, inexpensively, and reproducibly, this method is a powerful strategy for detecting meaningful polymorphic differences in candidate gene association studies and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium scans.

Germer, S?ren; Holland, Michael J.; Higuchi, Russell

2000-01-01

38

Investigation of loss of heterozygosity and SNP frequencies in the RET gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

In both medullary carcinoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, altered expression of the RET gene is implicated in tumorigenesis. Recent studies suggest that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the G691S SNP may be associated with tumors from patients with a history of radiation exposure. We investigated LOH for three RET SNPs (G691S, S904S, and L769L) in tumor and normal tissue from 46 patients from Ukraine and Belarus who were exposed to radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl nuclear accident and were operated for papillary thyroid carcinoma between 1995 and 2000. Normal tissue from 28 patients was heterozygous for at least one SNP; DNA from the corresponding tumor samples was also heterozygous, indicating that no LOH had taken place. To assess SNP frequencies in a radiation-associated thyroid cancer cohort, we investigated a further 68 unpaired post-Chernobyl samples. For G691S, there was considerable deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; more detailed analysis showed that this was linked to age at onset of disease. Among younger patients, the distribution of genotypes conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; among older patients, we observed marked deviation (p = 0.0072), with significant over-representation of the rare S allele relative to the younger groups (Fisher's exact, p = 0.0233). This suggests that SNPs in the RET oncogene may play a role in sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:15753666

Stephens, L A; Powell, N G; Grubb, J; Jeremiah, S J; Bethel, J A; Demidchik, E P; Bogdanova, T I; Tronko, M D; Thomas, G A

2005-02-01

39

The discrete Laplace exponential family and estimation of Y-STR haplotype frequencies.  

PubMed

Estimating haplotype frequencies is important in e.g. forensic genetics, where the frequencies are needed to calculate the likelihood ratio for the evidential weight of a DNA profile found at a crime scene. Estimation is naturally based on a population model, motivating the investigation of the Fisher-Wright model of evolution for haploid lineage DNA markers. An exponential family (a class of probability distributions that is well understood in probability theory such that inference is easily made by using existing software) called the 'discrete Laplace distribution' is described. We illustrate how well the discrete Laplace distribution approximates a more complicated distribution that arises by investigating the well-known population genetic Fisher-Wright model of evolution by a single-step mutation process. It was shown how the discrete Laplace distribution can be used to estimate haplotype frequencies for haploid lineage DNA markers (such as Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats), which in turn can be used to assess the evidential weight of a DNA profile found at a crime scene. This was done by making inference in a mixture of multivariate, marginally independent, discrete Laplace distributions using the EM algorithm to estimate the probabilities of membership of a set of unobserved subpopulations. The discrete Laplace distribution can be used to estimate haplotype frequencies with lower prediction error than other existing estimators. Furthermore, the calculations could be performed on a normal computer. This method was implemented in the freely available open source software R that is supported on Linux, MacOS and MS Windows. PMID:23524164

Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

2013-07-21

40

Haplotype Association between Haptoglobin (Hp2) and Hp Promoter SNP (A-61C) May Explain Previous Controversy of Haptoglobin and Malaria Protection  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is one of the strongest recent selective pressures on the human genome, as evidenced by the high levels of varying haemoglobinopathies in human populations–despite the increased risk of mortality in the homozygous states. Previously, functional polymorphisms of Hp, coded by the co-dominant alleles Hp1 and Hp2, have been variously associated with several infectious diseases, including malaria susceptibility. Methodology/Principal Findings Risk of a clinical malarial episode over the course of a malarial transmission season was assessed using active surveillance in a cohort of Gambian children aged 10–72 months. We report for the first time that the major haplotype for the A-61C mutant allele in the promoter of haptoglobin (Hp)–an acute phase protein that clears haemoglobin released from haemolysis of red cells–is associated with protection from malarial infection in older children, (children aged ?36 months, >500 parasites/ul and temperature >37.5°C; OR?=?0.42; [95% CI 0.24–0.73] p?=?0.002) (lr test for interaction, <36 vs ?36 months, p?=?0.014). Protection was also observed using two other definitions, including temperature >37.5°C, dipstick positive, plus clinical judgement of malaria blinded to dipstick result (all ages, OR?=?0.48, [95% CI 0.30–0.78] p?=?0.003; ?36 months, OR?=?0.31, [95% CI 0.15–0.62] p?=?0.001). A similar level of protection was observed for the known protective genetic variant, sickle cell trait (HbAS). Conclusions/Significance We propose that previous conflicting results between Hp phenotypes/genotypes and malaria susceptibility may be explained by differing prevalence of the A-61C SNP in the populations studied, which we found to be highly associated with the Hp2 allele. We report the -61C allele to be associated with decreased Hp protein levels (independent of Hp phenotype), confirming in vitro studies. Decreased Hp expression may lead to increased oxidant stress and increased red cell turnover, and facilitate the development of acquired immunity, similar to a mechanism suggested for sickle cell trait.

Cox, Sharon E.; Doherty, Conor; Atkinson, Sarah H.; Nweneka, Chidi V.; Fulford, Anthony J.C.; Ghattas, Hala; Rockett, Kirk A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Prentice, Andrew M.

2007-01-01

41

A substantially lower frequency of uninformative matches between 23 versus 17 Y-STR haplotypes in north Western Europe.  

PubMed

The analysis of human short tandem repeats of the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs) provides a powerful tool in forensic cases for male sex identification, male lineage identification and identification of the geographical origin of male lineages. As the commonly used 12 and 17 Y-STR multiplexes do not discriminate between some unrelated males, additional Y-STRs were implemented in the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System to supplement the existing commercial Y-STR kits. Until today, the forensic value of a (near) 23 versus 17 Y-STR haplotype match between an unknown DNA donor and a certain biological sample in a database is not yet well studied. This will be of huge interest for cases where an autosomal DNA profile yields no match to a DNA database and the database is used for familial searching (male relative(s) of the offender) or for the estimation of the geographical origin of the offender. In order to value (near) 23 Y-STR haplotype matches in a local sample from Western Europe, we selected the region of Flanders (Belgium) due to the already present knowledge on its Y-chromosomal variants. Many Y-chromosomes of this region were previously genotyped with Y-SNPs at a high resolution of the most recently updated Y-chromosomal tree and the deep-rooted genealogy of each DNA donor was already established. By comparing (near) matches of 23 versus 17 Y-STR haplotypes between patrilineal-unrelated males, a substantial lower number of uninformative (near) 23 Y-STR haplotype matches has been observed compared to 17 Y-STR haplotypes. Furthermore, the use of SNP data was informative to discriminate >60% of unrelated males with an (near) identical 17 Y-STR match while SNP data was only necessary to discriminate about 10% of unrelated males with a 23 Y-STR haplotype that differed at only two Y-STRs. This shows the higher value of the Y23 haplotype within familial DNA searching and the estimation of the geographical origin of a DNA donor. Therefore, the use of the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System instead of the commonly used 12 and 17 Y-STRs by the forensic community is recommended as it will increase the efficiency of Y-STRs in forensic casework. PMID:24815371

Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Decorte, Ronny

2014-07-01

42

Genotype variability and haplotype frequency of MDR1 (ABCB1) gene polymorphism in Morocco.  

PubMed

The multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) plays an important role in the transport of a wide range of drugs and elimination of xenobiotics from the body. Identification of polymorphisms and haplotypes in the MDR1 gene might not only help understand pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, but also can help in the prediction of drug responses, toxicity, and side effects, especially, in the era of personalized medicine. We have analyzed the genotypic and haplotypic frequencies of the three most common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene in a sample of 100 unrelated healthy Moroccan subjects by polymerase chain reaction-restrictive fragment length polymorphism. The observed genotype frequencies were 43% for 1236CC, 49% for 1236CT, and 8% for 1236TT in exon 12; 49% for 2677GG, 47% for 2677GT, and 4% for 2677TT in exon 21; 39% for 3435CC, 51% 3435CT for 3435TT, and 10% for 3435TT in exon 26, respectively. We found that all polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between the three polymorphisms, the strongest LD in our study has been observed between C1236T and G2677T (D'=0.76; r(2)=0.45). We identified eight haplotypes, the most frequent were 1236C-2677G-3435C (53%), 1236T-2677T-3435T (21%), and 1236C-2677G-3435T (10%), respectively. Our findings might facilitate future studies on pharmacokinetics of P-glycoprotein substrate drugs and interindividual variability to drugs in Moroccan patients. PMID:23930592

Kassogue, Yaya; Dehbi, Hind; Nassereddine, Sanaa; Quachouh, Meryem; Nadifi, Sellama

2013-10-01

43

Allele frequencies for 40 autosomal SNP loci typed for US population samples using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aim To type a set of 194 US African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic samples (self-declared ancestry) for 40 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers intended for human identification purposes. Methods Genotyping was performed on an automated commercial electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the PLEX-ID. The 40 SNP markers were amplified in eight unique 5plex PCRs, desalted, and resolved based on amplicon mass. For each of the three US sample groups statistical analyses were performed on the resulting genotypes. Results The assay was found to be robust and capable of genotyping the 40 SNP markers consuming approximately 4 nanograms of template per sample. The combined random match probabilities for the 40 SNP assay ranged from 10?16 to 10?21. Conclusion The multiplex PLEX-ID SNP-40 assay is the first fully automated genotyping method capable of typing a panel of 40 forensically relevant autosomal SNP markers on a mass spectrometry platform. The data produced provided the first allele frequencies estimates for these 40 SNPs in a National Institute of Standards and Technology US population sample set. No population bias was detected although one locus deviated from its expected level of heterozygosity.

Kiesler, Kevin M.; Vallone, Peter M.

2013-01-01

44

Detection of genetic integrity of conserved maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm in genebanks using SNP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty maize landrace accessions regenerated and conserved in five maize genebanks were investigated for genetic integrity\\u000a using 1,150 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and 235 SNP haplotypes. The genetic diversity of three accessions changed\\u000a significantly in terms of the average number of alleles per locus. Ten out of twenty accessions had significantly different\\u000a SNP allelic frequencies, either after regeneration or in

Weiwei Wen; Suketoshi Taba; Trushar Shah; Victor H. Chavez Tovar; Jianbing Yan

2011-01-01

45

Frequency of alleles and haplotypes of the human leukocyte antigen system in Bauru, S?o Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background: HLA allele identification is used in bone marrow transplant programs as HLA compatibility between the donor and recipient may prevent graft rejection. Objective: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of alleles and haplotypes of the HLA system in the region of Bauru and compare these with the frequencies found in other regions of the country. Methods: HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* allele frequencies and haplotypes were analyzed in a sample of 3542 volunteer donors at the National Registry of Voluntary Bone Marrow Donors (REDOME) in Bauru. HLA low resolution typing was performed using reverse line blot with the Dynal Reli(tm) SSO-HLA Typing Kit and automated Dynal AutoReli(tm)48 device (Invitrogen, USA). Results: Twenty, 36, and 13 HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* allele groups, respectively, were identified. The most common alleles for each locus were HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, and HLA-DRB1*07. The most frequent haplotype was A*01-B*08-DRB1*03. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared to other regions in Brazil and the similarities and differences among populations are shown. Conclusion: The knowledge of the immunogenic profile of a population contributes to the comprehension of the historical and anthropological aspects of different regions. Moreover, this helps to find suitable donors quickly, thereby shortening waiting lists for transplants and thus increasing survival rates among recipients.

Salvadori, Luana de Cassia; Santana, Fabiana Covolo de Souza; Marcos, Elaine Valim Camarinha

2014-01-01

46

Frequency of Delta-F508 Mutation and XV2C\\/KM19 Haplotypes in Cuban Cystic Fibrosis Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the frequency of the ?F508 mutation and haplotypes linked to the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene in Cuba. The ?F508 deletion was detected in 34.0% of the CF chromosomes. There was a shortage of ?F508 heterozygotes, suggesting non-randomness in mating patterns. Haplotype B (XV2C\\/KM19 1\\/2) was found on 40.5% of the CF chromosomes (71.5% of ?F508 chromosomes, 28.3% of

T. Collazo; C. Magarino; R. Chavez; B. Suardiaz; S. Gispert; M. Gomez; M. Rojo; L. Heredero

1995-01-01

47

Detecting Local Haplotype Sharing and Haplotype Association  

PubMed Central

A novel haplotype association method is presented, and its power is demonstrated. Relying on a statistical model for linkage disequilibrium (LD), the method first infers ancestral haplotypes and their loadings at each marker for each individual. The loadings are then used to quantify local haplotype sharing between individuals at each marker. A statistical model was developed to link the local haplotype sharing and phenotypes to test for association. We devised a novel method to fit the LD model, reducing the complexity from putatively quadratic to linear (in the number of ancestral haplotypes). Therefore, the LD model can be fitted to all study samples simultaneously, and, consequently, our method is applicable to big data sets. Compared to existing haplotype association methods, our method integrated out phase uncertainty, avoided arbitrariness in specifying haplotypes, and had the same number of tests as the single-SNP analysis. We applied our method to data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium and discovered eight novel associations between seven gene regions and five disease phenotypes. Among these, GRIK4, which encodes a protein that belongs to the glutamate-gated ionic channel family, is strongly associated with both coronary artery disease and rheumatoid arthritis. A software package implementing methods described in this article is freely available at http://www.haplotype.org.

Xu, Hanli; Guan, Yongtao

2014-01-01

48

Application of site and haplotype-frequency based approaches for detecting selection signatures in cattle  

PubMed Central

Background 'Selection signatures' delimit regions of the genome that are, or have been, functionally important and have therefore been under either natural or artificial selection. In this study, two different and complementary methods--integrated Haplotype Homozygosity Score (|iHS|) and population differentiation index (FST)--were applied to identify traces of decades of intensive artificial selection for traits of economic importance in modern cattle. Results We scanned the genome of a diverse set of dairy and beef breeds from Germany, Canada and Australia genotyped with a 50 K SNP panel. Across breeds, a total of 109 extreme |iHS| values exceeded the empirical threshold level of 5% with 19, 27, 9, 10 and 17 outliers in Holstein, Brown Swiss, Australian Angus, Hereford and Simmental, respectively. Annotating the regions harboring clustered |iHS| signals revealed a panel of interesting candidate genes like SPATA17, MGAT1, PGRMC2 and ACTC1, COL23A1, MATN2, respectively, in the context of reproduction and muscle formation. In a further step, a new Bayesian FST-based approach was applied with a set of geographically separated populations including Holstein, Brown Swiss, Simmental, North American Angus and Piedmontese for detecting differentiated loci. In total, 127 regions exceeding the 2.5 per cent threshold of the empirical posterior distribution were identified as extremely differentiated. In a substantial number (56 out of 127 cases) the extreme FST values were found to be positioned in poor gene content regions which deviated significantly (p < 0.05) from the expectation assuming a random distribution. However, significant FST values were found in regions of some relevant genes such as SMCP and FGF1. Conclusions Overall, 236 regions putatively subject to recent positive selection in the cattle genome were detected. Both |iHS| and FST suggested selection in the vicinity of the Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5 gene on BTA18. This region was recently reported to be a major QTL with strong effects on productive life and fertility traits in Holstein cattle. We conclude that high-resolution genome scans of selection signatures can be used to identify genomic regions contributing to within- and inter-breed phenotypic variation.

2011-01-01

49

JAK2 germline genetic variation affects disease susceptibility in primary myelofibrosis regardless of V617F mutational status: nullizygosity for the JAK2 46\\/1 haplotype is associated with inferior survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common JAK2 germline haplotype (46\\/1) has been associated with JAK2V617F (VF)-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms. The rs12343867 SNP (C\\/T) tags this haplotype. A total of 130 patients (77 VF-positive) with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) were analyzed for this informative SNP, using bone marrow-derived DNA. The observed 46\\/1 C allele frequencies in VF-positive (50%) and VF-negative (36%) patients were both significantly higher than

A Tefferi; T L Lasho; M M Patnaik; C M Finke; K Hussein; W J Hogan; M A Elliott; M R Litzow; C A Hanson; A Pardanani; A Tefferi

2010-01-01

50

HLA class I antigen and HLA-A, -B, and -C haplotype frequencies in Uruguayans.  

PubMed

HLA class I antigens were determined for 959 unrelated Uruguayans. The predominant HLA alleles were A2, Cw4, and B35, and the most frequently observed two-loci haplotypes were A2-B44 and B35-Cw4. The most frequent three-loci HLA haplotype was A2-Cw5-B44. We compared the Uruguayan sample with similar data from other populations. PMID:17278625

Alvarez, Ines; Bengochea, Milka; Toledo, Roberto; Carretto, Elena; Hidalgo, Pedro C

2006-08-01

51

CYP1B1 Mutation Profile of Iranian Primary Congenital Glaucoma Patients and Associated Haplotypes  

PubMed Central

The mutation spectrum of CYP1B1 among 104 primary congenital glaucoma patients of the genetically heterogeneous Iranian population was investigated by sequencing. We also determined intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes associated with the mutations and compared these with haplotypes of other populations. Finally, the frequency distribution of the haplotypes was compared among primary congenital glaucoma patients with and without CYP1B1 mutations and normal controls. Genotype classification of six high-frequency SNPs was performed using the PHASE 2.0 software. CYP1B1 mutations in the Iranian patients were very heterogeneous. Nineteen nonconservative mutations associated with disease, and 10 variations not associated with disease were identified. Ten mutations and three variations not associated with disease were novel. The 13 novel variations make a notable contribution to the ?70 known variations in the gene. CYP1B1 mutations were identified in 70% of the patients. The four most common mutations were G61E, R368H, R390H, and R469W, which together constituted 76.2% of the CYP1B1 mutated alleles found. Six unique core SNP haplotypes were identified, four of which were common to the patients with and without CYP1B1 mutations and controls studied. Three SNP blocks determined the haplotypes. Comparison of haplotypes with those of other populations suggests a common origin for many of the mutations.

Chitsazian, Fereshteh; Tusi, Betsabeh Khoramian; Elahi, Elahe; Saroei, Heidar Amini; Sanati, Mohammad H.; Yazdani, Shahin; Pakravan, Mohammad; Nilforooshan, Navid; Eslami, Yadollah; Mehrjerdi, Mohammad Ali Zare; Zareei, Reza; Jabbarvand, Mahmood; Abdolahi, Ali; Lasheyee, Ali R.; Etemadi, Arash; Bayat, Behnaz; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Banoei, Mohammad M.; Ghafarzadeh, Behnam; Rohani, Mohammad R.; Rismanchian, Akram; Thorstenson, Yvonne; Sarfarazi, Mansoor

2007-01-01

52

CYP1B1 mutation profile of Iranian primary congenital glaucoma patients and associated haplotypes.  

PubMed

The mutation spectrum of CYP1B1 among 104 primary congenital glaucoma patients of the genetically heterogeneous Iranian population was investigated by sequencing. We also determined intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes associated with the mutations and compared these with haplotypes of other populations. Finally, the frequency distribution of the haplotypes was compared among primary congenital glaucoma patients with and without CYP1B1 mutations and normal controls. Genotype classification of six high-frequency SNPs was performed using the PHASE 2.0 software. CYP1B1 mutations in the Iranian patients were very heterogeneous. Nineteen nonconservative mutations associated with disease, and 10 variations not associated with disease were identified. Ten mutations and three variations not associated with disease were novel. The 13 novel variations make a notable contribution to the approximately 70 known variations in the gene. CYP1B1 mutations were identified in 70% of the patients. The four most common mutations were G61E, R368H, R390H, and R469W, which together constituted 76.2% of the CYP1B1 mutated alleles found. Six unique core SNP haplotypes were identified, four of which were common to the patients with and without CYP1B1 mutations and controls studied. Three SNP blocks determined the haplotypes. Comparison of haplotypes with those of other populations suggests a common origin for many of the mutations. PMID:17591938

Chitsazian, Fereshteh; Tusi, Betsabeh Khoramian; Elahi, Elahe; Saroei, Heidar Amini; Sanati, Mohammad H; Yazdani, Shahin; Pakravan, Mohammad; Nilforooshan, Navid; Eslami, Yadollah; Mehrjerdi, Mohammad Ali Zare; Zareei, Reza; Jabbarvand, Mahmood; Abdolahi, Ali; Lasheyee, Ali R; Etemadi, Arash; Bayat, Behnaz; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Banoei, Mohammad M; Ghafarzadeh, Behnam; Rohani, Mohammad R; Rismanchian, Akram; Thorstenson, Yvonne; Sarfarazi, Mansoor

2007-07-01

53

PTPRJ haplotypes and colorectal cancer risk.  

PubMed

Recent studies from mouse mapping studies for cancer susceptibility have successfully led to the identification of a handful of susceptibility genes. Ptprj was identified as a strong candidate gene for mouse locus susceptibility to colorectal cancer 1, and one variant, rs1566734, showed evidence of preferential allelic imbalance in human colorectal tumors. Haplotypes in human PTPRJ have also been associated with protective effects for breast cancer risk. To determine if variants or haplotype in PTPRJ confer protective or risk effects for colorectal cancer (CRC), we genotyped rs1566734 and six additional PTPRJ haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in CRC cases and controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. There was no evidence for cancer risk with rs1566734 in 1,897 cases and 1,954 controls with a homozygote odds ratio of 1.09 and 95% confidence interval of 0.85 to 1.39. The 6 tagging SNPs resulted in 6 main haplotypes (frequencies, >1%). None of the six tagSNPs individually showed significant evidence for risk; however, rs1503185 showed a nonsignificant protective effect. One haplotype was overrepresented in cases compared with controls, corresponding to a 34% increase in risk CRC, but there was no significant difference overall in haplotype frequencies between cases and controls (global test P statistic=0.19). From this study, we observe no significant increase in risk for human CRC with variants or haplotypes in PTPRJ. Additional studies are warranted to study possible PTPRJ-interacting loci, which are observed with Scc1 in the mouse models for CRC susceptibility. PMID:18843023

Toland, Amanda E; Rozek, Laura S; Presswala, Shafaq; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B

2008-10-01

54

Comparison of haplotype frequencies differentiate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Florida and Brazil.  

PubMed

Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Populations can be subdivided into two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These strains can be distinguished by using polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. Additional sequence analysis of this locus identified two sites that were highly polymorphic in the corn-strain population and that produced four different haplotype subgroups. Comparisons of the frequency distribution of these haplotypes found no seasonal or plant host specificities, but they did demonstrate that the Brazil corn-strain population is different from corn-strain fall armyworm found in Florida. The development of a rapid means of distinguishing fall armyworm populations originating from Brazil versus Florida provides an opportunity for investigating and comparing the genetic complexity and long-range movements of this important agricultural pest. PMID:17598561

Nagoshi, Rod N; Silvie, Pierre; Meagher, Robert L

2007-06-01

55

Allele and haplotype frequencies of HLA-DPA1 and -DPB1 in the population of Guadeloupe.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphism of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPA1 and -DPB1 loci was studied in 154 unrelated individuals from Guadeloupe, an archipelago of five islands located in the Carribean Sea. Thirty different DPB1 and eight different DPA1 alleles were observed with a heterozygosity index of 0.87 and 0.78, respectively. This high degree of heterozygosity corresponds with those found in African populations. The DPB1* 01:01:01 allele was most frequent (0.260), followed by 02:01:02 (0.143) and 04:01:01 (0.127). The DPA1 alleles 01:03 (0.380), 02:01 (0.302), 02:02 (0.175) and 03:01 (0.123) were identified in >35 individuals each, whereas 01:04, 01:05 and 04:01 were present only once. Haplotype estimations revealed the presence of 39 different haplotypes, with DPB1*01:01:01-DPA1*02:02 and DPB1*02:01:02-DPA1*01:03 as the most frequent (0.143 and 0.140, respectively). A striking difference was observed in DPB1/DPA1 associations between DPB1*04:02 and *105:01, that have identical exon 2 sequences. DPB1*04:02 was exclusively associated with DPA1*01:03, whereas DPB1*105:01 was present with DPA1*03:01, *03:02 or *04:01. This implies that the DP molecules are actually different, and this difference is relevant to consider in studies on the function of HLA-DP molecules in transplantation. Overall, HLA-DPA1 and DPB1 allele frequencies and haplotypes of the population of Guadeloupe were most similar to African populations, with characteristic alleles and haplotypes that bespeaks the admixture with other ethnicities. PMID:24405442

Voorter, C E M; Groeneweg, M; Joannis, M-O; Meertens, C; Agis, F; Tilanus, M G J

2014-03-01

56

Infection Frequency of Hepatitis C Virus and IL28B Haplotypes in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, and Kiribati  

PubMed Central

It has been estimated that there are more than 60 million Hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers in the World Health Organisation's Western Pacific region (WHO-WPR), where liver cancer is among the top three causes of cancer death. WHO and the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention report the prevalence of HCV in the South Pacific islands (countries within the WHO-WPR) to be high (5–10% and >2% respectively). However, since HCV is not tested for in many of these countries, there is sparse data available to support this assertion. We screened ?2000 apparently healthy individuals from Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Kiribati and found a sero-prevalence of 2.0%, 0.1% and 0%, respectively. All sero-positive samples tested negative for HCV RNA. Curious as to why all the sero-positive individuals were negative for HCV-RNA, we also screened them for the HCV protective IL28B SNP markers rs12979860 and rs8099917. All antibody-positive participants bar one had HCV protective haplotypes. Our results suggest that HCV is present in these Pacific island countries, albeit at a prevalence lower than previous estimates. As none of our participants had undergone antiviral treatment, and therefore must have cleared infection naturally, we hypothesise that genotypes 1 and/or 4 are circulating in South Pacific Island people and that these peoples are genetically predisposed to be more likely to spontaneous resolve HCV infection than to become chronic carriers.

Harrison, G. L. Abby; Pryor, Jan; Malani, Joji; Supuri, Mathias; Masta, Andrew; Teriboriki, Burentau; Toatu, Tebuka; Penny, David; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Barnes, Eleanor; Pybus, Oliver G.; Klenerman, Paul

2013-01-01

57

Tag SNP selection via a genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) provide valuable information on human evolutionary history and may lead us to identify genetic variants responsible for human complex diseases. Unfortunately, molecular haplotyping methods are costly, laborious, and time consuming; therefore, algorithms for constructing full haplotype patterns from small available data through computational methods, Tag SNP selection problem, are convenient and attractive. This problem is proved

Ghasem Mahdevar; Javad Zahiri; Mehdi Sadeghi; Abbas Nowzari-Dalini; Hayedeh Ahrabian

2010-01-01

58

HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Russians, Bashkirs and Tatars, living in the Chelyabinsk Region (Russian South Urals).  

PubMed

We have characterized the HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 profiles of three major ethnic groups living in Chelyabinsk Region of Russian South Urals, viz., Russians (n = 207), Bashkirs (n = 146) and Tatars (n = 135). First field level typing was performed by PCR using sequence-specific primers. Estimates included carriage and gene frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and its significance and related values. Population comparisons were made between the allele family frequencies of the three populations and between these populations and 20 others using a dendrogram. Chelyabinsk Region Russians demonstrate all the features typical of a Caucasoid population, but also have some peculiarities. Together with Tatars, Russians have high frequencies of allele families and haplotypes characteristic of Finno-Ugric populations. This presupposes a Finno-Ugric impact on Russian and Tatar ethnogenesis. However, this was not apparent in Bashkirs, the first of the three populations to live in this territory, and implies admixture with populations of a Finno-Ugric origin with precursors of Russians and Tatars before they came to the South Urals. The Bashkirs appear close to Mongoloids in allele and haplotype distribution. However, Bashkirs cannot be labelled either as typical Mongoloids or as Caucasoids. Thus, Bashkirs possess some alleles and haplotypes frequent in Mongoloids, which supports the Turkic impact on Bashkir ethnogenesis, but also possess the AH 8.1 haplotype, which could evidence an ancient Caucasoid population that took part in their ethnic formation or of recent admixture with adjacent populations (Russians and Tatars). Bashkirs showed no features of populations with a substantial Finno-Ugric component, for example Chuvashes or Russian Saami. This disputes the commonly held belief of a Finno-Ugric origin for Bashkirs. Tatars appeared close to many European populations. However, they possessed some characteristics of Asiatic populations possibly reflecting a Mongoloid influence on Tatar ethnogenesis. Some aspects of HLA in Tatars appeared close to Chuvashes and Bulgarians, thus supporting the view that Tatars may be descendents of ancient Bulgars. PMID:22520580

Suslova, T A; Burmistrova, A L; Chernova, M S; Khromova, E B; Lupar, E I; Timofeeva, S V; Devald, I V; Vavilov, M N; Darke, C

2012-10-01

59

Application of site and haplotype-frequency based approaches for detecting selection signatures in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  'Selection signatures' delimit regions of the genome that are, or have been, functionally important and have therefore been\\u000a under either natural or artificial selection. In this study, two different and complementary methods--integrated Haplotype\\u000a Homozygosity Score (|iHS|) and population differentiation index (FST)--were applied to identify traces of decades of intensive artificial selection for traits of economic importance in modern\\u000a cattle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We

Saber Qanbari; Daniel Gianola; Ben Hayes; Flavio Schenkel; Steve Miller; Stephen Moore; Georg Thaller; Henner Simianer

2011-01-01

60

Questions over high frequency of mutant PfATP6 haplotypes in traveller isolates.  

PubMed

A recent paper in Malaria Journal suggests that a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum isolates found in travellers returning from a range of African countries carry the PfATP6 A623E S769N haplotype, and that this genotype is associated with artemether resistance. Such a finding would represent a substantial departure from the extensive literature reporting these individual mutations to be very rare, with the double mutation never documented. The number of isolates screened to obtain these double mutants is unstated, but highly relevant, not least because selection of isolates could have introduced significant confounders, such as timing of in vitro testing. An additional concern relates to the location of sequencing primers used to assess these positions. In the absence of clear information on these fundamental questions it would be appropriate to treat the findings with caution. PMID:22681876

Woodrow, Charles J; Gardner, Kate B; Bustamante, Leyla Y

2012-01-01

61

High-Throughput SNP Allele-Frequency Determination in Pooled DNA Samples by Kinetic PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an accurate, yet inexpensive and high-throughput, method for determining the allele frequency of biallelic polymorphisms in pools of DNA samples. The assay combines kinetic (real-time quantitative) PCR with allele-specific amplification and requires no post-PCR processing. The relative amounts of each allele in a sample are quantified. This is performed by dividing equal aliquots of the pooled DNA

Søren Germer; Michael J. Holland; Russell Higuchi

2000-01-01

62

Inferring the Joint Demographic History of Multiple Populations from Multidimensional SNP Frequency Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic models built from genetic data play important roles in illuminating prehistorical events and serving as null models in genome scans for selection. We introduce an inference method based on the joint frequency spectrum of genetic variants within and between populations. For candidate models we numerically compute the expected spectrum using a diffusion approximation to the one-locus, two-allele Wright-Fisher process,

Ryan N. Gutenkunst; Ryan D. Hernandez; Scott H. Williamson; Carlos D. Bustamante

2009-01-01

63

Inferring the joint demographic history of multiple populations from multidimensional SNP frequency data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic models built from genetic data play important roles in illuminating prehistorical events and serving as null models in genome scans for selection. We introduce an inference method based on the joint frequency spectrum of genetic variants within and between populations. For candidate models we numerically compute the expected spectrum using a diffusion approximation to the one-locus two-allele Wright-Fisher process,

Ryan N. Gutenkunst; Ryan D. Hernandez; Scott H. Williamson; Carlos D. Bustamante

2009-01-01

64

Inferring the Joint Demographic History of Multiple Populations from Multidimensional SNP Frequency Data  

PubMed Central

Demographic models built from genetic data play important roles in illuminating prehistorical events and serving as null models in genome scans for selection. We introduce an inference method based on the joint frequency spectrum of genetic variants within and between populations. For candidate models we numerically compute the expected spectrum using a diffusion approximation to the one-locus, two-allele Wright-Fisher process, involving up to three simultaneous populations. Our approach is a composite likelihood scheme, since linkage between neutral loci alters the variance but not the expectation of the frequency spectrum. We thus use bootstraps incorporating linkage to estimate uncertainties for parameters and significance values for hypothesis tests. Our method can also incorporate selection on single sites, predicting the joint distribution of selected alleles among populations experiencing a bevy of evolutionary forces, including expansions, contractions, migrations, and admixture. We model human expansion out of Africa and the settlement of the New World, using 5 Mb of noncoding DNA resequenced in 68 individuals from 4 populations (YRI, CHB, CEU, and MXL) by the Environmental Genome Project. We infer divergence between West African and Eurasian populations 140 thousand years ago (95% confidence interval: 40–270 kya). This is earlier than other genetic studies, in part because we incorporate migration. We estimate the European (CEU) and East Asian (CHB) divergence time to be 23 kya (95% c.i.: 17–43 kya), long after archeological evidence places modern humans in Europe. Finally, we estimate divergence between East Asians (CHB) and Mexican-Americans (MXL) of 22 kya (95% c.i.: 16.3–26.9 kya), and our analysis yields no evidence for subsequent migration. Furthermore, combining our demographic model with a previously estimated distribution of selective effects among newly arising amino acid mutations accurately predicts the frequency spectrum of nonsynonymous variants across three continental populations (YRI, CHB, CEU).

Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Williamson, Scott H.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

2009-01-01

65

Inferring the joint demographic history of multiple populations from multidimensional SNP frequency data.  

PubMed

Demographic models built from genetic data play important roles in illuminating prehistorical events and serving as null models in genome scans for selection. We introduce an inference method based on the joint frequency spectrum of genetic variants within and between populations. For candidate models we numerically compute the expected spectrum using a diffusion approximation to the one-locus, two-allele Wright-Fisher process, involving up to three simultaneous populations. Our approach is a composite likelihood scheme, since linkage between neutral loci alters the variance but not the expectation of the frequency spectrum. We thus use bootstraps incorporating linkage to estimate uncertainties for parameters and significance values for hypothesis tests. Our method can also incorporate selection on single sites, predicting the joint distribution of selected alleles among populations experiencing a bevy of evolutionary forces, including expansions, contractions, migrations, and admixture. We model human expansion out of Africa and the settlement of the New World, using 5 Mb of noncoding DNA resequenced in 68 individuals from 4 populations (YRI, CHB, CEU, and MXL) by the Environmental Genome Project. We infer divergence between West African and Eurasian populations 140 thousand years ago (95% confidence interval: 40-270 kya). This is earlier than other genetic studies, in part because we incorporate migration. We estimate the European (CEU) and East Asian (CHB) divergence time to be 23 kya (95% c.i.: 17-43 kya), long after archeological evidence places modern humans in Europe. Finally, we estimate divergence between East Asians (CHB) and Mexican-Americans (MXL) of 22 kya (95% c.i.: 16.3-26.9 kya), and our analysis yields no evidence for subsequent migration. Furthermore, combining our demographic model with a previously estimated distribution of selective effects among newly arising amino acid mutations accurately predicts the frequency spectrum of nonsynonymous variants across three continental populations (YRI, CHB, CEU). PMID:19851460

Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Hernandez, Ryan D; Williamson, Scott H; Bustamante, Carlos D

2009-10-01

66

HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in the Serbian population.  

PubMed

This study provides the first published detailed analysis of five loci polymorphisms as well as reports of two, three and five loci haplotype frequencies in the Serbian population in a sample of 1992 volunteer bone marrow donors recruited from different part of the country. Typing was performed by PCR SSO method combined with PCR SSP techniques to resolve ambiguities. In total, 16 HLA-A, 28 HLA-B, 14 HLA-C, 13 HLA-DRB1 and 5 HLA-DQB1 allelic groups were identified. The most frequent in allele groups are HLA-A(?)02 (29.5%), HLA-A(?)01 (14.2%), HLA-B(?)35 (13.1%), HLA-B(?)51 (12.8%), HLA-C(?)07 (24.8%), HLA-DRB1(?)11 (16.9%), HLA-DRB1(?)13 (13.2%), HLA-DQB1(?)03 (33.3%) and DQB1(?)05 (33.0%). The most frequent three- and five-loci haplotypes were A(?)01-B(?)08-DRB1(?)03 (5.9%) and A(?)02-B(?)18-DRB1(?)11 (1.9%), A(?)01-B(?)08-C(?)07-DRB1(?)03-DQB1(?)02 (6.6%) followed by A(?)02-B(?)18-C(?)07-DRB1(?)11-DQB1(?)03 (2.5%), then A(?)33-B(?)14-C(?)08-DRB1(?)01-DQB1(?)05 and A(?)02-B(?)35-C(?)04-DRB1(?)16-DQB1(?)05 (2.2% both), respectively. The results of cluster analysis showed that the Serbian population is closely related to the populations living in central Balkan and neighboring European regions. The level of allelic diversity found in this study are relevant to facilitate searching for unrelated matched donor and provide a healthy control population from our region that should be useful in the future disease association study. PMID:24374041

Andric, Zorana; Popadic, Dusan; Jovanovic, Barbara; Jaglicic, Ivana; Bojic, Svetlana; Simonovic, Ruzica

2014-03-01

67

The human leukocyte antigen class III haplotype approach: new insight in Alzheimer's disease inflammation hypothesis.  

PubMed

The Alzheimer's disease "inflammation hypothesis" has emerged only recently, suggesting the risk of developing AD might be influenced by variants of genes encoding for inflammatory mediators. In order to investigate in this direction, genomic DNA from 194 Italian AD cases and 454 healthy controls matched by gender and ethnicity was analyzed for the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE, HLA class III-centromere portion) -374 and - 429 SNPs and for the Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-?, HLA class III-telomere portion) -857, -308 and -238 SNPs by RFLP and Real Time PCR. Our data show statistically significant deviations between AD patients and healthy controls concerning RAGE -374 SNP genotype (TT: p=0.0084) and allele (T, A: p=0.0081) frequencies; TNF-? -308 SNP AA genotype (p=0.0433) and TNF-? -238 SNP genotype (GG: p=0.0138) and allele (G, A: p=0.0151) frequencies. Furthermore, significant differences between the study groups and regarding RAGE TC (p=0.05) and AC (p=0.009) haplotypes are present, while TNF-? haplotype reconstruction point out a statistically significant difference between patients and controls regarding AGG haplotype (p=0.002). Finally, from the combination of the individually significant SNPs of the two genes (RAGE -374, TNF-? -238 and -308) we performed an HLA class III haplotype reconstruction finding significant differences between AD subjects and controls regarding the TAG (p=0.019) and TGA (p=0.008) haplotypes. The implication of these haplotypes with the disease points to a possible involvement of entire HLA class III region in AD susceptibility. PMID:24156267

Maggioli, Elisa; Boiocchi, Chiara; Zorzetto, Michele; Sinforiani, Elena; Cereda, Cristina; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Cuccia, Mariaclara

2013-12-01

68

Genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in the South Indian descent  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Decline in circulating estrogen levels causes lessening of bone mass accompanied with musculoskeletal pain, which is the primary cause of treatment discontinuation in patients taking aromatase inhibitors. Evidence from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggests that the genetic variability underlying TCL1A gene increases the risk of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) - induced musculoskeletal toxicity. Currently, no data is available on the frequency distribution of TCL1A gene polymorphisms in Indians. Methods: In this pilot study, we used TaqMan fluorescent probes to assess the genotypes of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in 247 healthy homogenous South Indian subjects on real time thermocycler. Haplotype estimation and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis were executed by Haploview. Results: The incidence of polymorphic variant allele (G) frequencies of rs7158782, rs7159713, rs2369049 and rs11849538 were 22.1%, 23.5%, 18.2% and 22.9% in the study population, respectively. The polymorphisms were found to be in complete LD with each other. Four different haplotypes, each of which having a frequency of above 1% were inferred in South Indians using an expectation-maximization algorithm. Notably, three haplotypes were found to be population specific viz H4 A-A-A-G (1.2%) for South India, H5 G-G-A-C (1.3%) for JPT and H6 G-G-G-C (40.4%) for YRI. Further, H3 G-G-A-G (2.3-16.3%) haplotype occurs primarily in Asians and is virtually absent in Africans. Overall, the genetic variability and haplotype profile of South Indian population revealed significant inter-racial variability compared with HapMap data. Conclusion: This documentation contributes for further investigations on the pharmacogenetics of AIs in South Indians.

Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun; Srinivasa, Rao Katiboina; Kadambari, Dharanipragada; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

2014-01-01

69

Genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in the South Indian descent.  

PubMed

Introduction: Decline in circulating estrogen levels causes lessening of bone mass accompanied with musculoskeletal pain, which is the primary cause of treatment discontinuation in patients taking aromatase inhibitors. Evidence from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggests that the genetic variability underlying TCL1A gene increases the risk of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) - induced musculoskeletal toxicity. Currently, no data is available on the frequency distribution of TCL1A gene polymorphisms in Indians. Methods: In this pilot study, we used TaqMan fluorescent probes to assess the genotypes of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in 247 healthy homogenous South Indian subjects on real time thermocycler. Haplotype estimation and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis were executed by Haploview. Results: The incidence of polymorphic variant allele (G) frequencies of rs7158782, rs7159713, rs2369049 and rs11849538 were 22.1%, 23.5%, 18.2% and 22.9% in the study population, respectively. The polymorphisms were found to be in complete LD with each other. Four different haplotypes, each of which having a frequency of above 1% were inferred in South Indians using an expectation-maximization algorithm. Notably, three haplotypes were found to be population specific viz H4 A-A-A-G (1.2%) for South India, H5 G-G-A-C (1.3%) for JPT and H6 G-G-G-C (40.4%) for YRI. Further, H3 G-G-A-G (2.3-16.3%) haplotype occurs primarily in Asians and is virtually absent in Africans. Overall, the genetic variability and haplotype profile of South Indian population revealed significant inter-racial variability compared with HapMap data. Conclusion: This documentation contributes for further investigations on the pharmacogenetics of AIs in South Indians. PMID:25035853

Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun; Srinivasa, Rao Katiboina; Kadambari, Dharanipragada; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

2014-01-01

70

Estrogen receptor alpha haplotypes and breast cancer risk in older Caucasian women.  

PubMed

Life-long exposure to estrogen is an established risk factor for breast cancer development. The underlying mechanism has been suggested to be the binding of estrogen-to-estrogen receptors in mammary tissue, which in turn promotes the proliferation and differentiation of breast tissue. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) have been reportedly associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results are not fully consistent. In this study, we investigated breast cancer risk associated with genotypes and haplotypes resulting from four ESR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs746432, rs2234693, rs9340799, and rs1801132. Genotyping has been performed on 393 breast cancer cases and 790 randomly selected controls in 1,183 Caucasian women over age 65 from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). We observed an allelic protective effect for SNP rs9340799 with an estimated odds ratio (OR) of 0.82 (95% CI = 0.68-1.00; P = 0.04) after adjustment for age, BMI and hip BMD. A protective effect of this SNP has been reported before in several different studies. We did not replicate the previously reported C-C-A-G haplotype association to breast cancer-the C-C-A-G haplotype from these SNPs was rare in this study (estimated frequency below 0.001% in cases and controls). No other statistically significant associations were observed between ESR1 haplotypes from the same four SNPs and the risk of breast cancer in older Caucasian women. PMID:17268813

Wang, Jun; Higuchi, Russell; Modugno, Francesmary; Li, Jia; Umblas, Nanette; Lee, Jocelyn; Lui, Li-Yung; Ziv, Elad; Tice, Jeffery A; Cummings, Steven R; Rhees, Brian

2007-12-01

71

HaplotypeCN: Copy Number Haplotype Inference with Hidden Markov Model and Localized Haplotype Clustering  

PubMed Central

Copy number variation (CNV) has been reported to be associated with disease and various cancers. Hence, identifying the accurate position and the type of CNV is currently a critical issue. There are many tools targeting on detecting CNV regions, constructing haplotype phases on CNV regions, or estimating the numerical copy numbers. However, none of them can do all of the three tasks at the same time. This paper presents a method based on Hidden Markov Model to detect parent specific copy number change on both chromosomes with signals from SNP arrays. A haplotype tree is constructed with dynamic branch merging to model the transition of the copy number status of the two alleles assessed at each SNP locus. The emission models are constructed for the genotypes formed with the two haplotypes. The proposed method can provide the segmentation points of the CNV regions as well as the haplotype phasing for the allelic status on each chromosome. The estimated copy numbers are provided as fractional numbers, which can accommodate the somatic mutation in cancer specimens that usually consist of heterogeneous cell populations. The algorithm is evaluated on simulated data and the previously published regions of CNV of the 270 HapMap individuals. The results were compared with five popular methods: PennCNV, genoCN, COKGEN, QuantiSNP and cnvHap. The application on oral cancer samples demonstrates how the proposed method can facilitate clinical association studies. The proposed algorithm exhibits comparable sensitivity of the CNV regions to the best algorithm in our genome-wide study and demonstrates the highest detection rate in SNP dense regions. In addition, we provide better haplotype phasing accuracy than similar approaches. The clinical association carried out with our fractional estimate of copy numbers in the cancer samples provides better detection power than that with integer copy number states.

Lin, Yen-Jen; Chen, Yu-Tin; Hsu, Shu-Ni; Peng, Chien-Hua; Tang, Chuan-Yi; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsieh, Wen-Ping

2014-01-01

72

Haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes  

PubMed Central

To dissect the haplotype structure of candidate genes for disease association studies, it is important to understand the nature of genetic variation at these loci in different populations. We present a survey of haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium of chemokine and chemokine receptor genes in 11 geographically-distinct population samples (n = 728). Chemokine proteins are involved in intercellular signalling and the immune response. These molecules are important modulators of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and the progression of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, tumour development and the metastatic process of cancer. To study the extent of genetic variation in this gene family, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 13 chemokine and chemokine receptor genes were genotyped using the 5' nuclease assay (TaqMan). SNP haplotypes, estimated from unphased genotypes using the Expectation-Maximization-algorithm, are described in a cluster of four CC-chemokine receptor genes (CCR3, CCR2, CCR5 and CCRL2) on chromosome 3p21, and a cluster of three CC-chemokine genes [MPIF-1 (CCL23) PARC (CCL18) and MIP- 1? (CCL3)] on chromosome 17q11-12. The 32 base pair (bp) deletion in exon 4 of CCR5 was also included in the haplotype analysis of 3p21. A total of 87.5 per cent of the variation of 14 biallelic loci scattered over 150 kilobases of 3p21 is explained by 11 haplotypes which have a frequency of at least 1 per cent in the total sample. An analysis of haplotype blocks in this region indicates recombination between CCR2 and CCR5, although long-range pairwise linkage disequilibrium across the region appears to remain intact on two common haplotypes. A reduced-median network demonstrates a clear relationship between 3p21 haplotypes, rooted by the putative ancestral haplotype determined by direct sequencing of four primate species. Analysis of six SNPs on 17q11-12 indicates that 97.5 per cent of the variation is explained by 15 haplotypes, representing at least 1 per cent of the total sample. Additionally, a possible signature of selection at a non-synonymous coding SNP (M106V) in the MPIF-1 (CCL23) gene warrants further study. We anticipate that the results of this study of chemokine and chemokine receptor variation will be applicable to more extensive surveys of long-range haplotype structure in these gene regions and to association studies of HIV-1 disease and cancer.

2004-01-01

73

Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia.  

PubMed

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the ?-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events. PMID:24385850

Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, María Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo

2013-12-01

74

Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the ?-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events.

Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, Maria Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo

2013-01-01

75

Paraoxonase gene polymorphisms and haplotype analysis in a stroke population  

PubMed Central

Background Paraoxonase (PON) has anti-atherogenic activity due to its protective function against low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Alteration of enzyme activity due to polymorphisms in the PON genes may influence the development of atheroma and thus affect stroke risk. Three PON genes (PON1, PON2 and PON3) have been identifiedand mapped to chromosome 7. Methods We looked at the distribution of paraoxonase polymorphisms and haplotype arrangement in 397 Caucasian ischaemic stroke patients and 405 controls. We investigated 6 different common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in PON genes; two substitutions in PON1 ["A/G": Gln (Q)/Arg (R)] at codon 192 and ["T/A": Leu (L)/Met (M)] at codon 55, two in PON2 at codon 311 ["G/A": Cys (C)/Ser (S)] and codon 148 ["C/G": Ala (A)/Gly (G)] and two SNPs, both "A" to "G" substitutions, in PON3 – intronic rs2074353, which we designated PON3-1 and [Ala (A)/Ala (A)] at codon 99, designated as PON3-3. Dynamic Allele Specific Hybridisation (DASH) was used as the genotyping assay. Haplotype analysis was performed using both PHASE and EHPLUS programs. Results Genotype and allele frequencies were similar in cases and controls. Lipid profiles were not influenced by PON genotype. Haplotype frequencies for the six loci (PON2-148, PON2-311, PON3-3, PON3-1, PON1-55 and PON1-192) were estimated. Comparison of the two programs showed a significant difference in haplotype arrangements with EHPLUS (p-value = 0.005) but not with PHASE Ver.2 (p-value = 0.12). The 112211 (1 = frequent allele, 2 = rare allele) haplotype arrangement was commoner in cases than controls (p = 0.015), and the 111121 haplotype was commoner in controls (p = 0.006). Conclusion Our study did not identify a role for individual paraoxonase gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke. Findings of haplotype differences should be confirmed in large scale studies. The importance of using a well-validated haplotype analysis program is also underlined.

Pasdar, Alireza; Ross-Adams, Helen; Cumming, Alastair; Cheung, John; Whalley, Lawrence; St Clair, David; MacLeod, Mary-Joan

2006-01-01

76

Evolution of the DRD2 gene haplotype and its association with alcoholism in Mexican Americans.  

PubMed

The human D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) plays a central role in the neuromodulation of appetitive behaviors and is implicated in having a possible role in susceptibility to alcoholism. We genotyped an SNP in DRD2 Exon 8 in 251 nonalcoholic, unrelated, healthy controls and 200 alcoholic Mexican Americans. The DRD2 haplotypes were analyzed using the Exon 8 genotype in combination with five other SNP genotypes, which were obtained from our previous study. The ancestral origins of the DRD2 polymorphisms have been determined by sequencing the homologous region in other higher primates. Twenty DRD2 haplotypes, defined as H1 to H20 based on their frequency from high to low, were obtained in this major minority population. The ancestral haplotype "I-B2-G-C-G-A1" and two one-step mutation haplotypes were absent in our study population. The haplotype H1, "I-B1-T-C-A-A1", with the highest frequency in the population, is a three-step mutation from the ancestral form. The first five or eight major haplotypes make up 87% or 95% of the entire population, respectively. The prevalence of the haplotype H1+ (H1/H1 and H1/Hn genotypes) is significantly higher in alcoholics and alcoholic subgroups, including early onset drinkers and benders, than in their respective control groups. The Promoter -141C allele is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with five other loci in the nonalcoholic group, but not in the alcoholic group. All of the other five loci are in LD in both the alcoholic and control groups. The DRD2 TaqI B allele is in complete LD with the allele located in intron 6. Five SNPs, Promoter -141C, TaqI B (or Intron 6), Exon 7, Exon 8, and TaqI A, are sufficient to define the DRD2 haplotypes in Mexican Americans. Our data indicate that the DRD2 haplotypes are associated with alcoholism in Mexican Americans. PMID:16396745

Luo, Huai-Rong; Hou, Zhen-Fang; Wu, Julia; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

2005-06-01

77

The G allele of the JAK2 rs10974944 SNP, part of JAK2 46/1 haplotype, is strongly associated with JAK2 V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms.  

PubMed

Polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis are myeloproliferative neoplasms, characterized in a majority of cases by a unique somatic point mutation, JAK2 V617F. Recently, it was shown that JAK2 V617F occurs more frequently on a specific JAK2 haplotype, named JAK2 46/1. We genotyped 149 myeloproliferative neoplasms patients (69 had polycythemia vera, 65 had essential thrombocythemia, and 15 had primary myelofibrosis) with a known JAK2 V617F mutational status and 150 controls for the JAK2 rs10974944 (C/G) single nucleotide polymorphism, in which the G allele tags the 46/1 haplotype. We found that the rs10974944 GG/CG genotypes were significantly enriched in patients compared to controls (p < 0.0001). After stratifying for the JAK2 V617F mutational status and for the mutant allele burden, we demonstrated that GG/CG genotypes were significantly more frequent in V617F positive compared to V617F negative patients (p = 0.001), but not in V617F negative patients compared to controls (p = 0.29). Similarly, the GG/CG genotypes were significantly enriched in V617F positive patients with a mutant allele burden >50% compared to those with a mutant allele burden <50% (p = 0.0006). Our results indicate that the G allele, part of the JAK2 46/1 haplotype, contributes significantly to the occurrence of JAK2 V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms. Moreover, JAK2 46/1 seems to be associated with mutant allele burden >50% in JAK2 V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms patients. PMID:20422415

Trifa, Adrian P; Cucuianu, Andrei; Petrov, Ljubomir; Urian, Laura; Militaru, Mariela S; Dima, Delia; Pop, Ioan V; Popp, Radu A

2010-10-01

78

Genetic analysis of autoimmune regulator haplotypes in alopecia areata.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata is an immune-mediated disorder, occurring with the highest observed frequency in the rare recessive autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome caused by mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene on chromosome 21q22.3. We have previously detected association between alopecia areata and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the AIRE gene in patients without APECED, and we now report the findings of an extended examination of the association of alopecia areata with haplotype analysis including six SNPs in the AIRE gene: C-103T, C4144G, T5238C, G6528A, T7215C and T11787C. In Caucasian groups of 295 patients and 363 controls, we found strong association between the AIRE 7215C allele and AA [P = 3.8 x 10(-8), OR (95% CI): 2.69 (1.8-4.0)]. The previously reported association between AA and the AIRE 4144G allele was no longer significant on correction for multiple testing. The AIRE haplotypes CCTGCT and CGTGCC showed a highly significant association with AA [P = 6.05 x 10(-6), 9.47 (2.91-30.8) and P = 0.001, 3.51 (1.55-7.95), respectively]. To select the haplotypes most informative for analysis, we tagged the polymorphisms using SNPTag software. Employing AIRE C-103T, G6528A, T7215C and T11787C as tag SNPs, two haplotypes were associated with AA; AIRE CGCT and AIRE CGCC [P = 3.84 x 10(-7), 11.40 (3.53-36.9) and P = 3.94 x 10(-4), 2.13 (1.39-3.24) respectively]. The AIRE risk haplotypes identified in this study potentially account for a major component of the genetic risk of developing alopecia areata. PMID:18194361

Wengraf, D A; McDonagh, A J G; Lovewell, T R J; Vasilopoulos, Y; Macdonald-Hull, S P; Cork, M J; Messenger, A G; Tazi-Ahnini, R

2008-03-01

79

Whole-genome resequencing of two elite sires for the detection of haplotypes under selection in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Using a combination of whole-genome resequencing and high-density genotyping arrays, genome-wide haplotypes were reconstructed for two of the most important bulls in the history of the dairy cattle industry, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief (“Chief”) and his son Walkway Chief Mark (“Mark”), each accounting for ?7% of all current genomes. We aligned 20.5 Gbp (?7.3× coverage) and 37.9 Gbp (?13.5× coverage) of the Chief and Mark genomic sequences, respectively. More than 1.3 million high-quality SNPs were detected in Chief and Mark sequences. The genome-wide haplotypes inherited by Mark from Chief were reconstructed using ?1 million informative SNPs. Comparison of a set of 15,826 SNPs that overlapped in the sequence-based and BovineSNP50 SNPs showed the accuracy of the sequence-based haplotype reconstruction to be as high as 97%. By using the BovineSNP50 genotypes, the frequencies of Chief alleles on his two haplotypes then were determined in 1,149 of his descendants, and the distribution was compared with the frequencies that would be expected assuming no selection. We identified 49 chromosomal segments in which Chief alleles showed strong evidence of selection. Candidate polymorphisms for traits that have been under selection in the dairy cattle population then were identified by referencing Chief’s DNA sequence within these selected chromosome blocks. Eleven candidate genes were identified with functions related to milk-production, fertility, and disease-resistance traits. These data demonstrate that haplotype reconstruction of an ancestral proband by whole-genome resequencing in combination with high-density SNP genotyping of descendants can be used for rapid, genome-wide identification of the ancestor’s alleles that have been subjected to artificial selection.

Larkin, Denis M.; Daetwyler, Hans D.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Hetrick, Lorie A.; Boucek, Lisa; Bachman, Sharon L.; Band, Mark R.; Akraiko, Tatsiana V.; Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Macleod, Iona M.; Harkins, Timothy T.; McCague, Jennifer E.; Goddard, Michael E.; Hayes, Ben J.; Lewin, Harris A.

2012-01-01

80

A functional haplotype in EIF2AK3, an ER stress sensor, is associated with lower bone mineral density.  

PubMed

EIF2AK3 is a type I transmembrane protein that functions as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor to regulate global protein synthesis. Rare mutations in EIF2AK3 cause Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (OMIM 226980), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes, epiphyseal dysplasia, osteoporosis, and growth retardation. To investigate the role of common genetic variation in EIF2AK3 as a determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis, we sequenced all exons and flanking regions, then genotyped six potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene in 997 Amish subjects for association analysis, and attempted replication in 887 Mexican Americans. We found that the minor allele of a nonsynonymous SNP rs13045 had borderline associations with decreased forearm BMD in both discovery and replication cohorts (unadjusted p = 0.036 and ? = -0.007 for the Amish; unadjusted p = 0.031 and ? = -0.008 for Mexican Americans). A meta-analysis indicated this association achieved statistical significance in the combined sample (unadjusted p = 0.003; Bonferroni corrected p = 0.009). Rs13045 and three other potentially functional SNPs, a promoter SNP (rs6547787) and two nonsynonymous SNPs (rs867529 and rs1805165), formed two haplotypes: a low-BMD associated haplotype, denoted haplotype B [minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.311] and a common haplotype A (MAF = 0.676). There were no differences in mRNA expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines between the two haplotypes. However, after treating lymphoblastoid cell lines with thapsigargin to induce ER stress, cell lines with haplotype B showed increased sensitivity to ER stress (p = 0.014) compared with cell lines with haplotype A. Taken together, our results suggest that common nonsynonymous sequence variants in EIF2AK3 have a modest effect on ER stress response and may contribute to the risk for low BMD through this mechanism. PMID:22028037

Liu, Jie; Hoppman, Nicole; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Wang, Hong; Streeten, Elizabeth A; McLenithan, John C; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R

2012-02-01

81

A FUNCTIONAL HAPLOTYPE IN EIF2AK3, AN ER STRESS SENSOR, IS ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER BONE MINERAL DENSITY  

PubMed Central

EIF2AK3 is a type I transmembrane protein that functions as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor to regulate global protein synthesis. Rare mutations in EIF2AK3 cause Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (OMIM 226980), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes, epiphyseal dysplasia, osteoporosis, and growth retardation. To investigate the role of common genetic variation in EIF2AK3 as a determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis, we sequenced all exons and flanking regions and then genotyped 6 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene in 997 Amish subjects for association analysis, with attempted replication in 887 Mexican Americans. We found that the minor allele of a nonsynonymous SNP rs13045 had borderline associations with decreased forearm BMD in both discovery and replication cohorts (unadjusted P = 0.036 and ? = ?0.007 for the Amish; unadjusted P = 0.031 and ? = ?0.008 for Mexican Americans). A meta-analysis indicated this association achieved statistical significance in the combined sample (unadjusted P = 0.003; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.009). Rs13045 and three other potentially functional SNPs, a promoter SNP (rs6547787) and two nonsynonymous SNPs (rs867529 and rs1805165), formed two haplotypes (a low-BMD associated haplotype, denoted haplotype B (minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.311) and a common haplotype A (MAF = 0.676)). There were no differences in mRNA expression from lymphoblastoid cell lines between the two haplotypes. However, after treating lymphoblastoid cell lines with thapsigargin to induce ER stress, cell lines with haplotype B showed increased sensitivity to ER stress (P = 0.014) compared to cell lines with haplotype A. Taken together, our results suggest that common nonsynonymous sequence variants in EIF2AK3 have a modest effect on ER stress response and may contribute to the risk for low BMD through this mechanism.

Liu, Jie; Hoppman, Nicole; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Wang, Hong; Streeten, Elizabeth A; McLenithan, John C; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R

2012-01-01

82

Mutation and haplotype studies of familial Mediterranean fever reveal new ancestral relationships and evidence for a high carrier frequency with reduced penetrance in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.  

PubMed Central

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a recessive disorder characterized by episodes of fever with serositis or synovitis. The FMF gene (MEFV) was cloned recently, and four missense mutations were identified. Here we present data from non-Ashkenazi Jewish and Arab patients in whom we had not originally found mutations and from a new, more ethnically diverse panel. Among 90 symptomatic mutation-positive individuals, 11 mutations accounted for 79% of carrier chromosomes. Of the two mutations that are novel, one alters the same residue (680) as a previously known mutation, and the other (P369S) is located in exon 3. Consistent with another recent report, the E148Q mutation was observed in patients of several ethnicities and on multiple microsatellite haplotypes, but haplotype data indicate an ancestral relationships between non-Jewish Italian and Ashkenazi Jewish patients with FMF and other affected populations. Among approximately 200 anonymous Ashkenazi Jewish DNA samples, the MEFV carrier frequency was 21%, with E148Q the most common mutation. Several lines of evidence indicate reduced penetrance among Ashkenazi Jews, especially for E148Q, P369S, and K695R. Nevertheless, E148Q helps account for recessive inheritance in an Ashkenazi family previously reported as an unusual case of dominantly inherited FMF. The presence of three frequent MEFV mutations in multiple Mediterranean populations strongly suggests a heterozygote advantage in this geographic region.

Aksentijevich, I; Torosyan, Y; Samuels, J; Centola, M; Pras, E; Chae, J J; Oddoux, C; Wood, G; Azzaro, M P; Palumbo, G; Giustolisi, R; Pras, M; Ostrer, H; Kastner, D L

1999-01-01

83

Variation analysis and gene annotation of eight MHC haplotypes: The MHC Haplotype Project  

PubMed Central

The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is contained within about 4 Mb on the short arm of chromosome 6 and is recognised as the most variable region in the human genome. The primary aim of the MHC Haplotype Project was to provide a comprehensively annotated reference sequence of a single, human leukocyte antigen-homozygous MHC haplotype and to use it as a basis against which variations could be assessed from seven other similarly homozygous cell lines, representative of the most common MHC haplotypes in the European population. Comparison of the haplotype sequences, including four haplotypes not previously analysed, resulted in the identification of >44,000 variations, both substitutions and indels (insertions and deletions), which have been submitted to the dbSNP database. The gene annotation uncovered haplotype-specific differences and confirmed the presence of more than 300 loci, including over 160 protein-coding genes. Combined analysis of the variation and annotation datasets revealed 122 gene loci with coding substitutions of which 97 were non-synonymous. The haplotype (A3-B7-DR15; PGF cell line) designated as the new MHC reference sequence, has been incorporated into the human genome assembly (NCBI35 and subsequent builds), and constitutes the largest single-haplotype sequence of the human genome to date. The extensive variation and annotation data derived from the analysis of seven further haplotypes have been made publicly available and provide a framework and resource for future association studies of all MHC-associated diseases and transplant medicine.

Horton, Roger; Gibson, Richard; Coggill, Penny; Miretti, Marcos; Allcock, Richard J.; Almeida, Jeff; Forbes, Simon; Gilbert, James G. R.; Halls, Karen; Harrow, Jennifer L.; Hart, Elizabeth; Howe, Kevin; Jackson, David K.; Palmer, Sophie; Roberts, Anne N.; Sims, Sarah; Stewart, C. Andrew; Traherne, James A.; Trevanion, Steve; Wilming, Laurens; Rogers, Jane; de Jong, Pieter J.; Elliott, John F.; Sawcer, Stephen; Todd, John A.; Trowsdale, John

2008-01-01

84

Private haplotypes can reveal local adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide scans for regions that demonstrate deviating patterns of genetic variation have become common approaches for finding genes targeted by selection. Several genomic patterns have been utilized for this purpose, including deviations in haplotype homozygosity, frequency spectra and genetic differentiation between populations. Results We describe a novel approach based on the Maximum Frequency of Private Haplotypes – MFPH – to search for signals of recent population-specific selection. The MFPH statistic is straightforward to compute for phased SNP- and sequence-data. Using both simulated and empirical data, we show that MFPH can be a powerful statistic to detect recent population-specific selection, that it performs at the same level as other commonly used summary statistics (e.g. FST, iHS and XP-EHH), and that MFPH in some cases capture signals of selection that are missed by other statistics. For instance, in the Maasai, MFPH reveals a strong signal of selection in a region where other investigated statistics fail to pick up a clear signal that contains the genes DOCK3, MAPKAPK3 and CISH. This region has been suggested to affect height in many populations based on phenotype-genotype association studies. It has specifically been suggested to be targeted by selection in Pygmy groups, which are on the opposite end of the human height spectrum compared to the Maasai. Conclusions From the analysis of both simulated and publicly available empirical data, we show that MFPH represents a summary statistic that can provide further insight concerning population-specific adaptation.

2014-01-01

85

A haplotype inference method based on sparsely connected multi-body ising model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical haplotype inference is an indispensable technique in the field of medical science. The method usually has two steps: inference of haplotype frequencies and inference of diplotype for each subject. The first step can be done by using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, but it incurs an unreasonably large calculation cost when the number of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci of concern is large. In this article, we describe an approximate probabilistic model of haplotype frequencies. The model is constructed by using several distributions of nearby local SNPs. This approximation seems good because SNPs are generally more strongly correlated when they are close to one another on a chromosome. To implement this approach, we use a log linear model, the Walsh-Hadamard transform, and a combinatorial optimization method. Artificial data suggested that the overall haplotype inference of our method is good if there are nine or more local consecutive SNPs. Some minor problems should be dealt with before this method can be applied to real data.

Kato, Masashi; Gao, Qian Ji; Chigira, Hiroshi; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Masato

2010-06-01

86

HLA-A, B and DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in volunteer bone marrow donors from the north of Parana State  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of allele and haplotype frequencies of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is important in the search for unrelated bone marrow donors. The Brazilian population is very heterogeneous and the HLA system is highly informative of populations because of the high level of polymorphisms. Aim The aim of this study was to characterize the immunogenetic profile of ethnic groups (Caucasians, Afro-Brazilians and Asians) in the north of Parana State. Methods A study was carried out of 3978 voluntary bone marrow donors registered in the Brazilian National Bone Marrow Donor Registry and typed for the HLA-A, B and DRB1 (low resolution) loci. The alleles were characterized by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotides method using the LabType SSO kit (One Lambda, CA, USA). The ARLEQUIN v.3.11 computer program was used to calculate allele and haplotype frequencies Results The most common alleles found in Caucasians were HLA-A*02, 24, 01; HLA-B*35, 44, 51; DRB1*11, 13, 07; for Afro-Brazilians they were HLA-A*02, 03, 30; HLA-B*35, 15, 44; DRB1*13, 11, 03; and for Asians they were: HLA-A*24, 02, 26; HLA-B*40, 51, 52; DRB1*04, 15, 09. The most common haplotype combinations were: HLA-A*01, B*08, DRB1*03 and HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 for Caucasians; HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 and HLA-A*01, B*08 and DRB1*03 for Afro-Brazilians; and HLA-A*24, B*52, DRB1*15 and HLA-A*24, B*40 and DRB1*09 for Asians. Conclusion There is a need to target and expand bone marrow donor campaigns in the north of Parana State. The data of this study may be used as a reference by the Instituto Nacional de Cancer/Brazilian National Bone Marrow Donor Registry to evaluate the immunogenetic profile of populations in specific regions and in the selection of bone marrow donors

Bardi, Marlene Silva; Jarduli, Luciana Ribeiro; Jorge, Adylson Justino; Camargo, Rossana Batista Oliveira Godoy; Carneiro, Fernando Pagotto; Gelinski, Jair Roberto; Silva, Roseclei Assuncao Feliciano; Lavado, Edson Lopes

2012-01-01

87

Haplotype analysis of sucrose synthase gene family in three Saccharum species  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane is an economically important crop contributing about 80% and 40% to the world sugar and ethanol production, respectively. The complicated genetics consequential to its complex polyploid genome, however, have impeded efforts to improve sugar yield and related important agronomic traits. Modern sugarcane cultivars are complex hybrids derived mainly from crosses among its progenitor species, S. officinarum and S. spontanuem, and to a lesser degree, S. robustom. Atypical of higher plants, sugarcane stores its photoassimilates as sucrose rather than as starch in its parenchymous stalk cells. In the sugar biosynthesis pathway, sucrose synthase (SuSy, UDP-glucose: D-fructose 2-a-D-glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.13) is a key enzyme in the regulation of sucrose accumulation and partitioning by catalyzing the reversible conversion of sucrose and UDP into UDP-glucose and fructose. However, little is known about the sugarcane SuSy gene family members and hence no definitive studies have been reported regarding allelic diversity of SuSy gene families in Saccharum species. Results We identified and characterized a total of five sucrose synthase genes in the three sugarcane progenitor species through gene annotation and PCR haplotype analysis by analyzing 70 to 119 PCR fragments amplified from intron-containing target regions. We detected all but one (i.e. ScSuSy5) of ScSuSy transcripts in five tissue types of three Saccharum species. The average SNP frequency was one SNP per 108 bp, 81 bp, and 72 bp in S. officinarum, S. robustom, and S. spontanuem respectively. The average shared SNP is 15 between S. officinarum and S. robustom, 7 between S. officinarum and S. spontanuem , and 11 between S. robustom and S. spontanuem. We identified 27, 35, and 32 haplotypes from the five ScSuSy genes in S. officinarum, S. robustom, and S. spontanuem respectively. Also, 12, 11, and 9 protein sequences were translated from the haplotypes in S. officinarum, S. robustom, S. spontanuem, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed three separate clusters composed of SbSuSy1 and SbSuSy2, SbSuSy3 and SbSuSy5, and SbSuSy4. Conclusions The five members of the SuSy gene family evolved before the divergence of the genera in the tribe Andropogoneae at least 12 MYA. Each ScSuSy gene showed at least one non-synonymous substitution in SNP haplotypes. The SNP frequency is the lowest in S. officinarum, intermediate in S. robustum, and the highest in S. spontaneum, which may reflect the timing of the two rounds of whole genome duplication in these octoploids. The higher rate of shared SNP frequency between S. officinarum and S. robustum than between S. officinarum and in S. spontaneum confirmed that the speciation event separating S. officinarum and S. robustum occurred after their common ancestor diverged from S. spontaneum. The SNP and haplotype frequencies in three Saccharum species provide fundamental information for designing strategies to sequence these autopolyploid genomes.

2013-01-01

88

Mapping a New Spontaneous Preterm Birth Susceptibility Gene, IGF1R, Using Linkage, Haplotype Sharing, and Association Analysis  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is the major cause of neonatal death and serious morbidity. Most preterm births are due to spontaneous onset of labor without a known cause or effective prevention. Both maternal and fetal genomes influence the predisposition to spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB), but the susceptibility loci remain to be defined. We utilized a combination of unique population structures, family-based linkage analysis, and subsequent case-control association to identify a susceptibility haplotype for SPTB. Clinically well-characterized SPTB families from northern Finland, a subisolate founded by a relatively small founder population that has subsequently experienced a number of bottlenecks, were selected for the initial discovery sample. Genome-wide linkage analysis using a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in seven large northern Finnish non-consanginous families identified a locus on 15q26.3 (HLOD 4.68). This region contains the IGF1R gene, which encodes the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1R. Haplotype segregation analysis revealed that a 55 kb 12-SNP core segment within the IGF1R gene was shared identical-by-state (IBS) in five families. A follow-up case-control study in an independent sample representing the more general Finnish population showed an association of a 6-SNP IGF1R haplotype with SPTB in the fetuses, providing further evidence for IGF1R as a SPTB predisposition gene (frequency in cases versus controls 0.11 versus 0.05, P?=?0.001, odds ratio 2.3). This study demonstrates the identification of a predisposing, low-frequency haplotype in a multifactorial trait using a well-characterized population and a combination of family and case-control designs. Our findings support the identification of the novel susceptibility gene IGF1R for predisposition by the fetal genome to being born preterm.

Luukkonen, Aino; Teramo, Kari; Puttonen, Hilkka; Ojaniemi, Marja; Varilo, Teppo; Chaudhari, Bimal P.; Plunkett, Jevon; Murray, Jeffrey C.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Muglia, Louis J.; Palotie, Aarno; Hallman, Mikko

2011-01-01

89

MDM2 promoter SNP285 and SNP309; phylogeny and impact on cancer risk  

PubMed Central

MDM2 plays a key role to physiological processes like growth arrest, senescence and apoptosis. It binds to and inhibits key proteins like p53 and the RB protein, and MDM2 amplification as well as protein overexpression without amplification is seen in many solid tumors. An MDM2 promoter polymorphism (SNP309T>G) has been found associated with enhanced Sp1 transcription factor binding and elevated MDM2 transcription. While 309G has been found associated with elevated cancer risk and young age at diagnosis of different cancers, results in Caucasians have been at variance. Recently, we reported a second polymorphism (SNP285G>C) located on the 309G allele. The 285C/309G haplotype accounts for about 12% of all 309G alleles among Norwegians, Dutch and British habitants. Assessing Sp1 binding to the MDM2 promoter using surface plasmon resonance technology, we found SNP309G to enhance Sp1 binding by 22% while SNP285C reduced Sp1 binding by 51%. SNP285C reduced the risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer among 309TG/309GG carriers by 21 and 26%, respectively, but in particular the risk of ovarian cancer among 309TG heterozygotes (reduction by 37%). The fact that the 285C/309G haplotype accounted for only 1.9% of all 309G alleles among Finns and was absent in Chinese indicate 285C to be a young polymorphism.

Knappskog, Stian; L?nning, Per E.

2011-01-01

90

Angiotensinogen gene haplotype is associated with the prevalence of Japanese non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.  

PubMed

Aim:? Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients frequently have hypertension, which is considered to be an important predictive factor for the subsequent development of hepatic fibrosis. The renin-angiotensin system is also known to contribute to the progression of NASH. Various types of functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in the development of NASH have been proposed. Angiotensinogen (AGT) gene SNPs related to cardiovascular diseases have been reported. We aimed to evaluate the involvement of the AGT gene haplotype in Japanese NASH patients. Methods:? Previously described genotypes of SNPs of the AGT gene, rs4762 C/T polymorphism (T207M), rs699 C/T polymorphism (T268M), and rs7079 C/A polymorphism (C11537A), were determined in 124 Japanese biopsy-proven NASH patients and 150 healthy volunteers (controls). Results:? The allele and genotype frequencies in rs4762 and rs699 SNPs in NASH patients were similar to those in controls, while the frequency of the A allele and A/- genotype in rs7079 SNPs were much higher in NASH patients than in controls. In addition, the 3-SNP haplotype CTA was significantly over-represented in NASH patients compared with controls. Regarding clinical features of NASH patients, diastolic blood pressures in patients with the CTA/- genotype were much higher than in patients with other genotypes. Conclusions:? We found a 3-SNP haplotype of the AGT gene that is involved in the development of NASH and influences hypertension in NASH patients. These results provide new insight into the therapy of NASH patients with the CTA haplotype using ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. PMID:21988197

Ono, Masafumi; Ochi, Tsunehiro; Munekage, Kensuke; Ogasawara, Mitsunari; Hirose, Akira; Nozaki, Yasuko; Takahashi, Masaya; Okamoto, Nobuto; Saibara, Toshiji

2011-12-01

91

A single SNP in an evolutionary conserved region within intron 86 of the HERC2 gene determines human blue-brown eye color.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that haplotypes of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the first intron of the OCA2 gene are extremely strongly associated with variation in human eye color. In the present work, we describe additional fine association mapping of eye color SNPs in the intergenic region upstream of OCA2 and within the neighboring HERC2 (hect domain and RLD2) gene. We screened an additional 92 SNPs in 300-3000 European individuals and found that a single SNP in intron 86 of HERC2, rs12913832, predicted eye color significantly better (ordinal logistic regression R(2) = 0.68, association LOD = 444) than our previous best OCA2 haplotype. Comparison of sequence alignments of multiple species showed that this SNP lies in the center of a short highly conserved sequence and that the blue-eye-associated allele (frequency 78%) breaks up this conserved sequence, part of which forms a consensus binding site for the helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF). We were also able to demonstrate the OCA2 R419Q, rs1800407, coding SNP acts as a penetrance modifier of this new HERC2 SNP for eye color, and somewhat independently, of melanoma risk. We conclude that the conserved region around rs12913832 represents a regulatory region controlling constitutive expression of OCA2 and that the C allele at rs12913832 leads to decreased expression of OCA2, particularly within iris melanocytes, which we postulate to be the ultimate cause of blue eye color. PMID:18252222

Sturm, Richard A; Duffy, David L; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Leite, Fabio P N; Stark, Mitchell S; Hayward, Nicholas K; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W

2008-02-01

92

A Single SNP in an Evolutionary Conserved Region within Intron 86 of the HERC2 Gene Determines Human Blue-Brown Eye Color  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that haplotypes of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the first intron of the OCA2 gene are extremely strongly associated with variation in human eye color. In the present work, we describe additional fine association mapping of eye color SNPs in the intergenic region upstream of OCA2 and within the neighboring HERC2 (hect domain and RLD2) gene. We screened an additional 92 SNPs in 300–3000 European individuals and found that a single SNP in intron 86 of HERC2, rs12913832, predicted eye color significantly better (ordinal logistic regression R2 = 0.68, association LOD = 444) than our previous best OCA2 haplotype. Comparison of sequence alignments of multiple species showed that this SNP lies in the center of a short highly conserved sequence and that the blue-eye-associated allele (frequency 78%) breaks up this conserved sequence, part of which forms a consensus binding site for the helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF). We were also able to demonstrate the OCA2 R419Q, rs1800407, coding SNP acts as a penetrance modifier of this new HERC2 SNP for eye color, and somewhat independently, of melanoma risk. We conclude that the conserved region around rs12913832 represents a regulatory region controlling constitutive expression of OCA2 and that the C allele at rs12913832 leads to decreased expression of OCA2, particularly within iris melanocytes, which we postulate to be the ultimate cause of blue eye color.

Sturm, Richard A.; Duffy, David L.; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Leite, Fabio P.N.; Stark, Mitchell S.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.

2008-01-01

93

WinHAP: An Efficient Haplotype Phasing Algorithm Based on Scalable Sliding Windows  

PubMed Central

Haplotype phasing represents an essential step in studying the association of genomic polymorphisms with complex genetic diseases, and in determining targets for drug designing. In recent years, huge amounts of genotype data are produced from the rapidly evolving high-throughput sequencing technologies, and the data volume challenges the community with more efficient haplotype phasing algorithms, in the senses of both running time and overall accuracy. 2SNP is one of the fastest haplotype phasing algorithms with comparable low error rates with the other algorithms. The most time-consuming step of 2SNP is the construction of a maximum spanning tree (MST) among all the heterozygous SNP pairs. We simplified this step by replacing the MST with the initial haplotypes of adjacent heterozygous SNP pairs. The multi-SNP haplotypes were estimated within a sliding window along the chromosomes. The comparative studies on four different-scale genotype datasets suggest that our algorithm WinHAP outperforms 2SNP and most of the other haplotype phasing algorithms in terms of both running speeds and overall accuracies. To facilitate the WinHAP’s application in more practical biological datasets, we released the software for free at: http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/~xuyun/winhap/index.htm.

Xu, Yun; Cheng, Wenhua; Nie, Pengyu; Zhou, Fengfeng

2012-01-01

94

Comparing the frequency of common genetic variants and haplotypes between carriers and non-carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in Australian women diagnosed with breast cancer before 40 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are found in a proportion of families with multiple early-onset breast cancers. There are a large number of different deleterious mutations in both genes, none of which would be detectable using standard genetic association studies. Single common variants and haplotypes of common variants may capture groups of deleterious mutations since some low prevalence haplotypes of common variants occur more frequently among chromosomes that carry rare, deleterious mutations than chromosomes that do not. Methods DNA sequence data for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was obtained from 571 participants from the Australian Breast Cancer Family Study. Genetic variants were classified as either deleterious mutations or common genetic variants. Variants tagging common polymorphisms were selected and haplotypes resolved using Haploview. Their frequency was compared to those with and without deleterious mutations using a permutation test. Results A common genetic variant in BRCA1 (3232A > G) was found to be over-represented in deleterious mutation carriers (p = 0.05), whereas a common genetic variant in BRCA2 (1342A > C) occurred less frequently in deleterious mutation carriers (p = 0.04). All four of the common BRCA1 variants used to form haplotypes occurred more frequently in the deleterious mutation carriers when compared to the non-carriers, but there was no evidence of a difference in the distributions between the two groups (p = 0.34). In BRCA2, all four common variants were found to occur less frequently in the deleterious mutation carriers when compared to non-carriers, but the evidence for difference in the distribution between the two groups was weak (p = 0.16). Several less common haplotypes of common BRCA1 variants were found to be over-represented among deleterious mutation carriers but there was no evidence for this at the population level. In BRCA2, only the most common haplotype was found to occur more frequently in deleterious mutation carriers, with again no evidence at the population level. Conclusions We observed differences in the frequency of common genetic variants of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 and their haplotypes between early-onset breast cancer cases who did and did not carry deleterious mutations in these genes. Although our data provide only weak evidence for a difference in frequencies at the population level, the number of deleterious mutation carriers was low and the results may yet be substantiated in a larger study using pooled data.

2010-01-01

95

Haplotype frequencies based on eight polymorphic sites at the 3' untranslated region of the HLA-G gene in individuals from two different geographical regions of Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian population represents an admixture of native Amerindians, Portuguese settlers and Africans who were brought as slaves during the colonization period that began in the 16th century and was followed by waves of immigrations of Europeans and Asians in the 20th century. The contribution of these different ethnic groups to the constitution of Brazilian populations from different geographic regions is variable and, in addition to environmental factors, might act by determining different allele profiles among Brazilian populations from different regions. We studied polymorphic sites at the 3' untranslated region of the HLA-G gene in individuals from a Northeastern Brazilian region and compared them to our previously published data about a Southeastern Brazilian region, located at a distance of 2589 km. Our results showed that most polymorphic sites present a similar distribution in both populations, except for the lower frequency of the +3003C allele in the Northeastern population compared to the Southeastern population. Although differences in genotypic distribution were only significant for the +3003 locus (P = 0.0201), the diversity of haplotypes was distinct for each population. These results are important for case-control studies on the association of human leucocyte antigen-G polymorphism with disease and also in terms of the genetic structure of two distinct Brazilian populations. PMID:22283419

Lucena-Silva, N; Monteiro, A R; de Albuquerque, R S; Gomes, R G; Mendes-Junior, C T; Castelli, E C; Donadi, E A

2012-04-01

96

A whole genome SNP genotyping by DNA microarray and candidate gene association study for kidney stone disease  

PubMed Central

Background Kidney stone disease (KSD) is a complex disorder with unknown etiology in majority of the patients. Genetic and environmental factors may cause the disease. In the present study, we used DNA microarray to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and performed candidate gene association analysis to determine genetic variations associated with the disease. Methods A whole genome SNP genotyping by DNA microarray was initially conducted in 101 patients and 105 control subjects. A set of 104 candidate genes reported to be involved in KSD, gathered from public databases and candidate gene association study databases, were evaluated for their variations associated with KSD. Results Altogether 82 SNPs distributed within 22 candidate gene regions showed significant differences in SNP allele frequencies between the patient and control groups (P?frequencies between the patient and control groups within the gene. The total of 26 SNPs showed significant differences of allele frequencies between the patient and control groups and haplotypes associated with disease risk were identified. The SNP rs759330 located 144 bp downstream of BGLAP where it is a predicted microRNA binding site at 3?UTR of PAQR6 – a gene encoding progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VI, was genotyped in 216 patients and 216 control subjects and found to have significant differences in its genotype and allele frequencies (P?=?0.0007, OR 2.02 and P?=?0.0001, OR 2.02, respectively). Conclusions Our results suggest that these candidate genes are associated with KSD and PAQR6 comes into our view as the most potent candidate since associated SNP rs759330 is located in the miRNA binding site and may affect mRNA expression level.

2014-01-01

97

A SNP in the ACT gene associated with astrocytosis and rapid cognitive decline in AD.  

PubMed

There is biochemical and animal model evidence supporting a pathological role of the ACT gene in AD. However, direct genetic evidence remains controversial and has been mostly limited to individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. To resolve this apparent conflict we have used a high-density ACT SNP map, constructed haplotypes and explored correlations with phenotype. SNPs were identified by sequencing and used to construct haplotypes in 668 AD patients and 419 controls and a case-control association study was performed. Five SNPs, comprising five common haplotypes, represented 93% of ACT gene variation. Although no single SNP or haplotype was associated with AD status, a SNP in intron 2 was associated with later onset and more rapid cognitive decline (P=0.04). This SNP was both individually associated with severe astrocytosis (P=0.004) in AD patients and when combined with the signal sequence SNP (P=0.002). This suggests that astrocytosis may have a protective function for a limited period in some patients. These SNP associations either support a direct role for the ACT gene, in AD pathology or alternatively reflect linkage with polymorphisms in other genes nearby. PMID:17368652

Belbin, O; Dunn, J L; Chappell, S; Ritchie, A E; Ling, Y; Morgan, L; Pritchard, A; Warden, D R; Lendon, C L; Lehmann, D J; Mann, D M A; Smith, A D; Kalsheker, N; Morgan, K

2008-08-01

98

Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds  

PubMed Central

To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ?1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset.

McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

2013-01-01

99

A Reduced Number of mtSNPs Saturates Mitochondrial DNA Haplotype Diversity of Worldwide Population Groups  

PubMed Central

Background The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. Methodology/Principal Findings This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations (“African-Americans” and “Hispanics”) were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of “universal” mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. Conclusions/Significance The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to precedent findings, the results seem to indicate that only few mtSNPs are needed to reach high levels of discrimination power in a population, independently of its ancestral background.

Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge

2010-01-01

100

HLA class-I and class-II allele frequencies and two-locus haplotypes in Melanesians of Vanuatu and New Caledonia.  

PubMed

HLA class-I and class-II allele frequencies and two-locus haplotypes were examined in 367 unrelated Melanesians living on the islands of Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Diversity at all HLA class-I and class-II loci was relatively limited. In class-I loci, three HLA-A allelic groups (HLA-A*24, HLA-A*34 and HLA-A*11), seven HLA-B alleles or allelic groups (HLA-B*1506, HLA-B*5602, HLA-B*13, HLA-B*5601, HLA-B*4001, HLA-B*4002 and HLA-B*2704) and four HLA-C alleles or allelic groups (HLA-Cw*04, HLA-Cw*01, HLA-Cw*0702 and HLA-Cw*15) constituted more than 90% of the alleles observed. In the class-II loci, four HLA-DRB1 alleles (HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-DRB1*11, HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DRB1*16), three HLA-DRB3-5 alleles (HLA-DRB3*02, HLA-DRB4*01 and HLA-DRB5*01/02) and five HLA-DQB1 alleles (HLA-DQB1*0301, HLA-DQB1*04, HLA-DQB1*05, HLA-DQB1*0601 and HLA-DQB1*0602) constituted over 93, 97 and 98% of the alleles observed, respectively. Homozygosity showed significant departures from expected levels for neutrality based on allele frequency (i.e. excess diversity) at the HLA-B, HLA-Cw, HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB3/5 loci on some islands. The locus with the strongest departure from neutrality was HLA-DQB1, homozygosity being significantly lower than expected on all islands except New Caledonia. No consistent pattern was demonstrated for any HLA locus in relation to malaria endemicity. PMID:15546341

Maitland, K; Bunce, M; Harding, R M; Barnardo, M C N M; Clegg, J B; Welsh, K; Bowden, D K; Williams, T N

2004-12-01

101

Haplotype kernel association test as a powerful method to identify chromosomal regions harboring uncommon causal variants.  

PubMed

For most complex diseases, the fraction of heritability that can be explained by the variants discovered from genome-wide association studies is minor. Although the so-called "rare variants" (minor allele frequency [MAF] < 1%) have attracted increasing attention, they are unlikely to account for much of the "missing heritability" because very few people may carry these rare variants. The genetic variants that are likely to fill in the "missing heritability" include uncommon causal variants (MAF < 5%), which are generally untyped in association studies using tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or commercial SNP arrays. Developing powerful statistical methods can help to identify chromosomal regions harboring uncommon causal variants, while bypassing the genome-wide or exome-wide next-generation sequencing. In this work, we propose a haplotype kernel association test (HKAT) that is equivalent to testing the variance component of random effects for distinct haplotypes. With an appropriate weighting scheme given to haplotypes, we can further enhance the ability of HKAT to detect uncommon causal variants. With scenarios simulated according to the population genetics theory, HKAT is shown to be a powerful method for detecting chromosomal regions harboring uncommon causal variants. PMID:23740760

Lin, Wan-Yu; Yi, Nengjun; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Zhi, Degui; Zhang, Kui; Gao, Guimin; Tiwari, Hemant K; Liu, Nianjun

2013-09-01

102

Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and discovery of a haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009. As of January 2013, 1,023 Ayrshires had genotypes in the North American database. Evaluation accuracy was assessed using genomic evaluations based on 646 bulls with 2008 traditional evaluations to predict daughter performance of up to 180 bulls in 2012. Mean gain in reliability over parent average for all traits was 8.2 percentage points. The highest gains were for protein yield (16.9 percentage points), milk yield (16.6 percentage points), and stature (16.2 percentage points). Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms were useful for Ayrshire breed determination. Fewer breed-determining SNP were available for Ayrshires than for Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss because of the similarity of Ayrshires and Holsteins. A haplotype that affects fertility was identified on chromosome 17 and traces back in the genotyped population to the bull Selwood Betty's Commander (born in 1953). The haplotype carrier frequency for genotyped Ayrshires was 26.1%. Sire conception rate was decreased by 4.3±2.5 percentage points for carriers of the haplotype as determined by 618 matings of carrier sire by carrier maternal grandsire. Genomic evaluations for Ayrshires were officially implemented in the United States in April 2013. PMID:24679938

Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; Null, D J; Hutchison, J L; Cole, J B

2014-06-01

103

Mapping MHC haplotype effects in unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Life-threatening risks associated with HLA-mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation limit its general application for the treatment of blood diseases. The increased risks might be explained by undetected genetic variation within the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We retrospectively assessed each of 1108 MHC region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2628 patients and their HLA-mismatched unrelated donors to determine whether SNPs are associated with the risk of mortality, disease-free survival, transplant-related mortality, relapse, and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Multivariate analysis adjusted for HLA mismatching and nongenetic variables associated with each clinical end point. Twelve SNPs were identified as transplantation determinants. SNP-associated risks were conferred by either patient or donor SNP genotype or by patient-donor SNP mismatching. Risks after transplantation increased with increasing numbers of unfavorable SNPs. SNPs that influenced acute GVHD were independent of those that affected risk of chronic GVHD and relapse. HLA haplotypes differed with respect to haplotype content of (un)favorable SNPs. Outcome after HLA-mismatched unrelated donor transplantation is influenced by MHC region variation that is undetected with conventional HLA typing. Knowledge of the SNP content of HLA haplotypes provides a means to estimate risks prior to transplantation and to lower complications through judicious selection of donors with favorable MHC genetics.

Malkki, Mari; Horowitz, Mary M.; Spellman, Stephen R.; Haagenson, Michael D.; Wang, Tao

2013-01-01

104

Variantes del ADNmt en isleños del lago Titicaca: máxima frecuencia del haplotipo B1 y evidencia de efecto fundador Variants of mtDNA among islanders of the lake Titicaca: highest frequency of haplotype B1 and evidence of founder effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from 144 samples of islanders of the Taquile and Amantani (Quechua speakers) and Los Uros and Anapia (Aymara speakers) of the Lake Titicaca, Peru. We have found the highest frequency of B1 mtDNA haplotype ever reported: 100% in Taquile (n= 57); 88,6% in Amantani (n= 35); 87,5% in Anapia (n= 24) and 75% in Los

José Sandoval; Bedsabé Delgado; Luis Rivas; Bertha Bonilla; Daniel Nugent; Ricardo Fujita

2004-01-01

105

The effect of using genealogy-based haplotypes for genomic prediction  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic prediction uses two sources of information: linkage disequilibrium between markers and quantitative trait loci, and additive genetic relationships between individuals. One way to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction is to capture more linkage disequilibrium by regression on haplotypes instead of regression on individual markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of genomic prediction using haplotypes based on local genealogy information. Methods A total of 4429 Danish Holstein bulls were genotyped with the 50K SNP chip. Haplotypes were constructed using local genealogical trees. Effects of haplotype covariates were estimated with two types of prediction models: (1) assuming that effects had the same distribution for all haplotype covariates, i.e. the GBLUP method and (2) assuming that a large proportion (?) of the haplotype covariates had zero effect, i.e. a Bayesian mixture method. Results About 7.5 times more covariate effects were estimated when fitting haplotypes based on local genealogical trees compared to fitting individuals markers. Genealogy-based haplotype clustering slightly increased the accuracy of genomic prediction and, in some cases, decreased the bias of prediction. With the Bayesian method, accuracy of prediction was less sensitive to parameter ? when fitting haplotypes compared to fitting markers. Conclusions Use of haplotypes based on genealogy can slightly increase the accuracy of genomic prediction. Improved methods to cluster the haplotypes constructed from local genealogy could lead to additional gains in accuracy.

2013-01-01

106

Analysis of DNA polymorphisms in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and development of an SNP-based map of expressed genes.  

PubMed

A panel of 13 sugar beet lines and one genotype each of the Beta vulgaris cultivars red beet and Swiss chard, and B. vulgaris ssp. maritima were used to identify polymorphisms in alignments of genomic DNA sequences derived from 315 EST- and 43 non-coding RFLP-derived loci. In sugar beet lines, loci of expressed genes showed an average SNP frequency of 1/72 bp, 1 in 58 bp in non-coding sequences, increasing to 1/47 bp upon the addition of the remaining genotypes. Within analysed DNA fragments, alleles at different SNP positions displayed linkage disequilibrium indicative of haplotype structures. On average 2.7 haplotypes were found in sugar beet lines, and haplotype conservation in expressed genes appeared to exceed 500 bp in length. Seven different genotyping techniques including SNP detection by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, pyrosequencing and fluorescence scanning of labelled nucleotides were employed to perform 712 segregation analyses for 538 markers in three F(2) populations. Functions were predicted for 492 mapped sequences. Genetic maps comprised 305 loci covering 599.8 cM in population K1, 241 loci distributed over 636.6 cM in population D2, and 166 loci over 507.1 cM in population K2, respectively. Based on 156 markers common to more than one population an integrated map was constructed with 524 loci covering 664.3 cM. For 377 loci the genome positions of the most similar sequences from A. thaliana were identified, but little evidence for previously presented ancestral genome structures was found. PMID:17622508

Schneider, Katharina; Kulosa, Dagmar; Soerensen, Thomas Rosleff; Möhring, Silke; Heine, Martin; Durstewitz, Gregor; Polley, Andreas; Weber, Eberhard; Jamsari; Lein, Jens; Hohmann, Uwe; Tahiro, Emma; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schulz, Britta; Koch, Georg; Jung, Christian; Ganal, Martin

2007-09-01

107

Tumor necrosis factor haplotype diversity in Mestizo and native populations of Mexico.  

PubMed

The so-called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) block includes the TNFA, lymphotoxin alpha and beta (LTA and LTB) genes with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and microsatellites with an allele frequency that exhibits interpopulation variability. To date, no reports have included both SNPs and microsatellites at the TNF block to study Mestizo or Amerindian populations from Mexico. In this study, samples of five Mexican Mestizo populations (Durango, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, and Tierra Blanca) and four native-Mexican populations (North Lacandonians, South Lacandonians, Tepehuanos, and Yaquis) were genotyped for two SNPs (LTA+252A>G and TNFA-308G>A) and four microsatellites (TNFa, d, e, and f), to analyze the genetic substructure of the Mexican population. Allele and haplotype frequencies, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and interpopulation genetic relationships were calculated. There was significant LD along almost all of the TNF block but the lowest D' values were observed for the TNFf-TNFd pair. Mestizos showed higher allele and haplotype diversity than did natives. The genetic differentiation level was reduced among Mestizos; however, a slightly, but significant genetic substructure was observed between northern and southern Mexican Mestizos. Among the Amerindian populations, the genetic differentiation level was significantly elevated, particularly in both North and South Lacandonians. Furthermore, among Southern Lacandonians, inhabitants of Lacanja town were the most differentiated from all the Mexicans analyzed. The data presented here will serve as a reference for further population and epidemiological studies including these TNF polymorphisms in the Mexican population. PMID:24517517

Castro-Martínez, X H; Leal-Cortés, C; Flores-Martínez, S E; García-Zapién, A G; Sánchez-Corona, J; Portilla-de Buen, E; Gómez-Espinel, I; Zamora-Ginez, I; Pérez-Fuentes, R; Islas-Andrade, S; Revilla-Monsalve, C; Guerrero-Romero, F; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Mendoza-Carrera, F

2014-04-01

108

iHAP - integrated haplotype analysis pipeline for characterizing the haplotype structure of genes  

PubMed Central

Background The advent of genotype data from large-scale efforts that catalog the genetic variants of different populations have given rise to new avenues for multifactorial disease association studies. Recent work shows that genotype data from the International HapMap Project have a high degree of transferability to the wider population. This implies that the design of genotyping studies on local populations may be facilitated through inferences drawn from information contained in HapMap populations. Results To facilitate analysis of HapMap data for characterizing the haplotype structure of genes or any chromosomal regions, we have developed an integrated web-based resource, iHAP. In addition to incorporating genotype and haplotype data from the International HapMap Project and gene information from the UCSC Genome Browser Database, iHAP also provides capabilities for inferring haplotype blocks and selecting tag SNPs that are representative of haplotype patterns. These include block partitioning algorithms, block definitions, tag SNP definitions, as well as SNPs to be "force included" as tags. Based on the parameters defined at the input stage, iHAP performs on-the-fly analysis and displays the result graphically as a webpage. To facilitate analysis, intermediate and final result files can be downloaded. Conclusion The iHAP resource, available at , provides a convenient yet flexible approach for the user community to analyze HapMap data and identify candidate targets for genotyping studies.

Song, Chun Meng; Yeo, Boon Huat; Tantoso, Erwin; Yang, Yuchen; Lim, Yun Ping; Li, Kuo-Bin; Rajagopal, Gunaretnam

2006-01-01

109

?-Globin Gene Haplotype Characteristics of Colombian Amerinds in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haplotypes and subhaplotypes in the ?-globin gene cluster were identified in 146 and 156 chromosomes, respectively, of three tribes of Colombian Amerinds. Subhaplotype [+––––] was a major one in Colombian Amerinds as in most human ethnic groups except Africans. A major subhaplotype [––––+] in Africans was observed in only one chromosome. The framework 2 frequencies were very low (0.018–0.067). Haplotype

Koji Shimizu; Toyoko Hashimoto; Shinji Harihara; Kazuo Tajima; Shunro Sonoda; Vladimir Zaninovic

2001-01-01

110

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-Strings: An Alternative Method for Assessing Genetic Associations  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify disease-associations for single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) from scattered genomic-locations. However, SNPs frequently reside on several different SNP-haplotypes, only some of which may be disease-associated. This circumstance lowers the observed odds-ratio for disease-association. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we develop a method to identify the two SNP-haplotypes, which combine to produce each person’s SNP-genotype over specified chromosomal segments. Two multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated genetic regions were modeled; DRB1 (a Class II molecule of the major histocompatibility complex) and MMEL1 (an endopeptidase that degrades both neuropeptides and ?-amyloid). For each locus, we considered sets of eleven adjacent SNPs, surrounding the putative disease-associated gene and spanning ?200 kb of DNA. The SNP-information was converted into an ordered-set of eleven-numbers (subject-vectors) based on whether a person had zero, one, or two copies of particular SNP-variant at each sequential SNP-location. SNP-strings were defined as those ordered-combinations of eleven-numbers (0 or 1), representing a haplotype, two of which combined to form the observed subject-vector. Subject-vectors were resolved using probabilistic methods. In both regions, only a small number of SNP-strings were present. We compared our method to the SHAPEIT-2 phasing-algorithm. When the SNP-information spanning 200 kb was used, SHAPEIT-2 was inaccurate. When the SHAPEIT-2 window was increased to 2,000 kb, the concordance between the two methods, in both of these eleven-SNP regions, was over 99%, suggesting that, in these regions, both methods were quite accurate. Nevertheless, correspondence was not uniformly high over the entire DNA-span but, rather, was characterized by alternating peaks and valleys of concordance. Moreover, in the valleys of poor-correspondence, SHAPEIT-2 was also inconsistent with itself, suggesting that the SNP-string method is more accurate across the entire region. Conclusions/Significance Accurate haplotype identification will enhance the detection of genetic-associations. The SNP-string method provides a simple means to accomplish this and can be extended to cover larger genomic regions, thereby improving a GWAS’s power, even for those published previously.

Goodin, Douglas S.; Khankhanian, Pouya

2014-01-01

111

Haplotype reconstruction using perfect phylogeny and sequence data  

PubMed Central

Haplotype phasing is a well studied problem in the context of genotype data. With the recent developments in high-throughput sequencing, new algorithms are needed for haplotype phasing, when the number of samples sequenced is low and when the sequencing coverage is blow. High-throughput sequencing technologies enables new possibilities for the inference of haplotypes. Since each read is originated from a single chromosome, all the variant sites it covers must derive from the same haplotype. Moreover, the sequencing process yields much higher SNP density than previous methods, resulting in a higher correlation between neighboring SNPs. We offer a new approach for haplotype phasing, which leverages on these two properties. Our suggested algorithm, called Perfect Phlogeny Haplotypes from Sequencing (PPHS) uses a perfect phylogeny model and it models the sequencing errors explicitly. We evaluated our method on real and simulated data, and we demonstrate that the algorithm outperforms previous methods when the sequencing error rate is high or when coverage is low.

2012-01-01

112

Evaluation of two methods for computational HLA haplotypes inference using a real dataset  

PubMed Central

Background HLA haplotype analysis has been used in population genetics and in the investigation of disease-susceptibility locus, due to its high polymorphism. Several methods for inferring haplotype genotypic data have been proposed, but it is unclear how accurate each of the methods is or which method is superior. The accuracy of two of the leading methods of computational haplotype inference – Expectation-Maximization algorithm based (implemented in Arlequin V3.0) and Bayesian algorithm based (implemented in PHASE V2.1.1) – was compared using a set of 122 HLA haplotypes (A-B-Cw-DQB1-DRB1) determined through direct counting. The accuracy was measured with the Mean Squared Error (MSE), Similarity Index (IF) and Haplotype Identification Index (IH). Results None of the methods inferred all of the known haplotypes and some differences were observed in the accuracy of the two methods in terms of both haplotype determination and haplotype frequencies estimation. Working with haplotypes composed by low polymorphic sites, present in more than one individual, increased the confidence in the assignment of haplotypes and in the estimation of the haplotype frequencies generated by both programs. Conclusion The PHASE v2.1.1 implemented method had the best overall performance both in haplotype construction and frequency calculation, although the differences between the two methods were insubstantial. To our knowledge this was the first work aiming to test statistical methods using real haplotypic data from the HLA region.

Bettencourt, Bruno F; Santos, Margarida R; Fialho, Raquel N; Couto, Ana R; Peixoto, Maria J; Pinheiro, Joao P; Spinola, Helder; Mora, Marian G; Santos, Cristina; Brehm, Antonio; Bruges-Armas, Jacome

2008-01-01

113

Whole-genome molecular haplotyping of single cells  

PubMed Central

Conventional experimental methods of studying the human genome are limited by the inability to independently study the combination of alleles, or haplotype, on each of the homologous copies of the chromosomes. We developed a microfluidic device capable of separating and amplifying homologous copies of each chromosome from a single human metaphase cell. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis of amplified DNA enabled us to achieve completely deterministic, whole-genome, personal haplotypes of four individuals, including a HapMap trio with European ancestry (CEU) and an unrelated European individual. The phases of alleles were determined at ~99.8% accuracy for up to ~96% of all assayed SNPs. We demonstrate several practical applications, including direct observation of recombination events in a family trio, deterministic phasing of deletions in individuals and direct measurement of the human leukocyte antigen haplotypes of an individual. Our approach has potential applications in personal genomics, single-cell genomics and statistical genetics.

Fan, H Christina; Wang, Jianbin; Potanina, Anastasia; Quake, Stephen R

2014-01-01

114

RET Variants and Haplotype Analysis in a Cohort of Czech Patients with Hirschsprung Disease  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital aganglionosis of myenteric and submucosal plexuses in variable length of the intestine. This study investigated the influence and a possible modifying function of RET proto-oncogene's single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the development and phenotype of the disease in Czech patients. Genotyping of 14 SNPs was performed using TaqMan Genotyping Assays and direct sequencing. The frequencies of SNPs and generated haplotypes were statistically evaluated using chi-square test and the association with the risk of HSCR was estimated by odds ratio. SNP analysis revealed significant differences in frequencies of 11 polymorphic RET variants between 162 HSCR patients and 205 unaffected controls. Particularly variant alleles of rs1864410, rs2435357, rs2506004 (intron 1), rs1800858 (exon 2), rs1800861 (exon 13), and rs2565200 (intron 19) were strongly associated with increased risk of HSCR (p<0.00000) and were over-represented in males vs. females. Conversely, variant alleles of rs1800860, rs1799939 and rs1800863 (exons 7, 11, 15) had a protective role. The haploblock comprising variants in intron 1 and exon 2 was constructed. It represented a high risk of HSCR, however, the influence of other variants was also found after pruning from effect of this haploblock. Clustering patients according to genotype status in haploblock revealed a strong co-segregation with several SNPs and pointed out the differences between long and short form of HSCR. This study involved a large number of SNPs along the entire RET proto-oncogene with demonstration of their risk/protective role also in haplotype and diplotype analysis in the Czech population. The influence of some variant alleles on the aggressiveness of the disease and their role in gender manifestation differences was found. These data contribute to worldwide knowledge of the genetics of HSCR.

Vaclavikova, Eliska; Dvorakova, Sarka; Skaba, Richard; Pos, Lucie; Sykorova, Vlasta; Halkova, Tereza; Vcelak, Josef; Bendlova, Bela

2014-01-01

115

Defining haplotype blocks and tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that the genome is organized into blocks of haplotypes, and efforts to create a genome-wide haplotype map of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are already underway. Haplotype blocks are defined algorithmically and to date several algorithms have been proposed. However, little is known about their relative performance in real data or about the impact of allele frequencies and parameter

Thomas G. Schulze; Kui Zhang; Yu-Sheng Chen; Nirmala Akula; Fengzhu Sun; Francis J. McMahon

2004-01-01

116

Validation of SNP Allele Frequencies Determined by Pooled Next-Generation Sequencing in Natural Populations of a Non-Model Plant Species  

PubMed Central

Sequencing of pooled samples (Pool-Seq) using next-generation sequencing technologies has become increasingly popular, because it represents a rapid and cost-effective method to determine allele frequencies for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in population pools. Validation of allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq has been attempted using an individual genotyping approach, but these studies tend to use samples from existing model organism databases or DNA stores, and do not validate a realistic setup for sampling natural populations. Here we used pyrosequencing to validate allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq in three natural populations of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae). The allele frequency estimates of the pooled population samples (consisting of 20 individual plant DNA samples) were determined after mapping Illumina reads to (i) the publicly available, high-quality reference genome of a closely related species (Arabidopsis thaliana) and (ii) our own de novo draft genome assembly of A. halleri. We then pyrosequenced nine selected SNPs using the same individuals from each population, resulting in a total of 540 samples. Our results show a highly significant and accurate relationship between pooled and individually determined allele frequencies, irrespective of the reference genome used. Allele frequencies differed on average by less than 4%. There was no tendency that either the Pool-Seq or the individual-based approach resulted in higher or lower estimates of allele frequencies. Moreover, the rather high coverage in the mapping to the two reference genomes, ranging from 55 to 284x, had no significant effect on the accuracy of the Pool-Seq. A resampling analysis showed that only very low coverage values (below 10-20x) would substantially reduce the precision of the method. We therefore conclude that a pooled re-sequencing approach is well suited for analyses of genetic variation in natural populations.

Rellstab, Christian; Zoller, Stefan; Tedder, Andrew; Gugerli, Felix; Fischer, Martin C.

2013-01-01

117

Detecting rare variant associations: methods for testing haplotypes and multiallelic genotypes.  

PubMed

We summarize the work done by the contributors to Group 13 at Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) and provide a synthesis of their data analyses. The Group 13 contributors used a variety of approaches to test associations of both rare variants and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the GAW17 simulated traits, implementing analytic methods that incorporate multiallelic genotypes and haplotypes. In addition to using a wide variety of statistical methods and approaches, the contributors exhibited a remarkable amount of flexibility and creativity in coding the variants and their genes and in evaluating their proposed approaches and methods. We describe and contrast their methods along three dimensions: (1) selection and coding of genetic entities for analysis, (2) method of analysis, and (3) evaluation of the results. The contributors consistently presented a strong rationale for using multiallelic analytic approaches. They indicated that power was likely to be increased by capturing the signals of multiple markers within genetic entities defined by sliding windows, haplotypes, genes, functional pathways, and the entire set of SNPs and rare variants taken in aggregate. Despite this variability, the methods were fairly consistent in their ability to identify two associated genes for each simulated trait. The first gene was selected for the largest number of causal alleles and the second for a high-frequency causal SNP. The presumed model of inheritance and choice of genetic entities are likely to have a strong effect on the outcomes of the analyses. PMID:22128065

Cantor, Rita M; Wilcox, Marsha

2011-01-01

118

Identification and genetic effect of haplotype in the bovine BMP7 gene.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are peptide growth factors belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) superfamily, and some members of the BMP family support white adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we focused on the BMP7 which singularly promotes the differentiation of brown preadipocytes. Haplotypes involving 5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the bovine BMP7 gene were identified and their effect on body weight was analyzed. 16 haplotypes and 18 combined haplotypes were revealed and the linkage disequilibrium was assessed in the cattle population with 602 individuals representing three main cattle breeds from China. The results showed that haplotypes 3, 10 and 14 were predominant and accounted for 75.64%, 69.85%, and 83.36% in Nanyang, Qinchuan and Jiaxian cattle breeds, respectively. The statistical analyses indicated that the SNP 1, 4, and 5 are associated with the body weight, body length, and heart girth at 12 and 24 months in Nanyang cattle population (P<0.05), whereas there is no significant association between their 16 haplotypes and 18 combined haplotypes. Our results provide evidence that some SNPs and haplotypes in BMP7 are associated with growth traits, and may be utilized as a genetic marker in marker-assisted selection for beef cattle breeding programs. PMID:23500594

Huang, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Xin-Lei; He, Hua; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Chen, Hong

2013-12-15

119

Common CYP2D6 polymorphisms affecting alternative splicing and transcription: long-range haplotypes with two regulatory variants modulate CYP2D6 activity.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is involved in the metabolism of 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause substantial variation in CYP2D6 activity and serve as biomarkers guiding drug therapy. However, genotype-phenotype relationships remain ambiguous except for poor metabolizers carrying null alleles, suggesting the presence of yet unknown genetic variants. Searching for regulatory CYP2D6 polymorphisms, we find that a SNP defining the CYP2D6*2 allele, rs16947 [R296C, 17-60% minor allele frequency (MAF)], previously thought to convey normal activity, alters exon 6 splicing, thereby reducing CYP2D6 expression at least 2-fold. In addition, two completely linked SNPs (rs5758550/rs133333, MAF 13-42%) increase CYP2D6 transcription more than 2-fold, located in a distant downstream enhancer region (>100 kb) that interacts with the CYP2D6 promoter. In high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other, rs16947 and the enhancer SNPs form haplotypes that affect CYP2D6 enzyme activity in vivo. In a pediatric cohort of 164 individuals, rs16947 alone (minor haplotype frequency 28%) was associated with reduced CYP2D6 metabolic activity (measured as dextromethorphan/metabolite ratios), whereas rs5758550/rs133333 alone (frequency 3%) resulted in increased CYP2D6 activity, while haplotypes containing both rs16947 and rs5758550/rs133333 were similar to the wild-type. Other alleles used in biomarker panels carrying these variants such as CYP2D6*41 require re-evaluation of independent effects on CYP2D6 activity. The occurrence of two regulatory variants of high frequency and in high LD, residing on a long haplotype, highlights the importance of gene architecture, likely shaped by evolutionary selection pressures, in determining activity of encoded proteins. PMID:23985325

Wang, Danxin; Poi, Ming J; Sun, Xiaochun; Gaedigk, Andrea; Leeder, J Steven; Sadee, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

120

Predominance of group A KIR haplotypes in Japanese associated with diverse NK cell repertoires of KIR expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic DNA from a panel of 41 healthy unrelated Japanese individuals was typed for the presence or absence of 16 KIR genes and pseudogenes. Only eight different KIR genotypes were found. Group A haplotypes outnumbered group B haplotypes in frequency by approximately 3:1, with individuals having two group A haplotypes accounting for 56% of the panel. The frequency of A

Makoto Yawata; Nobuyo Yawata; Karina L. McQueen; Nathalie W. Cheng; Lisbeth A. Guethlein; Raja Rajalingam; Heather G. Shilling; Peter Parham

2002-01-01

121

Analysis of 22 Y chromosomal STR haplotypes and Y haplogroup distribution in Pathans of Pakistan.  

PubMed

We analyzed haplotypes for 22 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs), including 17 Yfiler loci (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DY438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y-GATA-H4) and five additional STRs (DYS388, DYS446, DYS447, DYS449 and DYS464), and Y chromosomal haplogroup distribution in 270 unrelated individuals from the Pathans residing in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan using in-house multiplex PCR systems. Each Y-STR showed diversities ranging from 0.2506 to 0.8538, and the discriminatory capacity (DC) was 73.7% with 199 observed haplotypes using 17 Yfiler loci. By the addition of 5 Y-STRs to the Yfiler system, the DC was increased to 85.2% while showing 230 observed haplotypes. Among the additional 5 Y-STRs, DYS446, DYS447 and DYS449 were major contributors to enhancing discrimination. In the analysis of molecular variance, the Pathans of this study showed significant differences from other Pathan populations as well as neighboring population sets. In Y-SNP analysis, a total of 12 Y chromosomal haplogroups were observed and the most frequent haplogroup was R1a1a with 49.3% frequency. To obtain insights on the origin of Pathans, the network analysis was performed for the haplogroups G and Q observed from the Pathans and the Jewish population groups including Ashkenazim and Sephardim, but little support for a Jewish origin could be found. In the present study, we report Y-STR population data in Pathans of Pakistan, and we emphasize the need for adding additional markers to the commonly used 17 Yfiler loci to achieve more improved discriminatory capacity in a population with low genetic diversity. PMID:24709582

Lee, Eun Young; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Rakha, Allah; Sim, Jeong Eun; Park, Myung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

2014-07-01

122

A system for exact and approximate genetic linkage analysis of SNP data in large pedigrees  

PubMed Central

Motivation: The use of dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data in genetic linkage analysis of large pedigrees is impeded by significant technical, methodological and computational challenges. Here we describe Superlink-Online SNP, a new powerful online system that streamlines the linkage analysis of SNP data. It features a fully integrated flexible processing workflow comprising both well-known and novel data analysis tools, including SNP clustering, erroneous data filtering, exact and approximate LOD calculations and maximum-likelihood haplotyping. The system draws its power from thousands of CPUs, performing data analysis tasks orders of magnitude faster than a single computer. By providing an intuitive interface to sophisticated state-of-the-art analysis tools coupled with high computing capacity, Superlink-Online SNP helps geneticists unleash the potential of SNP data for detecting disease genes. Results: Computations performed by Superlink-Online SNP are automatically parallelized using novel paradigms, and executed on unlimited number of private or public CPUs. One novel service is large-scale approximate Markov Chain–Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis. The accuracy of the results is reliably estimated by running the same computation on multiple CPUs and evaluating the Gelman–Rubin Score to set aside unreliable results. Another service within the workflow is a novel parallelized exact algorithm for inferring maximum-likelihood haplotyping. The reported system enables genetic analyses that were previously infeasible. We demonstrate the system capabilities through a study of a large complex pedigree affected with metabolic syndrome. Availability: Superlink-Online SNP is freely available for researchers at http://cbl-hap.cs.technion.ac.il/superlink-snp. The system source code can also be downloaded from the system website. Contact: omerw@cs.technion.ac.il Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Silberstein, Mark; Weissbrod, Omer; Otten, Lars; Tzemach, Anna; Anisenia, Andrei; Shtark, Oren; Tuberg, Dvir; Galfrin, Eddie; Gannon, Irena; Shalata, Adel; Borochowitz, Zvi U.; Dechter, Rina; Thompson, Elizabeth; Geiger, Dan

2013-01-01

123

16(th) IHIW: global distribution of extended HLA haplotypes.  

PubMed

This report describes the project to identify the global distribution of extended HLA haplotypes, a component of 16th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW), and summarizes the initial analyses of data collected. The project aims to investigate extended HLA haplotypes, compare their distribution among different populations, assess their frequency in hematopoietic stem cell unrelated donor registries and initiate an international family studies database and DNA repository to be made publicly available. HLA haplotypes compiled in immunogenetics laboratories during the evaluation of transplant candidates and related potential donors were analysed. Haplotypes were determined using the pedigree analysis tool publicly available from the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) website. Nineteen laboratories from 10 countries (11 laboratories from North America, five from Asia, two from Latin America and one from Australia) contributed data on a total of 1719 families comprised of 7474 individuals. We identified 10393 HLA haplotypes, of which 1682 haplotypes included high-resolution typing at HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 loci. We also present haplotypes containing MICA and other HLA loci and haplotypes containing rare alleles seen in these families. The project will be extended through the 17th IHIW, and investigators interested in joining the project may communicate with the first author. PMID:23302097

Askar, M; Daghstani, J; Thomas, D; Leahy, N; Dunn, P; Claas, F; Doran, S; Saji, H; Kanangat, S; Karoichane, M; Tambur, A; Monos, D; El-Khalifa, M; Turner, V; Kamoun, M; Mustafa, M; Ramon, D; Gandhi, M; Vernaza, A; Gorodezky, C; Wagenknecht, D; Gautreaux, M; Hajeer, A; Kashi, Z; Fernandez-Vina, M

2013-02-01

124

High-Throughput SNP Genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole genome approaches using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have the potential to transform complex disease genetics and expedite pharmacogenetics research. This has led to a requirement for high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms. Development of a successful high-throughput genotyping platform depends on coupling reliable assay chemistry with an appropriate detection system to maximise efficiency with respect to accuracy, speed and cost.

Suzanne Jenkins; Neil Gibson

2002-01-01

125

HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik

126

HLA type inference via haplotypes identical by descent.  

PubMed

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non-self ones. HLA genes are hypervariable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments identical by descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1, and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP-based approach, and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus. PMID:21385049

Setty, Manu N; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'er, Itsik

2011-03-01

127

Combined genotype and haplotype tests for region-based association studies  

PubMed Central

Background Although single-SNP analysis has proven to be useful in identifying many disease-associated loci, region-based analysis has several advantages. Empirically, it has been shown that region-based genotype and haplotype approaches may possess much higher power than single-SNP statistical tests. Both high quality haplotypes and genotypes may be available for analysis given the development of next generation sequencing technologies and haplotype assembly algorithms. Results As generally it is unknown whether genotypes or haplotypes are more relevant for identifying an association, we propose to use both of them with the purpose of preserving high power under both genotype and haplotype disease scenarios. We suggest two approaches for a combined association test and investigate the performance of these two approaches based on a theoretical model, population genetics simulations and analysis of a real data set. Conclusions Based on a theoretical model, population genetics simulations and analysis of a central corneal thickness (CCT) Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) data set we have shown that combined genotype and haplotype approach has a high potential utility for applications in association studies.

2013-01-01

128

Recent radiation within Y-chromosomal haplogroup R-M269 resulted in high Y-STR haplotype resemblance.  

PubMed

Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are often used in addition to Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) to detect subtle patterns in a population genetic structure. There are, however, indications for Y-STR haplotype resemblance across different subhaplogroups within haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) which may lead to erosion in the observation of the population genetic pattern. Hence the question arises whether Y-STR haplotypes are still informative beyond high-resolution Y-SNP genotyping for population genetic studies. To address this question, we genotyped the Y chromosomes of more than 1000 males originating from the West-European regions of Flanders (Belgium), North-Brabant and Limburg (the Netherlands) at the highest resolution of the current Y-SNP tree together with 38 commonly used Y-STRs. We observed high resemblance of Y-STR haplotypes between males belonging to different subhaplogroups of haplogroup R-M269. Several subhaplogroups within R-M269 could not be distinguished from each other based on differences in Y-STR haplotype variation. The most likely hypothesis to explain this similarity of Y-STR haplotypes within the population of R-M269 members is a recent radiation where various subhaplogroups originated within a relatively short time period. We conclude that high-resolution Y-SNP typing rather than Y-STR typing might be more useful to study population genetic patterns in (Western) Europe. PMID:24571229

Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; van Oven, Mannis; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny

2014-03-01

129

Hypothesis driven single nucleotide polymorphism search (HyDn-SNP-S).  

PubMed

The advent of complete-genome genotyping across phenotype cohorts has provided a rich source of information for bioinformaticians. However the search for SNPs from this data is generally performed on a study-by-study case without any specific hypothesis of the location for SNPs that are predictive for the phenotype. We have designed a method whereby very large SNP lists (several gigabytes in size), combining several genotyping studies at once, can be sorted and traced back to their ultimate consequence in protein structure. Given a working hypothesis, researchers are able to easily search whole genome genotyping data for SNPs that link genetic locations to phenotypes. This allows a targeted search for correlations between phenotypes and potentially relevant systems, rather than utilizing statistical methods only. HyDn-SNP-S returns results that are less data dense, allowing more thorough analysis, including haplotype analysis. We have applied our method to correlate DNA polymerases to cancer phenotypes using four of the available cancer databases in dbGaP. Logistic regression and derived haplotype analysis indicates that ~80SNPs, previously overlooked, are statistically significant. Derived haplotypes from this work link POLL to breast cancer and POLG to prostate cancer with an increase in incidence of 3.01- and 9.6-fold, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations on wild-type and one of the SNP mutants from the haplotype of POLL provide insights at the atomic level on the functional impact of this cancer related SNP. Furthermore, HyDn-SNP-S has been designed to allow application to any system. The program is available upon request from the authors. PMID:23830898

Swett, Rebecca J; Elias, Angela; Miller, Jeffrey A; Dyson, Gregory E; Andrés Cisneros, G

2013-09-01

130

Extended haplotype analysis of cystic fibrosis mutations and its implications for the selective advantage hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation, ?F508, is associated with one haplotype (B) determined by the two polymorphic markers, XV2C and KM19. This haplotype is rare (15%) among non-?F chromosomes. Its frequency among non-?F508 CF chromosomes is 50% with variation between populations. One hypothesis for the high frequency of CF haplotype B chromosomes suggests that there was a selective advantage

Hagit Sereth; Tzipora Shoshani; Nurit Bashan; Bat-sheva Kerem

1993-01-01

131

Detecting disease rare alleles using single SNPs in families and haplotyping in unrelated subjects from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data  

PubMed Central

We present an evaluation of discovery power for two association tests that work well with common alleles but are applied to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 simulations with rare causative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (minor allele frequency [MAF] < 1%). The methods used were genome-wide single-SNP association tests based on a linear mixed-effects model for discovery and applied to the familial sample and sliding windows haplotype association tests for replication, implemented within causative genes in the unrelated individuals sample. Both methods are evaluated with respect to the simulated trait Q2. The linear mixed-effects model and haplotype association tests failed to detect the rare alleles of the simulated associations. In contrast, the linear mixed-effects model and haplotype association tests detected effects for the most important simulated SNPs with MAF > 1%. We conclude that these findings reflect inadequate statistical power (the result of small simulated samples) for the complex genetic model that underlies these data.

2011-01-01

132

C-reactive protein haplotype is associated with high PSA as a marker of metastatic prostate cancer but not with overall cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence points to a role for inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. The significance of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory and innate immunity molecule, has not been evaluated thoroughly in prostate cancer (PC). In this study of 739 Finnish patients with PC and 760 healthy men, we evaluated the associations of CRP genotypes and haplotypes with total PC risk and PC progression, using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of metastatic disease. Although the haplotype frequencies were similar in patients and controls, an association between haplotype ACCCA and patients' PSA levels was found. The carriers more often had a high PSA than non-carriers (P=0.0002) and the SNP rs2794521 A-allele and rs1800947 C-allele carriers had a higher PSA than non-carriers (P=0.009 and P=0.0004, respectively). A trend for a younger age at diagnosis was found among the carriers of ACCCA (P=0.07) and the rs1800947 C-allele (P=0.06), as well as a trend for the latter to have more likely metastases (P=0.06), but not after Bonferroni correction (?=0.00208). This is the first study to suggest association between PSA and CRP variants in PC and, therefore, further studies are warranted. CRP alleles previously found to protect against increased CRP levels are now suggested to be associated with metastatic PC, indicated by elevated PSA.

Eklund, C M; Tammela, T L J; Schleutker, J; Hurme, M

2009-01-01

133

Haplotype analysis of VDR gene polymorphisms: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Although many studies have addressed the relationship between multiple individual polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and bone health, few have analyzed this data in terms of haplotypes. We performed a meta-analysis of studies with data on the BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI polymorphisms in order to (a) estimate haplotype frequencies, (b) determine linkage disequilibrium (LD), and (c)

Ammarin Thakkinstian; Catherine D’Este; John Attia

2004-01-01

134

Genome-Wide Haplotype Analysis of Cis Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Monocytes  

PubMed Central

In order to assess whether gene expression variability could be influenced by several SNPs acting in cis, either through additive or more complex haplotype effects, a systematic genome-wide search for cis haplotype expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) was conducted in a sample of 758 individuals, part of the Cardiogenics Transcriptomic Study, for which genome-wide monocyte expression and GWAS data were available. 19,805 RNA probes were assessed for cis haplotypic regulation through investigation of ?2,1×109 haplotypic combinations. 2,650 probes demonstrated haplotypic p-values?>104-fold smaller than the best single SNP p-value. Replication of significant haplotype effects were tested for 412 probes for which SNPs (or proxies) that defined the detected haplotypes were available in the Gutenberg Health Study composed of 1,374 individuals. At the Bonferroni correction level of 1.2×10?4 (?0.05/412), 193 haplotypic signals replicated. 1000G imputation was then conducted, and 105 haplotypic signals still remained more informative than imputed SNPs. In-depth analysis of these 105 cis eQTL revealed that at 76 loci genetic associations were compatible with additive effects of several SNPs, while for the 29 remaining regions data could be compatible with a more complex haplotypic pattern. As 24 of the 105 cis eQTL have previously been reported to be disease-associated loci, this work highlights the need for conducting haplotype-based and 1000G imputed cis eQTL analysis before commencing functional studies at disease-associated loci.

Brocheton, Jessy; Zeller, Tanja; Rovital, Maxime; Wild, Philipp S.; Ziegler, Andreas; Munzel, Thomas; Tiret, Laurence; Blankenberg, Stefan; Deloukas, Panos; Erdmann, Jeannette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Goodall, Alison H.; Cambien, Francois; Tregouet, David-Alexandre

2013-01-01

135

Human leukocyte antigen-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in an Albanian population from Kosovo.  

PubMed

HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genotyping was performed in a sample of Albanian population from Kosovo. The comparison of the respective allele frequencies through Fst analysis resulted in a close relationship with the Albanians from Albania, the Bulgarians, FYROM Macedonians and Greeks, while the other neighbouring populations are slightly more distant. PMID:22726262

Sulcebe, G; Cuenod, M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Tiercy, J-M; Zhubi, B; Shyti, E; Kardhashi, V

2013-04-01

136

Forensically relevant SNP classes.  

PubMed

Forensic samples that contain too little template DNA or are too degraded require alternate genetic marker analyses or approaches to what is currently used for routine casework. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) offer promise to support forensic DNA analyses because of an abundance of potential markers, amenability to automation, and potential reduction in required fragment length to only 60-80 bp. The SNP markers will serve an important role in analyzing challenging forensic samples, such as those that are very degraded, for augmenting the power of kinship analyses and family reconstructions for missing persons and unidentified human remains, as well as for providing investigative lead value in some cases without a suspect (and no genetic profile match in CODIS). The SNPs for forensic analyses can be divided into four categories: identity-testing SNPs; lineage informative SNPs; ancestry informative SNPs; and phenotype informative SNPs. In addition to discussing the applications of these different types of SNPs, this article provides some discussion on privacy issues so that society and policymakers can be more informed. PMID:18474034

Budowle, Bruce; van Daal, Angela

2008-04-01

137

MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes  

PubMed Central

We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio

2013-01-01

138

Haplotype Estimation from Fuzzy Genotypes Using Penalized Likelihood  

PubMed Central

The Composite Link Model is a generalization of the generalized linear model in which expected values of observed counts are constructed as a sum of generalized linear components. When combined with penalized likelihood, it provides a powerful and elegant way to estimate haplotype probabilities from observed genotypes. Uncertain (“fuzzy”) genotypes, like those resulting from AFLP scores, can be handled by adding an extra layer to the model. We describe the model and the estimation algorithm. We apply it to a data set of accurate human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to a data set of fuzzy tomato AFLP scores.

Uh, Hae-Won; Eilers, Paul H. C.

2011-01-01

139

Analysis of Allele and Haplotype Diversity Across 25 Genomic Regions in Three Eastern European Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Individual population history is the main reason for the variability of linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and haplotype frequencies among populations. Such diversity may influence the transferability of tag SNPs from one population to another. Our goal was to compare patterns of pairwise LD and allele and haplotype frequencies in Estonian and Russian populations, to estimate the genetic variation between

Andrey Khrunin; Evelin Mihailov; Tiit Nikopensius; Kaarel Krjutškov; Svetlana Limborska; Andres Metspalu

2009-01-01

140

ISHAPE: new rapid and accurate software for haplotyping  

PubMed Central

Background We have developed a new haplotyping program based on the combination of an iterative multiallelic EM algorithm (IEM), bootstrap resampling and a pseudo Gibbs sampler. The use of the IEM-bootstrap procedure considerably reduces the space of possible haplotype configurations to be explored, greatly reducing computation time, while the adaptation of the Gibbs sampler with a recombination model on this restricted space maintains high accuracy. On large SNP datasets (>30 SNPs), we used a segmented approach based on a specific partition-ligation strategy. We compared this software, Ishape (Iterative Segmented HAPlotyping by Em), with reference programs such as Phase, Fastphase, and PL-EM. Analogously with Phase, there are 2 versions of Ishape: Ishape1 which uses a simple coalescence model for the pseudo Gibbs sampler step, and Ishape2 which uses a recombination model instead. Results We tested the program on 2 types of real SNP datasets derived from Hapmap: adjacent SNPs (high LD) and SNPs spaced by 5 Kb (lower level of LD). In both cases, we tested 100 replicates for each size: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 80 SNPs. For adjacent SNPs Ishape2 is superior to the other software both in terms of speed and accuracy. For SNPs spaced by 5 Kb, Ishape2 yields similar results to Phase2.1 in terms of accuracy, and both outperform the other software. In terms of speed, Ishape2 runs about 4 times faster than Phase2.1 with 10 SNPs, and about 10 times faster with 80 SNPs. For the case of 5kb-spaced SNPs, Fastphase may run faster with more than 100 SNPs. Conclusion These results show that the Ishape heuristic approach for haplotyping is very competitive in terms of accuracy and speed and deserves to be evaluated extensively for possible future widespread use.

Delaneau, Olivier; Coulonges, Cedric; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; Nelson, George; Spadoni, Jean-Louis; Zagury, Jean-Francois

2007-01-01

141

Frequencies of HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 haplotypes in Czech and Slovak coeliac patients and the healthy population.  

PubMed

Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder with genetic predisposition. The aim was to determine the frequency of HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in Czech and Slovak patients and the healthy population. The study included 127 patients and 66 healthy volunteers. HLA-DQ2 was identified in 85.03% patients, and 24.24% healthy individuals (P=0.0001; OR17.7632; CI=8.4347-37.4088). HLA-DQ8 was identified in 11.81% patients and 15.5% healthy individuals. HLA-DQ8 occurred more often in HLA-DQ2-negative patients compared to HLA-DQ2-positive patients (P=0.0494; OR3.5; CI 1.0428-11.7468). At least one of the studied HLA-variants was found more often in patients than in healthy individuals (P=0.0001; OR58.8; CI 7.6856-449.8602). PMID:24660172

Wroblova, Katerina; Kolorz, Michal; Pav, Igor; Horakova, Zuzana; Filipova, Petra; Bartos, Milan; Bartosova, Ladislava

2014-01-01

142

RNA-Seq Identifies SNP Markers for Growth Traits in Rainbow Trout  

PubMed Central

Fast growth is an important and highly desired trait, which affects the profitability of food animal production, with feed costs accounting for the largest proportion of production costs. Traditional phenotype-based selection is typically used to select for growth traits; however, genetic improvement is slow over generations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explain 90% of the genetic differences between individuals; therefore, they are most suitable for genetic evaluation and strategies that employ molecular genetics for selective breeding. SNPs found within or near a coding sequence are of particular interest because they are more likely to alter the biological function of a protein. We aimed to use SNPs to identify markers and genes associated with genetic variation in growth. RNA-Seq whole-transcriptome analysis of pooled cDNA samples from a population of rainbow trout selected for improved growth versus unselected genetic cohorts (10 fish from 1 full-sib family each) identified SNP markers associated with growth-rate. The allelic imbalances (the ratio between the allele frequencies of the fast growing sample and that of the slow growing sample) were considered at scores >5.0 as an amplification and <0.2 as loss of heterozygosity. A subset of SNPs (n?=?54) were validated and evaluated for association with growth traits in 778 individuals of a three-generation parent/offspring panel representing 40 families. Twenty-two SNP markers and one mitochondrial haplotype were significantly associated with growth traits. Polymorphism of 48 of the markers was confirmed in other commercially important aquaculture stocks. Many markers were clustered into genes of metabolic energy production pathways and are suitable candidates for genetic selection. The study demonstrates that RNA-Seq at low sequence coverage of divergent populations is a fast and effective means of identifying SNPs, with allelic imbalances between phenotypes. This technique is suitable for marker development in non-model species lacking complete and well-annotated genome reference sequences.

Salem, Mohamed; Vallejo, Roger L.; Leeds, Timothy D.; Palti, Yniv; Liu, Sixin; Sabbagh, Annas; Rexroad, Caird E.; Yao, Jianbo

2012-01-01

143

Haplotype Analysis Improved Evidence for Candidate Genes for Intramuscular Fat Percentage from a Genome Wide Association Study of Cattle  

PubMed Central

In genome wide association studies (GWAS), haplotype analyses of SNP data are neglected in favour of single point analysis of associations. In a recent GWAS, we found that none of the known candidate genes for intramuscular fat (IMF) had been identified. In this study, data from the GWAS for these candidate genes were re-analysed as haplotypes. First, we confirmed that the methodology would find evidence for association between haplotypes in candidate genes of the calpain-calpastatin complex and musculus longissimus lumborum peak force (LLPF), because these genes had been confirmed through single point analysis in the GWAS. Then, for intramuscular fat percent (IMF), we found significant partial haplotype substitution effects for the genes ADIPOQ and CXCR4, as well as suggestive associations to the genes CEBPA, FASN, and CAPN1. Haplotypes for these genes explained 80% more of the phenotypic variance compared to the best single SNP. For some genes the analyses suggested that there was more than one causative mutation in some genes, or confirmed that some causative mutations are limited to particular subgroups of a species. Fitting the SNPs and their interactions simultaneously explained a similar amount of the phenotypic variance compared to haplotype analyses. Haplotype analysis is a neglected part of the suite of tools used to analyse GWAS data, would be a useful method to extract more information from these data sets, and may contribute to reducing the missing heritability problem.

Barendse, William

2011-01-01

144

Y-chromosomal DNA haplotypes in infertile European males carrying Y-microdeletions.  

PubMed

We have determined Y-chromosomal DNA haplotypes in 73 infertile European males carrying Y microdeletions and compared them with the haplotypes of 299 infertile males lacking microdeletions. Chromosomes were typed with a set of 11 binary Y markers, which identified 8 haplogroups in the sample. Haplogroup frequencies were compared between 3 microdeletion classes and the non-deleted infertile males. Deletions arise on many different haplotypic backgrounds. No statistically significant differences in frequency were seen, although the small number of AZFa deletions lay predominantly on one branch of the Y haplotype tree. PMID:11097432

Paracchini, S; Stuppia, L; Gatta, V; Palka, G; Moro, E; Foresta, C; Mengua, L; Oliva, R; Ballescà, J L; Kremer, J A; van Golde, R J; Tuerlings, J H; Hargreave, T; Ross, A; Cooke, H; Huellen, K; Vogt, P H; Tyler-Smith, C

2000-11-01

145

Ethnicity-Related Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in the Human ABCB1 Gene  

PubMed Central

Introduction The human multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1, ABCB1) codes for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an important membrane-bound efflux transporter known to confer anti-cancer drug resistance as well as affect the pharmacokinetics of many drugs and xenobiotics. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified throughout the ABCB1 gene which may have an effect on P-gp expression levels and function. Haplotype as well as genotype analysis of SNPs is becoming increasingly important in identifying genetic variants underlying susceptibility to human disease. Three SNPs, 1236C>T, 2677G>T, and 3435C>T have been repeatedly shown to predict changes in the function of P-gp. The frequencies with which these polymorphisms exist in a population have also been shown to be ethnically related. Methods In this study, 95 individuals representative of the entire ethnic make-up of the United States were compared to 101 individuals from an Ashkenazi Jewish population. These individuals were analyzed by genomic sequencing and PCR-RFLP to calculate their genotype frequencies. Results Twenty-five SNPs were located in the exons of the ABCB1 gene. All of the polymorphisms identified were in parts of the ABCB1 gene product predicted to be intracellular, and 16 appear to be novel as compared to those listed by NCBI. Frequencies of the 1236C>T and 2677G>T/A/C SNPs were similar for the American and Ashkenazi populations (64.2% and 60.4% respectively for 1236C>T – ?2 is 0.30 p?1; 55.8% and 64.4% for 2677G>T/A/C ?2 is 1.49 p?1), but were different for 3435C>T (24.2% for the American population and 69.3% for the Ashkenazi population ?2 is 39.927 p<0.001). The 1236T/2677T/3435T haplotype occurred in 23.6% (SE 0.013) of the Ashkenazi population. Conclusion The SNP at location 3435C>T plays a significant role in the ABCB1 gene. The haplotype and genotype analysis from these data may be used as a basis for studies on the relationship between ABCB1 genotypes and drug efficacy, drug toxicity, disease susceptibility or other phenotypes.

Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Marple, Andrew H; Shinar, Shiri; Kimchi, Avraham M.; Scavo, David; Roma, M. Isabella; Kim, In-Wha; Jones, Adam; Arora, Mili; Gribar, John; Gurwitz, David; Gottesman, Michael M

2007-01-01

146

A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla: Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies  

PubMed Central

An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50–100 kb and reached background levels within 1–2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ?750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species.

McCue, Molly E.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Petersen, Jessica L.; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M.; Distl, Ottmar; Guerin, Gerard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; R?ed, Knut H.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Swinburne, June E.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

2012-01-01

147

A high density SNP array for the domestic horse and extant Perissodactyla: utility for association mapping, genetic diversity, and phylogeny studies.  

PubMed

An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50-100 kb and reached background levels within 1-2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ?750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species. PMID:22253606

McCue, Molly E; Bannasch, Danika L; Petersen, Jessica L; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M; Distl, Ottmar; Guérin, Gérard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Røed, Knut H; Ryder, Oliver A; Swinburne, June E; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; Mickelson, James R

2012-01-01

148

A Genome-Wide Scan for Breast Cancer Risk Haplotypes among African American Women  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls) using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645), thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density.

Song, Chi; Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Chris A.; Stram, Daniel O.

2013-01-01

149

PanSNPdb: the Pan-Asian SNP genotyping database.  

PubMed

The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP consortium conducted the largest survey to date of human genetic diversity among Asians by sampling 1,719 unrelated individuals among 71 populations from China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. We have constructed a database (PanSNPdb), which contains these data and various new analyses of them. PanSNPdb is a research resource in the analysis of the population structure of Asian peoples, including linkage disequilibrium patterns, haplotype distributions, and copy number variations. Furthermore, PanSNPdb provides an interactive comparison with other SNP and CNV databases, including HapMap3, JSNP, dbSNP and DGV and thus provides a comprehensive resource of human genetic diversity. The information is accessible via a widely accepted graphical interface used in many genetic variation databases. Unrestricted access to PanSNPdb and any associated files is available at: http://www4a.biotec.or.th/PASNP. PMID:21731755

Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Xu, Shuhua; Shaw, Philip J; Yang, Jin Ok; Ghang, Ho; Bhak, Jong; Liu, Edison; Tongsima, Sissades

2011-01-01

150

MDM2 gene SNP309 T/G and p53 gene SNP72 G/C do not influence diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma onset or survival in central European Caucasians  

PubMed Central

Background SNP309 T/G (rs2279744) causes higher levels of MDM2, the most important negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor. SNP72 G/C (rs1042522) gives rise to a p53 protein with a greatly reduced capacity to induce apoptosis. Both polymorphisms have been implicated in cancer. The SNP309 G-allele has recently been reported to accelerate diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) formation in pre-menopausal women and suggested to constitute a genetic basis for estrogen affecting human tumorigenesis. Here we asked whether SNP309 and SNP72 are associated with DLBCL in women and are correlated with age of onset, diagnosis, or patient's survival. Methods SNP309 and SNP72 were PCR-genotyped in a case-control study that included 512 controls and 311 patients diagnosed with aggressive NHL. Of these, 205 were diagnosed with DLBCL. Results The age of onset was similar in men and women. The control and patients group showed similar SNP309 and SNP72 genotype frequencies. Importantly and in contrast to the previous findings, similar genotype frequencies were observed in female patients diagnosed by 51 years of age and those diagnosed later. Specifically, 3/20 female DLBCL patients diagnosed by 51 years of age were homozygous for SNP309 G and 2/20 DLBCL females in that age group were homozygous for SNP72 C. Neither SNP309 nor SNP72 had a significant influence on event-free and overall survival in multivariate analyses. Conclusion In contrast to the previous study on Ashkenazi Jewish Caucasians, DLBCL in pre-menopausal women of central European Caucasian ethnicity was not associated with SNP309 G. Neither SNP309 nor SNP72 seem to be correlated with age of onset, diagnosis, or survival of patients.

Bittenbring, Joerg; Parisot, Frederique; Wabo, Alain; Mueller, Monika; Kerschenmeyer, Lynn; Kreuz, Markus; Truemper, Lorenz; Landt, Olfert; Menzel, Alain; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Roemer, Klaus

2008-01-01

151

Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in Afro-Uruguayans from two geographical regions (South and North).  

PubMed

The beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes were identified in 52 and 40 chromosomes from two Afro-Uruguayan populations located in the South and North of the country, respectively. In both regions, the 5' haplotype 2 (+ - - - -), characteristic of non-African populations, was the most frequent, reflecting a strong process of admixture in Afro-Uruguayans (0.355 and 0.262, respectively). The haplotypes 3 (- - - - +) and 4 (- + - - +), characteristics of African sub-Saharan populations, present inverse frequencies in North and South: whereas in the South haplotype 3 is the second most frequent (0.232), and haplotype 4 presents a low frequency (0.019), in the North haplotype 4 is the third most frequent (0.140), and haplotype 3 only reaches an intermediate frequency (0.088). The pairwise F(ST) and the exact test of differentiation show genetic heterogeneity between both regions. Nei's genetic distance show that South and North present affinities with Bantu groups, although the North present the smallest genetic distance with the Mandenka, a Senegalese population. With respect to 3' haplotypes, haplotype I was the most frequent in both populations, followed by haplotype II, characteristic of sub-Saharan Africans. The high frequencies of haplotype III-Asian could indicate admixture with Native American populations. The differences observed between both Uruguayan regions could be explained by microevolutionary events as genetic drift, founder effects, differential admixture, and/or distinct origin of the African slaves introduced in those regions. PMID:19533614

Da Luz, Julio; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Sonati, Maria de Fatima; Sans, Mónica

2010-01-01

152

The Association of a Novel Haplotype in the Dopamine Transporter with Preschool Age Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Significant evidence supports a genetic contribution to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three previous studies have demonstrated an association between PTSD and the nine repeat allele of the 3? untranslated region (3?UTR) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the dopamine transporter (DAT, rs28363170). Recently a novel, functionally significant C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3?UTR (rs27072) with putative interactions with the 3?VNTR, has been identified. To provide enhanced support for the role of DAT and striatal dopamine regulation in the development of PTSD, this study examined the impact of a haplotype defined by the C allele of rs27072 and the nine repeat allele of the 3?VNTR on PTSD diagnosis in young trauma-exposed children. Methods DAT haplotypes were determined in 150 trauma-exposed 3–6 year-old children. PTSD was assessed with a semistructured interview. After excluding double heterozygotes, analysis was performed on 143 total subjects. Haplotype was examined in relation to categorical and continuous measures of PTSD, controlling for trauma type and race. Additional analysis within the two largest race categories was performed, as other means of controlling for ethnic stratification were not available. Results The number of haplotypes (0, 1, or 2) defined by the presence of the nine repeat allele of rs28363170 (VNTR in the 3?UTR) and the C allele of rs27072 (SNP in the 3?UTR) was significantly associated with both the diagnosis of PTSD and total PTSD symptoms. Specifically, children with one or two copies of the haplotype had significantly more PTSD symptoms and were more likely to be diagnosed with PTSD than were children without this haplotype. Conclusions These findings extend previous findings associating genetic variation in the DAT with PTSD. The association of a haplotype in DAT with PTSD provides incremental traction for a model of genetic vulnerability to PTSD, a specific underlying mechanism implicating striatal dopamine regulation, and insight into potential future personalized interventions.

Brett, Zoe H.; Henry, Caitlin; Scheeringa, Michael

2013-01-01

153

Genome-Wide Haplotype Changes Produced by Artificial Selection during Modern Rice Breeding in Japan  

PubMed Central

During the last 90 years, the breeding of rice has delivered cultivars with improved agronomic and economic characteristics. Crossing of different lines and successive artificial selection of progeny based on their phenotypes have changed the chromosomal constitution of the ancestors of modern rice; however, the nature of these changes is unclear. The recent accumulation of data for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in rice has allowed us to investigate the change in haplotype structure and composition. To assess the impact of these changes during modern breeding, we studied 177 Japanese rice accessions, which were categorized into three groups: landraces, improved cultivars developed from 1931 to 1974 (the early breeding phase), and improved cultivars developed from 1975 to 2005 (the late breeding phase). Phylogenetic tree and structure analysis indicated genetic differentiation between non-irrigated (upland) and irrigated (lowland) rice groups as well as genetic structuring within the irrigated rice group that corresponded to the existence of three subgroups. Pedigree analysis revealed that a limited number of landraces and cultivars was used for breeding at the beginning of the period of systematic breeding and that 11 landraces accounted for 70% of the ancestors of the modern improved cultivars. The values for linkage disequilibrium estimated from SNP alleles and the haplotype diversity determined from consecutive alleles in five-SNP windows indicated that haplotype blocks became less diverse over time as a result of the breeding process. A decrease in haplotype diversity, caused by a reduced number of polymorphisms in the haplotype blocks, was observed in several chromosomal regions. However, our results also indicate that new haplotype polymorphisms have been generated across the genome during the breeding process. These findings will facilitate our understanding of the association between particular haplotypes and desirable phenotypes in modern Japanese rice cultivars.

Yamamoto, Eiji; Nagasaki, Hideki; Shibaya, Taeko; Yano, Masahiro

2012-01-01

154

Mapping Haplotype-haplotype Interactions with Adaptive LASSO  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic etiology of complex diseases in human has been commonly viewed as a complex process involving both genetic and environmental factors functioning in a complicated manner. Quite often the interactions among genetic variants play major roles in determining the susceptibility of an individual to a particular disease. Statistical methods for modeling interactions underlying complex diseases between single genetic variants (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs) have been extensively studied. Recently, haplotype-based analysis has gained its popularity among genetic association studies. When multiple sequence or haplotype interactions are involved in determining an individual's susceptibility to a disease, it presents daunting challenges in statistical modeling and testing of the interaction effects, largely due to the complicated higher order epistatic complexity. Results In this article, we propose a new strategy in modeling haplotype-haplotype interactions under the penalized logistic regression framework with adaptive L1-penalty. We consider interactions of sequence variants between haplotype blocks. The adaptive L1-penalty allows simultaneous effect estimation and variable selection in a single model. We propose a new parameter estimation method which estimates and selects parameters by the modified Gauss-Seidel method nested within the EM algorithm. Simulation studies show that it has low false positive rate and reasonable power in detecting haplotype interactions. The method is applied to test haplotype interactions involved in mother and offspring genome in a small for gestational age (SGA) neonates data set, and significant interactions between different genomes are detected. Conclusions As demonstrated by the simulation studies and real data analysis, the approach developed provides an efficient tool for the modeling and testing of haplotype interactions. The implementation of the method in R codes can be freely downloaded from http://www.stt.msu.edu/~cui/software.html.

2010-01-01

155

Dual origins of Finns revealed by Y chromosome haplotype variation.  

PubMed Central

The Finnish population has often been viewed as an isolate founded 2, 000 years ago via a route across the Gulf of Finland. The founding event has been characterized as involving a limited number of homogeneous founders, isolation, and subsequent rapid population growth. Despite the purported isolation of the population, levels of gene diversity for the Finns at autosomal and mitochondrial DNA loci are indistinguishable from those of other Europeans. Thus, mixed or dual origins for the Finns have been proposed. Here we present genetic evidence for the dual origins of Finns by evaluating the pattern of Y chromosome variation in 280 unrelated males from nine Finnish provinces. Phylogenetic analysis of 77 haplotype configurations revealed two major star-shaped clusters of Y haplotypes, indicative of a population expansion from two common Y haplotypes. Dramatic and quite significant differences in Y haplotype variation were observed between eastern and western regions of Finland, revealing contributions from different paternal types. The geographic distribution and time of expansion for the two common Y haplotypes correlate well with archeological evidence for two culturally and geographically distinct groups of settlers. Also, a northeastern to southwestern gradient of Y haplotype frequencies provides convincing evidence for recent male migration from rural areas into urban Finland.

Kittles, R A; Perola, M; Peltonen, L; Bergen, A W; Aragon, R A; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M; Goldman, D; Long, J C

1998-01-01

156

Analysis of SNPs and haplotypes in vitamin D pathway genes and renal cancer risk.  

PubMed

In the kidney vitamin D is converted to its active form. Since vitamin D exerts its activity through binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), most genetic studies have primarily focused on variation within this gene. Therefore, analysis of genetic variation in VDR and other vitamin D pathway genes may provide insight into the role of vitamin D in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) etiology. RCC cases (N = 777) and controls (N = 1,035) were genotyped to investigate the relationship between RCC risk and variation in eight target genes. Minimum-p-value permutation (Min-P) tests were used to identify genes associated with risk. A three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sliding window was used to identify chromosomal regions with a False Discovery Rate of <10%, where subsequently, haplotype relative risks were computed in Haplostats. Min-P values showed that VDR (p-value = 0.02) and retinoid-X-receptor-alpha (RXRA) (p-value = 0.10) were associated with RCC risk. Within VDR, three haplotypes across two chromosomal regions of interest were identified. The first region, located within intron 2, contained two haplotypes that increased RCC risk by approximately 25%. The second region included a haplotype (rs2239179, rs12717991) across intron 4 that increased risk among participants with the TC (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.09-1.57) haplotype compared to participants with the common haplotype, TT. Across RXRA, one haplotype located 3' of the coding sequence (rs748964, rs3118523), increased RCC risk 35% among individuals with the variant haplotype compared to those with the most common haplotype. This study comprehensively evaluated genetic variation across eight vitamin D pathway genes in relation to RCC risk. We found increased risk associated with VDR and RXRA. Replication studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:19753122

Karami, Sara; Brennan, Paul; Rosenberg, Philip S; Navratilova, Marie; Mates, Dana; Zaridze, David; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Matveev, Vsevolod; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Holcatova, Ivana; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Menashe, Idan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Boffetta, Paolo; Moore, Lee E

2009-01-01

157

Analysis of SNPs and Haplotypes in Vitamin D Pathway Genes and Renal Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

In the kidney vitamin D is converted to its active form. Since vitamin D exerts its activity through binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), most genetic studies have primarily focused on variation within this gene. Therefore, analysis of genetic variation in VDR and other vitamin D pathway genes may provide insight into the role of vitamin D in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) etiology. RCC cases (N?=?777) and controls (N?=?1,035) were genotyped to investigate the relationship between RCC risk and variation in eight target genes. Minimum-p-value permutation (Min-P) tests were used to identify genes associated with risk. A three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sliding window was used to identify chromosomal regions with a False Discovery Rate of <10%, where subsequently, haplotype relative risks were computed in Haplostats. Min-P values showed that VDR (p-value?=?0.02) and retinoid-X-receptor-alpha (RXRA) (p-value?=?0.10) were associated with RCC risk. Within VDR, three haplotypes across two chromosomal regions of interest were identified. The first region, located within intron 2, contained two haplotypes that increased RCC risk by approximately 25%. The second region included a haplotype (rs2239179, rs12717991) across intron 4 that increased risk among participants with the TC (OR?=?1.31, 95% CI?=?1.09–1.57) haplotype compared to participants with the common haplotype, TT. Across RXRA, one haplotype located 3? of the coding sequence (rs748964, rs3118523), increased RCC risk 35% among individuals with the variant haplotype compared to those with the most common haplotype. This study comprehensively evaluated genetic variation across eight vitamin D pathway genes in relation to RCC risk. We found increased risk associated with VDR and RXRA. Replication studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

Karami, Sara; Brennan, Paul; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Navratilova, Marie; Mates, Dana; Zaridze, David; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Matveev, Vsevolod; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Holcatova, Ivana; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Menashe, Idan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Boffetta, Paolo; Moore, Lee E.

2009-01-01

158

The recombination landscape around forensic STRs: Accurate measurement of genetic distances between syntenic STR pairs using HapMap high density SNP data.  

PubMed

Family studies can be used to measure the genetic distance between same-chromosome (syntenic) STRs in order to detect physical linkage or linkage disequilibrium. However, family studies are expensive and time consuming, in many cases uninformative, and lack a reliable means to infer the phase of the diplotypes obtained. HapMap provides a more comprehensive and fine-scale estimation of recombination rates using high density multi-point SNP data (average inter-SNP distance: 900 nucleotides). Data at this fine scale detects sub-kilobase genetic distances across the whole recombining human genome. We have used the most recent HapMap SNP data release 22 to measure and compare genetic distances, and by inference fine-scale recombination rates, between 29 syntenic STR pairs identified from 39 validated STRs currently available for forensic use. The 39 STRs comprise 23 core loci: SE33, Penta D & E, 13 CODIS and 7 non-CODIS European Standard Set STRs, plus supplementary STRs in the recently released Promega CS-7™ and Qiagen Investigator HDplex™ kits. Also included were D9S1120, a marker we developed for forensic use unique to chromosome 9, and the novel D6S1043 component STR of SinoFiler™ (Applied Biosystems). The data collated provides reliable estimates of recombination rates between each STR pair, that can then be placed into haplotype frequency calculators for short pedigrees with multiple meiotic inputs and which just requires the addition of allele frequencies. This allows all current STR sets or their combinations to be used in supplemented paternity analyses without the need for further adjustment for physical linkage. The detailed analysis of recombination rates made for autosomal forensic STRs was extended to the more than 50 X chromosome STRs established or in development for complex kinship analyses. PMID:21871851

Phillips, C; Ballard, D; Gill, P; Court, D Syndercombe; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

2012-05-01

159

Hap-seq: an optimal algorithm for haplotype phasing with imputation using sequencing data.  

PubMed

Inference of haplotypes, or the sequence of alleles along each chromosome, is a fundamental problem in genetics and is important for many analyses, including admixture mapping, identifying regions of identity by descent, and imputation. Traditionally, haplotypes are inferred from genotype data obtained from microarrays using information on population haplotype frequencies inferred from either a large sample of genotyped individuals or a reference dataset such as the HapMap. Since the availability of large reference datasets, modern approaches for haplotype phasing along these lines are closely related to imputation methods. When applied to data obtained from sequencing studies, a straightforward way to obtain haplotypes is to first infer genotypes from the sequence data and then apply an imputation method. However, this approach does not take into account that alleles on the same sequence read originate from the same chromosome. Haplotype assembly approaches take advantage of this insight and predict haplotypes by assigning the reads to chromosomes in such a way that minimizes the number of conflicts between the reads and the predicted haplotypes. Unfortunately, assembly approaches require very high sequencing coverage and are usually not able to fully reconstruct the haplotypes. In this work, we present a novel approach, Hap-seq, which is simultaneously an imputation and assembly method that combines information from a reference dataset with the information from the reads using a likelihood framework. Our method applies a dynamic programming algorithm to identify the predicted haplotype, which maximizes the joint likelihood of the haplotype with respect to the reference dataset and the haplotype with respect to the observed reads. We show that our method requires only low sequencing coverage and can reconstruct haplotypes containing both common and rare alleles with higher accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art imputation methods. PMID:23383995

He, Dan; Han, Buhm; Eskin, Eleazar

2013-02-01

160

Hap-seq: An Optimal Algorithm for Haplotype Phasing with Imputation Using Sequencing Data  

PubMed Central

Abstract Inference of haplotypes, or the sequence of alleles along each chromosome, is a fundamental problem in genetics and is important for many analyses, including admixture mapping, identifying regions of identity by descent, and imputation. Traditionally, haplotypes are inferred from genotype data obtained from microarrays using information on population haplotype frequencies inferred from either a large sample of genotyped individuals or a reference dataset such as the HapMap. Since the availability of large reference datasets, modern approaches for haplotype phasing along these lines are closely related to imputation methods. When applied to data obtained from sequencing studies, a straightforward way to obtain haplotypes is to first infer genotypes from the sequence data and then apply an imputation method. However, this approach does not take into account that alleles on the same sequence read originate from the same chromosome. Haplotype assembly approaches take advantage of this insight and predict haplotypes by assigning the reads to chromosomes in such a way that minimizes the number of conflicts between the reads and the predicted haplotypes. Unfortunately, assembly approaches require very high sequencing coverage and are usually not able to fully reconstruct the haplotypes. In this work, we present a novel approach, Hap-seq, which is simultaneously an imputation and assembly method that combines information from a reference dataset with the information from the reads using a likelihood framework. Our method applies a dynamic programming algorithm to identify the predicted haplotype, which maximizes the joint likelihood of the haplotype with respect to the reference dataset and the haplotype with respect to the observed reads. We show that our method requires only low sequencing coverage and can reconstruct haplotypes containing both common and rare alleles with higher accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art imputation methods.

Han, Buhm; Eskin, Eleazar

2013-01-01

161

Congruence as a measurement of extended haplotype structure across the genome  

PubMed Central

Background Historically, extended haplotypes have been defined using only a few data points, such as alleles for several HLA genes in the MHC. High-density SNP data, and the increasing affordability of whole genome SNP typing, creates the opportunity to define higher resolution extended haplotypes. This drives the need for new tools that support quantification and visualization of extended haplotypes as defined by as many as 2000 SNPs. Confronted with high-density SNP data across the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) for 2,300 complete families, compiled by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC), we developed software for studying extended haplotypes. Methods The software, called ExHap (Extended Haplotype), uses a similarity measurement we term congruence to identify and quantify long-range allele identity. Using ExHap, we analyzed congruence in both the T1DGC data and family-phased data from the International HapMap Project. Results Congruent chromosomes from the T1DGC data have between 96.5% and 99.9% allele identity over 1,818 SNPs spanning 2.64 megabases of the MHC (HLA-DRB1 to HLA-A). Thirty-three of 132 DQ-DR-B-A defined haplotype groups have > 50% congruent chromosomes in this region. For example, 92% of chromosomes within the DR3-B8-A1 haplotype are congruent from HLA-DRB1 to HLA-A (99.8% allele identity). We also applied ExHap to all 22 autosomes for both CEU and YRI cohorts from the International HapMap Project, identifying multiple candidate extended haplotypes. Conclusions Long-range congruence is not unique to the MHC region. Patterns of allele identity on phased chromosomes provide a simple, straightforward approach to visually and quantitatively inspect complex long-range structural patterns in the genome. Such patterns aid the biologist in appreciating genetic similarities and differences across cohorts, and can lead to hypothesis generation for subsequent studies.

2012-01-01

162

Use of haplotypes to estimate Mendelian sampling effects and selection limits.  

PubMed

Limits to selection and Mendelian sampling (MS) terms can be calculated using haplotypes by summing the individual additive effects on each chromosome. Haplotypes were imputed for 43 382 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 1455 Brown Swiss, 40 351 Holstein and 4064 Jersey bulls and cows using the Fortran program findhap.f90, which combines population and pedigree haplotyping methods. Lower and upper bounds of MS variance were calculated for daughter pregnancy rate (a measure of fertility), milk yield, lifetime net merit (a measure of profitability) and protein yield assuming either no or complete linkage among SNP on the same chromosome. Calculated selection limits were greater than the largest direct genomic values observed in all breeds studied. The best chromosomal genotypes generally consisted of two copies of the same haplotype even after adjustment for inbreeding. Selection of animals rather than chromosomes may result in slower progress, but limits may be the same because most chromosomes will become homozygous with either strategy. Selection on functions of MS could be used to change variances in later generations. PMID:22059578

Cole, J B; VanRaden, P M

2011-12-01

163

High-resolution haplotype structure in the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis is traditionally based on individual genetic markers and often yields an erratic, non- monotonic picture, because the power to detect allelic associa- tions depends on specific properties of each marker, such as frequency and population history. Ideally, LD analysis should be based directly on the underlying haplotype structure of the human genome, but this structure has

John D. Rioux; Stephen F. Schaffner; Thomas J. Hudson; Mark J. Daly; Eric S. Lander

2001-01-01

164

Haplotype association analysis of combining unrelated case-control and triads with consideration of population stratification.  

PubMed

Combining data when data are collected under different study designs, such as family trios and unrelated case-control samples, gains more power and is cost-effective than analyzing each data separately. However, a potential concern is population stratification (PS) among unrelated case-control samples and analyses integrating data should address this confounding effect. In this paper, we develop a simpler method, haplotype generalized linear model (HGLM), that tests and estimates haplotype effects on disease risk and allows for modification against PS for combining data. We proposed to combine information across aggregations of haplotype weighted-counts estimated from population case-control data and trio data separately, and to perform subsequent GLM analysis. Furthermore, we present a framework of analysis of variance based on haplotype weighted-counts for detecting whether it is appropriate to combine two data sources, as well as the modified HGLM with clustering methods for addressing PS. We evaluate the statistical properties in terms of the accuracy, false positive rate (FPR) and empirical power using simulated data with regard to various disease risks, sample sizes, multi-SNP haplotypes and the presence of PS. Our simulation results indicate that HGLM performs comparably well with the likelihood-based haplotype association analysis, particularly when the haplotype effects are moderate, but may not perform well when dealing with lengthy haplotypes for small sample sizes. In the presence of PS, the modified HGLM remains valid and has satisfactory nominal level and small bias. Overall, HGLM appears to be successful in combining data and is simple to implement in standard statistical software. PMID:24860592

Wen, Shu-Hui; Tsai, Miao-Yu

2014-01-01

165

Haplotype association analysis of combining unrelated case-control and triads with consideration of population stratification  

PubMed Central

Combining data when data are collected under different study designs, such as family trios and unrelated case-control samples, gains more power and is cost-effective than analyzing each data separately. However, a potential concern is population stratification (PS) among unrelated case-control samples and analyses integrating data should address this confounding effect. In this paper, we develop a simpler method, haplotype generalized linear model (HGLM), that tests and estimates haplotype effects on disease risk and allows for modification against PS for combining data. We proposed to combine information across aggregations of haplotype weighted-counts estimated from population case-control data and trio data separately, and to perform subsequent GLM analysis. Furthermore, we present a framework of analysis of variance based on haplotype weighted-counts for detecting whether it is appropriate to combine two data sources, as well as the modified HGLM with clustering methods for addressing PS. We evaluate the statistical properties in terms of the accuracy, false positive rate (FPR) and empirical power using simulated data with regard to various disease risks, sample sizes, multi-SNP haplotypes and the presence of PS. Our simulation results indicate that HGLM performs comparably well with the likelihood-based haplotype association analysis, particularly when the haplotype effects are moderate, but may not perform well when dealing with lengthy haplotypes for small sample sizes. In the presence of PS, the modified HGLM remains valid and has satisfactory nominal level and small bias. Overall, HGLM appears to be successful in combining data and is simple to implement in standard statistical software.

Wen, Shu-Hui; Tsai, Miao-Yu

2014-01-01

166

HLA haplotype and supertype associations with cellular immune responses and cytokine production in healthy children after rubella vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secreted rubella virus-specific cytokines reflect the immunologic mechanisms underlying adoptive immune responses and are significant markers of immunity to rubella. We studied the association between measures of cellular (cytokine and frequency of cytokine-secreted cells) immune responses and HLA haplotypes (with frequencies of ?1%) and supertypes among 738 healthy children following two doses of rubella vaccine. Haplotype effects were estimated while

Inna G. Ovsyannikova; Robert A. Vierkant; V. Shane Pankratz; Megan M. O’Byrne; Robert M. Jacobson; Gregory A. Poland

2009-01-01

167

Extended MHC haplotypes and CYP21/C4 gene organisation in Irish 21-hydroxylase deficiency families.  

PubMed

We have analysed fifteen classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency families from throughout Southern Ireland and report the serologically defined HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-Cw, HLA-DR, C4A and C4B polymorphisms that characterize the inferred disease haplotypes. Additionally, we have used a combination of short and long range restriction mapping procedures in order to characterize the CYP21/C4 gene organization associated with individual serologically defined haplotypes. The results obtained indicate that disease haplotypes are characterized by a high frequency (33%) of CYP21B gene deletion and 8 out of 10 such deletion haplotypes are represented by the extended haplotype HLA-DR1, C4BQo, C4A3, HLA-B40(w60), HLA-Cw3, HLA-A3. Large scale length polymorphism in the CYP21/C4 gene cluster was found to conform strictly to a variable number of tandem repeats model with 4 alleles being detected. Disease haplotypes in which defective CYP21B gene expression is inferred to result from pathological point mutations show extensive diversity of associated HLA markers and include two examples of the extended HLA haplotype HLA-DR3, B8, Cw7, A1 haplotype, which has previously been reported to be negatively associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. One unusual disease haplotype has two CYP21 + C4 units, both of which appear to contain CYP21B-like genes. PMID:1677925

Sinnott, P J; Costigan, C; Dyer, P A; Harris, R; Strachan, T

1991-07-01

168

Weighted SNP set analysis in genome-wide association study.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are popular for identifying genetic variants which are associated with disease risk. Many approaches have been proposed to test multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a region simultaneously which considering disadvantages of methods in single locus association analysis. Kernel machine based SNP set analysis is more powerful than single locus analysis, which borrows information from SNPs correlated with causal or tag SNPs. Four types of kernel machine functions and principal component based approach (PCA) were also compared. However, given the loss of power caused by low minor allele frequencies (MAF), we conducted an extension work on PCA and used a new method called weighted PCA (wPCA). Comparative analysis was performed for weighted principal component analysis (wPCA), logistic kernel machine based test (LKM) and principal component analysis (PCA) based on SNP set in the case of different minor allele frequencies (MAF) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures. We also applied the three methods to analyze two SNP sets extracted from a real GWAS dataset of non-small cell lung cancer in Han Chinese population. Simulation results show that when the MAF of the causal SNP is low, weighted principal component and weighted IBS are more powerful than PCA and other kernel machine functions at different LD structures and different numbers of causal SNPs. Application of the three methods to a real GWAS dataset indicates that wPCA and wIBS have better performance than the linear kernel, IBS kernel and PCA. PMID:24098741

Dai, Hui; Zhao, Yang; Qian, Cheng; Cai, Min; Zhang, Ruyang; Chu, Minjie; Dai, Juncheng; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Feng

2013-01-01

169

Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI / CSN3*H) that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed. PMID:15040901

Jann, Oliver C; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Ozbeyaz, Ceyhan; Zaragoza, Pilar; Williams, John L; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Lenstra, Johannes A; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katy; Erhardt, Georg

2004-01-01

170

Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H) that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed.

Jann, Oliver C; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Ozbeyaz, Ceyhan; Zaragoza, Pilar; Williams, John L; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Lenstra, Johannes A; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katy; Erhardt, Georg

2004-01-01

171

SNP-set analysis replicates acute lung injury genetic risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background We used a gene – based replication strategy to test the reproducibility of prior acute lung injury (ALI) candidate gene associations. Methods We phenotyped 474 patients from a prospective severe trauma cohort study for ALI. Genomic DNA from subjects’ blood was genotyped using the IBC chip, a multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Results were filtered for 25 candidate genes selected using prespecified literature search criteria and present on the IBC platform. For each gene, we grouped SNPs according to haplotype blocks and tested the joint effect of all SNPs on susceptibility to ALI using the SNP-set kernel association test. Results were compared to single SNP analysis of the candidate SNPs. Analyses were separate for genetically determined ancestry (African or European). Results We identified 4 genes in African ancestry and 2 in European ancestry trauma subjects which replicated their associations with ALI. Ours is the first replication of IL6, IL10, IRAK3, and VEGFA associations in non-European populations with ALI. Only one gene – VEGFA – demonstrated association with ALI in both ancestries, with distinct haplotype blocks in each ancestry driving the association. We also report the association between trauma-associated ALI and NFKBIA in European ancestry subjects. Conclusions Prior ALI genetic associations are reproducible and replicate in a trauma cohort. Kernel - based SNP-set analysis is a more powerful method to detect ALI association than single SNP analysis, and thus may be more useful for replication testing. Further, gene-based replication can extend candidate gene associations to diverse ethnicities.

2012-01-01

172

?-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Five restriction site polymorphisms in the ?-globin gene cluster (HincII-5‘ ?, HindIII-G ?, HindIII-A ?, HincII- ??1 and HincII-3‘ ??1) were analyzed in three populations (n = 114) from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the “quilombo community”, from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+ - - - -), 3 (- - - - +), 4 (- + - - +) and 6 (- + + - +) on the ?A chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (- + + + +) and 14 (+ + - - +), were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16) had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease) were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin) and CAR (Central African Republic), with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

2010-01-01

173

Polymorphic DNA haplotypes at the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus in European families with phenylketonuria (PKU)  

PubMed Central

DNA haplotype data from the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus are available from a number of European populations as a result of RFLP testing for genetic counseling in families with phenylketonuria (PKU). We have analyzed data from Hungary and Czechoslovakia together with published data from five additional countries–Denmark, Switzerland, Scotland, Germany, and France–representing a broad geographic and ethnographic range. The data include 686 complete chromosomal haplotypes for eight RFLP sites assayed in 202 unrelated Caucasian families with PKU. Forty-six distinct RFLP haplotypes have been observed to date, 10 unique to PKU-bearing chromosomes, 12 unique to non-PKU chromosomes, and the remainder found in association with both types. Despite the large number of haplotypes observed (still much less than the theoretical maximum of 384), five haplotypes alone account for more than 76% of normal European chromosomes and four haplotypes alone account for more than 80% of PKU-bearing chromosomes. We evaluated the distribution of haplotypes and alleles within these populations and calculated pairwise disequilibrium values between RFLP sites and between these sites and a hypothetical PKU “locus.” There are statistically significant differences between European populations in the frequencies of non-PKU chromosomal haplotypes (P = .025) and PKU chromosomal haplotypes (P < < .001). Haplotype frequencies of the PKU and non-PKU chromosomes also differ significantly (P < < .001. Disequilibrium values are consistent with the PAH physical map and support the molecular evidence for multiple, independent PKU mutations in Caucasians. However, the data do not support a single geographic origin for these mutations. Within these European populations a parent carrying a PKU mutation has an average probability of greater than 86% of being heterozygous–and hence informative for linkage–at one or more PAH RFLP sites. Thus these RFLP alleles and haplotypes provide an effective tool for linkage diagnosis of disease and carrier status in PKU families.

Daiger, Stephen P.; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Reed, Lori; Fekete, Gyorgy; Schuler, Dezso; Berenssi, Gyorgy; Nasz, Istvan; Brdicka, Radim; Kamaryt, Jaromir; Pijackova, Anna; Moore, Sharon; Sullivan, Susan; Woo, Savio L. C.

1989-01-01

174

A Novel Haplotype-Sharing Approach for Genome-Wide Case-Control Association Studies Implicates the Calpastatin Gene in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The large number of markers considered in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) has resulted in a simplification of analyses conducted. Most studies are analyzed one marker at a time using simple tests like the trend test. Methods that account for the special features of genetic association studies, yet remain computationally feasible for genome-wide analysis, are desirable as they may lead to increased power to detect associations. Haplotype sharing attempts to translate between population genetics and genetic epidemiology. Near a recent mutation that increases disease risk, haplotypes of case participants should be more similar to each other than haplotypes of control participants; conversely, the opposite pattern may be found near a recent mutation that lowers disease risk. We give computationally simple association tests based on haplotype sharing that can be easily applied to GWASs while allowing use of fast (but not likelihood-based) haplotyping algorithms and properly accounting for the uncertainty introduced by using inferred haplotypes. We also give haplotype-sharing analyses that adjust for population stratification. Applying our methods to a GWAS of Parkinson’s disease, we find a genome-wide significant signal in the CAST gene that is not found by single-SNP methods. Further, a missing-data artifact that causes a spurious single-SNP association on chromosome 9 does not impact our test.

Allen, Andrew S.; Satten, Glen A.

2014-01-01

175

Haplotype-based approach for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is of clinical significance because in utero treatment is available to prevent virilization of an affected female fetus. However, traditional prenatal diagnosis of CAH relies on genetic testing of fetal genomic DNA obtained using amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, which is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new haplotype-based approach for the noninvasive prenatal testing of CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Parental haplotypes were constructed using target-region sequencing data of the parents and the proband. With the assistance of the parental haplotypes, we recovered fetal haplotypes using a hidden Markov model (HMM) through maternal plasma DNA sequencing. In the genomic region around the CYP21A2 gene, the fetus inherited the paternal haplotype '0' alleles linked to the mutant CYP21A2 gene, but the maternal haplotype '1' alleles linked to the wild-type gene. The fetus was predicted to be an unaffected carrier of CAH, which was confirmed by genetic analysis of fetal genomic DNA from amniotic fluid cells. This method was further validated by comparing the inferred SNP genotypes with the direct sequencing data of fetal genomic DNA. The result showed an accuracy of 96.41% for the inferred maternal alleles and an accuracy of 97.81% for the inferred paternal alleles. The haplotype-based approach is feasible for noninvasive prenatal testing of CAH. PMID:24768736

Ma, Dingyuan; Ge, Huijuan; Li, Xuchao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yanyan; Hu, Ping; Chen, Shengpei; Zhang, Jingjing; Ji, Xiuqing; Xu, Xun; Jiang, Hui; Chen, Minfeng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Zhengfeng

2014-07-10

176

Prognostic Significance and Clinicopathological Associations of COX-2 SNP in Patients with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background. To further improve the screening, diagnosis, and therapy of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) additional diagnostic tools are urgently needed. Gene expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been linked to prognosis in patients with NSCLC. The role of the COX-2 926G>C Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in patients with NSCLC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the COX-2 926G>C SNP as a molecular marker in this disease. Methods. COX-2 926G>C SNP was analyzed in surgically resected tumor tissue of 85 patients with NSCLC using a PCR-based RFLP technique. Results. The COX-2 926G>C SNP genotypes were detected with the following frequencies: GG n = 62 (73%), GC n = 20 (23%), CC n = 3 (4%). There were no associations between COX-2 SNP genotype and histology, grading or gender detectable. COX-2 SNP was significantly associated with tumor stage (P = .032) and lymph node status (P = .016, Chi-square test). With a median followup of 85.9 months, the median survival was 59.7 months. There were no associations seen between the COX-2 SNP genotype and patients prognosis. Conclusions. The COX-2 926G>C SNP is detectable at a high frequency in patients with NSCLC. The COX-2 926G>C SNP genotype is not a prognostic molecular marker in this disease. However, patients with the GC or CC genotype seem more susceptible to lymph node metastases and higher tumor stage than patients with the GG genotype. The results suggest COX-2 926G>C SNP as a molecular marker for lymph node involvement in this disease.

Grimminger, Peter P.; Stohlmacher, Jan; Vallbohmer, Daniel; Schneider, Paul M.; Holscher, Arnulf H.; Metzger, Ralf; Danenberg, Peter V.; Brabender, Jan

2009-01-01

177

Prognostic Significance and Clinicopathological Associations of COX-2 SNP in Patients with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer.  

PubMed

Background. To further improve the screening, diagnosis, and therapy of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) additional diagnostic tools are urgently needed. Gene expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been linked to prognosis in patients with NSCLC. The role of the COX-2 926G>C Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in patients with NSCLC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the COX-2 926G>C SNP as a molecular marker in this disease. Methods. COX-2 926G>C SNP was analyzed in surgically resected tumor tissue of 85 patients with NSCLC using a PCR-based RFLP technique. Results. The COX-2 926G>C SNP genotypes were detected with the following frequencies: GG n = 62 (73%), GC n = 20 (23%), CC n = 3 (4%). There were no associations between COX-2 SNP genotype and histology, grading or gender detectable. COX-2 SNP was significantly associated with tumor stage (P = .032) and lymph node status (P = .016, Chi-square test). With a median followup of 85.9 months, the median survival was 59.7 months. There were no associations seen between the COX-2 SNP genotype and patients prognosis. Conclusions. The COX-2 926G>C SNP is detectable at a high frequency in patients with NSCLC. The COX-2 926G>C SNP genotype is not a prognostic molecular marker in this disease. However, patients with the GC or CC genotype seem more susceptible to lymph node metastases and higher tumor stage than patients with the GG genotype. The results suggest COX-2 926G>C SNP as a molecular marker for lymph node involvement in this disease. PMID:20016751

Grimminger, Peter P; Stöhlmacher, Jan; Vallböhmer, Daniel; Schneider, Paul M; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Metzger, Ralf; Danenberg, Peter V; Brabender, Jan

2009-01-01

178

A high-throughput method for quantifying alleles and haplotypes of the malaria vaccine candidate Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 19 kDa  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria vaccine efficacy may be compromised if the frequency of non-target alleles increases following vaccination with a genetically polymorphic target. Methods are needed to monitor genetic diversity in polymorphic vaccine antigens, but determining which genetic variants of such antigens are present in infected individuals is complicated by the frequent occurrence of mixed infections. Methods Pyrosequencing was used to determine allele frequencies at each of six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage vaccine antigen merozoite surface protein 1 19 kDa (MSP-119) in field samples from a vaccine-testing site in Mali. Mixtures of MSP-119 clones were created to validate a haplotype-estimating algorithm that uses maximum likelihood methods to determine the most probable combination of haplotypes given the allele frequencies for an infection and the haplotypes known to be circulating in the population. Results Fourteen unique MSP-119 haplotypes were identified among 351 genotyped infections. After adjustment to a standard curve, Pyrosequencing provided accurate and precise estimates of allele frequencies in mixed infections. The haplotype-estimating algorithm provided accurate estimates of haplotypes in mixed infections containing up to three haplotypes. Based on the MSP-119 locus, approximately 90% of the 351 infections contained two or fewer haplotypes. Conclusion Pyrosequencing in conjunction with a haplotype-estimating algorithm provides accurate estimates of haplotypes present in infections with up to 3 haplotypes, and can be used to monitor genetic diversity in parasite populations prior to and following introduction of MSP-1-based malaria vaccines.

Takala, Shannon L; Smith, David L; Stine, O Colin; Coulibaly, Drissa; Thera, Mahamadou A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V

2006-01-01

179

A haplotype inference algorithm for trios based on deterministic sampling  

PubMed Central

Background In genome-wide association studies, thousands of individuals are genotyped in hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Statistical power can be increased when haplotypes, rather than three-valued genotypes, are used in analysis, so the problem of haplotype phase inference (phasing) is particularly relevant. Several phasing algorithms have been developed for data from unrelated individuals, based on different models, some of which have been extended to father-mother-child "trio" data. Results We introduce a technique for phasing trio datasets using a tree-based deterministic sampling scheme. We have compared our method with publicly available algorithms PHASE v2.1, BEAGLE v3.0.2 and 2SNP v1.7 on datasets of varying number of markers and trios. We have found that the computational complexity of PHASE makes it prohibitive for routine use; on the other hand 2SNP, though the fastest method for small datasets, was significantly inaccurate. We have shown that our method outperforms BEAGLE in terms of speed and accuracy for small to intermediate dataset sizes in terms of number of trios for all marker sizes examined. Our method is implemented in the "Tree-Based Deterministic Sampling" (TDS) package, available for download at http://www.ee.columbia.edu/~anastas/tds Conclusions Using a Tree-Based Deterministic sampling technique, we present an intuitive and conceptually simple phasing algorithm for trio data. The trade off between speed and accuracy achieved by our algorithm makes it a strong candidate for routine use on trio datasets.

2010-01-01

180

HLA class II SNP interactions and the association with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Bengali speaking patients of Eastern India  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have demonstrated a fundamental role for the HLA in the susceptibility of, or protection to, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, this has not been adequately studied in Asian Indian populations. To assess the frequency of HLA class II (DPA1, DPB1, DQA1, DQB1 and DRB1) associated to susceptibility or protection toT1DM in a Bengali population of India with diabetes. Results Single nucleotide polymorphism study. The HLA genotyping was performed by a polymerase chain reaction followed by their HLA-DP, DQ, and DRB1 genotypes and haplotypes by sequencing method. The results are studied by Plink software. The ?2 tests were used for the inferential statistics. To our knowledge, this study is the first of a kind which has attempted to check the HLA association with T1DM by SNPs analysis. The study recruited 151 patients with T1DM and same number of ethno-linguistic, sex matched non-diabetic controls. The present study found a significant SNP rs7990 of HLA-DQA1 (p = 0.009) negative correlation, again indicating that risk from HLA is considerably more with T1DM. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the HLA class-II alleles play a major role in genetic basis of T1DM.

2013-01-01

181

SNP marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have become a genetic technology of choice because of their automation and high precision of allele calls. In this study, our goal was to develop 94 SNPs and test them across well-chosen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm. We validated and accessed SNP diversity at 84 gene-based and 10 non-genic loci using KASPar technology in a panel of 70 genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations and have been previously evaluated for SSRs. SNPs exhibited high levels of genetic diversity, an excess of middle frequency polymorphism, and a within-genepool mismatch distribution as expected for populations affected by sudden demographic expansions after domestication bottlenecks. This set of markers was useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes but less useful for distinguishing within each gene pool. In summary, slightly greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool but polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Our survey results represent a baseline for the choice of SNP markers for future applications because gene-associated SNPs could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Finally, we discuss that the ideal genetic marker combination with which to carry out diversity, mapping and association studies in common bean should consider a mix of both SNP and SSR markers. PMID:21785951

Cortés, Andrés J; Chavarro, Martha C; Blair, Matthew W

2011-09-01

182

A common TPH2 haplotype regulates the neural processing of a cognitive control demand.  

PubMed

The monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin, critically regulates the function of the cerebral cortex and is involved in psychiatric disorders. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin with the neuron-specific TPH2 isoform present exclusively in the brain and encoded by the TPH2 gene on chromosome 12q21. The haplotype structure of TPH2 was defined for 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a healthy subject population and a haplotype block analysis confirmed the presence of a six SNP haplotype in a yin configuration that has previously been associated with risk for suicidality, depression, and anxiety disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess the influence of TPH2 variation on brain function related to cognitive control using the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). The MSIT-related blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was increased with increasing copies of the TPH2 yin haplotype for the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), right inferior frontal cortex (IFC), and anterior striatum. A functional connectivity analysis further revealed that increasing numbers of the TPH2 yin haplotype was associated with diminished functional coupling between the dACC and the right IFC, precentral gyrus, parietal cortex and dlPFC. A moderation analysis indicated that the relationship between neural processing networks and cognitive control was significantly modulated by allelic variation for the TPH2 yin haplotype. These findings suggest that the association of risk for psychiatric disorders with a common TPH2 yin haplotype is related to the inefficient functional engagement of cortical areas involved in cognitive control and alterations in the mode of functional connectivity of dACC pathways. PMID:22915309

Kennedy, Ashley P; Binder, Elisabeth B; Bowman, Dubois; Harenski, Keith; Ely, Timothy; Cisler, Josh M; Tripathi, Shanti P; VanNess, Sidney; Kilts, Clinton D

2012-10-01

183

Haplotype Analysis Reveals a Possible Founder Effect of RET Mutation R114H for Hirschsprung's Disease in the Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder associated with the lack of intramural ganglion cells in the myenteric and sub-mucosal plexuses along varying segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The RET gene is the major gene implicated in this gastrointestinal disease. A highly recurrent mutation in RET (RETR114H) has recently been identified in ?6–7% of the Chinese HSCR patients which, to date, has not been found in Caucasian patients or controls nor in Chinese controls. Due to the high frequency of RETR114H in this population, we sought to investigate whether this mutation may be a founder HSCR mutation in the Chinese population. Methodology and Principal Findings To test whether all RETR114 were originated from a single mutational event, we predicted the approximate age of RETR114H by applying a Bayesian method to RET SNPs genotyped in 430 Chinese HSCR patients (of whom 25 individuals had the mutation) to be between 4–23 generations old depending on growth rate. We reasoned that if RETR114H was a founder mutation then those with the mutation would share a haplotype on which the mutation resides. Including SNPs spanning 509.31 kb across RET from a recently obtained 500 K genome-wide dataset for a subset of 181 patients (14 RETR114H patients), we applied haplotype estimation methods to determine whether there were any segments shared between patients with RETR114H that are not present in those without the mutation or controls. Analysis yielded a 250.2 kb (51 SNP) shared segment over the RET gene (and downstream) in only those patients with the mutation with no similar segments found among other patients. Conclusions This suggests that RETR114H is a founder mutation for HSCR in the Chinese population.

Cornes, Belinda K.; Tang, Clara S.; Leon, Thomas Y. Y.; Hui, Kenneth J. W. S.; So, Man-Ting; Miao, Xiaoping; Cherny, Stacey S.; Sham, Pak C.; Tam, Paul K. H.; Garcia-Barcelo, Maria-Merce

2010-01-01

184

Global variation in CYP2C8-CYP2C9 functional haplotypes  

PubMed Central

We have studied the global frequency distributions of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 132?kb of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 in ?2500 individuals representing 45 populations. Five of the SNPs were in noncoding sequences; the other five involved the more common missense variants (four in CYP2C8, one in CYP2C9) that change amino acids in the gene products. One haplotype containing two CYP2C8 coding variants and one CYP2C9 coding variant reaches an average frequency of 10% in Europe; a set of haplotypes with a different CYP2C8 coding variant reaches 17% in Africa. In both cases these haplotypes are found in other regions of the world at <1%. This considerable geographic variation in haplotype frequencies impacts the interpretation of CYP2C8/CYP2C9 association studies, and has pharmacogenomic implications for drug interactions.

Speed, William C; Kang, Soonmo Peter; Tuck, David P; Harris, Lyndsay N; Kidd, Kenneth K

2009-01-01

185

New generation pharmacogenomic tools: a SNP linkage disequilibrium Map, validated SNP assay resource, and high-throughput instrumentation system for large-scale genetic studies.  

PubMed

Since public and private efforts announced the first draft of the human genome last year, researchers have reported great numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We believe that the availability of well-mapped, quality SNP markers constitutes the gateway to a revolution in genetics and personalized medicine that will lead to better diagnosis and treatment of common complex disorders. A new generation of tools and public SNP resources for pharmacogenomic and genetic studies--specifically for candidate-gene, candidate-region, and whole-genome association studies--will form part of the new scientific landscape. This will only be possible through the greater accessibility of SNP resources and superior high-throughput instrumentation-assay systems that enable affordable, highly productive large-scale genetic studies. We are contributing to this effort by developing a high-quality linkage disequilibrium SNP marker map and an accompanying set of ready-to-use, validated SNP assays across every gene in the human genome. This effort incorporates both the public sequence and SNP data sources, and Celera Genomics' human genome assembly and enormous resource ofphysically mapped SNPs (approximately 4,000,000 unique records). This article discusses our approach and methodology for designing the map, choosing quality SNPs, designing and validating these assays, and obtaining population frequency ofthe polymorphisms. We also discuss an advanced, high-performance SNP assay chemisty--a new generation of the TaqMan probe-based, 5' nuclease assay-and high-throughput instrumentation-software system for large-scale genotyping. We provide the new SNP map and validation information, validated SNP assays and reagents, and instrumentation systems as a novel resource for genetic discoveries. PMID:12083398

De La Vega, Francisco M; Dailey, David; Ziegle, Janet; Williams, Julie; Madden, Dawn; Gilbert, Dennis A

2002-06-01

186

Detecting disease-predisposing variants: the haplotype method.  

PubMed Central

For many HLA-associated diseases, multiple alleles-- and, in some cases, multiple loci--have been suggested as the causative agents. The haplotype method for identifying disease-predisposing amino acids in a genetic region is a stratification analysis. We show that, for each haplotype combination containing all the amino acid sites involved in the disease process, the relative frequencies of amino acid variants at sites not involved in disease but in linkage disequilibrium with the disease-predisposing sites are expected to be the same in patients and controls. The haplotype method is robust to mode of inheritance and penetrance of the disease and can be used to determine unequivocally whether all amino acid sites involved in the disease have not been identified. Using a resampling technique, we developed a statistical test that takes account of the nonindependence of the sites sampled. Further, when multiple sites in the genetic region are involved in disease, the test statistic gives a closer fit to the null expectation when some--compared with none--of the true predisposing factors are included in the haplotype analysis. Although the haplotype method cannot distinguish between very highly correlated sites in one population, ethnic comparisons may help identify the true predisposing factors. The haplotype method was applied to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) HLA class II DQA1-DQB1 data from Caucasian, African, and Japanese populations. Our results indicate that the combination DQA1#52 (Arg predisposing) DQB1#57 (Asp protective), which has been proposed as an important IDDM agent, does not include all the predisposing elements. With rheumatoid arthritis HLA class II DRB1 data, the results were consistent with the shared-epitope hypothesis.

Valdes, A M; Thomson, G

1997-01-01

187

Effects of Vitamin A and D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms/Haplotypes on Immune Responses to Measles Vaccine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Vitamin A and D, and their receptors, are important regulators of the immune system, including vaccine immune response. We assessed the association between polymorphisms in the vitamin A (RARA, RARB and RARG) and vitamin D receptor (VDR)/RXRA genes and inter-individual variations in immune responses after two doses of measles vaccine in 745 subjects. METHODS Using a tagSNP approach, we genotyped 745 healthy children for the 391 polymorphisms in vitamin A and D receptor genes. RESULTS The RARB haplotype (rs6800566/rs6550976/rs9834818) was significantly associated with variations in both measles antibody (global p=0.013) and cytokine secretion levels, such as IL-10 (global p=0.006), IFN-? (global p=0.008), and TNF-? (global p=0.039) in the Caucasian subgroup. Specifically, the RARB haplotype AAC was associated with higher (t-statistic 3.27, p=0.001) measles antibody levels. At the other end of the spectrum, haplotype GG for rs6550978/rs6777544 was associated with lower antibody levels (t-statistic ?2.32, p=0.020) in the Caucasian subgroup. In a sensitivity analysis, the RARB haplotype CTGGGCAA remained marginally significant (p<0.02) when the single SNP rs12630816 was included in the model for IL-10 secretion levels. A significant association was found between lower measles-specific IFN-? Elispot responses and haplotypes rs11102986/rs11103473/rs11103482/rs10776909/rs12004589/rs35780541/rs2266677/rs875444 (global p=0.004) and rs6537944/rs3118571 (global p<0.001) in the RXRA gene for Caucasians. We also found associations between multiple RARB, VDR and RXRA SNPs/haplotypes and measles-specific IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-?, IFN-?, IFN?-1, and TNF-? cytokine secretion. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that specific allelic variations and haplotypes in the vitamin A and D receptor genes may influence adaptive immune responses to measles vaccine.

Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; O'Byrne, Megan M.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

188

A GCH1 Haplotype and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor and an important cellular antioxidant. BH4 deficiency has been associated with diseases whose etiologies stem from excessive oxidative stress. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of de novo BH4 synthesis. A 3-SNP haplotype in GCH1 (rs8007267, rs3783641, and rs10483639) is known to modulate GCH1 gene expression levels and has been suggested as a major determinant of plasma BH4 bioavailability. As plasma BH4 bioavailability has been suggested as a mechanism of neural tube defect (NTD) teratogenesis, we evaluated the association between this GCH1 haplotype and the risk of NTDs. Samples were obtained from 760 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). The three SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan® SNP assays. An extension of the log-linear model was used to assess the association between NTDs and both offspring and maternal haplotypes. Offspring carrying two copies of haplotype C-T-C had a significantly increased NTD risk (risk ratio [RR] = 3.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–11.50), after adjusting for the effect of the maternal haplotype. Additionally, mothers carrying two copies of haplotype C-T-C had a significantly increased risk of having an NTD-affected offspring (RR = 3.46, 95% CI: 1.05–11.00), after adjusting for the effect of the offspring haplotype. These results suggest offspring and maternal variation in the GCH1 gene and altered BH4 biosynthesis may contribute to NTD risk.

Lupo, Philip J.; Chapa, Claudia; Nousome, Darryl; Duhon, Cody; Canfield, Mark A.; Shaw, Gary M.; Finnell, Richard H.; Zhu, Huiping

2012-01-01

189

Interactions between SNP alleles at multiple loci contribute to skin color differences between caucasoid and mongoloid subjects.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles at multiple loci associated with racial differences in skin color using SNP genotyping. A total of 122 Caucasians in Toledo, Ohio and 100 Mongoloids in Japan were genotyped for 20 SNPs in 7 candidate genes, encoding the Agouti signaling protein (ASIP), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), tyrosinase (TYR), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and myosin VA (MYO5A). Data were used to analyze associations between the 20 SNP alleles using linkage disequilibrium (LD). Combinations of SNP alleles were jointly tested under LD for associations with racial groups by performing a chi(2) test for independence. Results showed that SNP alleles at multiple loci can be considered the haplotype that contributes to significant differences between the two population groups and suggest a high probability of LD. Confirmation of these findings requires further study with other ethnic groups to analyze the associations between SNP alleles at multiple loci and skin color variation among races. PMID:18392143

Anno, Sumiko; Abe, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takushi

2008-01-01

190

SNPsyn: detection and exploration of SNP-SNP interactions  

PubMed Central

SNPsyn (http://snpsyn.biolab.si) is an interactive software tool for the discovery of synergistic pairs of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from large genome-wide case-control association studies (GWAS) data on complex diseases. Synergy among SNPs is estimated using an information-theoretic approach called interaction analysis. SNPsyn is both a stand-alone C++/Flash application and a web server. The computationally intensive part is implemented in C++ and can run in parallel on a dedicated cluster or grid. The graphical user interface is written in Adobe Flash Builder 4 and can run in most web browsers or as a stand-alone application. The SNPsyn web server hosts the Flash application, receives GWAS data submissions, invokes the interaction analysis and serves result files. The user can explore details on identified synergistic pairs of SNPs, perform gene set enrichment analysis and interact with the constructed SNP synergy network.

Curk, Tomaz; Rot, Gregor; Zupan, Blaz

2011-01-01

191

Naturally occurring ERAP1 haplotypes encode functionally distinct alleles with fine substrate specificity  

PubMed Central

The aminopeptidase, ERAP1, trims peptides for MHC class I presentation, influencing the degree and specificity of CD8+ T cell responses. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the exons encoding ERAP1 are associated with autoimmune diseases and cervical carcinoma, but it is not known whether they act independently or as disease-associated haplotypes. We sequenced ERAP1 from 20 individuals and show that SNP occur as distinct haplotypes in the human population, and that these haplotypes encode functionally distinct ERAP1 alleles. Using a wide range of substrates, we are able to demonstrate that for any given substrate, distinct ERAP1 alleles can have “normal”, “hypo-”, or “hyper-” functional; and that each allele has a trend bias towards one of these three activities. Thus, the repertoire of peptides presented at the cell surface for recognition by CTL is likely to depend on the precise combination of both MHC class I and ERAP1 alleles expressed within an individual, and has important implications for predisposition to disease.

Reeves, Emma; Edwards, Christopher J.; Elliott, Tim; James, Edward

2013-01-01

192

Results of a haplotype-based GWAS for recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in the horse.  

PubMed

Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is a major upper-airway disease of horses that causes abnormal respiratory noise during exercise and can impair performance. Etiopathogenesis remains unclear but genetic factors have been suspected for many decades. The objective of this study was to identify risk loci associated with RLN. To that end we genotyped 234 cases (196 Warmbloods, 20 Trotters, 14 Thoroughbreds, and 4 Draft horses), 228 breed-matched controls, and 69 parents with the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip. Using these data, we quantified population structure and performed single-marker and haplotype-based association studies, as well as family-based linkage analyses. We accounted for population stratification by modeling a random polygenic background effect with covariance structure estimated from genome-wide SNP data. Using the haplotype-based approach, we identified two genome-wide suggestive loci in Warmbloods, respectively on chromosomes 21 (p = 1.62 × 10(-6)) and 31 (p = 1.69 × 10(-5)). The two signals were driven by the enrichment of a "protective" haplotype in controls compared to cases. PMID:21698472

Dupuis, Marie-Capucine; Zhang, Zhiyan; Druet, Tom; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Charlier, Carole; Lekeux, Pierre; Georges, Michel

2011-10-01

193

SNP-specific extraction of haplotype-resolved targeted genomic regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of genotyping platforms for compre- hensive genetic analysis of complex traits has resulted in a plethora of studies reporting the asso- ciation of specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with common diseases or drug responses. However, detailed genetic analysis of these associa- ted regions that would correlate particular polymor- phisms to phenotypes has lagged. This is primarily due to the

Johannes Dapprich; Deborah Ferriola; Eleni E. Magira; Mark Kunkel; Dimitri Monos

2008-01-01

194

Association of distinct allelic haplotypes of DISC1 with psychotic and bipolar spectrum disorders and with underlying cognitive impairments.  

PubMed

Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) have at least a partially convergent aetiology and thus may share genetic susceptibility loci. Multiple lines of evidence emphasize the role of disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) gene in psychotic disorders such as SCZ. We monitored the association of allelic variants of translin-associated factor X (TSNAX)/DISC1 gene cluster using 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 723 members of 179 Finnish BPD families. Consistent with an earlier finding in Finnish SCZ families, the haplotype T-A of rs751229 and rs3738401 at the 5' end of DISC1 was over-transmitted to males with psychotic disorder (P = 0.008; for an extended haplotype P = 0.0007 with both genders). Haplotypes at the 3' end of DISC1 associated with bipolar spectrum disorder (P = 0.0002 for an under-transmitted haplotype T-T of rs821616 and rs1411771, for an extended haplotype P = 0.0001), as did a two-SNP risk haplotype at the 5' end of TSNAX (P = 0.007). The risk haplotype for psychotic disorder also associated to perseverations (P = 0.035; for rs751229 alone P = 0.0012), and a protective haplotype G-T-G with rs1655285 in addition to auditory attention (P = 0.0059). The 3' end variants associated with several cognitive traits, with the most robust signal for rs821616 and verbal fluency and rs980989 and psychomotor processing speed (P = 0.011 for both). These results support involvement of DISC1 in the genetic aetiology of BPD and suggest that its distinct variants contribute to variation in the dimensional features of psychotic and bipolar spectrum disorders. Finding of alternative associating haplotypes in the same set of BPD families gives evidence for allelic heterogeneity within DISC1, eventually leading to heterogeneity in the clinical outcome as well. PMID:17673452

Palo, Outi M; Antila, Mervi; Silander, Kaisa; Hennah, William; Kilpinen, Helena; Soronen, Pia; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Kieseppä, Tuula; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Paunio, Tiina

2007-10-15

195

Design and characterization of a 52K SNP chip for goats.  

PubMed

The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50-60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years. PMID:24465974

Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cédric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cécile; Eggen, André; Heuven, Henri C M; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhière, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L; Tircazes, Aurélie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

2014-01-01

196

Design and Characterization of a 52K SNP Chip for Goats  

PubMed Central

The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50–60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years.

Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cedric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cecile; Eggen, Andre; Heuven, Henri C. M.; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T.; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R.; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhiere, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L.; Tircazes, Aurelie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

2014-01-01

197

Haplotype studies in Wilson disease  

SciTech Connect

In 51 families with Wilson disease, the authors have studied DNA haplotypes of dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms (CA repeats) in the 13q14.3 region, to examine these markers for association with the Wilson disease gene (WND). In addition to a marker (D13S133) described elsewhere, the authors have developed three new highly polymorphic markers (D13S314, D13S315, and D13S316) close to the WND locus. The authors have examined the distribution of marker alleles at the loci studied and have found that D13S314, D13S133, and D13S316 each show nonrandom distribution on chromosomes carrying the WND mutation. The authors have studied haplotypes of these three markers and have found that there are highly significant differences between WND and normal haplotypes in northern European families. These findings have important implications for mutation detection and molecular diagnosis in families with Wilson disease. 25 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Thomas, G.R.; Bull, P.C.; Roberts, E.A.; Cox, D.W.; Walshe, J.M. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

1994-01-01

198

Development of the catfish 250K SNP array for genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative traits, such as disease resistance, are most often controlled by a set of genes involving a complex array of regulation. The dissection of genetic basis of quantitative traits requires large numbers of genetic markers with good genome coverage. The application of next-generation sequencing technologies has allowed discovery of over eight million SNPs in catfish, but the challenge remains as to how to efficiently and economically use such SNP resources for genetic analysis. Results In this work, we developed a catfish 250K SNP array using Affymetrix Axiom genotyping technology. The SNPs were obtained from multiple sources including gene-associated SNPs, anonymous genomic SNPs, and inter-specific SNPs. A set of 640K high-quality SNPs obtained following specific requirements of array design were submitted. A panel of 250,113 SNPs was finalized for inclusion on the array. The performance evaluated by genotyping individuals from wild populations and backcross families suggested the good utility of the catfish 250K SNP array. Conclusions This is the first high-density SNP array for catfish. The array should be a valuable resource for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), fine QTL mapping, high-density linkage map construction, haplotype analysis, and whole genome-based selection.

2014-01-01

199

A TNF region haplotype offers protection from typhoid fever in Vietnamese patients.  

PubMed

The genomic region surrounding the TNF locus on human chromosome 6 has previously been associated with typhoid fever in Vietnam (Dunstan et al. in J Infect Dis 183:261-268, 2001). We used a haplotypic approach to understand this association further. Eighty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 150 kb region were genotyped in 95 Vietnamese individuals (typhoid case/mother/father trios). A subset of data from 33 SNPs with a minor allele frequency of >4.3% was used to construct haplotypes. Fifteen SNPs, which tagged the 42 constructed haplotypes were selected. The haplotype tagging SNPs (T1-T15) were genotyped in 380 confirmed typhoid cases and 380 Vietnamese ethnically matched controls. Allelic frequencies of seven SNPs (T1, T2, T3, T5, T6, T7, T8) were significantly different between typhoid cases and controls. Logistic regression results support the hypothesis that there is just one signal associated with disease at this locus. Haplotype-based analysis of the tag SNPs provided positive evidence of association with typhoid (posterior probability 0.821). The analysis highlighted a low-risk cluster of haplotypes that each carry the minor allele of T1 or T7, but not both, and otherwise carry the combination of alleles *12122*1111 at T1-T11, further supporting the one associated signal hypothesis. Finally, individuals that carry the typhoid fever protective haplotype *12122*1111 also produce a relatively low TNF-alpha response to LPS. PMID:17503085

Dunstan, Sarah J; Nguyen, Thi Hue; Rockett, Kirk; Forton, Julian; Morris, Andrew P; Diakite, Mahamadou; Mai, Ngoc Lanh; Le, Thi Phuong; House, Deborah; Parry, Christopher M; Ha, Vinh; Nguyen, T Hieu; Dougan, Gordon; Tran, Tinh Hien; Kwiatowski, Dominic; Farrar, Jeremy J

2007-08-01

200

Inferring Selection Intensity and Allele Age from Multilocus Haplotype Structure  

PubMed Central

It is a challenging task to infer selection intensity and allele age from population genetic data. Here we present a method that can efficiently estimate selection intensity and allele age from the multilocus haplotype structure in the vicinity of a segregating mutant under positive selection. We use a structured-coalescent approach to model the effect of directional selection on the gene genealogies of neutral markers linked to the selected mutant. The frequency trajectory of the selected allele follows the Wright-Fisher model. Given the position of the selected mutant, we propose a simplified multilocus haplotype model that can efficiently model the dynamics of the ancestral haplotypes under the joint influence of selection and recombination. This model approximates the ancestral genealogies of the sample, which reduces the number of states from an exponential function of the number of single-nucleotide polymorphism loci to a quadratic function. That allows parameter inference from data covering DNA regions as large as several hundred kilo-bases. Importance sampling algorithms are adopted to evaluate the probability of a sample by exploring the space of both allele frequency trajectories of the selected mutation and gene genealogies of the linked sites. We demonstrate by simulation that the method can accurately estimate selection intensity for moderate and strong positive selection. We apply the method to a data set of the G6PD gene in an African population and obtain an estimate of 0.0456 (95% confidence interval 0.0144?0.0769) for the selection intensity. The proposed method is novel in jointly modeling the multilocus haplotype pattern caused by recombination and mutation, allowing the analysis of haplotype data in recombining regions. Moreover, the method is applicable to data from populations under exponential growth and a variety of other demographic histories.

Chen, Hua; Slatkin, Montgomery

2013-01-01

201

Inferring selection intensity and allele age from multilocus haplotype structure.  

PubMed

It is a challenging task to infer selection intensity and allele age from population genetic data. Here we present a method that can efficiently estimate selection intensity and allele age from the multilocus haplotype structure in the vicinity of a segregating mutant under positive selection. We use a structured-coalescent approach to model the effect of directional selection on the gene genealogies of neutral markers linked to the selected mutant. The frequency trajectory of the selected allele follows the Wright-Fisher model. Given the position of the selected mutant, we propose a simplified multilocus haplotype model that can efficiently model the dynamics of the ancestral haplotypes under the joint influence of selection and recombination. This model approximates the ancestral genealogies of the sample, which reduces the number of states from an exponential function of the number of single-nucleotide polymorphism loci to a quadratic function. That allows parameter inference from data covering DNA regions as large as several hundred kilo-bases. Importance sampling algorithms are adopted to evaluate the probability of a sample by exploring the space of both allele frequency trajectories of the selected mutation and gene genealogies of the linked sites. We demonstrate by simulation that the method can accurately estimate selection intensity for moderate and strong positive selection. We apply the method to a data set of the G6PD gene in an African population and obtain an estimate of 0.0456 (95% confidence interval 0.0144-0.0769) for the selection intensity. The proposed method is novel in jointly modeling the multilocus haplotype pattern caused by recombination and mutation, allowing the analysis of haplotype data in recombining regions. Moreover, the method is applicable to data from populations under exponential growth and a variety of other demographic histories. PMID:23797107

Chen, Hua; Slatkin, Montgomery

2013-08-01

202

variantGPS: SNP500Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The goal of the SNP500Cancer project is to resequence 102 reference samples to find known or newly discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are of immediate importance to molecular epidemiology studies in cancer. SNP500Cancer provides a central resource for sequence verification of SNPs.

203

Trans-species evolution of Mhc-DRB haplotype polymorphism in primates: Organization of DRB genes in the chimpanzee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DRB region of the human major histocompatibility complex displays length polymorphism: Five major haplotypes differing in the number and type of genes they contain have been identified, each at appreciable frequency. In an attempt to determine whether this haplotype polymorphism, like the allelic polymorphism, predates the divergence of humansfrom great apes, we have worked out the organization of the

Uwe Briindle; Hideki Ono; Vladimir Vincek; Dagmar Klein; Mladen Golubic; Blazenka Grahovac; Jan Klein

1992-01-01

204

Identification of SNP-containing regulatory motifs in the myelodysplastic syndromes model using SNP arrays and gene expression arrays.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes have increased in frequency and incidence in the American population, but patient prognosis has not significantly improved over the last decade. Such improvements could be realized if biomarkers for accurate diagnosis and prognostic stratification were successfully identified. In this study, we propose a method that associates two state-of-the-art array technologies--single nucleotide polymor-phism(SNP) array and gene expression array--with gene motifs considered transcription factor-binding sites (TFBS). We are particularly interested in SNP-containing motifs introduced by genetic variation and mutation as TFBS. The potential regulation of SNP-containing motifs affects only when certain mutations occur. These motifs can be identified from a group of co-expressed genes with copy number variation. Then, we used a sliding window to identify motif candidates near SNPs on gene sequences. The candidates were filtered by coarse thresholding and fine statistical testing. Using the regression-based LARS-EN algorithm and a level-wise sequence combination procedure, we identified 28 SNP-containing motifs as candidate TFBS. We confirmed 21 of the 28 motifs with ChIP-chip fragments in the TRANSFAC database. Another six motifs were validated by TRANSFAC via searching binding fragments on co-regulated genes. The identified motifs and their location genes can be considered potential biomarkers for myelodysplastic syndromes. Thus, our proposed method, a novel strategy for associating two data categories, is capable of integrating information from different sources to identify reliable candidate regulatory SNP-containing motifs introduced by genetic variation and mutation. PMID:23327800

Fan, Jing; Dy, Jennifer G; Chang, Chung-Che; Zhou, Xiaobo

2013-04-01

205

Genotype calling and haplotyping in parent-offspring trios  

PubMed Central

Emerging sequencing technologies allow common and rare variants to be systematically assayed across the human genome in many individuals. In order to improve variant detection and genotype calling, raw sequence data are typically examined across many individuals. Here, we describe a method for genotype calling in settings where sequence data are available for unrelated individuals and parent-offspring trios and show that modeling trio information can greatly increase the accuracy of inferred genotypes and haplotypes, especially on low to modest depth sequencing data. Our method considers both linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and the constraints imposed by family structure when assigning individual genotypes and haplotypes. Using simulations, we show that trios provide higher genotype calling accuracy across the frequency spectrum, both overall and at hard-to-call heterozygous sites. In addition, trios provide greatly improved phasing accuracy—improving the accuracy of downstream analyses (such as genotype imputation) that rely on phased haplotypes. To further evaluate our approach, we analyzed data on the first 508 individuals sequenced by the SardiNIA sequencing project. Our results show that our method reduces the genotyping error rate by 50% compared with analysis using existing methods that ignore family structure. We anticipate our method will facilitate genotype calling and haplotype inference for many ongoing sequencing projects.

Chen, Wei; Li, Bingshan; Zeng, Zhen; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Busonero, Fabio; Kang, Hyun Min; Li, Yun; Abecasis, Goncalo R.

2013-01-01

206

Y-chromosomal DNA haplotype differences in control and infertile Italian subpopulations.  

PubMed

Y-chromosomal DNA haplotypes were determined in 74 infertile and 216 control Italian males using eight biallelic markers. A significant difference in haplotype frequency was found, but could be explained by the geographical origins of the samples. The Y chromosome is thus a sensitive marker for population substructuring and may be useful for determining whether two population samples come from a single population, for example in association studies. PMID:10482965

Previderé, C; Stuppia, L; Gatta, V; Fattorini, P; Palka, G; Tyler-Smith, C

1999-09-01

207

IL-10 and TNF-? promoter haplotypes are associated with childhood Crohn's disease location  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the distribution and frequencies of the genotypes and haplotypes of the genes encoding for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and the interleukin (IL)-10 in childhood Crohn’s disease (CD) and to assess the impact of the corresponding DNA variants on clinical and disease phenotypes. METHODS: Ten variants in GR, TNF-? and IL-10 were genotyped in 113 childhood CD cases and 95 healthy subjects, both of French-Canadian origin. RESULTS: For the GR polymorphisms (R23K and N363S) and IL-10 variants in the 5’flanking region (-1082 G > A, -819 T > C and -592 A > C), no difference was observed in allele and genotype frequencies between CD patients and controls. At the haplotype level, we found three IL-10 haplotypes previously described in Caucasians (GCC, ACC and ATA) and three novel haplotypes only present in IBD patients. When we analyzed the haplotype distribution with the anatomical location of the disease, the GCC haplotype was associated with the colonic and the ACC haplotype with the terminal ileum location, respectively. The genotyping of five polymorphisms in the promoter region of the TNF-? gene (-1031 T > C, -863 A > C, -857 T > C, -308 A > G and -238 A > G) revealed a significant overrepresentation of homozygous -1031 CC among CD patients (OR = 9.9) and an association with the colonic location. For TNF-?, eleven haplotypes were inferred, including two frequent ones, TCCGG and CACGG, which were significantly observed more frequently in controls and cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: This is one of the first studies investigating the association between haplotype structure and disease location in a CD pediatric cohort. Our results will help to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of childhood CD.

Sanchez, Rocio; Levy, Emile; Costea, Florin; Sinnett, Daniel

2009-01-01

208

A comprehensive literature review of haplotyping software and methods for use with unrelated individuals  

PubMed Central

Interest in the assignment and frequency analysis of haplotypes in samples of unrelated individuals has increased immeasurably as a result of the emphasis placed on haplotype analyses by, for example, the International HapMap Project and related initiatives. Although there are many available computer programs for haplotype analysis applicable to samples of unrelated individuals, many of these programs have limitations and/or very specific uses. In this paper, the key features of available haplotype analysis software for use with unrelated individuals, as well as pooled DNA samples from unrelated individuals, are summarised. Programs for haplotype analysis were identified through keyword searches on PUBMED and various internet search engines, a review of citations from retrieved papers and personal communications, up to June 2004. Priority was given to functioning computer programs, rather than theoretical models and methods. The available software was considered in light of a number of factors: the algorithm(s) used, algorithm accuracy, assumptions, the accommodation of genotyping error, implementation of hypothesis testing, handling of missing data, software characteristics and web-based implementations. Review papers comparing specific methods and programs are also summarised. Forty-six haplotyping programs were identified and reviewed. The programs were divided into two groups: those designed for individual genotype data (a total of 43 programs) and those designed for use with pooled DNA samples (a total of three programs). The accuracy of programs using various criteria are assessed and the programs are categorised and discussed in light of: algorithm and method, accuracy, assumptions, genotyping error, hypothesis testing, missing data, software characteristics and web implementation. Many available programs have limitations (eg some cannot accommodate missing data) and/or are designed with specific tasks in mind (eg estimating haplotype frequencies rather than assigning most likely haplotypes to individuals). It is concluded that the selection of an appropriate haplotyping program for analysis purposes should be guided by what is known about the accuracy of estimation, as well as by the limitations and assumptions built into a program.

2005-01-01

209

Haplotype Estimation Using Sequencing Reads  

PubMed Central

High-throughput sequencing technologies produce short sequence reads that can contain phase information if they span two or more heterozygote genotypes. This information is not routinely used by current methods that infer haplotypes from genotype data. We have extended the SHAPEIT2 method to use phase-informative sequencing reads to improve phasing accuracy. Our model incorporates the read information in a probabilistic model through base quality scores within each read. The method is primarily designed for high-coverage sequence data or data sets that already have genotypes called. One important application is phasing of single samples sequenced at high coverage for use in medical sequencing and studies of rare diseases. Our method can also use existing panels of reference haplotypes. We tested the method by using a mother-father-child trio sequenced at high-coverage by Illumina together with the low-coverage sequence data from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000GP). We found that use of phase-informative reads increases the mean distance between switch errors by 22% from 274.4 kb to 328.6 kb. We also used male chromosome X haplotypes from the 1000GP samples to simulate sequencing reads with varying insert size, read length, and base error rate. When using short 100 bp paired-end reads, we found that using mixtures of insert sizes produced the best results. When using longer reads with high error rates (5–20 kb read with 4%–15% error per base), phasing performance was substantially improved.

Delaneau, Olivier; Howie, Bryan; Cox, Anthony J.; Zagury, Jean-Francois; Marchini, Jonathan

2013-01-01

210

Allele and Haplotype Diversity of 26 X-STR Loci in Four Nationality Populations from China  

PubMed Central

Background Haplotype analysis of closely associated markers has proven to be a powerful tool in kinship analysis, especially when short tandem repeats (STR) fail to resolve uncertainty in relationship analysis. STR located on the X chromosome show stronger linkage disequilibrium compared with autosomal STR. So, it is necessary to estimate the haplotype frequencies directly from population studies as linkage disequilibrium is population-specific. Methodology and Findings Twenty-six X-STR loci including six clusters of linked markers DXS6807-DXS8378-DXS9902(Xp22), DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074-DXS10075-DXS981 (Xq12), DXS6801-DXS6809-DXS6789-DXS6799(Xq21), DXS7424-DXS101-DXS7133(Xq22), DXS6804-GATA172D05(Xq23), DXS8377-DXS7423 (Xq28) and the loci DXS6800, DXS6803, DXS9898, GATA165B12, DXS6854, HPRTB and GATA31E08 were typed in four nationality (Han, Uigur, Kazakh and Mongol) samples from China (n?=?1522, 876 males and 646 females). Allele and haplotype frequency as well as linkage disequilibrium data for kinship calculation were observed. The allele frequency distribution among different populations was compared. A total of 5–20 alleles for each locus were observed and altogether 289 alleles for all the selected loci were found. Allele frequency distribution for most X-STR loci is different in different populations. A total of 876 male samples were investigated by haplotype analysis and for linkage disequilibrium. A total of 89, 703, 335, 147, 39 and 63 haplotypes were observed. Haplotype diversity was 0.9584, 0.9994, 0.9935, 0.9736, 0.9427 and 0.9571 for cluster I, II, III, IV, V and VI, respectively. Eighty-two percent of the haplotype of cluster IIwas found only once. And 94% of the haplotype of cluster III show a frequency of <1%. Conclusions These results indicate that allele frequency distribution for most X-STR loci is population-specific and haplotypes of six clusters provide a powerful tool for kinship testing and relationship investigation. So it is necessary to obtain allele frequency and haplotypes data of the linked loci for forensic application.

Quan, Li; Zhao, Hu; Wu, Ye-Da; Huang, Xiao-Ling; Lu, De-Jian

2013-01-01

211

Association of KIR Genotypes and Haplotypes with Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Chinese Han Population  

PubMed Central

Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes can regulate the activation of NK and T cells upon interaction with HLA class I molecules. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been regarded as a multi-factorial disorder disease. Previous studies revealed that KIRs were involved in HCV and HIV infection or clearance. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of the inheritance of KIR genotypes and haplotypes as a candidate for susceptibility to persistent HBV infection or HBV clearance. The sequence specific primer polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) was employed to identify the KIR genes and pseudogenes in 150 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, 251 spontaneously recovered (SR) controls, and 412 healthy controls. The frequencies of genotype G, M, FZ1 increased in CHB patients compared with healthy control subjects. The frequency of genotype AH was higher in SR controls than that in both CHB patients and healthy controls. The carriage frequencies of genotype G and AH were higher; while, the frequencies of AF and AJ were lower in SR controls than those in healthy control subjects. The frequency of A haplotype was lower, whereas, the frequency of B haplotype was higher in CHB patients and SR controls than those in healthy controls. In healthy controls, haplotype 4 was found lower compared with that in CHB patients and SR controls and the frequency of haplotype 5 was higher in SR controls than that in other two groups. Based on these findings, it seems that the genotypes M and FZ1 are HBV susceptive genotypes; AH, on the other hand, may be protective genotypes that facilitate the clearance of HBV. It appears that the haplotype 4 is HBV susceptive haplotype, whereas, haplotype 5 may be the protective haplotype that facilitates the clearance of HBV.

Lu, Zhiming; Zhang, Bingchang; Chen, Shijun; Gai, Zhongtao; Feng, Zhaolei; Liu, Xiangdong; Liu, Yiqing; Wen, Xin; Li, Li; Jiao, Yulian; Ma, Chunyan; Shao, Song; Cui, Xiangfa; Chen, Guojian; Li, Jianfeng; Zhao, Yueran

2008-01-01

212

Association of RXR-Gamma Gene Variants with Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia: Genotype and Haplotype Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL), the most common genetic form of hyperlipdemia, is characterized by a strong familial clustering and by premature coronary heart disease. The FCHL locus has been mapped to human chromosome 1q21-q23. This region includes the retinoid X receptor gamma (RXRG), a nuclear factor member of the RXR superfamily, which plays important roles in lipid homeostasis. Objective. To investigate the possible role of the RXRG gene in the genetic susceptibility to FCHL. Methods. Variations in RXRG gene were searched by direct sequencing, and the identified SNPs were genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 192 FCHL individuals from 74 families and in 119 controls. Results. We identified 5 polymorphisms in the RXRG gene (rs1128977, rs2651860, rs2134095, rs283696, and rs10918169). Genotyping showed that the A-allele of rs283696 SNP was significantly associated with FCHL (corrected P, Pc < 0.01). Also the alleles of the rs10918169 and of the rs2651860 SNP were more frequent in FCHL subjects compared to those in controls, although not significantly after correction. When the clinical characteristics of the FCHL subjects were stratified by allele carrier status for each SNP, the rs2651860 SNP was significantly associated with increased levels of LDL-cholesterol and of Apo-B in T-allele carriers (P < 0.04). Finally, haplotypes analysis with all 5 SNPs confirmed the significant association of RXRG gene with FCHL. Specifically, the haplotype containing all 3 “at-risk” alleles, significantly associated with FCHL (A-allele of rs283696, G-allele of rs10918169, and T-allele of rs2651860), showed an OR (Odds Ratio) of 2.02, Pc < 0.048. Conversely, the haplotype without all these 3 alleles was associated with a reduced risk for FCHL (OR = 0.39, Pc < 0.023). The “at-risk” haplotype CTTAG was also associated with higher LDL-C (P < 0.015). In conclusion, variation in the RXRG gene may contribute to the genetic dyslipidemia in FCHL subjects.

Sentinelli, Federica; Minicocci, Ilenia; Montali, Anna; Romeo, Stefano; Incani, Michela; Cavallo, M. Gisella; Lenzi, Andrea; Arca, Marcello; Baroni, Marco G.

2013-01-01

213

TLR5 Risk-Associated Haplotype for Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Confers Hyper-Responsiveness to Flagellin  

PubMed Central

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the TLR5 gene have been associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and animal models of this disease. We recently demonstrated a significant association between three non-synonymous SNPs in the canine TLR5 gene and IBD in German shepherd dogs (GSDs). However, so far, no direct link between these SNPs and a disturbance in TLR5 function was shown. In the present study, we determined the functional significance of the canine TLR5 SNPs by transfecting the identified risk-protective and risk-associated haplotype into human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) and assessed nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation and CXCL8 production after stimulation. In addition, a whole blood assay for TLR5 activation was developed using blood derived from carrier dogs of either haplotype. There was a significant increase in NF-kB activity when cells transfected with the risk-associated TLR5 haplotype were stimulated with flagellin compared to the cells expressing the risk-protective TLR5 haplotype. This difference in NFkB activation correlated with CXCL8 expression in the supernatant measured by ELISA. Furthermore, whole blood taken from carrier dogs of the risk-associated TLR5 haplotype produced significantly more TNF after stimulation with flagellin compared to that taken from carriers of the risk-protective haplotype. Thus, we show for the first time a direct functional impact of the canine IBD risk-associated TLR5 haplotype, which results in hyper-responsiveness to flagellin compared to the IBD risk-protective TLR5 haplotype. Our data potentially suggest that similarly to human IBD and experimental models, TLR5 may also play a role in canine IBD. Blocking the hyper-responsive receptor found in susceptible dogs with IBD may alleviate the inappropriate inflammation seen in this disease.

Kathrani, Aarti; Holder, Angela; Catchpole, Brian; Alvarez, Lorena; Simpson, Kenneth; Werling, Dirk; Allenspach, Karin

2012-01-01

214

TLR5 risk-associated haplotype for canine inflammatory bowel disease confers hyper-responsiveness to flagellin.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the TLR5 gene have been associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and animal models of this disease. We recently demonstrated a significant association between three non-synonymous SNPs in the canine TLR5 gene and IBD in German shepherd dogs (GSDs). However, so far, no direct link between these SNPs and a disturbance in TLR5 function was shown. In the present study, we determined the functional significance of the canine TLR5 SNPs by transfecting the identified risk-protective and risk-associated haplotype into human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) and assessed nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation and CXCL8 production after stimulation. In addition, a whole blood assay for TLR5 activation was developed using blood derived from carrier dogs of either haplotype. There was a significant increase in NF-kB activity when cells transfected with the risk-associated TLR5 haplotype were stimulated with flagellin compared to the cells expressing the risk-protective TLR5 haplotype. This difference in NFkB activation correlated with CXCL8 expression in the supernatant measured by ELISA. Furthermore, whole blood taken from carrier dogs of the risk-associated TLR5 haplotype produced significantly more TNF after stimulation with flagellin compared to that taken from carriers of the risk-protective haplotype. Thus, we show for the first time a direct functional impact of the canine IBD risk-associated TLR5 haplotype, which results in hyper-responsiveness to flagellin compared to the IBD risk-protective TLR5 haplotype. Our data potentially suggest that similarly to human IBD and experimental models, TLR5 may also play a role in canine IBD. Blocking the hyper-responsive receptor found in susceptible dogs with IBD may alleviate the inappropriate inflammation seen in this disease. PMID:22279566

Kathrani, Aarti; Holder, Angela; Catchpole, Brian; Alvarez, Lorena; Simpson, Kenneth; Werling, Dirk; Allenspach, Karin

2012-01-01

215

Major Soybean Maturity Gene Haplotypes Revealed by SNPViz Analysis of 72 Sequenced Soybean Genomes.  

PubMed

In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species. PMID:24727730

Langewisch, Tiffany; Zhang, Hongxin; Vincent, Ryan; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Bilyeu, Kristin

2014-01-01

216

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Haplotype Diversity in Chinese Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

The use of Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for infectious disease immunity research is increasing despite the relative lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I immunogenetics information available for this population. We determined transcript-based MHC class I haplotypes for 385 Chinese rhesus macaques from five different experimental cohorts, providing a concise representation of the full complement of MHC class I major alleles expressed by each animal. In total, 123 Mamu-A and Mamu-B haplotypes were defined in the full Chinese rhesus macaque cohort. We then performed an analysis of haplotype frequencies across the experimental cohorts of Chinese rhesus macaques, as well as a comparison against a group of 96 Indian rhesus macaques. Notably, 35 of the 51 Mamu-A and Mamu-B haplotypes observed in Indian rhesus macaques were also detected in the Chinese population, with 85% of the 385 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques expressing at least one of these class I haplotypes. This unexpected conservation of Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I haplotypes in the Chinese rhesus macaque population suggests that immunologic insights originally gleaned from studies using Indian rhesus macaques may be more applicable to Chinese rhesus macaques than previously appreciated and may provide an opportunity for studies of CD8+ T-cell responses between populations. It may also be possible to extend these studies across multiple species of macaques, as we found evidence of shared ancestral haplotypes between Chinese rhesus and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques.

Karl, Julie A.; Bohn, Patrick S.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Nimityongskul, Francesca A.; Lank, Simon M.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; O'Connor, David H.

2013-01-01

217

Ancient mitochondrial haplotypes and evidence for intragenic recombination in a gynodioecious plant  

PubMed Central

Because of their extremely low nucleotide mutation rates, plant mitochondrial genes are generally not expected to show variation within species. Remarkably, we found nine distinct cytochrome b sequence haplotypes in the gynodioecious alpine plant Silene acaulis, with two or more haplotypes coexisting locally in each of three sampled regions. Moreover, there is evidence for intragenic recombination in the history of the haplotype sample, implying at least transient heteroplasmy of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Heteroplasmy might be achieved by one of two potential mechanisms, either continuous coexistence of subgenomic fragments in low stoichiometry, or occasional paternal leakage of mtDNA. On the basis of levels of synonymous nucleotide substitutions, the average divergence time between haplotypes is estimated to be at least 15 million years. Ancient coalescence of extant haplotypes is further indicated by the paucity of fixed differences in haplotypes obtained from related species, a pattern expected under trans-specific evolution. Our data are consistent with models of frequency-dependent selection on linked cytoplasmic male-sterility factors, the putative molecular basis of females in gynodioecious populations. However, associations between marker loci and the inferred male-sterility genes can be maintained only with very low rates of recombination. Heteroplasmy and recombination between divergent haplotypes imply unexplored consequences for the evolutionary dynamics of gynodioecy, a widespread plant breeding system.

Stadler, Thomas; Delph, Lynda F.

2002-01-01

218

Genotype Imputation of Metabochip SNPs Using a Study-Specific Reference Panel of ~4,000 Haplotypes in African Americans From the Women's Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

Genetic imputation has become standard practice in modern genetic studies. However, several important issues have not been adequately addressed including the utility of study-specific reference, performance in admixed populations, and quality for less common (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.005–0.05) and rare (MAF < 0.005) variants. These issues only recently became addressable with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) follow-up studies using dense genotyping or sequencing in large samples of non-European individuals. In this work, we constructed a study-specific reference panel of 3,924 haplotypes using African Americans in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) genotyped on both the Metabochip and the Affymetrix 6.0 GWAS platform. We used this reference panel to impute into 6,459 WHI SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) study subjects with only GWAS genotypes. Our analysis confirmed the imputation quality metric Rsq (estimated r2, specific to each SNP) as an effective post-imputation filter. We recommend different Rsq thresholds for different MAF categories such that the average (across SNPs) Rsq is above the desired dosage r2 (squared Pearson correlation between imputed and experimental genotypes).With a desired dosage r2 of 80%, 99.9% (97.5%, 83.6%, 52.0%, 20.5%) of SNPs with MAF > 0.05 (0.03–0.05, 0.01–0.03, 0.005–0.01, and 0.001–0.005) passed the post-imputation filter. The average dosage r2 for these SNPs is 94.7%, 92.1%, 89.0%, 83.1%, and 79.7%, respectively. These results suggest that for African Americans imputation of Metabochip SNPs from GWAS data, including low frequency SNPs with MAF 0.005–0.05, is feasible and worthwhile for power increase in downstream association analysis provided a sizable reference panel is available.

Liu, Eric Yi; Buyske, Steven; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Peters, Ulrike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Carlson, Chris; Carty, Cara; Crawford, Dana C.; Haessler, Jeff; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Marchand, Loic Le; Manolio, Teri A.; Matise, Tara; Wang, Wei; Kooperberg, Charles; North, Kari E.; Li, Yun

2012-01-01

219

Specific haplotypes of the RET proto-oncogene are over-represented in patients with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), which may be sporadic (95%) or familial (5%), has a prevalence adjusted for age in the general population of 1:100 000. Somatic rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene are present in up to 66% of sporadic tumours, while they are rarely found in familial cases. Purpose: In order to determine if some variants of this gene, or a combination of them, might predispose to PTC, we looked for an association of RET haplotype(s) in PTC cases and in controls from four countries matched for sex, age, and population. Methods: Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the RET coding sequence were typed and haplotype frequencies were estimated. Genotype and haplotype distributions were compared among these cases and controls. Results: Ten haplotypes were observed, the seven most frequent of which have been previously described in sporadic Hirschsprung patients and controls. The single locus analyses suggested association of exon 2 and exon 13 SNPs with sporadic PTC. The haplotype analysis showed over-representation of one haplotype in French and Italian sporadic PTC, whereas a different haplotype was significantly under-represented in French familial PTC. Conclusions: Our data suggest that some variants of RET and some specific haplotypes may act as low penetrance alleles in the predisposition to PTC.

Lesueur, F; Corbex, M; McKay, J; Lima, J; Soares, P; Griseri, P; Burgess, J; Ceccherini, I; Landolfi, S; Papotti, M; Amorim, A; Goldgar, D; Romeo, G

2002-01-01

220

SNIT: SNP Identification for Strain Typing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With ever-increasing numbers of microbial genomes being sequenced, efficient tools are needed to perform strain level identification of any newly sequenced genome. Here, we present the SNP identification for strain typing (SNIT) pipeline, a fast and accur...

J. Reifman N. Zavaljevski R. V. Satya

2011-01-01

221

Development of SNP-genotyping arrays in two shellfish species.  

PubMed

Use of SNPs has been favoured due to their abundance in plant and animal genomes, accompanied by the falling cost and rising throughput capacity for detection and genotyping. Here, we present in vitro (obtained from targeted sequencing) and in silico discovery of SNPs, and the design of medium-throughput genotyping arrays for two oyster species, the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis. Two sets of 384 SNP markers were designed for two Illumina GoldenGate arrays and genotyped on more than 1000 samples for each species. In each case, oyster samples were obtained from wild and selected populations and from three-generation families segregating for traits of interest in aquaculture. The rate of successfully genotyped polymorphic SNPs was about 60% for each species. Effects of SNP origin and quality on genotyping success (Illumina functionality Score) were analysed and compared with other model and nonmodel species. Furthermore, a simulation was made based on a subset of the C. gigas SNP array with a minor allele frequency of 0.3 and typical crosses used in shellfish hatcheries. This simulation indicated that at least 150 markers were needed to perform an accurate parental assignment. Such panels might provide valuable tools to improve our understanding of the connectivity between wild (and selected) populations and could contribute to future selective breeding programmes. PMID:24447767

Lapègue, S; Harrang, E; Heurtebise, S; Flahauw, E; Donnadieu, C; Gayral, P; Ballenghien, M; Genestout, L; Barbotte, L; Mahla, R; Haffray, P; Klopp, C

2014-07-01

222

SNP set association analysis for genome-wide association studies.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a promising approach for identifying common genetic variants of the diseases on the basis of millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In order to avoid low power caused by overmuch correction for multiple comparisons in single locus association study, some methods have been proposed by grouping SNPs together into a SNP set based on genomic features, then testing the joint effect of the SNP set. We compare the performances of principal component analysis (PCA), supervised principal component analysis (SPCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and sliced inverse regression (SIR). Simulated SNP sets are generated under scenarios of 0, 1 and ? 2 causal SNPs model. Our simulation results show that all of these methods can control the type I error at the nominal significance level. SPCA is always more powerful than the other methods at different settings of linkage disequilibrium structures and minor allele frequency of the simulated datasets. We also apply these four methods to a real GWAS of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Han Chinese population. PMID:23658731

Cai, Min; Dai, Hui; Qiu, Yongyong; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Ruyang; Chu, Minjie; Dai, Juncheng; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Feng

2013-01-01

223

SNP genotyping by DNA photoligation: application to SNP detection of genes from food crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a simple and inexpensive single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing method, using DNA photoligation with 5-carboxyvinyl-2'-deoxyuridine and two fluorophores. This SNP-typing method facilitates qualitative determination of genes from indica and japonica rice, and showed a high degree of single nucleotide specificity up to 10 000. This method can be used in the SNP typing of actual genomic DNA samples from food crops.

Yoshimura, Yoshinaga; Ohtake, Tomoko; Okada, Hajime; Ami, Takehiro; Tsukaguchi, Tadashi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

2009-06-01

224

The Invader ® assay for SNP genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Invader® assay uses a structure-specific flap endonuclease (FEN) to cleave a three-dimensional complex formed by hybridization of allele-specific overlapping oligonucleotides to target DNA containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site. Annealing of the oligonucleotide complementary to the SNP allele in the target molecule triggers the cleavage of the oligonucleotide by cleavase, a thermostable FEN. Cleavage can be detected by

Michael Olivier

2005-01-01

225

Network analysis of human Y microsatellite haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the utility of Y chromosome micro- satellites for studying human male-lineage evolution, we typed samples from three populations for five tetranucleotide repeats and an Alu insertion poly- morphism. We found very high levels of haplotype diversity and evidence that most mutations involve the gain or loss of only one repeat unit, implying that any given microsatellite haplotype may

Gillian Cooper; William Amos; Dorota Hoffman; David C. Rubinsztein

1996-01-01

226

Historical recombinant sites in extended HLA haplotypes.  

PubMed

Each ancestral or extended HLA haplotype contains a unique combination of alleles among which some may be entirely specific for that haplotype (haplospecific alleles). In the course of evolution many recombination events occurred which disrupted the original haplotypic combination. We analysed the sites of historical recombinations in four extended HLA haplotypes (B8-DR3; B18-DR3; B50-DR7 and B57-DR7) in 60 random Italian individuals selected through the presence of haplospecific alleles. In general the distribution of recombinations in each interval was similar for the four extended haplotypes and no haplospecific recombination "hot spot" could be detected. However some differences between the four haplotypes can be pointed out: a) only 48% fragmented B8-DR3 were found in contrast to 83% B18-DR3, 89% B50-DR7 and 88% B57-DR7; b) in the B8-DR3 haplotype recombinations fall preferentially in the B/TNF interval. In fact among 22 historical recombination events, 50% were mapped in this region; c) conversely, no recombination event was detected in the B/TNF interval among the 19 disrupted B18-DR3 haplotypes thus evidencing the presence of a putative recombination "cold spot". PMID:10432436

D'Alfonso, S; Bolognesi, E; Mazzola, G; Dall'Omo, A; Richiardi, P M

1999-01-01

227

Haplotype analysis in Huntington desease provides insights into mechanisms of CAG repeat expansion  

SciTech Connect

Huntington disease (HD) is one of 7 disorders now known to be caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat. The HD mutation is a polymorphic trinucleotide (CAG) repeat in the 5{prime} region of a novel gene that expands beyond the normal range of 10-35 repeats in persons destined to develop the disease. Haplotype analysis of other dynamic mutation disorders such as myotonic dystrophy and Fragil X have suggested that a rare ancestral expansion event on a normal chromosome is followed by subsequent expansion events, resulting in a pool of chromosomes in the premutation range, which is inherently unstable and prone to further multiple expansion events leading to disease range chromosomes. Haplotype analysis of 67 HD and 84 control chromosomes using 5 polymorphic markers, both intragenic and 5{prime} to the disease mutation, demonstrate that multiple haplotypes underlie HD. However, 94% of the chromosomes can be grouped under two major haplotypes. These two haplotypes are also present in the normal population. A third major haplotype is seen on 38% of normal chromosomes but rarely on HD chromosomes (6%). CAG lengths on the normal chromosomes with the two haplotypes seen in the HD population are higher than those seen on the normal chromosomes with the haplotype rarely seen on HD chromosomes. Furthermore, in populations with a diminished frequency of HD, CAG length on normal chromosomes is significantly less than other populations with higher prevalence rates for HD. These data suggest that CAG length on normal chromosomes may be a significant factor contributing to repeat instability that eventually leads to chromosomes with CAG repeat lengths in the HD range. Haplotypes on the HD chromosomes are identical to those normal chromosomes which have CAG lengths in the high range of normal, suggesting that further expansions of this pool of chromosomes leads to chromosomes with CAG repeat sizes within the disease range, consistent with a multistep model.

Andrew, S.E.; Goldberg, Y.P.; Squitieri, F. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

228

SNP Set Association Analysis for Familial Data  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a popular approach for identifying common genetic variants and epistatic effects associated with a disease phenotype. The traditional statistical analysis of such GWAS attempts to assess the association between each individual Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and the observed phenotype. Recently, kernel machine-based tests for association between a SNP set (e.g., SNPs in a gene) and the disease phenotype have been proposed as a useful alternative to the traditional individual SNP approach, and allow for flexible modeling of the potentially complicated joint SNP effects in a SNP set while adjusting for covariates. We extend the kernel machine framework to accommodate related subjects from multiple independent families, and provide a score-based variance component test for assessing the association of a given SNP set with a continuous phenotype, while adjusting for additional covariates and accounting for within-family correlation. We illustrate the proposed method using simulation studies and an application to genetic data from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study.

Schifano, Elizabeth D.; Epstein, Michael P.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Jhun, Min A.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Lin, Xihong

2013-01-01

229

Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in the Bangladeshi population.  

PubMed

Haplotype and allele frequencies of 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci were determined in 216 unrelated Bangladeshi males. AmpFlSTR Y-filer PCR Amplification kit (Applied Biosystems) was used to type the following Y-STR markers: DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS458, DYS456, DYS635, and Y-GATA-H4. A total of 211 haplotypes for the 17 Y-STR markers were detected and, of these, 206 haplotypes were unique. The haplotype diversity was 0.9998, indicating a high potential for differentiating between male individuals in this population. Comparison analysis via Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) and construction of Neighbor Joining Tree revealed a close association of Bangladeshi population with Indian Gaddi and Southern Indian populations. PMID:20129457

Alam, Shafiul; Ali, Md Eunus; Ferdous, Ahmad; Hossain, Tania; Hasan, Md Mahamud; Akhteruzzaman, Sharif

2010-02-01

230

Acute chest syndrome is associated with single nucleotide polymorphism-defined beta globin cluster haplotype in children with sickle cell anaemia.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity at the human ?-globin locus has been implicated as a modifier of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) severity. However, haplotypes defined by restriction fragment length polymorphism sites across the ?-globin locus have not been consistently associated with clinical phenotypes. To define the genetic structure at the ?-globin locus more thoroughly, we performed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping in 820 children who were homozygous for the sickle cell mutation (HbSS). Genotyping results revealed very high linkage disequilibrium across a large region spanning the locus control region and the HBB (?-globin gene) cluster. We identified three predominant haplotypes accounting for 96% of the ?(S) -carrying chromosomes in this population that could be distinguished using a minimal set of common SNPs. Consistent with previous studies, fetal haemoglobin level was significantly associated with ?(S) -haplotypes. After controlling for covariates, an association was detected between haplotype and rate of hospitalization for acute chest syndrome (ACS) (incidence rate ratio 0·51, 95% confidence interval 0·29-0·89) but not incidence rate of vaso-occlusive pain or presence of silent cerebral infarct (SCI). Our results suggest that these SNP-defined ?(S) -haplotypes may be associated with ACS, but not pain or SCI in a study population of children with SCA. PMID:23952145

Bean, Christopher J; Boulet, Sheree L; Yang, Genyan; Payne, Amanda B; Ghaji, Nafisa; Pyle, Meredith E; Hooper, W Craig; Bhatnagar, Pallav; Keefer, Jeffrey; Barron-Casella, Emily A; Casella, James F; Debaun, Michael R

2013-10-01

231

Reliability of genomic evaluations in Holstein-Friesians using haplotypes based on the BovineHD BeadChip.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to make subsets of high-density (HD) loci based on localized haplotype clusters, without loss of genomic information, to reduce computing time compared with the use of all HD loci and to investigate the effect on the reliability of the direct genomic value (DGV) when using this HD subset based on localized haplotype clusters in the genomic evaluation for Holstein-Friesians. The DNA was isolated from semen samples of 548 bulls (key ancestors) of the EuroGenomics Consortium, a collaboration between 4 European dairy cattle breeding organizations and scientific partners. These bulls were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip [~777,000 (777K) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA] and used to impute all 30,483 Holstein-Friesians from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip [~50,000 (50K) SNP; Illumina Inc.] to HD, using the BEAGLE software package. The final data set consisted of 30,483 animals and 603,145 SNP. For each locus, localized haplotype clusters (i.e., edges of the fitted graph model) identifications were obtained from BEAGLE. Three subsets [38,000 (38K), 116,000 (116K), and 322,000 (322K) loci] were made based on deleting obsolete loci (i.e., loci that do not give extra information compared with the neighboring loci). A fourth data set was based on 38K SNP, which is currently used for routine genomic evaluation at the Cattle Improvement Cooperative (CRV, Arnhem, the Netherlands). A validation study using the HD loci subsets based on localized haplotype clusters was performed for 9 traits (production, conformation, and functional traits). Error of imputation from 50K to HD averaged 0.78%. Three thresholds (0.17, 0.05, and 0.008%) were used for the identification of obsolete HD loci based on localized haplotype clusters to obtain a desired number of HD loci (38K, 116K, and 322K). On average, 46% (using threshold 0.008%) to 93% (using threshold 0.17%) of HD loci were eliminated. The computing time was about 9 d for 38K loci, 15.5d for 116K loci, 21d for 322K loci, and 7.5 d for 38K SNP. The increase in reliability of DGV compared with pedigree-based estimated breeding values for kilograms of protein was similar for 322K and 116K loci (30.7%), but was 1.5 to 2% higher compared with 38K loci and 38K SNP. Averaged over 9 traits, subset 116K loci resulted in a higher increase in reliability compared with 38K loci and 38K SNP. Eliminating obsolete loci enormously decreased the amount of data to be analyzed for genomic evaluations. The more HD loci used in a genomic evaluation, the higher the increase in reliability of DGV. It is possible to increase the reliability of DGV by 1 to 2% compared with the SNP currently used for routine genomic evaluation. PMID:24140319

Schopen, G C B; Schrooten, C

2013-12-01

232

Characterization of a glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR, NR3C1) promoter polymorphism reveals functionality and extends a haplotype with putative clinical relevance.  

PubMed

Hyperactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been associated with the etiology of major depression. One of the factors underlying altered glucocorticoid signaling might be variability of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR, NR3C1). GR polymorphisms have been associated with variability in glucocorticoid sensitivity and endocrine responses to psychosocial stress. Furthermore, a common GR SNP (rs10482605), located in the promoter region, has been associated with major depression. We performed functional characterization of this SNP in vitro using a reporter gene assay under different stimulation conditions. Furthermore, we genotyped 219 subjects previously genotyped for four common GR SNPs to further characterize GR haplotype structure. The minor C allele of the rs10482605 SNP showed reduced transcriptional activity under unstimulated conditions and under different stimulation conditions in two brain derived cell lines. Linkage analyses revealed that the rs10482605 SNP is in high linkage disequilibrium with a A/G SNP in exon 9beta (rs6198), associated with relative glucocorticoid resistance and increased GRbeta mRNA stability. We provide evidence that two functional GR SNPs in linkage disequilibrium are responsible for both regulation of GR expression and mRNA stability. This newly characterized haplotype could increase the risk for the development of stress related disorders, including major depression. PMID:18663733

Kumsta, Robert; Moser, Dirk; Streit, Fabian; Koper, Jan Willem; Meyer, Jobst; Wüst, Stefan

2009-06-01

233

Extended LTA, TNF, LST1 and HLA Gene Haplotypes and Their Association with Rubella Vaccine-Induced Immunity  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have suggested the importance of HLA genes in determining immune responses following rubella vaccine. The telomeric class III region of the HLA complex harbors several genes, including lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and leukocyte specific transcript -1 (LST1) genes, located between the class I B and class II DRB1 loci. Apart from HLA, little is known about the effect of this extended genetic region on HLA haplotypic backgrounds as applied to immune responses. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the association between immune responses and extended class I-class II-class III haplotypes among 714 healthy children after two doses of rubella vaccination. These extended haplotypes were then compared to the HLA-only haplotypes. The most significant association was observed between haplotypes extending across the HLA class I region, ten-SNP haplotypes, and the HLA class II region (i.e. A-C-B-LTA-TNF-LST1-DRB1-DQA1-DQB1-DPA1-DPB1) and rubella-specific antibodies (global p-value of 0.03). Associations were found between both extended A*02-C*03-B*15-AAAACGGGGC-DRB1*04-DQA1*03-DQB1*03-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (p?=?0.002) and HLA-only A*02-C*03-B*15-DRB1*04-DQA1*03-DQB1*03-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 haplotypes (p?=?0.009) and higher levels of rubella antibodies. The class II HLA-only haplotype DRB1*13-DQA1*01-DQB1*06-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (p?=?0.04) lacking LTA-TNF-LST1 SNPs was associated with lower rubella antibody responses. Similarly, the class I-class II HLA-only A*01-C*07-B*08-DRB1*03-DQA1*05-DQB1*02-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 haplotype was associated with increased TNF-? secretion levels (p?=?0.009). In contrast, the extended AAAACGGGGC-DRB1*01-DQA1*01-DQB1*05-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (p?=?0.01) haplotype was found to trend with decreased rubella-specific IL-6 secretion levels. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest the importance of examining both HLA genes and genes in the class III region as part of the extended haplotypes useful in understanding genomic drivers regulating immune responses to rubella vaccine.

Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

234

Beta2-ADR haplotypes/polymorphisms associate with bronchodilator response and total IgE in grass allergy.  

PubMed

Association and linkage studies of beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-ADR) polymorphisms in relation to the expression of asthmatic phenotypes and immune regulatory mechanisms have shown inconsistent results. In order to analyse the relevance of particular combinations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or haplotypes of beta2-ADR gene to bronchial asthma, bronchodilator response and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) we determined by direct DNA sequencing five SNPs (in positions: -47, -20, 46, 79, 252) in a group of 180 Caucasian subjects (110 patients with grass allergy and 70 nonatopic controls). The eight different beta2-ADR haplotypes were identified, with three the most common of them representing 92% of the studied cohort. Significantly higher (pcor = 0.0045) bronchodilator response was observed in patients with homozygotic genotype 46A/A in comparison with respective homo- and hetero-zygotes. There was no significant difference in bronchodilator response when beta2-ADR haplotypes were analysed. Significantly higher (pcor = 0.0005) total IgE levels were found in patients with beta2-ADR haplotype -47T/-20T/46A/79C/252G and homozygotic carriers of 46A (pcor = 0.0015) and 79C (pcor = 0.003) genotypes. No significant associations were found in regards to asthmatic phenotype and atopy. These results indicate that depending on phenotype studied, either an individual beta2-ADR SNP or beta2-ADR haplotype might affect disease manifestation. PMID:16197474

Woszczek, G; Borowiec, M; Ptasinska, A; Kosinski, S; Pawliczak, R; Kowalski, M L

2005-11-01

235

Association of SNP41, SNP56 and a novel SNP in PDE4D gene with stroke and its subtypes.  

PubMed

An association between phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene and risk of stroke has been suggested by deCODE group in an Icelandic population. In the present case-control study we investigated the association of SNP41 (rs12153798) and SNP56 (rs702553) with ischemic stroke and stroke subtypes. Five hundred and sixteen ischemic stroke patients and 513 healthy age and sex matched controls were included in the study. The genotypes were determined by subjecting the PCR products to sequencing. Both the SNPs 56 and 41 associated significantly with stroke [adjusted OR=1.97; 95% CI (1.262-3.082); p=0.003: adjusted OR=5.42; 95% CI (3.45-8.5); p<0.001 respectively]. In addition to this, a novel SNP at position 59736747 T>G was found while sequencing the PCR products including SNP56. This novel SNP was found in patients as well as controls but did not show a significant association with the disease. We found significant association of SNPs 56 and 41 with large artery atherosclerosis, lacunar and cardioembolic stroke. In conclusion PDE4D gene plays a key part in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in the South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. PMID:22771915

Munshi, Anjana; Roy, Sitara; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Kaul, Subash; Babu, M Sai; Jyothy, Akka

2012-09-10

236

Evaluation of approaches for identifying population informative markers from high density SNP Chips  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic markers can be used to identify and verify the origin of individuals. Motivation for the inference of ancestry ranges from conservation genetics to forensic analysis. High density assays featuring Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers can be exploited to create a reduced panel containing the most informative markers for these purposes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate methods of marker selection and determine the minimum number of markers from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip required to verify the origin of individuals in European cattle breeds. Delta, Wright's FST, Weir & Cockerham's FST and PCA methods for population differentiation were compared. The level of informativeness of each SNP was estimated from the breed specific allele frequencies. Individual assignment analysis was performed using the ranked informative markers. Stringency levels were applied by log-likelihood ratio to assess the confidence of the assignment test. Results A 95% assignment success rate for the 384 individually genotyped animals was achieved with < 80, < 100, < 140 and < 200 SNP markers (with increasing stringency threshold levels) across all the examined methods for marker selection. No further gain in power of assignment was achieved by sampling in excess of 200 SNP markers. The marker selection method that required the lowest number of SNP markers to verify the animal's breed origin was Wright's FST (60 to 140 SNPs depending on the chosen degree of confidence). Certain breeds required fewer markers (< 100) to achieve 100% assignment success. In contrast, closely related breeds require more markers (~200) to achieve > 95% assignment success. The power of assignment success, and therefore the number of SNP markers required, is dependent on the levels of genetic heterogeneity and pool of samples considered. Conclusions While all SNP selection methods produced marker panels capable of breed identification, the power of assignment varied markedly among analysis methods. Thus, with effective exploration of available high density genetic markers, a diagnostic panel of highly informative markers can be produced.

2011-01-01

237

Texas population substructure and its impact on estimating the rarity of Y STR haplotypes from DNA evidence*.  

PubMed

Three sampled populations of unrelated males--African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic, all from Texas-were typed for 16 Y short tandem repeat (STR) markers using the AmpFlSTR Yfiler kit. These samples also were typed previously for the 13 core CODIS autosomal STR loci. Most of the 16 marker haplotypes (2478 out of 2551 distinct haplotypes) were observed only once in the data sets. Haplotype diversities were 99.88%, 99.89%, and 99.87% for the African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic sample populations, respectively. F(ST) values were very small when a haplotype comprised 10-16 markers. This suggests that inclusion of substructure correction is not required. However, haplotypes consisting of fewer loci may require the inclusion of F(ST) corrections. The testing of independence of autosomal and Y STRs supports the proposition that the frequencies of autosomal and Y STR profiles can be combined using the product rule. PMID:19627418

Budowle, Bruce; Ge, Jianye; Aranda, Xavier G; Planz, John V; Eisenberg, Arthur J; Chakraborty, Ranajit

2009-09-01

238

Haplotypes and mutations in Wilson disease  

SciTech Connect

Wilson disease is a disorder of copper transport, resulting in neurological and hepatic damage due to copper toxicity. We have recently identified >20 mutations in the copper-transporting ATPase defective in this disease. Given the difficulties of searching for mutations in a gene spanning >80 kb of genomic DNA, haplotype data are important as a guide to mutation detection. Here we examine the haplotypes associated with specific mutations. We have extended previous studies of DNA haplotypes of dinucleotide-repeat polymorphisms (CA repeats) in the Wilson disease region to include an additional marker, in 58 families. These haplotypes, combining three markers (D13S314, D12S316, and D13S301), are usually specific for each different mutation, even though highly polymorphic CA repeat markers have been used. Haplotypes, as well as their accompanying mutations, differ between populations. In the patients whom we have studied, the haplotype data indicate that as many as 20 mutations may still be unidentified. The use of the haplotypes that we have identified provides an important guide for the identification of known mutations and can facilitate future mutation searches. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Thomas, G.R.; Roberts, E.A.; Cox, D.W. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

1995-06-01

239

SNP HiTLink: a high-throughput linkage analysis system employing dense SNP data  

PubMed Central

Background During this recent decade, microarray-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data are becoming more widely used as markers for linkage analysis in the identification of loci for disease-associated genes. Although microarray-based SNP analyses have markedly reduced genotyping time and cost compared with microsatellite-based analyses, applying these enormous data to linkage analysis programs is a time-consuming step, thus, necessitating a high-throughput platform. Results We have developed SNP HiTLink (SNP High Throughput Linkage analysis system). In this system, SNP chip data of the Affymetrix Mapping 100 k/500 k array set and Genome-Wide Human SNP array 5.0/6.0 can be directly imported and passed to parametric or model-free linkage analysis programs; MLINK, Superlink, Merlin and Allegro. Various marker-selecting functions are implemented to avoid the effect of typing-error data, markers in linkage equilibrium or to select informative data. Conclusion The results using the 100 k SNP dataset were comparable or even superior to those obtained from analyses using microsatellite markers in terms of LOD scores obtained. General personal computers are sufficient to execute the process, as runtime for whole-genome analysis was less than a few hours. This system can be widely applied to linkage analysis using microarray-based SNP data and with which one can expect high-throughput and reliable linkage analysis.

Fukuda, Yoko; Nakahara, Yasuo; Date, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Yuji; Goto, Jun; Miyashita, Akinori; Kuwano, Ryozo; Adachi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Eiji; Tsuji, Shoji

2009-01-01

240

Characterization of the Streptomyces sp. Strain C5 snp Locus and Development of snp-Derived Expression Vectors  

PubMed Central

The Streptomyces sp. strain C5 snp locus is comprised of two divergently oriented genes: snpA, a metalloproteinase gene, and snpR, which encodes a LysR-like activator of snpA transcription. The transcriptional start point of snpR is immediately downstream of a strong T-N11-A inverted repeat motif likely to be the SnpR binding site, while the snpA transcriptional start site overlaps the ATG start codon, generating a leaderless snpA transcript. By using the aphII reporter gene of pIJ486 as a reporter, the plasmid-borne snpR-activated snpA promoter was ca. 60-fold more active than either the nonactivated snpA promoter or the melC1 promoter of pIJ702. The snpR-activated snpA promoter produced reporter protein levels comparable to those of the up-mutated ermE? promoter. The SnpR-activated snpA promoter was built into a set of transcriptional and translational fusion expression vectors which have been used for the intracellular expression of numerous daunomycin biosynthesis pathway genes from Streptomyces sp. strain C5 as well as the expression and secretion of soluble recombinant human endostatin.

DeSanti, Charles L.; Strohl, William R.

2003-01-01

241

Benchmarking of viral haplotype reconstruction programmes: an overview of the capacities and limitations of currently available programmes.  

PubMed

Viral haplotype reconstruction from a set of observed reads is one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics today. Next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of haplotypes-even if the haplotypes appear at low frequencies. However, there are two major problems. First, we need to distinguish real SNPs from sequencing errors. Second, we need to determine which SNPs occur on the same haplotype, which cannot be inferred from the reads if the distance between SNPs on a haplotype exceeds the read length. We conducted an independent benchmarking study that directly compares the currently available viral haplotype reconstruction programmes. We also present nine in silico data sets that we generated to reflect biologically plausible populations. For these data sets, we simulated 454 and Illumina reads and applied the programmes to test their capacity to reconstruct whole genomes and individual genes. We developed a novel statistical framework to demonstrate the strengths and limitations of the programmes. Our benchmarking demonstrated that all the programmes we tested performed poorly when sequence divergence was low and failed to recover haplotype populations with rare haplotypes. PMID:23257116

Schirmer, Melanie; Sloan, William T; Quince, Christopher

2014-05-01

242

The Role of Osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) Haplotypes in the Susceptibility to Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Osteopontin represents a multifunctional molecule playing a pivotal role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Its expression is increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to analyze the association of osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) gene variants in a large cohort of IBD patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Genomic DNA from 2819 Caucasian individuals (n?=?841 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), n?=?473 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and n?=?1505 healthy unrelated controls) was analyzed for nine OPN SNPs (rs2728127, rs2853744, rs11730582, rs11739060, rs28357094, rs4754?=?p.Asp80Asp, rs1126616?=?p.Ala236Ala, rs1126772 and rs9138). Considering the important role of osteopontin in Th17-mediated diseases, we performed analysis for epistasis with IBD-associated IL23R variants and analyzed serum levels of the Th17 cytokine IL-22. For four OPN SNPs (rs4754, rs1126616, rs1126772 and rs9138), we observed significantly different distributions between male and female CD patients. rs4754 was protective in male CD patients (p?=?0.0004, OR?=?0.69). None of the other investigated OPN SNPs was associated with CD or UC susceptibility. However, several OPN haplotypes showed significant associations with CD susceptibility. The strongest association was found for a haplotype consisting of the 8 OPN SNPs rs2728127-rs2853744-rs11730582-rs11439060-rs28357094-rs112661-rs1126772-rs9138 (omnibus p-value?=?2.07×10?8). Overall, the mean IL-22 secretion in the combined group of OPN minor allele carriers with CD was significantly lower than that of CD patients with OPN wildtype alleles (p?=?3.66×10?5). There was evidence for weak epistasis between the OPN SNP rs28357094 with the IL23R SNP rs10489629 (p?=?4.18×10?2) and between OPN SNP rs1126616 and IL23R SNP rs2201841 (p?=?4.18×10?2) but none of these associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions/Significance Our study identified OPN haplotypes as modifiers of CD susceptibility, while the combined effects of certain OPN variants may modulate IL-22 secretion.

Bayrle, Corinna; Wetzke, Martin; Fries, Christoph; Tillack, Cornelia; Olszak, Torsten; Beigel, Florian; Steib, Christian; Friedrich, Matthias; Diegelmann, Julia; Czamara, Darina; Brand, Stephan

2011-01-01

243

A SNP discovery method to assess variant allele probability from next-generation resequencing data.  

PubMed

Accurate identification of genetic variants from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data is essential for immediate large-scale genomic endeavors such as the 1000 Genomes Project, and is crucial for further genetic analysis based on the discoveries. The key challenge in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery is to distinguish true individual variants (occurring at a low frequency) from sequencing errors (often occurring at frequencies orders of magnitude higher). Therefore, knowledge of the error probabilities of base calls is essential. We have developed Atlas-SNP2, a computational tool that detects and accounts for systematic sequencing errors caused by context-related variables in a logistic regression model learned from training data sets. Subsequently, it estimates the posterior error probability for each substitution through a Bayesian formula that integrates prior knowledge of the overall sequencing error probability and the estimated SNP rate with the results from the logistic regression model for the given substitutions. The estimated posterior SNP probability can be used to distinguish true SNPs from sequencing errors. Validation results show that Atlas-SNP2 achieves a false-positive rate of lower than 10%, with an approximately 5% or lower false-negative rate. PMID:20019143

Shen, Yufeng; Wan, Zhengzheng; Coarfa, Cristian; Drabek, Rafal; Chen, Lei; Ostrowski, Elizabeth A; Liu, Yue; Weinstock, George M; Wheeler, David A; Gibbs, Richard A; Yu, Fuli

2010-02-01

244

A SNP discovery method to assess variant allele probability from next-generation resequencing data  

PubMed Central

Accurate identification of genetic variants from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data is essential for immediate large-scale genomic endeavors such as the 1000 Genomes Project, and is crucial for further genetic analysis based on the discoveries. The key challenge in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery is to distinguish true individual variants (occurring at a low frequency) from sequencing errors (often occurring at frequencies orders of magnitude higher). Therefore, knowledge of the error probabilities of base calls is essential. We have developed Atlas-SNP2, a computational tool that detects and accounts for systematic sequencing errors caused by context-related variables in a logistic regression model learned from training data sets. Subsequently, it estimates the posterior error probability for each substitution through a Bayesian formula that integrates prior knowledge of the overall sequencing error probability and the estimated SNP rate with the results from the logistic regression model for the given substitutions. The estimated posterior SNP probability can be used to distinguish true SNPs from sequencing errors. Validation results show that Atlas-SNP2 achieves a false-positive rate of lower than 10%, with an ?5% or lower false-negative rate.

Shen, Yufeng; Wan, Zhengzheng; Coarfa, Cristian; Drabek, Rafal; Chen, Lei; Ostrowski, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Yue; Weinstock, George M.; Wheeler, David A.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Yu, Fuli

2010-01-01

245

[Comparative analysis of STR and SNP polymorphism in the populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Eastern and Western Kamchatka].  

PubMed

Sockeye salmon samples from five largest lacustrine-riverine systems of Kamchatka Peninsula were tested for polymorphism at six microsatellite (STR) and five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. Statistically significant genetic differentiation among local populations from this part of the species range examined was demonstrated. The data presented point to pronounced genetic divergence of the populations from two geographical regions, Eastern and Western Kamchatka. For sockeye salmon, the individual identification test accuracy was higher for microsatellites compared to similar number of SNP markers. Pooling of the STR and SNP allele frequency data sets provided the highest accuracy of the individual fish population assignment. PMID:21261065

Khrustaleva, A M; Volkov, A A; Stoklitskaia, D S; Miuge, N S; Zelenina, D A

2010-11-01

246

Haplotype combination of SREBP-1c gene sequence variants is associated with growth traits in cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the association of the SREBP-1c polymorphism with growth traits in cattle breeds. Five sequence variants (SVs) were identified within the bovine sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c gene (SREBP-1c), using DNA sequencing, PCR, PCR–RFLP, and forced PCR–RFLP methods. These polymorphisms include three missense mutations (SV1, SV4, and SV5) in exons 7, 9, and 12, a silent mutation (SV3) in exon 9, and a large deletion (SV2) in intron 7. Overall, we report the validation of polymorphisms within the bovine SREBP-1c gene, and the haplotype variability and extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 1061 individuals representing the five main cattle breeds from China. We also investigated haplotype frequencies and LD coefficients for five SVs in all study populations. LD and haplotype structure of SREBP-1c were different between breeds. The result of haplotype analysis of five SVs showed that 27 different haplotypes were identified by all breeds. Two haplotypes (Hap1 and Hap2) shared by all five populations accounted for 42.75%, 35.68%, 36.44%, 25.43%, and 96.26% of all haplotypes observed in the cattle breeds Nanyang, Qinchuan, Jiaxian, Jinnan, and Chinese Holstein, respectively. The statistical analyses indicated that one single SV and 38 combined haplotypes were significantly associated with growth traits in the Nanyang cattle population (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The results of this study suggest that the SREBP-1c gene possibly is a strong candidate gene that affects growth traits in the Chinese beef cattle breeding program. PMID:21639705

Huang, Yong-Zhen; He, Hua; Sun, Jia-Jie; Wang, Jing; Li, Zhuan-Jian; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, En-Ping; Wang, Ju-Qiang; Chen, Hong

2011-06-01

247

Low Diversity of T Haplotypes in the Eastern Form of the House Mouse, Mus Musculus L  

PubMed Central

In previous studies, 13 different recessive embryonic lethal genes have been associated with t haplotypes in the wild mice of the species Mus domesticus. In this communication we have analyzed five populations of Mus musculus for the presence and identity of t haplotypes. The populations occupy geographically distant regions in the Soviet Union: Altai Mountains, western and eastern Siberia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. No t haplotypes were found in mice from eastern Siberia. In the remaining four populations, t haplotypes occurred with frequencies ranging from 0.07 to 0.21. All the t haplotypes extracted from these populations and analyzed by the genetic complementation test were shown to carry the same lethal gene tcl-w73. In one population (that of western Siberia), another lethal gene (tcl-w5) was found to be present on the same chromosome as tcl-w73. This situation is in striking contrast to that found in the populations of the western form of the house mouse, M. domesticus. In the latter species, tcl-w73 has not been found at all and the different populations are characterized by the presence of several different lethal genes. The low diversity of t haplotypes in M. musculus is consistent with lower genetic variability of other traits and indicates a different origin and speciation mode compared to M. domesticus. Serological typing for H-2 antigenic determinants suggests that most, if not all, of the newly described t haplotypes might have arisen by recombination of t(w73) from M. musculus with t haplotypes from M. domesticus either in the hybrid zone between the two species or in regions where the two species mixed accidentally.

Ruvinsky, A.; Polyakov, A.; Agulnik, A.; Tichy, H.; Figueroa, F.; Klein, J.

1991-01-01

248

DASH: A Method for Identical-by-Descent Haplotype Mapping Uncovers Association with Recent Variation  

PubMed Central

Rare variants affecting phenotype pose a unique challenge for human genetics. Although genome-wide association studies have successfully detected many common causal variants, they are underpowered in identifying disease variants that are too rare or population-specific to be imputed from a general reference panel and thus are poorly represented on commercial SNP arrays. We set out to overcome these challenges and detect association between disease and rare alleles using SNP arrays by relying on long stretches of genomic sharing that are identical by descent. We have developed an algorithm, DASH, which builds upon pairwise identical-by-descent shared segments to infer clusters of individuals likely to be sharing a single haplotype. DASH constructs a graph with nodes representing individuals and links on the basis of such segments spanning a locus and uses an iterative minimum cut algorithm to identify densely connected components. We have applied DASH to simulated data and diverse GWAS data sets by constructing haplotype clusters and testing them for association. In simulations we show this approach to be significantly more powerful than single-marker testing in an isolated population that is from Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia and has abundant IBD, and we provide orthogonal information for rare, recent variants in the outbred Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (WTCCC) data. In both cohorts, we identified a number of haplotype associations, five such loci in the WTCCC data and ten in the isolated, that were conditionally significant beyond any individual nearby markers. We have replicated one of these loci in an independent European cohort and identified putative structural changes in low-pass whole-genome sequence of the cluster carriers.

Gusev, Alexander; Kenny, Eimear E.; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Salit, Jaqueline; Saxena, Richa; Kathiresan, Sekar; Altshuler, David M.; Friedman, Jeffrey M.; Breslow, Jan L.; Pe'er, Itsik

2011-01-01

249

Determining the effectiveness of High Resolution Melting analysis for SNP genotyping and mutation scanning at the TP53 locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Together single nucleotide substitutions and small insertion\\/deletion variants are the most common form of sequence variation\\u000a in the human gene pool.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a High-resolution SNP profile and\\/or haplotype analyses enable the identification of modest-risk susceptibility genes to common\\u000a diseases, genes that may modulate responses to pharmaceutical agents, and SNPs that can affect either their expression or\\u000a function. In addition, sensitive techniques for

Sonia Garritano; Federica Gemignani; Catherine Voegele; Tú Nguyen-Dumont; Florence Le Calvez-Kelm; Deepika De Silva; Fabienne Lesueur; Stefano Landi; Sean V Tavtigian

2009-01-01

250

2?-5?-Oligoadenylate synthetase single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with variations in immune responses to rubella vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon-induced antiviral genes are crucial players in innate antiviral defense and potential determinants of immune response heterogeneity. We selected 114 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 12 antiviral genes using an LD tagSNP selection approach and genotyped them in a cohort of 738 school children immunized with two doses of rubella vaccine. Associations between SNPs\\/haplotypes and rubella virus-specific immune measures were

Iana H. Haralambieva; Neelam Dhiman; Inna G. Ovsyannikova; Robert A. Vierkant; V. Shane Pankratz; Robert M. Jacobson; Gregory A. Poland

2010-01-01

251

Mapping genes for resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum in tetraploid and diploid potato populations using haplotype association tests and genetic linkage analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verticillium wilt disease of potato is caused predominantly by Verticillium albo-atrum and V. dahliae. StVe1 —a putative QTL for resistance against V. dahliae —was previously mapped to potato chromosome 9. To develop allele-specific, SNP-based markers within the locus, the StVe1 fragment from a set of 30 North American potato cultivars was analyzed. Three distinct and highly diverse haplotypes can be

I. Simko; K. G. Haynes; E. E. Ewing; S. Costanzo; B. J. Christ; R. W. Jones

2004-01-01

252

Survey of the Fragile X Syndrome CGG Repeat and the Short-Tandem-Repeat and Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism Haplotypes in an African American Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Previous studies have shown that specific short-tan- dem-repeat (STR) and single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP)-based haplotypes within and among unaffected and fragile X white populations are found to be asso- ciated with specific CGG-repeat patterns. It has been hypothesized that these associations result from different mutational mechanisms, possibly influenced by the CGG structure and\\/or cis-acting factors. Alternatively, hap- lotype associations may result

Dana C. Crawford; Charles E. Schwartz; Kellen L. Meadows; James L. Newman; Lisa F. Taft; Chris Gunter; W. Ted Brown; Nancy J. Carpenter; Patricia N. Howard-Peebles; Kristin G. Monaghan; Sarah L. Nolin; Allan L. Reiss; Gerald L. Feldman; Elizabeth M. Rohlfs; Stephen T. Warren; Stephanie L. Sherman

2000-01-01

253

Conditional probability methods for haplotyping in pedigrees.  

PubMed Central

Efficient haplotyping in pedigrees is important for the fine mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTL) or complex disease genes. To reconstruct haplotypes efficiently for a large pedigree with a large number of linked loci, two algorithms based on conditional probabilities and likelihood computations are presented. The first algorithm (the conditional probability method) produces a single, approximately optimal haplotype configuration, with computing time increasing linearly in the number of linked loci and the pedigree size. The other algorithm (the conditional enumeration method) identifies a set of haplotype configurations with high probabilities conditional on the observed genotype data for a pedigree. Its computing time increases less than exponentially with the size of a subset of the set of person-loci with unordered genotypes and linearly with its complement. The size of the subset is controlled by a threshold parameter. The set of identified haplotype configurations can be used to estimate the identity-by-descent (IBD) matrix at a map position for a pedigree. The algorithms have been tested on published and simulated data sets. The new haplotyping methods are much faster and provide more information than several existing stochastic and rule-based methods. The accuracies of the new methods are equivalent to or better than those of these existing methods.

Gao, Guimin; Hoeschele, Ina; Sorensen, Peter; Du, Fengxing

2004-01-01

254

MixSIH: a mixture model for single individual haplotyping  

PubMed Central

Background Haplotype information is useful for various genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies. Determining haplotypes experimentally is difficult and there are several computational approaches that infer haplotypes from genomic data. Among such approaches, single individual haplotyping or haplotype assembly, which infers two haplotypes of an individual from aligned sequence fragments, has been attracting considerable attention. To avoid incorrect results in downstream analyses, it is important not only to assemble haplotypes as long as possible but also to provide means to extract highly reliable haplotype regions. Although there are several efficient algorithms for solving haplotype assembly, there are no efficient method that allow for extracting the regions assembled with high confidence. Results We develop a probabilistic model, called MixSIH, for solving the haplotype assembly problem. The model has two mixture components representing two haplotypes. Based on the optimized model, a quality score is defined, which we call the 'minimum connectivity' (MC) score, for each segment in the haplotype assembly. Because existing accuracy measures for haplotype assembly are designed to compare the efficiency between the algorithms and are not suitable for evaluating the quality of the set of partially assembled haplotype segments, we develop an accuracy measure based on the pairwise consistency and evaluate the accuracy on the simulation and real data. By using the MC scores, our algorithm can extract highly accurate haplotype segments. We also show evidence that an existing experimental dataset contains chimeric read fragments derived from different haplotypes, which significantly degrade the quality of assembled haplotypes. Conclusions We develop a novel method for solving the haplotype assembly problem. We also define the quality score which is based on our model and indicates the accuracy of the haplotypes segments. In our evaluation, MixSIH has successfully extracted reliable haplotype segments. The C++ source code of MixSIH is available at https://sites.google.com/site/hmatsu1226/software/mixsih.

2013-01-01

255

Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with imbalance in interleukin 10 promoter haplotypes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association of interleukin 10 (IL10) promoter polymorphisms and neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).?METHODS—IL10 haplotypes of 11 healthy volunteers were cloned to confirm that in the Dutch population, only the three common haplotypes (-1082/-819/-592) GCC, ACC and ATA exist. The IL10 promoter polymorphisms of 92 SLE patients and 162 healthy controls were determined. The medical records of the SLE patients were screened for the presence of neuropsychiatric involvement.?RESULTS—All cloned haplotypes were either GCC, ACC or ATA. Forty two SLE patients had suffered from neuropsychiatric manifestations (NP-SLE). In NP-SLE patients, the frequency of the ATA haplotype is 30% versus 18% in the controls and 17% in the non-NP-SLE group (odds ratios 1.9, p=0.02, and 2.1, p=0.04, respectively), whereas the GCC haplotype frequency is lower in the NP-SLE group compared with controls and non-NP-SLE patients (40% versus 55% and 61%, odds ratios 0.6, p=0.02 and 0.4 p=0.006). The odds ratio for the presence of NP-SLE is inversely proportional to the number of GCC haplotypes per genotype when the NP-SLE group is compared with non-NP-SLE patients.?CONCLUSIONS—The IL10 locus is associated with neuropsychiatric manifestations in SLE. This suggests that IL10 is implicated in the immunopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric manifestations in SLE.?? Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; neuropsychiatric manifestations; genetics; interleukin 10 promoter haplotypes

Rood, M; Keijsers, V; van der Linden, M W; Tong, T; Borggreve, S; Verweij, C; Breedveld, F; Huizinga, T

1999-01-01

256

Identification of multiple diagnostic SNP loci for differentiation of three salmonid species using SNP-arrays.  

PubMed

This paper reports the use of SNP-array technology in a cross-species study for non-ambiguous species identifications. Based on an existing SNP-array for Atlantic salmon (cross)hybridisations with samples of salmon, brown trout and rainbow trout were analyzed to identify species-specific diagnostic markers. In total 566 SNP loci were identified to be highly polymorphic across the three salmonid species providing the molecular basement for various monitoring applications in aquaculture and food industries. PMID:24703883

Drywa, Agata; Po?wierz-Kotus, Anita; Dobosz, Stefan; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; Wenne, Roman

2014-06-01

257

A Haplotype Framework for Cystic Fibrosis Mutations in Iran  

PubMed Central

This is the first comprehensive profile of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations and their corresponding haplotypes in the Iranian population. All of the 27 CFTR exons of 60 unrelated Iranian CF patients were sequenced to identify disease-causing mutations. Eleven core haplotypes of CFTR were identified by genotyping six high-frequency simple nucleotide polymorphisms. The carrier frequency of 2.5 in 100 (1 in 40) was estimated from the frequency of heterozygous patients and suggests that contrary to popular belief, cystic fibrosis may be a common, under-diagnosed disease in Iran. A heterogeneous mutation spectrum was observed at the CFTR locus in 60 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from Iran. Twenty putative disease-causing mutations were identified on 64 (53%) of the 120 chromosomes. The five most common Iranian mutations together represented 37% of the expected mutated alleles. The most frequent mutation, ?F508 (p.F508del), represented only 16% of the expected mutated alleles. The next most frequent mutations were c.1677del2 (p.515fs) at 7.5%, c.4041C>G (p.N1303K) at 5.6%, c.2183AA>G (p.684fs) at 5%, and c.3661A>T (p.K1177X) at 2.5%. Three of the five most frequent Iranian mutations are not included in a commonly used panel of CF mutations, underscoring the importance of identifying geographic-specific mutations in this population.

Elahi, Elahe; Khodadad, Ahmad; Kupershmidt, Ilya; Ghasemi, Fereshteh; Alinasab, Babak; Naghizadeh, Ramin; Eason, Robert G.; Amini, Mahshid; Esmaili, Mehran; Esmaeili Dooki, Mohammad R.; Sanati, Mohammad H.; Davis, Ronald W.; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

2006-01-01

258

variantGPS: SNP500Cancer Project  

Cancer.gov

The SNP500Cancer is part of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project and is specifically designed to generate resources for the identification and characterization of genetic variation in genes important in cancer. CGAP is dedicated to the development of technology, including both assays and utilization of technical platforms.

259

HLA class I alleles tag HLA-DRB1*1501 haplotypes for differential risk in multiple sclerosis susceptibility.  

PubMed

The major locus for multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility is located within the class II region of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). HLA-DRB1 alleles, constituting the strongest MS susceptibility factors, have been widely exploited in research including construction of transgenic animal models of MS. Many studies have concluded that HLA-DRB1*15 allele itself determines MS-associated susceptibility. If this were true, haplotypes bearing this allele would confer equal risk. If HLA-DRB1*15 bearing haplotypes differed for risk, roles for other loci in this region would be implied and further study of the fine structure of this locus would be compelling. We have tested the hypothesis comparing haplotypes stratified by HLA class I tagging. We show here that HLA-DRB1*15-bearing-haplotypes in 1970 individuals from 494 MS families are indeed heterogeneous. Some HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes determine susceptibility while others do not. Three groups of class I tagged HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes were not over-transmitted: (i) HLA-DRB1*15-HLA-B*08 (TR = 25, NT = 23, Odds Ratio = 1.09), (ii) -HLA-B*27 (TR = 18, NT = 17, Odds Ratio = 1.06), and (iii) rare HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes (frequency <0.02). Rare haplotypes were significantly different from common haplotypes, and transmissions were remarkably similar to those for class-I-matched non-HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes. These results unambiguously indicate that HLA-DRB1*15 is part of a susceptibility haplotype but cannot be the susceptibility allele itself, requiring either epistatic interactions, epigenetic modifications on some haplotypes, or nearby structural variation. These findings strongly imply that differences among HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes will furnish the basis for MHC-associated susceptibility in MS and raise the possibility that the MHC haplotype is the fundamental unit of genetic control of immune response. PMID:18765817

Chao, Michael J; Barnardo, Martin C N M; Lincoln, Matthew R; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Herrera, Blanca M; Dyment, David A; Montpetit, Alexandre; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Knight, Julian C; Ebers, George C

2008-09-01

260

Comparing genotyping algorithms for Illumina's Infinium whole-genome SNP BeadChips  

PubMed Central

Background Illumina's Infinium SNP BeadChips are extensively used in both small and large-scale genetic studies. A fundamental step in any analysis is the processing of raw allele A and allele B intensities from each SNP into genotype calls (AA, AB, BB). Various algorithms which make use of different statistical models are available for this task. We compare four methods (GenCall, Illuminus, GenoSNP and CRLMM) on data where the true genotypes are known in advance and data from a recently published genome-wide association study. Results In general, differences in accuracy are relatively small between the methods evaluated, although CRLMM and GenoSNP were found to consistently outperform GenCall. The performance of Illuminus is heavily dependent on sample size, with lower no call rates and improved accuracy as the number of samples available increases. For X chromosome SNPs, methods with sex-dependent models (Illuminus, CRLMM) perform better than methods which ignore gender information (GenCall, GenoSNP). We observe that CRLMM and GenoSNP are more accurate at calling SNPs with low minor allele frequency than GenCall or Illuminus. The sample quality metrics from each of the four methods were found to have a high level of agreement at flagging samples with unusual signal characteristics. Conclusions CRLMM, GenoSNP and GenCall can be applied with confidence in studies of any size, as their performance was shown to be invariant to the number of samples available. Illuminus on the other hand requires a larger number of samples to achieve comparable levels of accuracy and its use in smaller studies (50 or fewer individuals) is not recommended.

2011-01-01

261

Genome-wide association studies using haplotype clustering with a new haplotype similarity.  

PubMed

Association analysis, with the aim of investigating genetic variations, is designed to detect genetic associations with observable traits, which has played an increasing part in understanding the genetic basis of diseases. Among these methods, haplotype-based association studies are believed to possess prominent advantages, especially for the rare diseases in case-control studies. However, when modeling these haplotypes, they are subjected to statistical problems caused by rare haplotypes. Fortunately, haplotype clustering offers an appealing solution. In this research, we have developed a new befitting haplotype similarity for "affinity propagation" clustering algorithm, which can account for the rare haplotypes primely, so as to control for the issue on degrees of freedom. The new similarity can incorporate haplotype structure information, which is believed to enhance the power and provide high resolution for identifying associations between genetic variants and disease. Our simulation studies show that the proposed approach offers merits in detecting disease-marker associations in comparison with the cladistic haplotype clustering method CLADHC. We also illustrate an application of our method to cystic fibrosis, which shows quite accurate estimates during fine mapping. PMID:20718046

Jin, Lina; Zhu, Wensheng; Guo, Jianhua

2010-09-01

262

Haplotypes in the CRP Gene Associated with Increased BMI and Levels of CRP in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Obesity from Southwestern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Objective. We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. Methods. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. Results. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG) was associated with increased levels of CRP (? = 0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P = 0.005) and haplotype 7 (TGGG) with higher body mass index (BMI) (? = 0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P < 0.001). The risk score for coronary heart disease was associated with increased levels of CRP, but not with any polymorphism or haplotype. Conclusions. The association between the TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 with obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

Martinez-Calleja, America; Quiroz-Vargas, Irma; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Munoz-Valle, Jose Francisco; Leyva-Vazquez, Marco A.; Fernandez-Tilapa, Gloria; Vences-Velazquez, Amalia; Cruz, Miguel; Salazar-Martinez, Eduardo; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia

2012-01-01

263

SNP-SNP Interactions Discovered by Logic Regression Explain Crohn's Disease Genetics  

PubMed Central

In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the association between each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and a phenotype is assessed statistically. To further explore genetic associations in GWAS, we considered two specific forms of biologically plausible SNP-SNP interactions, ‘SNP intersection’ and ‘SNP union,’ and analyzed the Crohn's Disease (CD) GWAS data of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium for these interactions using a limited form of logic regression. We found strong evidence of CD-association for 195 genes, identifying novel susceptibility genes (e.g., ISX, SLCO6A1, TMEM183A) as well as confirming many previously identified susceptibility genes in CD GWAS (e.g., IL23R, NOD2, CYLD, NKX2-3, IL12RB2, ATG16L1). Notably, 37 of the 59 chromosomal locations indicated for CD-association by a meta-analysis of CD GWAS, involving over 22,000 cases and 29,000 controls, were represented in the 195 genes, as well as some chromosomal locations previously indicated only in linkage studies, but not in GWAS. We repeated the analysis with two smaller GWASs from the Database of Genotype and Phenotype (dbGaP): in spite of differences of populations and study power across the three datasets, we observed some consistencies across the three datasets. Notable examples included TMEM183A and SLCO6A1 which exhibited strong evidence consistently in our WTCCC and both of the dbGaP SNP-SNP interaction analyses. Examining these specific forms of SNP interactions could identify additional genetic associations from GWAS. R codes, data examples, and a ReadMe file are available for download from our website: http://www.ualberta.ca/~yyasui/homepage.html.

Liu, Qi; Yanai, Hideki; Sharaf Eldin, Noha; Kreiter, Erin; Wu, Xuan; Jabbari, Shahab; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Yasui, Yutaka

2012-01-01

264

Haplotypes and Linkage Disequilibrium at the Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Locus, PAH, in a Global Representation of Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because defects in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) cause phenylketonuria (PKU), PAH was studied for normal polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium soon after the gene was cloned. Studies in the 1980s concentrated on European populations in which PKU was common and showed that haplotype-frequency variation exists between some regions of the world. In European populations, linkage disequilibrium generally was found not

Judith R. Kidd; Andrew J. Pakstis; Hongyu Zhao; Ru-Band Lu; Friday E. Okonofua; Adekunle Odunsi; Elena Grigorenko; Batsheva Bonne-Tamir; Jonathan Friedlaender; Leslie O. Schulz; Josef Parnas; Kenneth K. Kidd

2000-01-01

265

RAD tag sequencing as a source of SNP markers in Cynara cardunculus L  

PubMed Central

Background The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) genome is relatively poorly explored, especially compared to those of the other major Asteraceae crops sunflower and lettuce. No SNP markers are in the public domain. We have combined the recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) approach with the Illumina DNA sequencing platform to effect the rapid and mass discovery of SNP markers for C. cardunculus. Results RAD tags were sequenced from the genomic DNA of three C. cardunculus mapping population parents, generating 9.7 million reads, corresponding to ~1 Gbp of sequence. An assembly based on paired ends produced ~6.0 Mbp of genomic sequence, separated into ~19,000 contigs (mean length 312 bp), of which ~21% were fragments of putative coding sequence. The shared sequences allowed for the discovery of ~34,000 SNPs and nearly 800 indels, equivalent to a SNP frequency of 5.6 per 1,000 nt, and an indel frequency of 0.2 per 1,000 nt. A sample of heterozygous SNP loci was mapped by CAPS assays and this exercise provided validation of our mining criteria. The repetitive fraction of the genome had a high representation of retrotransposon sequence, followed by simple repeats, AT-low complexity regions and mobile DNA elements. The genomic k-mers distribution and CpG rate of C. cardunculus, compared with data derived from three whole genome-sequenced dicots species, provided a further evidence of the random representation of the C. cardunculus genome generated by RAD sampling. Conclusion The RAD tag sequencing approach is a cost-effective and rapid method to develop SNP markers in a highly heterozygous species. Our approach permitted to generate a large and robust SNP datasets by the adoption of optimized filtering criteria.

2012-01-01

266

Differences in Meiotic Recombination Rates in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia at an MHC Class II Hotspot Close to Disease Associated Haplotypes  

PubMed Central

Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is a malignant lymphoid disease of which B-cell precursor- (BCP) and T-cell- (T) ALL are subtypes. The role of alleles encoded by major histocompatibility loci (MHC) have been examined in a number of previous studies and results indicating weak, multi-allele associations between the HLA-DPB1 locus and BCP-ALL suggested a role for immunosusceptibility and possibly infection. Two independent SNP association studies of ALL identified loci approximately 37 kb from one another and flanking a strong meiotic recombination hotspot (DNA3), adjacent to HLA-DOA and centromeric of HLA-DPB1. To determine the relationship between this observation and HLA-DPB1 associations, we constructed high density SNP haplotypes of the 316 kb region from HLA-DMB to COL11A2 in childhood ALL and controls using a UK GWAS data subset and the software PHASE. Of four haplotype blocks identified, predicted haplotypes in Block 1 (centromeric of DNA3) differed significantly between BCP-ALL and controls (P?=?0.002) and in Block 4 (including HLA-DPB1) between T-ALL and controls (P?=?0.049). Of specific common (>5%) haplotypes in Block 1, two were less frequent in BCP-ALL, and in Block 4 a single haplotype was more frequent in T-ALL, compared to controls. Unexpectedly, we also observed apparent differences in ancestral meiotic recombination rates at DNA3, with BCP-ALL showing increased and T-ALL decreased levels compared to controls. In silico analysis using LDsplit sotware indicated that recombination rates at DNA3 are influenced by flanking loci, including SNPs identified in childhood ALL association studies. The observed differences in rates of meiotic recombination at this hotspot, and potentially others, may be a characteristic of childhood leukemia and contribute to disease susceptibility, alternatively they may reflect interactions between ALL-associated haplotypes in this region.

Thompson, Pamela; Urayama, Kevin; Zheng, Jie; Yang, Peng; Ford, Matt; Buffler, Patricia; Chokkalingam, Anand; Lightfoot, Tracy; Taylor, Malcolm

2014-01-01

267

A CRHR1 Haplotype Moderates the Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Lifetime Risk of Major Depressive Episode in African-American Women  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk for adult depression and substance dependence, possibly mediated by the corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CRHR1). In some studies, a three-SNP “T-A-T” haplotype in CRHR1, which encodes CRHR1, exerted a protective moderating effect on risk of depression in adults with ACEs. Other studies have shown a main or moderating effect of SNPs in CRHR1 on alcohol consumption. Methods We tested the moderating effects of the three-SNP haplotype on lifetime risk of a major depressive episode (MDE) and alcohol dependence (AD) in 1,211 European Americans (EAs) and 1,869 African Americans (AAs), most of whom had a lifetime substance use disorder. Results There were no significant main or interaction effects of the TAT haplotype on AD. There was a significant interaction of ACE by TAT on risk of depression only in AA women (p=0.005); each copy of the TAT haplotype reduced the odds of MDE by almost 40% (OR = 0.63). In AA women without an ACE and two TAT haplotypes, the risk of MDE was increased (OR=1.51). Conclusion Our findings in relation to the TAT haplotype of CRHR1 extend those obtained in other populations to a largely substance-dependent one. The complex structure of CRHR1 may help to explain why some variants in the gene moderate the effects of an ACE only on depression risk while others moderate the effect of an ACE only on AD risk.

Kranzler, Henry R.; Feinn, Richard; Nelson, Elliot C.; Covault, Jonathan; Anton, Raymond F.; Farrer, Lindsay; Gelernter, Joel

2011-01-01

268

Association of SNPs and Haplotypes in APOL1, 2 and 4 with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Prior work found the APOL1, 2 and 4 genes, located on chromosome 22q12.3-q13.1, to be upregulated in brains of schizophrenic patients. We performed a family-based association study using 130 SNPs tagging the APOL gene family (APOL1-6). The subjects were 112 African-American (AA), 114 European-American (EA), 109 Chinese (Ch) and 42 Japanese (Jp) families with schizophrenia (377 families, 1171 genotyped members and 647 genotyped affecteds in total). Seven SNPs had p-values < 0.05 in the APOL1, 2 and 4 regions for the AA, EA and combined (AA and EA) samples. In the AA sample, two SNPs, rs9610449 and rs6000200 showed low p-values; and a haplotype which comprised these two SNPs yielded a p-value of 0.00029 using the global test (GT) and the allele specific test (AST). The two SNPs and the haplotype were associated with risk for schizophrenia in African-Americans. In the combined (AA and EA) sample, two SNPs, rs2003813 and rs2157249 showed low p-values; and a three SNP haplotype including these two SNPs ¥was significant using the GT (p = 0.0013) and the AST (p = 0.000090). The association of this haplotype with schizophrenia was significant for the entire (AA, EA, Ch and Jp) sample using the GT (p = 0.00054) and the AST (p = 0.00011). Although our study is not definitive, it suggests that the APOL genes should be more extensively studied in schizophrenia.

Takahashi, Sakae; Cui, Yu-hu; Han, Yong-hua; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Galloway, Brian; Shen, Yu-cun; Kojima, Takuya; Uchiyama, Makoto; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T.

2013-01-01

269

Founder mitochondrial haplotypes in Amerindian populations.  

PubMed Central

It had been proposed that the colonization of the New World took place by three successive migrations from northeastern Asia. The first one gave rise to Amerindians (Paleo-Indians), the second and third ones to Nadene and Aleut-Eskimo, respectively. Variation in mtDNA has been used to infer the demographic structure of the Amerindian ancestors. The study of RFLP all along the mtDNA and the analysis of nucleotide substitutions in the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome apparently indicate that most or all full-blooded Amerindians cluster in one of four different mitochondrial haplotypes that are considered to represent the founder maternal lineages of Paleo-Indians. We have studied the mtDNA diversity in 109 Amerindians belonging to 3 different tribes, and we have reanalyzed the published data on 482 individuals from 18 other tribes. Our study confirms the existence of four major Amerindian haplotypes. However, we also found evidence supporting the existence of several other potential founder haplotypes or haplotype subsets in addition to the four ancestral lineages reported. Confirmation of a relatively high number of founder haplotypes would indicate that early migration into America was not accompanied by a severe genetic bottleneck.

Bailliet, G.; Rothhammer, F.; Carnese, F. R.; Bravi, C. M.; Bianchi, N. O.

1994-01-01

270

Powerful Haplotype-Based Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Tests for Tightly Linked Loci  

PubMed Central

Recently, there have been many case-control studies proposed to test for association between haplotypes and disease, which require the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) assumption of haplotype frequencies. As such, haplotype inference of unphased genotypes and development of haplotype-based HWE tests are crucial prior to fine mapping. The goodness-of-fit test is a frequently-used method to test for HWE for multiple tightly-linked loci. However, its degrees of freedom dramatically increase with the increase of the number of loci, which may lack the test power. Therefore, in this paper, to improve the test power for haplotype-based HWE, we first write out two likelihood functions of the observed data based on the Niu's model (NM) and inbreeding model (IM), respectively, which can cause the departure from HWE. Then, we use two expectation-maximization algorithms and one expectation-conditional-maximization algorithm to estimate the model parameters under the HWE, IM and NM models, respectively. Finally, we propose the likelihood ratio tests LRT and LRT for haplotype-based HWE under the NM and IM models, respectively. We simulate the HWE, Niu's, inbreeding and population stratification models to assess the validity and compare the performance of these two LRT tests. The simulation results show that both of the tests control the type I error rates well in testing for haplotype-based HWE. If the NM model is true, then LRT is more powerful. While, if the true model is the IM model, then LRT has better performance in power. Under the population stratification model, LRT is still more powerful. To this end, LRT is generally recommended. Application of the proposed methods to a rheumatoid arthritis data set further illustrates their utility for real data analysis.

Mao, Wei-Gao; He, Hai-Qiang; Xu, Yan; Chen, Ping-Yan; Zhou, Ji-Yuan

2013-01-01

271

Cluster analysis of European Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes using the discrete Laplace method.  

PubMed

The European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype distribution has previously been analysed in various ways. Here, we introduce a new way of analysing population substructure using a new method based on clustering within the discrete Laplace exponential family that models the probability distribution of the Y-STR haplotypes. Creating a consistent statistical model of the haplotypes enables us to perform a wide range of analyses. Previously, haplotype frequency estimation using the discrete Laplace method has been validated. In this paper we investigate how the discrete Laplace method can be used for cluster analysis to further validate the discrete Laplace method. A very important practical fact is that the calculations can be performed on a normal computer. We identified two sub-clusters of the Eastern and Western European Y-STR haplotypes similar to results of previous studies. We also compared pairwise distances (between geographically separated samples) with those obtained using the AMOVA method and found good agreement. Further analyses that are impossible with AMOVA were made using the discrete Laplace method: analysis of the homogeneity in two different ways and calculating marginal STR distributions. We found that the Y-STR haplotypes from e.g. Finland were relatively homogeneous as opposed to the relatively heterogeneous Y-STR haplotypes from e.g. Lublin, Eastern Poland and Berlin, Germany. We demonstrated that the observed distributions of alleles at each locus were similar to the expected ones. We also compared pairwise distances between geographically separated samples from Africa with those obtained using the AMOVA method and found good agreement. PMID:24793845

Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

2014-07-01

272

Spatial and temporal distribution of the neutral polymorphisms in the last ZFX intron: analysis of the haplotype structure and genealogy.  

PubMed Central

With 10 segregating sites (simple nucleotide polymorphisms) in the last intron (1089 bp) of the ZFX gene we have observed 11 haplotypes in 336 chromosomes representing a worldwide array of 15 human populations. Two haplotypes representing 77% of all chromosomes were distributed almost evenly among four continents. Five of the remaining haplotypes were detected in Africa and 4 others were restricted to Eurasia and the Americas. Using the information about the ancestral state of the segregating positions (inferred from human-great ape comparisons), we applied coalescent analysis to estimate the age of the polymorphisms and the resulting haplotypes. The oldest haplotype, with the ancestral alleles at all the sites, was observed at low frequency only in two groups of African origin. Its estimated age of 740 to 1100 kyr corresponded to the time to the most recent common ancestor. The two most frequent worldwide distributed haplotypes were estimated at 550 to 840 and 260 to 400 kyr, respectively, while the age of the continentally restricted polymorphisms was 120 to 180 kyr and smaller. Comparison of spatial and temporal distribution of the ZFX haplotypes suggests that modern humans diverged from the common ancestral stock in the Middle Paleolithic era. Subsequent range expansion prevented substantial gene flow among continents, separating African groups from populations that colonized Eurasia and the New World.

Jaruzelska, J; Zietkiewicz, E; Batzer, M; Cole, D E; Moisan, J P; Scozzari, R; Tavare, S; Labuda, D

1999-01-01

273

Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

The allelic and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic testing were estimated in a sample of 138 unrelated healthy males from Macapá, in the northern Amazon region of Brazil. The average gene diversity was 0.6554 ± 0.3315. 134 haplotypes of the 17 loci were observed, 130 of them unique and four present in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity index was 0.9996 + 0.0009, with the most frequent haplogroups being R1b (52.2%), E1b1b (11.6%), J2 (10.1%) and Q (7.2%). Most haplogroups of this population belonged to European male lineages (89.2%), followed by Amerindian (7.2%) and African (3.6%) lineages.

Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ramos, Luiz Patrick Vidal; de Jesus Brabo Ferreira Palha, Teresinha; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

2012-01-01

274

Haplotype analysis of beta thalassemia patients in Western Iran.  

PubMed

Beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) is the most common single gene disorder in Iran. To determine the chromosomal background of beta thalassemia mutations in Western Iran we studied beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in 314 beta-thal and 70 beta(A) chromosomes with a Kurd ethnic background from the province of Kermanshah, Iran using PCR-RFLP. beta-thal mutations were analyzed using PCR-ARMS, RFLP and direct genomic sequencing. Haplotypes were constructed by analyzing the pattern of seven restriction sites through the beta-globin gene cluster. Haplotype I was the most prevalent haplotype (35.7%) among beta-thal chromosomes followed by haplotype III (28.6%). beta(A) chromosomes similar to beta-thal chromosomes were linked to diverse haplotypes but predominantly with haplotype I (42.9%). The predominant IVSII-1 (G-->A) mutation in this population (33%) was strongly linked to haplotype III (66.1%) but was also found on chromosomes with haplotypes I, II, V, X and atypical. The second prevalent mutation was CD8/9 +G (13.5%) and showed a strong association with haplotype I (96.4%) and a weak association with haplotype V (3.6%). Haplotype background for Kurdish mutations among our studied population was similar to those among Kurdish Jews and people of Kurdistan of Iran. Identification of the most common mutations on different haplotype backgrounds can be explained by a variety of gene conversion and recombination events. PMID:19141369

Rahimi, Zohreh; Muniz, Adriana; Akramipour, Reza; Tofieghzadeh, Fareidon; Mozafari, Hadi; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Parsian, Abbas

2009-01-01

275

Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) in Moroccan Jews: Demonstration of a founder effect by extened haplotype analysis  

SciTech Connect

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease causing attacks of fever and serositis. The FMF gene (designated MEF') is on 16p, with the gene order 16 cen-D16S80-MEF-D16S94-D16S283-D16S291-16pter. Here the authors report the association of FMF susceptibility with alleles at D16S94, D16S283, and D16S291 among 31 non-Ashkenazi Jewish families 14 Moroccan families. For the non-Moroccans, only the allelic association at D16S94 approached statistical significance. Haplotype analysis showed that 18/25 Moroccan FMF chromosomes, versus 0/21 noncarrier chromosomes, bore a specific haplotype for D16S94-D16S283-D16S291. Among non-Moroccans this haplotype was present in 6/26 FMF chromosomes versus 1/28 controls. Both groups of families are largely descended from Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition. The strong haplotype association seen among the Moroccans is most likely a founder effect, given the recent origin and genetic isolation of the Moroccan Jewish community. The lowest haplotype frequency among non-Moroccan carriers may reflect differences both in history and in population genetics. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Aksentijevich, I.; Pras, E.; Helling, S.; Prosen, L.; Kastner, D.L.; Gruberg, L.; Pras, M. (Heller Institute for Medical Research, Tel-Hashomer (Israel))

1993-09-01

276

Search for inherited susceptibility to radiation-associated meningioma by genomewide SNP linkage disequilibrium mapping  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure to ionising radiation is a well-established risk factor for multiple types of tumours, including malignant brain tumours. In the 1950s, radiotherapy was used to treat Tinea Capitis (TC) in thousands of children, mostly of North-African and Middle Eastern origin, during the mass migration to Israel. The over-representation of radiation-associated meningioma (RAM) and other cancers in specific families provide support for inherited genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we genotyped 15 families segregating RAM using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Using the family-based association test (FBAT) programme, we tested each polymorphism and haplotype for an association with RAM. Results: The strongest haplotype associations were attained at 18q21.1 (P=7.5 × 10?5), 18q21.31 (P=2.8 × 10?5) and 10q21.3 (P=1.6 × 10?4). Although associations were not formally statistically significant after adjustment for multiple testing, the 18q21.1 and 10q21.3 associations provide support for a variation in PIAS2, KATNAL2, TCEB3C, TCEB3CL and CTNNA3 genes as risk factors for RAM. Conclusion: These findings suggest that any underlying genetic susceptibility to RAM is likely to be mediated through the co-inheritance of multiple risk alleles rather than a single major gene locus determining radiosensitivity.

Hosking, F J; Feldman, D; Bruchim, R; Olver, B; Lloyd, A; Vijayakrishnan, J; Flint-Richter, P; Broderick, P; Houlston, R S; Sadetzki, S

2011-01-01

277

mrSNP: Software to detect SNP effects on microRNA binding  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (19-23 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs that bind to sites in the 3’untranslated regions (3’UTR) of a targeted messenger RNA (mRNA). Binding leads to degradation of the transcript or blocked translation resulting in decreased expression of the targeted gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found in 3’UTRs that disrupt normal miRNA binding or introduce new binding sites and some of these have been associated with disease pathogenesis. This raises the importance of detecting miRNA targets and predicting the possible effects of SNPs on binding sites. In the last decade a number of studies have been conducted to predict the location of miRNA binding sites. However, there have been fewer algorithms published to analyze the effects of SNPs on miRNA binding. Moreover, the existing software has some shortcomings including the requirement for significant manual labor when working with huge lists of SNPs and that algorithms work only for SNPs present in databases such as dbSNP. These limitations become problematic as next-generation sequencing is leading to large numbers of novel variants in 3’UTRs. Result In order to overcome these issues, we developed a web-server named mrSNP which predicts the impact of a SNP in a 3’UTR on miRNA binding. The proposed tool reduces the manual labor requirements and allows users to input any SNP that has been identified by any SNP-calling program. In testing the performance of mrSNP on SNPs experimentally validated to affect miRNA binding, mrSNP correctly identified 69% (11/16) of the SNPs disrupting binding. Conclusions mrSNP is a highly adaptable and performing tool for predicting the effect a 3’UTR SNP will have on miRNA binding. This tool has advantages over existing algorithms because it can assess the effect of novel SNPs on miRNA binding without requiring significant hands on time.

2014-01-01

278

Distinct HLA allele and haplotype distributions in four ethnic groups of China.  

PubMed

Distinct human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele and haplotype distributions occur in the northern and southern Han populations of China. However, different ethnic groups in China show limited regional distributions for many HLA alleles and haplotypes. Therefore, it is necessary and meaningful to study the differences in HLA allele and haplotype distribution for northern and southern ethnic groups of China. A total of 428 unrelated individuals from the Lisu, Nu, Tu and Yugur ethnic populations were genotyped for HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles using the PCR-Luminex typing method. The frequencies of HLA alleles and statistically inferred haplotypes were calculated. A total of 29 HLA-A, 54 HLA-B, 27 HLA-C and 41 HLA-DRB1 alleles were spread throughout these four populations with distinct allele and deduced haplotype frequencies between populations. Some alleles and deduced haplotypes exhibited significantly different distributions between northern (Tu and Yugur) and southern groups (Lisu and Nu). A phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis were used to compare the HLA polymorphism between our dataset and 19 other eastern and southeastern Asian populations. This analysis showed that Lisu and Nu belong to a cluster of southern ethnic groups, while Tu and Yugur are most closely related to other northern groups. Thus, distinct ethnic population histories were revealed by analyzing HLA allelic polymorphisms with the HLA profiles of the Lisu and Nu southern Chinese ethnic groups clearly different from the Tu and Yugur northern ethnic groups. The results will be useful for future association studies of infectious disease and contribute toward a more efficient search of organ/tissue matches for transplantation. PMID:23020309

Yao, Y; Shi, L; Tao, Y; Kulski, J K; Lin, K; Huang, X; Xiang, H; Chu, J; Shi, L

2012-11-01

279

QualitySNPng: a user-friendly SNP detection and visualization tool  

PubMed Central

QualitySNPng is a new software tool for the detection and interactive visualization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It uses a haplotype-based strategy to identify reliable SNPs; it is optimized for the analysis of current RNA-seq data; but it can also be used on genomic DNA sequences derived from next-generation sequencing experiments. QualitySNPng does not require a sequenced reference genome and delivers reliable SNPs for di- as well as polyploid species. The tool features a user-friendly interface, multiple filtering options to handle typical sequencing errors, support for SAM and ACE files and interactive visualization. QualitySNPng produces high-quality SNP information that can be used directly in genotyping by sequencing approaches for application in QTL and genome-wide association mapping as well as to populate SNP arrays. The software can be used as a stand-alone application with a graphical user interface or as part of a pipeline system like Galaxy. Versions for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux, as well as the source code, are available from http://www.bioinformatics.nl/QualitySNPng.

Nijveen, Harm; van Kaauwen, Martijn; Esselink, Danny G.; Hoegen, Brechtje; Vosman, Ben

2013-01-01

280

Precise genetic mapping and haplotype analysis of the familial dysautonomia gene on human chromosome 9q31.  

PubMed Central

Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental arrest in the sensory and autonomic nervous systems and by Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. We previously had mapped the defective gene (DYS) to an 11-cM segment of chromosome 9q31-33, flanked by D9S53 and D9S105. By using 11 new polymorphic loci, we now have narrowed the location of DYS to <0.5 cM between the markers 43B1GAGT and 157A3. Two markers in this interval, 164D1 and D9S1677, show no recombination with the disease. Haplotype analysis confirmed this candidate region and revealed a major haplotype shared by 435 of 441 FD chromosomes, indicating a striking founder effect. Three other haplotypes, found on the remaining 6 FD chromosomes, might represent independent mutations. The frequency of the major FD haplotype in the Ashkenazim (5 in 324 control chromosomes) was consistent with the estimated DYS carrier frequency of 1 in 32, and none of the four haplotypes associated with FD was observed on 492 non-FD chromosomes from obligatory carriers. It is now possible to provide accurate genetic testing both for families with FD and for carriers, on the basis of close flanking markers and the capacity to identify >98% of FD chromosomes by their haplotype.

Blumenfeld, A; Slaugenhaupt, S A; Liebert, C B; Temper, V; Maayan, C; Gill, S; Lucente, D E; Idelson, M; MacCormack, K; Monahan, M A; Mull, J; Leyne, M; Mendillo, M; Schiripo, T; Mishori, E; Breakefield, X; Axelrod, F B; Gusella, J F

1999-01-01

281

An EM algorithm and testing strategy for multiple-locus haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain allele frequencies, haplotype frequencies, and gametic disequilibrium coefficients for multiple-locus systems. It permits high polymorphism and null alleles at all loci. This approach effectively deals with the primary estimation problems associated with such systems; that is, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between phenotypic and genotypic categories, and sample sizes

J. C. Long; R. C. Williams; M. Urbanek

1995-01-01

282

Brief communication: Y-chromosome haplotypes in Egypt.  

PubMed

We analyzed Y-chromosome haplotypes in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism. These individuals were born in three regions along the river: in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt), in Upper Egypt, and in Lower Nubia. Fifteen different p49a,f TaqI haplotypes are present in Egypt, the three most common being haplotype V (39.4%), haplotype XI (18.9%), and haplotype IV (13.9%). Haplotype V is a characteristic Arab haplotype, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley. Haplotype IV, characteristic of sub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in Egypt. PMID:12687584

Lucotte, G; Mercier, G

2003-05-01

283

Applicability of DNA pools on 500 K SNP microarrays for cost-effective initial screens in genomewide association studies  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic influences underpinning complex traits are thought to involve multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of small effect size. Detection of such QTL associations requires systematic screening of large numbers of DNA markers within large sample populations. Using pooled DNA on SNP microarrays to screen for allelic frequency differences between groups such as cases and controls (called SNP Microarray and Pooling, or SNP-MaP) has been validated as an efficient solution on both 10 k and 100 k platforms. We demonstrate that this approach can be effectively applied to the truly genomewide Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 500 K Array. Results In comparisons between five independent DNA pools (N ~200 per pool) on separate Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 500 K Array sets, we show that, for SNPs with minor allele frequencies > 0.05, the reliability of the rank order of estimated allele frequencies, assessed as the average correlation between allele frequency estimates across the DNA pools, was 0.948 (average mean difference across the five pools = 0.069). Similarly, validity of the SNP-MaP approach was demonstrated by a rank-order correlation of 0.937 (average mean difference = 0.095) between the average DNA pool allele frequency estimates and the allele frequencies of an independent (CEPH) sample of 60 unrelated individually genotyped subjects. Conclusion We conclude that SNP-MaP can be extended for use on the Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 500 K Array, providing a cost-effective, reliable and valid initial screen of 500 K SNP microarrays in genomewide association scans.

Docherty, Sophia J; Butcher, Lee M; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Plomin, Robert

2007-01-01

284

Multi-ethnic Distribution of Clinically Relevant CYP2C Genotypes and Haplotypes  

PubMed Central

To determine CYP2C19 and CYP2C8 allele frequencies, 28 coding and/or functional variants were genotyped in 1250 African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals. The combined CYP2C19 variant allele frequencies ranged from ~0.30–0.41; however, the CYP2C8 frequencies were much lower (~0.04–0.13). After incorporating previously reported CYP2C9 genotyping results from these populations (36 total CYP2C variants), 16 multi-ethnic CYP2C haplotypes were inferred with frequencies >0.5%. Notably, the 2C19*17-2C9*1-2C8*2 haplotype was identified among African-Americans (8%) and Hispanics (2%), indicating that CYP2C19*17 does not always tag a CYP2C haplotype that encodes efficient CYP2C-substrate metabolism. The 2C19*1-2C9*2-2C8*3 haplotype was identified in all populations except African-Americans and additional novel haplotypes were identified in selected populations (e.g., 2C19*2-2C9*1-2C8*4, 2C19*4B-2C9*1-2C8*1), together indicating that both CYP2C19*17 and *2 can be linked with other CYP2C loss-of-function alleles. These results have important implications for pharmacogenomic association studies involving the CYP2C locus and are clinically relevant when administering CYP2C-substrate medications.

Martis, Suparna; Peter, Inga; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; Kornreich, Ruth; Desnick, Robert J.; Scott, Stuart A.

2012-01-01

285

Multi-ethnic distribution of clinically relevant CYP2C genotypes and haplotypes.  

PubMed

To determine CYP2C19 and CYP2C8 allele frequencies, 28 coding and/or functional variants were genotyped in 1250 African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals. The combined CYP2C19 variant allele frequencies ranged from ?0.30 to 0.41; however, the CYP2C8 frequencies were much lower (?0.04-0.13). After incorporating previously reported CYP2C9 genotyping results from these populations (36 total CYP2C variants), 16 multi-ethnic CYP2C haplotypes were inferred with frequencies >0.5%. Notably, the 2C19*17-2C9*1-2C8*2 haplotype was identified among African-Americans (8%) and Hispanics (2%), indicating that CYP2C19*17 does not always tag a CYP2C haplotype that encodes efficient CYP2C-substrate metabolism. The 2C19*1-2C9*2-2C8*3 haplotype was identified in all populations except African-Americans and additional novel haplotypes were identified in selected populations (for example, 2C19*2-2C9*1-2C8*4 and 2C19*4B-2C9*1-2C8*1), together indicating that both CYP2C19*17 and *2 can be linked with other CYP2C loss-of-function alleles. These results have important implications for pharmacogenomic association studies involving the CYP2C locus and are clinically relevant when administering CYP2C-substrate medications. PMID:22491019

Martis, S; Peter, I; Hulot, J-S; Kornreich, R; Desnick, R J; Scott, S A

2013-08-01

286

Association of Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in the Coding Region of the FAM46A Gene, FAM46A rs11040 SNP and BAG6 rs3117582 SNP with Susceptibility to Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

We analyzed for association between the Family with sequence similarity 46, member A (FAM46A) gene (located on chromosome 6q14.1), BCL2-Associated Athanogene 6 (BAG6) gene (located on chromosome 6p21.3) and tuberculosis in Croatian Caucasian. We genotyped the FAM46A rs11040 SNP, FAM46A VNTR and BAG6 rs3117582 polymorphisms in a case-control study with 257 tuberculosis patients and 493 healthy individuals in a Croatian Caucasian population. We found that genotype FAM46A 3/3 (three VNTR repeats homozygote) was associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (p<0.0015, Pcorr.<0.029, Odds ratio?=?2.42, 95% Confidence Interval?=?1.34–4.3). This association suggests that the protein domain encoded by the VNTR might be important for the function of the FAM46A protein, which, in turn, could be relevant in developing tuberculosis. In addition, we found that FAM46A rs11040 SNP:FAM46A VNTR:BAG6 haplotype 132 (G-3-C) is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (p<0.012, pcorr.<0.024, Odds ratio 3.45, 95% Confidence Interval?=?1.26–9.74). This may suggests that the interaction between the FAM46A and BAG6 proteins may be involved in tuberculosis etiology. We found also that infection of human macrophages with heat-killed M. tuberculosis (H37Rv) led to over-expression of FAM46A (VNTR 3/4) transcript. This is the first study to show associations between the FAM46A gene VNTR polymorphisms, FAM46A rs11040 SNP:FAM46A VNTR:BAG6 haplotypes and any disease.

Etokebe, Godfrey Essien; Bulat-Kardum, Ljiljana; Munthe, Ludvig Andre; Balen, Sanja; Dembic, Zlatko

2014-01-01

287

Allele-Specific Amplification in Cancer Revealed by SNP Array Analysis  

PubMed Central

Amplification, deletion, and loss of heterozygosity of genomic DNA are hallmarks of cancer. In recent years a variety of studies have emerged measuring total chromosomal copy number at increasingly high resolution. Similarly, loss-of-heterozygosity events have been finely mapped using high-throughput genotyping technologies. We have developed a probe-level allele-specific quantitation procedure that extracts both copy number and allelotype information from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data to arrive at allele-specific copy number across the genome. Our approach applies an expectation-maximization algorithm to a model derived from a novel classification of SNP array probes. This method is the first to our knowledge that is able to (a) determine the generalized genotype of aberrant samples at each SNP site (e.g., CCCCT at an amplified site), and (b) infer the copy number of each parental chromosome across the genome. With this method, we are able to determine not just where amplifications and deletions occur, but also the haplotype of the region being amplified or deleted. The merit of our model and general approach is demonstrated by very precise genotyping of normal samples, and our allele-specific copy number inferences are validated using PCR experiments. Applying our method to a collection of lung cancer samples, we are able to conclude that amplification is essentially monoallelic, as would be expected under the mechanisms currently believed responsible for gene amplification. This suggests that a specific parental chromosome may be targeted for amplification, whether because of germ line or somatic variation. An R software package containing the methods described in this paper is freely available at http://genome.dfci.harvard.edu/~tlaframb/PLASQ.

2005-01-01

288

Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and haplotypes (Apa I, Bsm I, Fok I, Taq I) in Turkish psoriasis patients  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease characterized by increased squamous cell proliferation and impaired differentiation. Vitamin D, Calcitriol, and its analogues are successfully used for psoriasis therapy. However, it is unknown why some psoriasis patients are resistant to Vitamin D therapy. Vitamin D mediates its activity by a nuclear receptor. It is suggested that polymorphisms and haplotypes in the VDR gene may explain the differences in response to vitamin D therapy. Material/Methods In this study, 102 psoriasis patients and 102 healthy controls were studied for VDR gene polymorphisms. The Fok I, Bsm I, Apa I and Taq I polymorphisms were examined by PCR-RFLP, and 50 subjects received vitamin D therapy to evaluate the association between VDR gene polymorphisms and response to vitamin D therapy. Existence of cutting site is shown by capital letters, and lack was shown by lower case. The haplotypes were analysed by CHAPLIN. Results There was significant difference in allele frequency of T and genotype frequency of Tt between cases and controls (p values 0.038 and 0.04, respectively). The Aa and bb genotypes were significantly higher in early onset than late onset psoriasis (p values 0.008 and 0.04, respectively). The genotypes Ff, ff and TT are significantly different between vitamin D3 therapy responders and non-responders (p values 0.04, 0.0001, 0.009, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing importance of VDR gene haplotypes in psoriasis, the significance of the Wald and LR (Likelihood Ratio) statistics (p=0,0042) suggest that FfBbAatt is a disease-susceptibility haplotype. Conclusions Haplotype analysis is a recent and commonly used method in genetic association studies. Our results reveal a previously unidentified susceptibility haplotype and indicate that certain haplotypes are important in the resistance to vitamin D3 therapy and the onset of psoriasis. The haplotypes can give valuable data where genotypes unable to do.

Acikbas, Ibrahim; Sanl?, Berna; Tepeli, Emre; Ergin, Seniz; Aktan, Sebnem; Bagci, Huseyin

2012-01-01

289

An EM algorithm based on an internal list for estimating haplotype distributions of rare variants from pooled genotype data  

PubMed Central

Background Pooling is a cost effective way to collect data for genetic association studies, particularly for rare genetic variants. It is of interest to estimate the haplotype frequencies, which contain more information than single locus statistics. By viewing the pooled genotype data as incomplete data, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is the natural algorithm to use, but it is computationally intensive. A recent proposal to reduce the computational burden is to make use of database information to form a list of frequently occurring haplotypes, and to restrict the haplotypes to come from this list only in implementing the EM algorithm. There is, however, the danger of using an incorrect list, and there may not be enough database information to form a list externally in some applications. Results We investigate the possibility of creating an internal list from the data at hand. One way to form such a list is to collapse the observed total minor allele frequencies to “zero” or “at least one”, which is shown to have the desirable effect of amplifying the haplotype frequencies. To improve coverage, we propose ways to add and remove haplotypes from the list, and a benchmarking method to determine the frequency threshold for removing haplotypes. Simulation results show that the EM estimates based on a suitably augmented and trimmed collapsed data list (ATCDL) perform satisfactorily. In two scenarios involving 25 and 32 loci respectively, the EM-ATCDL estimates outperform the EM estimates based on other lists as well as the collapsed data maximum likelihood estimates. Conclusions The proposed augmented and trimmed CD list is a useful list for the EM algorithm to base upon in estimating the haplotype distributions of rare variants. It can handle more markers and larger pool size than existing methods, and the resulting EM-ATCDL estimates are more efficient than the EM estimates based on other lists.

2013-01-01

290

RET genotypes comprising specific haplotypes of polymorphic variants predispose to isolated Hirschsprung disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), which may be sporadic or familial, occurs in 1:5000 live births and presents with functional intestinal obstruction secondary to aganglionosis of the hindgut. Germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are believed to account for up to 50% of familial cases and up to 30% of isolated cases in most series. However, these series are highly selected for the most obvious and severe cases and large familial aggregations. Population based studies indicate that germline RET mutations account for no more than 3% of isolated HSCR cases. Recently, we and others have noted that specific polymorphic sequence variants, notably A45A (exon 2), are over-represented in isolated HSCR.?PURPOSE—In order to determine if it is the variant per se, a combination thereof, or another locus in linkage disequilibrium which predisposes to HSCR, we looked for association of RET haplotype(s) and disease in HSCR cases compared to region matched controls.?METHODS—Seven loci across RET were typed and haplotypes formed for HSCR cases, their unaffected parents, and region matched controls. Haplotype and genotype frequencies and distributions were compared among these groups using the transmission disequilibrium test and standard case-control statistic.?RESULTS—Twelve unique haplotypes, labelled A-L, were obtained. The distributions of haplotypes between cases and controls (?112 =81.4, p<<0.0001) and between cases and non-transmitted parental haplotypes were significantly different (?211=53.1, p<0.0001). Genotypes comprising pairs of haplotypes were formed for cases and controls. There were 38 different genotypes among cases and controls combined. Inspection of the genotypes in these two groups showed that the genotype distribution between cases and controls was distinct (?372=93.8, p<<0.0001). For example, BB, BC, BD, and CD, all of which contain at least one allele with the polymorphic A45A, are prominently represented among HSCR cases, together accounting for >35% of the case genotypes, yet these four genotypes were not represented among the population matched normal controls. Conversely, AA, AG, DD, GG, and GJ, none of which contains A45A, are commonly represented in the controls, together accounting for 43% of the control genotypes, and yet they are never seen among the HSCR cases.?CONCLUSIONS—Our data suggest that genotypes comprising specific pairs of RET haplotypes are associated with predisposition to HSCR either in a simple autosomal recessive manner or in an additive, dose dependent fashion.???Keywords: transmission disequilibrium test; chromosome 10; polymorphisms

Borrego, S.; Ruiz, A.; Saez, M. E.; Gimm, O.; Gao, X.; Lopez-Alonso, M.; Hernandez, A.; Wright, F.; Antinolo, G.; Eng, C.

2000-01-01

291

Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly

Oliver C Jann; Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu; Ceyhan Özbeyaz; Pilar Zaragoza; John L Williams; Paolo Ajmone-Marsan; Johannes A Lenstra; Katy Moazami-Goudarzi; Georg Erhardt

2004-01-01

292

A New Statistical Method for Haplotype Reconstruction from Population Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current routine genotyping methods typically do not provide haplotype information, which is essential for many analyses of fine-scale molecular-genetics data. Haplotypes can be obtained, at considerable cost, experimentally or (partially) through genotyping of additional family members. Alternatively, a statistical method can be used to infer phase and to reconstruct haplotypes. We present a new statistical method, applicable to genotype data

Matthew Stephens; Nicholas J. Smith; Peter Donnelly

2001-01-01

293

Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog.  

PubMed

Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), together with a dense map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across breeds. The dog is of particular interest because it provides important evolutionary information and because existing breeds show great phenotypic diversity for morphological, physiological and behavioural traits. We use sequence comparison with the primate and rodent lineages to shed light on the structure and evolution of genomes and genes. Notably, the majority of the most highly conserved non-coding sequences in mammalian genomes are clustered near a small subset of genes with important roles in development. Analysis of SNPs reveals long-range haplotypes across the entire dog genome, and defines the nature of genetic diversity within and across breeds. The current SNP map now makes it possible for genome-wide association studies to identify genes responsible for diseases and traits, with important consequences for human and companion animal health. PMID:16341006

Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Karlsson, Elinor K; Jaffe, David B; Kamal, Michael; Clamp, Michele; Chang, Jean L; Kulbokas, Edward J; Zody, Michael C; Mauceli, Evan; Xie, Xiaohui; Breen, Matthew; Wayne, Robert K; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ponting, Chris P; Galibert, Francis; Smith, Douglas R; DeJong, Pieter J; Kirkness, Ewen; Alvarez, Pablo; Biagi, Tara; Brockman, William; Butler, Jonathan; Chin, Chee-Wye; Cook, April; Cuff, James; Daly, Mark J; DeCaprio, David; Gnerre, Sante; Grabherr, Manfred; Kellis, Manolis; Kleber, Michael; Bardeleben, Carolyne; Goodstadt, Leo; Heger, Andreas; Hitte, Christophe; Kim, Lisa; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Parker, Heidi G; Pollinger, John P; Searle, Stephen M J; Sutter, Nathan B; Thomas, Rachael; Webber, Caleb; Baldwin, Jennifer; Abebe, Adal; Abouelleil, Amr; Aftuck, Lynne; Ait-Zahra, Mostafa; Aldredge, Tyler; Allen, Nicole; An, Peter; Anderson, Scott; Antoine, Claudel; Arachchi, Harindra; Aslam, Ali; Ayotte, Laura; Bachantsang, Pasang; Barry, Andrew; Bayul, Tashi; Benamara, Mostafa; Berlin, Aaron; Bessette, Daniel; Blitshteyn, Berta; Bloom, Toby; Blye, Jason; Boguslavskiy, Leonid; Bonnet, Claude; Boukhgalter, Boris; Brown, Adam; Cahill, Patrick; Calixte, Nadia; Camarata, Jody; Cheshatsang, Yama; Chu, Jeffrey; Citroen, Mieke; Collymore, Alville; Cooke, Patrick; Dawoe, Tenzin; Daza, Riza; Decktor, Karin; DeGray, Stuart; Dhargay, Norbu; Dooley, Kimberly; Dooley, Kathleen; Dorje, Passang; Dorjee, Kunsang; Dorris, Lester; Duffey, Noah; Dupes, Alan; Egbiremolen, Osebhajajeme; Elong, Richard; Falk, Jill; Farina, Abderrahim; Faro, Susan; Ferguson, Diallo; Ferreira, Patricia; Fisher, Sheila; FitzGerald, Mike; Foley, Karen; Foley, Chelsea; Franke, Alicia; Friedrich, Dennis; Gage, Diane; Garber, Manuel; Gearin, Gary; Giannoukos, Georgia; Goode, Tina; Goyette, Audra; Graham, Joseph; Grandbois, Edward; Gyaltsen, Kunsang; Hafez, Nabil; Hagopian, Daniel; Hagos, Birhane; Hall, Jennifer; Healy, Claire; Hegarty, Ryan; Honan, Tracey; Horn, Andrea; Houde, Nathan; Hughes, Leanne; Hunnicutt, Leigh; Husby, M; Jester, Benjamin; Jones, Charlien; Kamat, Asha; Kanga, Ben; Kells, Cristyn; Khazanovich, Dmitry; Kieu, Alix Chinh; Kisner, Peter; Kumar, Mayank; Lance, Krista; Landers, Thomas; Lara, Marcia; Lee, William; Leger, Jean-Pierre; Lennon, Niall; Leuper, Lisa; LeVine, Sarah; Liu, Jinlei; Liu, Xiaohong; Lokyitsang, Yeshi; Lokyitsang, Tashi; Lui, Annie; Macdonald, Jan; Major, John; Marabella, Richard; Maru, Kebede; Matthews, Charles; McDonough, Susan; Mehta, Teena; Meldrim, James; Melnikov, Alexandre; Meneus, Louis; Mihalev, Atanas; Mihova, Tanya; Miller, Karen; Mittelman, Rachel; Mlenga, Valentine; Mulrain, Leonidas; Munson, Glen; Navidi, Adam; Naylor, Jerome; Nguyen, Tuyen; Nguyen, Nga; Nguyen, Cindy; Nguyen, Thu; Nicol, Robert; Norbu, Nyima; Norbu, Choe; Novod, Nathaniel; Nyima, Tenchoe; Olandt, Peter; O'Neill, Barry; O'Neill, Keith; Osman, Sahal; Oyono, Lucien; Patti, Christopher; Perrin, Danielle; Phunkhang, Pema; Pierre, Fritz; Priest, Margaret; Rachupka, Anthony; Raghuraman, Sujaa; Rameau, Rayale; Ray, Verneda; Raymond, Christina; Rege, Filip; Rise, Cecil; Rogers, Julie; Rogov, Peter; Sahalie, Julie; Settipalli, Sampath; Sharpe, Theodore; Shea, Terrance; Sheehan, Mechele; Sherpa, Ngawang; Shi, Jianying; Shih, Diana; Sloan, Jessie; Smith, Cherylyn; Sparrow, Todd; Stalker, John; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Stavropoulos, Sharon; Stone, Catherine; Stone, Sabrina; Sykes, Sean; Tchuinga, Pierre; Tenzing, Pema; Tesfaye, Senait; Thoulutsang, Dawa; Thoulutsang, Yama; Topham, Kerri; Topping, Ira; Tsamla, Tsamla; Vassiliev, Helen; Venkataraman, Vijay; Vo, Andy; Wangchuk, Tsering; Wangdi, Tsering; Weiand, Michael; Wilkinson, Jane; Wilson, Adam; Yadav, Shailendra; Yang, Shuli; Yang, Xiaoping; Young, Geneva; Yu, Qing; Zainoun, Joanne; Zembek, Lisa; Zimmer, Andrew; Lander, Eric S

2005-12-01

294

A Haplotype-Based Haplotype Relative Risk’ Approach to Detecting Allelic Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel variation of the Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR) of Rubinstein et al. [Hum Immunol 1981;3:384] is proposed, in order to glean increased information about linkage disequilibrium or allelic associations by analyzing haplotype-based data rather than genotypic data. It is shown that statistical tests based on our design give much higher power than those based on the original HRR approach.

Joseph D. Terwilliger; Jurg Ott

1992-01-01

295

Genetic diversity analysis of elite European maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines using AFLP, SSR, and SNP markers reveals ascertainment bias for a subset of SNPs.  

PubMed

Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have triggered a shift toward single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A systematic bias can be introduced if SNPs are ascertained in a small panel of genotypes and then used for characterizing a larger population (ascertainment bias). With the objective of evaluating a potential ascertainment bias of the Illumina MaizeSNP50 array with respect to elite European maize dent and flint inbred lines, we compared the genetic diversity among these materials based on 731 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 186 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 41,434 SNPs of the MaizeSNP50 array (SNP-A), and two subsets of it, i.e., 30,068 Panzea (SNP-P) and 11,366 Syngenta markers (SNP-S). We evaluated the bias effects on major allele frequency, allele number, gene diversity, modified Roger's distance (MRD), and on molecular variance (AMOVA). We revealed ascertainment bias in SNP-A, compared to AFLPs and SSRs. It affected especially European flint lines analyzed with markers (SNP-S) specifically developed to maximize differences among North American dent germplasm. The bias affected all genetic parameters, but did not substantially alter the relative distances between inbred lines within groups. For these reasons, we conclude that the SNP markers of the MaizeSNP50 array can be employed for breeding purposes in the investigated material. However, attention should be paid in case of comparisons between genotypes belonging to different heterotic groups. In this case, it is advisable to prefer a marker subset with potentially low ascertainment bias, like in our case the SNP-P marker set. PMID:22945268

Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Schrag, Tobias A; Melchinger, Albrecht E

2013-01-01

296

Allele diversity for abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in chickpea reference set using gene based SNP markers  

PubMed Central

Chickpea is an important food legume crop for the semi-arid regions, however, its productivity is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of candidate genes associated with abiotic stress response will help breeding efforts aiming to enhance its productivity. With this objective, 10 abiotic stress responsive candidate genes were selected on the basis of prior knowledge of this complex trait. These 10 genes were subjected to allele specific sequencing across a chickpea reference set comprising 300 genotypes including 211 genotypes of chickpea mini core collection. A total of 1.3 Mbp sequence data were generated. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed 79 SNPs and 41 indels in nine genes while the CAP2 gene was found to be conserved across all the genotypes. Among 10 candidate genes, the maximum number of SNPs (34) was observed in abscisic acid stress and ripening (ASR) gene including 22 transitions, 11 transversions and one tri-allelic SNP. Nucleotide diversity varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 while polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.01 (AKIN gene) to 0.43 (CAP2 promoter). Haplotype analysis revealed that alleles were represented by more than two haplotype blocks, except alleles of the CAP2 and sucrose synthase (SuSy) gene, where only one haplotype was identified. These genes can be used for association analysis and if validated, may be useful for enhancing abiotic stress, including drought tolerance, through molecular breeding.

Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Brunel, Dominique; Mournet, Pierre; This, Dominique; Sharma, Prakash C.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

2014-01-01

297

Allele diversity for abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in chickpea reference set using gene based SNP markers.  

PubMed

Chickpea is an important food legume crop for the semi-arid regions, however, its productivity is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of candidate genes associated with abiotic stress response will help breeding efforts aiming to enhance its productivity. With this objective, 10 abiotic stress responsive candidate genes were selected on the basis of prior knowledge of this complex trait. These 10 genes were subjected to allele specific sequencing across a chickpea reference set comprising 300 genotypes including 211 genotypes of chickpea mini core collection. A total of 1.3 Mbp sequence data were generated. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed 79 SNPs and 41 indels in nine genes while the CAP2 gene was found to be conserved across all the genotypes. Among 10 candidate genes, the maximum number of SNPs (34) was observed in abscisic acid stress and ripening (ASR) gene including 22 transitions, 11 transversions and one tri-allelic SNP. Nucleotide diversity varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 while polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.01 (AKIN gene) to 0.43 (CAP2 promoter). Haplotype analysis revealed that alleles were represented by more than two haplotype blocks, except alleles of the CAP2 and sucrose synthase (SuSy) gene, where only one haplotype was identified. These genes can be used for association analysis and if validated, may be useful for enhancing abiotic stress, including drought tolerance, through molecular breeding. PMID:24926299

Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N; Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Brunel, Dominique; Mournet, Pierre; This, Dominique; Sharma, Prakash C; Varshney, Rajeev K

2014-01-01

298

Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality  

PubMed Central

Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3) within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73). Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) located within the four casein genes. Milk production records of these goats were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Goat Control. Test-day mixed models with additive and dominance fixed effects of single SNP were fitted in a model including polygenic effects. Results Significant additive effects of single SNP within CSN1S1 and CSN3 were found for fat % and protein %, milk yield and milk taste. The allele with the deletion showed additive and dominance effects on protein % and fat %, and overdominance effects on milk quantity (kg) and lactose %. At its current frequency, the observed dominance (overdominance) effects of the deletion allele reduced its substitution effect (and additive genetic variance available for selection) in the population substantially. Conclusions The selection pressure of conventional breeding on the allele with the deletion is limited due to the observed dominance (overdominance) effects. Inclusion of molecular information in the national breeding scheme will reduce the frequency of this deletion in the population.

2011-01-01

299

Haplotype combination of polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene promoter is associated with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

Adiponectin modulates lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissues and is also related to bone metabolism. Polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene likely have an impact on growth traits in cattle. In this study, we examined the relationship between ADIPOQ polymorphisms and body measurement parameters in Chinese beef cattle. First, we sequenced ADIPOQ and 1.2 kb of DNA upstream of its promoter, and we found 14 polymorphisms. With the luciferase reporter assay, we showed that the two polymorphisms SNP PR_-135 A>G and PR_-68 G>C, which are located in the core region of promoter, influence promoter activity of ADIPOQ. Second, we identified three haplotypes involved in these two polymorphic sites: A (A-135/C-68), B (A-135/G-68), and C (G-135/G-68). Haplotypes B and C are major haplotypes in five Chinese populations of cattle (Qinchuan, Nanyang, Jiaxian, Hazakh, and Chinese Holstein). We studied the effects of these three haplotypes on body measurements, gene expression, and promoter activity, and we found that the genotypes are associated with body measurement parameters in Qinchuan cattle. Individuals with genotype BC (AG/GG) had significantly higher body height and heart girth than others, and this result may be interpreted by the following two observations. The promoter activity with haplotype B (A/G) is significantly higher than those with A (A/C) and C (G/G) in driving reporter gene transcription; the ADIPOQ mRNA level in cattle with genotype BC (AG/GG) is relatively lower than that in cattle with genotype BB (AA/GG). PMID:24099391

Zhang, Liangzhi; Li, Mijie; Lai, Xinsheng; Yang, Mingjuan; Xu, Yao; Hua, Liushuai; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Hong

2013-07-01

300

Functional characterization of a haplotype in the AKT1 gene associated with glucose homeostasis and metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

A small 12-kb haplotype upstream of the AKT1 gene has been found to be associated with insulin resistance phenotypes. We sought to define the functional consequences of the three component polymorphic loci (rs1130214, rs10141867, rs33925946) on AKT1 and the upstream ZBTB42 gene. 5? RACE analysis of AKT1 transcripts in human skeletal muscle biopsies showed the predominant promoter to be 2.5 kb upstream of exon 2, and distinct from those promoters previously reported in rat. We then studied the effect of each of the three haplotype polymorphisms in transcriptional reporter assays in muscle, bone, and fat cell culture models, and found that each modulated enhancer and repressor activity are in a cell-specific and differentiation-specific manner. Our results in promoter assays are consistent with the human phenotype data; we found an anabolic effect on muscle and bone with increased mRNA expression of AKT1, and catabolic effect on fat with decreased expression. To test the hypothesis that rs10141867 affects transcription levels of the novel zinc finger protein ZBTB42 in vivo, we developed the allele-specific expression assay using Taqman technology to test for allelic differences within heterozygotes. The allele containing the derived polymorphism (haplotype H2) showed a 1.75-fold increase in expression in human skeletal muscle. Our data show a particularly complex effect of the component polymorphisms of a single haplotype on cells and tissues, suggesting that the coordination of different tissue-specific effects may have driven selection for the H2 haplotype. In light of the recent abundance of SNP association studies, our approach can serve as a method for exploring the biological function of polymorphisms that show significant genotype/phenotype associations.

Harmon, Brennan T.; Devaney, Stephanie A.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Reeves, Erica K.; Zhao, Po; Devaney, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Eric P.

2014-01-01

301

Genome-wide haplotype association study identifies the FRMD4A gene as a risk locus for Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have led to the discovery of nine new loci of genetic susceptibility in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the landscape of the AD genetic susceptibility is far away to be complete and in addition to single-SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) analyses as performed in conventional GWAS, complementary strategies need to be applied to overcome limitations inherent to this type of approaches. We performed a genome-wide haplotype association (GWHA) study in the EADI1 study (n=2025 AD cases and 5328 controls) by applying a sliding-windows approach. After exclusion of loci already known to be involved in AD (APOE, BIN1 and CR1), 91 regions with suggestive haplotype effects were identified. In a second step, we attempted to replicate the best suggestive haplotype associations in the GERAD1 consortium (2820 AD cases and 6356 controls) and observed that 9 of them showed nominal association. In a third step, we tested relevant haplotype associations in a combined analysis of five additional case–control studies (5093 AD cases and 4061 controls). We consistently replicated the association of a haplotype within FRMD4A on Chr.10p13 in all the data set analyzed (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: (1.43–1.96); P=1.1 × 10?10). We finally searched for association between SNPs within the FRMD4A locus and A? plasma concentrations in three independent non-demented populations (n=2579). We reported that polymorphisms were associated with plasma A?42/A?40 ratio (best signal, P=5.4 × 10?7). In conclusion, combining both GWHA study and a conservative three-stage replication approach, we characterised FRMD4A as a new genetic risk factor of AD.

Lambert, J-C; Grenier-Boley, B; Harold, D; Zelenika, D; Chouraki, V; Kamatani, Y; Sleegers, K; Ikram, M A; Hiltunen, M; Reitz, C; Mateo, I; Feulner, T; Bullido, M; Galimberti, D; Concari, L; Alvarez, V; Sims, R; Gerrish, A; Chapman, J; Deniz-Naranjo, C; Solfrizzi, V; Sorbi, S; Arosio, B; Spalletta, G; Siciliano, G; Epelbaum, J; Hannequin, D; Dartigues, J-F; Tzourio, C; Berr, C; Schrijvers, E M C; Rogers, R; Tosto, G; Pasquier, F; Bettens, K; Van Cauwenberghe, C; Fratiglioni, L; Graff, C; Delepine, M; Ferri, R; Reynolds, C A; Lannfelt, L; Ingelsson, M; Prince, J A; Chillotti, C; Pilotto, A; Seripa, D; Boland, A; Mancuso, M; Bossu, P; Annoni, G; Nacmias, B; Bosco, P; Panza, F; Sanchez-Garcia, F; Del Zompo, M; Coto, E; Owen, M; O'Donovan, M; Valdivieso, F; Caffara, P; Scarpini, E; Combarros, O; Buee, L; Campion, D; Soininen, H; Breteler, M; Riemenschneider, M; Van Broeckhoven, C; Alperovitch, A; Lathrop, M; Tregouet, D-A; Williams, J; Amouyel, P

2013-01-01

302

Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.  

PubMed

Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews. PMID:21597964

Im, Kate M; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M; Fredericksen, Zachary; Shane Pankratz, V; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Hogervorst, Frans B; Rookus, Matti A; Collée, J Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Van Roozendaal, Cees E; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Pawe?; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Neuhausen, Susan L; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M; Hopper, John L; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Southey, Melissa C; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas V O; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Durán, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T; Side, Lucy E; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Klein, Robert J; Daly, Mark J; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G; Altshuler, David M; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

2011-11-01

303

Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage dis-equilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews.

Im, Kate M.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y.; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collee, J. Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Van Roozendaal, Cees E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Pawel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S.; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Klein, Robert J.; Daly, Mark J.; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G.; Altshuler, David M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

2011-01-01

304

Genetic variability and haplotype profile of MDR1 in Saudi Arabian males.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms in multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene play an important role in influencing the pharmacological action and toxicity profile of a large number of therapeutic agents, and in human susceptibility to various diseases. Because of genotypic variability, several studies were directed toward determination of the frequencies of MDR1 polymorphisms and/or haplotypes in different ethnic populations. In this study, we determined the frequencies of the most common three polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene (i.e., C1236T, G2677T, and C3435T) in Saudi Arabians and their haplotypes. Our results showed that the frequencies of 1236T, 2677T, and 3435T were 43.7 %, 40.2 %, and 42.2 %, respectively. In addition, the frequencies of the most common MDR1 haplotypes, C-G-C and T-T-T, were correspondent to 48.8 and 35.5 %. Furthermore, we identified moderate to strong linkage disequilibrium between the loci of these single nucleotide polymorphisms in the studied subjects. These identified frequencies in Saudi Arabians are different from that reported in the other ethnic groups. PMID:23053935

Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Bagulb, Khawla M; Alghamdi, Amal M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Halwani, Rabih; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Khalid Parvez, M; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

2012-12-01

305

Melting Curve SNP (McSNP) Genotyping: a Useful Approach for Diallelic Genotyping in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing availability of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Deletion\\/Insertion Polymorphisms (DIPs), as well as the outstanding progress in SNP genotyping tech- nologies, will impact forensics profoundly. We have developed a new method for genotyping SNPs and DIPs, which is based on the determination of melting curve profiles of amplified DNA in solu- tion. We have termed this method Melting

Jian Ye; Esteban J. Parra; Donna M. Sosnoski; Kevin Hiester; P. A. Underhill; Mark D. Shriver

306

On the design of clone-based haplotyping  

PubMed Central

Background Haplotypes are important for assessing genealogy and disease susceptibility of individual genomes, but are difficult to obtain with routine sequencing approaches. Experimental haplotype reconstruction based on assembling fragments of individual chromosomes is promising, but with variable yields due to incompletely understood parameter choices. Results We parameterize the clone-based haplotyping problem in order to provide theoretical and empirical assessments of the impact of different parameters on haplotype assembly. We confirm the intuition that long clones help link together heterozygous variants and thus improve haplotype length. Furthermore, given the length of the clones, we address how to choose the other parameters, including number of pools, clone coverage and sequencing coverage, so as to maximize haplotype length. We model the problem theoretically and show empirically the benefits of using larger clones with moderate number of pools and sequencing coverage. In particular, using 140 kb BAC clones, we construct haplotypes for a personal genome and assemble haplotypes with N50 values greater than 2.6 Mb. These assembled haplotypes are longer and at least as accurate as haplotypes of existing clone-based strategies, whether in vivo or in vitro. Conclusions Our results provide practical guidelines for the development and design of clone-based methods to achieve long range, high-resolution and accurate haplotypes.

2013-01-01

307

IL-10 -1082 SNP and IL-10 in primary CNS and vitreoretinal lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Objectives Most primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary vitreoretinal lymphomas (PVRLs) are B-cell lymphomas that produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-10, which is linked to rapid disease progression. The IL-10-1082G?A polymorphism (IL-10 SNP) is associated with improved survival in certain non-CNS lymphoma patients. PDCD4 is a tumor suppressor gene and upstream regulator of IL-10. This study examined the correlation between the IL-10 SNP, PDCD4 mRNA expression, and IL-10 expression (at transcript and protein levels) in these lymphoma cells. Materials and methods Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing at IL-10-1082 was performed after micro-dissecting cytospun PVRL cells from 26 specimens. Vitreal IL-10 and IL-6 levels were measured by ELISA. PCNSL cells from 52 paraffin-embedded sections were microdissected and SNP typed on genomic DNA. RT-PCR was performed to analyze expression of IL-10 and PDCD4 mRNA. IL-10-1082 SNP typing was performed on blood samples of 96 healthy controls. We measured IL-10-1082 SNP expression in 26 PVRLs and 52 PCNSLs and examined its relationship with IL-10 protein and gene expression, respectively. Results More PVRL patients expressed one copy of the IL-10-1082G?A SNP with the GA genotype compared to controls. The frequencies of the three genotypes (AA, AG, GG) significantly differed in PVRL versus controls and in PCNSL versus controls. In PVRLs, the vitreal IL-10/IL-6 ratio was higher in IL-10-1082 AG and IL-10-1082 AA patients, compared to IL-10-1082 GG patients. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in IL-10-1082 AG and IL-10-1082 AA PCNSLs, compared to IL-10-1082 GG PCNSLs. No correlation was found between IL-10 and PDCD4 expression levels in 37 PCNSL samples. Conclusions PVRL and PCNSL patients had similar IL-10-1082 A allele frequencies, but genotype distributions differed from healthy controls. The findings suggest that the IL-10-1082 A allele is a risk factor for higher IL-10 levels in PVRLs and PCNSLs. Higher IL-10 levels have been correlated with more aggressive disease in both PVRLs and PCNSLs, making this finding an important and potentially clinically significant observation.

Ramkumar, Hema L.; Shen, De Fen; Tuo, Jingsheng; Braziel, Rita M.; Coupland, Sarah E.; Smith, Justine R.

2012-01-01

308

The development and characterization of a 60K SNP chip for chicken  

PubMed Central

Background In livestock species like the chicken, high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays are increasingly being used for whole genome association studies and as a tool in breeding (referred to as genomic selection). To be of value in a wide variety of breeds and populations, the success rate of the SNP genotyping assay, the distribution of the SNP across the genome and the minor allele frequencies (MAF) of the SNPs used are extremely important. Results We describe the design of a moderate density (60k) Illumina SNP BeadChip in chicken consisting of SNPs known to be segregating at high to medium minor allele frequencies (MAF) in the two major types of commercial chicken (broilers and layers). This was achieved by the identification of 352,303 SNPs with moderate to high MAF in 2 broilers and 2 layer lines using Illumina sequencing on reduced representation libraries. To further increase the utility of the chip, we also identified SNPs on sequences currently not covered by the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-2.1). This was achieved by 454 sequencing of the chicken genome at a depth of 12x and the identification of SNPs on 454-derived contigs not covered by the current chicken genome assembly. In total we added 790 SNPs that mapped to 454-derived contigs as well as 421 SNPs with a position on Chr_random of the current assembly. The SNP chip contains 57,636 SNPs of which 54,293 could be genotyped and were shown to be segregating in chicken populations. Our SNP identification procedure appeared to be highly reliable and the overall validation rate of the SNPs on the chip was 94%. We were able to map 328 SNPs derived from the 454 sequence contigs on the chicken genome. The majority of these SNPs map to chromosomes that are already represented in genome build Gallus_gallus-2.1.0. Twenty-eight SNPs were used to construct two new linkage groups most likely representing two micro-chromosomes not covered by the current genome assembly. Conclusions The high success rate of the SNPs on the Illumina chicken 60K Beadchip emphasizes the power of Next generation sequence (NGS) technology for the SNP identification and selection step. The identification of SNPs from sequence contigs derived from NGS sequencing resulted in improved coverage of the chicken genome and the construction of two new linkage groups most likely representing two chicken micro-chromosomes.

2011-01-01

309

An integrative variant analysis pipeline for accurate genotype/haplotype inference in population NGS data.  

PubMed

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful approach for discovering genetic variation. Sensitive variant calling and haplotype inference from population sequencing data remain challenging. We describe methods for high-quality discovery, genotyping, and phasing of SNPs for low-coverage (approximately 5×) sequencing of populations, implemented in a pipeline called SNPTools. Our pipeline contains several innovations that specifically address challenges caused by low-coverage population sequencing: (1) effective base depth (EBD), a nonparametric statistic that enables more accurate statistical modeling of sequencing data; (2) variance ratio scoring, a variance-based statistic that discovers polymorphic loci with high sensitivity and specificity; and (3) BAM-specific binomial mixture modeling (BBMM), a clustering algorithm that generates robust genotype likelihoods from heterogeneous sequencing data. Last, we develop an imputation engine that refines raw genotype likelihoods to produce high-quality phased genotypes/haplotypes. Designed for large population studies, SNPTools' input/output (I/O) and storage aware design leads to improved computing performance on large sequencing data sets. We apply SNPTools to the International 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) Phase 1 low-coverage data set and obtain genotyping accuracy comparable to that of SNP microarray. PMID:23296920

Wang, Yi; Lu, James; Yu, Jin; Gibbs, Richard A; Yu, Fuli

2013-05-01

310

Genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis associated with cathepsin Z haplotype in a Ugandan household contact study.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), causes 9 million new cases worldwide and 2 million deaths annually. Genetic linkage and association analyses have suggested several chromosomal regions and candidate genes involved in TB susceptibility. This study examines the association of TB disease susceptibility with a selection of biologically relevant genes on regions on chromosomes 7 (IL6 and CARD11) and 20 (CTSZ and MC3R) and fine mapping of the chromosome 7p22-p21 region identified through our genome scan. We analyzed 565 individuals from Kampala, Uganda, who were previously included in our genome-wide linkage scan. Association analyses were conducted for 1,417 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that passed quality control. None of the candidate gene or fine mapping SNPs was significantly associated with TB susceptibility (p > 0.10). When we restricted the analysis to HIV-negative individuals, 2 SNPs on chromosome 7 were significantly associated with TB susceptibility (p < 0.05). Haplotype analyses identified a significant risk haplotype in cathepsin X (CTSZ; p = 0.0281, odds ratio = 1.5493, 95% confidence interval [1.039, 2.320]). PMID:21354459

Baker, Allison R; Zalwango, Sarah; Malone, LaShaunda L; Igo, Robert P; Qiu, Feiyou; Nsereko, Mary; Adams, Mark D; Supelak, Pamela; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Boom, W Henry; Stein, Catherine M

2011-05-01

311

Unique haplotypes in ant-attended aphids and widespread haplotypes in non-attended aphids.  

PubMed

Aphid species within the genus Tuberculatus Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) exhibit a variety of interactions with ants, ranging from close associations to non-attendance. A previous study indicated that despite wing possession, ant-attended Tuberculatus species exhibited low dispersal rates compared with non-attended species. This study examined if presence or absence of mutualistic interactions and habitat continuity of host plants affected intraspecific genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences. Sympatric ant-attended Tuberculatus quercicola (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and non-attended Tuberculatus paiki Hille Ris Lambers (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were collected from the daimyo oak Quercus dentata Thunberg (Fagales: Fagaceae) in Japan and examined for haplotype variability. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in 568 T. quercicola individuals representing 23 populations and seven haplotypes in 425 T. paiki representing 19 populations. Haplotype diversity, which indicates the mean number of differences between all pairs of haplotypes in the sample, and nucleotide diversity were higher in T. quercicola than T. paiki. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher genetic differentiation among populations within groups of T. quercicola (39.8%) than T. paiki (22.6%). The effects of attendant ant species on genetic differentiation in T. quercicola were not distinguishable from geographic factors. Despite low dispersal rates, host plant habitat continuity might facilitate widespread dispersal of a T. quercicola haplotype in Hokkaido. These results suggested that following T. quercicola colonization, gene flow among populations was limited, resulting in genetic drift within populations. However, frequent T. paiki dispersal is clearly evident by low genetic differentiation among populations within groups, resulting in lower haplotype diversity. PMID:23139889

Yao, Izumi; Kanbe, Takashi

2012-09-01

312

Unique haplotypes in ant-attended aphids and widespread haplotypes in non-attended aphids  

PubMed Central

Aphid species within the genus Tuberculatus Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) exhibit a variety of interactions with ants, ranging from close associations to non-attendance. A previous study indicated that despite wing possession, ant-attended Tuberculatus species exhibited low dispersal rates compared with non-attended species. This study examined if presence or absence of mutualistic interactions and habitat continuity of host plants affected intraspecific genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences. Sympatric ant-attended Tuberculatus quercicola (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and non-attended Tuberculatus paiki Hille Ris Lambers (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were collected from the daimyo oak Quercus dentata Thunberg (Fagales: Fagaceae) in Japan and examined for haplotype variability. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in 568 T. quercicola individuals representing 23 populations and seven haplotypes in 425 T. paiki representing 19 populations. Haplotype diversity, which indicates the mean number of differences between all pairs of haplotypes in the sample, and nucleotide diversity were higher in T. quercicola than T. paiki. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher genetic differentiation among populations within groups of T. quercicola (39.8%) than T. paiki (22.6%). The effects of attendant ant species on genetic differentiation in T. quercicola were not distinguishable from geographic factors. Despite low dispersal rates, host plant habitat continuity might facilitate widespread dispersal of a T. quercicola haplotype in Hokkaido. These results suggested that following T. quercicola colonization, gene flow among populations was limited, resulting in genetic drift within populations. However, frequent T. paiki dispersal is clearly evident by low genetic differentiation among populations within groups, resulting in lower haplotype diversity.

Yao, Izumi; Kanbe, Takashi

2012-01-01

313

Evidence that the ancestral haplotype in Australian hemochromatosis patients may be associated with a common mutation in the gene  

SciTech Connect

Hemochromatosis (HC) is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism for which neither the gene nor biochemical defect have yet been identified. The aim of this study was to look for clinical evidence that the predominant ancestral haplotype in Australian patients is associated with a common mutation in the gene. We compared indices of iron metabolism and storage in three groups of HC patients categorized according to the presence of the ancestral haplotype (i.e., patients with two copies, one copy, and no copies of the ancestral haplotype). We also examined iron indices in two groups of HC heterozygotes (those with the ancestral haplotype and those without) and in age-matched controls. These analyses indicate that (i) HC patients with two copies of the ancestral haplotype show significantly more severe expression of the disorder than those with one copy or those without, (ii) HC heterozygotes have partial clinical expression, which may be influenced by the presence of the ancestral haplotype in females but not in males, and (iii) the high population frequency of the HC gene may be the result of the selective advantage conferred by protecting heterozygotes against iron deficiency. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

Crawford, D.H.G.; Powell, L.W.; Leggett, B.A. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

1995-08-01

314

SNP marker detection and genotyping in tilapia.  

PubMed

We have generated a unique resource consisting of nearly 175 000 short contig sequences and 3569 SNP markers from the widely cultured GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia) strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In total, 384 SNPs were selected to monitor the wider applicability of the SNPs by genotyping tilapia individuals from different strains and different geographical locations. In all strains and species tested (O. niloticus, O. aureus and O. mossambicus), the genotyping assay was working for a similar number of SNPs (288-305 SNPs). The actual number of polymorphic SNPs was, as expected, highest for individuals from the GIFT population (255 SNPs). In the individuals from an Egyptian strain and in individuals caught in the wild in the basin of the river Volta, 197 and 163 SNPs were polymorphic, respectively. A pairwise calculation of Nei's genetic distance allowed the discrimination of the individual strains and species based on the genotypes determined with the SNP set. We expect that this set will be widely applicable for use in tilapia aquaculture, e.g. for pedigree reconstruction. In addition, this set is currently used for assaying the genetic diversity of native Nile tilapia in areas where tilapia is, or will be, introduced in aquaculture projects. This allows the tracing of escapees from aquaculture and the monitoring of effects of introgression and hybridization. PMID:22524158

Van Bers, N E M; Crooijmans, R P M A; Groenen, M A M; Dibbits, B W; Komen, J

2012-09-01

315

Haplotypes in the expression quantitative trait locus of interleukin-1? gene are associated with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) and gene expression analyses have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with complex diseases such as schizophrenia are significantly more likely to be associated with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). The interleukin-1? (IL1B) gene has been strongly implicated in the susceptibility to schizophrenia. In order to test this association, we selected five tag SNPs in the eQTL of the IL1B gene and conducted a case-control study using two independent samples. The first sample comprised 528 schizophrenic patients and 709 controls and the second sample comprised 576 schizophrenic patients and 768 controls. We identified two SNPs and several haplotypes as being significantly associated with schizophrenia. Previous reports indicated that one major haplotype that was protective against schizophrenia reduced IL1B transcription, while two risk haplotypes for schizophrenia enhanced IL1B transcription. Therefore, we measured IL1B mRNA expression in PAXgene-stabilized whole blood from 40 schizophrenic patients and 40 controls to explore the possibility of using five tag SNPs as schizophrenic trait markers. A multiple regression analysis taking confounding factors into account revealed that the T allele of rs4848306 SNP, which is a protective allele for schizophrenia, predicted reduced change in IL1B mRNA expression, regardless of phenotype. Our results appear to support the previous hypothesis that IL1B contributes to the genetic risk of schizophrenia and warrant further research on the association of eQTL SNPs with schizophrenia. PMID:22804923

Yoshida, Masakuni; Shiroiwa, Kyoichi; Mouri, Kentaro; Ishiguro, Hiroki; Supriyanto, Irwan; Ratta-Apha, Woraphat; Eguchi, Noriomi; Okazaki, Satoshi; Sasada, Toru; Fukutake, Masaaki; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Inada, Toshiya; Arinami, Tadao; Shirakawa, Osamu; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

2012-09-01

316

Single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype effects associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle  

PubMed Central

Background To better understand the genetic determination of udder health, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a population of 2354 German Holstein bulls for which daughter yield deviations (DYD) for somatic cell score (SCS) were available. For this study, we used genetic information of 44 576 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 11 725 inferred haplotype blocks. Results When accounting for the sub-structure of the analyzed population, 16 SNPs and 10 haplotypes in six genomic regions were significant at the Bonferroni threshold of P???1.14?×?10-6. The size of the identified regions ranged from 0.05 to 5.62 Mb. Genomic regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 18 and 19 coincided with known QTL affecting SCS, while additional genomic regions were found on chromosomes 13 and X. Of particular interest is the region on chromosome 6 between 85 and 88 Mb, where QTL for mastitis traits and significant SNPs for SCS in different Holstein populations coincide with our results. In all identified regions, except for the region on chromosome X, significant SNPs were present in significant haplotypes. The minor alleles of identified SNPs on chromosomes 18 and 19, and the major alleles of SNPs on chromosomes 6 and X were favorable for a lower SCS. Differences in somatic cell count (SCC) between alternative SNP alleles reached 14 000 cells/mL. Conclusions The results support the polygenic nature of the genetic determination of SCS, confirm the importance of previously reported QTL, and provide evidence for the segregation of additional QTL for SCS in Holstein cattle. The small size of the regions identified here will facilitate the search for causal genetic variations that affect gene functions.

2014-01-01

317

Genotype and haplotype analysis of cell cycle genes in sporadic colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

The Czech Republic has one of the highest incidences of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the world. To assess the role of genetic variants on the disease, we genotyped polymorphisms in the TP53 (rs17878362:A(1)>A(2), rs1042522:G>C, rs12947788:C>T, and rs17884306:G>A), CDKN1A (rs1801270:C>A and rs1059234:C>T), and CDKN2A (rs3731249:G>A, rs11515:C>G, and rs3088440:C>T) genes in 614 hospital-based CRC cases and 614 matched controls from the country. Despite the tendency toward differential distribution of variant allele frequencies for some polymorphisms, none was significantly associated with CRC risk. We observed differential distribution of major haplotypes arising from four polymorphisms in the TP53 gene between cases and controls (global P<0.0001). The two most common haplotypes, A(1)GCG and A(2)CCG, were present in 81% of the cases compared to 71% of the controls. In comparison to the most common haplotype (A(1)GCG), the haplotype A(2)CCG was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.82), while the four other haplotypes A(1)CCG (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.45-0.79), A(2)GCG (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.35-0.81), A(1)GTG (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.15-0.64), and A(1)GCA (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.51) were associated with a decreased risk. The effect of haplotypes in the TP53 gene was similar in colon (global P<0.0001) and rectal cancers (P=0.006). No association with the disease was observed with haplotypes of the CDKN1A and CDKN2A polymorphisms. The results from this study suggest that prevalent haplotypes within the TP53 gene may modulate CRC risks in the population. PMID:19224585

Polakova, V; Pardini, B; Naccarati, A; Landi, S; Slyskova, J; Novotny, J; Vodickova, L; Bermejo, J L; Hanova, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Tulupova, E; Kumar, R; Hemminki, K; Vodicka, P

2009-04-01

318

SNP haplotypes of the BADH1 gene and their association with aroma in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of glycinebetaine—a powerful osmoprotectant\\u000a against salt and drought stress in a large number of species. Rice is not known to accumulate glycinebetaine but it has two\\u000a functional genes coding for the BADH enzyme. A non-functional allele of the BADH2 gene located on chromosome 8 is a major factor

Anuradha Singh; Pradeep K. Singh; Rakesh Singh; Awadhesh Pandit; Ajay K. Mahato; Deepak K. Gupta; Kuldeep Tyagi; Ashok K. Singh; Nagendra K. Singh; Tilak R. Sharma

2010-01-01

319

Novel Tau Polymorphisms, Tau Haplotypes, and Splicing in Familial and Sporadic Frontotemporal Dementia  

PubMed Central

Background A subset of familial cases (FTDP-17) of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are caused by mutations in the tau gene. The role of tau gene mutations and haplotypes in sporadic FTD and the functional consequences of tau polymorphisms are unknown. Objectives To investigate (1) the frequency of known FTDP-17 mutations in familial and sporadic FTD and compare these results with previous studies; (2) whether the tau H1 haplotype is associated with FTD; and (3) the functional effect of intronic tau sequence variations. Patients and Methods Patients with familial and sporadic FTD were screened for mutations in the microtubule-binding region of tau. The frequencies of tau haplotypes and genotypes were compared between patients with FTD and control subjects. We analyzed the splicing effect of novel intronic polymorphisms associated with FTD. Results The P301L mutation was detected in 11% of familial FTD cases. The H1 haplotype was not overrepresented in patients with FTD, but the P301L mutation appeared on the background of the H2 tau haplotype. We identified 4 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in intron 9 and a 9–base pair deletion in intron 4A. A C-to-T transition 177 base pairs upstream from exon 10 was significantly increased in patients with FTD compared with controls. Direct analysis of brain tissue from a patient with this variant showed an increase in exon 10–containing tau transcripts. Conclusions Sequence variations in intronic or regulatory regions of tau may have previously unrecognized consequences leading to tau dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Miller, Bruce L.; Havlioglu, Necat; Zhukareva, Victoria; Jiang, Zhihong; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Chow, Tiffany W.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Wu, Jane Y.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

2007-01-01

320

Identification of the ancestral haplotype for apolipoprotein B suggests an African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and traces their subsequent migration to Europe and the Pacific  

SciTech Connect

The probable ancestral haplotype for human apolipoprotein B (apoB) has been identified through immunological analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla serum and sequence analysis of their DNA. Moreover, the frequency of this ancestral apoB haplotype among different human populations provides strong support for the African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and their subsequent migration from Africa to Europe and to the Pacific. The approach used here for the identification of the ancestral human apoB haplotype is likely to be applicable to many other genes.

Rapacz, J.; Hasler-Rapacz, J.O. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)); Chen, L.; Wu, Mingjiuan; Schumaker, V.N. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Butler-Brunner, E.; Butler, R. (Swiss Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Bern (Switzerland))

1991-02-15

321

Allelic variation of the inducible costimulator (ICOS) gene: detection of polymorphisms, analysis of the promoter region, and extended haplotype estimation.  

PubMed

The human chromosome region 2q33 including the three costimulatory molecules CD28, CTLA-4 and ICOS, has been subject to much attention due to its linkage to a number of autoimmune diseases. The search for the causal relationship of this linkage has revealed several polymorphisms, but no variations in the amino acid sequences, except for one polymorphism in the leader sequence of CTLA-4. In the present study, we examined the ICOS gene of an unrelated group of healthy donors from the Danish population. We were able to report 16 intronic SNP, one intronic G-insert and two repeat regions in intron 4, consistent with the [T]n and the [GT]n regions reported in a Japanese study. Putative haplotypes for the established SNP and repeat polymorphisms have been estimated by computational analysis. Sequencing of approximately 3500 bp of the upstream region of ICOS revealed an additional eight SNP of which two resided in putative NF-kB and Sp1 sites. In accordance with previous studies we detected no variations in the coding regions except for a rare polymorphism that was found in one donor in the last codon of exon 5, which lead to a heterozygous genotype, but no amino acid change. This suggests that regulation of transcription rather than protein structure could be a possible mechanism in the explanation of linkage. PMID:12753665

Haaning Andersen, A D; Lange, M; Lillevang, S T

2003-04-01

322

Development and Characterization of a High Density SNP Genotyping Assay for Cattle  

PubMed Central

The success of genome-wide association (GWA) studies for the detection of sequence variation affecting complex traits in human has spurred interest in the use of large-scale high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and for marker-assisted selection in model and agricultural species. A cost-effective and efficient approach for the development of a custom genotyping assay interrogating 54,001 SNP loci to support GWA applications in cattle is described. A novel algorithm for achieving a compressed inter-marker interval distribution proved remarkably successful, with median interval of 37 kb and maximum predicted gap of <350 kb. The assay was tested on a panel of 576 animals from 21 cattle breeds and six outgroup species and revealed that from 39,765 to 46,492 SNP are polymorphic within individual breeds (average minor allele frequency (MAF) ranging from 0.24 to 0.27). The assay also identified 79 putative copy number variants in cattle. Utility for GWA was demonstrated by localizing known variation for coat color and the presence/absence of horns to their correct genomic locations. The combination of SNP selection and the novel spacing algorithm allows an efficient approach for the development of high-density genotyping platforms in species having full or even moderate quality draft sequence. Aspects of the approach can be exploited in species which lack an available genome sequence. The BovineSNP50 assay described here is commercially available from Illumina and provides a robust platform for mapping disease genes and QTL in cattle.

Matukumalli, Lakshmi K.; Lawley, Cynthia T.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Allan, Mark F.; Heaton, Michael P.; O'Connell, Jeff; Moore, Stephen S.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

2009-01-01

323

Whole genome sequencing of peach (Prunus persica L.) for SNP identification and selection  

PubMed Central

Background The application of next generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatic scripts to identify high frequency SNPs distributed throughout the peach genome is described. Three peach genomes were sequenced using Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa technologies to obtain long contigs for alignment to the draft 'Lovell' peach sequence as well as sufficient depth of coverage for 'in silico' SNP discovery. Description The sequences were aligned to the 'Lovell' peach genome released April 01, 2010 by the International Peach Genome Initiative (IPGI). 'Dr. Davis', 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle' were sequenced to add SNPs segregating in two breeding populations, Pop DF ('Dr. Davis' × 'F8, 1-42') and Pop DG ('Dr. Davis' × 'Georgia Belle'). Roche 454 sequencing produced 980,000 total reads with 236 Mb sequence for 'Dr. Davis' and 735,000 total reads with 172 Mb sequence for 'F8, 1-42'. 84 bp × 84 bp paired end Illumina/Solexa sequences yielded 25.5, 21.4, 25.5 million sequences for 'Dr. Davis', 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle', respectively. BWA/SAMtools were used for alignment of raw reads and SNP detection, with custom PERL scripts for SNP filtering. Velvet's Columbus module was used for sequence assembly. Comparison of aligned and overlapping sequences from both Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa resulted in the selection of 6654 high quality SNPs for 'Dr. Davis' vs. 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle', distributed on eight major peach genome scaffolds as defined from the 'Lovell' assembly. Conclusion The eight scaffolds contained about 215-225 Mb of peach genomic sequences with one SNP/~ 40,000 bases. All sequences from Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa have been submitted to NCBI for public use in the Short Read Archive database. SNPs have been deposited in the NCBI SNP database.

2011-01-01

324

A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla: Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to

Molly E. McCue; Danika L. Bannasch; Jessica L. Petersen; Jessica Gurr; Ernie Bailey; Matthew M. Binns; Ottmar Distl; Gérard Guérin; Telhisa Hasegawa; Emmeline W. Hill; Tosso Leeb; Gabriella Lindgren; M. Cecilia T. Penedo; Knut H. Røed; Oliver A. Ryder; June E. Swinburne; Teruaki Tozaki; Stephanie J. Valberg; Mark Vaudin; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Claire M. Wade; James R. Mickelson

2012-01-01

325

Haplotype analysis of the polymorphic 17 YSTR markers in Kerala nontribal populations.  

PubMed

The origin of the Kerala non tribal population has been a matter of contention for centuries. While some claim that Negritos were the first inhabitants, some historians suggest a Dravidian origin for all Keralites. The aim of our study has been to provide sufficient scientific evidence based on Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y STR) analysis for tracing the paternal lineage and also to create a database of the Y STR haplotype of the male population for future forensic analysis. Whole blood samples (n = 168) were collected from unrelated healthy men of the Kerala non-tribal population over a period of 2 years from October 2009. Genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. All samples were genotyped for the 17 Y STR loci by the AmpFLSTR Y-filer PCR Amplification Kit. The haplotype and allele frequencies were determined by direct counting and analyzed using Arlequin 3.1 software, and molecular variance was calculated with the Y chromosome haplotype reference database online analysis tool, www.yhrd.org . Haplotype diversity was calculated using HaPYDive ( http://portugene.com/hapydive.html ). The majority of haplotypes were unique (149/168). The variant allele 17.1 was observed in DYS 385 loci in three samples. Fifteen samples (8.93%) showed the presence of alleles that are not within the established marker range denoted as outside marker range (OMR). The allele frequency of Kerala non tribal population ranged from 0.00003 to 0.5809. The most polymorphic single locus marker was DYS 458. The haplotype diversity value for Kerala non tribal population was 0.9978. The pairwise difference value ranged from 0.0531 to 0.0854 on comparison of the haplotypes of the Kerala non tribals with other Indian populations. The multi dimensional scaling plot depicted the proximity of Kerala non tribal population with Vasterbotten population (Swedish) and Paiwan, Patyal population of Taiwan, Thailand, and Zhuang population of China. The results of the study indicate towards a European paternal lineage in the non tribal Kerala population. PMID:22311032

Parvathy, Seema Nair; Geetha, Aswathy; Jagannath, Chippy

2012-06-01

326

Identification of Functional Haplotypes in the Promoter Region of the LST1 Gene.  

PubMed

Psoriasis, an inflammatory skin disease, was associated with a promoter variant (rs9267502; P = 3.786 × 10(-19)) of LST1 that may regulate immune response and cellular morphogenesis. Promoter activity was examined to identify functional variants in the proximity of the associated variant. Five natural haplotypes (H1-H5) of four variants (rs7758790, rs9267502, rs41268884, rs17200775) in strong linkage disequilibrium were investigated. The most common haplotype (H1) was TGAG (frequency 0.78), and the second most frequent haplotype (H2) was CGGG (0.09). Luciferase assay was conducted using reporter constructs including each haplotype and firefly luciferase gene. As a result, promoter activity of H1 was smaller than the construct without the promoter region (P < 0.05). The promoter activities of H3, H4, and H5 corresponded to that of H1 (P > 0.05), and H2 promoter activity was larger than that of H1, H3, H4, and H5 (P < 0.05). This might result from changes in binding affinity to transcription factors by nucleotide substitutions of the promoter variants of the LST1 gene. PMID:24803336

Woo, Jeyoung; Lee, Chaeyoung

2014-08-01

327

Haplotype test reveals departure from neutrality in a segment of the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Restriction map studies previously revealed extensive linkage disequilibria in the transcriptional unit of the white locus in natural Drosophila melanogaster populations. To understand the causes of these disequilibria, we sequenced a 4722-bp region of the white gene from 15 lines of D. melanogaster and 1 line of Drosophila simulans. Statistical tests applied to the entire 4722-bp region do not reject neutrality. In contrast, a test for high-frequency haplotypes ({open_quotes}Haplotype test{close_quotes}) revealed an 834-bp segment, encompassing the 3{prime} end of intron 1 to the 3{prime} end of intron 2, in which the structure of variation deviates significantly from the predictions of a neutral equilibrium model. The variants in this 834-bp segment segregate as single haplotype blocks. We propose that these unusually large haplotype blocks are due to positive selection on polymorphisms within the white gene, including a replacement polymorphism, Arg{yields}Leu, within this segment. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kirby, D.A.; Stephan, W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

328

Patterns of haplotypes for 92 cystic fibrosis mutations: Variability, association and recurrence  

SciTech Connect

Most CFTR mutations are very uncommon among the cystic fibrosis population, with frequencies of less than 1%, and many are found only in specific areas. We have analyzed 92 CF mutations for several markers (4 microsatellites and 3 other polymorphisms) scattered in the CFTR gene. Haplotypes associated with these mutations can be used as a framework in the screening of chromosomes carrying unknown mutations. The association between mutation and haplotype reduces the number of mutations it is necessary to search for to a maximum of 16 for the same haplotype. Only mutations {triangle}F508, G542X and N1303K are associated with more than one haplotype as a result of slippage at more than one microsatellite loci, suggesting that these three are the most ancient CF mutations. Recurrence has been found for at least 7 mutations: H199Y, R347P, L558S, R553X, 2184insA, 3272-26A{r_arrow}G, 3849+10kbC{r_arrow}T and R1162X. Also microsatellite analysis of chromosomes of several ethnic origins (Czech, Italian, Russian, Slovac and Spanish) suggested that possibility of three or more independent origins for mutations R334W, R347P, R1162X, and 3849+10kbC{r_arrow}T, which was confirmed by analysis of markers flanking these mutations.

Morral, N.; Llevadot, R.; Estivill, X. [I.R.O., Barcelona (Spain)] [and others

1994-09-01

329

Phylogenetic nomenclature and evolution of mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) haplotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Polymorphisms of the mannose-binding lectin gene (MBL2) affect the concentration and functional efficiency of the protein. We recently used haplotype-specific sequencing to identify 23 MBL2 haplotypes, associated with enhanced susceptibility to several diseases. Results In this work, we applied the same method in 288 and 470 chromosomes from Gabonese and European adults, respectively, and found three new haplotypes in the last group. We propose a phylogenetic nomenclature to standardize MBL2 studies and found two major phylogenetic branches due to six strongly linked polymorphisms associated with high MBL production. They presented high Fst values and were imbedded in regions with high nucleotide diversity and significant Tajima's D values. Compared to others using small sample sizes and unphased genotypic data, we found differences in haplotyping, frequency estimation, Fu and Li's D* and Fst results. Conclusion Using extensive testing for selective neutrality, we confirmed that stochastic evolutionary factors have had a major role in shaping this polymorphic gene worldwide.

2010-01-01

330

Molecular analysis of CYP21 gene mutations carried on HLA-B14 positive haplotypes.  

PubMed

HLA-B14 positive haplotypes have increased frequencies in a group of patients with puberty disorders, IgA deficiency and cancer of the ovary. Clinical investigations demonstrated that all these patients have high values of 170H progesteron after the ACTH test which suggests an alterated function of 21 hydroxylase enzyme. In order to investigate whether these B14 positive haplotypes carry the same CYP21 mutation in the various diseases and controls, we have amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the sections of CYP21B gene which include amino acid positions 172 and 281 where typical mutations are known to occur in 21 hydroxylase deficiency. The presence or absence of the defined mutations was tested by oligonucleotide hybridization using oligonucleotides, labelled with DIG-ddUTP, designed to hybridize with the mutated or with the normal sequence. It was found that regardless of whether the subject tested was a patient or a healthy control the mutation at position 281 was found in all cases carrying HLA-B14, DR1 haplotype. Interestingly, this mutation does not seem to be in association with HLA-B14, DR7 haplotype. These findings suggest that CYP21 gene plays a role in all these differing diseases although it must be stressed that there may be alternative explanations for the observed data. PMID:9098443

Dondi, E; Cuccia, M; Keller, E; Martinetti, M; Larizza, D; Albert, E D

1994-10-01

331

SNIT: SNP identification for strain typing  

PubMed Central

With ever-increasing numbers of microbial genomes being sequenced, efficient tools are needed to perform strain-level identification of any newly sequenced genome. Here, we present the SNP identification for strain typing (SNIT) pipeline, a fast and accurate software system that compares a newly sequenced bacterial genome with other genomes of the same species to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions (indels). Based on this information, the pipeline analyzes the polymorphic loci present in all input genomes to identify the genome that has the fewest differences with the newly sequenced genome. Similarly, for each of the other genomes, SNIT identifies the input genome with the fewest differences. Results from five bacterial species show that the SNIT pipeline identifies the correct closest neighbor with 75% to 100% accuracy. The SNIT pipeline is available for download at http://www.bhsai.org/snit.html

2011-01-01

332

Identification of RNA editing sites in the SNP database.  

PubMed

The relationship between human inherited genomic variations and phenotypic differences has been the focus of much research effort in recent years. These studies benefit from millions of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) records available in public databases, such as dbSNP. The importance of identifying false dbSNP records increases with the growing role played by SNPs in linkage analysis for disease traits. In particular, the emerging understanding of the abundance of DNA and RNA editing calls for a careful distinction between inherited SNPs and somatic DNA and RNA modifications. In order to demonstrate that some of the SNP database records are actually somatic modification, we focus on one type of these modifications, namely A-to-I RNA editing, and present evidence for hundreds of dbSNP records that are actually editing sites. We provide a list of 102 RNA editing sites previously annotated in dbSNP database as SNPs, and experimentally validate seven of these. Interestingly, we show how dbSNP can serve as a starting point to look for new editing sites. Our results, for this particular type of RNA editing, demonstrate the need for a careful analysis of SNP databases in light of the increasing recognition of the significance of somatic sequence modifications. PMID:16100382

Eisenberg, Eli; Adamsky, Konstantin; Cohen, Lital; Amariglio, Ninette; Hirshberg, Abraham; Rechavi, Gideon; Levanon, Erez Y

2005-01-01

333

Possible Positive Selection for an Arsenic-Protective Haplotype in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background: Arsenic in drinking water causes severe health effects. Indigenous people in the South American Andes have likely lived with arsenic-contaminated drinking water for thousands of years. Inhabitants of San Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) in the Argentinean highlands generally carry an AS3MT (the major arsenic-metabolizing gene) haplotype associated with reduced health risks due to rapid arsenic excretion and lower urinary fraction of the monomethylated metabolite. Objectives: We hypothesized an adaptation to high-arsenic living conditions via a possible positive selection for protective AS3MT variants and compared AS3MT haplotype frequencies among different indigenous groups. Methods: Indigenous groups we evaluated were a) inhabitants of SAC and villages near Salta in northern Argentina (n = 346), b) three Native American populations from the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP; n = 25), and c) five Peruvian populations (n = 97). The last two groups have presumably lower historical exposure to arsenic. Results: We found a significantly higher frequency of the protective AS3MT haplotype in the SAC population (68.7%) compared with the HGDP (14.3%, p < 0.001, Fisher exact test) and Peruvian (50.5%, p < 0.001) populations. Genome-wide microsatellite (n = 671) analysis showed no detectable level of population structure between SAC and Peruvian populations (measure of population differentiation FST = 0.006) and low levels of structure between SAC and HGDP populations (FST < 0.055 for all pairs of populations compared). Conclusions: Because population stratification seems unlikely to explain the differences in AS3MT haplotype frequencies, our data raise the possibility that, during a few thousand years, natural selection for tolerance to the environmental stressor arsenic may have increased the frequency of protective variants of AS3MT. Further studies are needed to investigate this hypothesis.

Schlebusch, Carina M.; Lewis, Cecil M.; Vahter, Marie; Engstrom, Karin; Tito, Raul Y.; Obregon-Tito, Alexandra J.; Huerta, Doris; Polo, Susan I.; Medina, Angel C.; Brutsaert, Tom D.; Concha, Gabriela; Jakobsson, Mattias

2012-01-01

334

How Genome-Wide SNP-SNP Interactions Relate to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

This study is the first to use genome-wide association study (GWAS) data to evaluate the multidimensional genetic architecture underlying nasopharyngeal cancer. Since analysis of data from GWAS confirms a close and consistent association between elevated risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and major histocompatibility complex class 1 genes, our goal here was to explore lesser effects of gene-gene interactions. We conducted an exhaustive genome-wide analysis of GWAS data of NPC, revealing two-locus interactions occurring between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and identified a number of suggestive interaction loci which were missed by traditional GWAS analyses. Although none of the interaction pairs we identified passed the genome-wide Bonferroni-adjusted threshold for significance, using independent GWAS data from the same population (Stage 2), we selected 66 SNP pairs in 39 clusters with P<0.01. We identified that in several chromosome regions, multiple suggestive interactions group to form a block-like signal, effectively reducing the rate of false discovery. The strongest cluster of interactions involved the CREB5 gene and a SNP rs1607979 on chromosome 17q22 (P?=?9.86×10?11) which also show trans-expression quantitative loci (eQTL) association in Chinese population. We then detected a complicated cis-interaction pattern around the NPC-associated HLA-B locus, which is immediately adjacent to copy-number variations implicated in male susceptibility for NPC. While it remains to be seen exactly how and to what degree SNP-SNP interactions such as these affect susceptibility for nasopharyngeal cancer, future research on these questions holds great promise for increasing our understanding of this disease’s genetic etiology, and possibly also that of other gene-related cancers.

Su, Wen-Hui; Yao Shugart, Yin; Chang, Kai-Ping; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Tse, Ka-Po; Chang, Yu-Sun

2013-01-01

335

Allele Polymorphism and Haplotype Diversity of HLA-A, B and -DRB1 Loci in SequenceBased Typing for Chinese Uyghur Ethnic Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious studies indicate that the frequency distributions of HLA alleles and haplotypes vary from one ethnic group to another or between the members of the same ethnic group living in different geographic areas. It is necessary and meaningful to study the high-resolution allelic and haplotypic distributions of HLA loci in different groups.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHigh-resolution HLA typing for the Uyghur ethnic minority

Chun-Mei Shen; Bo-Feng Zhu; Ya-Jun Deng; Shi-Hui Ye; Jiang-Wei Yan; Guang Yang; Hong-Dan Wang; Hai-Xia Qin; Qi-Zhao Huang; Jing-Jing Zhang; Igor Mokrousov

2010-01-01

336

A common JAK2 haplotype confers susceptibility to myeloproliferative neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of new disease susceptibility loci that represent haplotypes defined by numerous SNPs. SNPs within a disease-associated haplotype are thought to influence either the expression of genes or the sequence of the proteins they encode. In a series of investigations of the JAK2 gene in myeloproliferative neoplasms, we uncovered a new property of haplotypes

Damla Olcaydu; Ashot Harutyunyan; Roland Jäger; Tiina Berg; Bettina Gisslinger; Ingrid Pabinger; Heinz Gisslinger; Robert Kralovics

2009-01-01

337

The effect of UGT1A and UGT2B polymorphisms on colorectal cancer risk: haplotype associations and gene–environment interactions.  

PubMed

UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) play an important role in the phase II metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds. As colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology is thought to involve the biotransformation of dietary factors, UGT polymorphisms may affect CRC risk by altering levels of exposure. Genotyping of over 1800 Caucasian subjects was completed to identify the role of genetic variation in nine UGT1A and five UGT2B genes on CRC risk. Unconditional logistic regression and haplotype analyses were conducted to identify associations with CRC risk and potential gene-environment interactions. UGT1A haplotype analysis found that the T-G haplotype in UGT1A10 exon 1 (block 2: rs17864678, rs10929251) decreased cancer risk for the colon [proximal (OR?=?0.28, 95% CI?=?0.11–0.69) and for the distal colon (OR?=?0.32, 95% CI?=?0.12–0.91)], and that the C-T-G haplotype in the 3? region flanking the UGT1A shared exons (block 11: rs7578153, rs10203853, rs6728940) increased CRC risk in males (OR?=?2.56, 95% CI?=?1.10–5.95). A haplotype in UGT2B15 containing a functional variant (rs4148269, K523T) and an intronic SNP (rs6837575) was found to affect rectal cancer risk overall (OR?=?2.57, 95% CI?=?1.21–5.04) and in females (OR?=?3.08, 95% CI?=?1.08–8.74). An interaction was found between high NSAID use and the A-G-T haplotype (block 10: rs6717546, rs1500482, rs7586006) in the UGT1A shared exons that decreased CRC risk. This suggests that UGT genetic variation alters CRC risk differently by anatomical sub-site and gender and that polymorphisms in the UGT1A shared exons may have a regulatory effect on gene expression that allows for the protective effect of NSAIDs on CRC risk. PMID:24822274

Angstadt, Andrea Y; Hartman, Terryl J; Lesko, Samuel M; Muscat, Joshua E; Zhu, Junjia; Gallagher, Carla J; Lazarus, Philip

2014-06-01

338

[Correlations between haplogroup membership and Y-STR haplotype as a potential measure of quality control in forensic examinations].  

PubMed

A correlation between particular Y-STR alleles from the so-called "minimal haplotype" and haplogroup membership of the Y chromosome was tested. We collected 146 Y chromosomes from haplogroups R1*, R1a1* and 1* and estimated the frequency of Y-STR alleles in each haplogroup. We then used different algorithms to assign a haplogroup to a haplotype, and tested their accuracy. Generally, a method based on calculation of haplotype similarity using the highest allele frequencies as modal values and assigning a score to each locus based on a ratio of allele frequencies turned out to give the most precise matches. However, using the same rules for Y chromosomes from other populations did not allow for precise estimation of their Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies. Possible explanations for this failure include interpopulation differences in haplotypes correlated with particular haplogroups, as well as a relatively small number of chromosomes analyzed. Potential uses for the presented method in forensics were also described. PMID:17131759

Wo?niak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Starzy?ski, Jaros?aw; Papuga, Marta; Stopi?ska, Katarzyna; Luczak, Sylwia

2006-01-01

339

Haplotype Homozygosity and Derived Alleles in the Human Genome  

PubMed Central

Haplotype-based techniques are being used to estimate the relative age of alleles—particularly in screening loci for signals of recent positive selection—but does this approach capture even coarse age differences? Using simulations and empirical data from the International HapMap Project, we show that a simple pairwise metric of haplotype homozygosity gives significantly higher mean values for human single-nucleotide–polymorphism alleles that appear to be derived than for those that appear to be ancestral, as determined by comparison with the chimpanzee genome. Our results support the use of haplotype-based techniques, such as extended haplotypic homozygosity, to assess the age of alleles.

Fry, Andrew E.; Trafford, Clare J.; Kimber, Martin A.; Chan, Man-Suen; Rockett, Kirk A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.

2006-01-01

340

Exhaustive search of the SNP-SNP interactome identifies epistatic effects on brain volume in two cohorts  

PubMed Central

The SNP-SNP interactome has rarely been explored in the context of neuroimaging genetics mainly due to the complexity of conducting ?1011 pairwise statistical tests. However, recent advances in machine learning, specifically the iterative sure independence screening (SIS) method, have enabled the analysis of datasets where the number of predictors is much larger than the number of observations. Using an implementation of the SIS algorithm (called EPISIS), we used exhaustive search of the genome-wide, SNP-SNP interactome to identify and prioritize SNPs for interaction analysis. We identified a significant SNP pair, rs1345203 and rs1213205, associated with temporal lobe volume. We further examined the full-brain, voxelwise effects of the interaction in the ADNI dataset and separately in an independent dataset of healthy twins (QTIM). We found that each additional loading in the epistatic effect was associated with ?5% greater brain regional brain volume (a protective effect) in both the ADNI and QTIM samples.

Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Jahanshad, Neda; Kohannim, Omid; Toga, Arthur W.; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

2014-01-01

341

Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1: Strong association with haplotype 6 in French Canadians permits simple carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1), a severe inborn error of tyrosine catabolism, is caused by deficiency of the terminal enzyme, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH). The highest reported frequency of HT1 is in the French Canadian population, especially in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean region. Using human FAH cDNA probes, the authors have identified 10 haplotypes with TaqI, KpnI, RsaI, BglII, and MspI RFLPs in 118 normal chromosomes from the French Canadian population. Interestingly, in 29 HT1 children, a prevalent haplotype, haplotype 6, was found to be strongly associated with the disease, at a frequency of 90% of alleles, as compared with [approximately] 18% in 35 control individuals. This increased to 96% in the 24 patients originating from Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean. These results suggest that one or only a few prevailing mutations are responsible for most of the HT1 cases in Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean. Since most patients were found to be homozygous for a specific haplotype in this population, FAH RFLPs have permitted simple carrier detection in nine different informative HT1 families, with a confidence level of 99.9%. Heterozygosity rate values obtained from 52 carriers indicated that [approximately] 88% of families at risk from Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean are fully or partially informative. Prenatal diagnosis was also achieved in an American family. Analysis of 24 HT1 patients from nine countries gave a frequency of [approximately] 52% for haplotype 6, suggesting a relatively high association, worldwide, of HT1 with this haplotype. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Demers, S.I.; Phaneuf, D.; Tanguay, R.M. (Centre de Recherche du CHUL, Quebec (Canada))

1994-08-01

342

Integrated Genetic and Epigenetic Analysis Identifies Haplotype-Specific Methylation in the FTO Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity Susceptibility Locus  

PubMed Central

Recent multi-dimensional approaches to the study of complex disease have revealed powerful insights into how genetic and epigenetic factors may underlie their aetiopathogenesis. We examined genotype-epigenotype interactions in the context of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), focussing on known regions of genomic susceptibility. We assayed DNA methylation in 60 females, stratified according to disease susceptibility haplotype using previously identified association loci. CpG methylation was assessed using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on a targeted array (MeDIP-chip) and absolute methylation values were estimated using a Bayesian algorithm (BATMAN). Absolute methylation levels were quantified across LD blocks, and we identified increased DNA methylation on the FTO obesity susceptibility haplotype, tagged by the rs8050136 risk allele A (p?=?9.40×10?4, permutation p?=?1.0×10?3). Further analysis across the 46 kb LD block using sliding windows localised the most significant difference to be within a 7.7 kb region (p?=?1.13×10?7). Sequence level analysis, followed by pyrosequencing validation, revealed that the methylation difference was driven by the co-ordinated phase of CpG-creating SNPs across the risk haplotype. This 7.7 kb region of haplotype-specific methylation (HSM), encapsulates a Highly Conserved Non-Coding Element (HCNE) that has previously been validated as a long-range enhancer, supported by the histone H3K4me1 enhancer signature. This study demonstrates that integration of Genome-Wide Association (GWA) SNP and epigenomic DNA methylation data can identify potential novel genotype-epigenotype interactions within disease-associated loci, thus providing a novel route to aid unravelling common complex diseases.

Wilson, Gareth A.; Rakyan, Vardhman K.; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Akan, Pelin; Stupka, Elia; Down, Thomas A.; Prokopenko, Inga; Morison, Ian M.; Mill, Jonathan; Pidsley, Ruth; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Beck, Stephan; Hitman, Graham A.

2010-01-01

343

Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis identifies haplotype-specific methylation in the FTO type 2 diabetes and obesity susceptibility locus.  

PubMed

Recent multi-dimensional approaches to the study of complex disease have revealed powerful insights into how genetic and epigenetic factors may underlie their aetiopathogenesis. We examined genotype-epigenotype interactions in the context of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), focussing on known regions of