Sample records for snp frequency haplotype

  1. Haplotype inference from unphased SNP data in heterozygous polyploids based on SAT

    PubMed Central

    Neigenfind, Jost; Gyetvai, Gabor; Basekow, Rico; Diehl, Svenja; Achenbach, Ute; Gebhardt, Christiane; Selbig, Joachim; Kersten, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Background Haplotype inference based on unphased SNP markers is an important task in population genetics. Although there are different approaches to the inference of haplotypes in diploid species, the existing software is not suitable for inferring haplotypes from unphased SNP data in polyploid species, such as the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum). Potato species are tetraploid and highly heterozygous. Results Here we present the software SATlotyper which is able to handle polyploid and polyallelic data. SATlo-typer uses the Boolean satisfiability problem to formulate Haplotype Inference by Pure Parsimony. The software excludes existing haplotype inferences, thus allowing for calculation of alternative inferences. As it is not known which of the multiple haplotype inferences are best supported by the given unphased data set, we use a bootstrapping procedure that allows for scoring of alternative inferences. Finally, by means of the bootstrapping scores, it is possible to optimise the phased genotypes belonging to a given haplotype inference. The program is evaluated with simulated and experimental SNP data generated for heterozygous tetraploid populations of potato. We show that, instead of taking the first haplotype inference reported by the program, we can significantly improve the quality of the final result by applying additional methods that include scoring of the alternative haplotype inferences and genotype optimisation. For a sub-population of nineteen individuals, the predicted results computed by SATlotyper were directly compared with results obtained by experimental haplotype inference via sequencing of cloned amplicons. Prediction and experiment gave similar results regarding the inferred haplotypes and phased genotypes. Conclusion Our results suggest that Haplotype Inference by Pure Parsimony can be solved efficiently by the SAT approach, even for data sets of unphased SNP from heterozygous polyploids. SATlotyper is freeware and is distributed as a Java JAR file. The software can be downloaded from the webpage of the GABI Primary Database at . The application of SATlotyper will provide haplotype information, which can be used in haplotype association mapping studies of polyploid plants. PMID:18667059

  2. A sequential Monte Carlo framework for haplotype inference in CNV/SNP genotype data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are abundant in the human genome. They have been associated with complex traits in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and expected to continue playing an important role in identifying the etiology of disease phenotypes. As a result of current high throughput whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, we currently have datasets that simultaneously have integer copy numbers in CNV regions as well as SNP genotypes. At the same time, haplotypes that have been shown to offer advantages over genotypes in identifying disease traits even though available for SNP genotypes are largely not available for CNV/SNP data due to insufficient computational tools. We introduce a new framework for inferring haplotypes in CNV/SNP data using a sequential Monte Carlo sampling scheme ‘Tree-Based Deterministic Sampling CNV’ (TDSCNV). We compare our method with polyHap(v2.0), the only currently available software able to perform inference in CNV/SNP genotypes, on datasets of varying number of markers. We have found that both algorithms show similar accuracy but TDSCNV is an order of magnitude faster while scaling linearly with the number of markers and number of individuals and thus could be the method of choice for haplotype inference in such datasets. Our method is implemented in the TDSCNV package which is available for download at http://www.ee.columbia.edu/~anastas/tdscnv. PMID:24868199

  3. Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication

    E-print Network

    Lacy, Bob

    LETTERS Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication,2 . To understand the process of dog diversification better, we conducted an extensive genome-wide survey of more than 48,000 single nucleotide poly- morphisms in dogs and their wild progenitor, the grey wolf. Here we

  4. Haplotype-based profiling of subtle allelic imbalance with SNP arrays.

    PubMed

    Vattathil, Selina; Scheet, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Due to limitations of surgical dissection and tumor heterogeneity, tumor samples collected for cancer genomics studies are often heavily diluted with normal tissue or contain subpopulations of cells harboring important aberrations. Methods for profiling tumor-associated allelic imbalance in such scenarios break down at aberrant cell proportions of 10%-15% and below. Here, we present an approach that offers a vast improvement for detection of subtle allelic imbalance, or low proportions of cells harboring aberrant allelic ratio among nonaberrant cells, in unpaired tumor samples using SNP microarrays. We leverage the expected pattern of allele-specific intensity ratios determined by an individual's germline haplotypes, information that has been ignored in existing approaches. We demonstrate our method on real and simulated data from the CRL-2324 breast cancer cell line genotyped on the Illumina 370K array. Assuming a 5 million SNP array, we can detect the presence of aberrant cells in proportions lower than 0.25% in the breast cancer sample, approaching the sensitivity of some minimal residual disease assays. Further, we apply a hidden Markov model to identify copy-neutral LOH (loss of heterozygosity) events as short as 11 Mb in mixtures of only 4% tumor using 370K data. We anticipate our approach will offer a new paradigm for genomic profiling of heterogeneous samples. PMID:23028187

  5. SNP discovery and haplotype analysis in the segmentally duplicated DRD5 coding region

    PubMed Central

    HOUSLEY, D. J. E.; NIKOLAS, M.; VENTA, P. J.; JERNIGAN, K. A.; WALDMAN, I. D.; NIGG, J. T.; FRIDERICI, K. H.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The dopamine receptor 5 gene (DRD5) holds much promise as a candidate locus for contributing to neuropsychiatric disorders and other diseases influenced by the dopaminergic system, as well as having potential to affect normal behavioral variation. However, detailed analyses of this gene have been complicated by its location within a segmentally duplicated chromosomal region. Microsatellites and SNPs upstream from the coding region have been used for association studies, but we find, using bioinformatics resources, that these markers all lie within a previously unrecognized second segmental duplication (SD). In order to accurately analyze the DRD5 locus for polymorphisms in the absence of contaminating pseudogene sequences, we developed a fast and reliable method for sequence analysis and genotyping within the DRD5 coding region. We employed restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA to eliminate the pseudogenes prior to PCR amplification of the functional gene. This approach allowed us to determine the DRD5 haplotype structure using 31 trios and to reveal additional rare variants in 171 unrelated individuals. We clarify the inconsistencies and errors of the recorded SNPs in dbSNP and HapMap and illustrate the importance of using caution when choosing SNPs in regions of suspected duplications. The simple and relatively inexpensive method presented herein allows for convenient analysis of sequence variation in DRD5 and can be easily adapted to other duplicated genomic regions in order to obtain good quality sequence data. PMID:19397556

  6. Comparison of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen haplotype frequencies in different ethnic groups: Consequences of sampling fluctuation and haplotype frequency distribution tail truncation.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Derek James; Tomich, Alannah; Garnier, Federico; Marry, Evelyne; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution haplotype frequency estimations and descriptive metrics are becoming increasingly popular for accurately describing human leukocyte antigen diversity. In this study, we compared sample sets of publically available haplotype frequencies from different populations to characterize the consequences of unequal sample size on haplotype frequency estimation. We found that for low samples sizes (a few thousand), haplotype frequencies were overestimated, affecting all descriptive metrics of the underlying distribution, such as most frequent haplotype, the number of haplotypes, and the mean/median frequency. This overestimation was a result of random sample fluctuation and truncation of the tail end of the frequency distribution that comprises the least frequent haplotypes. Finally, we simulated balanced datasets through resampling and contrasted the disparities of descriptive metrics among equal and unequal datasets. This simulation resulted in the global description of the most frequent human leukocyte antigen haplotypes worldwide. PMID:25637668

  7. Factor VIII haplotypes frequencies in Tunisian hemophiliacs A

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The development of inhibitors against factor 8 (F8) is the most serious complication of replacement therapy with F8 in children with severe hemophilia. It was suggested that mismatched F8 replacement therapy may be a risk factor for the development of anti-factor F8 alloantibodies. Recently four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encoding six distinct haplotypes, designated H1 through H6, were studied in different populations. Two SNPs are components of the A2 and C2 immunodominant-inhibitor epitopes. The aim of this study is to determine the different types of haplotypes in relation with inhibitors developments and their frequencies in our Tunisian hemophiliac population. Materials and methods 95/116 Tunisian patients with hemophilia A undergoing treatment at Hemophilia Treatment Center, Aziza Othmana hospital, participate in this study. Among them only six patients develop inhibitors. The four SNPs were amplified and sequenced. Results and Discussion In a total of 77 patients, we identified the H1, H2, H3 and the infrequent H5 haplotypes. The H1 and H2 haplotypes, which have the same amino acid sequence in the recombinant F8 molecules used clinically, are the most represented with the frequency of 0.763 and 0.157 respectively. This distribution is almost similar to that of Caucasians in which the frequencies are respectively 0.926 and 0.074, whereas it is 0.354 and 0.374 among Subsaharians. Four patients with inhibitors studied here have the H1 haplotype. For one patient who has a large deletion including the exon 10 we can't identify his haplotype. Theses frequencies may explain partially the low level of inhibitors in our patients. PMID:21682900

  8. The Structure of Haplotype Blocks in the Human Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacey B. Gabriel; Stephen F. Schaffner; Huy Nguyen; Jamie M. Moore; Jessica Roy; Brendan Blumenstiel; John Higgins; Matthew DeFelice; Amy Lochner; Maura Faggart; Shau Neen Liu-Cordero; Charles Rotimi; Adebowale Adeyemo; Richard Cooper; Ryk Ward; Eric S. Lander; Mark J. Daly; David Altshuler

    2002-01-01

    Haplotype-based methods offer a powerful approach to disease gene mapping, based on the association between causal mutations and the ancestral haplotypes on which they arose. As part of The SNP Consortium Allele Frequency Projects, we characterized haplotype patterns across 51 autosomal regions (spanning 13 megabases of the human genome) in samples from Africa, Europe, and Asia. We show that the

  9. SNP and haplotype identification of the wheat monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Wei, Yu-Ming; Yan, Ze-Hong; Zheng, You-Liang

    2008-11-01

    Seventy-three gene sequences encoding monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitors were characterized from cultivated wheat "Chinese Spring", group 6 nullisomic-tetrasomic lines of "Chinese Spring" and diploid putative progenitors of common wheat. The monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitors from the different sources shared very high homology (99.54%). The different alpha-amylase inhibitors, which were determined by the 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of their gene sequences, were investigated. A total of 15 haplotypes were defined by sequence alignment, among which 9 haplotypes were found with only one single sequence sample. Haplotype H02 was found to be the main haplotype occurring in 83 WMAI sequence samples, followed by haplotype H11. The median-joining network for the 15 haplotypes of monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitor gene sequences from hexaploid wheats was star like, and at least two subclusters emerged. Furthermore evidence of homologous recombination was found between the haplotypes. The relationship between nucleotide substitutions and the amino acid changes in WMAI of hexaploid wheats was summarized. It was clear that only five polymorphic sites in the nucleotide sequence of WMAI resulted in amino acid variations, and that should be the reason for different structure and function of inhibitors. However, little evidence could be found that there were WMAI genes in the A genome of hexaploid wheat, whereas it could conclude from our results that the A genome diploid wheat had WMAI genes. The overall information on the monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitors from wheat and Aegilops strongly support the view that these inhibitors have evolved from a common ancestral gene through duplication and mutation. PMID:18060568

  10. SNP analyses of growth factor genes EGF, TGF{beta}-1, and HGF reveal haplotypic association of EGF with autism

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoda, Takao; Thanseem, Ismail; Kawai, Masayoshi; Sekine, Yoshimoto [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Anitha, Ayyappan; Suda, Shiro [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakamura@hama-med.ac.jp; Yamada, Kazuo [Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Tsujii, Masatsugu [Faculty of Sociology, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi (Japan)]|[The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Takeo [Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Miyachi, Taishi; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Sugihara, Gen-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hideo [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Mori, Norio [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan)]|[The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan)]|[The Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Sugiyama, Toshiro [Aichi Children's Health and Medical Center, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Takei, Nori [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2007-09-07

    Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Growth factors have been found to play a key role in the cellular differentiation and proliferation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is detected in several regions of the developing and adult brain, where, it enhances the differentiation, maturation, and survival of a variety of neurons. Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) isoforms play an important role in neuronal survival, and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic activity. We examined the association of EGF, TGF{beta}1, and HGF genes with autism, in a trio association study, using DNA samples from families recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange; 252 trios with a male offspring scored for autism were selected for the study. Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant haplotypic association of EGF with autism. No significant SNP or haplotypic associations were observed for TGF{beta}1 or HGF. Given the role of EGF in brain and neuronal development, we suggest a possible role of EGF in the pathogenesis of autism.

  11. Exploring population size changes using SNP frequency spectra.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Fu, Yun-Xin

    2015-05-01

    Inferring demographic history is an important task in population genetics. Many existing inference methods are based on predefined simplified population models, which are more suitable for hypothesis testing than exploratory analysis. We developed a novel model-flexible method called stairway plot, which infers changes in population size over time using SNP frequency spectra. This method is applicable for whole-genome sequences of hundreds of individuals. Using extensive simulation, we demonstrate the usefulness of the method for inferring demographic history, especially recent changes in population size. We apply the method to the whole-genome sequence data of 9 populations from the 1000 Genomes Project and show a pattern of fluctuations in human populations from 10,000 to 200,000 years ago. PMID:25848749

  12. Haplotype block partitioning as a tool for dimensionality reduction in SNP association studies

    PubMed Central

    Pattaro, Cristian; Ruczinski, Ingo; Fallin, Danièle M; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Background Identification of disease-related genes in association studies is challenged by the large number of SNPs typed. To address the dilution of power caused by high dimensionality, and to generate results that are biologically interpretable, it is critical to take into consideration spatial correlation of SNPs along the genome. With the goal of identifying true genetic associations, partitioning the genome according to spatial correlation can be a powerful and meaningful way to address this dimensionality problem. Results We developed and validated an MCMC Algorithm To Identify blocks of Linkage DisEquilibrium (MATILDE) for clustering contiguous SNPs, and a statistical testing framework to detect association using partitions as units of analysis. We compared its ability to detect true SNP associations to that of the most commonly used algorithm for block partitioning, as implemented in the Haploview and HapBlock software. Simulations were based on artificially assigning phenotypes to individuals with SNPs corresponding to region 14q11 of the HapMap database. When block partitioning is performed using MATILDE, the ability to correctly identify a disease SNP is higher, especially for small effects, than it is with the alternatives considered. Advantages can be both in terms of true positive findings and limiting the number of false discoveries. Finer partitions provided by LD-based methods or by marker-by-marker analysis are efficient only for detecting big effects, or in presence of large sample sizes. The probabilistic approach we propose offers several additional advantages, including: a) adapting the estimation of blocks to the population, technology, and sample size of the study; b) probabilistic assessment of uncertainty about block boundaries and about whether any two SNPs are in the same block; c) user selection of the probability threshold for assigning SNPs to the same block. Conclusion We demonstrate that, in realistic scenarios, our adaptive, study-specific block partitioning approach is as or more efficient than currently available LD-based approaches in guiding the search for disease loci. PMID:18759977

  13. Multi-allelic haplotype association identifies novel information different from single-SNP analysis: A new protective haplotype in the LRP8 gene is against familial and early-onset CAD and MI

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Gong-Qing; Girelli, Domenico; Li, Lin; Olivieri, Oliviero; Martinelli, Nicola; Chen, Qiuyun; Topol, Eric J.; Wang, Qing K.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies identified a functional SNP, R952Q in the LRP8 gene, that was associated with increased platelet activation and familial and early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in American and Italian Caucasian populations. In this study, we analyzed four additional SNPs near R952Q (rs7546246, rs2297660, rs3737983, rs5177) to identify a specific LRP8 SNP haplotype that is associated with familial and early-onset CAD and MI. We employed a case–control association design involving 381 premature CAD and MI probands and 560 controls in GeneQuest, 441 individuals from 22 large pedigrees in GeneQuest II, and 248 MI patients with family history and 308 controls in an Italian cohort. Like R952Q, LRP8 SNPs rs7546246, rs2297660, rs3737983, and rs5177 were significantly associated with early-onset CAD/MI in both population-based and family-based association studies in GeneQuest. The results were replicated in the GeneQuest II family-based population and the Italian population. We then carried out a haplotype analysis for all five SNPs including R952Q. One common haplotype (TCCGC) was significantly associated with CAD (P = 4.0 × 10?11) and MI (P = 6.5 × 10?12) in GeneQuest with odds ratios of 0.53 and 0.42, respectively. The results were replicated in the Italian cohort (P = 0.004, OR = 0.71). The sib-TDT analysis also showed significant association between the TCCGC haplotype and CAD in GeneQuest II (P = 0.001). These results suggest that a common LRP8 haplotype TCCGC confers a significant protective effect on the development of familial, early-onset CAD and/or MI. PMID:23524007

  14. Multi-allelic haplotype association identifies novel information different from single-SNP analysis: a new protective haplotype in the LRP8 gene is against familial and early-onset CAD and MI.

    PubMed

    Shen, Gong-Qing; Girelli, Domenico; Li, Lin; Olivieri, Oliviero; Martinelli, Nicola; Chen, Qiuyun; Topol, Eric J; Wang, Qing K

    2013-05-25

    Our previous studies identified a functional SNP, R952Q in the LRP8 gene, that was associated with increased platelet activation and familial and early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in American and Italian Caucasian populations. In this study, we analyzed four additional SNPs near R952Q (rs7546246, rs2297660, rs3737983, rs5177) to identify a specific LRP8 SNP haplotype that is associated with familial and early-onset CAD and MI. We employed a case-control association design involving 381 premature CAD and MI probands and 560 controls in GeneQuest, 441 individuals from 22 large pedigrees in GeneQuest II, and 248 MI patients with family history and 308 controls in an Italian cohort. Like R952Q, LRP8 SNPs rs7546246, rs2297660, rs3737983, and rs5177 were significantly associated with early-onset CAD/MI in both population-based and family-based association studies in GeneQuest. The results were replicated in the GeneQuest II family-based population and the Italian population. We then carried out a haplotype analysis for all five SNPs including R952Q. One common haplotype (TCCGC) was significantly associated with CAD (P=4.0×10(-11)) and MI (P=6.5×10(-12)) in GeneQuest with odds ratios of 0.53 and 0.42, respectively. The results were replicated in the Italian cohort (P=0.004, OR=0.71). The sib-TDT analysis also showed significant association between the TCCGC haplotype and CAD in GeneQuest II (P=0.001). These results suggest that a common LRP8 haplotype TCCGC confers a significant protective effect on the development of familial, early-onset CAD and/or MI. PMID:23524007

  15. Amerindians show association to obesity with adiponectin gene SNP45 and SNP276: population genetics of a food intake control and "thrifty" gene.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Rey, Diego; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Arribas, Ignacio; Coca, Carmen; Algora, Manuel; Areces, Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Adiponectin gene polymorphisms SNP45 and SNP276 have been related to metabolic syndrome (MS) and related pathologies, including obesity. However results of associations are contradictory depending on which population is studied. In the present study, these adiponectin SNPs are for the first time studied in Amerindians. Allele frequencies are obtained and comparison with obesity and other MS related parameters are performed. Amerindians were also defined by characteristic HLA genes. Our main results are: (1) SNP276 T is associated to low diastolic blood pressure in Amerindians, (2) SNP45 G allele is correlated with obesity in female but not in male Amerindians, (3) SNP45/SNP276 T/G haplotype in total obese/non-obese subjects tends to show a linkage with non-obese Amerindians, (4) SNP45/SNP276 T/T haplotype is linked to obese Amerindian males. Also, a world population study is carried out finding that SNP45 T and SNP276 T alleles are the most frequent in African Blacks and are found significantly in lower frequencies in Europeans and Asians. This together with the fact that there is a linkage of this haplotype to obese Amerindian males suggest that evolutionary forces related to famine (or population density in relation with available food) may have shaped world population adiponectin polymorphism frequencies. PMID:23108996

  16. HLA-A*02 allele frequencies and haplotypic associations in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Park, M H; Whang, D H; Kang, S J; Han, K S

    2000-03-01

    We have investigated the frequencies of HLA-A*02 alleles and their haplotypic associations with HLA-B and -DRB1 loci in 439 healthy unrelated Koreans, including 214 parents from 107 families. All of the 227 samples (51.7%) typed as A2 by serology were analyzed for A*02 alleles using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-low ionic strength-single-strand conformation polymorphism (LIS-SSCP) method. A total of six different A*02 alleles were detected (A*02 allele frequency 29.6%): A*0201/9 (16.6%), *0203 (0.5%), *0206 (9.3%), *0207 (3.0%), and one each case of *0210 and *02 undetermined type. Two characteristic haplotypes showing the strongest linkage disequilibrium were A*0203-B38-DRB]*1502 and A*0207-B46-DRB1*0803. Besides these strong associations, significant two-locus associations (P<0.001) were observed for A*0201 with B61, DRB1*0901 and DRB1*1401, and for A*0206 with B48 and B61. HLA haplotypes carrying HLA-A2 showed a variable distribution of A*02 alleles, and all of the eight most common A2-B-DR haplotypes occurring at frequencies of > or =1% were variably associated with two different A*02 alleles. These results demonstrate that substantial heterogeneity is present in the distribution of HLA-A*02 alleles and related haplotypes in Koreans. PMID:10777100

  17. Integrating sequence and array data to create an improved 1000 Genomes Project haplotype reference panel

    PubMed Central

    Delaneau, Olivier; Marchini, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A major use of the 1000 Genomes Project (1000GP) data is genotype imputation in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we develop a method to estimate haplotypes from low coverage sequencing data that can take advantage of SNP microarray genotypes on the same samples. Firstly the SNP array data are phased in order to build a backbone (or ’scaffold’) of haplotypes across each chromosome. We then phase the sequence data ‘onto’ this haplotype scaffold. This approach can take advantage of relatedness between sequenced and non-sequenced samples to improve accuracy. We use this method to create a new 1000GP haplotype reference set for use by the human genetic community. Using a set of validation genotypes at SNP and biallelic indels we show that these haplotypes have lower genotype discordance and improved imputation performance into downstream GWAS samples, especially at low frequency variants. PMID:25653097

  18. Frequency of alleles and haplotypes of the human leukocyte antigen system in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Luana de Cassia; Santana, Fabiana Covolo de Souza; Marcos, Elaine Valim Camarinha

    2014-01-01

    Background: HLA allele identification is used in bone marrow transplant programs as HLA compatibility between the donor and recipient may prevent graft rejection. Objective: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of alleles and haplotypes of the HLA system in the region of Bauru and compare these with the frequencies found in other regions of the country. Methods: HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* allele frequencies and haplotypes were analyzed in a sample of 3542 volunteer donors at the National Registry of Voluntary Bone Marrow Donors (REDOME) in Bauru. HLA low resolution typing was performed using reverse line blot with the Dynal Reli(tm) SSO-HLA Typing Kit and automated Dynal AutoReli(tm)48 device (Invitrogen, USA). Results: Twenty, 36, and 13 HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* allele groups, respectively, were identified. The most common alleles for each locus were HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, and HLA-DRB1*07. The most frequent haplotype was A*01-B*08-DRB1*03. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared to other regions in Brazil and the similarities and differences among populations are shown. Conclusion: The knowledge of the immunogenic profile of a population contributes to the comprehension of the historical and anthropological aspects of different regions. Moreover, this helps to find suitable donors quickly, thereby shortening waiting lists for transplants and thus increasing survival rates among recipients. PMID:24790535

  19. The new Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database.

    PubMed

    Willuweit, Sascha; Roewer, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    After opening the first version of an internet-accessible worldwide reference database of Y chromosome profiles 14 years ago and six years after the last major relaunch the new YHRD 4.0 repository and website has been rolled-out. By November 2014 about 136k 9-locus haplotypes, among these 84k 17-locus haplotypes, 25k 23-locus haplotypes and 15k Y SNP profiles from 917 sampling locations in 128 countries have been submitted by more than 250 institutes and laboratories. In geographic terms, about 39% of the YHRD samples are from Europe, 32% from Asia, 16% from South America, 6% from North America, 4% from Africa and 2% from Oceania/Australia. Worldwide collaboration is the driving force for the rapid growth of the database and this, in turn, allows the evaluation and implementation of enhanced interpretation tools (variable frequency estimators, LR-based mixture and kinship analysis, Y-SNP-based ancestry assessment). PMID:25529991

  20. Allele and haplotype frequencies at human leukocyte antigen class I and II genes in Venezuela's population.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar Fortes, María; Gill, Gisselle; Paredes, María Elena; Gamez, Ligia Elena; Palacios, Marina; Blanca, Isaac; Tassinari, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Population studies represent an integral part and link in understanding the complex chain of host-pathogen interactions, disease pathogenesis, and MHC gene polymorphisms. Genes of Mongoloid, Caucasoid, and Negroid populations have created a distinctive HLA genetic profile in the Venezuelan population. Our objective was to determine the predominant HLA class I and II alleles and haplotype frequencies in the hybrid population of Venezuela. The study population consisted of 486 healthy unrelated native Venezuelans and 180 families. We examined the frequency of HLA A-B-C, HLA-DQ and HLA-DR genes by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Phenotypic, allelic and haplotype frequencies were estimated by direct counting and using the maximum-likelihood method. The predominant HLA class I alleles were A*02, A*24, A*68, B*35, B*44, B*51, B*07, B*15 and Cw*07. Regarding HLA class II, the most frequent alleles were DQB1*03 and DRB1*04, DRB1*15, DRB1*13, DRB1*07. The prevailing haplotype was HLA-A*02B*35 DQB1*03 DRB1*04. Some of these alleles and haplotype frequencies were predominantly present in Amerindians (A*02, A*24, B*35, Cw*07, DRB1*04, A*24 B*35). Previous reports have shown high incidence of A*02, B*44, B*51, DRB1*15, DRB1*13, DRB1*07 alleles in several European populations and A*68, B*07, B*15 alleles in African Americans, which could have contributed to the ethnic admixture of the Venezuelan population. We conclude that our results provide strong evidence that Venezuela's population represents an admixture of the primitive Mongoloid Aborigines, Caucasoid Europeans and Western African Negroid migrants. PMID:22484528

  1. A substantially lower frequency of uninformative matches between 23 versus 17 Y-STR haplotypes in north Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Decorte, Ronny

    2014-07-01

    The analysis of human short tandem repeats of the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs) provides a powerful tool in forensic cases for male sex identification, male lineage identification and identification of the geographical origin of male lineages. As the commonly used 12 and 17 Y-STR multiplexes do not discriminate between some unrelated males, additional Y-STRs were implemented in the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System to supplement the existing commercial Y-STR kits. Until today, the forensic value of a (near) 23 versus 17 Y-STR haplotype match between an unknown DNA donor and a certain biological sample in a database is not yet well studied. This will be of huge interest for cases where an autosomal DNA profile yields no match to a DNA database and the database is used for familial searching (male relative(s) of the offender) or for the estimation of the geographical origin of the offender. In order to value (near) 23 Y-STR haplotype matches in a local sample from Western Europe, we selected the region of Flanders (Belgium) due to the already present knowledge on its Y-chromosomal variants. Many Y-chromosomes of this region were previously genotyped with Y-SNPs at a high resolution of the most recently updated Y-chromosomal tree and the deep-rooted genealogy of each DNA donor was already established. By comparing (near) matches of 23 versus 17 Y-STR haplotypes between patrilineal-unrelated males, a substantial lower number of uninformative (near) 23 Y-STR haplotype matches has been observed compared to 17 Y-STR haplotypes. Furthermore, the use of SNP data was informative to discriminate >60% of unrelated males with an (near) identical 17 Y-STR match while SNP data was only necessary to discriminate about 10% of unrelated males with a 23 Y-STR haplotype that differed at only two Y-STRs. This shows the higher value of the Y23 haplotype within familial DNA searching and the estimation of the geographical origin of a DNA donor. Therefore, the use of the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System instead of the commonly used 12 and 17 Y-STRs by the forensic community is recommended as it will increase the efficiency of Y-STRs in forensic casework. PMID:24815371

  2. Determination of HLA-A, -C, -B, -DRB1 allele and haplotype frequency in Japanese population based on family study.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, N; Kojima, H; Nishikawa, M; Hayashi, K; Futagami, T; Tsujino, T; Kusunoki, Y; Fujii, N; Suegami, S; Miyazaki, Y; Middleton, D; Tanaka, H; Saji, H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) allele and haplotype frequencies in Japanese population. We carried out the frequency analysis in 5824 families living across Japanese archipelago. The studied population has mainly been typed for the purpose of transplant, especially the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We determined HLA class I (A, B, and C) and HLA class II (DRB1) using Luminex technology. The haplotypes were directly counted by segregation. A total of 44 HLA-A, 29 HLA-C, 75 HLA-B, and 42 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified. In the HLA haplotypes of A-C-B-DRB1 and C-B, the pattern of linkage disequilibrium peculiar to Japanese population has been confirmed. Moreover, the haplotype frequencies based on family study was compared with the frequencies estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and the equivalent results were obtained. The allele and haplotype frequencies obtained in this study could be useful for anthropology, transplantation therapy, and disease association studies. PMID:25789826

  3. Heuristics for haplotype frequency estimation with a large number of analyzed loci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotka, Micha?; Nowak, Robert

    Determining haplotypes with laboratory methods is an expensive and time-consuming activity therefore unsuit- able for the analysis of genetic data coming from a large number of tested individuals. Many existing algorithms for phasing genotypes operate on very impractical runtime and take into account only certain types of polymor- phisms, often without providing graphical user interface. The heuristic algorithm for estimating haplotype frequency developed in this work was examined in terms of time complexity, the speed of execution and the accuracy of results. Consequently, a Rich Internet Application that implements described algorithm has been created and its performance and accuracy to a known set of test data is analyzed. Eventually, a discussion on the architecture and the applications usability in bioinformatics applications is presented. Proposed algorithm can be used to improve the complexity of any algorithm that solves the problem of genotype phasing, which has a worse time complexity and is convergent. The algorithm is easy to scale and can achieve the desired ratio of calculations accuracy to execution time. Implemented application meets all requirements for the programs to solve problems in biology i.e. high performance, accessibility, scalability and usability.

  4. Frequency Distribution and Haplotypic Heterogeneity of ?E-Globin Gene among Eight Minority Groups of Northeast Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goonnapa Fucharoen; Supan Fucharoen; Kanokwan Sanchaisuriya; Nattaya Sae-ung; Urasri Suyasunanond; Prayuk Sriwilai; Phannee Chinorak

    2002-01-01

    The frequencies of hemoglobin E and ?E-globin gene haplotypes were determined in eight minority groups living in the northeastern part of Thailand. A total of 478 samples of eight minority groups, namely Soui, Thai Khmer, So, Yor, Phuthai, Thai Puan, Thai Loei and Thai Dam, were examined. High prevalences of hemoglobin E (>50%) were observed in Soui, Thai Khmer, So,

  5. No increase of JAK2 46/1 haplotype frequency in essential thrombocythemia with CALR mutations: Functional effect of the haplotype limited to allele with JAK2V617F mutation but not CALR mutation.

    PubMed

    Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chou, Yi-Sheng; Liu, Chia-Jen; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai

    2015-06-01

    The true frequency of the JAK2 46/1 haplotype in patients of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) with CALR mutations was unknown. Totally 187 MPN cases with diagnosis of polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) were recruited. The frequency of 46/1 haplotype was significantly higher in JAK2V617F-positive PV (51%, p<0.001) and ET (41%, p=0.005) compared to normal controls. The exact location of JAK2V617F mutation was located at the cis-46/1 haplotype in 86.4% (32/37) PV patients and 87.5% (28/32) ET patients, respectively. Among the 51 patients of ET without JAK2V617F mutation, 38 (75%) patients harbored CALR mutations and 3 patients had MPL mutation. The frequency of 46/1 haplotype in the 38 ET patients with CALR mutations was 27%, which is not significantly different from that of normal control (p value=0.879). Compared to non-46/1 haplotype, the presence of 46/1 haplotype had a trend to have higher white blood cell count in JAK2V617F-mutated PV and ET patients but not in CALR-mutated ET. We conclude that the 46/1 haplotype could have functioning effect but only in the context of JAK2V617F mutation. PMID:25976465

  6. SNP discovery and allele frequency estimation by deep sequencing of reduced representation libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome projects routinely produce draft sequences for species from diverse evolutionary clades, but generally do not create single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) resources. We present an approach for de novo SNP discovery based on short-read sequencing of reduced representation libraries (RRL) to ge...

  7. High-resolution SNP and haplotype maps of the human gamma-glutamyl carboxylase gene (GGCX) and association study between polymorphisms in GGCX and the warfarin maintenance dose requirement of the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Cha, Pei-Chieng; Mushiroda, Taisei; Takahashi, Atsushi; Saito, Shigeru; Shimomura, Hideki; Suzuki, Takao; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) plays an important role in blood coagulation through post-translational carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent blood-clotting proteins. This carboxylation process is impaired in the presence of warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist. Recent studies on GGCX have provided insights into association of polymorphisms in this gene, with inter-individual differences in the required warfarin maintenance dose. In order to provide a useful resource for further elucidating this association, we here report a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype maps of an 18-kb genomic region corresponding to the GGCX locus in the Japanese population. Among 41 SNPs, seven insertion/deletion polymorphisms, and a microsatellite polymorphism that we detected by direct sequencing of the DNAs of 96 Japanese individuals who were treated with warfarin, 32 genetic variations have not been reported. Using genotype information from 12 SNPs and the EM algorithm, we estimated haplotypes for this genomic region. Subsequently, we investigated associations of each of these polymorphisms with the warfarin maintenance-dose requirements of 828 Japanese patients, including the 96 patients that were used for DNA sequencing. We found no significant association between the polymorphisms in GGCX and the dose requirement. PMID:17786385

  8. Human leukocyte antigen alleles, genotypes and haplotypes frequencies in renal transplant donors and recipients from West Central India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaina S.; Patel, Manisha M.; Koringa, Prakash G.; Shah, Tejas M.; Patel, Amrutlal K.; Tripathi, Ajai K.; Mathew, Anila; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is comprised of a highly polymorphic set of genes which determines the histocompatibility of organ transplantation. The present study was undertaken to identify HLA class I and class II allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies in renal transplant recipients and donors from West Central India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HLA typing was carried out using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Sequence Specific Primer in 552 live related and unrelated renal transplant recipients and donors. RESULTS: The most frequent HLA class I and class II alleles and their frequencies in recipients were HLA-AFNx0101 (0.1685) and AFNx0102 (0.1649), HLA-BFNx0135 (0.1322), and HLA-DR beta 1 (DRB 1)FNx0115 (0.2192), whereas in donors, these were HLA-AFNx0102 (0.1848) and AFNx0101 (0.1667), HLA-BFNx0135 (0.1359), and HLA-DRB1FNx0115 (0.2409). The two-locus haplotype statistical analysis revealed HLA-AFNx0102-B61 as the most common haplotype with the frequency of 0.0487 and 0.0510 in recipients and donors, respectively. Further, among the three locus haplotypes HLA-AFNx0133-BFNx0144-DRB1FNx0107 and HLA-AFNx0102-BFNx0161-DRB1FNx0115 were the most common haplotypes with frequencies 0.0362 and 0.0326, respectively in recipients and 0.0236 and 0.0323, respectively in donors. Genotype frequency revealed a high prevalence of genotype HLA-AFNx0102/AFNx0124 in recipients (0.058) compared to donors (0.0109) whereas low prevalence of HLA-AFNx0101/AFNx0102 in recipients (0.0435) than in donors (0.0797). The phylogenetic and principal component analysis of HLA allele and haplotype frequency distribution revealed genetic similarities of various ethnic groups. Further, case control analysis provides preliminary evidence of association of HLA-A genotype (P < 0.05) with renal failure. CONCLUSION: This study will be helpful in suitable donor search besides providing valuable information for population genetics and HLA disease association analysis. PMID:24019626

  9. Haplotype structure and selection of the MDM2 oncogene in humans

    PubMed Central

    Atwal, Gurinder Singh; Bond, Gareth L.; Metsuyanim, Sally; Papa, Moshe; Friedman, Eitan; Distelman-Menachem, Tal; Ben Asher, Edna; Lancet, Doron; Ross, David A.; Sninsky, John; White, Tomas J.; Levine, Arnold J.; Yarden, Ronit

    2007-01-01

    The MDM2 protein is an ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in regulating the levels and activity of the p53 protein, which is a central tumor suppressor. A SNP in the human MDM2 gene (SNP309 T/G) occurs at frequencies dependent on demographic history and has been shown to have important differential effects on the activity of the MDM2 and p53 proteins and to associate with altered risk for the development of several cancers. In this report, the haplotype structure of the MDM2 gene is determined by using 14 different SNPs across the gene from three different population samples: Caucasians, African Americans, and the Ashkenazi Jewish ethnic group. The results presented in this report indicate that there is a substantially reduced variability of the deleterious SNP309 G allele haplotype in all three populations studied, whereas multiple common T allele haplotypes were found in all three populations. This observation, coupled with the relatively high frequency of the G allele haplotype in both and Caucasian and Ashkenazi Jewish population data sets, suggests that this haplotype could have undergone a recent positive selection sweep. An entropy-based selection test is presented that explicitly takes into account the correlations between different SNPs, and the analysis of MDM2 reveals a significant departure from the standard assumptions of selective neutrality. PMID:17360557

  10. Allele frequencies for 15 autosomal STR loci and haplotype data for 17 Y-STR loci in a population from Belize.

    PubMed

    Flores, Shahida; Sun, Jie; King, Jonathan; Eisenberg, Arthur; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Allele frequencies for 15 autosomal STR loci (N?=?290) and haplotype data for 17 Y-STR loci (N?=?157) were determined for an admixed population from Belize. There were no detectable departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations at any autosomal STR loci except for the D8S1179 locus (p?=?0.002). The combined power of discrimination (PD) and combined power of exclusion (PE) were greater than 0.99999999 and 0.99999951, respectively. In addition, a total of 144 distinct Y-STR haplotypes were observed with 133 Y-STR haplotypes observed only once. The most common Y-STR haplotype was observed three times for two separate haplotypes. The various analyses of these forensically relevant STR loci showed that these markers are informative in the Belize population for forensic and parentage testing applications. PMID:25193820

  11. Y chromosomal haplotype characteristics of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutao; Xu, Lei; Yan, Wei; Li, Shaobin; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yuzhu

    2015-07-10

    Investigations on the variation present at the male-specific Y chromosome region provide strong information to understand the origin and evolution of domestic sheep. One SNP OY1 (g.88A>G) in the upstream region of SRY gene, and the microsatellite SRYM18 locus within ovine Y chromosome were analyzed in one hundred and forty five samples collected from eleven breeds in China. SNP OY1 was analyzed using PCR-SSCP method and sequencing. Two different PCR-SSCP patterns represented two specific sequences with sequence analysis revealing SNP-OY1 (g.88A>G) were observed, while SNP A-OY1 showed the most common frequency (82.8%). Sequencing of the SRYM18 region revealed one novel size fragment (A2) with different repetitive units. Seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9 and H12) and two novel haplotypes (Ha and Hb) were established using combined genotype analysis. H6 showed the highest frequency (43.4%) across all breeds, and H8 showed the second frequency (24.1%). Ha was only found in one breed (Tan), while Hb was present in three breeds (Gansu alpine, White Suffolk and Duolang). Our findings reveal one novel allele in SRYM18 region and two novel male haplotypes of domestic sheep in China. PMID:25865303

  12. Factors affecting the power of haplotype markers in association studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important, unresolved question in genome-wide association studies is whether there are predictable differences in power between single-SNP and haplotype markers. In this study, we use coalescent simulations to compare power for single-SNP and haplotype markers under a number of different models ...

  13. SNP haplotypes and allele frequencies show evidence for disruptive and balancing selection in the human leukocyte receptor complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Norman; Mark A. Cook; B. Sean Carey; Christine V. F. Carrington; David H. Verity; Kamran Hameed; D. Dan Ramdath; Dasnayanee Chandanayingyong; Mark Leppert; Henry A. F. Stephens; R. W. Vaughan

    2004-01-01

    The human leukocyte receptor complex ( LRC) of Chromosome 19q13.4 encodes polymorphic and highly homologous genes that are expressed by cells of the immune system and regulate their function. There is an enormous diversity at the LRC, most particularly the variable number of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor ( KIR) genes. KIR have been associated with several disease processes due to

  14. The association of XRCC1 haplotypes and chromosomal damage levels in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Leng; Juan Cheng; Linyuan Zhang; Yong Niu; Yufei Dai; Zufei Pan; Bin Li; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control

    2005-05-15

    Theoretically, a haplotype has a higher level of heterozygosity than individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the association study based on the haplotype may have an increased power for detecting disease associations compared with SNP-based analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) and the inferred haplotype pairs of the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene on chromosome damage detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The study included 141 coke-oven workers with exposure to a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 66 nonexposed controls. The frequencies of total MN and MNed cells were borderline associated with the Arg{sup 194}Trp polymorphism (P = 0.053 and P = 0.050, respectively) but not associated with the Arg{sup 280}His, Arg{sup 399}Gln and Gln{sup 632}Gln polymorphisms among coke-oven workers. Five haplotypes, including CGGG, TGGG, CAGG, CGAG, and CGGA, were inferred based on the four htSNPs of XRCC1 gene. The haplotype CGGG was associated with the decreased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells, and the haplotypes TGGG and CGAG were associated with the increased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells with adjustment for covariates among coke-oven workers. This study showed that the haplotypes derived from htSNPs in the XRCC1 gene were more likely than single SNPs to correlate with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced chromosome damage among coke-oven workers.

  15. Infection Frequency of Hepatitis C Virus and IL28B Haplotypes in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, and Kiribati

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, G. L. Abby; Pryor, Jan; Malani, Joji; Supuri, Mathias; Masta, Andrew; Teriboriki, Burentau; Toatu, Tebuka; Penny, David; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Barnes, Eleanor; Pybus, Oliver G.; Klenerman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that there are more than 60 million Hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers in the World Health Organisation's Western Pacific region (WHO-WPR), where liver cancer is among the top three causes of cancer death. WHO and the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention report the prevalence of HCV in the South Pacific islands (countries within the WHO-WPR) to be high (5–10% and >2% respectively). However, since HCV is not tested for in many of these countries, there is sparse data available to support this assertion. We screened ?2000 apparently healthy individuals from Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Kiribati and found a sero-prevalence of 2.0%, 0.1% and 0%, respectively. All sero-positive samples tested negative for HCV RNA. Curious as to why all the sero-positive individuals were negative for HCV-RNA, we also screened them for the HCV protective IL28B SNP markers rs12979860 and rs8099917. All antibody-positive participants bar one had HCV protective haplotypes. Our results suggest that HCV is present in these Pacific island countries, albeit at a prevalence lower than previous estimates. As none of our participants had undergone antiviral treatment, and therefore must have cleared infection naturally, we hypothesise that genotypes 1 and/or 4 are circulating in South Pacific Island people and that these peoples are genetically predisposed to be more likely to spontaneous resolve HCV infection than to become chronic carriers. PMID:23976941

  16. An Analysis of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 Allele and Haplotype Frequencies of 21,918 Residents Living in Liaoning, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Kun-Lian; Liu, Xiang-Jun; Li, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allele frequencies and their haplotype frequencies in 21,918 Chinese residents living in Liaoning Province, who were registered as volunteer donors of China Marrow Donor Registry, were investigated. They are composed of 93.37% Han Chinese, 5.1% Manchus, 0.57% Mongols, 0.46% Hui persons, 0.29% Koreans and 0.14% Xibe ethnic group. In total eighteen different HLA-A alleles, forty-eight different HLA-B alleles and fourteen different HLA-DRB1 alleles have been identified. Their frequencies are in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. For Han Chinese in Liaoning, 1,534 different HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were identified, with a frequency of higher than 0.01%. A*30-B*13-DRB1*07, A*02-B*46-DRB1*09 and A*02-B*13-DRB1*12 are the most frequent haplotypes among Liaoning Han. While Liaoning Han, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongol, Liaoning Hui and Liaoning Korean share the northern Han characteristic haplotypes, all minority ethnic groups with the exception of Liaoning Manchu have developed their own unique HLA profiles. This dataset characterizes the HLA allele and haplotype frequencies in the Liaoning area and suggests that it is different from those in other parts of China and ethnic groups, which implicates transplant donor searching strategies and studies on population genetics. PMID:24691290

  17. Haplotyping Problem, A Clustering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Eslahchi, Changiz [Faculty of Mathematics, Shahid-Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bioinformatics Group, School of Computer Science, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Mehdi [National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran-Karaj Highway, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Bioinformatics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pezeshk, Hamid [Center of Excellence in Biomathematics, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kargar, Mehdi [Department of Computer Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poormohammadi, Hadi [Faculty of Mathematics, Shahid-Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-09-06

    Construction of two haplotypes from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) fragments is called haplotype reconstruction problem. One of the most popular computational model for this problem is Minimum Error Correction (MEC). Since MEC is an NP-hard problem, here we propose a novel heuristic algorithm based on clustering analysis in data mining for haplotype reconstruction problem. Based on hamming distance and similarity between two fragments, our iterative algorithm produces two clusters of fragments; then, in each iteration, the algorithm assigns a fragment to one of the clusters. Our results suggest that the algorithm has less reconstruction error rate in comparison with other algorithms.

  18. Microarray-based estimation of SNP allele-frequency in pooled DNA using the Langmuir kinetic model

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Bin-Cheng; Li, Honghua; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2008-01-01

    Background High throughput genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genome-wide association requires technologies for generating millions of genotypes with relative ease but also at a reasonable cost and with high accuracy. In this work, we have developed a theoretical approach to estimate allele frequency in pooled DNA samples, based on the physical principles of DNA immobilization and hybridization on solid surface using the Langmuir kinetic model and quantitative analysis of the allelic signals. Results This method can successfully distinguish allele frequencies differing by 0.01 in the actual pool of clinical samples, and detect alleles with a frequency as low as 2%. The accuracy of measuring known allele frequencies is very high, with the strength of correlation between measured and actual frequencies having an r2 = 0.9992. These results demonstrated that this method could allow the accurate estimation of absolute allele frequencies in pooled samples of DNA in a feasible and inexpensive way. Conclusion We conclude that this novel strategy for quantitative analysis of the ratio of SNP allelic sequences in DNA pools is an inexpensive and feasible alternative for detecting polymorphic differences in candidate gene association studies and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium scans. PMID:19087310

  19. Novel Quantitative Real-Time LCR for the Sensitive Detection of SNP Frequencies in Pooled DNA: Method Development, Evaluation and Application

    PubMed Central

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos; Banos, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have proven to be powerful genetic markers for genetic applications in medicine, life science and agriculture. A variety of methods exist for SNP detection but few can quantify SNP frequencies when the mutated DNA molecules correspond to a small fraction of the wild-type DNA. Furthermore, there is no generally accepted gold standard for SNP quantification, and, in general, currently applied methods give inconsistent results in selected cohorts. In the present study we sought to develop a novel method for accurate detection and quantification of SNP in DNA pooled samples. Methods The development and evaluation of a novel Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) protocol that uses a DNA-specific fluorescent dye to allow quantitative real-time analysis is described. Different reaction components and thermocycling parameters affecting the efficiency and specificity of LCR were examined. Several protocols, including gap-LCR modifications, were evaluated using plasmid standard and genomic DNA pools. A protocol of choice was identified and applied for the quantification of a polymorphism at codon 136 of the ovine PRNP gene that is associated with susceptibility to a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep. Conclusions The real-time LCR protocol developed in the present study showed high sensitivity, accuracy, reproducibility and a wide dynamic range of SNP quantification in different DNA pools. The limits of detection and quantification of SNP frequencies were 0.085% and 0.35%, respectively. Significance The proposed real-time LCR protocol is applicable when sensitive detection and accurate quantification of low copy number mutations in DNA pools is needed. Examples include oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, infectious diseases, pathogenic bacteria, fungal species, viral mutants, drug resistance resulting from point mutations, and genetically modified organisms in food. PMID:21283808

  20. Haplotype Frequency of G691S/S904S in the RET Proto-Onco-gene in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SHEIKHOLESLAMI, Sara; ZARIF YEGANEH, Marjan; HOGHOOGHI RAD, Laleh; GOLAB GHADAKSAZ, Hoda; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) occurs in both sporadic (75%) and hereditary (25%) forms. The missense mutations of the REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene in MTC development have been well demonstrated. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency of G691S/S904S haplotype in MTC patients and their relatives. Methods In this research 293 participants were studied, including 181 patients (102 female, 79 male) and 112 their relatives (58 female, 54 male). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes using the standard Salting Out/Proteinase K method. Nucleotide change detection was performed using PCR and direct DNA sequencing methods. Results According to DNA sequencing results, 159 individuals (104 patients, 55 relatives) had both G691S (rs1799939) missense mutation in exon11 and S904S (rs1800863) synonymous mutation in exon 15 of RET proto-oncogene. The allele frequency of G691S/S904S haplotype was 21.15% in patients and 10.75% in their relatives. Conclusion The obtained data showed the frequency of G691S/S904S RET gene haplotype among Iranian MTC patients and their relatives. The G691S and S904S nucleotide changes were in complete linkage disequilibrium, so the results were grouped together and referred to as G691S/S904S haplotype. Further analysis is need to demonstrate the association between this haplotype and MTC development.

  1. High-resolution HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 haplotype frequencies from the French Bone Marrow Donor Registry.

    PubMed

    Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Pappas, Derek James; Baouz, Amar; Balère, Marie-Lorraine; Garnier, Federico; Marry, Evelyne

    2015-05-01

    We have estimated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype frequencies using the maximum likelihood mode, which accommodates typing ambiguities. The results of the frequency distribution of the 7015 haplotypes obtained are presented here. These include a total of 114 HLA-A, 185 HLA-B, and 76 HLA-DRB1 unique alleles at each locus. Across all populations, although the most common individual HLA alleles were HLA-A(?)02:01 (29.0%), HLA-B(?)07:02 (11.4%), and HLA-DRB1(?)07:01 (15.9%), the most frequent haplotype was found to be HLA-A(?)01:01?B(?)08:01?DRB1(?)03:01. PMID:25637665

  2. [Gene and haplotype frequencies for the loci HLA-A, B and DRB1 in 11755 north Chinese Han bone marrow registry donors].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiang-Ju; Liu, Meng-Li; Qi, Jun; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Xiao-Qian

    2007-04-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, B, DRB1 alleles and haplotype frequencies and the characteristics of linkage disequilibrium in north Chinese Han bone marrow donors. HLA phenotype data of 11 755 north Chinese Han bone marrow donors were identified by PCR-SSP and PCR-SSO. HLA-A, B, DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies were calculated by computer software named Arleguin which was based on Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms. The results showed that the population of 11755 unrelated-donors was tested by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 18,42 and 15 specificities of HLA alleles were identified on the HLA-A, B, DRB1 locus respectively, including HLA-A25, B42, B53, B73 and DR3 which were rarely reported in Han population. HLA-A36, A43, A80, B78, B82 and DR18 were not detected in this study. The most frequent alleles with a frequency of over 0.05 were HLA-A*02, A*11, A*24, A*33, A*30, A*01, A*03, A*13, B62, B*51, B*46, B60, B61, B*35, B*44, DRB1*15, DRB1*09, DRB1*04, DRB1*07, DRB1*12, DRB1*11, DRB1*14, DRB1*08, DRB1*13. There were a total of 2 026 kinds of HLA-A-B-DR haplotypes (with a frequency of over 10(-6)) to be obtained. The each frequency of 26 kinds of three-locus haplotypes including HLA-A30-B13-DR7, A2-B46-DR9, A33-B58-DR17 etc was higher than 0.005. A30-B13-DR7 was the most frequent haplotype in north Chinese Han population. There were a total of 538 kinds of haplotypes for HLA-A-B, 227 kinds for A-DR and 522 kinds for B-DR to be obtained, and there were 409, 195, 423 kinds of haplotypes respectively with a frequency higher than 10 - 6. There were 28 kinds of HLA-A-B haplotypes including A30-B13, A2-B46, A33-B58 etc, 26 kinds of HLA-A-DR haplotypes including A2-DR9, A2-DR15, A30-DR7 etc, and 24 kinds of HLA-B-DR haplotypes including B13-DR7, B46-DR9, B13-DR12 etc with a frequency higher than 0.01. 296 (72%) kinds of HLA-A-B, 130 (67%) kinds of A-DR and 308 (73%) kinds of B-DR haplotypes were statistical linkage disequilibrium. HLA-A30-B13, A33-B58, A1-B37, A30-DR7, A33-DR13, A1-DR10, B37-DR10, B8-DR17, B13-DR7, B58-DR17 were significant positive linkage disequilibrium. It is concluded that this HLA-A, B, DRB1 gene and haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium data with the largest sample size up to now is unique in north Chinese Han population. The study will be helpful to find matched donors for patients and establish the important foundation for further studying of transplantation immunity, HLA-related diseases and population genetics of this area. PMID:17493347

  3. Estimation of malaria haplotype and genotype frequencies: a statistical approach to overcome the challenge associated with multiclonal infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reliable measures of anti-malarial resistance are crucial for malaria control. Resistance is typically a complex trait: multiple mutations in a single parasite (a haplotype or genotype) are necessary for elaboration of the resistant phenotype. The frequency of a genetic motif (proportion of parasite clones in the parasite population that carry a given allele, haplotype or genotype) is a useful measure of resistance. In areas of high endemicity, malaria patients generally harbour multiple parasite clones; they have multiplicities of infection (MOIs) greater than one. However, most standard experimental procedures only allow measurement of marker prevalence (proportion of patient blood samples that test positive for a given mutation or combination of mutations), not frequency. It is misleading to compare marker prevalence between sites that have different mean MOIs; frequencies are required instead. Methods A Bayesian statistical model was developed to estimate Plasmodium falciparum genetic motif frequencies from prevalence data collected in the field. To assess model performance and computational speed, a detailed simulation study was implemented. Application of the model was tested using datasets from five sites in Uganda. The datasets included prevalence data on markers of resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and an average MOI estimate for each study site. Results The simulation study revealed that the genetic motif frequencies that were estimated using the model were more accurate and precise than conventional estimates based on direct counting. Importantly, the model did not require measurements of the MOI in each patient; it used the average MOI in the patient population. Furthermore, if a dataset included partially genotyped patient blood samples, the model imputed the data that were missing. Using the model and the Ugandan data, genotype frequencies were estimated and four biologically relevant genotypes were identified. Conclusions The model allows fast, accurate, reliable estimation of the frequency of genetic motifs associated with resistance to anti-malarials using prevalence data collected from malaria patients. The model does not require per-patient MOI measurements and can easily analyse data from five markers. The model will be a valuable tool for monitoring markers of anti-malarial drug resistance, including markers of resistance to artemisinin derivatives and partner drugs. PMID:24636676

  4. Increased frequency of B8/DR3 in scleroderma and association of the haplotype with impaired cellular immune response.

    PubMed Central

    Kallenberg, C G; Van der Voort-Beelen, J M; D'Amaro, J; The, T H

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with scleroderma were typed for 40 HLA antigens. A highly significant increase in the frequency of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 was observed, which was not related to the severity of the disease. In vitro lymphocyte stimulation tests were performed in 26 patients. In addition, humoral and in vitro cellular immune responses to a primary test antigen were measured in 12 of them. Although the group of scleroderma patients as a whole had an impaired cellular response, only the B8/DR3+ patients had a strongly depressed response, whereas the immune response of the others was normal. These findings suggest an association of the haplotype B8/DR3 with impaired cellular immunity. PMID:6945162

  5. Haplotype analysis and LD detection at DM1 locus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Agarwal, Sarita; Pradhan, Sunil

    2015-08-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy affecting adults and is due to trinucleotide sequence (CTG) in the 3' UTR region of DMPK gene located at 19q13.3 chromosome. Several neighboring genes (markers) located on the same chromosomes that are statistically associated and transmitted together (haplotype), influence the disease pathogenesis as caused by mutated DMPK. The intention of the study was to investigate the population genetic characteristics and to identify founder haplotypes from Northern India. Clinically diagnosed and molecularly confirmed DM1 patients (=27) and their family members (=76) were included in the study. PCR-RFLP analysis was performed for intron 5 (C/T)/HhaI, DMPK (G/T) intron 9/HinfI, Bpm1 and CKMM genetic polymorphism. The SNP Stat Online Software was used to construct haplotype group and for linkage-disequilibrium analysis. In all DM chromosomes: allele 2 had higher frequency in HhaI and HinfI while allele 1 had higher frequency in BpmI and CKMM. Total 11, 7, 10 and 11 haplotype groups had been formed in proband (patients), proband's father, proband's mother and in combined group respectively. Haplotype combination 2 (HhaI)/2 (HinfI)/1 (BpmI)/1 (CKMM TaqI)/1 (CKMM Nco1) had higher frequency, 0.4096 and 0.2867 in patients and combined group respectively. The haplotype combination 1/1/1/1/1 and 2/1/1/1/1 was most common for patient's father and mother respectively. The polymorphic markers HhaI & HinfI; HinfI & BpmI; and HinfI & CKMM TaqI showed significant LD. In comparison to other population, HhaI and HinfI have common origin of mutation. PMID:25934189

  6. Rainfall-driven sex-ratio genes in African buffalo suggested by correlations between Y-chromosomal haplotype frequencies and foetal sex ratio

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Y-chromosomal diversity in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population of Kruger National Park (KNP) is characterized by rainfall-driven haplotype frequency shifts between year cohorts. Stable Y-chromosomal polymorphism is difficult to reconcile with haplotype frequency variations without assuming frequency-dependent selection or specific interactions in the population dynamics of X- and Y-chromosomal genes, since otherwise the fittest haplotype would inevitably sweep to fixation. Stable Y-chromosomal polymorphism due one of these factors only seems possible when there are Y-chromosomal distorters of an equal sex ratio, which act by negatively affecting X-gametes, or Y-chromosomal suppressors of a female-biased sex ratio. These sex-ratio (SR) genes modify (suppress) gamete transmission in their own favour at a fitness cost, allowing for stable polymorphism. Results Here we show temporal correlations between Y-chromosomal haplotype frequencies and foetal sex ratios in the KNP buffalo population, suggesting SR genes. Frequencies varied by a factor of five; too high to be alternatively explained by Y-chromosomal effects on pregnancy loss. Sex ratios were male-biased during wet and female-biased during dry periods (male proportion: 0.47-0.53), seasonally and annually. Both wet and dry periods were associated with a specific haplotype indicating a SR distorter and SR suppressor, respectively. Conclusions The distinctive properties suggested for explaining Y-chromosomal polymorphism in African buffalo may not be restricted to this species alone. SR genes may play a broader and largely overlooked role in mammalian sex-ratio variation. PMID:20416038

  7. A human leukocyte antigen locus haplotype confers risk for allopurinol-related adverse effects in Caucasian patients with gout.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rebecca L; Wallace, Mary C; Harrison, Andrew; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Tony R; Stamp, Lisa K

    2015-08-01

    A human leukocyte antigen haplotype comprising six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) confers risk for allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome in Caucasians. The objective of the current study was to test for association of this haplotype with other, less severe adverse effects (AEs) of allopurinol therapy in a large New Zealand gout cohort. A total of 626 Caucasian and 766 Polynesian patients were genotyped for six SNPs (rs2844665, rs9263715, rs3130931, rs3130501, rs3094188, rs9469003) using TaqMan SNP assays. The CACGAC haplotype occurred at a frequency of 0.018 in Caucasians and 0.009 in Polynesians. The CACGAC haplotype occurred at a significantly higher frequency in Caucasian patients who experienced allopurinol-related AEs (13.3 vs. 1.7%, P=8.9e-06, odds ratio=8.9, 95% confidence interval 2.8-27.9), but it was not associated with overall allopurinol toxicity in Polynesians (P>0.05). Our study is the first to demonstrate the potential utility of this six-SNP haplotype as a predictor of milder allopurinol AEs. PMID:26049586

  8. HaplotypeCN: Copy Number Haplotype Inference with Hidden Markov Model and Localized Haplotype Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Jen; Chen, Yu-Tin; Hsu, Shu-Ni; Peng, Chien-Hua; Tang, Chuan-Yi; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsieh, Wen-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) has been reported to be associated with disease and various cancers. Hence, identifying the accurate position and the type of CNV is currently a critical issue. There are many tools targeting on detecting CNV regions, constructing haplotype phases on CNV regions, or estimating the numerical copy numbers. However, none of them can do all of the three tasks at the same time. This paper presents a method based on Hidden Markov Model to detect parent specific copy number change on both chromosomes with signals from SNP arrays. A haplotype tree is constructed with dynamic branch merging to model the transition of the copy number status of the two alleles assessed at each SNP locus. The emission models are constructed for the genotypes formed with the two haplotypes. The proposed method can provide the segmentation points of the CNV regions as well as the haplotype phasing for the allelic status on each chromosome. The estimated copy numbers are provided as fractional numbers, which can accommodate the somatic mutation in cancer specimens that usually consist of heterogeneous cell populations. The algorithm is evaluated on simulated data and the previously published regions of CNV of the 270 HapMap individuals. The results were compared with five popular methods: PennCNV, genoCN, COKGEN, QuantiSNP and cnvHap. The application on oral cancer samples demonstrates how the proposed method can facilitate clinical association studies. The proposed algorithm exhibits comparable sensitivity of the CNV regions to the best algorithm in our genome-wide study and demonstrates the highest detection rate in SNP dense regions. In addition, we provide better haplotype phasing accuracy than similar approaches. The clinical association carried out with our fractional estimate of copy numbers in the cancer samples provides better detection power than that with integer copy number states. PMID:24849202

  9. A fast and accurate algorithm for diploid individual haplotype reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingli; Liang, Binbin

    2013-08-01

    Haplotypes can provide significant information in many research fields, including molecular biology and medical therapy. However, haplotyping is much more difficult than genotyping by using only biological techniques. With the development of sequencing technologies, it becomes possible to obtain haplotypes by combining sequence fragments. The haplotype reconstruction problem of diploid individual has received considerable attention in recent years. It assembles the two haplotypes for a chromosome given the collection of fragments coming from the two haplotypes. Fragment errors significantly increase the difficulty of the problem, and which has been shown to be NP-hard. In this paper, a fast and accurate algorithm, named FAHR, is proposed for haplotyping a single diploid individual. Algorithm FAHR reconstructs the SNP sites of a pair of haplotypes one after another. The SNP fragments that cover some SNP site are partitioned into two groups according to the alleles of the corresponding SNP site, and the SNP values of the pair of haplotypes are ascertained by using the fragments in the group that contains more SNP fragments. The experimental comparisons were conducted among the FAHR, the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms by using the haplotypes on chromosome 1 of 60 individuals in CEPH samples, which were released by the International HapMap Project. Experimental results under different parameter settings indicate that the reconstruction rate of the FAHR algorithm is higher than those of the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms, and the running time of the FAHR algorithm is shorter than those of the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms. Moreover, the FAHR algorithm has high efficiency even for the reconstruction of long haplotypes and is very practical for realistic applications. PMID:23859274

  10. [Genetic and ecological study of aboriginal populations of northeastern Siberia. I. Gm-haplotypes and their frequency in 10 chukchi populations. Genetic structure of reindeer chukchi].

    PubMed

    Sukernik, R I; Osipova, L P; Karafet, T M; Vibe, V P; Kirpichnikov, G A

    1986-09-01

    G1m (z, a, x, f) and G3m (g, b0, b1, b3, b5, s, t) allotypes were tested in 1079 Chukchi inhabitants of interior Chukotka and adjacent Kamchatka. Genetic variation at this particular locus is provided by the presence of three haplotypes, namely, za;g, zax;g and za;bO35st, revealed with mean frequencies of 0.748, 0.089 and 0.154, respectively. Traces of Caucasian Gm (f;bO135) haplotype were observed in 9 of 10 populations studied. Judging from its frequency in the whole group (0.009), European admixture in Reindeer Chukchi did not exceed 1.3%. Analysis of covariance and variance matrices containing gene frequencies for 11 polymorphic loci revealed the aspects of genetic structure. Simultaneously, the action of systematic versus nonsystematic pressure was also evaluated and interpreted in the light of historical and ecological events. PMID:3770478

  11. Discovery of high frequencies of the Gly-Ile haplotype of TLR4 in Indian populations requires reformulation of the evolutionary model of its maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Ganguli, Debdutta; Majumder, Partha P

    2013-10-01

    The Out-of-Africa migration of modern humans has led to the evolution of immunity genes in general, particularly those related to direct host-pathogen interactions. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one such cell-surface pattern recognition receptor that has been associated with susceptibility and resistance to Gram-negative infections. In this report, we have studied the genetic variation in the TLR4 gene across pre- and post-agricultural populations in India. Two non-synonymous SNPs at the loci Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile are genotyped in 266 individuals from these populations. Previous studies have shown that specific alleles at these two loci are associated with inflammatory response and also claimed the complete absence of the Gly-Ile (double-mutated) haplotype in populations from Asia and America due to some evolutionary disadvantage owing to septic shock. Contrary to such claims, our study reports for the first time, high (10%) to moderate (3-6%) frequencies of the Gly-Ile haplotype in one non-tribal and two tribal populations of India respectively. The presence of this haplotype in ancient tribal populations of India indicates the possibility of its important role in pathogen recognition or susceptibility to infections. Therefore, natural selection, not merely genetic drift, may have played an important role in shaping the frequency distribution of haplotypes at these two loci in TLR4. For a more global perspective, we have also estimated the frequency of this haplotype in all the 14 continental populations included in the 1000 Genomes Project. Our study provides direct evidence for the reformulation of existing models of evolutionary maintenance of these polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene. PMID:23892373

  12. Genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in the South Indian descent

    PubMed Central

    Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun; Srinivasa, Rao Katiboina; Kadambari, Dharanipragada; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Decline in circulating estrogen levels causes lessening of bone mass accompanied with musculoskeletal pain, which is the primary cause of treatment discontinuation in patients taking aromatase inhibitors. Evidence from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggests that the genetic variability underlying TCL1A gene increases the risk of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) - induced musculoskeletal toxicity. Currently, no data is available on the frequency distribution of TCL1A gene polymorphisms in Indians. Methods: In this pilot study, we used TaqMan fluorescent probes to assess the genotypes of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in 247 healthy homogenous South Indian subjects on real time thermocycler. Haplotype estimation and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis were executed by Haploview. Results: The incidence of polymorphic variant allele (G) frequencies of rs7158782, rs7159713, rs2369049 and rs11849538 were 22.1%, 23.5%, 18.2% and 22.9% in the study population, respectively. The polymorphisms were found to be in complete LD with each other. Four different haplotypes, each of which having a frequency of above 1% were inferred in South Indians using an expectation-maximization algorithm. Notably, three haplotypes were found to be population specific viz H4 A-A-A-G (1.2%) for South India, H5 G-G-A-C (1.3%) for JPT and H6 G-G-G-C (40.4%) for YRI. Further, H3 G-G-A-G (2.3-16.3%) haplotype occurs primarily in Asians and is virtually absent in Africans. Overall, the genetic variability and haplotype profile of South Indian population revealed significant inter-racial variability compared with HapMap data. Conclusion: This documentation contributes for further investigations on the pharmacogenetics of AIs in South Indians. PMID:25035853

  13. Following the footprints of polymorphic inversions on SNP data: from detection to association tests.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Alejandro; González, Juan R

    2015-04-30

    Inversion polymorphisms have important phenotypic and evolutionary consequences in humans. Two different methodologies have been used to infer inversions from SNP dense data, enabling the use of large cohorts for their study. One approach relies on the differences in linkage disequilibrium across breakpoints; the other one captures the internal haplotype groups that tag the inversion status of chromosomes. In this article, we assessed the convergence of the two methods in the detection of 20 human inversions that have been reported in the literature. The methods converged in four inversions including inv-8p23, for which we studied its association with low-BMI in American children. Using a novel haplotype tagging method with control on inversion ancestry, we computed the frequency of inv-8p23 in two American cohorts and observed inversion haplotype admixture. Accounting for haplotype ancestry, we found that the European inverted allele in children carries a recessive risk of underweight, validated in an independent Spanish cohort (combined: OR= 2.00, P = 0.001). While the footprints of inversions on SNP data are complex, we show that systematic analyses, such as convergence of different methods and controlling for ancestry, can reveal the contribution of inversions to the ancestral composition of populations and to the heritability of human disease. PMID:25672393

  14. Concurrent Whole-Genome Haplotyping and Copy-Number Profiling of Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Dimitriadou, Eftychia; Mateiu, Ligia; Melotte, Cindy; Van der Aa, Niels; Kumar, Parveen; Das, Rakhi; Theunis, Koen; Cheng, Jiqiu; Legius, Eric; Moreau, Yves; Debrock, Sophie; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Verdyck, Pieter; De Rycke, Martine; Sermon, Karen; Vermeesch, Joris R; Voet, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    Methods for haplotyping and DNA copy-number typing of single cells are paramount for studying genomic heterogeneity and enabling genetic diagnosis. Before analyzing the DNA of a single cell by microarray or next-generation sequencing, a whole-genome amplification (WGA) process is required, but it substantially distorts the frequency and composition of the cell's alleles. As a consequence, haplotyping methods suffer from error-prone discrete SNP genotypes (AA, AB, BB) and DNA copy-number profiling remains difficult because true DNA copy-number aberrations have to be discriminated from WGA artifacts. Here, we developed a single-cell genome analysis method that reconstructs genome-wide haplotype architectures as well as the copy-number and segregational origin of those haplotypes by employing phased parental genotypes and deciphering WGA-distorted SNP B-allele fractions via a process we coin haplarithmisis. We demonstrate that the method can be applied as a generic method for preimplantation genetic diagnosis on single cells biopsied from human embryos, enabling diagnosis of disease alleles genome wide as well as numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies. Moreover, meiotic segregation errors can be distinguished from mitotic ones. PMID:25983246

  15. HLA-DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 Alleles and Haplotypes Frequencies in Iranian Healthy Adult Responders and Non-Responders to Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Akbar Amirzargar; Nilufar Mohseni; Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar; Zohreh Arjang; Nahid Ahmadi; Manijeh Yousefi Behzadi; Amir Amanzadeh

    Background: Different studies have demonstrated that a small proportion of healthy individuals receiving the hepatitis B (HB) vaccine do not produce protective levels of anti-HB antibody, a phenomenon which could be linked to certain human leukocyte an- tigen (HLA) class-II alleles or haplotypes. Objectives: The present study was under- taken to determine the frequency of HLA class-II alleles in Iranian

  16. HLA-G allele and haplotype frequencies in a healthy population of Iran.

    PubMed

    Kuroshli, Zahra; Gourabi, Hamid; Bazrgar, Masoud; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Bahraminejad, Elmira; Anisi, Khadije

    2014-06-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G molecule is expressed in cytotrophoblast cells, adult thymic epithelial cells, erythroblasts, pancreatic islets and mesenchymal stem cells. Although, HLA-G expression in allotransplanted patients is correlated with a better allograft acceptance, it is associated with an advanced grade of the tumor in cancer. In addition to the role on the immune system, HLA-G is also involved in successful pregnancy through the embryo implantation, fetal survival and the initial steps of hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was determination of HLA-G allele frequencies in a healthy population of Iran. In this research, we selected 100 samples from healthy Iranian individuals and henceforth, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing technique for exon 2, 3, 4 and intron 2 of the gene for evaluating the HLA-G alleles frequencies. Investigation of intronic (intron 2) variation is the novelty of our study. The obtained results indicated thirteen alleles of HLA-G in Iranian individuals including G*01:01:01:01, G*01:06, G*01:01:01:06, G*01:01:02, G*01:01:03, G*01:01:05, G*01:01:06, G*01:01:07, G*01:01:08, G*01:03, G*01:04:01, G*01:04:03, and G*01:04:04. According to this study, the most prevalent alleles in the Iranian population were G*01:01:01:01 (52.5%), G*01:01:02 (16%) and G*01:04:03 (14.5%) and also the lowest alleles regarding the frequency were G*01:01:01:06 (0.5%) and G*01:03 (0.5%). The results of G*01:01:01:01 and G*01:04:01 frequencies showed some similarities with the polish population. Our results were similar to the north Indian population for the frequencies of G*01:06 and G*01:01:02. PMID:24659125

  17. Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, María Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the ?-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events. PMID:24385850

  18. Association of TERC and OBFC1 Haplotypes with Mean Leukocyte Telomere Length and Risk for Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maubaret, Cécilia G.; Salpea, Klelia D.; Romanoski, Casey E.; Folkersen, Lasse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Stephanou, Coralea; Wah Li, Ka; Palmen, Jutta; Hamsten, Anders; Neil, Andrew; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Eriksson, Per; Talmud, Philippa J.; Humphries, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To replicate the associations of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with variants at four loci and to investigate their associations with coronary heart disease (CHD) and type II diabetes (T2D), in order to examine possible causal effects of telomere maintenance machinery on disease aetiology. Methods Four SNPs at three loci BICD1 (rs2630578 G?C), 18q12.2 (rs2162440 G?T), and OBFC1 (rs10786775 C?G, rs11591710 A?C) were genotyped in four studies comprised of 2353 subjects out of which 1148 had CHD and 566 T2D. Three SNPs (rs12696304 C?G, rs10936601G>T and rs16847897 G?C) at the TERC locus were genotyped in these four studies, in addition to an offspring study of 765 healthy students. For all samples, LTL had been measured using a real-time PCR-based method. Results Only one SNP was associated with a significant effect on LTL, with the minor allele G of OBFC1 rs10786775 SNP being associated with longer LTL (?=0.029, P=0.04). No SNPs were significantly associated with CHD or T2D. For OBFC1 the haplotype carrying both rare alleles (rs10786775G and rs11591710C, haplotype frequency 0.089) was associated with lower CHD prevalence (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61–0.97; P= 0.03). The TERC haplotype GTC (rs12696304G, rs10936601T and rs16847897C, haplotype frequency 0.210) was associated with lower risk for both CHD (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75-0.99; P=0.04) and T2D (OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.61–0.91; P= 0.004), with no effect on LTL. Only the last association remained after adjusting for multiple testing. Conclusion Of reported associations, only that between the OBFC1 rs10786775 SNP and LTL was confirmed, although our study has a limited power to detect modest effects. A 2-SNP OBFC1 haplotype was associated with higher risk of CHD, and a 3-SNP TERC haplotype was associated with both higher risk of CHD and T2D. Further work is required to confirm these results and explore the mechanisms of these effects. PMID:24349443

  19. A FUNCTIONAL HAPLOTYPE IN EIF2AK3, AN ER STRESS SENSOR, IS ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER BONE MINERAL DENSITY

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Hoppman, Nicole; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Wang, Hong; Streeten, Elizabeth A; McLenithan, John C; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    EIF2AK3 is a type I transmembrane protein that functions as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor to regulate global protein synthesis. Rare mutations in EIF2AK3 cause Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (OMIM 226980), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes, epiphyseal dysplasia, osteoporosis, and growth retardation. To investigate the role of common genetic variation in EIF2AK3 as a determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis, we sequenced all exons and flanking regions and then genotyped 6 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene in 997 Amish subjects for association analysis, with attempted replication in 887 Mexican Americans. We found that the minor allele of a nonsynonymous SNP rs13045 had borderline associations with decreased forearm BMD in both discovery and replication cohorts (unadjusted P = 0.036 and ? = ?0.007 for the Amish; unadjusted P = 0.031 and ? = ?0.008 for Mexican Americans). A meta-analysis indicated this association achieved statistical significance in the combined sample (unadjusted P = 0.003; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.009). Rs13045 and three other potentially functional SNPs, a promoter SNP (rs6547787) and two nonsynonymous SNPs (rs867529 and rs1805165), formed two haplotypes (a low-BMD associated haplotype, denoted haplotype B (minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.311) and a common haplotype A (MAF = 0.676)). There were no differences in mRNA expression from lymphoblastoid cell lines between the two haplotypes. However, after treating lymphoblastoid cell lines with thapsigargin to induce ER stress, cell lines with haplotype B showed increased sensitivity to ER stress (P = 0.014) compared to cell lines with haplotype A. Taken together, our results suggest that common nonsynonymous sequence variants in EIF2AK3 have a modest effect on ER stress response and may contribute to the risk for low BMD through this mechanism. PMID:22028037

  20. Distribution of HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Taiwan: a comparative study among Min-nan, Hakka, Aborigines and Mainland Chinese.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C K; Chen, L L; Lee, A; Lee, T D

    1999-01-01

    A total of 8,497 blood samples were typed for HLA-A, B, DR and DQ. Of these, 7,137 Min-nan, 714 Hakka, 535 Mainland Chinese (152 from North China, 211 from Middle China, and 172 from South China) and 111 Aborigines were randomly selected from Tzu Chi Taiwan Marrow Donor Registry (TCTMDR). Differences in HLA gene and antigen frequencies have been observed between various ethnic groups of the Chinese population in Taiwan. The phylogenic tree shows Taiwan Aborigines and Javanese cluster together; Min-nan shares a common cluster with Hakka, Southern Hans and Thai; and Northern Hans shares a cluster with Middle Hans. The separation between Northern/Middle and Southern Chinese Hans support the idea that Northern and Southern Chinese have different genetic background. Aborigines appeared to be quite distinct in the distribution of a majority of the class I and class II antigens. High frequency of HLA-A24 (60.4%) and relatively restricted HLA polymorphisms are noted in Aborigines. The HLA haplotypes with high frequency in Aborigines included A24-B60-DRB1*04, A24-B60-DRB1*14, A24-B48-DRB1*04, and A24-B48-DRB1*14, which are different from the other ethnic groups. Although the phylogenic tree separates Aborigines and Han Chinese populations, 4 out of 20 most common HLA-A, -B, and -DR haplotypes presented in both Aborigines and Han Chinese may reflect an ancient common origin or intermixture between early settlers of Han Chinese and Taiwan Aborigines. The results in this study are essentially a summary of the observed gene/haplotype frequencies and differences among various ethnic groups in Taiwan. PMID:10082431

  1. A haplotype inference method based on sparsely connected multi-body ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Masashi; Gao, Qian Ji; Chigira, Hiroshi; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Masato

    2010-06-01

    Statistical haplotype inference is an indispensable technique in the field of medical science. The method usually has two steps: inference of haplotype frequencies and inference of diplotype for each subject. The first step can be done by using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, but it incurs an unreasonably large calculation cost when the number of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci of concern is large. In this article, we describe an approximate probabilistic model of haplotype frequencies. The model is constructed by using several distributions of nearby local SNPs. This approximation seems good because SNPs are generally more strongly correlated when they are close to one another on a chromosome. To implement this approach, we use a log linear model, the Walsh-Hadamard transform, and a combinatorial optimization method. Artificial data suggested that the overall haplotype inference of our method is good if there are nine or more local consecutive SNPs. Some minor problems should be dealt with before this method can be applied to real data.

  2. µ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype ... frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size an...

  3. Haplotype combination of the bovine CFL2 gene sequence variants and association with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujia; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of cofilin2 (CFL2) gene polymorphisms with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the bovine CFL2 gene using DNA sequencing and (forced) PCR-RFLP methods. These polymorphisms included a missense mutation (NC_007319.5: g. C 2213 G) in exon 4, one synonymous mutation (NC_007319.5: g. T 1694 A) in exon 4, and a mutation (NC_007319.5: g. G 1500 A) in intron 2, respectively. In addition, we evaluated the haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium coefficient of three sequence variants in 488 individuals in QC cattle. All the three SNPs in QC cattle belonged to an intermediate level of genetic diversity (0.25Haplotype analysis of three SNPs showed that 8 different haplotypes were identified in all, but only 5 haplotypes were listed except for those with a frequency of <0.03. Hap4 (-GTC-) had the highest haplotype frequencies (34.70%). However in the three SNPs there were no significant associations between the 13 combined genotypes of the CFL2 gene and growth traits. LD analysis showed that the SNP T 1694 A and C 2213 G loci had a strong linkage (r(2)>0.33). Association analysis indicated that SNP G 1500 A, T 1694 A and C 2213 G were significantly associated with growth traits in the QC population. The results of our study suggest that the CFL2 gene may be a strong candidate gene that affects growth traits in the QC cattle breeding program. PMID:25772133

  4. Snapshots of Selection: Changes in SNP Allele Frequencies during Phenotypic, Marker-Assisted, and Genomewide Selection in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in allele frequencies underlie improvements in mean performance for quantitative traits. Limited published information is available on how genomewide marker-allele frequencies change during phenotypic and marker-based selection for multiple traits in applied breeding programs. Here we descri...

  5. A hidden Markov model for haplotype inference for present-absent data of clustered genes using identified haplotypes and haplotype patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jihua; Chen, Guo-Bo; Zhi, Degui; Liu, Nianjun; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    The majority of killer cell immunoglobin-like receptor (KIR) genes are detected as either present or absent using locus-specific genotyping technology. Ambiguity arises from the presence of a specific KIR gene since the exact copy number (one or two) of that gene is unknown. Therefore, haplotype inference for these genes is becoming more challenging due to such large portion of missing information. Meantime, many haplotypes and partial haplotype patterns have been previously identified due to tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) among these clustered genes thus can be incorporated to facilitate haplotype inference. In this paper, we developed a hidden Markov model (HMM) based method that can incorporate identified haplotypes or partial haplotype patterns for haplotype inference from present-absent data of clustered genes (e.g., KIR genes). We compared its performance with an expectation maximization (EM) based method previously developed in terms of haplotype assignments and haplotype frequency estimation through extensive simulations for KIR genes. The simulation results showed that the new HMM based method outperformed the previous method when some incorrect haplotypes were included as identified haplotypes and/or the standard deviation of haplotype frequencies were small. We also compared the performance of our method with two methods that do not use previously identified haplotypes and haplotype patterns, including an EM based method, HPALORE, and a HMM based method, MaCH. Our simulation results showed that the incorporation of identified haplotypes and partial haplotype patterns can improve accuracy for haplotype inference. The new software package HaploHMM is available and can be downloaded at http://www.soph.uab.edu/ssg/files/People/KZhang/HaploHMM/haplohmm-index.html. PMID:25161663

  6. Use of Haplotypes to Estimate Mendelian Sampling Effects and Selection Limits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limits to selection and Mendelian sampling terms can be calculated using haplotypes, by summing the individual additive effects on each chromosome. Haplotypes were imputed for 43,382 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 1,455 Brown Swiss, 40,351 Holstein, and 4,064 Jersey bulls and cows using th...

  7. Haplotype structure and association to Crohn's disease of CARD15 mutations in two ethnically divergent populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J P Croucher; Silvia Mascheretti; Jochen Hampe; Klaus Huse; Henning Frenzel; Monika Stoll; Tim Lu; Susanna Nikolaus; Suk-Kyun Yang; Michael Krawczak; Won Ho Kim; Stefan Schreiber; Stefan Schreiber

    2003-01-01

    Current debate focuses on the relevance of linkage disequilibrium (LD), ethnicity and underlying haplotype structure to the search for genes involved in complex disorders. The recently described association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CARD15 (NOD2) gene and Crohn's disease (CD) in populations of north-European descent provides a test case that we have subjected to detailed SNP haplotype based

  8. Accuracy of haplotype frequency estimation for biallelic loci, via the expectation-maximization algorithm for unphased diploid genotype data [In Process Citation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Fallin; N J Schork

    2000-01-01

    Haplotype analyses have become increasingly common in genetic studies of human disease because of their ability to identify unique chromosomal segments likely to harbor disease-predisposing genes. The study of haplotypes is also used to investigate many population processes, such as migration and immigration rates, linkage-disequilibrium strength, and the relatedness of populations. Unfortunately, many haplotype-analysis methods require phase information that can

  9. No association between polymorphisms/haplotypes of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is the first worldwide cause of death in pregnant women, intra-uterine growth retardation, and fetal prematurity. Some vascular endothelial grown factor gene (VEGF) polymorphisms have been associated to PE and other pregnancy disturbances. We evaluated the associations between VEGF genotypes/haplotypes and PE in Mexican women. Methods 164 pregnant women were enrolled in a case-control study (78 cases and 86 normotensive pregnant controls). The rs699947 (-2578C/A), rs1570360 (-1154G/A), rs2010963 (+405G/C), and rs25648 (-7C/T), VEGF variants were discriminated using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods or Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays. Results The proportions of the minor allele for rs699947, rs1570360, rs2010963, and rs25648 VEGF SNPs were 0.33, 0.2, 0.39, and 0.17 in controls, and 0.39, 0.23, 0.41, and 0.15 in cases, respectively (P values > 0.05). The most frequent haplotypes of rs699947, rs1570360, rs2010963, and rs25648 VEGF SNPs, were C-G-C-C and C-G-G-C with frequencies of 0.39, 0.21 in cases and 0.37, 0.25 in controls, respectively (P values > 0.05) Conclusion There was no evidence of an association between VEGF alleles, genotypes, or haplotypes frequencies and PE in our study. PMID:21575227

  10. Population diversity and distinct haplotype frequencies associated with ACHE and BCHE genes of Israeli Jews from trans-caucasian Georgia and from Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, G.; Ginzberg, D.; Loewenstein, Y. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)] [and others] [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel); and others

    1994-07-15

    Variant alleles of the butyrylcholinesterase gene, BCHE, have often been used to trace the genetic histories of populations. The D70G substitution in BCHE causes prolonged postanesthesia apnea ({open_quotes}atypical{close_quotes} phenotype); H322N substitution in the closely related acetylcholinesterase gene, ACHE, is the basis of the mutually incompatible YT blood groups. In both genes, additional point mutations were reported to be linked to these phenotypically evident ones. To examine whether the intragenic linkage reported for the ACHE and BCHE mutations in Americans is universal, the authors studied frequencies of these mutations in trans-Caucasian Georgian Jews, a population that has remained relatively isolated for 1500 years. To this end they employed PCR amplification followed by DNA sequencing and enzymatic restriction and compared the frequencies found to corresponding reported phenotype data. Georgian Jews` N322 ACHE was a rather low 7.0% and was totally linked to a P446 mutation, in agreement with a recent report. In BCHE, however, G70 was a relatively high 5.8%, and the V497 and T539 mutations were not found, either in Georgian or in Ashkenazi Jews, in contrast to reported findings in Americans. The findings reveal distinct displays of ACHE and BCHE haplotypes in Georgian Jews and suggest different founder effects, genetic drifts, and/or selection pressures in the evolution of each of these genes. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQB1, and -DRB1,3,4,5 allele and haplotype frequencies in the Costa Rica Central Valley Population and its relationship to worldwide populations.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Bolaños, Esteban; Maldonado-Torres, Hazael; Dimitriu, Oana; Hoddinott, Michael A; Fowles, Finnuala; Shah, Anila; Orlich-Pérez, Priscilla; McWhinnie, Alasdair J; Alfaro-Bourrouet, Wilbert; Buján-Boza, Willem; Little, Ann-Margaret; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Madrigal, J Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is the most polymorphic in humans. Its allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies vary significantly among different populations. Molecular typing data on HLA are necessary for the development of stem cell donor registries, cord blood banks, HLA-disease association studies, and anthropology studies. The Costa Rica Central Valley Population (CCVP) is the major population in this country. No previous study has characterized HLA frequencies in this population. Allele group and haplotype frequencies of HLA genes in the CCVP were determined by means of molecular typing in a sample of 130 unrelated blood donors from one of the country's major hospitals. A comparison between these frequencies and those of 126 populations worldwide was also carried out. A minimum variance dendrogram based on squared Euclidean distances was constructed to assess the relationship between the CCVP sample and populations from all over the world. Allele group and haplotype frequencies observed in this study are consistent with a profile of a dynamic and diverse population, with a hybrid ethnic origin, predominantly Caucasian-Amerindian. Results showed that populations genetically closest to the CCVP are a Mestizo urban population from Venezuela, and another one from Guadalajara, Mexico. PMID:20937338

  12. The E670G SNP in the PCSK9 gene is associated with polygenic hypercholesterolemia in men but not in women

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David; Beil, Frank U

    2006-01-01

    Background Common genetic variants in the PCSK9 gene have been reported to be associated with both elevated and exceptionally low LDL levels. The association of a common haplotype, encompassing the E670G single nucleotide polymorphism, with LDL levels reported by Chen et al (J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45: 1644) was not confirmed by Kotowski et al (Am J Hum Genet 2006; 78:410–422). Methods The incidence of the E670G SNP was determined in 506 patients attending the lipid clinic, University Hospital, Hamburg. Results The frequency in men with polygenic hypercholesterolemia, 0.11 was significantly higher than in men with LDL<50th percentile, 0.03, p = 0.01. In women there was no difference in the allele frequencies between the two groups. Conclusion In a European population the E670G SNP in the PCSK9 gene is associated with increased LDL in men but not in women. PMID:16875509

  13. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2013-01-01

    To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ?1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset. PMID:24065982

  14. ATM gene founder haplotypes and associated mutations in Polish families with ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Mitui, M; Bernatowska, E; Pietrucha, B; Piotrowska-Jastrzebska, J; Eng, L; Nahas, S; Teraoka, S; Sholty, G; Purayidom, A; Concannon, P; Gatti, R A

    2005-11-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an early onset autosomal recessive ataxia associated with characteristic chromosomal aberrations, cell cycle checkpoint defects, cancer susceptibility, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation. We utilized the protein truncation test (PTT), and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) on cDNA, as well as denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) on genomic DNA (gDNA) to screen for mutations in 24 Polish A-T families. Twenty-six distinct Short Tandem Repeat (STR) haplotypes were identified. Three founder mutations accounted for 58% of the alleles. Three-quarters of the families had at least one recurring (shared) mutation, which was somewhat surprising given the low frequency of consanguinity in Poland. STR haplotyping greatly improved the efficiency of mutation detection. We identified 44 of the expected 48 mutations (92%): sixty-nine percent were nonsense mutations, 23% caused aberrant splicing, and 5% were missense mutations. Four mutations have not been previously described. Two of the Polish mutations have been observed previously in Amish and Mennonite A-T patients; this is compatible with historical records. Shared mutations shared the same Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and STR haplotypes, indicating common ancestries. The Mennonite mutation, 5932 G>T, is common in Russian A-T families, and the STR haplovariants are the same in both Poland and Russia. Attempts to correlate phenotypes with genotypes were inconclusive due to the limited numbers of patients with identical mutations. PMID:16266405

  15. Estimation of the 6-digit level allele and haplotype frequencies of HLA-A, -B, and -C in Koreans using ambiguity-solving DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Jun, J-H; Hwang, K; Kim, S-K; Oh, H-B; Cho, M-C; Lee, K-J

    2014-09-01

    Because Korean society is fast becoming multi-ethnic, the determination of ambiguous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types using HLA allele frequencies is becoming less applicable. In this study, we focused on the development of new technical methods to directly resolve the ambiguities arising from HLA genotyping. One hundred and fifty unrelated healthy Korean adults were included in this study. All alleles from each HLA locus were first divided into 2-4 groups, with each group amplified in a single PCR tube (multi-group-specific amplification, MGSA). To resolve phase ambiguities, some allele groups were also amplified separately in small group-specific amplification (SGSA) tubes. In order to then resolve incomplete sequence ambiguities, primers for MGSA and SGSA were initially designed to cover additional exons. If needed, a heterozygous ambiguity resolving primer (HARP) or sequence specific primer (SSP) was also used. When MGSA and SGSA methods were applied, the rate of phase ambiguity was greatly reduced to an average of 6% (1.3% in HLA-A, 15.7% in -B, and 2.0% in -C). Additional HARP and SSP methods could resolve all the phase ambiguities. Using our proposed method, we also detected three alleles that have not been previously reported in Korea, C*04:82, C*07:18, and C*08:22, and report 6-digit level HLA allele and haplotype frequencies among Koreans. In conclusion, the use of MGSA/SGSA for the initial amplification step is a cost-effective method facilitating timely and accurate reporting, given the continuing increase in the ethnic diversity of the Korean population. The MGSA described here can be applicable to various populations and thus could be shared by the majority of HLA typing laboratories. However, efforts to solve HLA ambiguity should continue, because SGSA, HARPs and SSPs would be specific to a particular population. PMID:24851935

  16. Mapping MHC haplotype effects in unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Malkki, Mari; Horowitz, Mary M.; Spellman, Stephen R.; Haagenson, Michael D.; Wang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Life-threatening risks associated with HLA-mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation limit its general application for the treatment of blood diseases. The increased risks might be explained by undetected genetic variation within the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We retrospectively assessed each of 1108 MHC region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2628 patients and their HLA-mismatched unrelated donors to determine whether SNPs are associated with the risk of mortality, disease-free survival, transplant-related mortality, relapse, and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Multivariate analysis adjusted for HLA mismatching and nongenetic variables associated with each clinical end point. Twelve SNPs were identified as transplantation determinants. SNP-associated risks were conferred by either patient or donor SNP genotype or by patient-donor SNP mismatching. Risks after transplantation increased with increasing numbers of unfavorable SNPs. SNPs that influenced acute GVHD were independent of those that affected risk of chronic GVHD and relapse. HLA haplotypes differed with respect to haplotype content of (un)favorable SNPs. Outcome after HLA-mismatched unrelated donor transplantation is influenced by MHC region variation that is undetected with conventional HLA typing. Knowledge of the SNP content of HLA haplotypes provides a means to estimate risks prior to transplantation and to lower complications through judicious selection of donors with favorable MHC genetics. PMID:23305741

  17. Evidence for Association between the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene and Panic Disorder: A Novel Haplotype Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun-Jin; Hwang, Jung-A; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Na, Kyeong-Sae

    2015-01-01

    Objective Panic disorder (PD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a complex etiology, and several studies have suggested that it has a genetic component. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most abundant of the neurotrophins in the brain and is recognized for its important role in the survival, differentiation and growth of neurons. Several lines of research have suggested possible associations between the BDNF gene and PD. In this study, we investigated the BDNF 196G/A (rs6265), 11757G/C (rs16917204), and 270C/T (rs56164415) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in order to determine an association with PD. We also identified the genetic sequence associations with PD via haplotype analysis. Methods Participants in this study included 136 PD patients and 263 healthy controls. Male and female subjects were analyzed separately. The genotype and allele frequencies of the PD patients and controls were analyzed using ?2 statistics. Frequencies and haplotype reconstructions were calculated using the SNP analyzer 2.0. Results We found no significant statistical differences in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies of the three tested polymorphisms between the PD and control groups. In addition, no differences were found between PD patients and the controls in either male or female subgroups. However, we found that, the frequency of the G-C haplotype for 196G/A and 11757G/C was significantly higher in PD patients than in the controls. Conclusion Our result suggest that patients with the G-C haplotype for 196G/A and 11757G/C may be more susceptible to the development of PD. Further studies are needed to replicate the associations that we observed. PMID:25670953

  18. Analysis of DNA polymorphisms in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and development of an SNP-based map of expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Katharina; Kulosa, Dagmar; Soerensen, Thomas Rosleff; Möhring, Silke; Heine, Martin; Durstewitz, Gregor; Polley, Andreas; Weber, Eberhard; Jamsari; Lein, Jens; Hohmann, Uwe; Tahiro, Emma; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schulz, Britta; Koch, Georg; Jung, Christian; Ganal, Martin

    2007-09-01

    A panel of 13 sugar beet lines and one genotype each of the Beta vulgaris cultivars red beet and Swiss chard, and B. vulgaris ssp. maritima were used to identify polymorphisms in alignments of genomic DNA sequences derived from 315 EST- and 43 non-coding RFLP-derived loci. In sugar beet lines, loci of expressed genes showed an average SNP frequency of 1/72 bp, 1 in 58 bp in non-coding sequences, increasing to 1/47 bp upon the addition of the remaining genotypes. Within analysed DNA fragments, alleles at different SNP positions displayed linkage disequilibrium indicative of haplotype structures. On average 2.7 haplotypes were found in sugar beet lines, and haplotype conservation in expressed genes appeared to exceed 500 bp in length. Seven different genotyping techniques including SNP detection by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, pyrosequencing and fluorescence scanning of labelled nucleotides were employed to perform 712 segregation analyses for 538 markers in three F(2) populations. Functions were predicted for 492 mapped sequences. Genetic maps comprised 305 loci covering 599.8 cM in population K1, 241 loci distributed over 636.6 cM in population D2, and 166 loci over 507.1 cM in population K2, respectively. Based on 156 markers common to more than one population an integrated map was constructed with 524 loci covering 664.3 cM. For 377 loci the genome positions of the most similar sequences from A. thaliana were identified, but little evidence for previously presented ancestral genome structures was found. PMID:17622508

  19. High diversity of alpha-globin haplotypes in a Senegalese population, including many previously unreported variants.

    PubMed

    Martinson, J J; Excoffier, L; Swinburn, C; Boyce, A J; Harding, R M; Langaney, A; Clegg, J B

    1995-11-01

    RFLP haplotypes at the alpha-globin gene complex have been examined in 190 individuals from the Niokolo Mandenka population of Senegal: haplotypes were assigned unambiguously for 210 chromosomes. The Mandenka share with other African populations a sample size-independent haplotype diversity that is much greater than that in any non-African population: the number of haplotypes observed in the Mandenka is typically twice that seen in the non-African populations sampled to date. Of these haplotypes, 17.3% had not been observed in any previous surveys, and a further 19.1% have previously been reported only in African populations. The haplotype distribution shows clear differences between African and non-African peoples, but this is on the basis of population-specific haplotypes combined with haplotypes common to all. The relationship of the newly reported haplotypes to those previously recorded suggests that several mutation processes, particularly recombination as homologous exchange or gene conversion, have been involved in their production. A computer program based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm was used to obtain maximum-likelihood estimates of haplotype frequencies for the entire data set: good concordance between the unambiguous and EM-derived sets was seen for the overall haplotype frequencies. Some of the low-frequency haplotypes reported by the estimation algorithm differ greatly, in structure, from those haplotypes known to be present in human populations, and they may not represent haplotypes actually present in the sample. PMID:7485171

  20. Variantes del ADNmt en isleños del lago Titicaca: máxima frecuencia del haplotipo B1 y evidencia de efecto fundador Variants of mtDNA among islanders of the lake Titicaca: highest frequency of haplotype B1 and evidence of founder effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Sandoval; Bedsabé Delgado; Luis Rivas; Bertha Bonilla; Daniel Nugent; Ricardo Fujita

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from 144 samples of islanders of the Taquile and Amantani (Quechua speakers) and Los Uros and Anapia (Aymara speakers) of the Lake Titicaca, Peru. We have found the highest frequency of B1 mtDNA haplotype ever reported: 100% in Taquile (n= 57); 88,6% in Amantani (n= 35); 87,5% in Anapia (n= 24) and 75% in Los

  1. Tumor necrosis factor haplotype diversity in Mestizo and native populations of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro-Martínez, X H; Leal-Cortés, C; Flores-Martínez, S E; García-Zapién, A G; Sánchez-Corona, J; Portilla-de Buen, E; Gómez-Espinel, I; Zamora-Ginez, I; Pérez-Fuentes, R; Islas-Andrade, S; Revilla-Monsalve, C; Guerrero-Romero, F; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Mendoza-Carrera, F

    2014-04-01

    The so-called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) block includes the TNFA, lymphotoxin alpha and beta (LTA and LTB) genes with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and microsatellites with an allele frequency that exhibits interpopulation variability. To date, no reports have included both SNPs and microsatellites at the TNF block to study Mestizo or Amerindian populations from Mexico. In this study, samples of five Mexican Mestizo populations (Durango, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, and Tierra Blanca) and four native-Mexican populations (North Lacandonians, South Lacandonians, Tepehuanos, and Yaquis) were genotyped for two SNPs (LTA+252A>G and TNFA-308G>A) and four microsatellites (TNFa, d, e, and f), to analyze the genetic substructure of the Mexican population. Allele and haplotype frequencies, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and interpopulation genetic relationships were calculated. There was significant LD along almost all of the TNF block but the lowest D' values were observed for the TNFf-TNFd pair. Mestizos showed higher allele and haplotype diversity than did natives. The genetic differentiation level was reduced among Mestizos; however, a slightly, but significant genetic substructure was observed between northern and southern Mexican Mestizos. Among the Amerindian populations, the genetic differentiation level was significantly elevated, particularly in both North and South Lacandonians. Furthermore, among Southern Lacandonians, inhabitants of Lacanja town were the most differentiated from all the Mexicans analyzed. The data presented here will serve as a reference for further population and epidemiological studies including these TNF polymorphisms in the Mexican population. PMID:24517517

  2. FSHR Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Frequencies in Proven Fathers and Infertile Men in Southeast Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Balkan, Mahmut; Gedik, Abdullah; Akkoc, Hasan; Izci Ay, Ozlem; Erdal, M. Emin; Isi, Hilmi; Budak, Turgay

    2010-01-01

    The influence of FSH receptor (FSHR) variants on male infertility is not completely understood. The present investigation is the first screening study for SNP at nucleotide position ?29 in the core promoter region and codon 680 in exon 10 of the FSHR and the effect of the serum levels of FSH on male infertility in Southeast Turkey. The SNPs in codon 680 and at position ?29 of the FSHR gene were analyzed by PCR-RFLP technique in 240 men with proven fathers, and 270 infertile men (150 nonobstructive azoospermic and 120 severe oligozoospermic). The separate analysis for SNP at nucleotide position ?29 did not show any difference in genotypic frequencies and serum FSH levels. The genotype distribution of SNP at position 680 was different but does not influence serum FSH levels. Together the two SNPs form four discrete haplotypes (A-Thr-Asn, G-Thr-Asn, A-Ala-Ser, and G-Ala-Ser) occurring in 10 combinations. A statistically significant difference in the allelic distribution of G-Asn/G-Ser and G-Ser/G-Ser genotype between proven fathers and infertile men but there were not any statistically significant difference in the overall frequency of the four FSHR haplotypes. We conclude that the FSHR haplotype does not associate with different serum FSH levels but it is differently distributed in proven fathers and infertile men. PMID:20454649

  3. Direct micro-haplotyping by multiple double PCR amplifications of specific alleles (MD-PASA)

    PubMed Central

    Eitan, Yuval; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of haplotypes is an important tool in population genetics, familial heredity and gene mapping. Determination of haplotypes of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or other simple mutations is time consuming and expensive when analyzing large populations, and often requires the help of computational and statistical procedures. Based on double PCR amplification of specific alleles, described previously, we have developed a simple, rapid and low-cost method for direct haplotyping of multiple SNPs and simple mutations found within relatively short specific regions or genes (micro-haplotypes). Using this method, it is possible to directly determine the physical linkage of multiple heterozygous alleles, by conducting a series of double allele-specific PCR amplification sets with simple analysis by gel electrophoresis. Application of the method requires prior information as to the sequence of the segment to be haplotyped, including the polymorphic sites. We applied the method to haplotyping of nine sites in the chicken HSP108 gene. One of the haplotypes in the population apparently arose by recombination between two existing haplotypes, and we were able to locate the point of recombination within a segment of 19 bp. We anticipate rapidly growing needs for SNP haplotyping in human (medical and pharmacogenetics), animal and plant genetics; in this context, the multiple double PCR amplifications of specific alleles (MD-PASA) method offers a useful haplotyping tool. PMID:12060700

  4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-Strings: An Alternative Method for Assessing Genetic Associations

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Douglas S.; Khankhanian, Pouya

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify disease-associations for single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) from scattered genomic-locations. However, SNPs frequently reside on several different SNP-haplotypes, only some of which may be disease-associated. This circumstance lowers the observed odds-ratio for disease-association. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we develop a method to identify the two SNP-haplotypes, which combine to produce each person’s SNP-genotype over specified chromosomal segments. Two multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated genetic regions were modeled; DRB1 (a Class II molecule of the major histocompatibility complex) and MMEL1 (an endopeptidase that degrades both neuropeptides and ?-amyloid). For each locus, we considered sets of eleven adjacent SNPs, surrounding the putative disease-associated gene and spanning ?200 kb of DNA. The SNP-information was converted into an ordered-set of eleven-numbers (subject-vectors) based on whether a person had zero, one, or two copies of particular SNP-variant at each sequential SNP-location. SNP-strings were defined as those ordered-combinations of eleven-numbers (0 or 1), representing a haplotype, two of which combined to form the observed subject-vector. Subject-vectors were resolved using probabilistic methods. In both regions, only a small number of SNP-strings were present. We compared our method to the SHAPEIT-2 phasing-algorithm. When the SNP-information spanning 200 kb was used, SHAPEIT-2 was inaccurate. When the SHAPEIT-2 window was increased to 2,000 kb, the concordance between the two methods, in both of these eleven-SNP regions, was over 99%, suggesting that, in these regions, both methods were quite accurate. Nevertheless, correspondence was not uniformly high over the entire DNA-span but, rather, was characterized by alternating peaks and valleys of concordance. Moreover, in the valleys of poor-correspondence, SHAPEIT-2 was also inconsistent with itself, suggesting that the SNP-string method is more accurate across the entire region. Conclusions/Significance Accurate haplotype identification will enhance the detection of genetic-associations. The SNP-string method provides a simple means to accomplish this and can be extended to cover larger genomic regions, thereby improving a GWAS’s power, even for those published previously. PMID:24727690

  5. ?-Globin Gene Haplotype Characteristics of Colombian Amerinds in South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Shimizu; Toyoko Hashimoto; Shinji Harihara; Kazuo Tajima; Shunro Sonoda; Vladimir Zaninovic

    2001-01-01

    Haplotypes and subhaplotypes in the ?-globin gene cluster were identified in 146 and 156 chromosomes, respectively, of three tribes of Colombian Amerinds. Subhaplotype [+––––] was a major one in Colombian Amerinds as in most human ethnic groups except Africans. A major subhaplotype [––––+] in Africans was observed in only one chromosome. The framework 2 frequencies were very low (0.018–0.067). Haplotype

  6. RET Variants and Haplotype Analysis in a Cohort of Czech Patients with Hirschsprung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vaclavikova, Eliska; Dvorakova, Sarka; Skaba, Richard; Pos, Lucie; Sykorova, Vlasta; Halkova, Tereza; Vcelak, Josef; Bendlova, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital aganglionosis of myenteric and submucosal plexuses in variable length of the intestine. This study investigated the influence and a possible modifying function of RET proto-oncogene's single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the development and phenotype of the disease in Czech patients. Genotyping of 14 SNPs was performed using TaqMan Genotyping Assays and direct sequencing. The frequencies of SNPs and generated haplotypes were statistically evaluated using chi-square test and the association with the risk of HSCR was estimated by odds ratio. SNP analysis revealed significant differences in frequencies of 11 polymorphic RET variants between 162 HSCR patients and 205 unaffected controls. Particularly variant alleles of rs1864410, rs2435357, rs2506004 (intron 1), rs1800858 (exon 2), rs1800861 (exon 13), and rs2565200 (intron 19) were strongly associated with increased risk of HSCR (p<0.00000) and were over-represented in males vs. females. Conversely, variant alleles of rs1800860, rs1799939 and rs1800863 (exons 7, 11, 15) had a protective role. The haploblock comprising variants in intron 1 and exon 2 was constructed. It represented a high risk of HSCR, however, the influence of other variants was also found after pruning from effect of this haploblock. Clustering patients according to genotype status in haploblock revealed a strong co-segregation with several SNPs and pointed out the differences between long and short form of HSCR. This study involved a large number of SNPs along the entire RET proto-oncogene with demonstration of their risk/protective role also in haplotype and diplotype analysis in the Czech population. The influence of some variant alleles on the aggressiveness of the disease and their role in gender manifestation differences was found. These data contribute to worldwide knowledge of the genetics of HSCR. PMID:24897126

  7. Mannose-binding lectin 2 gene haplotype analysis in Korean patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Im, Churl Hyun; Kim, Jinhyun; Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Park, Kyung Sook; Song, Yeong Wook

    2012-08-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum levels or genetic polymorphisms are known to be associated with autoimmune diseases. We investigated MBL2 genetic polymorphisms in 95 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and in 252 healthy controls. MBL2 promoter polymorphisms at -550 (H/L), -221 (Y/X), +4 (P/Q), and exon polymorphisms at codon 52 (Arg/Cys), 54 (Gly/Asp, or A/B), and 57 (Gly/Glu) were investigated using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed using SPSS (ver 12.0) and Haploview (ver 4.2). MBL2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were not significantly different between patients with AS and controls. By haplotype analysis, LYPB frequency was significantly lower in AS (10.7% vs. 21.3%, OR 0.441, 95% CI: 0.266-0.733, P value = 0.001, Pc value = 0.008). The frequency of LYPA (15.4% vs. 9.2%, OR 1.802, 95% CI: 1.097-2.961, P value = 0.019, Pc value = 0.101) and HYPB (3.5% vs. 0.8%, OR 4.457, 95% CI: 1.289-15.409, P value = 0.011, Pc value = 0.060) tended to be higher in AS. Clinical characteristics of AS were not associated with any MBL2 SNP or haplotype. In summary, haplotypes of MBL2 genetic polymorphisms were found to be associated with AS, which suggests that MBL2 genetic polymorphisms may play a role during the development of AS. PMID:21544638

  8. Powerful SNP-Set Analysis for Case-Control Genome-wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Michael C.; Kraft, Peter; Epstein, Michael P.; Taylor, Deanne M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Lin, Xihong

    2010-01-01

    GWAS have emerged as popular tools for identifying genetic variants that are associated with disease risk. Standard analysis of a case-control GWAS involves assessing the association between each individual genotyped SNP and disease risk. However, this approach suffers from limited reproducibility and difficulties in detecting multi-SNP and epistatic effects. As an alternative analytical strategy, we propose grouping SNPs together into SNP sets on the basis of proximity to genomic features such as genes or haplotype blocks, then testing the joint effect of each SNP set. Testing of each SNP set proceeds via the logistic kernel-machine-based test, which is based on a statistical framework that allows for flexible modeling of epistatic and nonlinear SNP effects. This flexibility and the ability to naturally adjust for covariate effects are important features of our test that make it appealing in comparison to individual SNP tests and existing multimarker tests. Using simulated data based on the International HapMap Project, we show that SNP-set testing can have improved power over standard individual-SNP analysis under a wide range of settings. In particular, we find that our approach has higher power than individual-SNP analysis when the median correlation between the disease-susceptibility variant and the genotyped SNPs is moderate to high. When the correlation is low, both individual-SNP analysis and the SNP-set analysis tend to have low power. We apply SNP-set analysis to analyze the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) breast cancer GWAS discovery-phase data. PMID:20560208

  9. SNP panels/Imputation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants from thirteen countries discussed services that Interbull can perform or recommendations that Interbull can make to promote harmonization and assist member countries in improving their genomic evaluations in regard to SNP panels and imputation. The panel recommended: A mechanism to shar...

  10. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP) I t is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area

  11. Application of a posteriori granddaughter and modified granddaughter designs to determine Holstein haplotype effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A posteriori and modified granddaughter designs were applied to determine haplotype effects for Holstein bulls and cows with BovineSNP50 genotypes. The a posteriori granddaughter design was applied to 52 sire families, each with '100 genotyped sons with genetic evaluations based on progeny tests. Fo...

  12. Haplotype Inference in General Pedigrees Using the Cluster Variation Method

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Cornelis A.; Heskes, Tom; Kappen, Hilbert J.

    2007-01-01

    We present CVMHAPLO, a probabilistic method for haplotyping in general pedigrees with many markers. CVMHAPLO reconstructs the haplotypes by assigning in every iteration a fixed number of the ordered genotypes with the highest marginal probability, conditioned on the marker data and ordered genotypes assigned in previous iterations. CVMHAPLO makes use of the cluster variation method (CVM) to efficiently estimate the marginal probabilities. We focused on single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the evaluation of our approach. In simulated data sets where exact computation was feasible, we found that the accuracy of CVMHAPLO was high and similar to that of maximum-likelihood methods. In simulated data sets where exact computation of the maximum-likelihood haplotype configuration was not feasible, the accuracy of CVMHAPLO was similar to that of state of the art Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) maximum-likelihood approximations when all ordered genotypes were assigned and higher when only a subset of the ordered genotypes was assigned. CVMHAPLO was faster than the MCMC approach and provided more detailed information about the uncertainty in the inferred haplotypes. We conclude that CVMHAPLO is a practical tool for the inference of haplotypes in large complex pedigrees. PMID:17660564

  13. Haplotype inference in general pedigrees using the cluster variation method.

    PubMed

    Albers, Cornelis A; Heskes, Tom; Kappen, Hilbert J

    2007-10-01

    We present CVMHAPLO, a probabilistic method for haplotyping in general pedigrees with many markers. CVMHAPLO reconstructs the haplotypes by assigning in every iteration a fixed number of the ordered genotypes with the highest marginal probability, conditioned on the marker data and ordered genotypes assigned in previous iterations. CVMHAPLO makes use of the cluster variation method (CVM) to efficiently estimate the marginal probabilities. We focused on single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the evaluation of our approach. In simulated data sets where exact computation was feasible, we found that the accuracy of CVMHAPLO was high and similar to that of maximum-likelihood methods. In simulated data sets where exact computation of the maximum-likelihood haplotype configuration was not feasible, the accuracy of CVMHAPLO was similar to that of state of the art Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) maximum-likelihood approximations when all ordered genotypes were assigned and higher when only a subset of the ordered genotypes was assigned. CVMHAPLO was faster than the MCMC approach and provided more detailed information about the uncertainty in the inferred haplotypes. We conclude that CVMHAPLO is a practical tool for the inference of haplotypes in large complex pedigrees. PMID:17660564

  14. A system for exact and approximate genetic linkage analysis of SNP data in large pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Mark; Weissbrod, Omer; Otten, Lars; Tzemach, Anna; Anisenia, Andrei; Shtark, Oren; Tuberg, Dvir; Galfrin, Eddie; Gannon, Irena; Shalata, Adel; Borochowitz, Zvi U.; Dechter, Rina; Thompson, Elizabeth; Geiger, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The use of dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data in genetic linkage analysis of large pedigrees is impeded by significant technical, methodological and computational challenges. Here we describe Superlink-Online SNP, a new powerful online system that streamlines the linkage analysis of SNP data. It features a fully integrated flexible processing workflow comprising both well-known and novel data analysis tools, including SNP clustering, erroneous data filtering, exact and approximate LOD calculations and maximum-likelihood haplotyping. The system draws its power from thousands of CPUs, performing data analysis tasks orders of magnitude faster than a single computer. By providing an intuitive interface to sophisticated state-of-the-art analysis tools coupled with high computing capacity, Superlink-Online SNP helps geneticists unleash the potential of SNP data for detecting disease genes. Results: Computations performed by Superlink-Online SNP are automatically parallelized using novel paradigms, and executed on unlimited number of private or public CPUs. One novel service is large-scale approximate Markov Chain–Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis. The accuracy of the results is reliably estimated by running the same computation on multiple CPUs and evaluating the Gelman–Rubin Score to set aside unreliable results. Another service within the workflow is a novel parallelized exact algorithm for inferring maximum-likelihood haplotyping. The reported system enables genetic analyses that were previously infeasible. We demonstrate the system capabilities through a study of a large complex pedigree affected with metabolic syndrome. Availability: Superlink-Online SNP is freely available for researchers at http://cbl-hap.cs.technion.ac.il/superlink-snp. The system source code can also be downloaded from the system website. Contact: omerw@cs.technion.ac.il Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23162081

  15. SNP characteristics predict replication success in association studies.

    PubMed

    Gorlov, Ivan P; Moore, Jason H; Peng, Bo; Jin, Jennifer L; Gorlova, Olga Y; Amos, Christopher I

    2014-12-01

    Successful independent replication is the most direct approach for distinguishing real genotype-disease associations from false discoveries in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Selecting SNPs for replication has been primarily based on P values from the discovery stage, although additional characteristics of SNPs may be used to improve replication success. We used disease-associated SNPs from more than 2,000 published GWASs to identify predictors of SNP reproducibility. SNP reproducibility was defined as a proportion of successful replications among all replication attempts. The study reporting association for the first time was considered to be discovery and all consequent studies targeting the same phenotype replications. We found that -Log(P), where P is a P value from the discovery study, is the strongest predictor of the SNP reproducibility. Other significant predictors include type of the SNP (e.g., missense vs intronic SNPs) and minor allele frequency. Features of the genes linked to the disease-associated SNP also predict SNP reproducibility. Based on empirically defined rules, we developed a reproducibility score (RS) to predict SNP reproducibility independently of -Log(P). We used data from two lung cancer GWAS studies as well as recently reported disease-associated SNPs to validate RS. Minus Log(P) outperforms RS when the very top SNPs are selected, while RS works better with relaxed selection criteria. In conclusion, we propose an empirical model to predict SNP reproducibility, which can be used to select SNPs for validation and prioritization. PMID:25273843

  16. Recent radiation within Y-chromosomal haplogroup R-M269 resulted in high Y-STR haplotype resemblance.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; van Oven, Mannis; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny

    2014-03-01

    Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are often used in addition to Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) to detect subtle patterns in a population genetic structure. There are, however, indications for Y-STR haplotype resemblance across different subhaplogroups within haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) which may lead to erosion in the observation of the population genetic pattern. Hence the question arises whether Y-STR haplotypes are still informative beyond high-resolution Y-SNP genotyping for population genetic studies. To address this question, we genotyped the Y chromosomes of more than 1000 males originating from the West-European regions of Flanders (Belgium), North-Brabant and Limburg (the Netherlands) at the highest resolution of the current Y-SNP tree together with 38 commonly used Y-STRs. We observed high resemblance of Y-STR haplotypes between males belonging to different subhaplogroups of haplogroup R-M269. Several subhaplogroups within R-M269 could not be distinguished from each other based on differences in Y-STR haplotype variation. The most likely hypothesis to explain this similarity of Y-STR haplotypes within the population of R-M269 members is a recent radiation where various subhaplogroups originated within a relatively short time period. We conclude that high-resolution Y-SNP typing rather than Y-STR typing might be more useful to study population genetic patterns in (Western) Europe. PMID:24571229

  17. Combined genotype and haplotype tests for region-based association studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although single-SNP analysis has proven to be useful in identifying many disease-associated loci, region-based analysis has several advantages. Empirically, it has been shown that region-based genotype and haplotype approaches may possess much higher power than single-SNP statistical tests. Both high quality haplotypes and genotypes may be available for analysis given the development of next generation sequencing technologies and haplotype assembly algorithms. Results As generally it is unknown whether genotypes or haplotypes are more relevant for identifying an association, we propose to use both of them with the purpose of preserving high power under both genotype and haplotype disease scenarios. We suggest two approaches for a combined association test and investigate the performance of these two approaches based on a theoretical model, population genetics simulations and analysis of a real data set. Conclusions Based on a theoretical model, population genetics simulations and analysis of a central corneal thickness (CCT) Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) data set we have shown that combined genotype and haplotype approach has a high potential utility for applications in association studies. PMID:23964661

  18. HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik

    The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

  19. Extended haplotype analysis of cystic fibrosis mutations and its implications for the selective advantage hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagit Sereth; Tzipora Shoshani; Nurit Bashan; Bat-sheva Kerem

    1993-01-01

    The major cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation, ?F508, is associated with one haplotype (B) determined by the two polymorphic markers, XV2C and KM19. This haplotype is rare (15%) among non-?F chromosomes. Its frequency among non-?F508 CF chromosomes is 50% with variation between populations. One hypothesis for the high frequency of CF haplotype B chromosomes suggests that there was a selective advantage

  20. Genome-Wide Haplotype Analysis of Cis Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brocheton, Jessy; Zeller, Tanja; Rovital, Maxime; Wild, Philipp S.; Ziegler, Andreas; Munzel, Thomas; Tiret, Laurence; Blankenberg, Stefan; Deloukas, Panos; Erdmann, Jeannette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Goodall, Alison H.; Cambien, François; Trégouët, David-Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess whether gene expression variability could be influenced by several SNPs acting in cis, either through additive or more complex haplotype effects, a systematic genome-wide search for cis haplotype expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) was conducted in a sample of 758 individuals, part of the Cardiogenics Transcriptomic Study, for which genome-wide monocyte expression and GWAS data were available. 19,805 RNA probes were assessed for cis haplotypic regulation through investigation of ?2,1×109 haplotypic combinations. 2,650 probes demonstrated haplotypic p-values?>104-fold smaller than the best single SNP p-value. Replication of significant haplotype effects were tested for 412 probes for which SNPs (or proxies) that defined the detected haplotypes were available in the Gutenberg Health Study composed of 1,374 individuals. At the Bonferroni correction level of 1.2×10?4 (?0.05/412), 193 haplotypic signals replicated. 1000G imputation was then conducted, and 105 haplotypic signals still remained more informative than imputed SNPs. In-depth analysis of these 105 cis eQTL revealed that at 76 loci genetic associations were compatible with additive effects of several SNPs, while for the 29 remaining regions data could be compatible with a more complex haplotypic pattern. As 24 of the 105 cis eQTL have previously been reported to be disease-associated loci, this work highlights the need for conducting haplotype-based and 1000G imputed cis eQTL analysis before commencing functional studies at disease-associated loci. PMID:23382694

  1. Validation of SNP Allele Frequencies Determined by Pooled Next-Generation Sequencing in Natural Populations of a Non-Model Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Rellstab, Christian; Zoller, Stefan; Tedder, Andrew; Gugerli, Felix; Fischer, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing of pooled samples (Pool-Seq) using next-generation sequencing technologies has become increasingly popular, because it represents a rapid and cost-effective method to determine allele frequencies for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in population pools. Validation of allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq has been attempted using an individual genotyping approach, but these studies tend to use samples from existing model organism databases or DNA stores, and do not validate a realistic setup for sampling natural populations. Here we used pyrosequencing to validate allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq in three natural populations of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae). The allele frequency estimates of the pooled population samples (consisting of 20 individual plant DNA samples) were determined after mapping Illumina reads to (i) the publicly available, high-quality reference genome of a closely related species (Arabidopsis thaliana) and (ii) our own de novo draft genome assembly of A. halleri. We then pyrosequenced nine selected SNPs using the same individuals from each population, resulting in a total of 540 samples. Our results show a highly significant and accurate relationship between pooled and individually determined allele frequencies, irrespective of the reference genome used. Allele frequencies differed on average by less than 4%. There was no tendency that either the Pool-Seq or the individual-based approach resulted in higher or lower estimates of allele frequencies. Moreover, the rather high coverage in the mapping to the two reference genomes, ranging from 55 to 284x, had no significant effect on the accuracy of the Pool-Seq. A resampling analysis showed that only very low coverage values (below 10-20x) would substantially reduce the precision of the method. We therefore conclude that a pooled re-sequencing approach is well suited for analyses of genetic variation in natural populations. PMID:24244686

  2. Identifying haplotype block structure using an ancestor-derived model.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Hironori; Isomura, Minoru; Eguchi, Shinto; Ushijima, Masaru; Miyata, Satoshi; Miki, Yoshio; Matsuura, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Recently, haplotype-based association studies have become popular for detecting disease-related or drug-response-associated genes. In these studies, it has been gradually recognized that a haplotype block structure is important. A rational and automatic method for identifying the haplotype block structure from SNP data has been desired. We have developed a new method using an ancestor-derived model and the minimum description length principle. The proposed method was applied to real data on the TAP2 gene in which a recombination hotspot was previously reported in human sperm data. The proposed method could identify an appropriate haplotype block structure, while existing methods failed. The performance of the proposed method was also investigated in a simulation study. The proposed method presented a better performance in real data analysis and the simulation study than existing methods. The proposed method was powerful from the viewpoint of hotspot sensitivity and was robust to mutation except at the edge of a sequence. PMID:17636360

  3. A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla: Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Molly E.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Petersen, Jessica L.; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M.; Distl, Ottmar; Guérin, Gérard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Røed, Knut H.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Swinburne, June E.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50–100 kb and reached background levels within 1–2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ?750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species. PMID:22253606

  4. Quantification of the Pirimicarb Resistance Allele Frequency in Pooled Cotton Aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) Samples by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yizhou; Bogema, Daniel R.; Barchia, Idris M.; Herron, Grant A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticide resistance monitoring is a crucial part to achieving sustainable integrated pest management (IPM) in agricultural production systems. Monitoring of resistance in arthropod populations is initially performed by bioassay, a method that detects a phenotypic response to pesticides. Molecular diagnostic assays, offering speed and cost improvements, can be developed when the causative mutation for resistance has been identified. However, improvements to throughput are limited as genotyping methods cannot be accurately applied to pooled DNA. Quantifying an allele frequency from pooled DNA would allow faster and cheaper monitoring of pesticide resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate a new method to quantify a resistance allele frequency (RAF) from pooled insects via TaqMan assay by using raw fluorescence data to calculate the transformed fluorescence ratio k’ at the inflexion point based on a four parameter sigmoid curve. Our results show that k’ is reproducible and highly correlated with RAF (r >0.99). We also demonstrate that k’ has a non-linear relationship with RAF and that five standard points are sufficient to build a prediction model. Additionally, we identified a non-linear relationship between runs for k’, allowing the combination of samples across multiple runs in a single analysis. Conclusions/Significance The transformed fluorescence ratio (k') method can be used to monitor pesticide resistance in IPM and to accurately quantify allele frequency from pooled samples. We have determined that five standards (0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0) are sufficient for accurate prediction and are statistically-equivalent to the 13 standard points used experimentally PMID:24614533

  5. A genome-wide scan for breast cancer risk haplotypes among African American women.

    PubMed

    Song, Chi; Chen, Gary K; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Chanock, Stephen J; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Van Den Berg, David J; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Chris A; Stram, Daniel O

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls) using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645), thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density. PMID:23468962

  6. A Genome-Wide Scan for Breast Cancer Risk Haplotypes among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi; Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Chris A.; Stram, Daniel O.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls) using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645), thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density. PMID:23468962

  7. Y-SNP L1034: limited genetic link between Mansi and Hungarian-speaking populations.

    PubMed

    Fehér, T; Németh, E; Vándor, A; Kornienko, I V; Csáji, L K; Pamjav, H

    2015-02-01

    Genetic studies noted that the Hungarian Y-chromosomal gene pool significantly differs from other Uralic-speaking populations. Hungarians show very limited or no presence of haplogroup N-Tat, which is frequent among other Uralic-speaking populations. We proposed that some genetic links need to be observed between the linguistically related Hungarian and Mansi populations.This is the first attempt to divide haplogroup N-Tat into subhaplogroups by testing new downstream SNP markers L708 and L1034. Sixty Northern Mansi samples were collected in Western Siberia and genotyped for Y-chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups. We found 14 Mansi and 92 N-Tat samples from 7 populations. Comparative results showed that all N-Tat samples carried the N-L708 mutation. Some Hungarian, Sekler, and Uzbek samples were L1034 SNP positive, while all Mongolians, Buryats, Khanty, Finnish, and Roma samples yielded a negative result for this marker. Based on the above, L1034 marker seems to be a subgroup of N-Tat, which is typical for Mansi and Hungarian-speaking ethnic groups so far. Based on our time to most recent common ancestor data, the L1034 marker arose 2,500 years before present. The overall frequency of the L1034 is very low among the analyzed populations, thus it does not necessarily mean that proto-Hungarians and Mansi descend from common ancestors. It does provide, however, a limited genetic link supporting language contact. Both Hungarians and Mansi have much more complex genetic population history than the traditional tree-based linguistic model would suggest. PMID:25258186

  8. Association of Nrf2 Polymorphism Haplotypes with Acute Lung Injury Phenotypes in Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicka, Anne E.; Gladwell, Wesley; Marzec, Jacqui; McCaw, Zackary R.; Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nrf2 is a master transcription factor for antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated cytoprotective gene induction. A protective role for pulmonary Nrf2 was determined in model oxidative disorders, including hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). To obtain additional insights into the function and genetic regulation of Nrf2, we assessed functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Nrf2 in inbred mouse strains and tested whether sequence variation is associated with hyperoxia susceptibility. Results: Nrf2 SNPs were compiled from publicly available databases and by re-sequencing DNA from inbred strains. Hierarchical clustering of Nrf2 SNPs categorized the strains into three major haplotypes. Hyperoxia susceptibility was greater in haplotypes 2 and 3 strains than in haplotype 1 strains. A promoter SNP ?103?T/C adding an Sp1 binding site in haplotype 2 diminished promoter activation basally and under hyperoxia. Haplotype 3 mice bearing nonsynonymous coding SNPs located in (1862?A/T, His543Gln) and adjacent to (1417?T/C, Thr395Ile) the Neh1 domain showed suppressed nuclear transactivation of pulmonary Nrf2 relative to other strains, and overexpression of haplotype 3 Nrf2 showed lower ARE responsiveness than overexpression of haplotype 1 Nrf2 in airway cells. Importantly, we found a significant correlation of Nrf2 haplotypes and hyperoxic lung injury phenotypes. Innovation and Conclusion: The results indicate significant influence of Nrf2 polymorphisms and haplotypes on gene function and hyperoxia susceptibility. Our findings further support Nrf2 as a genetic determinant in ALI pathogenesis and provide useful tools for investigators who use mouse strains classified by Nrf2 haplotypes to elucidate the role for Nrf2 in oxidative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 325–338. PMID:25268541

  9. Compound inheritance of a low-frequency regulatory SNP and a rare null mutation in exon-junction complex subunit RBM8A causes TAR syndrome.

    PubMed

    Albers, Cornelis A; Paul, Dirk S; Schulze, Harald; Freson, Kathleen; Stephens, Jonathan C; Smethurst, Peter A; Jolley, Jennifer D; Cvejic, Ana; Kostadima, Myrto; Bertone, Paul; Breuning, Martijn H; Debili, Najet; Deloukas, Panos; Favier, Rémi; Fiedler, Janine; Hobbs, Catherine M; Huang, Ni; Hurles, Matthew E; Kiddle, Graham; Krapels, Ingrid; Nurden, Paquita; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Smith, Kenneth; Stemple, Derek L; Strauss, Gabriele; Thys, Chantal; van Geet, Chris; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Ouwehand, Willem H; Ghevaert, Cedric

    2012-04-01

    The exon-junction complex (EJC) performs essential RNA processing tasks. Here, we describe the first human disorder, thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR), caused by deficiency in one of the four EJC subunits. Compound inheritance of a rare null allele and one of two low-frequency SNPs in the regulatory regions of RBM8A, encoding the Y14 subunit of EJC, causes TAR. We found that this inheritance mechanism explained 53 of 55 cases (P < 5 × 10(-228)) of the rare congenital malformation syndrome. Of the 53 cases with this inheritance pattern, 51 carried a submicroscopic deletion of 1q21.1 that has previously been associated with TAR, and two carried a truncation or frameshift null mutation in RBM8A. We show that the two regulatory SNPs result in diminished RBM8A transcription in vitro and that Y14 expression is reduced in platelets from individuals with TAR. Our data implicate Y14 insufficiency and, presumably, an EJC defect as the cause of TAR syndrome. PMID:22366785

  10. PicSNP: A Catalog of Non-Synonymous SNP

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chang, Hangil.

    1969-12-31

    Maintained by Hangil Chang at the University of Tokyo, PicSNP "is a catalog of non-synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in the human genome." Recently updated, the database allows users to select SNPs by gene name, function of affected genes, biological process relevant to affected genes, or cellular component that contain affected genes. The site does not include much instruction on how to use the database, meaning it is most suitable for users who are familiar with the subject.

  11. Allelic frequencies for SNP variants in the gene Nramp1 in bovine infected with Brucella abortus or classified by resistance to the pathogen Frecuencias alélicas para variantes SNP en el gen Nramp1 en bovinos infectados con Brucella abortus o clasificados por resistencia al patógeno

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esperanza Rueda

    The natural resistance to brucellosis in cattle has been associated to genetic factors mainly to some single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), located within Nramp1 gen. The current research has studied the effect of nucleotide variants to be found in coding regions and other one located in 3 non translated region of Nramp1 gene, on the animal classification as resistant or susceptible,

  12. The recombination landscape around forensic STRs: Accurate measurement of genetic distances between syntenic STR pairs using HapMap high density SNP data.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C; Ballard, D; Gill, P; Court, D Syndercombe; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2012-05-01

    Family studies can be used to measure the genetic distance between same-chromosome (syntenic) STRs in order to detect physical linkage or linkage disequilibrium. However, family studies are expensive and time consuming, in many cases uninformative, and lack a reliable means to infer the phase of the diplotypes obtained. HapMap provides a more comprehensive and fine-scale estimation of recombination rates using high density multi-point SNP data (average inter-SNP distance: 900 nucleotides). Data at this fine scale detects sub-kilobase genetic distances across the whole recombining human genome. We have used the most recent HapMap SNP data release 22 to measure and compare genetic distances, and by inference fine-scale recombination rates, between 29 syntenic STR pairs identified from 39 validated STRs currently available for forensic use. The 39 STRs comprise 23 core loci: SE33, Penta D & E, 13 CODIS and 7 non-CODIS European Standard Set STRs, plus supplementary STRs in the recently released Promega CS-7™ and Qiagen Investigator HDplex™ kits. Also included were D9S1120, a marker we developed for forensic use unique to chromosome 9, and the novel D6S1043 component STR of SinoFiler™ (Applied Biosystems). The data collated provides reliable estimates of recombination rates between each STR pair, that can then be placed into haplotype frequency calculators for short pedigrees with multiple meiotic inputs and which just requires the addition of allele frequencies. This allows all current STR sets or their combinations to be used in supplemented paternity analyses without the need for further adjustment for physical linkage. The detailed analysis of recombination rates made for autosomal forensic STRs was extended to the more than 50 X chromosome STRs established or in development for complex kinship analyses. PMID:21871851

  13. [Analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in yakut population].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, S A; Bermisheva, M A; Villems, R; Maksimova, N R; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2003-01-01

    To study the mitochondrial gene pool structure in Yakuts, polymorphism of mtDNA hypervariable segment I (16,024-16,390) was analyzed in 191 people sampled from the indigenous population of the Sakha Republic. In total, 67 haplotypes of 14 haplogroups were detected. Most (91.6%) haplotypes belonged to haplogroups A, B, C, D, F, G, M*, and Y, which are specific for East Eurasian ethnic groups; 8.4% haplotypes represented Caucasian haplogroups H, HV1, J, T, U, and W. A high frequency of mtDNA types belonging to Asian supercluster M was peculiar for Yakuts: mtDNA types belonging to haplogroup C, D, or G and undifferentiated mtDNA types of haplogroup M (M*) accounted for 81% of all haplotypes. The highest diversity was observed for haplogroups C and D, which comprised respectively 22 (44%) and 18 (30%) haplotypes. Yakuts showed the lowest genetic diversity (H = 0.964) among all Turkic ethnic groups. Phylogenetic analysis testified to a common genetic substrate of Yakuts, Mongols, and Central Asian (Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uigur) populations. Yakuts proved to share 21 (55.5%) mtDNA haplogroups with the Central Asian ethnic groups and Mongols. Comparisons with modern paleo-Asian populations (Chukcha, Itelmen, Koryaks) revealed three (8.9%) haplotypes common for Yakuts and Koryaks. The results of mtDNA analysis disagree with the hypothesis of an appreciable paleo-Asian contribution to the modern Yakut gene pool. PMID:12942638

  14. Polymorphic DNA haplotypes at the LDL receptor locus.

    PubMed Central

    Leitersdorf, E; Chakravarti, A; Hobbs, H H

    1989-01-01

    Mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene result in the autosomal dominant disorder familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Many different LDL receptor mutations have been identified and characterized, demonstrating a high degree of allelic heterogeneity at this locus. The ability to identify mutant LDL receptor genes for prenatal diagnosis of homozygous FH or to study the role of the LDL receptor gene in polygenic hypercholesterolemia requires the use of closely linked RFLPs. In the present study we used 10 different RFLPs, including three newly described polymorphisms, to construct 123 independent haplotypes from 20 Caucasian American pedigrees. Our sample contained 31 different haplotypes varying in frequency from 0.8% to 29.3%; the five most common haplotypes account for 67.5% of the sample. The heterozygosity and PIC of each site were determined, and these values disclosed that eight of the RFLPs were substantially polymorphic. Linkage-disequilibrium analysis of the haplotype data revealed strong nonrandom associations among all 10 RFLPs, especially among those sites clustered in the 3' region of the gene. Evolutionary analysis suggests the occurrence of both mutational and recombinational events in the generation of the observed haplotypes. A strategy for haplotype analysis of the LDL receptor gene in individuals of Caucasian American descent is presented. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2563635

  15. Sickle Cell Disease in a Brazilian Population from Sao Paulo: A Study of the ?s Haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Goncalves; J. F. Nechtman; M. S. Figueiredo; J. Kerbauy; V. R. Armda; M. F. Sonati; S. O. T. Saad; F. F. Costa; T. A. Stoming

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have determined the frequency of ?s haplotypes in a Brazilian sickle cell disease population from Sao Paulo, Brazil, by analyzing sequence variations in the immediate 5’ flanking and second intervening sequence (IVSII) regions of the ? globin genes. This association between sequence differences and ?s haplotype backgrounds was determined by screening genomic DNA samples using dot

  16. HMEC: A Heuristic Algorithm for Individual Haplotyping with Minimum Error Correction.

    PubMed

    Bayzid, Md Shamsuzzoha; Alam, Md Maksudul; Mueen, Abdullah; Rahman, Md Saidur

    2013-01-01

    Haplotype is a pattern of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a single chromosome. Constructing a pair of haplotypes from aligned and overlapping but intermixed and erroneous fragments of the chromosomal sequences is a nontrivial problem. Minimum error correction approach aims to minimize the number of errors to be corrected so that the pair of haplotypes can be constructed through consensus of the fragments. We give a heuristic algorithm (HMEC) that searches through alternative solutions using a gain measure and stops whenever no better solution can be achieved. Time complexity of each iteration is O(m (3) k) for an m × k SNP matrix where m and k are the number of fragments (number of rows) and number of SNP sites (number of columns), respectively, in an SNP matrix. Alternative gain measure is also given to reduce running time. We have compared our algorithm with other methods in terms of accuracy and running time on both simulated and real data, and our extensive experimental results indicate the superiority of our algorithm over others. PMID:25969753

  17. Haplotype diversity of the myostatin gene among beef cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Dunner, Susana; Miranda, M Eugenia; Amigues, Yves; Cañón, Javier; Georges, Michel; Hanset, Roger; Williams, John; Ménissier, François

    2003-01-01

    A total of 678 individuals from 28 European bovine breeds were both phenotyped and analysed at the myostatin locus by the Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) method. Seven new mutations were identified which contribute to the high polymorphism (1 SNP every 100 bp) present in this small gene; twenty haplotypes were described and a genotyping method was set up using the Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (OLA) method. Some haplotypes appeared to be exclusive to a particular breed; this was the case for 5 in the Charolaise (involving mutation Q204X) and 7 in the Maine-Anjou (involving mutation E226X). The relationships between the different haplotypes were studied, thus allowing to test the earlier hypothesis on the origin of muscular hypertrophy in Europe: muscular hypertrophy (namely nt821(del11)) was mainly spread in different waves from northern Europe milk purpose populations in most breeds; however, other mutations (mostly disruptive) arose in a single breed, were highly selected and have since scarcely evolved to other populations. PMID:12605853

  18. Dental caries and enamelin haplotype.

    PubMed

    Chaussain, C; Bouazza, N; Gasse, B; Laffont, A G; Opsahl Vital, S; Davit-Béal, T; Moulis, E; Chabadel, O; Hennequin, M; Courson, F; Droz, D; Vaysse, F; Laboux, O; Tassery, H; Carel, J C; Alcais, A; Treluyer, J M; Beldjord, C; Sire, J Y

    2014-04-01

    In the literature, the enamelin gene ENAM has been repeatedly designated as a possible candidate for caries susceptibility. Here, we checked whether ENAM variants could increase caries susceptibility. To this aim, we sequenced coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of ENAM in 250 children with a severe caries phenotype and in 149 caries-free patients from 9 French hospital groups. In total, 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found, but none appeared to be responsible for a direct change of ENAM function. Six SNPs had a high minor allele frequency (MAF) and 6 others were identified for the first time. Statistical and evolutionary analyses showed that none of these SNPs was associated with caries susceptibility or caries protection when studied separately and challenged with environmental factors. However, haplotype interaction analysis showed that the presence, in a same variant, of 2 exonic SNPs (rs7671281 and rs3796704; MAF 0.12 and 0.10, respectively), both changing an amino acid in the protein region encoded by exon 10 (p.I648T and p.R763Q, respectively), increased caries susceptibility 2.66-fold independent of the environmental risk factors. These findings support ENAM as a gene candidate for caries susceptibility in the studied population. PMID:24487377

  19. [The origin of Yakuts: analysis of Y-chromosome haplotypes].

    PubMed

    Khar'kov, V N; Stepanov, V A; Medvedev, O F; Spiridonova, M G; Maksimova, N R; Nogovitsyna, A N; Puzyrev, V P

    2008-01-01

    Gene pool structure of Sakha Republic (Yakutia) native population has been studied: we defined composition and frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups for Yakuts. Six haplogroups: C3 x M77, C3c, N*, N2, N3a and R1a1 have been revealed in Yakut gene pool. A greater part of Y-chromosome in Yakut population belongs to N3a haplogroup (89%). All investigated Yakut population samples have low values of gene diversity, calculated based on haplogroup frequencies. Gene differentiation of the investigated samples estimated using the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) by two marker systems (haplogroup frequencies and microsatellite haplotypes of Y-chromosome) revealed a portion of interpopulation differences amounting to 0.24 and 2.85%, respectively. Frequencies and molecular phylogeny of YSTR-haplotypes were revealed for N3a haplogroup of Y-chromosome. Altogether forty haplotypes were found in Yakuts. Evenks and Yakuts are characterized by overlapping and very specific spectrum of N3a haplotypes, which is not typical for other Siberian ethnic groups. Cluster analysis of populations by N3a YSTR-haplotypes shows Yakut isolation from Turkic-speaking populations in the South Siberia. Genetic diversity generation time for a specific spectrum of Yakut haplotypes was estimated as 4.45 +/- 1.96 thousand years. As opposed to the data on mtDNA, the obtained results give an evidence for significant contribution of a local palaeolithic component into Y-chromosomal Yakut gene pool. Ethnogenetic reconstruction of the present picture of genetic diversity in N3a haplogroup in the territory of Siberia is under consideration. PMID:18610830

  20. Bovine exome sequence analysis and targeted SNP genotyping of recessive fertility defects HH2, HH3, and BH1 reveals causative mutation in SMC2 for HH3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent discovery of bovine haplotypes with negative effects on fertility in the Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss breeds has allowed producers to identify carrier animals using current commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays. This study was devised to identify the caus...

  1. Haplotype association analysis of combining unrelated case-control and triads with consideration of population stratification

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Shu-Hui; Tsai, Miao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Combining data when data are collected under different study designs, such as family trios and unrelated case-control samples, gains more power and is cost-effective than analyzing each data separately. However, a potential concern is population stratification (PS) among unrelated case-control samples and analyses integrating data should address this confounding effect. In this paper, we develop a simpler method, haplotype generalized linear model (HGLM), that tests and estimates haplotype effects on disease risk and allows for modification against PS for combining data. We proposed to combine information across aggregations of haplotype weighted-counts estimated from population case-control data and trio data separately, and to perform subsequent GLM analysis. Furthermore, we present a framework of analysis of variance based on haplotype weighted-counts for detecting whether it is appropriate to combine two data sources, as well as the modified HGLM with clustering methods for addressing PS. We evaluate the statistical properties in terms of the accuracy, false positive rate (FPR) and empirical power using simulated data with regard to various disease risks, sample sizes, multi-SNP haplotypes and the presence of PS. Our simulation results indicate that HGLM performs comparably well with the likelihood-based haplotype association analysis, particularly when the haplotype effects are moderate, but may not perform well when dealing with lengthy haplotypes for small sample sizes. In the presence of PS, the modified HGLM remains valid and has satisfactory nominal level and small bias. Overall, HGLM appears to be successful in combining data and is simple to implement in standard statistical software. PMID:24860592

  2. High-resolution haplotype structure in the human genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Rioux; Stephen F. Schaffner; Thomas J. Hudson; Mark J. Daly; Eric S. Lander

    2001-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis is traditionally based on individual genetic markers and often yields an erratic, non- monotonic picture, because the power to detect allelic associa- tions depends on specific properties of each marker, such as frequency and population history. Ideally, LD analysis should be based directly on the underlying haplotype structure of the human genome, but this structure has

  3. SNP-PHAGE - High throughput SNP discovery pipeline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmi K. Matukumalli; John J. Grefenstette; David L. Hyten; Ik-young Choi; Perry B. Cregan; Curtis P. Van Tassell

    2006-01-01

    Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as defined here are single base sequence changes or short insertion\\/deletions between or within individuals of a given species. As a result of their abundance and the availability of high throughput analysis technologies SNP markers have begun to replace other traditional markers such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and

  4. Croatian national reference Y-STR haplotype database.

    PubMed

    Mrši?, Gordan; Grškovi?, Branka; Vrdoljak, Andro; Popovi?, Maja; Valpoti?, Ivica; An?elinovi?, Šimun; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Ehler, Edvard; Urban, Ludvik; Lackovi?, Gordana; Underhill, Peter; Primorac, Dragan

    2012-07-01

    A reference Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype database is needed for Y-STR match interpretation as well as for national and regional characterization of populations. The aim of this study was to create a comprehensive Y-STR haplotype database of the Croatian contemporary population and to analyze substructure between the five Croatian regions. We carried out a statistical analysis of the data from previously performed genetic analyses collected during routine forensic work by the Forensic Science Centre "Ivan Vu?eti?". A total of 1,100 unrelated men from eastern, western, northern, southern and central Croatia were selected for the purpose of this study. Y-STRs were typed using the AmpFISTR Yfiler PCR amplification kit. Analysis of molecular variance calculated with the Y chromosome haplotype reference database online analysis tool included 16 population samples with 20,247 haplotypes. A total of 947 haplotypes were recorded, 848 of which were unique (89.5%). Haplotype diversity was 0.998, with the most frequent haplotype found in 9 of 1,100 men (0.82%). Locus diversity varied from 0.266 for DYS392 to 0.868 for DYS385. Discrimination capacity was 86.1%. Our results suggested high level of similarity among regional subpopulations within Croatia, except for mildly different southern Croatia. Relative resemblance was found with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. Whit Atheys' Haplogroup Predictor was used to estimate the frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups. I2a, R1a, E1b1b and R1b haplogroups were most frequent in all Croatian regions. These results are important in forensics and contribute to the population genetics and genetic background of the contemporary Croatian population. PMID:22391654

  5. Haplotype-based approach for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dingyuan; Ge, Huijuan; Li, Xuchao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yanyan; Hu, Ping; Chen, Shengpei; Zhang, Jingjing; Ji, Xiuqing; Xu, Xun; Jiang, Hui; Chen, Minfeng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Zhengfeng

    2014-07-10

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is of clinical significance because in utero treatment is available to prevent virilization of an affected female fetus. However, traditional prenatal diagnosis of CAH relies on genetic testing of fetal genomic DNA obtained using amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, which is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new haplotype-based approach for the noninvasive prenatal testing of CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Parental haplotypes were constructed using target-region sequencing data of the parents and the proband. With the assistance of the parental haplotypes, we recovered fetal haplotypes using a hidden Markov model (HMM) through maternal plasma DNA sequencing. In the genomic region around the CYP21A2 gene, the fetus inherited the paternal haplotype '0' alleles linked to the mutant CYP21A2 gene, but the maternal haplotype '1' alleles linked to the wild-type gene. The fetus was predicted to be an unaffected carrier of CAH, which was confirmed by genetic analysis of fetal genomic DNA from amniotic fluid cells. This method was further validated by comparing the inferred SNP genotypes with the direct sequencing data of fetal genomic DNA. The result showed an accuracy of 96.41% for the inferred maternal alleles and an accuracy of 97.81% for the inferred paternal alleles. The haplotype-based approach is feasible for noninvasive prenatal testing of CAH. PMID:24768736

  6. Linkage disequilibrium mapping via cladistic analysis of phase-unknown genotypes and inferred haplotypes in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 simulated data.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Caroline; Morris, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    We recently described a method for linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping, using cladistic analysis of phased single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes in a logistic regression framework. However, haplotypes are often not available and cannot be deduced with certainty from the unphased genotypes. One possible two-stage approach is to infer the phase of multilocus genotype data and analyze the resulting haplotypes as if known. Here, haplotypes are inferred using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and the best-guess phase assignment for each individual analyzed. However, inferring haplotypes from phase-unknown data is prone to error and this should be taken into account in the subsequent analysis. An alternative approach is to analyze the phase-unknown multilocus genotypes themselves. Here we present a generalization of the method for phase-known haplotype data to the case of unphased SNP genotypes. Our approach is designed for high-density SNP data, so we opted to analyze the simulated dataset. The marker spacing in the initial screen was too large for our method to be effective, so we used the answers provided to request further data in regions around the disease loci and in null regions. Power to detect the disease loci, accuracy in localizing the true site of the locus, and false-positive error rates are reported for the inferred-haplotype and unphased genotype methods. For this data, analyzing inferred haplotypes outperforms analysis of genotypes. As expected, our results suggest that when there is little or no LD between a disease locus and the flanking region, there will be no chance of detecting it unless the disease variant itself is genotyped. PMID:16451556

  7. dbSNP VCF Submission Format Guidelines Contact: snp-admin@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    dbSNP VCF Submission Format Guidelines Contact: snp-admin@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Last update: June 05 with clinical significance or phenotype. They should be submitted to ClinVar (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) or contact dbSNP (snp-admin@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) if you have any questions. When should I use the VCF format

  8. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Oliver C; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Özbeyaz, Ceyhan; Zaragoza, Pilar; Williams, John L; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Lenstra, Johannes A; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katy; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H) that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed. PMID:15040901

  9. Identification of Novel SNP in Promoter Sequence of TaGW2-6A Associated with Grain Weight and Other Agronomic Traits in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Vandana; Gahlaut, Vijay; Mathur, Saloni; Agarwal, Priyanka; Khandelwal, Manoj Kumar; Khurana, Jitendra Paul; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    TaGW2 is an orthologue of rice gene OsGW2, which encodes E3 RING ubiquitin ligase and controls the grain size in rice. In wheat, three copies of TaGW2 have been identified and mapped on wheat homoeologous group 6 viz. TaGW2-6A, TaGW2-6B and TaGW2-6D. In the present study, using as many as 207 Indian wheat genotypes, we identified four SNPs including two novel SNPs (SNP-988 and SNP-494) in the promoter sequence of TaGW2-6A. All the four SNPs were G/A or A/G substitutions (transitions). Out of the four SNPs, SNP-494 was causal, since it was found associated with grain weight. The mean TGW (41.1 g) of genotypes with the allele SNP-494_A was significantly higher than mean TGW (38.6 g) of genotypes with the allele SNP-494_G. SNP-494 also regulates the expression of TaGW2-6A so that the wheat genotypes with SNP-494_G have higher expression and lower TGW and the genotypes with SNP-494_A have lower expression but higher TGW. Besides, SNP-494 was also found associated with grain length-width ratio, awn length, spike length, grain protein content, peduncle length and plant height. This suggested that gene TaGW2-6A not only controls grain size, but also controls other agronomic traits. In the promoter region, SNP-494 was present in ‘CGCG’ motif that plays an important role in Ca2+/calmodulin mediated regulation of genes. A user-friendly CAPS marker was also developed to identify the desirable allele of causal SNP (SNP-494) for use in marker-assisted selection for improvement of grain weight in wheat. Using four SNPs, five haplotypes were identified; of these, Hap_5 (G_A_G_A) was found to be a desirable haplotype having significantly higher grain weight (41.13g) relative to other four haplotypes (36.33-39.16 g). PMID:26076351

  10. PKU in Slovakia: mutation screening and haplotype analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovit Kádasi; Helena Poláková; Eva Feráková; So?a Hudecová; Tá?a Bohušová; Ildiko Szomolayová; Jaroslava Strnová; Ivan Hruškovi?; Nicholas K. Moschonas; Vladimír Ferák

    1995-01-01

    The restriction fragment length polymorphism haplotypes and seven common mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene were analysed in 49 unrelated Slovak phenylketonuria (PKU) families of Caucasian origin. The predominant mutation in this population sample is R408W, with a frequency of 45.9%. In addition, four other mutations have been identified at relatively high frequencies: IVS12nt1, 10.2%; R158Q, 7.1%; R261Q, 7.1%; R252W,

  11. Haplotype Analysis Reveals a Possible Founder Effect of RET Mutation R114H for Hirschsprung's Disease in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Cornes, Belinda K.; Tang, Clara S.; Leon, Thomas Y. Y.; Hui, Kenneth J. W. S.; So, Man-Ting; Miao, Xiaoping; Cherny, Stacey S.; Sham, Pak C.; Tam, Paul K. H.; Garcia-Barcelo, Maria-Merce

    2010-01-01

    Background Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder associated with the lack of intramural ganglion cells in the myenteric and sub-mucosal plexuses along varying segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The RET gene is the major gene implicated in this gastrointestinal disease. A highly recurrent mutation in RET (RETR114H) has recently been identified in ?6–7% of the Chinese HSCR patients which, to date, has not been found in Caucasian patients or controls nor in Chinese controls. Due to the high frequency of RETR114H in this population, we sought to investigate whether this mutation may be a founder HSCR mutation in the Chinese population. Methodology and Principal Findings To test whether all RETR114 were originated from a single mutational event, we predicted the approximate age of RETR114H by applying a Bayesian method to RET SNPs genotyped in 430 Chinese HSCR patients (of whom 25 individuals had the mutation) to be between 4–23 generations old depending on growth rate. We reasoned that if RETR114H was a founder mutation then those with the mutation would share a haplotype on which the mutation resides. Including SNPs spanning 509.31 kb across RET from a recently obtained 500 K genome-wide dataset for a subset of 181 patients (14 RETR114H patients), we applied haplotype estimation methods to determine whether there were any segments shared between patients with RETR114H that are not present in those without the mutation or controls. Analysis yielded a 250.2 kb (51 SNP) shared segment over the RET gene (and downstream) in only those patients with the mutation with no similar segments found among other patients. Conclusions This suggests that RETR114H is a founder mutation for HSCR in the Chinese population. PMID:20532249

  12. Host genetic factors and vaccine-induced immunity to HBV infection: haplotype analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Fielding, Katherine; Hill, Adrian V; Mendy, Maimuna; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Sirugo, Giorgio; van der Sande, Marianne A; Waight, Pauline; Whittle, Hilton C; Hall, Andrew J; Williams, Scott M; Hennig, Branwen J

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a significant health burden world-wide, although vaccines help decrease this problem. We previously identified associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in several candidate genes with vaccine-induced peak antibody level (anti-HBs), which is predictive of long-term vaccine efficacy and protection against infection and persistent carriage; here we report on a haplotype-based analysis. A total of 688 SNPs from 117 genes were examined for a two, three and four sliding window haplotype analysis in a Gambian cohort. Analysis was performed on 197 unrelated individuals, 454 individuals from 174 families, and the combined sample (N = 651). Global and individual haplotype association tests were carried out (adjusted for covariates), employing peak anti-HBs level as outcome. Five genes (CD44, CD58, CDC42, IL19 and IL1R1) had at least one significant haplotype in the unrelated or family analysis as well as the combined analysis. Previous single locus results were confirmed for CD44 (combined global p = 9.1x10(-5) for rs353644-rs353630-rs7937602) and CD58 (combined global p = 0.008 for rs1414275-rs11588376-rs1016140). Haplotypes in CDC42, IL19 and IL1R1 also associated with peak anti-HBs level. We have identified strong haplotype effects on HBV vaccine-induced antibody level in five genes, three of which, CDC42, IL19 and IL1R1, did not show evidence of association in a single SNP analyses and corroborated the majority of these effects in two datasets. The haplotype analysis identified associations with HBV vaccine-induced immunity in several new genes. PMID:20806065

  13. Host Genetic Factors and Vaccine-Induced Immunity to HBV Infection: Haplotype Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ryckman, Kelli K.; Fielding, Katherine; Hill, Adrian V.; Mendy, Maimuna; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Sirugo, Giorgio; van der Sande, Marianne A.; Waight, Pauline; Whittle, Hilton C.; Hall, Andrew J.; Williams, Scott M.; Hennig, Branwen J.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a significant health burden world-wide, although vaccines help decrease this problem. We previously identified associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in several candidate genes with vaccine-induced peak antibody level (anti-HBs), which is predictive of long-term vaccine efficacy and protection against infection and persistent carriage; here we report on a haplotype-based analysis. A total of 688 SNPs from 117 genes were examined for a two, three and four sliding window haplotype analysis in a Gambian cohort. Analysis was performed on 197 unrelated individuals, 454 individuals from 174 families, and the combined sample (N?=?651). Global and individual haplotype association tests were carried out (adjusted for covariates), employing peak anti-HBs level as outcome. Five genes (CD44, CD58, CDC42, IL19 and IL1R1) had at least one significant haplotype in the unrelated or family analysis as well as the combined analysis. Previous single locus results were confirmed for CD44 (combined global p?=?9.1×10?5 for rs353644-rs353630-rs7937602) and CD58 (combined global p?=?0.008 for rs1414275-rs11588376-rs1016140). Haplotypes in CDC42, IL19 and IL1R1 also associated with peak anti-HBs level. We have identified strong haplotype effects on HBV vaccine-induced antibody level in five genes, three of which, CDC42, IL19 and IL1R1, did not show evidence of association in a single SNP analyses and corroborated the majority of these effects in two datasets. The haplotype analysis identified associations with HBV vaccine-induced immunity in several new genes. PMID:20806065

  14. Beta2 Adrenergic Receptor (ADR?2) Haplotype Pair (2/4) Is Associated with Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Li Ping; Baltic, Svetlana; Ferreira, Manuel; Temple, Suzanna; Waterer, Grant; Thompson, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Background ?2 adrenergic receptor (ADR?2) polymorphisms including ADR?2+46G>A have been reported to cause adverse outcomes in mild asthmatics. The extent to which ADR?2 polymorphisms and in particular their haplotypes contribute to severe asthma is unknown. Objective To determine the association of ADR?2 polymorphisms and haplotypes with asthma severity. Methods Caucasians (n?=?2979) were genotyped for 11 ADR?2 polymorphisms. The cohort (mean age 39.6, 60% female) included 2296 non-asthmatics, 386 mild asthmatics, 172 moderate asthmatics and 125 severe asthmatics. Haplotype frequency and haplotype pair for each subject was determined using the PHASE algorithm. Results The three asthmatic cohorts were comparable in age and gender but were distinguishable from each other in terms of symptoms, spirometry, medication use and health care utilisation (p <0.001). None of the polymorphisms showed a genotypic or allelic association with asthma diagnosis or severity. Nine haplotypes were identified and no association was found with asthma diagnosis or severity per se. Haplotype pair 2/4 was associated with asthma severity (Trend Test, OR 1.42, p?=?0.0008) but not with asthma per se. Prevalence of haplotype pair 2/2 appeared to decrease with asthma severity (Trend Test, OR 0.78, p?=?0.067). Two new haplotypes were identified, occurring exclusively in asthmatics at a frequency of ? 1%. In addition, a positive association between carriage of ADR?2 +523*C and increased risk of atopy was discovered. Conclusions ADR?2 haplotype pair 2/4 is associated with severe asthma and is consistent with findings of poor bronchodilator response in mild asthmatics who are also haplotype 2/4. PMID:24691493

  15. Association of SELE genotypes/haplotypes with sE-selectin levels in Taiwanese individuals: interactive effect of MMP9 level

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background E-selectin is implicated in various inflammatory processes and related disorders. We aimed to investigate the role of SELE-gene genotypes/haplotypes on plasma levels of MMP9 and sE-selectin in Taiwanese individuals. Methods Five hundred twenty individuals were enrolled. Seven tagging SELE single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed. Results SELE genotypes were found associated with MMP9 and sE-selectin levels. Multivariate analysis identified that the most significant genetic polymorphism (rs5368 genotype) was independently associated with MMP9 levels (P?haplotype (GGAGAGT) was marginally associated with MMP9 levels (P?=?0.0490). One SELE SNP, (rs3917406, P?=?0.031) was associated with sE-selectin levels after adjusting for MMP9 and sICAM1 levels. Subgroup and interaction analysis revealed association of SELE SNP rs10800469 with sE-selectin levels only in the highest quartile of MMP9 level (P?=?0.002, interaction P?=?0.023). Haplotype analysis showed one haplotype (AAAAAGC) borderline associated with sE-selectin level (P?=?0.0511). Conclusion SELE genotypes/haplotypes are independently associated with MMP9 and E-selectin levels in Taiwanese individuals. The associations of SELE genotypes/haplotypes with sE-selectin levels are affected by MMP9 levels. PMID:23190470

  16. Clarifying haplotype ambiguity of NAT2 in multi-national cohorts.

    PubMed

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Agundez, Jose A G; Martinez, Carmen; Garcia-Martin, Elena; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is the key enzyme in aromatic amine metabolism. NAT2 genotyping requires a subsequent determination of the haplotype pairs (formerly: alleles) to derive the acetylation status. The chromosomal phase of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is unclear for about 2/3 of the genotypes. We investigated NAT2 genotypes of 1,234 bladder cancer cases and 2,207 controls from Germany, Hungary, Pakistan and Venezuela plus 696 further German cancer cases. We reconstructed NAT2 haplotypes using PHASE v2.1.1. We analysed if the variability of the NAT2 haplotypes affected the haplotype reconstruction. Furthermore, we compared population haplotype frequencies in three Caucasian control cohorts (German, Hungarian, Spanish), in Pakistanis and Venezuelans and the impact on bladder cancer. We conclude that a common haplotype reconstruction is feasible, enhances precision and reliability. Hungarian controls showed the largest intra-ethnic variability whereas the Pakistanis showed a haplotype distribution typical for Caucasians. The main differences could be observed for the slow haplotypes *5B, *6A and *7B. The association of slow NAT2 genotypes with bladder cancer risk was most prominent in the Venezuelan study group. PMID:23277078

  17. Probabilistic Logic Learning from Haplotype Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Landwehr; Taneli Mielikäinen

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of haplotype data of human populations has received much attention recently. For instance, problems such as Haplo- type Reconstruction are important intermediate steps in gene association studies, which seek to uncover the genetic basis of complex diseases. In this chapter, we explore the application of probabilistic logic learning techniques to haplotype data. More specifically, a new haplotype recon-

  18. New generation pharmacogenomic tools: a SNP linkage disequilibrium Map, validated SNP assay resource, and high-throughput instrumentation system for large-scale genetic studies.

    PubMed

    De La Vega, Francisco M; Dailey, David; Ziegle, Janet; Williams, Julie; Madden, Dawn; Gilbert, Dennis A

    2002-06-01

    Since public and private efforts announced the first draft of the human genome last year, researchers have reported great numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We believe that the availability of well-mapped, quality SNP markers constitutes the gateway to a revolution in genetics and personalized medicine that will lead to better diagnosis and treatment of common complex disorders. A new generation of tools and public SNP resources for pharmacogenomic and genetic studies--specifically for candidate-gene, candidate-region, and whole-genome association studies--will form part of the new scientific landscape. This will only be possible through the greater accessibility of SNP resources and superior high-throughput instrumentation-assay systems that enable affordable, highly productive large-scale genetic studies. We are contributing to this effort by developing a high-quality linkage disequilibrium SNP marker map and an accompanying set of ready-to-use, validated SNP assays across every gene in the human genome. This effort incorporates both the public sequence and SNP data sources, and Celera Genomics' human genome assembly and enormous resource ofphysically mapped SNPs (approximately 4,000,000 unique records). This article discusses our approach and methodology for designing the map, choosing quality SNPs, designing and validating these assays, and obtaining population frequency ofthe polymorphisms. We also discuss an advanced, high-performance SNP assay chemisty--a new generation of the TaqMan probe-based, 5' nuclease assay-and high-throughput instrumentation-software system for large-scale genotyping. We provide the new SNP map and validation information, validated SNP assays and reagents, and instrumentation systems as a novel resource for genetic discoveries. PMID:12083398

  19. MAOA haplotypes associated with thrombocyte-MAO activity

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Mårten; McCarthy, Shane; Sullivan, Patrick F; Dickman, Paul; Andersson, Björn; Oreland, Lars; Schalling, Martin; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim was to ascertain whether thrombocyte MAO (trbc-MAO) activity and depressed state are genetically associated with the MAO locus on chromosome X (Xp11.3 – 11.4). We performed novel sequencing of the MAO locus and validated genetic variants found in public databases prior to constructing haplotypes of the MAO locus in a Swedish sample (N = 573 individuals). Results Our results reveal a profound SNP desert in the MAOB gene. Both the MAOA and MAOB genes segregate as two distinct LD blocks. We found a significant association between two MAOA gene haplotypes and reduced trbc-MAO activity, but no association with depressed state. Conclusion The MAO locus seems to have an effect on trbc-MAO activity in the study population. The findings suggest incomplete X-chromosome inactivation at this locus. It is plausible that a gene-dosage effect can provide some insight into the greater prevalence of depressed state in females than males. PMID:16174289

  20. Selection at Work in Self-Incompatible Arabidopsis lyrata. II. Spatial Distribution of S Haplotypes in Iceland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikkel H. Schierup; Jesper S. Bechsgaard; Freddy B. Christiansen

    2008-01-01

    We survey the distribution of haplotypes at the self-incompatibility (SI) locus of Arabidopsis lyrata (Brassicaceae) at 12 locations spread over the species' natural distribution in Iceland. Previous investigations of the system have identified 34 functionally different S haplotypes maintained by frequency-dependent selection and arranged them into four classes of dominance in their phenotypic expression. On the basis of this model

  1. Bovine Exome Sequence Analysis and Targeted SNP Genotyping of Recessive Fertility Defects BH1, HH2, and HH3 Reveal a Putative Causative Mutation in SMC2 for HH3

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew C.; Bickhart, Derek; Null, Dan; VanRaden, Paul; Xu, Lingyang; Wiggans, George; Liu, George; Schroeder, Steve; Glasscock, Jarret; Armstrong, Jon; Cole, John B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Sonstegard, Tad S.

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of bovine haplotypes with negative effects on fertility in the Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey breeds has allowed producers to identify carrier animals using commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays. This study was devised to identify the causative mutations underlying defective bovine embryo development contained within three of these haplotypes (Brown Swiss haplotype 1 and Holstein haplotypes 2 and 3) by combining exome capture with next generation sequencing. Of the 68,476,640 sequence variations (SV) identified, only 1,311 genome-wide SNP were concordant with the haplotype status of 21 sequenced carriers. Validation genotyping of 36 candidate SNP identified only 1 variant that was concordant to Holstein haplotype 3 (HH3), while no variants located within the refined intervals for HH2 or BH1 were concordant. The variant strictly associated with HH3 is a non-synonymous SNP (T/C) within exon 24 of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes 2 (SMC2) on Chromosome 8 at position 95,410,507 (UMD3.1). This polymorphism changes amino acid 1135 from phenylalanine to serine and causes a non-neutral, non-tolerated, and evolutionarily unlikely substitution within the NTPase domain of the encoded protein. Because only exome capture sequencing was used, we could not rule out the possibility that the true causative mutation for HH3 might lie in a non-exonic genomic location. Given the essential role of SMC2 in DNA repair, chromosome condensation and segregation during cell division, our findings strongly support the non-synonymous SNP (T/C) in SMC2 as the likely causative mutation. The absence of concordant variations for HH2 or BH1 suggests either the underlying causative mutations lie within a non-exomic region or in exome regions not covered by the capture array. PMID:24667746

  2. Design and Characterization of a 52K SNP Chip for Goats

    PubMed Central

    Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cédric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cécile; Eggen, André; Heuven, Henri C. M.; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T.; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R.; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhière, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L.; Tircazes, Aurélie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

    2014-01-01

    The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50–60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years. PMID:24465974

  3. Association of prolactin haplotypes with reproductive traits in Tsaiya ducks.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mu-Tzu; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Huang, Mu-Chiou

    2012-11-01

    A previous cDNA microarray study showed that the prolactin (PRL) gene may be involved in the duck ovarian follicle development and egg formation process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between PRL genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reproductive traits of Tsaiya ducks. Primer pairs for the coding regions in the PRL were designed based on the duck genomic sequence database. Polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand polymorphism (SSCP) and were verified by DNA sequencing. Six novel SNPs (T233C, T295C, G309T, C381A, G3941T and A3975C) were identified in the 1972 bp region of duck PRL gene, and all of them were located in non-coding regions. Single SNP-trait association analysis showed that each SNP was associated with at least one duck reproductive trait (P<0.05). Haplotype combinations constructed on these SNPs were associated with egg weight at 40 weeks of age (EW40), fertility rate (FR) and maximum duration of fertility (MDF) (P<0.0001). In particular, diplotype H1H2 had positive effect on EW40, whereas it had negative effect on FR and MDF (P<0.05). Positive effects of the diplotype H1H5 were observed for FR and MDF, but a negative effect was observed for EW40 (P<0.05). This suggested that the PRL gene plays an important role in the regulation of egg weight and fertility-related traits and could be a potential marker in a marker assisted selection program during duck balancing selection. Further investigations on more duck populations with large sample sizes are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:22959514

  4. Recombination mapping using Boolean logic and high-density SNP genotyping for exome sequence filtering.

    PubMed

    Markello, Thomas C; Han, Ted; Carlson-Donohoe, Hannah; Ahaghotu, Chidi; Harper, Ursula; Jones, MaryPat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Anikster, Yair; Adams, David R; Gahl, William A; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2012-03-01

    Whole genome sequence data for small pedigrees has been shown to provide sufficient information to resolve detailed haplotypes in small pedigrees. Using such information, recombinations can be mapped onto chromosomes, compared with the segregation of a disease of interest and used to filter genome sequence variants. We now show that relatively inexpensive SNP array data from small pedigrees can be used in a similar manner to provide a means of identifying regions of interest in exome sequencing projects. We demonstrate that in those situations where one can assume complete penetrance and parental DNA is available, SNP recombination mapping using Boolean logic identifies chromosomal regions identical to those detected by multipoint linkage using microsatellites but with much less computation. We further show that this approach is successful because the probability of a double crossover between informative SNP loci is negligible. Our observations provide a rationale for using SNP arrays and recombination mapping as a rapid and cost-effective means of incorporating chromosome segregation information into exome sequencing projects intended for disease-gene identification. PMID:22264778

  5. SSCP-SNP in pearl millet--a new marker system for comparative genetics.

    PubMed

    Bertin, I; Zhu, J H; Gale, M D

    2005-05-01

    A considerable array of genomic resources are in place in pearl millet, and marker-aided selection is already in use in the public breeding programme at ICRISAT. This paper describes experiments to extend these publicly available resources to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based marker system. A new marker system, single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP)-SNP, was developed using annotated rice genomic sequences to initially predict the intron-exon borders in millet expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and then to design primers that would amplify across the introns. An adequate supply of millet ESTs was available for us to identify 299 homologues of single-copy rice genes in which the intron positions could be precisely predicted. PCR primers were then designed to amplify approximately 500-bp genomic fragments containing introns. Analysis of these fragments on SSCP gels revealed considerable polymorphism. A detailed DNA sequence analysis of variation at four of the SSCP-SNP loci over a panel of eight inbred genotypes showed complex patterns of variation, with about one SNP or indel (insertion-deletion) every 59 bp in the introns, but considerably fewer in the exons. About two-thirds of the variation was derived from SNPs and one-third from indels. Most haplotypes were detected by SSCP. As a marker system, SSCP-SNP has lower development costs than simple sequence repeats (SSRs), because much of the work is in silico, and similar deployment costs and through-put potential. The rates of polymorphism were lower but useable, with a mean PIC of 0.49 relative to 0.72 for SSRs in our eight inbred genotype panel screen. The major advantage of the system is in comparative applications. Syntenic information can be used to target SSCP-SNP markers to specific chromosomal regions or, conversely, SSCP-SNP markers can be used to unravel detailed syntenic relationships in specific parts of the genome. Finally, a preliminary analysis showed that the millet SSCP-SNP primers amplified in other cereals with a success rate of about 50%. There is also considerable potential to promote SSCP-SNP to a COS (conserved orthologous set) marker system for application across species by more specifically designing primers to precisely match the model genome sequence. PMID:15809850

  6. A Genomic Portrait of Haplotype Diversity and Signatures of Selection in Indigenous Southern African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chimusa, Emile R.; Meintjies, Ayton; Tchanga, Milaine; Mulder, Nicola; Seioghe, Cathal; Soodyall, Himla; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of genome-wide, dense SNP (?900K) and copy number polymorphism data of indigenous southern Africans. We demonstrate the genetic contribution to southern and eastern African populations, which involved admixture between indigenous San, Niger-Congo-speaking and populations of Eurasian ancestry. This finding illustrates the need to account for stratification in genome-wide association studies, and that admixture mapping would likely be a successful approach in these populations. We developed a strategy to detect the signature of selection prior to and following putative admixture events. Several genomic regions show an unusual excess of Niger-Kordofanian, and unusual deficiency of both San and Eurasian ancestry, which were considered the footprints of selection after population admixture. Several SNPs with strong allele frequency differences were observed predominantly between the admixed indigenous southern African populations, and their ancestral Eurasian populations. Interestingly, many candidate genes, which were identified within the genomic regions showing signals for selection, were associated with southern African-specific high-risk, mostly communicable diseases, such as malaria, influenza, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDs. This observation suggests a potentially important role that these genes might have played in adapting to the environment. Additionally, our analyses of haplotype structure, linkage disequilibrium, recombination, copy number variation and genome-wide admixture highlight, and support the unique position of San relative to both African and non-African populations. This study contributes to a better understanding of population ancestry and selection in south-eastern African populations; and the data and results obtained will support research into the genetic contributions to infectious as well as non-communicable diseases in the region. PMID:25811879

  7. Genotype Imputation of Metabochip SNPs Using a Study-Specific Reference Panel of ~4,000 Haplotypes in African Americans From the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Eric Yi; Buyske, Steven; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Peters, Ulrike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Carlson, Chris; Carty, Cara; Crawford, Dana C.; Haessler, Jeff; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Marchand, Loic Le; Manolio, Teri A.; Matise, Tara; Wang, Wei; Kooperberg, Charles; North, Kari E.; Li, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Genetic imputation has become standard practice in modern genetic studies. However, several important issues have not been adequately addressed including the utility of study-specific reference, performance in admixed populations, and quality for less common (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.005–0.05) and rare (MAF < 0.005) variants. These issues only recently became addressable with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) follow-up studies using dense genotyping or sequencing in large samples of non-European individuals. In this work, we constructed a study-specific reference panel of 3,924 haplotypes using African Americans in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) genotyped on both the Metabochip and the Affymetrix 6.0 GWAS platform. We used this reference panel to impute into 6,459 WHI SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) study subjects with only GWAS genotypes. Our analysis confirmed the imputation quality metric Rsq (estimated r2, specific to each SNP) as an effective post-imputation filter. We recommend different Rsq thresholds for different MAF categories such that the average (across SNPs) Rsq is above the desired dosage r2 (squared Pearson correlation between imputed and experimental genotypes).With a desired dosage r2 of 80%, 99.9% (97.5%, 83.6%, 52.0%, 20.5%) of SNPs with MAF > 0.05 (0.03–0.05, 0.01–0.03, 0.005–0.01, and 0.001–0.005) passed the post-imputation filter. The average dosage r2 for these SNPs is 94.7%, 92.1%, 89.0%, 83.1%, and 79.7%, respectively. These results suggest that for African Americans imputation of Metabochip SNPs from GWAS data, including low frequency SNPs with MAF 0.005–0.05, is feasible and worthwhile for power increase in downstream association analysis provided a sizable reference panel is available. PMID:22851474

  8. Major Soybean Maturity Gene Haplotypes Revealed by SNPViz Analysis of 72 Sequenced Soybean Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Langewisch, Tiffany; Zhang, Hongxin; Vincent, Ryan; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Bilyeu, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species. PMID:24727730

  9. Specific haplotypes of the RET proto-oncogene are over-represented in patients with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lesueur, F; Corbex, M; McKay, J; Lima, J; Soares, P; Griseri, P; Burgess, J; Ceccherini, I; Landolfi, S; Papotti, M; Amorim, A; Goldgar, D; Romeo, G

    2002-01-01

    Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), which may be sporadic (95%) or familial (5%), has a prevalence adjusted for age in the general population of 1:100 000. Somatic rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene are present in up to 66% of sporadic tumours, while they are rarely found in familial cases. Purpose: In order to determine if some variants of this gene, or a combination of them, might predispose to PTC, we looked for an association of RET haplotype(s) in PTC cases and in controls from four countries matched for sex, age, and population. Methods: Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the RET coding sequence were typed and haplotype frequencies were estimated. Genotype and haplotype distributions were compared among these cases and controls. Results: Ten haplotypes were observed, the seven most frequent of which have been previously described in sporadic Hirschsprung patients and controls. The single locus analyses suggested association of exon 2 and exon 13 SNPs with sporadic PTC. The haplotype analysis showed over-representation of one haplotype in French and Italian sporadic PTC, whereas a different haplotype was significantly under-represented in French familial PTC. Conclusions: Our data suggest that some variants of RET and some specific haplotypes may act as low penetrance alleles in the predisposition to PTC. PMID:11950855

  10. Major histocompatibility complex class I haplotype diversity in Chinese rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Karl, Julie A; Bohn, Patrick S; Wiseman, Roger W; Nimityongskul, Francesca A; Lank, Simon M; Starrett, Gabriel J; O'Connor, David H

    2013-07-01

    The use of Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for infectious disease immunity research is increasing despite the relative lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I immunogenetics information available for this population. We determined transcript-based MHC class I haplotypes for 385 Chinese rhesus macaques from five different experimental cohorts, providing a concise representation of the full complement of MHC class I major alleles expressed by each animal. In total, 123 Mamu-A and Mamu-B haplotypes were defined in the full Chinese rhesus macaque cohort. We then performed an analysis of haplotype frequencies across the experimental cohorts of Chinese rhesus macaques, as well as a comparison against a group of 96 Indian rhesus macaques. Notably, 35 of the 51 Mamu-A and Mamu-B haplotypes observed in Indian rhesus macaques were also detected in the Chinese population, with 85% of the 385 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques expressing at least one of these class I haplotypes. This unexpected conservation of Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I haplotypes in the Chinese rhesus macaque population suggests that immunologic insights originally gleaned from studies using Indian rhesus macaques may be more applicable to Chinese rhesus macaques than previously appreciated and may provide an opportunity for studies of CD8(+) T-cell responses between populations. It may also be possible to extend these studies across multiple species of macaques, as we found evidence of shared ancestral haplotypes between Chinese rhesus and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques. PMID:23696100

  11. Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Haplotype Diversity in Chinese Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Julie A.; Bohn, Patrick S.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Nimityongskul, Francesca A.; Lank, Simon M.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; O’Connor, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for infectious disease immunity research is increasing despite the relative lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I immunogenetics information available for this population. We determined transcript-based MHC class I haplotypes for 385 Chinese rhesus macaques from five different experimental cohorts, providing a concise representation of the full complement of MHC class I major alleles expressed by each animal. In total, 123 Mamu-A and Mamu-B haplotypes were defined in the full Chinese rhesus macaque cohort. We then performed an analysis of haplotype frequencies across the experimental cohorts of Chinese rhesus macaques, as well as a comparison against a group of 96 Indian rhesus macaques. Notably, 35 of the 51 Mamu-A and Mamu-B haplotypes observed in Indian rhesus macaques were also detected in the Chinese population, with 85% of the 385 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques expressing at least one of these class I haplotypes. This unexpected conservation of Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I haplotypes in the Chinese rhesus macaque population suggests that immunologic insights originally gleaned from studies using Indian rhesus macaques may be more applicable to Chinese rhesus macaques than previously appreciated and may provide an opportunity for studies of CD8+ T-cell responses between populations. It may also be possible to extend these studies across multiple species of macaques, as we found evidence of shared ancestral haplotypes between Chinese rhesus and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques. PMID:23696100

  12. Ancient mitochondrial haplotypes and evidence for intragenic recombination in a gynodioecious plant.

    PubMed

    Städler, Thomas; Delph, Lynda F

    2002-09-01

    Because of their extremely low nucleotide mutation rates, plant mitochondrial genes are generally not expected to show variation within species. Remarkably, we found nine distinct cytochrome b sequence haplotypes in the gynodioecious alpine plant Silene acaulis, with two or more haplotypes coexisting locally in each of three sampled regions. Moreover, there is evidence for intragenic recombination in the history of the haplotype sample, implying at least transient heteroplasmy of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Heteroplasmy might be achieved by one of two potential mechanisms, either continuous coexistence of subgenomic fragments in low stoichiometry, or occasional paternal leakage of mtDNA. On the basis of levels of synonymous nucleotide substitutions, the average divergence time between haplotypes is estimated to be at least 15 million years. Ancient coalescence of extant haplotypes is further indicated by the paucity of fixed differences in haplotypes obtained from related species, a pattern expected under trans-specific evolution. Our data are consistent with models of frequency-dependent selection on linked cytoplasmic male-sterility factors, the putative molecular basis of females in gynodioecious populations. However, associations between marker loci and the inferred male-sterility genes can be maintained only with very low rates of recombination. Heteroplasmy and recombination between divergent haplotypes imply unexplored consequences for the evolutionary dynamics of gynodioecy, a widespread plant breeding system. PMID:12192087

  13. Ancient mitochondrial haplotypes and evidence for intragenic recombination in a gynodioecious plant

    PubMed Central

    Städler, Thomas; Delph, Lynda F.

    2002-01-01

    Because of their extremely low nucleotide mutation rates, plant mitochondrial genes are generally not expected to show variation within species. Remarkably, we found nine distinct cytochrome b sequence haplotypes in the gynodioecious alpine plant Silene acaulis, with two or more haplotypes coexisting locally in each of three sampled regions. Moreover, there is evidence for intragenic recombination in the history of the haplotype sample, implying at least transient heteroplasmy of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Heteroplasmy might be achieved by one of two potential mechanisms, either continuous coexistence of subgenomic fragments in low stoichiometry, or occasional paternal leakage of mtDNA. On the basis of levels of synonymous nucleotide substitutions, the average divergence time between haplotypes is estimated to be at least 15 million years. Ancient coalescence of extant haplotypes is further indicated by the paucity of fixed differences in haplotypes obtained from related species, a pattern expected under trans-specific evolution. Our data are consistent with models of frequency-dependent selection on linked cytoplasmic male-sterility factors, the putative molecular basis of females in gynodioecious populations. However, associations between marker loci and the inferred male-sterility genes can be maintained only with very low rates of recombination. Heteroplasmy and recombination between divergent haplotypes imply unexplored consequences for the evolutionary dynamics of gynodioecy, a widespread plant breeding system. PMID:12192087

  14. variantGPS: SNP500Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of the SNP500Cancer project is to resequence 102 reference samples to find known or newly discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are of immediate importance to molecular epidemiology studies in cancer. SNP500Cancer provides a central resource for sequence verification of SNPs.

  15. Acute chest syndrome is associated with single nucleotide polymorphism-defined beta globin cluster haplotype in children with sickle cell anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Christopher J.; Boulet, Sheree L.; Yang, Genyan; Payne, Amanda B.; Ghaji, Nafisa; Pyle, Meredith E.; Hooper, W. Craig; Bhatnagar, Pallav; Keefer, Jeffrey; Barron-Casella, Emily A.; Casella, James F.; DeBaun, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Genetic diversity at the human ?-globin locus has been implicated as a modifier of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) severity. However, haplotypes defined by restriction fragment length polymorphism sites across the ?-globin locus have not been consistently associated with clinical phenotypes. To define the genetic structure at the ?-globin locus more thoroughly, we performed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping in 820 children who were homozygous for the sickle cell mutation (HbSS). Genotyping results revealed very high linkage disequilibrium across a large region spanning the locus control region and the HBB (?-globin gene) cluster. We identified three predominant haplotypes accounting for 96% of the ?S-carrying chromosomes in this population that could be distinguished using a minimal set of common SNPs. Consistent with previous studies, fetal haemoglobin level was significantly associated with ?S-haplotypes. After controlling for covariates, an association was detected between haplotype and rate of hospitalization for acute chest syndrome (ACS) (incidence rate ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.89) but not incidence rate of vaso-occlusive pain or presence of silent cerebral infarct (SCI). Our results suggest that these SNP-defined ?S-haplotypes may be associated with ACS, but not pain or SCI in a study population of children with SCA. PMID:23952145

  16. A comprehensive SNP and indel imputability database

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qing; Liu, Eric Yi; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Li, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Genotype imputation has become an indispensible step in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Imputation accuracy, directly influencing downstream analysis, has shown to be improved using re-sequencing-based reference panels; however, this comes at the cost of high computational burden due to the huge number of potentially imputable markers (tens of millions) discovered through sequencing a large number of individuals. Therefore, there is an increasing need for access to imputation quality information without actually conducting imputation. To facilitate this process, we have established a publicly available SNP and indel imputability database, aiming to provide direct access to imputation accuracy information for markers identified by the 1000 Genomes Project across four major populations and covering multiple GWAS genotyping platforms. Results: SNP and indel imputability information can be retrieved through a user-friendly interface by providing the ID(s) of the desired variant(s) or by specifying the desired genomic region. The query results can be refined by selecting relevant GWAS genotyping platform(s). This is the first database providing variant imputability information specific to each continental group and to each genotyping platform. In Filipino individuals from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, our database can achieve an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.97, 0.91, 0.88 and 0.79 for markers with minor allele frequency >5%, 3–5%, 1–3% and 0.5–1%, respectively. Specifically, by filtering out 48.6% of markers (corresponding to a reduction of up to 48.6% in computational costs for actual imputation) based on the imputability information in our database, we can remove 77%, 58%, 51% and 42% of the poorly imputed markers at the cost of only 0.3%, 0.8%, 1.5% and 4.6% of the well-imputed markers with minor allele frequency >5%, 3–5%, 1–3% and 0.5–1%, respectively. Availability: http://www.unc.edu/?yunmli/imputability.html Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: yunli@med.unc.edu PMID:23292738

  17. A New SNP Haplotype associated with blue disease resistance gene in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to cotton blue disease (CBD) was evaluated in 364 F2.3 families of 3 populations derived from resistant variety ‘Delta Opal’. The CBD resistance in ‘Delta Opal’ was controlled by one single dominant gene designated Cbd. Two simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified as linked t...

  18. C4 polymorphism and major histocompatibility complex haplotypes in IgA deficiency: association with C4A null haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Bu?in, D; Truedsson, L; Hammarström, L; Smith, C I; Sjöholm, A G

    1991-01-01

    IgA-deficient individuals (n = 110) and six families comprising 9 cases of IgA deficiency were typed for HLA-A, -B, -DR, C4 and factor B. Phenotype frequencies were increased for HLA-B8 (p = 0.004), HLA-DR3 (p = 0.001) and homozygous C4AQ0 (p = 0.01) and decreased for HLA-B7 (p = 0.004), HLA-DR2 (p = 0.0001) and C4A3 (p = 0.00007) compared to controls. Homozygous C4A deficiency was found in 20% of IgA-deficient persons. As clearly suggested by investigation of families, the findings could be attributed to high prevalence of the extended major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype [HLA-A1, B8, C4AQ0, C4B1, BfS, DR3] in IgA deficiency. All but 1 of the 9 IgA-deficient persons included in the family study carried this haplotype and 4 of them were homozygous. In the families, 3 persons with normal serum IgA concentrations had the same MHC haplotypes as their IgA-deficient relatives. The findings were also consistent with possible overrepresentation of other MHC haplotypes with aberrant C4 gene organization in IgA deficiency. As previously suggested, the presence of two MHC haplotypes associated with IgA deficiency appears to be a necessary but not sufficient requirement for manifestation of the condition. The putative existence of a recessive gene in the MHC with regulatory function with regard to IgA gene expression is consistent with the findings. PMID:1817567

  19. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in Hungarian Patients with Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Griger, Zoltán; Dankó, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are autoimmune diseases characterized by symmetrical proximal muscle weakness. Our aim was to identify a correlation between VDR polymorphisms or haplotypes and myositis. We studied VDR-BsmI, VDR-ApaI, VDR-TaqI, and VDR-FokI polymorphisms and haplotypes in 89 Hungarian poly-/dermatomyositis patients (69 females) and 93 controls (52 females). We did not obtain any significant differences for VDR-FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI genotypes and allele frequencies between patients with myositis and healthy individuals. There was no association of VDR polymorphisms with clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles in myositis patients. Men with myositis had a significantly different distribution of BB, Bb, and bb genotypes than female patients, control male individuals, and the entire control group. Distribution of TT, Tt, and tt genotypes was significantly different in males than in females in patient group. According to four-marker haplotype prevalence, frequencies of sixteen possible haplotypes showed significant differences between patient and control groups. The three most frequent haplotypes in patients were the fbAt, FBaT, and fbAT. Our findings may reveal that there is a significant association: Bb and Tt genotypes can be associated with myositis in the Hungarian population we studied. We underline the importance of our result in the estimated prevalence of four-marker haplotypes. PMID:25649962

  20. Haplotype Estimation Using Sequencing Reads

    PubMed Central

    Delaneau, Olivier; Howie, Bryan; Cox, Anthony J.; Zagury, Jean-François; Marchini, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies produce short sequence reads that can contain phase information if they span two or more heterozygote genotypes. This information is not routinely used by current methods that infer haplotypes from genotype data. We have extended the SHAPEIT2 method to use phase-informative sequencing reads to improve phasing accuracy. Our model incorporates the read information in a probabilistic model through base quality scores within each read. The method is primarily designed for high-coverage sequence data or data sets that already have genotypes called. One important application is phasing of single samples sequenced at high coverage for use in medical sequencing and studies of rare diseases. Our method can also use existing panels of reference haplotypes. We tested the method by using a mother-father-child trio sequenced at high-coverage by Illumina together with the low-coverage sequence data from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000GP). We found that use of phase-informative reads increases the mean distance between switch errors by 22% from 274.4 kb to 328.6 kb. We also used male chromosome X haplotypes from the 1000GP samples to simulate sequencing reads with varying insert size, read length, and base error rate. When using short 100 bp paired-end reads, we found that using mixtures of insert sizes produced the best results. When using longer reads with high error rates (5–20 kb read with 4%–15% error per base), phasing performance was substantially improved. PMID:24094745

  1. Characteristic beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes of Evenkis and Oroqens in north China.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Koji; Marubayashi, Azusa; Tokimasa, Kozue; Harihara, Shinji; Omoto, Keiichi; Imanishi, Tadashi; Hao, Luping; Jin, Feng

    2004-10-01

    Haplotype frequencies of the beta-globin gene cluster were estimated for 114 Evenkis and 81 Oroqens from northeast China, and their characteristics were compared with those in Japanese, Koreans, and three Colombian Amerindian groups of South America (Wayuu, Kamsa, and Inga tribes). A major 5' subhaplotype (5' to the delta-globin gene) was + - - - - in Evenkis, whereas + - - - -, - + + - +, and - + - + + were the major subhaplotypes in Oroqens. One possible candidate for an ancestral 5' subhaplotype, - - - - -, was found in one Evenki (0.5%) and three Oroqen chromosomes (2.0%). They were observed as heterozygous forms for + ---- and -----. Major haplotypes were +-----+, + -----+-, and + - - - - + + in Evenkis, whereas they were +-----+,-++-+-+, +----+-, and -+-++-+ in Oroqens. The lowest Nei's genetic distance values of Evenkis or Oroqens based on the 5' subhaplotype frequency distributions were observed in relation to the Wayuu or Koreans, respectively, but those of Evenkis and Oroqens based on the haplotype frequency distributions were found in relation to Koreans. PMID:15757246

  2. Development of a forensic identity SNP panel for Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Augustinus, Daniel; Gahan, Michelle E; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Genetic markers included in forensic identity panels must exhibit Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium (HWE and LE). "Universal" panels designed for global use can fail these tests in regional jurisdictions exhibiting high levels of genetic differentiation such as the Indonesian archipelago. This is especially the case where a single DNA database is required for allele frequency estimates to calculate random match probabilities (RMPs) and associated likelihood ratios (LRs). A panel of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a reduced set of 52 SNPs have been selected from 15 Indonesian subpopulations in the HUGO Pan Asian SNP database using a SNP selection strategy that could be applied to any panel of forensic identity markers. The strategy consists of four screening steps: (1) application of a G test for HWE; (2) ranking for high heterozygosity; (3) selection for LE; and (4) selection for low inbreeding depression. SNPs in our Indonesian panel perform well in comparison to some other universal SNP and short tandem repeat (STR) panels as measured by Fisher's exact test for HWE and LE and Wright's F statistics. PMID:25104323

  3. Haplotype analyses of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and their role in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Bardia, Avinash; Tiwari, Santosh K; Vishwakarma, Sandeep K; Habeeb, Md Aejaz; Nallari, Pratibha; Sultana, Shaik A; Pasha, Shaik A; Reddy, Yugandhar P; Khan, Aleem A

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major clinical form of inflammatory bowel disease. UC is characterized by mucosal inflammation limited to the colon, always involving the rectum and a variable extent of the more proximal colon in a continuous manner. Genetic variations in DNA repair genes may influence the extent of repair functions, DNA damage, and thus the manifestations of UC. This study thus evaluated the role of polymorphisms of the genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms. A total of 171 patients and 213 controls were included. Genotyping was carried out by ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP analyses for RAD51, XRCC3 and hMSH2 gene polymorphisms. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were computed in both control & patient groups and data was analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. The frequency of 'A' allele of hMSH2 in the UC group caused statistically significant increased risk for UC compared to controls (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.31, p = 0.004). Similarly, the CT genotype of XRCC3 gene was predominant in the UC group and increased the risk for UC by 1.75 fold compared to controls (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.15-2.67, p = 0.03), further confirming the risk of 'T' allele in UC. The GC genotype frequency of RAD51 gene was significantly increased (p = 0.02) in the UC group (50.3%) compared to controls (38%). The GC genotype significantly increased the risk for UC compared to GG genotype by 1.73 fold (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.14-2.62, p = 0.02) confirming the strong association of 'C' allele with UC. Among the controls, the SNP loci combination of hMSH2:XRCC3 were in perfect linkage. The GTC and ACC haplotypes were found to be predominant in UC than controls with a 2.28 and 2.93 fold significant increase risk of UC. PMID:25247297

  4. Filling in missing genotypes using haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unknown genotypes can be made known (imputed) from observed genotypes at the same or nearby loci of relatives using pedigree haplotyping, or from matching allele patterns (regardless of pedigree) using population haplotyping. Fortran program findhap.f90 was designed to combine population and pedigre...

  5. Network analysis of human Y microsatellite haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian Cooper; William Amos; Dorota Hoffman; David C. Rubinsztein

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the utility of Y chromosome micro- satellites for studying human male-lineage evolution, we typed samples from three populations for five tetranucleotide repeats and an Alu insertion poly- morphism. We found very high levels of haplotype diversity and evidence that most mutations involve the gain or loss of only one repeat unit, implying that any given microsatellite haplotype may

  6. HLA DR-DQ Haplotypes and Genotypes and Type 1 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Henry; Valdes, Ana Maria; Noble, Janelle; Carlson, Joyce A.; Varney, Mike; Concannon, Pat; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Todd, John A.; Bonella, Persia; Fear, Anna Lisa; Lavant, Eva; Louey, Anthony; Moonsamy, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium has collected type 1 diabetic families worldwide for genetic analysis. The major genetic determinants of type 1 diabetes are alleles at the HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 loci, with both susceptible and protective DR-DQ haplotypes present in all human populations. The aim of this study is to estimate the risk conferred by specific DR-DQ haplotypes and genotypes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Six hundred and seven Caucasian families and 38 Asian families were typed at high resolution for the DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 loci. The association analysis was performed by comparing the frequency of DR-DQ haplotypes among the chromosomes transmitted to an affected child with the frequency of chromosomes not transmitted to any affected child. RESULTS A number of susceptible, neutral, and protective DR-DQ haplotypes have been identified, and a statistically significant hierarchy of type 1 diabetes risk has been established. The most susceptible haplotypes are the DRB1*0301-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 (odds ratio [OR] 3.64) and the DRB1*0405-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302, DRB1*0401-DQA1*0301-DQB*0302, and DRB1*0402-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 haplotypes (ORs 11.37, 8.39, and 3.63), followed by the DRB1*0404-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (OR 1.59) and the DRB1*0801-DQB1*0401-DQB1*0402 (OR 1.25) haplotypes. The most protective haplotypes are DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 (OR 0.03), DRB1*1401-DQA1*0101-DQB1*0503 (OR 0.02), and DRB1*0701-DQA1*0201-DQB1*0303 (OR 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Specific combinations of alleles at the DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 loci determine the extent of haplotypic risk. The comparison of closely related DR-DQ haplotype pairs with different type 1 diabetes risks allowed identification of specific amino acid positions critical in determining disease susceptibility. These data also indicate that the risk associated with specific HLA haplotypes can be influenced by the genotype context and that the trans-complementing heterodimer encoded by DQA1*0501 and DQB1*0302 confers very high risk. PMID:18252895

  7. A genome-wide SNP scan accelerates trait-regulatory genomic loci identification in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Kujur, Alice; Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Das, Shouvik; Ranjan, Rajeev; Shree, Tanima; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C.L.L.; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    We identified 44844 high-quality SNPs by sequencing 92 diverse chickpea accessions belonging to a seed and pod trait-specific association panel using reference genome- and de novo-based GBS (genotyping-by-sequencing) assays. A GWAS (genome-wide association study) in an association panel of 211, including the 92 sequenced accessions, identified 22 major genomic loci showing significant association (explaining 23–47% phenotypic variation) with pod and seed number/plant and 100-seed weight. Eighteen trait-regulatory major genomic loci underlying 13 robust QTLs were validated and mapped on an intra-specific genetic linkage map by QTL mapping. A combinatorial approach of GWAS, QTL mapping and gene haplotype-specific LD mapping and transcript profiling uncovered one superior haplotype and favourable natural allelic variants in the upstream regulatory region of a CesA-type cellulose synthase (Ca_Kabuli_CesA3) gene regulating high pod and seed number/plant (explaining 47% phenotypic variation) in chickpea. The up-regulation of this superior gene haplotype correlated with increased transcript expression of Ca_Kabuli_CesA3 gene in the pollen and pod of high pod/seed number accession, resulting in higher cellulose accumulation for normal pollen and pollen tube growth. A rapid combinatorial genome-wide SNP genotyping-based approach has potential to dissect complex quantitative agronomic traits and delineate trait-regulatory genomic loci (candidate genes) for genetic enhancement in crop plants, including chickpea. PMID:26058368

  8. A genome-wide SNP scan accelerates trait-regulatory genomic loci identification in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Kujur, Alice; Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Das, Shouvik; Ranjan, Rajeev; Shree, Tanima; Saxena, Maneesha S; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-01-01

    We identified 44844 high-quality SNPs by sequencing 92 diverse chickpea accessions belonging to a seed and pod trait-specific association panel using reference genome- and de novo-based GBS (genotyping-by-sequencing) assays. A GWAS (genome-wide association study) in an association panel of 211, including the 92 sequenced accessions, identified 22 major genomic loci showing significant association (explaining 23-47% phenotypic variation) with pod and seed number/plant and 100-seed weight. Eighteen trait-regulatory major genomic loci underlying 13 robust QTLs were validated and mapped on an intra-specific genetic linkage map by QTL mapping. A combinatorial approach of GWAS, QTL mapping and gene haplotype-specific LD mapping and transcript profiling uncovered one superior haplotype and favourable natural allelic variants in the upstream regulatory region of a CesA-type cellulose synthase (Ca_Kabuli_CesA3) gene regulating high pod and seed number/plant (explaining 47% phenotypic variation) in chickpea. The up-regulation of this superior gene haplotype correlated with increased transcript expression of Ca_Kabuli_CesA3 gene in the pollen and pod of high pod/seed number accession, resulting in higher cellulose accumulation for normal pollen and pollen tube growth. A rapid combinatorial genome-wide SNP genotyping-based approach has potential to dissect complex quantitative agronomic traits and delineate trait-regulatory genomic loci (candidate genes) for genetic enhancement in crop plants, including chickpea. PMID:26058368

  9. PEAS V1.0: a package for elementary analysis of SNP data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuhua; Gupta, Sanchit; Jin, Li

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a software package named PEAS to facilitate analyses of large data sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for population genetics and molecular phylogenetics studies. PEAS reads SNP data in various formats as input and is versatile in data formatting; using PEAS, it is easy to create input files for many popular packages, such as STRUCTURE, frappe, Arlequin, Haploview, LDhat, PLINK, EIGENSOFT, PHASE, fastPHASE, MEGA and PHYLIP. In addition, PEAS fills up several analysis gaps in currently available computer programs in population genetics and molecular phylogenetics. Notably, (i) It calculates genetic distance matrices with bootstrapping for both individuals and populations from genome-wide high-density SNP data, and the output can be streamlined to MEGA and PHYLIP programs for further processing; (ii) It calculates genetic distances from STRUCTURE output and generates MEGA file to reconstruct component trees; (iii) It provides tools to conduct haplotype sharing analysis for phylogenetic studies based on high-density SNP data. To our knowledge, these analyses are not available in any other computer program. PEAS for Windows is freely available for academic users from http://www.picb.ac.cn/~xushua/index.files/Download_PEAS.htm. PMID:21565121

  10. Survey of the Fragile X Syndrome CGG Repeat and the Short-Tandem-Repeat and Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism Haplotypes in an African American Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana C. Crawford; Charles E. Schwartz; Kellen L. Meadows; James L. Newman; Lisa F. Taft; Chris Gunter; W. Ted Brown; Nancy J. Carpenter; Patricia N. Howard-Peebles; Kristin G. Monaghan; Sarah L. Nolin; Allan L. Reiss; Gerald L. Feldman; Elizabeth M. Rohlfs; Stephen T. Warren; Stephanie L. Sherman

    2000-01-01

    Summary Previous studies have shown that specific short-tan- dem-repeat (STR) and single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP)-based haplotypes within and among unaffected and fragile X white populations are found to be asso- ciated with specific CGG-repeat patterns. It has been hypothesized that these associations result from different mutational mechanisms, possibly influenced by the CGG structure and\\/or cis-acting factors. Alternatively, hap- lotype associations may result

  11. Genetic stock structure of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) inferred by PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA and SNP analysis of nuclear DNA.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Takashi; Kitamura, Toru; Kobayashi, Takanori

    2012-09-01

    Walleye pollock, Theragra chalocogramma, is one of the most important species in the North Pacific and Bering Sea ecosystems. However genetic population structuring of walleye pollock is uncertain. In the present study, genetic variation of walleye pollock collected in several spawning areas ranging from the Japan Sea to the Gulf of Alaska was investigated by DNA analysis. Three regions of the spacer control region, the ND5 and ND6 region (ND complex), and the ND1 and 16S rRNA region (rDNA complex) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was conducted on these PCR products and composite haplotypes were calculated. Furthermore, several nuclear DNA regions (actin, Calmodulin, S7 ribosomal protein, creatin kinase, and SypI gene) were investigated to study the stock structure of walleye pollock. It was considered that Calmodulin gene was one of good genetic marker, therefore we conducted SNP analysis for Calmodulin gene by SnaPshot kits. In RFLP analyses, there were no area-specific fragment patterns in the three regions, control region, ND complex and rDNA complex of mtDNA. However compositions of the fragment patterns for the three digested sets, control region/HinfI, rDNA complex/MspI and ND complex/MspI indicated that there are significant differences between around the Japan (Sado-Funka Bay-Wakkanai-Rausu) and the Bering Sea (Western Bering Sea-Nabarin-Atka I.-Bogoslof I). Furthermore, in the case of haplotype frequency, composition showed also significant genetic difference between two areas. Moreover, in Calmodulin analyses, haplotype compositions were changing from western area to eastern area gradually and the results of AMOVA analysis showed that there are interesting differences between western Pacific, western Bering Sea, and eastern Bering Sea. Judging from these results, it was considered that there are three populations of walleye pollock in the Northern Ocean. However, area-specific pattern was not found in some populations in the Northern Ocean. Therefore, we suggested that these populations were related by weak gene flow, and the walleye pollock was formed with meta-population around the Japan and the Bering Sea. PMID:22897958

  12. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information - using cika cattle as a case breed.

    PubMed

    Sim?i?, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had direct or indirect historical contribution to the genetic makeup of the breed of interest. PMID:25923207

  13. Leveraging Ethnic Group Incidence Variation to Investigate Genetic Susceptibility to Glioma: A Novel Candidate SNP Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Daniel I.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John; Jenkins, Robert; Houlston, Richard S.; Bondy, Melissa; Simon, Matthias; Sanson, Marc; Gousias, Konstantinos; Schramm, Johannes; Labussière, Marianne; Di Stefano, Anna Luisa; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Moebus, Susanne; Eisele, Lewin; Dewan, Andrew T.; Dubrow, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Using a novel candidate SNP approach, we aimed to identify a possible genetic basis for the higher glioma incidence in Whites relative to East Asians and African-Americans. Methods:? We hypothesized that genetic regions containing SNPs with extreme differences in allele frequencies across ethnicities are most likely to harbor susceptibility variants. We used International HapMap Project data to identify 3,961 candidate SNPs with the largest allele frequency differences in Whites compared to East Asians and Africans and tested these SNPs for association with glioma risk in a set of White cases and controls. Top SNPs identified in the discovery dataset were tested for association with glioma in five independent replication datasets. Results: No SNP achieved statistical significance in either the discovery or replication datasets after accounting for multiple testing or conducting meta-analysis. However, the most strongly associated SNP, rs879471, was found to be in linkage disequilibrium with a previously identified risk SNP, rs6010620, in RTEL1. We estimate rs6010620 to account for a glioma incidence rate ratio of 1.34 for Whites relative to East Asians. Conclusion: We explored genetic susceptibility to glioma using a novel candidate SNP method which may be applicable to other diseases with appropriate epidemiologic patterns. PMID:23091480

  14. WinHAP2: an extremely fast haplotype phasing program for long genotype sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The haplotype phasing problem tries to screen for phenotype associated genomic variations from millions of candidate data. Most of the current computer programs handle this problem with high requirements of computing power and memory. By replacing the computation-intensive step of constructing the maximum spanning tree with a heuristics of estimated initial haplotype, we released the WinHAP algorithm version 1.0, which outperforms the other algorithms in terms of both running speed and overall accuracy. Results This work further speeds up the WinHAP algorithm to version 2.0 (WinHAP2) by utilizing the divide-and-conquer strategy and the OpenMP parallel computing mode. WinHAP2 can phase 500 genotypes with 1,000,000 SNPs using just 12.8?MB in memory and 2.5?hours on a personal computer, whereas the other programs require unacceptable memory or running times. The parallel running mode further improves WinHAP2's running speed with several orders of magnitudes, compared with the other programs, including Beagle, SHAPEIT2 and 2SNP. Conclusions WinHAP2 is an extremely fast haplotype phasing program which can handle a large-scale genotyping study with any number of SNPs in the current literature and at least in the near future. PMID:24884701

  15. FNphasing: a novel fast heuristic algorithm for haplotype phasing based on flow network model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiaoyun; Xu, Yun; Yao, Xiaohui; Chen, Guoliang

    2013-01-01

    An enormous amount of sequence data has been generated with the development of new DNA sequencing technologies, which presents great challenges for computational biology problems such as haplotype phasing. Although arduous efforts have been made to address this problem, the current methods still cannot efficiently deal with the incoming flood of large-scale data. In this paper, we propose a flow network model to tackle haplotype phasing problem, and explain some classical haplotype phasing rules based on this model. By incorporating the heuristic knowledge obtained from these classical rules, we design an algorithm FNphasing based on the flow network model. Theoretically, the time complexity of our algorithm is (O(n(2)m+m(2)), which is better than that of 2SNP, one of the most efficient algorithms currently. After testing the performance of FNphasing with several simulated data sets, the experimental results show that when applied on large-scale data sets, our algorithm is significantly faster than the state-of-the-art Beagle algorithm. FNphasing also achieves an equal or superior accuracy compared with other approaches. PMID:23929861

  16. FNphasing: A Novel Fast Heuristic Algorithm for Haplotype Phasing Based on Flow Network Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiaoyun; Xu, Yun; Yao, Xiaohui; Chen, Guoliang

    2013-03-01

    An enormous amount of sequence data has been generated with the development of new DNA sequencing technologies, which presents great challenges for computational biology problems such as haplotype phasing. Although arduous efforts have been made to address this problem, the current methods still cannot efficiently deal with the incoming flood of large-scale data. In this paper, we propose a flow network model to tackle haplotype phasing problem, and explain some classical haplotype phasing rules based on this model. By incorporating the heuristic knowledge obtained from these classical rules, we design an algorithm FNphasing based on the flow network model. Theoretically, the time complexity of our algorithm is O(n²m+m²), which is better than that of 2SNP, one of the most efficient algorithms currently. After testing the performance of FNphasing with several simulated data sets, the experimental results show that when applied on large-scale data sets, our algorithm is significantly faster than the state-of-the-art Beagle algorithm. FNphasing also achieves an equal or superior accuracy compared with other approaches. PMID:23509191

  17. SNP-based association mapping of the polled gene in divergent cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Seichter, D; Russ, I; Rothammer, S; Eder, J; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2012-10-01

    Naturally, hornless cattle are called polled. Although the POLL locus could be assigned to a c. 1.36-Mb interval in the centromeric region of BTA1, the underlying genetic basis for the polled trait is still unknown. Here, an association mapping design was set up to refine the candidate region of the polled trait for subsequent high-throughput sequencing. The case group comprised 101 homozygous polled animals from nine divergent cattle breeds, the majority represented by Galloway, Angus, Fleckvieh and Holstein Friesian. Additionally, this group included some polled individuals of Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Hereford, Jersey and Limousin breeds. The control group comprised horned Belgian Blue, Fleckvieh, Holstein Friesian and Illyrian Buša cattle. A genome-wide scan using 49,163 SNPs was performed, which revealed one shared homozygous haplotype block consisting of nine neighbouring SNPs in all polled animals. This segment defines a 381-kb interval on BTA1 that we consider to be the most likely location of the POLL mutation. Our results further demonstrate that the polled-associated haplotype is also frequent in horned animals included in this study, and thus the haplotype as such cannot be used for population-wide genetic testing. The actual trait-associated haplotype may be revealed by using higher-density SNP arrays. For the final identification of the causal mutation, we suggest high-throughput sequencing of the entire candidate region, because the identification of functional candidate genes is difficult owing to the lack of a comparable model. PMID:22497248

  18. Haplotype approach for association analysis on hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We applied a gene-based haplotype approach for the genome-wide association analysis on hypertension using Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 data for unrelated individuals. Association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and clinical outcome were first assessed and haplotypes were then constructed based on the gene information and the linkage disequilibrium plot. Extensive haplotype analysis was also conducted for the whole chromosome 3. We found 1 block from the ULK4 gene and 2 blocks from the LOC64690 gene that were significantly associated with hypertension. PMID:25519392

  19. Haplotypes of RHO polymorphisms and susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qun; Wang, Liqiang; Bai, Hua; Jiang, Yanming; Huang, Yifei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether haplotypes of rhodopsin (RHO) polymorphisms including rs7984, rs2855552, rs2855557 and rs2410 were associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk in Chinese Han population. Methods: Genotypes of rs7984, rs2855552, rs2855557 and rs2410 were detected with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 186 cases and 196 healthy controls. Then, the haplotypes were established with Haploview 4.2 software. And the effects of clinical charactersitics on the frequency of GTTG haplotype were also analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were utilized to assess the relationship of haplotypes and genotypes of RHO polymorphisms with susceptibility to AMD. Results: Genotype distribution of all polymorphisms in control group were all in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) (P>0.05). In the analysis, we found that mutant alleles of rs7984 and rs2855557 were both associated with increased risk of AMD. For genotype analysis, rs7984 AA and rs2855557AA, rs2410GG genotypes all could increase the risk for AMD (OR=1.905, 95% CI=1.143-3.174; OR=2.226, 95% CI=1.261-3.932; OR=2.073, 95% CI=1.105-3.888). However, rs2855552 showed no effects on the onset of AMD. Compared with GTTA, the haplotypes of GGTG, ATAA and GTTG were all related with AMD susceptibility. Further analysis suggested that age, hypertension and hyperlipidemia history play important roles in the frequency alteration of GTTG haplotype. Conclusion: RHO polymorphisms (rs7984, rs2855557 and rs2410) and haplotypes may confer remarkable susceptibility to AMD. Further investigation showed that gene and environmental factors may work together in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  20. SNP mining porcine ESTs with MAVIANT, a novel tool for SNP evaluation and annotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Panitz; Henrik Stengaard; Henrik Hornshøj; Jan Gorodkin; Jakob Hedegaard; Susanna Cirera; Bo Thomsen; Lone B. Madsen; Anette Høj; Rikke K. Vingborg; Bujie Zahn; Xuegang Wang; Xuefei Wang; Rasmus Wernersson; Claus B. Jørgensen; Karsten Scheibye-knudsen; Troels Arvin; Steen Lumholdt; Milena Sawera; Trine Green; Bente J. Nielsen; Jakob Hull Havgaard; Søren Brunak; Merete Fredholm; Christian Bendixen

    2007-01-01

    Motivation: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis is an important means to study genetic variation. A fast and cost-efficient approach to identify large numbers of novel candidates is the SNP mining of large scale sequencing projects. The increasing availability of sequence trace data in public repositories makes it feasible to evaluate SNP predictions on the DNA chromatogram level. MAVIANT, a platform-independent

  1. HLA-DR2-associated DRB1 and DRB5 alleles and haplotypes in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Song, E Y; Kang, S J; Lee, Y J; Park, M H

    2000-09-01

    There are considerable racial differences in the distribution of HLA-DR2-associated DRB1 and DRB5 alleles and the characteristics of linkage disequilibrium between these alleles. In this study, the frequencies of DR2-associated DRB1 and DRB5 alleles and related haplotypes were analyzed in 186 DR2-positive individuals out of 800 normal Koreans registered for unrelated bone marrow donors. HLA class I antigen typing was performed by the serological method and DRB1 and DRB5 genotyping by the PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism method. Only 3 alleles were detected for DR2-associated DRB1 and DRB5 genes, respectively: DRB1(*)1501 (gene frequency 8.0%), (*)1502 (3.2%), (*)1602 (0.9%); DRB5(*)0101 (8.0%), (*)0102 (3.2%), and (*)0202 (0.9%). DRB1-DRB5 haplotype analysis showed an exclusive association between these alleles: DRB1*1501-DRB5*0101 (haplotype frequency 8.0%), DRB1(*)1502-DRB5(*)0102 (3.2%), and DRB1(*)1602-DRB5(*)0202 (0.9%). The 5 most common DR2-associated A-B-DRB1 haplotypes occurring at frequencies of > or = 0.5% were A24-B52-DRB1(*)1502 (1.8%), A2-B62-DRB1(*)1501, A2-B54-DRB1(*)1501, A26-B61-DRB1(*)1501, and A24-B51-DRB1(*)1501. The remarkable homogeneity in the haplotypic associations between DR2-associated DRB1 and DRB5 alleles in Koreans would be advantageous for organ transplantation compared with other ethnic groups showing considerable heterogeneity in the distribution of DRB1-DRB5 haplotypes. PMID:11053638

  2. selectSNP – An R package for selecting SNPs optimal for genetic evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a huge increase in the number of SNPs in the public repositories. This has made it a challenge to design low and medium density SNP panels, which requires careful selection of available SNPs considering many criteria, such as map position, allelic frequency, possible biological functi...

  3. The Longest Haplotype Reconstruction Problem Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondi, Riccardo

    The Longest Haplotype Reconstruction (LHR) problem has been introduced in Computational Biology for the reconstruction of the haplotypes of an individual, starting from a matrix of incomplete haplotype fragments. In this paper, we reconsider the LHR problem, proving that it is NP-hard even in the restricted case when the input matrix is error-free. Then, we investigate the approximation complexity of the problem, showing that it cannot be approximated within factor 2^{log^{?}nm } for any constant ?< 1, unless NP ? DTIME[2 polylognm ]. Finally, we give a fixed-parameter algorithm, where the parameter is the size of the reconstructed haplotypes.

  4. Identification of Laying-Related SNP Markers in Geese Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, ShiGang; Chu, WeiWei; Zhang, LiFan; Han, HouMing; Zhao, RongXue; Wu, Wei; Zhu, JiangNing; Dodson, Michael V.; Wei, Wei; Liu, HongLin; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Laying performance is an important economical trait of goose production. As laying performance is of low heritability, it is of significance to develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy for this trait. Definition of sequence variation related to the target trait is a prerequisite of quantitating MAS, but little is presently known about the goose genome, which greatly hinders the identification of genetic markers for the laying traits of geese. Recently developed restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is a possible approach for discerning large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reducing the complexity of a genome without having reference genomic information available. In the present study, we developed a pooled RAD sequencing strategy for detecting geese laying-related SNP. Two DNA pools were constructed, each consisting of equal amounts of genomic DNA from 10 individuals with either high estimated breeding value (HEBV) or low estimated breeding value (LEBV). A total of 139,013 SNP were obtained from 42,291,356 sequences, of which 18,771,943 were for LEBV and 23,519,413 were for HEBV cohorts. Fifty-five SNP which had different allelic frequencies in the two DNA pools were further validated by individual-based AS-PCR genotyping in the LEBV and HEBV cohorts. Ten out of 55 SNP exhibited distinct allele distributions in these two cohorts. These 10 SNP were further genotyped in a goose population of 492 geese to verify the association with egg numbers. The result showed that 8 of 10 SNP were associated with egg numbers. Additionally, liner regression analysis revealed that SNP Record-111407, 106975 and 112359 were involved in a multiplegene network affecting laying performance. We used IPCR to extend the unknown regions flanking the candidate RAD tags. The obtained sequences were subjected to BLAST to retrieve the orthologous genes in either ducks or chickens. Five novel genes were cloned for geese which harbored the candidate laying-related SNP, including membrane associated guanylate kinase (MAGI-1), KIAA1462, Rho GTPase activating protein 21 (ARHGAP21), acyl-CoA synthetase family member 2 (ACSF2), astrotactin 2 (ASTN2). Collectively, our data suggests that 8 SNP and 5 genes might be promising candidate markers or targets for marker-assisted selection of egg numbers in geese. PMID:26181055

  5. [Frequency and causes of prevalence of p.Arg894* mutation in CLCN1 gene responsible for development of Thomsen's and Becker's myotonias in Russian population].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, E A; Polyakov, A V

    2013-12-01

    Thomsen's (TM) and Becker's (BM) Myotonias are nondystrophic myotonias. At present, 150 mutations in the CLCN1 gene, which results in the development of TM and BM, have been described. c.2680C > T (p.Arg894*) is the most common mutation. In the Northern Scandinavian countries, the population frequency of this mutation is 0.87%, while in the Russian Federation, it is equal to 1.2% (this study). Based on the results of a molecular-genetic analysis of CLCN1 gene in patients with nondystrophic myotonias, the calculated frequency of TM and BM in Russia is 1:8165 and 1:710, respectively. We have conducted haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers and intragene SNP, which has shown that the prevalence of p.Arg894* mutation in Russia results from the founder effect, and the time of its scattering is 3680 ± 1240 years. PMID:25438602

  6. [Frequency and causes of prevalence of p.Arg894* mutation in CLCN1 gene responsible for development of Thomsen's and Becker's myotonias in Russian population].

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    Thomsen's (TM) and Becker's (BM) Myotonias are nondystrophic myotonias. At present, 150 mutations in the CLCN1 gene, which results in the development of TM and BM, have been described. c.2680C > T (p.Arg894*) is the most common mutation. In the Northern Scandinavian countries, the population frequency of this mutation is 0.87%, while in the Russian Federation, it is equal to 1.2% (this study). Based on the results of a molecular-genetic analysis of CLCN1 gene in patients with nondystrophic myotonias, the calculated frequency of TM and BM in Russia is 1:8165 and 1:710, respectively. We have conducted haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers and intragene SNP, which has shown that the prevalence of p.Arg894* mutation in Russia results from the founder effect, and the time of its scattering is 3680 ± 1240 years. PMID:25508133

  7. Two four-marker haplotypes on 7q36.1 region indicate that the potassium channel gene HERG1 (KCNH2, Kv11.1) is related to schizophrenia: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The pathobiology of schizophrenia is still unclear. Its current treatment mainly depends on antipsychotic drugs. A leading adverse effect of these medications is the acquired long QT syndrome, which results from the blockade of cardiac HERG1 channels (human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels 1) by antipsychotic agents. The HERG1 channel is encoded by HERG1 (KCNH2, Kv11.1) gene and is most highly expressed in heart and brain. Genetic variations in HERG1 predispose to acquired long QT syndrome. We hypothesized that the blockade of HERG1 channels by antipsychotics might also be significant for their therapeutic mode of action, indicating a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Methods We genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7q36.1 region (two SNPs, rs1805123 and rs3800779, located on HERG1, and two SNPs, rs885684 and rs956642, at the 3'-downstream intergenic region) and then performed single SNP and haplotype association analyses in 84 patients with schizophrenia and 74 healthy controls after the exclusion of individuals having prolonged or shortened QT interval on electrocardiogram. Results Our analyses revealed that both genotype and allele frequencies of rs3800779 (c.307+585G>T) were significantly different between populations (P = 0.023 and P = 0.018, respectively). We also identified that two previously undescribed four-marker haplotypes which are nearly allelic opposite of each other and located in chr7:150225599-150302147bp position encompassing HERG1 were either overrepresented (A-A-A-T, the at-risk haplotype, P = 0.0007) or underrepresented (C-A-C-G, the protective haplotype, P = 0.005) in patients compared to controls. Conclusions Our results indicate that the potassium channel gene HERG1 is related to schizophrenia. Our findings may also implicate the whole family of HERG channels (HERG1, HERG2 and HERG3) in the pathogenesis of psychosis and its treatment. PMID:20507645

  8. A Haplotype Framework for Cystic Fibrosis Mutations in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, Elahe; Khodadad, Ahmad; Kupershmidt, Ilya; Ghasemi, Fereshteh; Alinasab, Babak; Naghizadeh, Ramin; Eason, Robert G.; Amini, Mahshid; Esmaili, Mehran; Esmaeili Dooki, Mohammad R.; Sanati, Mohammad H.; Davis, Ronald W.; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive profile of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations and their corresponding haplotypes in the Iranian population. All of the 27 CFTR exons of 60 unrelated Iranian CF patients were sequenced to identify disease-causing mutations. Eleven core haplotypes of CFTR were identified by genotyping six high-frequency simple nucleotide polymorphisms. The carrier frequency of 2.5 in 100 (1 in 40) was estimated from the frequency of heterozygous patients and suggests that contrary to popular belief, cystic fibrosis may be a common, under-diagnosed disease in Iran. A heterogeneous mutation spectrum was observed at the CFTR locus in 60 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from Iran. Twenty putative disease-causing mutations were identified on 64 (53%) of the 120 chromosomes. The five most common Iranian mutations together represented 37% of the expected mutated alleles. The most frequent mutation, ?F508 (p.F508del), represented only 16% of the expected mutated alleles. The next most frequent mutations were c.1677del2 (p.515fs) at 7.5%, c.4041C>G (p.N1303K) at 5.6%, c.2183AA>G (p.684fs) at 5%, and c.3661A>T (p.K1177X) at 2.5%. Three of the five most frequent Iranian mutations are not included in a commonly used panel of CF mutations, underscoring the importance of identifying geographic-specific mutations in this population. PMID:16436643

  9. How frugal is mother nature with haplotypes?

    PubMed Central

    Climer, Sharlee; Jäger, Gerold; Templeton, Alan R.; Zhang, Weixiong

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Inference of haplotypes from genotype data is crucial and challenging for many vitally important studies. The first, and most critical step, is the ascertainment of a biologically sound model to be optimized. Many models that have been proposed rely partially or entirely on reducing the number of unique haplotypes in the solution. Results: This article examines the parsimony of haplotypes using known haplotypes as well as genotypes from the HapMap project. Our study reveals that there are relatively few unique haplotypes, but not always the least possible, for the datasets with known solutions. Furthermore, we show that there are frequently very large numbers of parsimonious solutions, and the number increases exponentially with increasing cardinality. Moreover, these solutions are quite varied, most of which are not consistent with the true solutions. These results quantify the limitations of the Pure Parsimony model and demonstrate the imperative need to consider additional properties for haplotype inference models. At a higher level, and with broad applicability, this article illustrates the power of combinatorial methods to tease out imperfections in a given biological model. Contact: weixiong.zhang@wustl.edu PMID:18987010

  10. Harmful recessive effects on fertility detected by absence of homozygous haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new lethal recessive defects were discovered in Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss by examining haplotypes that had high population frequency but were never homozygous. The method required genotypes only from apparently normal individuals and not from affected embryos. Genotypes from the Bovin...

  11. Characteristic [Beta]Globin Gene Cluster Haplotypes of Evenkis and Oroqens in North China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Shimizu; Azusa Marubayashi; Kozue Tokimasa; Shinji Harihara; Keiichi Omoto; Tadashi Imanishi; Luping Hao; Feng Jin

    2004-01-01

    Haplotype frequencies of the -globin gene cluster were esti- mated for 114 Evenkis and 81 Oroqens from northeast China, and their char- acteristics were compared with those in Japanese, Koreans, and three Colombian Amerindian groups of South America (Wayuu, Kamsa, and Inga tribes). A major 5 subhaplotype (5 to the -globin gene) was in Evenkis, whereas , ,a nd were

  12. Characteristic ?-Globin Gene Cluster Haplotypes of Evenkis and Oroqens in North China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Shimizu; Azusa Marubayashi; Kozue Tokimasa; Shinji Harihara; Keiichi Omoto; Tadashi Imanishi; Luping Hao; Feng Jin

    2011-01-01

    Haplotype frequencies of the ?-globin gene cluster were estimated for 114 Evenkis and 81 Oroqens from northeast China, and their characteristics were compared with those in Japanese, Koreans, and three Colombian Amerindian groups of South America (Wayuu, Kamsa, and Inga tribes). A major 5 subhaplotype (5 to the ?-globin gene) was in Evenkis, whereas , , and were the major

  13. Haplotypes and Linkage Disequilibrium at the Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Locus, PAH, in a Global Representation of Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith R. Kidd; Andrew J. Pakstis; Hongyu Zhao; Ru-Band Lu; Friday E. Okonofua; Adekunle Odunsi; Elena Grigorenko; Batsheva Bonne-Tamir; Jonathan Friedlaender; Leslie O. Schulz; Josef Parnas; Kenneth K. Kidd

    2000-01-01

    Because defects in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) cause phenylketonuria (PKU), PAH was studied for normal polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium soon after the gene was cloned. Studies in the 1980s concentrated on European populations in which PKU was common and showed that haplotype-frequency variation exists between some regions of the world. In European populations, linkage disequilibrium generally was found not

  14. [Microsatellite haplotypes of the Y-chromosome demonstrate the absence of subdivisions and presence of several components in the Tuvinian male gene pool].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, V A; Puzyrev, V P

    2000-03-01

    The haplotype analysis of seven Y-chromosome microsatellites in three regional populations of Tuvinians revealed high intrapopulation variation in the male gene pool of the modern population of the Tuva Republic. In total, 49 haplotypes were found in 111 individuals; only four haplotypes occurred at a frequency higher than 5%. High genetic diversity (H = 0.935) suggested a high power of discrimination for the Y-chromosome haplotypes. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and other data did not reveal subdivision of the Tuvinian population with respect to Y-chromosome haplotypes. Most haplotypes found in Tuvinians formed two lines. Line A included approximately 64% of the haplotypes found, line B, approximately 24%. A putative ancestral haplotype of line B was similar to a haplotype most common in modern Caucasoids (Md = 3), whereas a putative ancestral haplotype of line A proved to be distant from the ancestral haplotype of line A and haplotypes common for Caucasoids and Mongoloids. Estimates of the age of the Y-chromosome lines showed that the male gene pool of modern Tuvinians originated in the late Paleolithic or Neolithic period. With two methods, the age of line A was estimated at 3500 or 18,000 years and the age of line B was approximately at 5500 or 15,000 years. Considering the less conservative estimates to be more reliable, line B was assumed to originate from the ancient Caucasoid population of the Tuva region. The more widespread and evolutionarily younger line A was associated with the peopling region by ancient Mongoloid tribes of the Turkic language group in the Hun-Sarmatian period. PMID:10779914

  15. Cluster analysis of European Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes using the discrete Laplace method.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

    2014-07-01

    The European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype distribution has previously been analysed in various ways. Here, we introduce a new way of analysing population substructure using a new method based on clustering within the discrete Laplace exponential family that models the probability distribution of the Y-STR haplotypes. Creating a consistent statistical model of the haplotypes enables us to perform a wide range of analyses. Previously, haplotype frequency estimation using the discrete Laplace method has been validated. In this paper we investigate how the discrete Laplace method can be used for cluster analysis to further validate the discrete Laplace method. A very important practical fact is that the calculations can be performed on a normal computer. We identified two sub-clusters of the Eastern and Western European Y-STR haplotypes similar to results of previous studies. We also compared pairwise distances (between geographically separated samples) with those obtained using the AMOVA method and found good agreement. Further analyses that are impossible with AMOVA were made using the discrete Laplace method: analysis of the homogeneity in two different ways and calculating marginal STR distributions. We found that the Y-STR haplotypes from e.g. Finland were relatively homogeneous as opposed to the relatively heterogeneous Y-STR haplotypes from e.g. Lublin, Eastern Poland and Berlin, Germany. We demonstrated that the observed distributions of alleles at each locus were similar to the expected ones. We also compared pairwise distances between geographically separated samples from Africa with those obtained using the AMOVA method and found good agreement. PMID:24793845

  16. Phylogeny- and Parsimony-Based Haplotype Inference with Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elberfeld, Michael; Tantau, Till

    Haplotyping, also known as haplotype phase prediction, is the problem of predicting likely haplotypes based on genotype data. One fast computational haplotyping method is based on an evolutionary model where a perfect phylogenetic tree is sought that explains the observed data. In their CPM 2009 paper, Fellows et al. studied an extension of this approach that incorporates prior knowledge in the form of a set of candidate haplotypes from which the right haplotypes must be chosen. While this approach may help to increase the accuracy of haplotyping methods, it was conjectured that the resulting formal problem constrained perfect phylogeny haplotyping might be NP-complete. In the present paper we present a polynomial-time algorithm for it. Our algorithmic ideas also yield new fixed-parameter algorithms for related haplotyping problems based on the maximum parsimony assumption.

  17. Maximum likelihood estimation of haplotype effects and haplotype-environment interactions in association studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Y. Lin; D. Zeng; R. Millikan

    2005-01-01

    The associations between haplotypes and disease phenotypes offer valuable clues about the genetic determinants of complex diseases. It is highly challenging to make statistical inferences about these associations because of the unknown gametic phase in genotype data. We describe a general likelihood-based approach to inferring haplotype-disease associations in studies of unrelated individuals. We consider all possible phenotypes (including disease indicator,

  18. HLA class I and class II alleles and haplotypes in Mexican mestizos established from serological typing of 50 families.

    PubMed

    De Leo, C; Castelan, N; Lopez, M; Gonzalez, N; Weckmann, A L; Melin-Aldana, H; Vargas-Alarcon, G; Bordes, J; Alarcon-Segovia, D; Granados, J; Ramirez, E; Lisker, R

    1997-12-01

    We describe new information on the frequency and association of class II antigens (HLA-DR and HLA-DQ) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Mexicans. The study includes HLA-B typing and its association with the HLA-DR antigens determined in 50 families, which included 100 individuals. This family study allowed the establishment of the precise composition of the 200 HLA haplotypes, which cannot be obtained from unrelated individuals. The predominant antigens in decreasing order of frequency were B35, B39, and B61 at the B locus; DR4, DR5, and DR8 at the DR locus; and DQ3 at the DQ locus. The most common HLA-B,HLA-DR haplotype (considering broad specificities) was B16,DR4, with a frequency of 8.0%. Five HLA-B,HLA-DR haplotypes showed significant delta values (observed vs. expected frequencies) after correcting for the number of comparisons. On the other hand, the most common HLA-DR,HLA-DQ haplotypes were DR4,DQ3 and DR5,DQ3 with a frequency higher than 10%. Ten of the 17 HLA-DR,HLA-DQ haplotypes had significant postcorrection delta values. PMID:9353976

  19. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in Saraswat Brahmin Community of North India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bhuvnesh; Raina, Anupuma; Dogra, Tirath Das

    2011-06-01

    In this study, 17 Y-specific STR loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y_GATA_H4) were analyzed in 181 unrelated male individuals from three North Indian states. A total of 157 different 17-loci haplotypes were identified, 145 of which were unique. The most frequent haplotype was detected in nine instances, occurring with a frequency of 4.97%. These results, including the haplotype data at 17 Y-STR loci in the present study, provide useful information for forensic practice in the Saraswat Brahmin population in North India. PMID:20971692

  20. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ramos, Luiz Patrick Vidal; de Jesus Brabo Ferreira Palha, Teresinha; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2012-01-01

    The allelic and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic testing were estimated in a sample of 138 unrelated healthy males from Macapá, in the northern Amazon region of Brazil. The average gene diversity was 0.6554 ± 0.3315. 134 haplotypes of the 17 loci were observed, 130 of them unique and four present in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity index was 0.9996 + 0.0009, with the most frequent haplogroups being R1b (52.2%), E1b1b (11.6%), J2 (10.1%) and Q (7.2%). Most haplogroups of this population belonged to European male lineages (89.2%), followed by Amerindian (7.2%) and African (3.6%) lineages. PMID:22481873

  1. Impact of haplotypes of TNF in the natural course of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Giannitsioti, E; Damoraki, G; Rokkas, C; Tsaganos, T; Fragou, A; Kannelaki, S; Athanasia, S; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E J

    2014-05-01

    Based on previous findings for the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TNF for the predisposition for bloodstream infections, this study investigates the role of these SNPs at the promoter positions -376, -308, -238 in infective endocarditis (IE). In a case-control study, 83 patients with IE and 83 controls were enrolled. Blood genotyping for the presence of G or A alleles of the three SNPs was carried out using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Haplotypes were calculated. Patients were mostly infected by Staphylococcus aureus (32.5%) and by species of enterococci (14.3%) and streptococci (14.3%). Carriage of the minor frequency A alleles at -238 of the promoter region of TNF was greater than in controls (8.4% versus 1.2%, p 0.003). The presence of any of the three GGA/GAA/AGA haplotypes was more frequent in patients with IE (OR 8.22, 95CI% 1.8-37.4, p 0.001). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that the only factor related to fatal outcome was carriage of the wild-type GGG haplotype (OR, 3.29, 95CI%, 1.05-10.29, p 0.04). GGA, AGA and GAA haplotypes were more frequent in patients with IE than in controls, suggesting a predisposition for IE and a potential protective role against fatal outcome, as the wild-type GGG haplotype was independently related with death. PMID:24165416

  2. Haplotype distribution of class II MHC genes in Mexican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Bekker-Mendez, C; Yamamoto-Furusho, J K; Vargas-Alarcón, G; Ize-Ludlow, D; Alcocer-Varela, J; Granados, J

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the association of the DQA1*0501 allele in the susceptibility to develop systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Mexicans. Frequencies of generic MHC Class II genes (HLA-DR, DQA and DQB1) were determined by DNA typing in 58 Mexican mestizo SLE patients and 96 ethnically matched controls. Statistical analysis was performed by chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. The DQA1*0501 allele was found to be in linkage disequillibrium with H LA-DR3, DR11, and DR14. This explains the lack of association with the allele alone, and the evident strong association of SLE with the [HLA-DR3-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201] and [HLA-DR1-DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501] haplotypes. It was also found a significant decrease (protection) of the [HLA-DR8-DQA1*0401-DQB1*0402] haplotype which is known to be a characteristic haplotype among the indigenous population of Mexico. These data shows that the susceptibility to SLE in Mexicans is more strongly influenced by the MHC haplotypes than by single alleles. The suggestion that these genes do not act alone but in combination, makes the identification of haplotypes mandatory. PMID:9808402

  3. PADI4 Haplotypes in Association with RA Mexican Patients, a New Prospect for Antigen Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Montoya, Norma Guadalupe; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I.; Moran-Moguel, Maria Cristina; Rosales-Gomez, Roberto Carlos; Gutierrez-Rubio, Susan Andrea; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Davalos-Rodriguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl arginine deiminase IV (PAD 4) is the responsible enzyme for a posttranslational modification called citrullination, originating the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been described in PADI4 gene to form a susceptibility haplotype for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nevertheless, results in association studies appear contradictory in different populations. The aim of the study was to analyze if the presence of three SNPs in PADI4 gene susceptibility haplotype (GTG) is associated with ACPA positivity in patients with RA. This was a cross-sectional study that included 86 RA patients and 98 healthy controls. Polymorphisms PADI4_89, PADI4_90, and PADI4_92 in the PADI4 gene were genotyped. The susceptibility haplotype (GTG) was more frequent in RA patients; interestingly, we found a new haplotype associated with RA with a higher frequency (GTC). There were no associations between polymorphisms and high scores in Spanish HAQ-DI and DAS-28, but we did find an association between RARBIS index and PADI4_89, PADI4_90 polymorphisms. We could not confirm an association between susceptibility haplotype presence and ACPA positivity. Further evidence about proteomic expression of this gene will determine its participation in antigenic generation and autoimmunity. PMID:24454473

  4. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) in Moroccan Jews: Demonstration of a founder effect by extened haplotype analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aksentijevich, I.; Pras, E.; Helling, S.; Prosen, L.; Kastner, D.L.; Gruberg, L.; Pras, M. (Heller Institute for Medical Research, Tel-Hashomer (Israel))

    1993-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease causing attacks of fever and serositis. The FMF gene (designated MEF') is on 16p, with the gene order 16 cen-D16S80-MEF-D16S94-D16S283-D16S291-16pter. Here the authors report the association of FMF susceptibility with alleles at D16S94, D16S283, and D16S291 among 31 non-Ashkenazi Jewish families 14 Moroccan families. For the non-Moroccans, only the allelic association at D16S94 approached statistical significance. Haplotype analysis showed that 18/25 Moroccan FMF chromosomes, versus 0/21 noncarrier chromosomes, bore a specific haplotype for D16S94-D16S283-D16S291. Among non-Moroccans this haplotype was present in 6/26 FMF chromosomes versus 1/28 controls. Both groups of families are largely descended from Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition. The strong haplotype association seen among the Moroccans is most likely a founder effect, given the recent origin and genetic isolation of the Moroccan Jewish community. The lowest haplotype frequency among non-Moroccan carriers may reflect differences both in history and in population genetics. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. PADI4 haplotypes in association with RA Mexican patients, a new prospect for antigen modulation.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Cerna, Maria Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Montoya, Norma Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I; Moran-Moguel, Maria Cristina; Rosales-Gomez, Roberto Carlos; Gutierrez-Rubio, Susan Andrea; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Davalos-Rodriguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl arginine deiminase IV (PAD 4) is the responsible enzyme for a posttranslational modification called citrullination, originating the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been described in PADI4 gene to form a susceptibility haplotype for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nevertheless, results in association studies appear contradictory in different populations. The aim of the study was to analyze if the presence of three SNPs in PADI4 gene susceptibility haplotype (GTG) is associated with ACPA positivity in patients with RA. This was a cross-sectional study that included 86 RA patients and 98 healthy controls. Polymorphisms PADI4_89, PADI4_90, and PADI4_92 in the PADI4 gene were genotyped. The susceptibility haplotype (GTG) was more frequent in RA patients; interestingly, we found a new haplotype associated with RA with a higher frequency (GTC). There were no associations between polymorphisms and high scores in Spanish HAQ-DI and DAS-28, but we did find an association between RARBIS index and PADI4_89, PADI4_90 polymorphisms. We could not confirm an association between susceptibility haplotype presence and ACPA positivity. Further evidence about proteomic expression of this gene will determine its participation in antigenic generation and autoimmunity. PMID:24454473

  6. The SNP Consortium website: past, present and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudmundur A. Thorisson; Lincoln Stein

    2003-01-01

    The SNP Consortium website (http:\\/\\/snp.cshl.org) has undergone many changes since its initial conception three years ago. The database back end has been changed from the venerable ACeDB to the more scalable MySQL engine. Users can access the data via gene or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) keyword searches and browse or dump SNP data to textfiles. A graphical genome browsing interface

  7. Detailed haplotype analysis at the TP53 locus in p.R337H mutation carriers in the population of Southern Brazil: evidence for a founder effect.

    PubMed

    Garritano, Sonia; Gemignani, Federica; Palmero, Edenir Inez; Olivier, Magali; Martel-Planche, Ghyslaine; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Brugiéres, Laurence; Vargas, Fernando Regla; Brentani, Ricardo Renzo; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia; Landi, Stefano; Tavtigian, Sean V; Hainaut, Pierre; Achatz, Maria Isabel W

    2010-02-01

    Due to patterns of migration, selection, and population expansion, founder effects are common among humans. In Southern Brazil, a recurrent TP53 mutation, p.R337H, is detected in families with cancer predisposition. We have used whole locus resequencing and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to refine TP53 locus haplotype definitions. Haplotyping of 12 unrelated p.R337H carriers using a set of 29 tag SNPs, revealed that all subjects carried the same haplotype, and presence of the mutation on this haplotype was confirmed by allele-specific PCR. The probability that this haplotype occurs independently in all index cases was of 3.1x10(-9), demonstrating a founder effect. Analysis of the patterns of 103 tumors diagnosed in 12 families showed that the presence of p.R337H is associated with multiple cancers of the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) spectrum, with relatively low penetrance before the age of 30 but a lifetime risk comparable to classical LFS. The p.R337H families are mostly distributed along a road axis historically known as the main route used by merchants of Portuguese origin in the XVIII and XIX century. This historical circumstance and the relatively low penetrance before the age of 30 may have contributed to the maintenance of this pathogenic mutation in a large, open population. PMID:19877175

  8. [Research progress on the phenotype informative SNP in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xuan; Hu, Qing-Qing; Ma, Hong-Du; Huang, Dai-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) refers to the single base sequence variation in specific location of the human genome. Phenotype informative SNP has gradually become one of the research hot spots in forensic science. In this paper, the forensic research situation and application prospect of phenotype informative SNP in the characteristics of hair, eye and skin color, height, and facial feature are reviewed. PMID:25735077

  9. Haplotype fine mapping by evolutionary trees.

    PubMed

    Lam, J C; Roeder, K; Devlin, B

    2000-02-01

    To refine the location of a disease gene within the bounds provided by linkage analysis, many scientists use the pattern of linkage disequilibrium between the disease allele and alleles at nearby markers. We describe a method that seeks to refine location by analysis of "disease" and "normal" haplotypes, thereby using multivariate information about linkage disequilibrium. Under the assumption that the disease mutation occurs in a specific gap between adjacent markers, the method first combines parsimony and likelihood to build an evolutionary tree of disease haplotypes, with each node (haplotype) separated, by a single mutational or recombinational step, from its parent. If required, latent nodes (unobserved haplotypes) are incorporated to complete the tree. Once the tree is built, its likelihood is computed from probabilities of mutation and recombination. When each gap between adjacent markers is evaluated in this fashion and these results are combined with prior information, they yield a posterior probability distribution to guide the search for the disease mutation. We show, by evolutionary simulations, that an implementation of these methods, called "FineMap," yields substantial refinement and excellent coverage for the true location of the disease mutation. Moreover, by analysis of hereditary hemochromatosis haplotypes, we show that FineMap can be robust to genetic heterogeneity. PMID:10677324

  10. CCR5 promoter haplotype transcription complex characterization

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Daifeng; Mummidi, Srinivas; Ahuja, Sunil K.; Jarrett, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a major coreceptor for cell entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); its expression is highly associated with virus replication and susceptibility. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCR5 promoter play a critical role in CCR5 transcriptional regulation. HHA and HHE represent two contrasting haplotypes of CCR5 with two base pair difference in the promoter. Identifying the transcription factors (TFs) that differentially bind to the polymorphic sites (SNPs) in CCR5 haplotypes helps elucidate HIV transmission/pathogenesis. Promoter binding and two-dimensional southwestern blot analysis are coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS to purify transcription complex and identify the differential TFs binding profile, including proteins bound to one haplotype in different amounts than the other and proteins specificly bound to one haplotype. This strategy has great promise for investigating how differential TF binding to CCR5 haplotypes may impact HIV-AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) susceptibility or disease progression. PMID:22102307

  11. An EM algorithm and testing strategy for multiple-locus haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Long; R. C. Williams; M. Urbanek

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain allele frequencies, haplotype frequencies, and gametic disequilibrium coefficients for multiple-locus systems. It permits high polymorphism and null alleles at all loci. This approach effectively deals with the primary estimation problems associated with such systems; that is, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between phenotypic and genotypic categories, and sample sizes

  12. An EM algorithm based on an internal list for estimating haplotype distributions of rare variants from pooled genotype data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pooling is a cost effective way to collect data for genetic association studies, particularly for rare genetic variants. It is of interest to estimate the haplotype frequencies, which contain more information than single locus statistics. By viewing the pooled genotype data as incomplete data, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is the natural algorithm to use, but it is computationally intensive. A recent proposal to reduce the computational burden is to make use of database information to form a list of frequently occurring haplotypes, and to restrict the haplotypes to come from this list only in implementing the EM algorithm. There is, however, the danger of using an incorrect list, and there may not be enough database information to form a list externally in some applications. Results We investigate the possibility of creating an internal list from the data at hand. One way to form such a list is to collapse the observed total minor allele frequencies to “zero” or “at least one”, which is shown to have the desirable effect of amplifying the haplotype frequencies. To improve coverage, we propose ways to add and remove haplotypes from the list, and a benchmarking method to determine the frequency threshold for removing haplotypes. Simulation results show that the EM estimates based on a suitably augmented and trimmed collapsed data list (ATCDL) perform satisfactorily. In two scenarios involving 25 and 32 loci respectively, the EM-ATCDL estimates outperform the EM estimates based on other lists as well as the collapsed data maximum likelihood estimates. Conclusions The proposed augmented and trimmed CD list is a useful list for the EM algorithm to base upon in estimating the haplotype distributions of rare variants. It can handle more markers and larger pool size than existing methods, and the resulting EM-ATCDL estimates are more efficient than the EM estimates based on other lists. PMID:24034507

  13. The combined effect of SNP-marker and phenotype attributes in genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Chan, E K F; Hawken, R; Reverter, A

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has seen rapid improvements in high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technologies that have consequently made genome-wide association studies (GWAS) possible. With tens to hundreds of thousands of SNP markers being tested simultaneously in GWAS, it is imperative to appropriately pre-process, or filter out, those SNPs that may lead to false associations. This paper explores the relationships between various SNP genotype and phenotype attributes and their effects on false associations. We show that (i) uniformly distributed ordinal data as well as binary data are more easily influenced, though not necessarily negatively, by differences in various SNP attributes compared with normally distributed data; (ii) filtering SNPs on minor allele frequency (MAF) and extent of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) deviation has little effect on the overall false positive rate; (iii) in some cases, filtering on MAF only serves to exclude SNPs from the analysis without reduction of the overall proportion of false associations; and (iv) HWE, MAF and heterozygosity are all dependent on minor genotype frequency, a newly proposed measure for genotype integrity. PMID:19076733

  14. Association of Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in the Coding Region of the FAM46A Gene, FAM46A rs11040 SNP and BAG6 rs3117582 SNP with Susceptibility to Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Etokebe, Godfrey Essien; Bulat-Kardum, Ljiljana; Munthe, Ludvig Andre; Balen, Sanja; Dembic, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed for association between the Family with sequence similarity 46, member A (FAM46A) gene (located on chromosome 6q14.1), BCL2-Associated Athanogene 6 (BAG6) gene (located on chromosome 6p21.3) and tuberculosis in Croatian Caucasian. We genotyped the FAM46A rs11040 SNP, FAM46A VNTR and BAG6 rs3117582 polymorphisms in a case-control study with 257 tuberculosis patients and 493 healthy individuals in a Croatian Caucasian population. We found that genotype FAM46A 3/3 (three VNTR repeats homozygote) was associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (p<0.0015, Pcorr.<0.029, Odds ratio?=?2.42, 95% Confidence Interval?=?1.34–4.3). This association suggests that the protein domain encoded by the VNTR might be important for the function of the FAM46A protein, which, in turn, could be relevant in developing tuberculosis. In addition, we found that FAM46A rs11040 SNP:FAM46A VNTR:BAG6 haplotype 132 (G-3-C) is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (p<0.012, pcorr.<0.024, Odds ratio 3.45, 95% Confidence Interval?=?1.26–9.74). This may suggests that the interaction between the FAM46A and BAG6 proteins may be involved in tuberculosis etiology. We found also that infection of human macrophages with heat-killed M. tuberculosis (H37Rv) led to over-expression of FAM46A (VNTR 3/4) transcript. This is the first study to show associations between the FAM46A gene VNTR polymorphisms, FAM46A rs11040 SNP:FAM46A VNTR:BAG6 haplotypes and any disease. PMID:24625963

  15. Haplotyping as perfect phylogeny: a direct approach.

    PubMed

    Bafna, Vineet; Gusfield, Dan; Lancia, Giuseppe; Yooseph, Shibu

    2003-01-01

    A full haplotype map of the human genome will prove extremely valuable as it will be used in large-scale screens of populations to associate specific haplotypes with specific complex genetic-influenced diseases. A haplotype map project has been announced by NIH. The biological key to that project is the surprising fact that some human genomic DNA can be partitioned into long blocks where genetic recombination has been rare, leading to strikingly fewer distinct haplotypes in the population than previously expected (Helmuth, 2001; Daly et al., 2001; Stephens et al., 2001; Friss et al., 2001). In this paper we explore the algorithmic implications of the no-recombination in long blocks observation, for the problem of inferring haplotypes in populations. This assumption, together with the standard population-genetic assumption of infinite sites, motivates a model of haplotype evolution where the haplotypes in a population are assumed to evolve along a coalescent, which as a rooted tree is a perfect phylogeny. We consider the following algorithmic problem, called the perfect phylogeny haplotyping problem (PPH), which was introduced by Gusfield (2002) - given n genotypes of length m each, does there exist a set of at most 2n haplotypes such that each genotype is generated by a pair of haplotypes from this set, and such that this set can be derived on a perfect phylogeny? The approach taken by Gusfield (2002) to solve this problem reduces it to established, deep results and algorithms from matroid and graph theory. Although that reduction is quite simple and the resulting algorithm nearly optimal in speed, taken as a whole that approach is quite involved, and in particular, challenging to program. Moreover, anyone wishing to fully establish, by reading existing literature, the correctness of the entire algorithm would need to read several deep and difficult papers in graph and matroid theory. However, as stated by Gusfield (2002), many simplifications are possible and the list of "future work" in Gusfield (2002) began with the task of developing a simpler, more direct, yet still efficient algorithm. This paper accomplishes that goal, for both the rooted and unrooted PPH problems. It establishes a simple, easy-to-program, O(nm(2))-time algorithm that determines whether there is a PPH solution for input genotypes and produces a linear-space data structure to represent all of the solutions. The approach allows complete, self-contained proofs. In addition to algorithmic simplicity, the approach here makes the representation of all solutions more intuitive than in Gusfield (2002), and solves another goal from that paper, namely, to prove a nontrivial upper bound on the number of PPH solutions, showing that that number is vastly smaller than the number of haplotype solutions (each solution being a set of n pairs of haplotypes that can generate the genotypes) when the perfect phylogeny requirement is not imposed. PMID:12935331

  16. The MDM2 promoter polymorphism SNP309T?G and the risk of uterine leiomyosarcoma, colorectal cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Alhopuro, P; Ylisaukko-oja, S; Koskinen, W; Bono, P; Arola, J; Jarvinen, H; Mecklin, J; Atula, T; Kontio, R; Makitie, A; Suominen, S; Leivo, I; Vahteristo, P; Aaltonen, L; Aaltonen, L

    2005-01-01

    Background: MDM2 acts as a principal regulator of the tumour suppressor p53 by targeting its destruction through the ubiquitin pathway. A polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter (SNP309) was recently identified. SNP309 was shown to result, via Sp1, in higher levels of MDM2 RNA and protein, and subsequent attenuation of the p53 pathway. Furthermore, SNP309 was proposed to be associated with accelerated soft tissue sarcoma formation in both hereditary (Li-Fraumeni) and sporadic cases in humans. Methods: We evaluated the possible contribution of SNP309 to three tumour types known to be linked with the MDM2/p53 pathway, using genomic sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism as screening methods. Three separate Finnish tumour materials (population based sets of 68 patients with early onset uterine leiomyosarcomas and 1042 patients with colorectal cancer, and a series of 162 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck) and a set of 185 healthy Finnish controls were analysed for SNP309. Results: Frequencies of SNP309 were similar in all four cohorts. In the colorectal cancer series, SNP309 was somewhat more frequent in women and in patients with microsatellite stable tumours. Female SNP309 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer approximately 2.7 years earlier than those carrying the wild type gene. However, no statistically significant association of SNP309 with patients' age at disease onset or to any other clinicopathological parameter was found in these three tumour materials. Conclusion: SNP309 had no significant contribution to tumour formation in our materials. Possible associations of SNP309 with microsatellite stable colorectal cancer and with earlier disease onset in female carriers need to be examined in subsequent studies. PMID:16141004

  17. Title: Powerful SNP Set Analysis for Case-Control Genome Wide Association Studies Running Title: Powerful SNP Set Analysis

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xihong

    Title: Powerful SNP Set Analysis for Case-Control Genome Wide Association Studies Running Title: Powerful SNP Set Analysis Michael C. Wu , Peter Kraft , Michael P. Epstein , Deanne M. Taylor , Stephen J have improved power over standard individual SNP analysis under a wide range of settings. In particular

  18. Joint haplotype phasing and genotype calling of multiple individuals using haplotype informative reads

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kui; Zhi, Degui

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Hidden Markov model, based on Li and Stephens model that takes into account chromosome sharing of multiple individuals, results in mainstream haplotype phasing algorithms for genotyping arrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. However, existing methods based on this model assume that the allele count data are independently observed at individual sites and do not consider haplotype informative reads, i.e. reads that cover multiple heterozygous sites, which carry useful haplotype information. In our previous work, we developed a new hidden Markov model to incorporate a two-site joint emission term that captures the haplotype information across two adjacent sites. Although our model improves the accuracy of genotype calling and haplotype phasing, haplotype information in reads covering non-adjacent sites and/or more than two adjacent sites is not used because of the severe computational burden. Results: We develop a new probabilistic model for genotype calling and haplotype phasing from NGS data that incorporates haplotype information of multiple adjacent and/or non-adjacent sites covered by a read over an arbitrary distance. We develop a new hybrid Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm that combines the Gibbs sampling algorithm of HapSeq and Metropolis–Hastings algorithm and is computationally feasible. We show by simulation and real data from the 1000 Genomes Project that our model offers superior performance for haplotype phasing and genotype calling for population NGS data over existing methods. Availability: HapSeq2 is available at www.ssg.uab.edu/hapseq/. Contact: dzhi@uab.edu or kzhang@uab.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23943637

  19. Brief communication: Y-chromosome haplotypes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, G; Mercier, G

    2003-05-01

    We analyzed Y-chromosome haplotypes in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism. These individuals were born in three regions along the river: in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt), in Upper Egypt, and in Lower Nubia. Fifteen different p49a,f TaqI haplotypes are present in Egypt, the three most common being haplotype V (39.4%), haplotype XI (18.9%), and haplotype IV (13.9%). Haplotype V is a characteristic Arab haplotype, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley. Haplotype IV, characteristic of sub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in Egypt. PMID:12687584

  20. Genome-wide haplotype association study identifies the FRMD4A gene as a risk locus for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, J-C; Grenier-Boley, B; Harold, D; Zelenika, D; Chouraki, V; Kamatani, Y; Sleegers, K; Ikram, M A; Hiltunen, M; Reitz, C; Mateo, I; Feulner, T; Bullido, M; Galimberti, D; Concari, L; Alvarez, V; Sims, R; Gerrish, A; Chapman, J; Deniz-Naranjo, C; Solfrizzi, V; Sorbi, S; Arosio, B; Spalletta, G; Siciliano, G; Epelbaum, J; Hannequin, D; Dartigues, J-F; Tzourio, C; Berr, C; Schrijvers, E M C; Rogers, R; Tosto, G; Pasquier, F; Bettens, K; Van Cauwenberghe, C; Fratiglioni, L; Graff, C; Delepine, M; Ferri, R; Reynolds, C A; Lannfelt, L; Ingelsson, M; Prince, J A; Chillotti, C; Pilotto, A; Seripa, D; Boland, A; Mancuso, M; Bossù, P; Annoni, G; Nacmias, B; Bosco, P; Panza, F; Sanchez-Garcia, F; Del Zompo, M; Coto, E; Owen, M; O'Donovan, M; Valdivieso, F; Caffara, P; Scarpini, E; Combarros, O; Buée, L; Campion, D; Soininen, H; Breteler, M; Riemenschneider, M; Van Broeckhoven, C; Alpérovitch, A; Lathrop, M; Trégouët, D-A; Williams, J; Amouyel, P

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have led to the discovery of nine new loci of genetic susceptibility in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the landscape of the AD genetic susceptibility is far away to be complete and in addition to single-SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) analyses as performed in conventional GWAS, complementary strategies need to be applied to overcome limitations inherent to this type of approaches. We performed a genome-wide haplotype association (GWHA) study in the EADI1 study (n=2025 AD cases and 5328 controls) by applying a sliding-windows approach. After exclusion of loci already known to be involved in AD (APOE, BIN1 and CR1), 91 regions with suggestive haplotype effects were identified. In a second step, we attempted to replicate the best suggestive haplotype associations in the GERAD1 consortium (2820 AD cases and 6356 controls) and observed that 9 of them showed nominal association. In a third step, we tested relevant haplotype associations in a combined analysis of five additional case–control studies (5093 AD cases and 4061 controls). We consistently replicated the association of a haplotype within FRMD4A on Chr.10p13 in all the data set analyzed (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: (1.43–1.96); P=1.1 × 10?10). We finally searched for association between SNPs within the FRMD4A locus and A? plasma concentrations in three independent non-demented populations (n=2579). We reported that polymorphisms were associated with plasma A?42/A?40 ratio (best signal, P=5.4 × 10?7). In conclusion, combining both GWHA study and a conservative three-stage replication approach, we characterised FRMD4A as a new genetic risk factor of AD. PMID:22430674

  1. A functional haplotype implicated in vulnerability to develop cocaine dependence is associated with reduced PDYN expression in human brain

    PubMed Central

    Yuferov, Vadim; Ji, Fei; Nielsen, David A.; Levran, Orna; Ho, Ann; Morgello, Susan; Shi, Ruijin; Ott, Jurg; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Dynorphin peptides and the kappa opioid receptor play important roles in the rewarding properties of cocaine, heroin and alcohol. We tested polymorphisms of the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) for association with cocaine dependence and cocaine/alcohol codependence. We genotyped six SNPs, located in the promoter region, exon 4 coding and 3? untranslated region (UTR), in 106 Caucasians and 204 African Americans who were cocaine dependent, cocaine/alcohol codependent or controls. In Caucasians, we found point-wise significant associations of 3?UTR SNPs (rs910080, rs910079, and rs2235749) with cocaine dependence and cocaine/alcohol codependence. These SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium, comprising a haplotype block. The haplotype CCT was significantly experiment-wise associated with cocaine dependence and with combined cocaine dependence and cocaine/alcohol codependence (FDR, q=0.04 and 0.03, respectively). We investigated allele-specific gene expression of PDYN, using SNP rs910079 as a reporter, in postmortem human brains from eight heterozygous subjects, using SNaPshot assay. There was significantly lower expression for C allele (rs910079), with ratios ranging from 0.48 to 0.78, indicating lower expression of the CCT haplotype of PDYN in both the caudate and nucleus accumbens. Analysis of total PDYN expression in 43 postmortem brains also showed significantly lower levels of preprodynorphin mRNA in subjects having the risk CCT haplotype. This study provides evidence that a 3?UTR PDYN haplotype, implicated in vulnerability to develop cocaine addiction and/or cocaine/alcohol codependence, is related to lower mRNA expression of the PDYN gene in human dorsal and ventral striatum. PMID:18923396

  2. Development and evaluation of the first high-throughput SNP array for common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) but, as yet, no high-throughput genotyping platform is available for this species. C. carpio is an important aquaculture species that accounts for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production worldwide. We have developed an array for C. carpio with 250,000 SNPs and evaluated its performance using samples from various strains of C. carpio. Results The SNPs used on the array were selected from two resources: the transcribed sequences from RNA-seq data of four strains of C. carpio, and the genome re-sequencing data of five strains of C. carpio. The 250,000 SNPs on the resulting array are distributed evenly across the reference C.carpio genome with an average spacing of 6.6 kb. To evaluate the SNP array, 1,072 C. carpio samples were collected and tested. Of the 250,000 SNPs on the array, 185,150 (74.06%) were found to be polymorphic sites. Genotyping accuracy was checked using genotyping data from a group of full-siblings and their parents, and over 99.8% of the qualified SNPs were found to be reliable. Analysis of the linkage disequilibrium on all samples and on three domestic C.carpio strains revealed that the latter had the longer haplotype blocks. We also evaluated our SNP array on 80 samples from eight species related to C. carpio, with from 53,526 to 71,984 polymorphic SNPs. An identity by state analysis divided all the samples into three clusters; most of the C. carpio strains formed the largest cluster. Conclusions The Carp SNP array described here is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for C. carpio. Our evaluation of this array indicates that it will be valuable for farmed carp and for genetic and population biology studies in C. carpio and related species. PMID:24762296

  3. A Parsimonious Tree-Grow Method for Haplotype Inference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenping Li; Wenfeng Zhoua; Xiangsun Zhangb; Luonan Chency

    Motivation: Haplotype information has become increasingly important in analyzing fine-scale molecular genetics data, such as disease genes mapping and drug design. Parsimony Haplotyping is one of haplotyping problems belonging to NP-hard class. Results: In this paper, we aim to develop a novel algorithm for the haplotype inference problem with the parsimony criterion, based on a parsimonious tree-grow method (PTG). PTG

  4. Allele diversity for abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in chickpea reference set using gene based SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Brunel, Dominique; Mournet, Pierre; This, Dominique; Sharma, Prakash C.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume crop for the semi-arid regions, however, its productivity is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of candidate genes associated with abiotic stress response will help breeding efforts aiming to enhance its productivity. With this objective, 10 abiotic stress responsive candidate genes were selected on the basis of prior knowledge of this complex trait. These 10 genes were subjected to allele specific sequencing across a chickpea reference set comprising 300 genotypes including 211 genotypes of chickpea mini core collection. A total of 1.3 Mbp sequence data were generated. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed 79 SNPs and 41 indels in nine genes while the CAP2 gene was found to be conserved across all the genotypes. Among 10 candidate genes, the maximum number of SNPs (34) was observed in abscisic acid stress and ripening (ASR) gene including 22 transitions, 11 transversions and one tri-allelic SNP. Nucleotide diversity varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 while polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.01 (AKIN gene) to 0.43 (CAP2 promoter). Haplotype analysis revealed that alleles were represented by more than two haplotype blocks, except alleles of the CAP2 and sucrose synthase (SuSy) gene, where only one haplotype was identified. These genes can be used for association analysis and if validated, may be useful for enhancing abiotic stress, including drought tolerance, through molecular breeding. PMID:24926299

  5. A New Statistical Method for Haplotype Reconstruction from Population Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Stephens; Nicholas J. Smith; Peter Donnelly

    2001-01-01

    Current routine genotyping methods typically do not provide haplotype information, which is essential for many analyses of fine-scale molecular-genetics data. Haplotypes can be obtained, at considerable cost, experimentally or (partially) through genotyping of additional family members. Alternatively, a statistical method can be used to infer phase and to reconstruct haplotypes. We present a new statistical method, applicable to genotype data

  6. is-rSNP: a novel technique for in silico regulatory SNP detection

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Geoff; Bailey, James; Haviv, Izhak; Kowalczyk, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Determining the functional impact of non-coding disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is challenging. Many of these SNPs are likely to be regulatory SNPs (rSNPs): variations which affect the ability of a transcription factor (TF) to bind to DNA. However, experimental procedures for identifying rSNPs are expensive and labour intensive. Therefore, in silico methods are required for rSNP prediction. By scoring two alleles with a TF position weight matrix (PWM), it can be determined which SNPs are likely rSNPs. However, predictions in this manner are noisy and no method exists that determines the statistical significance of a nucleotide variation on a PWM score. Results: We have designed an algorithm for in silico rSNP detection called is-rSNP. We employ novel convolution methods to determine the complete distributions of PWM scores and ratios between allele scores, facilitating assignment of statistical significance to rSNP effects. We have tested our method on 41 experimentally verified rSNPs, correctly predicting the disrupted TF in 28 cases. We also analysed 146 disease-associated SNPs with no known functional impact in an attempt to identify candidate rSNPs. Of the 11 significantly predicted disrupted TFs, 9 had previous evidence of being associated with the disease in the literature. These results demonstrate that is-rSNP is suitable for high-throughput screening of SNPs for potential regulatory function. This is a useful and important tool in the interpretation of GWAS. Availability: is-rSNP software is available for use at: www.genomics.csse.unimelb.edu.au/is-rSNP Contact: gmaci@csse.unimelb.edu.au; adam.kowalczyk@nicta.com.au Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20823317

  7. A hidden Markov model for investigating recent positive selection through haplotype structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Hey, Jody; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2015-02-01

    Recent positive selection can increase the frequency of an advantageous mutant rapidly enough that a relatively long ancestral haplotype will be remained intact around it. We present a hidden Markov model (HMM) to identify such haplotype structures. With HMM identified haplotype structures, a population genetic model for the extent of ancestral haplotypes is then adopted for parameter inference of the selection intensity and the allele age. Simulations show that this method can detect selection under a wide range of conditions and has higher power than the existing frequency spectrum-based method. In addition, it provides good estimate of the selection coefficients and allele ages for strong selection. The method analyzes large data sets in a reasonable amount of running time. This method is applied to HapMap III data for a genome scan, and identifies a list of candidate regions putatively under recent positive selection. It is also applied to several genes known to be under recent positive selection, including the LCT, KITLG and TYRP1 genes in Northern Europeans, and OCA2 in East Asians, to estimate their allele ages and selection coefficients. PMID:25446961

  8. Major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and complement C4 alleles in systemic lupus erythematosus. Results of a multicenter study.

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, K; Baur, M P; Coldewey, R; Fricke, M; Kalden, J R; Lakomek, H J; Peter, H H; Schendel, D; Schneider, P M; Seuchter, S A

    1992-01-01

    In a multicenter study more than 300 central European systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients were examined for HLA-B, HLA-DR, and complement C4 phenotypes. For 174 SLE patients MHC haplotypes were determined by family segregation analysis, and for 155 patients C4 gene deletions were determined by TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism. Two haplotypes, B8-C4AQ0-C4B1-DR3 and B7-C4A3-C4B1-DR2, were identified as risk factors for SLE. These findings were confirmed by applying the haplotype frequency difference (HFD) method, which uses nontransmitted haplotypes from the family study as internal controls. Furthermore, only HLA-DR2, but not DR3, B7, or B8, was significantly increased in SLE patients independently of the two risk haplotypes. C4A gene deletions, but not silent C4AQ0 alleles, were increased in SLE patients and neither C4BQ0 alleles nor C4B gene deletions were increased. The observed frequencies of homozygosity and heterozygosity for the two haplotypes and the frequencies of homozygotes for C4AQ0 and C4A deletions did not differ from the expected values, indicating that the risk for SLE is conveyed by single allele effects. In conclusion, there are two MHC-linked susceptibility factors for Caucasian SLE patients carried by the haplotypes B7-DR2 and B8-DR3. The results argue against C4Q0 alleles being the decisive factors increasing susceptibility to SLE. PMID:1401069

  9. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Im, Kate M; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M; Fredericksen, Zachary; Shane Pankratz, V; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Hogervorst, Frans B; Rookus, Matti A; Collée, J Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Van Roozendaal, Cees E; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Pawe?; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Neuhausen, Susan L; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M; Hopper, John L; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Southey, Melissa C; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas V O; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Durán, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T; Side, Lucy E; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Klein, Robert J; Daly, Mark J; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G; Altshuler, David M; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

    2011-11-01

    Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews. PMID:21597964

  10. MHC class II alleles and haplotypes in patients with pemphigus vulgaris from India.

    PubMed

    Delgado, J C; Yunis, D E; Bozón, M V; Salazar, M; Deulofeut, R; Turbay, D; Mehra, N K; Pasricha, J S; Raval, R S; Patel, H; Shah, B K; Bhol, K; Alper, C A; Ahmed, A R; Yunis, E J

    1996-12-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes characterized by an autoantibody response against a keratinocyte adhesion molecule, desmoglein 3, causing acantholysis and blister formation. We compared high resolution MHC class II alleles and haplotype frequencies (HLA-DRB, DQA1 and DQB1) in 37 patients with PV to 89 haplotypes of normal relatives from New Delhi and Ahmedabad. We found that PV patients had significantly increased frequencies of DRB1*1404 (P < 0.0001), DQA1*0101 (P = 0.001), and DQB1*0503 (P < 0.0001). These associations were due to the increased frequencies of the haplotype HLA-DRB1*1404, DRB3*0202, DQA1*0101, DQB1*0503 in patients compared to control haplotypes (p < 0.0001). Also, patients from Ahmedabad had a significant increase in HLA-DQB1*0302 (p = 0.03). An identical amino acid sequence (Leu-Leu-Glu-Arg-Arg-Arg-Ala-Glu), in positions 67-74 of the beta domain of DRB alleles is restricted to some DR14 alleles. Therefore, there are three possible explanations for class II allele involvement in autoantibody in PV patients with class II haplotypes marked by HLA-DR14. First, the class II alleles could be markers for an unidentified susceptibility gene in linkage disequilibrium with them. Second, the primary association could be with DQB1*0503 and the association with HLA-DR14 alleles would be the result of linkage disequilibrium. Third, the HLA-DRB1 locus susceptibility could involve a specific amino acid sequence in the third hypervariable region shared by several HLA-DR14 alleles. PMID:9008309

  11. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kate M.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y.; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Van Roozendaal, Cees E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Pawe?; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S.; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Durán, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Klein, Robert J.; Daly, Mark J.; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G.; Altshuler, David M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage dis-equilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews. PMID:21597964

  12. Haplotype diversity generated by ancient recombination-like events in the MHC of Indian rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Doxiadis, Gaby G M; de Groot, Nanine; Otting, Nel; de Vos-Rouweler, Annemiek J M; Bolijn, Maria J; Heijmans, Corrine M C; de Groot, Natasja G; van der Wiel, Marit K H; Remarque, Edmond J; Vangenot, Christelle; Nunes, José M; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Bontrop, Ronald E

    2013-08-01

    The Mamu-A, Mamu-B, and Mamu-DRB genes of the rhesus macaque show several levels of complexity such as allelic heterogeneity (polymorphism), copy number variation, differential segregation of genes/alleles present on a haplotype (diversity) and transcription level differences. A combination of techniques was implemented to screen a large panel of pedigreed Indian rhesus macaques (1,384 individuals representing the offspring of 137 founding animals) for haplotype diversity in an efficient and inexpensive manner. This approach allowed the definition of 140 haplotypes that display a relatively low degree of region variation as reflected by the presence of only 17 A, 18 B and 22 DRB types, respectively, exhibiting a global linkage disequilibrium comparable to that in humans. This finding contrasts with the situation observed in rhesus macaques from other geographic origins and in cynomolgus monkeys from Indonesia. In these latter populations, nearly every haplotype appears to be characterised by a unique A, B and DRB region. In the Indian population, however, a reshuffling of existing segments generated "new" haplotypes. Since the recombination frequency within the core MHC of the Indian rhesus macaques is relatively low, the various haplotypes were most probably produced by recombination events that accumulated over a long evolutionary time span. This idea is in accord with the notion that Indian rhesus macaques experienced a severe reduction in population during the Pleistocene due to a bottleneck caused by geographic changes. Thus, recombination-like processes appear to be a way to expand a diminished genetic repertoire in an isolated and relatively small founder population. PMID:23715823

  13. Promoter haplotype combinations for the human PDGFRA gene are associated with risk of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huiping; Wicker, Ned J; Volcik, Kelly; Zhang, Jing; Shaw, Gary M; Lammer, Edward J; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark; Finnell, Richard H

    2004-02-01

    Recent animal studies suggested that deregulated expression of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) may contribute to the failure of normal neural tube closure (NTC). There is also suggestive evidence that the promoter haplotype of the PDGFRA is associated with genetic susceptibility in human neural tube defects (NTDs). The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between promoter haplotype combinations of the human PDGFRA gene and risk for NTDs in a Hispanic population from the Texas-Mexico border region. This population has a considerably higher prevalence of NTDs (16/10,000 live births) than that generally reported in the United States (8-10/10,000 live births). In the present study, NTDs were defined as spina bifida or anencephaly. The haplotype of PDGFRA gene promoter was determined by direct DNA sequence analysis. Two novel haplotypes, H2epsilon and H1beta, were found. We observed significant differences among variable haplotype groups from in vitro transient transfection studies in U2-OS osteosarcoma cell and two other cell lines (HeLa cell and MCF7 cell). Result from our case-control study demonstrated that the frequencies of haplotypes with low transcription activity were significantly higher in NTD mothers than that observed in control mothers (odds ratio=2.2, 95% CI=1.0-4.6). Infants with at least one low activity allele showed slightly higher risk (odds ratio=1.5, 95%=0.8-3.1). Our study suggests that the reduced transcriptional activity of PDGFRA gene could increase the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. PMID:14741194

  14. Digital genotyping and haplotyping with polymerase colonies

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    by cloning or somatic cell fusion. The results indicate that polony genotyping and haplotyping may play in the human population has the potential to greatly improve human health, both by predict- ing susceptibility to disease and guiding choice of therapy. The most common genetic variations in the human population

  15. A Common Haplotype within the PON1 Promoter Region is Associated with Sporadic ALS

    PubMed Central

    Landers, John E.; Shi, Lijia; Cho, Ting-Jan; Glass, Jonathan D.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Leigh, P. Nigel; Diekstra, Frank; Polak, Meraida; Rodriguez-Leyza, Ildefonso; Niemann, Stephan; Traynor, Bryan J.; McKenna-Yasek, Diane; Sapp, Peter C.; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Wills, Anne-Marie A.; Brown, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder of upper and lower motor neurons. Genetic variants in the paraoxonase gene cluster have been associated with susceptibility to sporadic ALS. Because these studies have yielded conflicting results, we have further investigated this association in a larger data set. Twenty SNPs spanning the paraoxonase gene cluster were genotyped on a panel of 835 case and 924 control samples and tested for association with risk of sporadic ALS and with ALS sub-phenotypes. Our study revealed 2 SNPs, rs2074351 and rs705382, within the paraoxonase gene cluster that are associated with susceptibility to sporadic ALS (uncorrected p=0.0016 and 0.0022, respectfully). None of the 20 SNPs displayed significant associations with age of onset, site of onset or disease survival. Using a sliding window approach, we have also identified a 5-SNP haplotype that is significantly associated with risk of sporadic ALS (p=2.42E-04). We conclude that a common haplotype within the PON1 promoter region is associated with susceptibility to sporadic ALS. PMID:18618303

  16. RadixHap: a radix tree-based heuristic for solving the single individual haplotyping problem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tai-Chun; Taheri, Javid; Zomaya, Albert Y

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism studies have recently received significant amount of attention from researchers in many life science disciplines. Previous researches indicated that a series of SNPs from the same chromosome, called haplotype, contains more information than individual SNPs. Hence, discovering ways to reconstruct reliable Single Individual Haplotypes becomes one of the core issues in the whole-genome research nowadays. However, obtaining sequence from current high-throughput sequencing technologies always contain inevitable sequencing errors and/or missing information. The SIH reconstruction problem can be formulated as bi-partitioning the input SNP fragment matrix into paternal and maternal sections to achieve minimum error correction; a problem that is proved to be NP-hard. In this study, we introduce a greedy approach, named RadixHap, to handle data sets with high error rates. The experimental results show that RadixHap can generate highly reliable results in most cases. Furthermore, the algorithm structure of RadixHap is particularly suitable for whole-genome scale data sets. PMID:25667383

  17. Effect of the G72 (DAOA) putative risk haplotype on cognitive functions in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Andreas; Krach, Sören; Krug, Axel; Markov, Valentin; Eggermann, Thomas; Zerres, Klaus; Thimm, Markus; Nöthen, Markus M; Treutlein, Jens; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last years, several susceptibility genes for psychiatric disorders have been identified, among others G72 (also named D-amino acid oxidase activator, DAOA). Typically, the high-risk variant of a vulnerability gene is associated with decreased cognitive functions already in healthy individuals. In a recent study however, a positive effect of the high-risk variant of G72 on verbal working memory was reported. In the present study, we therefore examined the relationship between G72 genotype status and a broad range of cognitive functions in 423 healthy individuals. Methods The G72 carrier status was assessed by the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) M23 and M24. Subjects were divided into three risk groups (low, intermediate and high risk). Results G72 status influenced a number of cognitive functions, such as verbal working memory, attention, and, at a trend level, spatial working memory and executive functions. Interestingly, the high-risk allele carriers scored better than one or even both other groups. Conclusion Our data show that the putative high-risk haplotype (i.e. homozygote C/C-allele carriers in SNP M23 and homozygote T/T-allele carriers in SNP M24) is in healthy individuals not necessarily associated with worse performance in cognitive functions, but even with better performance in some domains. Further work is required to identify the mechanisms of G72 on brain functions. PMID:19778423

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype effects associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To better understand the genetic determination of udder health, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a population of 2354 German Holstein bulls for which daughter yield deviations (DYD) for somatic cell score (SCS) were available. For this study, we used genetic information of 44 576 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 11 725 inferred haplotype blocks. Results When accounting for the sub-structure of the analyzed population, 16 SNPs and 10 haplotypes in six genomic regions were significant at the Bonferroni threshold of P???1.14?×?10-6. The size of the identified regions ranged from 0.05 to 5.62 Mb. Genomic regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 18 and 19 coincided with known QTL affecting SCS, while additional genomic regions were found on chromosomes 13 and X. Of particular interest is the region on chromosome 6 between 85 and 88 Mb, where QTL for mastitis traits and significant SNPs for SCS in different Holstein populations coincide with our results. In all identified regions, except for the region on chromosome X, significant SNPs were present in significant haplotypes. The minor alleles of identified SNPs on chromosomes 18 and 19, and the major alleles of SNPs on chromosomes 6 and X were favorable for a lower SCS. Differences in somatic cell count (SCC) between alternative SNP alleles reached 14 000 cells/mL. Conclusions The results support the polygenic nature of the genetic determination of SCS, confirm the importance of previously reported QTL, and provide evidence for the segregation of additional QTL for SCS in Holstein cattle. The small size of the regions identified here will facilitate the search for causal genetic variations that affect gene functions. PMID:24898131

  19. The Evolution of Isochores: Evidence From SNP Frequency Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J. Lercher; Nick G. C. Smith; Adam Eyre-Walker; Laurence D. Hurst

    2002-01-01

    The large-scale systematic variation in nucleotide composition along mammalian and avian genomes has been a focus of the debate between neutralist and selectionist views of molecular evolution. Here we test whether the compositional variation is due to mutation bias using two new tests, which do not assume compositional equilibrium. In the first test we assume a standard population genetics model,

  20. Haplotype construction of sires with progeny genotypes based on an exact likelihood.

    PubMed

    Du, F X; Woodward, B W; Denise, S K

    1998-05-01

    A maximum likelihood method is presented that can be used to construct parental haplotypes based on their progeny genotypes. The exact error rate and choice of family size in haplotype construction were evaluated through mathematical expressions and numerical examples. Numerical results suggest that, if two markers are tightly linked (< or = 10 cM) and each has intermediate allele frequencies, a difference of one between progeny receiving parental and recombinant gametes is sufficient for constructing sire linkage phase; a difference of two or more progeny is required with two markers 30 cM apart. When each of two adjacent markers has two alleles with equal allelic frequencies, genotyping 10 and 50 progeny are needed to achieve a power of 0.85 for constructing a sire linkage phase of two tightly (10 cM) and moderately tightly linked (30 cM) markers, respectively. The family size is reduced by approximately half when both markers have three alleles with equal frequencies. Results suggest that, when an experiment requiring haplotype determination of a parent is being designed, researches should choose the appropriate threshold and family size in the context of marker allelic frequencies and recombination fractions. PMID:9621250

  1. Molecular cloning and SNP association analysis of chicken PMCH gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guirong; Li, Ming; Li, Hong; Tian, Yadong; Chen, Qixin; Bai, Yichun; Kang, Xiangtao

    2013-08-01

    The pre-melanin-concentrating hormone (PMCH) gene is an important gene functionally concerning the regulations of body fat content, feeding behavior and energy balance. In this study, the full-length cDNA of chicken PMCH gene was amplified by SMART RACE method. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PMCH gene were screened by comparative sequence analysis. The obtained non-synonymous coding SNPs (ncSNPs) were designed for genotyping firstly. Its effects on growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were investigated employing the F2 resource population of Gushi chicken crossed with Anak broiler by AluI CRS-PCR-RFLP. Our results indicated that the cDNA of chicken PMCH shared 67.25 and 66.47% homology with that of human and bovine PMCH, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of chicken PMCH (163 amino acids) were 52.07 and 50.89% identical to those of human and bovine PMCH, respectively. The PMCH protein sequence is predicted to have several functional domains, including pro-MCH, CSP, IL7, XPGI and some low complexity sequence. It has 8 phosphorylation sites and no signal peptide sequence. gga-miR-18a, gga-miR-18b, gga-miR-499 microRNA targeting site was predicted in the 3' untranslated region of chicken PMCH mRNA. In addition, a total of seven SNPs including an ncSNP and a synonymous coding SNP, were identified in the PMCH gene. The ncSNP c.81 A>T was found to be in moderate polymorphic state (polymorphic index=0.365), and the frequencies for genotype AA, AB and BB were 0.3648, 0.4682 and 0.1670, respectively. Significant associations between the locus and shear force of breast and leg were observed. This polymorphic site may serve as a useful target for the marker assisted selection of the growth and meat quality traits in chicken. PMID:23670042

  2. Bf types of HLA haplotyped individuals in an isolated Newfoundland population.

    PubMed

    Larsen, B; Arnason, A; Barnard, J M; Buehler, S K; Edwards, J H; Marshall, W H

    1977-11-01

    Five hundred and fourteen individuals from an isolated NewFoundland population have been typed and haplotyped for HLA and Factor B (Bf locus). The Bf gene frequencies were: S0.704, F0.226, F1 0.052 and S1 0.018. Tracing the haplotypes backwards on the various pedigrees it was shown that 202 HLA/Bf haplotypes had been introduced into the study population. Some HLA alleles always appeared in association with particular Bf alleles and vice versa. Bf S1 had entered the population four times, always with HLA--A9, B12. Bf F1 had entered three times, always with HLA--B18. There were 17 entries of HLA--Al, B8 that had given rise to the 78 such haplotypes that were now present in the population; all were Bf S. There were 68 family units informative for Bf. They accounted for 240 children and 304 informative meioses. There were three recombinants in the HLA region but none could be shown to have occurred between the HLA-B and Bf loci. PMID:75584

  3. Patterns of haplotypes for 92 cystic fibrosis mutations: Variability, association and recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Morral, N.; Llevadot, R.; Estivill, X. [I.R.O., Barcelona (Spain)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Most CFTR mutations are very uncommon among the cystic fibrosis population, with frequencies of less than 1%, and many are found only in specific areas. We have analyzed 92 CF mutations for several markers (4 microsatellites and 3 other polymorphisms) scattered in the CFTR gene. Haplotypes associated with these mutations can be used as a framework in the screening of chromosomes carrying unknown mutations. The association between mutation and haplotype reduces the number of mutations it is necessary to search for to a maximum of 16 for the same haplotype. Only mutations {triangle}F508, G542X and N1303K are associated with more than one haplotype as a result of slippage at more than one microsatellite loci, suggesting that these three are the most ancient CF mutations. Recurrence has been found for at least 7 mutations: H199Y, R347P, L558S, R553X, 2184insA, 3272-26A{r_arrow}G, 3849+10kbC{r_arrow}T and R1162X. Also microsatellite analysis of chromosomes of several ethnic origins (Czech, Italian, Russian, Slovac and Spanish) suggested that possibility of three or more independent origins for mutations R334W, R347P, R1162X, and 3849+10kbC{r_arrow}T, which was confirmed by analysis of markers flanking these mutations.

  4. The Effect of UGT1A and UGT2B Polymorphisms on Colorectal Cancer Risk: Haplotype Associations and Gene-Environment Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Angstadt, Andrea Y.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Lesko, Samuel M.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Zhu, Junjia; Gallagher, Carla J.; Lazarus, Philip

    2014-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) play an important role in the phase II metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds. As colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology is thought to involve the biotransformation of dietary factors, UGT polymorphisms may affect CRC risk by altering levels of exposure. Genotyping of over 1800 Caucasian subjects was completed to identify the role of genetic variation in nine UGT1A and five UGT2B genes on CRC risk. Unconditional logistic regression and haplotype analyses were conducted to identify associations with CRC risk and potential gene-environment interactions. UGT1A haplotype analysis found that the T-G haplotype in UGT1A10 exon 1 (block 2: rs17864678, rs10929251) decreased colon cancer risk [proximal (OR = 0.28, 95% CI=0.11–0.69), distal (OR = 0.32, 95% CI=0.12–0.91)] and that the C-T-G haplotype in the 3? region flanking the UGT1A shared exons (block 11: rs7578153, rs10203853, rs6728940) increased CRC risk in males (OR = 2.56, 95% CI=1.10–5.95). A haplotype in UGT2B15 containing a functional variant (rs4148269, K523T) and an intronic SNP (rs6837575) was found to affect rectal cancer risk overall (OR = 2.57, 95% CI=1.21–5.04) and in females (OR = 3.08, 95% CI=1.08–8.74). An interaction was found between high NSAID use and the A-G-T haplotype (block 10: rs6717546, rs1500482, rs7586006) in the UGT1A shared exons that decreased CRC risk. This suggests that UGT genetic variation alters CRC risk differently by anatomical sub-site and gender and that polymorphisms in the UGT1A shared exons may have a regulatory effect on gene expression that allows for the protective effect of NSAIDs on CRC risk. PMID:24822274

  5. Using cDNA and genomic sequences as tools to develop SNP strategies in cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lopez; B. Piégu; R. Cooke; M. Delseny; J. Tohme; V. Verdier

    2005-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are the most abundant type of DNA polymorphism found in animal and plant genomes. They provide an important new source of molecular markers that are useful in genetic mapping, map-based positional cloning, quantitative trait locus mapping and the assessment of genetic distances between individuals. Very little is known on the frequency of SNPs in cassava. We

  6. Over-representation of two specific haplotypes among chromosomes harbouring BRCA1 mutations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Osorio; Miguel de la Hoya; Raquel Rodríguez-López; Juan José Granizo; Orland Díez; Ana Vega; Mercedes Durán; Angel Carracedo; Montserrat Baiget; Trinidad Caldés; Javier Benítez

    2003-01-01

    The BRCA1 gene is included in a 200–400 kb region that is subjected to a recombination suppression mechanism; this region shows nearly complete linkage disequilibrium for a series of common biallelic polymorphisms, all of them with rarer allele frequency close to 0.4. These series of SNPs define two major haplotypes designated as class I and class II. In the present

  7. HLA-DR2-associated DRB1 and DRB5 alleles and haplotypes in Koreans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Young Song; Su Jin Kang; Young-Joon Lee; Myoung Hee Park

    2000-01-01

    There are considerable racial differences in the distribution of HLA-DR2-associated DRB1 and DRB5 alleles and the characteristics of linkage disequilibrium between these alleles. In this study, the frequencies of DR2-associated DRB1 and DRB5 alleles and related haplotypes were analyzed in 186 DR2-positive individuals out of 800 normal Koreans registered for unrelated bone marrow donors. HLA class I antigen typing was

  8. pfSNP: An integrated potentially functional SNP resource that facilitates hypotheses generation through knowledge syntheses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingbo; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Chong, Samuel S; Lee, Caroline G L

    2011-01-01

    Currently, >14,000,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are reported. Identifying phenotype-affecting SNPs among these many SNPs pose significant challenges. Although several Web resources are available that can inform about the functionality of SNPs, these resources are mainly annotation databases and are not very comprehensive. In this article, we present a comprehensive, well-annotated, integrated pfSNP (potentially functional SNPs) Web resource (http://pfs.nus.edu.sg/), which is aimed to facilitate better hypothesis generation through knowledge syntheses mediated by better data integration and a user-friendly Web interface. pfSNP integrates >40 different algorithms/resources to interrogate >14,000,000 SNPs from the dbSNP database for SNPs of potential functional significance based on previous published reports, inferred potential functionality from genetic approaches as well as predicted potential functionality from sequence motifs. Its query interface has the user-friendly "auto-complete, prompt-as-you-type" feature and is highly customizable, facilitating different combination of queries using Boolean-logic. Additionally, to facilitate better understanding of the results and aid in hypotheses generation, gene/pathway-level information with text clouds highlighting enriched tissues/pathways as well as detailed-related information are also provided on the results page. Hence, the pfSNP resource will be of great interest to scientists focusing on association studies as well as those interested to experimentally address the functionality of SNPs. PMID:20672376

  9. Integrated Genetic and Epigenetic Analysis Identifies Haplotype-Specific Methylation in the FTO Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity Susceptibility Locus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Gareth A.; Rakyan, Vardhman K.; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Akan, Pelin; Stupka, Elia; Down, Thomas A.; Prokopenko, Inga; Morison, Ian M.; Mill, Jonathan; Pidsley, Ruth; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Beck, Stephan; Hitman, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent multi-dimensional approaches to the study of complex disease have revealed powerful insights into how genetic and epigenetic factors may underlie their aetiopathogenesis. We examined genotype-epigenotype interactions in the context of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), focussing on known regions of genomic susceptibility. We assayed DNA methylation in 60 females, stratified according to disease susceptibility haplotype using previously identified association loci. CpG methylation was assessed using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on a targeted array (MeDIP-chip) and absolute methylation values were estimated using a Bayesian algorithm (BATMAN). Absolute methylation levels were quantified across LD blocks, and we identified increased DNA methylation on the FTO obesity susceptibility haplotype, tagged by the rs8050136 risk allele A (p?=?9.40×10?4, permutation p?=?1.0×10?3). Further analysis across the 46 kb LD block using sliding windows localised the most significant difference to be within a 7.7 kb region (p?=?1.13×10?7). Sequence level analysis, followed by pyrosequencing validation, revealed that the methylation difference was driven by the co-ordinated phase of CpG-creating SNPs across the risk haplotype. This 7.7 kb region of haplotype-specific methylation (HSM), encapsulates a Highly Conserved Non-Coding Element (HCNE) that has previously been validated as a long-range enhancer, supported by the histone H3K4me1 enhancer signature. This study demonstrates that integration of Genome-Wide Association (GWA) SNP and epigenomic DNA methylation data can identify potential novel genotype-epigenotype interactions within disease-associated loci, thus providing a novel route to aid unravelling common complex diseases. PMID:21124985

  10. Development of an Italian RM Y-STR haplotype database: Results of the 2013 GEFI collaborative exercise.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Ralf, A; Pasino, S; De Marchi, M R; Ballantyne, K N; Barbaro, A; Bini, C; Carnevali, E; Casarino, L; Di Gaetano, C; Fabbri, M; Ferri, G; Giardina, E; Gonzalez, A; Matullo, G; Nutini, A L; Onofri, V; Piccinini, A; Piglionica, M; Ponzano, E; Previderè, C; Resta, N; Scarnicci, F; Seidita, G; Sorçaburu-Cigliero, S; Turrina, S; Verzeletti, A; Kayser, M

    2015-03-01

    Recently introduced rapidly mutating Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (RM Y-STR) loci, displaying a multiple-fold higher mutation rate relative to any other Y-STRs, including those conventionally used in forensic casework, have been demonstrated to improve the resolution of male lineage differentiation and to allow male relative separation usually impossible with standard Y-STRs. However, large and geographically-detailed frequency haplotype databases are required to estimate the statistical weight of RM Y-STR haplotype matches if observed in forensic casework. With this in mind, the Italian Working Group (GEFI) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics launched a collaborative exercise aimed at generating an Italian quality controlled forensic RM Y-STR haplotype database. Overall 1509 male individuals from 13 regional populations covering northern, central and southern areas of the Italian peninsula plus Sicily were collected, including both "rural" and "urban" samples classified according to population density in the sampling area. A subset of individuals was additionally genotyped for Y-STR loci included in the Yfiler and PowerPlex Y23 (PPY23) systems (75% and 62%, respectively), allowing the comparison of RM and conventional Y-STRs. Considering the whole set of 13 RM Y-STRs, 1501 unique haplotypes were observed among the 1509 sampled Italian men with a haplotype diversity of 0.999996, largely superior to Yfiler and PPY23 with 0.999914 and 0.999950, respectively. AMOVA indicated that 99.996% of the haplotype variation was within populations, confirming that genetic-geographic structure is almost undetected by RM Y-STRs. Haplotype sharing among regional Italian populations was not observed at all with the complete set of 13 RM Y-STRs. Haplotype sharing within Italian populations was very rare (0.27% non-unique haplotypes), and lower in urban (0.22%) than rural (0.29%) areas. Additionally, 422 father-son pairs were investigated, and 20.1% of them could be discriminated by the whole set of 13 RM Y-STRs, which was very close to the theoretically expected estimate of 19.5% given the mutation rates of the markers used. Results obtained from a high-coverage Italian haplotype dataset confirm on the regional scale the exceptional ability of RM Y-STRs to resolve male lineages previously observed globally, and attest the unsurpassed value of RM Y-STRs for male-relative differentiation purposes. PMID:25457630

  11. NCBI Handout Series | SNP | Last Update January 8, 2014 Contact: info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov dbSNP: Database for Short Genetic Variations

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    NCBI Handout Series | SNP | Last Update January 8, 2014 Contact: info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov db http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp/ National Center for Biotechnology Information · National Library be accessed through the SNP home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp/ Entrez Utilities (Eutils) can be used

  12. Annexin A5 Promoter Haplotype M2 Is Not a Risk Factor for Recurrent Pregnancy Loss in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Kristiina; Christiansen, Ole B.; Nielsen, Henriette S.; Laan, Maris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Annexin A5 is an essential component of placental integrity that may potentially mediate susceptibility to phenotypes of compromised pregnancy. A promoter haplotype termed M2 of the coding gene ANXA5 has been implicated in various pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), however with inconclusive results. Study subjects and methods A retrospective case-control study combining resequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was undertaken in 313 women with unexplained RPL and 214 fertile women from Estonia and Denmark to estimate the RPL disease risk of the M2 haplotype in Northern Europe. Comparative prevalence of the studied ANXA5 genetic variants in human populations was estimated based on the 1000 Genomes Project (n = 675, whole-genome sequencing data) and the KORA S3 500K dataset of South German samples (n = 1644, genome-wide genotyping data). Results Minor allele frequency of common polymorphisms in ANXA5 promoter was up to two-fold lower among Estonian RPL subjects than fertile controls. The M2 haplotype was not associated with RPL and a trend for decreased prevalence was observed among RPL patients compared to controls both in Estonia (8.1% vs 15.2%, respectively) and Denmark (9.7% vs 12.6%). The high M2 prevalence in fertile controls was consistent with estimations for European and East Asian populations (9.6%-16.0%). Conclusions This study cautions to consider the M2 haplotype as a deterministic factor in early pregnancy success because: i) no RPL disease risk was associated with the haplotype in two clinically well-characterized RPL case-control study samples, ii) high prevalence of the haplotype among fertile controls and world-wide populations is inconsistent with the previously proposed severe impact on early pregnancy success, iii) weak impact of M2 haplotype on the production of ANXA5 protein has been established by others. PMID:26135579

  13. Accelerating genetic improvement with SNP chips and DNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays is expected to have a profound impact on genetic progress in the U.S. dairy industry. In the 16 months since its initial availability, the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip has been used to genotype nearly 20,000 Holsteins. Thes...

  14. MULTIPLEX SNP ANALYSIS TO DETECT SINGLE BASE EXTENSION PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single base extension (SBE) is a commonly used method of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection. Here we describe a rapid, high throughput and relatively inexpensive system for the analysis of single base extension products using flow cytometry. SNP-containing fragments are amplified from ...

  15. High-throughput SNP genotyping on universal bead arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Shen; Jian-Bing Fan; Derek Campbell; Weihua Chang; Jing Chen; Dennis Doucet; Jo Yeakley; Marina Bibikova; Eliza Wickham Garcia; Celeste McBride; Frank Steemers; Francisco Garcia; Bahram G. Kermani; Kevin Gunderson; Arnold Oliphant

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a flexible, accurate and highly multiplexed SNP genotyping assay for high-throughput genetic analysis of large populations on a bead array platform. The novel genotyping system combines high assay conversion rate and data quality with >1500 multiplexing, and Array of Arrays™ formats. Genotyping assay oligos corresponding to specific SNP sequences are each linked to a unique sequence (address)

  16. Identification of RNA editing sites in the SNP database

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Eli; Adamsky, Konstantin; Cohen, Lital; Amariglio, Ninette; Hirshberg, Abraham; Rechavi, Gideon; Levanon, Erez Y.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between human inherited genomic variations and phenotypic differences has been the focus of much research effort in recent years. These studies benefit from millions of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) records available in public databases, such as dbSNP. The importance of identifying false dbSNP records increases with the growing role played by SNPs in linkage analysis for disease traits. In particular, the emerging understanding of the abundance of DNA and RNA editing calls for a careful distinction between inherited SNPs and somatic DNA and RNA modifications. In order to demonstrate that some of the SNP database records are actually somatic modification, we focus on one type of these modifications, namely A-to-I RNA editing, and present evidence for hundreds of dbSNP records that are actually editing sites. We provide a list of 102 RNA editing sites previously annotated in dbSNP database as SNPs, and experimentally validate seven of these. Interestingly, we show how dbSNP can serve as a starting point to look for new editing sites. Our results, for this particular type of RNA editing, demonstrate the need for a careful analysis of SNP databases in light of the increasing recognition of the significance of somatic sequence modifications. PMID:16100382

  17. Bayesian Modeling of Haplotype Effects in Multiparent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Wei; Valdar, William

    2014-01-01

    A general Bayesian model, Diploffect, is described for estimating the effects of founder haplotypes at quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected in multiparental genetic populations; such populations include the Collaborative Cross (CC), Heterogeneous Socks (HS), and many others for which local genetic variation is well described by an underlying, usually probabilistically inferred, haplotype mosaic. Our aim is to provide a framework for coherent estimation of haplotype and diplotype (haplotype pair) effects that takes into account the following: uncertainty in haplotype composition for each individual; uncertainty arising from small sample sizes and infrequently observed haplotype combinations; possible effects of dominance (for noninbred subjects); genetic background; and that provides a means to incorporate data that may be incomplete or has a hierarchical structure. Using the results of a probabilistic haplotype reconstruction as prior information, we obtain posterior distributions at the QTL for both haplotype effects and haplotype composition. Two alternative computational approaches are supplied: a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler and a procedure based on importance sampling of integrated nested Laplace approximations. Using simulations of QTL in the incipient CC (pre-CC) and Northport HS populations, we compare the accuracy of Diploffect, approximations to it, and more commonly used approaches based on Haley–Knott regression, describing trade-offs between these methods. We also estimate effects for three QTL previously identified in those populations, obtaining posterior intervals that describe how the phenotype might be affected by diplotype substitutions at the modeled locus. PMID:25236455

  18. Genomic evolution in domestic cattle: ancestral haplotypes and healthy beef.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Joseph F; Steele, Edward J; Lester, Susan; Kalai, Oscar; Millman, John A; Wolrige, Lindsay; Bayard, Dominic; McLure, Craig; Dawkins, Roger L

    2011-05-01

    We have identified numerous Ancestral Haplotypes encoding a 14-Mb region of Bota C19. Three are frequent in Simmental, Angus and Wagyu and have been conserved since common progenitor populations. Others are more relevant to the differences between these 3 breeds including fat content and distribution in muscle. SREBF1 and Growth Hormone, which have been implicated in the production of healthy beef, are included within these haplotypes. However, we conclude that alleles at these 2 loci are less important than other sequences within the haplotypes. Identification of breeds and hybrids is improved by using haplotypes rather than individual alleles. PMID:21338665

  19. Haplotype kinship for three populations of the Goettingen minipig

    PubMed Central

    Flury, Christine; Weigend, Steffen; Ding, Xiangdong; Täubert, Helge; Simianer, Henner

    2007-01-01

    To overcome limitations of diversity measures applied to livestock breeds marker based estimations of kinship within and between populations were proposed. This concept was extended from the single locus consideration to chromosomal segments of a given length in Morgan. Algorithms for the derivation of haplotype kinship were suggested and the behaviour of marker based haplotype kinship was investigated theoretically. In the present study the results of the first practical application of this concept are presented. Full sib pairs of three sub-populations of the Goettingen minipig were genotyped for six chromosome segments. After haplotype reconstruction the haplotypes were compared and mean haplotype kinships were estimated within and between populations. Based on haplotype kinships a distance measure is proposed which is approximatively linear with the number of generations since fission. The haplotype kinship distances, the respective standard errors and the pedigree-based expected values are presented and are shown to reflect the true population history better than distances based on single-locus kinships. However the marker estimated haplotype kinship reveals variable among segments. This leads to high standard errors of the respective distances. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed and a pedigree-based approach to correct for identical haplotypes which are not identical by descent is proposed. PMID:17306199

  20. SNP variation in the promoter of the PRKAG3 gene and association with meat quality traits in pig

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The PRKAG3 gene encodes the ?3 subunit of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), a protein that plays a key role in energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene such as I199V are associated with important pork quality traits. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of the PRKAG3 gene, SNP variation in the PRKAG3 promoter and meat quality phenotypes in pork. Results PRKAG3 gene expression was found to correlate with a number of traits relating to glycolytic potential (GP) and intramuscular fat (IMF) in three phenotypically diverse F1 crosses comprising of 31 Large White, 23 Duroc and 32 Pietrain sire breeds. The majority of associations were observed in the Large White cross. There was a significant association between genotype at the g.-311A>G locus and PRKAG3 gene expression in the Large White cross. In the same population, ten novel SNPs were identified within a 1.3 kb region spanning the promoter and from this three major haplotypes were inferred. Two tagging SNPs (g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G) characterised the haplotypes within the promoter region being studied. These two SNPs were subsequently genotyped in larger populations consisting of Large White (n?=?98), Duroc (n?=?99) and Pietrain (n?=?98) purebreds. Four major haplotypes including promoter SNP’s g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G and I199V were inferred. In the Large White breed, HAP1 was associated with IMF% in the M. longissmus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and driploss%. HAP2 was associated with IMFL% GP-influenced traits pH at 24 hr in LTL (pHULT), pH at 45 min in LTL (pH45LT) and pH at 45 min in the M. semimembranosus muscle (pH45SM). HAP3 was associated with driploss%, pHULT pH45LT and b* Minolta. In the Duroc breed, associations were observed between HAP1 and driploss% and pHUSM. No associations were observed with the remaining haplotypes (HAP2, HAP3 and HAP4) in the Duroc breed. The Pietrain breed was monomorphic in the promoter region. The I199V locus was associated with several GP-influenced traits across all three breeds and IMF% in the Large White and Pietrain breed. No significant difference in promoter function was observed for the three main promoter haplotypes when tested in vitro. Conclusion Gene expression levels of the porcine PRKAG3 are associated with meat quality phenotypes relating to glycolytic potential and IMF% in the Large White breed, while SNP variation in the promoter region of the gene is associated with PRKAG3 gene expression and meat quality phenotypes. PMID:22831392

  1. dbSNP: a database of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Smigielski, Elizabeth M.; Sirotkin, Karl; Ward, Minghong; Sherry, Stephen T.

    2000-01-01

    In response to a need for a general catalog of genome variation to address the large-scale sampling designs required by association studies, gene mapping and evolutionary biology, the National Cancer for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) has established the dbSNP database. Submissions to dbSNP will be integrated with other sources of information at NCBI such as GenBank, PubMed, LocusLink and the Human Genome Project data. The complete contents of dbSNP are available to the public at website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP . Submitted SNPs can also be downloaded via anonymous FTP at ftp://ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/snp/ PMID:10592272

  2. A SNP Haplotype Associated with a gene resistant to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum in Upland Cotton (Gossyium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An F5 population of 285 families with each tracing back to a different F2 plant , derived from a cotton bacterial blight resistant line ‘DeltaOpal’ and a susceptible line ‘DP388’, was artificially inoculated with bacterial blight race 18 (Xanthomonas campestris pv. Malvacearum) to assay their resist...

  3. SNP and haplotype analysis of a novel tryptophan hydroxylase isoform (TPH2) gene provide evidence for association with major depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Zill; T C Baghai; P Zwanzger; C Schüle; D Eser; R Rupprecht; H-J Möller; B Bondy; M Ackenheil

    2004-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), being the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin plays a major role as candidate gene in several psychiatric disorders. Recently, a second TPH isoform (TPH2) was identified in mice, which was exclusively present in the brain. In a previous post-mortem study of our own group, we could demonstrate that TPH2 is also expressed in the human

  4. Absence of Relationship Between MTTP Haplotypes and Longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt J. Neville; Robert Clarke; John Grimley Evans; David C. Rubinsztein; Fredrik Karpe

    2007-01-01

    Methods. We made a detailed characterization of MTTP haplotype carrier status in a cohort of 1398 old men and women (mean age 78 years) and a population-based cohort (n ¼777) of younger controls (mean age 40 years) in Oxford, England. Results. There were no significant differences in haplotypes for MTTP gene between the younger and older age groups. Conclusion. This

  5. HIV Haplotype Inference Using a Propagating Dirichlet Process Mixture Model

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Thomas

    HIV Haplotype Inference Using a Propagating Dirichlet Process Mixture Model Sandhya Prabhakaran computational technique for the identification of HIV haplotypes. HIV tends to generate many potentially drug-resistant mutants within the HIV-infected patient and being able to identify these different mutants is important

  6. Haplotype Information and Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Lu; Tianhua Niu; Jun S. Liu; E. R. Martin

    2003-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genome have become an increasingly popular topic in that their analyses promise to be a key step toward personalized medicine. We investigate two related questions, how much the haplotype information contributes to linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping and whether an in silico haplotype construction preceding the LD analysis can help. For disease gene mapping, using

  7. Use of haplotypes to predict selection limits and Mendelian sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limits to selection and Mendelian sampling terms can be calculated using haplotypes, which are sums of individual additive effects on a chromosome. Haplotypes were imputed for 43,385 actual markers of 3,765 Jerseys using the Fortran program findhap.f90, which combines population and pedigree haploty...

  8. Haplotype Map of Sickle Cell Anemia in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Zorai, Amine; Ben Mansour, Ikbel; Chouachi, Dorra; Mellouli, Fethi; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Abbes, Salem

    2014-01-01

    ?-Globin haplotypes are important to establish the ethnic origin and predict the clinical development of sickle cell disease patients (SCD). To determine the chromosomal background of ?S Tunisian sickle cell patients, in this first study in Tunisia, we have explored four polymorphic regions of ?-globin cluster on chromosome 11. It is the 5? region of ?-LCR-HS2 site, the intervening sequence II (IVSII) region of two fetal (G? and A?) genes and the 5? region of ?-globin gene. The results reveal a high molecular diversity of a microsatellite configuration describing the sequences haplotypes. The linkage disequilibrium analysis showed various haplotype combinations giving 22 “extended haplotypes”. These results confirm the utility of the ?-globin haplotypes for population studies and contribute to knowledge of the Tunisian gene pool, as well as establishing the role of genetic markers in physiopathology of SCD. PMID:25197158

  9. CRH haplotype predicts CSF CRH, HPA axis activity, temperament, and alcohol consumption in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Christina S.; Dvoskin, Rachel L.; Yuan, Qiaoping; Lipsky, Robert H.; Gupte, Manisha; Hu, Xian; Zhou, Zhifeng; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Lindell, Stephen G.; McKee, Megan; Becker, Michelle L.; Kling, Mitchel A.; Gold, Phillip W.; Higley, Dee; Heilig, Markus; Suomi, Stephen J.; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Context Both stress-reactive and novelty-seeking individuals are susceptible to alcohol use disorders. Variation in stress reactivity, exploration, and response to novelty have been attributed to differences in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system function. As such, CRH gene variation may influence risk for alcohol use and dependence. Objective To determine whether CRH variation influences relevant intermediate phenotypes, behavior, and alcohol consumption in rhesus macaques. Design We sequenced the rhesus macaque CRH locus (rhCRH) and performed cladistic clustering of haplotypes. In silico analysis, gel shift and in vitro reporter assays were performed to identify functional variants. CSF and blood samples were obtained, and levels of CRH and ACTH were measured by RIA. Behavioral data were collected from macaques during infancy. Among adolescent/adult animals, we recorded responses to an unfamiliar conspecific and measured levels of ethanol consumption. Animals were genotyped for a SNP disrupting a glucocorticoid response element, rhCRH -2232 C>G, and the effects of this allele on CSF levels of CRH, plasma levels of ACTH, behavior and ethanol consumption were assessed by ANOVA. Results We show that -2232 C>G alters DNA-protein interactions and confers decreased sensitivity of the CRH promoter to glucocorticoids in vitro. Consistent with the known effects of glucocorticoids on CRH expression in brain, carriers of the G allele had lower CSF levels of CRH, but higher levels of ACTH. Infants carrying the G allele were more exploratory and bold, and among adolescent and adult male macaques, the G allele was associated with exploratory/bold responding to an unfamiliar male. Adults with the C/G genotype also exhibited increased alcohol consumption in the social group, a model for high-risk alcohol seeking behavior. Conclusions Haplotypes that differ in terms of corticosteroid-sensitivity have been identified in humans. Our data may suggest that functionally similar CRH variants could influence risk for externalizing disorders in human subjects. PMID:18678798

  10. Allelic and haplotypic diversity of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 genes in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Oh, D H; Lee, C; Yang, S Y

    2005-05-01

    High-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing exposes the unique patterns of HLA allele and haplotype frequencies in each population. In this study, HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 genotypes were analyzed in 485 apparently unrelated healthy Korean individuals. A total of 20 HLA-A, 43 HLA-B, 21 HLA-C, 31 HLA-DRB1, and 14 HLA-DQB1 alleles were identified. Eleven alleles (A*0201, A*1101, A*2402, A*3303, B*1501, Cw*0102, Cw*0302, Cw*0303, DQB1*0301, DQB1*0302, and DQB1*0303) were found in more than 10% of the population. In each serologic group, a maximum of three alleles were found with several exceptions (A2, B62, DR4, DR14, and DQ6). In each serologic group exhibiting multiple alleles, two major alleles were present at 62-96% (i.e. A*0201 and A*0206 comprise 85% of A2-positive alleles). Multiple-locus haplotypes estimated by the maximum likelihood method revealed 51 A-C, 43 C-B, 52 B-DRB1, 34 DRB1-DQB1, 48 A-C-B, 42 C-B-DRB1, 46 B-DRB1-DQB1, and 30 A-C-B-DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes with frequencies of more than 0.5%. In spite of their high polymorphism in B and DRB1, identification of relatively small numbers of two-locus (B-C and DRB1-DQB1) haplotypes suggested strong associations of those two loci, respectively. Five-locus haplotypes defined by high-resolution DNA typing correlated well with previously identified serology-based haplotypes in the population. The five most frequent haplotypes were: A*3303-Cw*1403-B*4403-DRB1*1302-DQB1*0604 (4.2%), A*3303-Cw*0701/6-B*4403-DRB1*0701-DQB1*0201/2 (3.0%), A*3303-Cw*0302-B*5801-DRB1*1302-DQB1*0609 (3.0%), A*2402-Cw*0702-B*0702-DRB1*0101-DQB1*0501 (2.9%), and A*3001-Cw*0602-B*1302-DRB1*0701-DQB1*0201/2 (2.7%). Several sets of allele level haplotypes that could not be discriminated by routine HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 low-resolution typing originated from allelic diversity of A2, B61, DR4, and DR8 serologic groups. Information obtained in this study will be useful for medical and forensic applications as well as in anthropology. PMID:15853898

  11. The SNP genotypes of growth hormone gene associated with reproductive traits in Tsaiya ducks.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mu-Tzu; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Huang, Mu-Chiou

    2012-08-01

    Our previous cDNA microarray study showed that the growth hormone (GH) gene may involve in the duck egg formation process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between GH genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and reproductive traits of Tsaiya ducks. Primer pairs for the coding region in the GH were designed based on the duck genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand polymorphism (SSCP) and were verified by DNA sequencing. Nineteen SNPs were identified in the duck GH gene, of which three coding SNPs (C3169T, C3700T and C5058G) were genotyped to investigate the associations with reproductive traits. The results showed that each SNP was associated with at least one duck fertility-related trait (p < 0.05). Haplotypes constructed on these three SNPs were associated with fertility rate (FR) and maximum duration of fertility (MDF) (p < 0.05). In particular, diplotype H1H1 was dominant for FR and MDF. This suggested that GH gene polymorphisms are associated with duck fertility-related traits. The SNPs in this gene may be used as potential markers for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22023026

  12. Meta-analysis of Gene-Environment interaction: joint estimation of SNP and SNP×Environment regression coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Alisa K.; LaValley, Michael; Liu, Ching-Ti; Rice, Ken; An, Ping; Liu, Yongmei; Miljkovic, Iva; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura; Harris, Tamara B.; Province, Michael A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Florez, Jose C.; Meigs, James B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dupuis, Josée

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Genetic discoveries are validated through the meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans in large international consortia. Because environmental variables may interact with genetic factors, investigation of differing genetic effects for distinct levels of an environmental exposure in these large consortia may yield additional susceptibility loci undetected by main effects analysis. We describe a method of joint meta-analysis of SNP and SNP by Environment (SNP×E) regression coefficients for use in gene-environment interaction studies. Methods In testing SNP×E interactions, one approach uses a two degree of freedom test to identify genetic variants that influence the trait of interest. This approach detects both main and interaction effects between the trait and the SNP. We propose a method to jointly meta-analyze the SNP and SNP×E coefficients using multivariate generalized least squares. This approach provides confidence intervals of the two estimates, a joint significance test for SNP and SNP×E terms, and a test of homogeneity across samples. Results We present a simulation study comparing this method to four other methods of meta-analysis and demonstrate that the joint meta-analysis performs better than the others when both main and interaction effects are present. Additionally, we implemented our methods in a meta-analysis of the association between SNPs from the type 2 diabetes-associated gene PPARG and log-transformed fasting insulin levels and interaction by body mass index in a combined sample of 19,466 individuals from 5 cohorts. PMID:21181894

  13. HLA-G UTR Haplotype Conservation in the Malian Population: Association with Soluble HLA-G

    PubMed Central

    Carlini, Federico; Traore, Karim; Cherouat, Nissem; Roubertoux, Pierre; Buhler, Stéphane; Cortey, Martì; Simon, Sophie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Chiaroni, Jacques; Picard, Christophe; Di Cristofaro, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The HLA-G molecule plays an important role in immunomodulation. In a previous study carried out on a southern French population our team showed that HLA-G haplotypes, defined by SNPs in the coding region and specific SNPs located in 5?URR and 3?UTR regulatory regions, are associated with differential soluble HLA-G expression (sHLA-G). Furthermore, the structure of these HLA-G haplotypes appears to be conserved in geographically distant populations. The aim of our study is to confirm these expectations in a sub-Saharan African population and to explore additional factors, such as HLA-A alleles, that might influence sHLA-G expression. DNA and plasma samples were collected from 229 Malians; HLA-G and HLA-A genotyping were respectively performed by the Snap Shot® method and by Luminex™ technology. sHLA-G dosage was performed using an ELISA kit. HLA-G and HLA-A allelic and haplotypic frequencies were estimated using an EM algorithm from the Gene[Rate] program. Associations between genetic and non genetic parameters with sHLA-G were performed using a non-parametric test with GRAPH PAD Prism 5. Our results reveal a good conservation of the HLA-G UTR haplotype structure in populations with different origins and demographic histories. These UTR haplotypes appear to be involved in different sHLA-G expression patterns. Specifically, the UTR-2 haplotype was associated with low sHLA-G levels, displaying a dominant negative effect. Furthermore, an allelic effect of both HLA-G and HLA-A, as well as non genetic parameters, such as age and gender possibly linked to osteogenesis and sexual hormones, also seem to be involved in the modulation of sHLA-G. These data suggest that further investigation in larger cohorts and in populations from various ethnical backgrounds is necessary not only to detect new functional polymorphism in HLA-G regulatory regions, but also to reveal the extent of biological phenomena that influence sHLA-G secretion and this might therefore have an impact on transplantation practice. PMID:24376542

  14. Associations of Haplotypes Upstream of IRS1 with Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, Preclinical Atherosclerosis, and Skeletal Muscle LOC646736 mRNA Levels

    PubMed Central

    Soyal, Selma M.; Felder, Thomas; Auer, Simon; Oberkofler, Hannes; Iglseder, Bernhard; Paulweber, Bernhard; Dossena, Silvia; Nofziger, Charity; Paulmichl, Markus; Esterbauer, Harald; Krempler, Franz; Patsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The genomic region ~500?kb upstream of IRS1 has been implicated in insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, adverse lipid profile, and cardiovascular risk. To gain further insight into this chromosomal region, we typed four SNPs in a cross-sectional cohort and subjects with type 2 diabetes recruited from the same geographic region. From 16 possible haplotypes, 6 haplotypes with frequencies >0.01 were observed. We identified one haplotype that was protective against insulin resistance (determined by HOMA-IR and fasting plasma insulin levels), type 2 diabetes, an adverse lipid profile, increased C-reactive protein, and asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease (assessed by intima media thickness of the common carotid arteries). BMI and total adipose tissue mass as well as visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue mass did not differ between the reference and protective haplotypes. In 92 subjects, we observed an association of the protective haplotype with higher skeletal muscle mRNA levels of LOC646736, which is located in the same haplotype block as the informative SNPs and is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, but only at very low levels in liver or adipose tissues. These data suggest a role for LOC646736 in human insulin resistance and warrant further studies on the functional effects of this locus.

  15. Major copy proportion analysis of tumor samples using SNP arrays

    E-print Network

    Li, Cheng

    Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common genetic variations in the human genome and are useful as genomic markers. Oligonucleotide SNP microarrays have been developed for high-throughput ...

  16. Haplotype structure and population genetic inferences from nucleotide-sequence variation in human lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A G; Weiss, K M; Nickerson, D A; Taylor, S L; Buchanan, A; Stengård, J; Salomaa, V; Vartiainen, E; Perola, M; Boerwinkle, E; Sing, C F

    1998-01-01

    Allelic variation in 9.7 kb of genomic DNA sequence from the human lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) was scored in 71 healthy individuals (142 chromosomes) from three populations: African Americans (24) from Jackson, MS; Finns (24) from North Karelia, Finland; and non-Hispanic Whites (23) from Rochester, MN. The sequences had a total of 88 variable sites, with a nucleotide diversity (site-specific heterozygosity) of .002+/-.001 across this 9.7-kb region. The frequency spectrum of nucleotide variation exhibited a slight excess of heterozygosity, but, in general, the data fit expectations of the infinite-sites model of mutation and genetic drift. Allele-specific PCR helped resolve linkage phases, and a total of 88 distinct haplotypes were identified. For 1,410 (64%) of the 2,211 site pairs, all four possible gametes were present in these haplotypes, reflecting a rich history of past recombination. Despite the strong evidence for recombination, extensive linkage disequilibrium was observed. The number of haplotypes generally is much greater than the number expected under the infinite-sites model, but there was sufficient multisite linkage disequilibrium to reveal two major clades, which appear to be very old. Variation in this region of LPL may depart from the variation expected under a simple, neutral model, owing to complex historical patterns of population founding, drift, selection, and recombination. These data suggest that the design and interpretation of disease-association studies may not be as straightforward as often is assumed. PMID:9683608

  17. A scan statistic for identifying chromosomal patterns of SNP association.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan V; Levin, Albert M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Robertson, Henry; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association scan statistic that takes into account the complex distribution of the human genome variation in the identification of chromosomal regions with significant SNP associations. This scan statistic has wide applicability for genetic analysis, whether to identify important chromosomal regions associated with common diseases based on whole-genome SNP association studies or to identify disease susceptibility genes based on dense SNP positional candidate studies. To illustrate this method, we analyzed patterns of SNP associations on chromosome 19 in a large cohort study. Among 2,944 SNPs, we found seven regions that contained clusters of significantly associated SNPs. The average width of these regions was 35 kb with a range of 10-72 kb. We compared the scan statistic results to Fisher's product method using a sliding window approach, and detected 22 regions with significant clusters of SNP associations. The average width of these regions was 131 kb with a range of 10.1-615 kb. Given that the distances between SNPs are not taken into consideration in the sliding window approach, it is likely that a large fraction of these regions represents false positives. However, all seven regions detected by the scan statistic were also detected by the sliding window approach. The linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns within the seven regions were highly variable indicating that the clusters of SNP associations were not due to LD alone. The scan statistic developed here can be used to make gene-based or region-based SNP inferences about disease association. PMID:16858698

  18. Genetic association analysis of 300 genes identifies a risk haplotype in SLC18A2 for post-traumatic stress disorder in two independent samples.

    PubMed

    Solovieff, Nadia; Roberts, Andrea L; Ratanatharathorn, Andrew; Haloosim, Michelle; De Vivo, Immaculata; King, Anthony P; Liberzon, Israel; Aiello, Allison; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek E; Galea, Sandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-07-01

    The genetic architecture of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains poorly understood with the vast majority of genetic association studies reporting on single candidate genes. We conducted a large genetic study in trauma-exposed European-American women (N=2538; 845 PTSD cases, 1693 controls) by testing 3742 SNPs across more than 300 genes and conducting polygenic analyses using results from the Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Studies Consortium (PGC). We tested the association between each SNP and two measures of PTSD, a severity score and diagnosis. We found a significant association between PTSD (diagnosis) and SNPs (top SNP: rs363276, odds ratio (OR)=1.4, p=2.1E-05) in SLC18A2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2). A haplotype analysis of 9 SNPs in SLC18A2, including rs363276, identified a risk haplotype (CGGCGGAAG, p=0.0046), and the same risk haplotype was associated with PTSD in an independent cohort of trauma-exposed African-Americans (p=0.049; N=748, men and women). SLC18A2 is involved in transporting monoamines to synaptic vesicles and has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression. Eight genes previously associated with PTSD had SNPs with nominally significant associations (p<0.05). The polygenic analyses suggested that there are SNPs in common between PTSD severity and bipolar disorder. Our data are consistent with a genetic architecture for PTSD that is highly polygenic, influenced by numerous SNPs with weak effects, and may overlap with mood disorders. Genome-wide studies with very large samples sizes are needed to detect these types of effects. PMID:24525708

  19. A haplotype map of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Inherited genetic variation has a critical but as yet largely uncharacterized role in human disease. Here we report a public database of common variation in the human genome: more than one million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for which accurate and complete genotypes have been obtained in 269 DNA samples from four populations, including ten 500-kilobase regions in which essentially all information about common DNA variation has been extracted. These data document the generality of recombination hotspots, a block-like structure of linkage disequilibrium and low haplotype diversity, leading to substantial correlations of SNPs with many of their neighbours. We show how the HapMap resource can guide the design and analysis of genetic association studies, shed light on structural variation and recombination, and identify loci that may have been subject to natural selection during human evolution. PMID:16255080

  20. The Perils of SNP Microarray Testing: Uncovering Unexpected Consanguinity

    PubMed Central

    Tarini, Beth A.; Konczal, Laura; Goldenberg, Aaron J.; Goldman, Edward B.; McCandless, Shawn E.

    2013-01-01

    Background While single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chromosomal microarrays identify areas of small genetic deletions/duplications, they can also reveal regions of homozygosity indicative of consanguinity. As more non-geneticists order SNP microarrays, they must prepare for the potential ethical, legal and social issues that result from revelation of unanticipated consanguinity. Patient An infant with multiple congenital anomalies underwent SNP microarray testing. Results The results of the SNP microarray revealed several large regions of homozygosity that indicated identity by descent most consistent with a second or third degree relative mating (e.g., uncle/ niece, half brother/sister, first cousins). Mother was not aware of the test's potential to reveal consanguinity. When informed of the test results, she reluctantly admitted to being raped by her half-brother around the time of conception. Conclusions During the pre-testing consent process, providers should inform parents that SNP microarray testing could reveal consanguinity. Providers must also understand the psychological implications, as well as the legal and moral obligations, that accompany SNP microarray results that indicate consanguinity. PMID:23827427

  1. Characterization of ancestral and derived Y-chromosome haplotypes of New World native populations.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, N O; Catanesi, C I; Bailliet, G; Martinez-Marignac, V L; Bravi, C M; Vidal-Rioja, L B; Herrera, R J; López-Camelo, J S

    1998-01-01

    We analyze the allelic polymorphisms in seven Y-specific microsatellite loci and a Y-specific alphoid system with 27 variants (alphah I-XXVII), in a total of 89 Y chromosomes carrying the DYS199T allele and belonging to populations representing Amerindian and Na-Dene linguistic groups. Since there are no indications of recurrence for the DYS199C-->T transition, it is assumed that all DYS199T haplotypes derive from a single individual in whom the C-->T mutation occurred for the first time. We identified both the ancestral founder haplotype, 0A, of the DYS199T lineage and seven derived haplogroups diverging from the ancestral one by one to seven mutational steps. The 0A haplotype (5.7% of Native American chromosomes) had the following constitution: DYS199T, alphah II, DYS19/13, DYS389a/10, DYS389b/27, DYS390/24, DYS391/10, DYS392/14, and DYS393/13 (microsatellite alleles are indicated as number of repeats). We analyzed the Y-specific microsatellite mutation rate in 1,743 father-son transmissions, and we pooled our data with data in the literature, to obtain an average mutation rate of.0012. We estimated that the 0A haplotype has an average age of 22,770 years (minimum 13,500 years, maximum 58,700 years). Since the DYS199T allele is found with high frequency in Native American chromosomes, we propose that 0A is one of the most prevalent founder paternal lineages of New World aborigines. PMID:9837838

  2. Insights into HLA-G Genetics Provided by Worldwide Haplotype Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Erick C.; Ramalho, Jaqueline; Porto, Iane O. P.; Lima, Thálitta H. A.; Felício, Leandro P.; Sabbagh, Audrey; Donadi, Eduardo A.; Mendes-Junior, Celso T.

    2014-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) belongs to the family of non-classical HLA class I genes, located within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). HLA-G has been the target of most recent research regarding the function of class I non-classical genes. The main features that distinguish HLA-G from classical class I genes are (a) limited protein variability, (b) alternative splicing generating several membrane bound and soluble isoforms, (c) short cytoplasmic tail, (d) modulation of immune response (immune tolerance), and (e) restricted expression to certain tissues. In the present work, we describe the HLA-G gene structure and address the HLA-G variability and haplotype diversity among several populations around the world, considering each of its major segments [promoter, coding, and 3? untranslated region (UTR)]. For this purpose, we developed a pipeline to reevaluate the 1000Genomes data and recover miscalled or missing genotypes and haplotypes. It became clear that the overall structure of the HLA-G molecule has been maintained during the evolutionary process and that most of the variation sites found in the HLA-G coding region are either coding synonymous or intronic mutations. In addition, only a few frequent and divergent extended haplotypes are found when the promoter, coding, and 3?UTRs are evaluated together. The divergence is particularly evident for the regulatory regions. The population comparisons confirmed that most of the HLA-G variability has originated before human dispersion from Africa and that the allele and haplotype frequencies have probably been shaped by strong selective pressures. PMID:25339953

  3. Complement factor H gene (CFH) polymorphisms C-257T, G257A and haplotypes are associated with protection against severe dengue phenotype, possible related with high CFH expression

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, André F.; Moura, Laís Rodrigues; Neto, José W.D.; Nascimento, Eduardo J.M.; Calzavara-Silva, Carlos E.; Gomes, Ana Lisa V.; da Silva, Ana Maria; Cordeiro, Marli T.; Braga-Neto, Ulisses; Crovella, Sergio; Gil, Laura H.V.G.; Marques, Ernesto T.A.; Acioli-Santos, Bartolomeu

    2013-01-01

    Four genetic polymorphisms located at the promoter (C-257T) and coding regions of CFH gene (exon 2 G257A, exon 14 A2089G and exon 19 G2881T) were investigated in 121 dengue patients (DENV-3) in order to assess the relationship between allele/haplotypes variants and clinical outcomes. A statistical value was found between the CFH-257T allele (TT/TC genotypes) and reduced susceptibility to severe dengue (SD). Statistical associations indicate that individuals bearing a T allele presented significantly higher protein levels in plasma. The –257T variant is located within a NF-?B binding site, suggesting that this variant might have effect on the ability of the CFH gene to respond to signals via the NF-?B pathway. The G257A allelic variant showed significant protection against severe dengue. When CFH haplotypes effect was considered, the ancestral CG/CG promoter-exon 2 SNP genotype showed significant risk to SD either in a general comparison (ancestral × all variant genotypes), as well as in individual genotypes comparison (ancestral × each variant genotype), where the most prevalent effect was observed in the CG/CG × CA/TG comparison. These findings support the involvement of –257T, 257A allele variants and haplotypes on severe dengue phenotype protection, related with high basal CFH expression. PMID:23747994

  4. HaploRec: efficient and accurate large-scale reconstruction of haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauri Eronen; Floris Geerts; Hannu Toivonen

    2006-01-01

    Background: Haplotypes extracted from human DNA can be used for gene mapping and other analysis of genetic patterns within and across populations. A fundamental problem is, however, that current practical laboratory methods do not give haplotype information. Estimation of phased haplotypes of unrelated individuals given their unphased genotypes is known as the haplotype reconstruction or phasing problem. Results: We define

  5. Finding Markers That Make a Difference: DNA Pooling and SNP-Arrays Identify Population Informative Markers for Genetic Stock Identification

    PubMed Central

    Ozerov, Mikhail; Vasemägi, Anti; Wennevik, Vidar; Diaz-Fernandez, Rogelio; Kent, Matthew; Gilbey, John; Prusov, Sergey; Niemelä, Eero; Vähä, Juha-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Genetic stock identification (GSI) using molecular markers is an important tool for management of migratory species. Here, we tested a cost-effective alternative to individual genotyping, known as allelotyping, for identification of highly informative SNPs for accurate genetic stock identification. We estimated allele frequencies of 2880 SNPs from DNA pools of 23 Atlantic salmon populations using Illumina SNP-chip. We evaluated the performance of four common strategies (global FST, pairwise FST, Delta and outlier approach) for selection of the most informative set of SNPs and tested their effectiveness for GSI compared to random sets of SNP and microsatellite markers. For the majority of cases, SNPs selected using the outlier approach performed best followed by pairwise FST and Delta methods. Overall, the selection procedure reduced the number of SNPs required for accurate GSI by up to 53% compared with randomly chosen SNPs. However, GSI accuracy was more affected by populations in the ascertainment group rather than the ranking method itself. We demonstrated for the first time the compatibility of different large-scale SNP datasets by compiling the largest population genetic dataset for Atlantic salmon to date. Finally, we showed an excellent performance of our top SNPs on an independent set of populations covering the main European distribution range of Atlantic salmon. Taken together, we demonstrate how combination of DNA pooling and SNP arrays can be applied for conservation and management of salmonids as well as other species. PMID:24358184

  6. SEL1L SNP rs12435998, a predictor of glioblastoma survival and response to radio-chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Storaci, Alessandra Maria; Annovazzi, Laura; Cassoni, Paola; Melcarne, Antonio; De Blasio, Pasquale; Schiffer, Davide; Biunno, Ida

    2015-01-01

    The suppressor of Lin-12-like (C. elegans) (SEL1L) is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation pathway, malignant transformation and stem cells. In 412 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tumors and 39 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, we determined the frequency of five SEL1L single nucleotide genetic variants with regulatory and coding functions by a SNaPShot™ assay. We tested their possible association with brain tumor risk, prognosis and therapy. We studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of valproic acid (VPA), temozolomide (TMZ), doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), alone or in combination, on 11 GBM cell lines, with respect to the SNP rs12435998 genotype. The SNP rs12435998 was prevalent in anaplastic and malignant gliomas, and in meningiomas of all histologic grades, but unrelated to brain tumor risks. In GBM patients, the SNP rs12435998 was associated with prolonged overall survival (OS) and better response to TMZ-based radio-chemotherapy. GBM stem cells with this SNP showed lower levels of SEL1L expression and enhanced sensitivity to VPA. PMID:25948789

  7. SEL1L SNP rs12435998, a predictor of glioblastoma survival and response to radio-chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mellai, Marta; Cattaneo, Monica; Storaci, Alessandra Maria; Annovazzi, Laura; Cassoni, Paola; Melcarne, Antonio; De Blasio, Pasquale; Schiffer, Davide; Biunno, Ida

    2015-05-20

    The suppressor of Lin-12-like (C. elegans) (SEL1L) is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation pathway, malignant transformation and stem cells.In 412 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tumors and 39 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, we determined the frequency of five SEL1L single nucleotide genetic variants with regulatory and coding functions by a SNaPShot™ assay. We tested their possible association with brain tumor risk, prognosis and therapy.We studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of valproic acid (VPA), temozolomide (TMZ), doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), alone or in combination, on 11 GBM cell lines, with respect to the SNP rs12435998 genotype.The SNP rs12435998 was prevalent in anaplastic and malignant gliomas, and in meningiomas of all histologic grades, but unrelated to brain tumor risks. In GBM patients, the SNP rs12435998 was associated with prolonged overall survival (OS) and better response to TMZ-based radio-chemotherapy. GBM stem cells with this SNP showed lower levels of SEL1L expression and enhanced sensitivity to VPA. PMID:25948789

  8. Characterisation of MHC haplotypes in a breeding colony of Indonesian cynomolgus macaques reveals a high level of diversity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jane L; Mee, Edward T; Almond, Neil M; Cutler, Keith; Rose, Nicola J

    2012-02-01

    Recent reports have revealed that cynomolgus macaques obtained from different geographic origins may be more or less suitable for particular studies depending on the specific question(s) being addressed, e.g. Mauritian cynomolgus macaques are particularly suitable for detailed immunological studies against a limited genetic background while less conserved populations may be more appropriate to predict breadth of vaccine coverage in the genetically diverse human population. We have characterised MHC haplotypes in 90 Indonesian cynomolgus macaques using microsatellite and reference strand conformational analysis. Thirty unique haplotypes were defined in the cohort, emphasising the high degree of diversity in this population of cynomolgus macaques. The majority of haplotypes were present at a frequency of ? 6%. Transcription profiles indicated that each haplotype was associated with two to eight transcribed class I alleles. The results corroborate previous reports of the extensive MHC diversity of Indonesian cynomolgus macaques and provide additional data to inform colony management decisions. Further, definition of the MHC diversity of the population satisfies one of the prerequisites to MHC association studies and detailed immunological investigations in this outbred non-human primate species. PMID:21881952

  9. Selection in the Making: A Worldwide Survey of Haplotypic Diversity Around a Causative Mutation in Porcine IGF2

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, A.; Huang, L.-S.; Ren, J.; Angiolillo, A.; Cho, I.-C.; Soto, H.; Lemús-Flores, C.; Makuza, S. M.; Folch, J. M.; Pérez-Enciso, M.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic species allow us to study dramatic evolutionary changes at an accelerated rate due to the effectiveness of modern breeding techniques and the availability of breeds that have undergone distinct selection pressures. We present a worldwide survey of haplotype variability around a known causative mutation in porcine gene IGF2, which increases lean content. We genotyped 34 SNPs spanning 27 kb in 237 domestic pigs and 162 wild boars. Although the selective process had wiped out variability for at least 27 kb in the haplotypes carrying the mutation, there was no indication of an overall reduction in genetic variability of international vs. European local breeds; there was also no evidence of a reduction in variability caused by domestication. The haplotype structure and a plot of Tajima's D against the frequency of the causative mutation across breeds suggested a temporal pattern, where each breed corresponded to a different selective stage. This was observed comparing the haplotype neighbor-joining (NJ) trees of breeds that have undergone increasing selection pressures for leanness, e.g., European local breeds vs. Pietrain. These results anticipate that comparing current domestic breeds will decisively help to recover the genetic history of domestication and contemporary selective processes. PMID:18245828

  10. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang; Huang, Shujia; Sun, Yuhui; Tong, Xin; Xie, Yinlong; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Hailong; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Jian; Li, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Fang; Sun, Peng; Liu, Siyang; Gao, Peng; Huang, Haodong; Sun, Jing; Chen, Dan; He, Guangzhu; Huang, Weihua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Yue; Tellier, Laurent C A M; Liu, Xiao; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Bolund, Lars; Krogh, Anders; Kristiansen, Karsten; Drmanac, Radoje; Drmanac, Snezana; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Yingrui; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should aid in translating genotypes to phenotypes for the development of personalized medicine. PMID:26006006

  11. HUMAN GENOME VARIATION: HAPLOTYPES, LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM, AND POPULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Kidd, Kenneth

    a new method for finding haplotype blocks based on the use of the minimum description length principle of Avi-Itzhak et al. to this volume is to present a simple algorithm to select minimum subsets of SNPs

  12. Association of a bovine prion gene haplotype with atypical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs) are recently recognized prion diseases of cattle. Atypical BSEs are rare; approximately 30 cases have been identified worldwide. We tested prion gene (PRNP) haplotypes for an association with atypical BSE. Methodology/Principal Findin...

  13. Analysis of Haplotype Structure in the Bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex 

    E-print Network

    Fritz, Krista L.

    2011-02-22

    The goal of this project was to identify and characterize polymorphic markers spanning regions of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) to analyze patterns of genetic variation and haplotype structure across diverse cattle breeds...

  14. A SNP resource for Douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauca) are native to North America, the coastal variety is also widely planted for timber production in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Our main goal was to develop a SNP resource large enough to facilitate genomic selection in Douglas-fir breeding programs. To accomplish this, we developed a 454-based reference transcriptome for coastal Douglas-fir, annotated and evaluated the quality of the reference, identified putative SNPs, and then validated a sample of those SNPs using the Illumina Infinium genotyping platform. Results We assembled a reference transcriptome consisting of 25,002 isogroups (unique gene models) and 102,623 singletons from 2.76 million 454 and Sanger cDNA sequences from coastal Douglas-fir. We identified 278,979 unique SNPs by mapping the 454 and Sanger sequences to the reference, and by mapping four datasets of Illumina cDNA sequences from multiple seed sources, genotypes, and tissues. The Illumina datasets represented coastal Douglas-fir (64.00 and 13.41 million reads), interior Douglas-fir (80.45 million reads), and a Yakima population similar to interior Douglas-fir (8.99 million reads). We assayed 8067 SNPs on 260 trees using an Illumina Infinium SNP genotyping array. Of these SNPs, 5847 (72.5%) were called successfully and were polymorphic. Conclusions Based on our validation efficiency, our SNP database may contain as many as ~200,000 true SNPs, and as many as ~69,000 SNPs that could be genotyped at ~20,000 gene loci using an Infinium II array—more SNPs than are needed to use genomic selection in tree breeding programs. Ultimately, these genomic resources will enhance Douglas-fir breeding and allow us to better understand landscape-scale patterns of genetic variation and potential responses to climate change. PMID:23445355

  15. HLA in Jaidukama: an Amerindian secluded Colombian population with new haplotypes and Asian and Pacific-shared alleles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Martinez-Laso; F. Montoya; C. Areces; J. Moscoso; C. Silvera; D. Rey; C. Parga-Lozano; P. Gomez-Prieto; M. Enriquez de Salamanca; A. Arnaiz-Villena

    2011-01-01

    America first inhabitants and peopling are still debated. In order to increase knowledge about these questions, we have aimed\\u000a to detect HLA genes of an Amerindian secluded community: Jaidukama, who lives in North Colombia Equatorial forest. HLA genotyping\\u000a and extended haplotype calculations were carried out in 39 healthy individuals belonging to 13 families. HLA frequencies were\\u000a compared to other Amerindians

  16. 16th IHIW: Global analysis of registry HLA haplotypes from 20 Million individuals: Report from the IHIW Registry Diversity Group

    PubMed Central

    Maiers, M; Gragert, L; Madbouly, A; Steiner, D; Marsh, S G E; Gourraud, P-A; Oudshoorn, M; Zanden, H; Schmidt, A H; Pingel, J; Hofmann, J; Müller, C; Eberhard, H-P

    2013-01-01

    This project has the goal to validate bioinformatics methods and tools for HLA haplotype frequency analysis specifically addressing unique issues of haematopoietic stem cell registry data sets. In addition to generating new methods and tools for the analysis of registry data sets, the intent is to produce a comprehensive analysis of HLA data from 20 million donors from the Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide (BMDW) database. This report summarizes the activity on this project as of the 16IHIW meeting in Liverpool. PMID:23280139

  17. Genetic variation and haplotype structure of the gene Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1 in the Tamilian population

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dhakchinamoorthi Krishna; Shewade, Deepak Gopal; Surendiran, Adithan; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the genetic variation and haplotype structure of Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene in the Tamilian population. Materials And Methods: The study was performed on 210 unrelated, healthy volunteers of the Tamilian population, of either sex between the age group of 18-60 years. Five ml of venous blood sample was collected using sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as anticoagulant. DNA was extracted using phenol-chloroform extraction method. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) VKORC1 rs9923231 (G), rs7196161 (T), rs2884737 (T), rs17708472 (C), rs9934438 (C), rs8050894 (G), rs23596121 (C), and rs7294 (A) were studied using real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) method and they were included for constructing five-major haplotype blocks of VKORC1 gene. Results: The major alleles of VKORC1 rs9923231 (G), rs7196161 (T), rs2884737 (T), rs17708472 (C), rs9934438 (C), rs8050894 (G), and rs23596121 (C), were found to be at frequencies of 90.0%, 89.2%, 90.9%, 94.1%, 90.7%, 89.5% and 91.2%, respectively. The variant allele of VKORC1 rs7294 (A) was more frequent (83.6%) in the Tamilian population. The frequencies of haplotypes HAP1 (GTTCCGCA), HAP2 (ACGCTCTG), HAP3 (GTTTCGCG), HAP4 (GTTCCGCG) and HAP5 (GCTCCCCG) were found to be 80.0%, 7.4%, 4.7%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study the allele- frequency distributions, genotype and haplotype frequencies of the VKORC1 gene was considered. The findings of this study provide the genetic information required for learning the association of VKORC1 genetic variation and oral anticoagulant dose variability among patients receiving oral anticoagulants in the Tamilian population. PMID:23662025

  18. Variable responses of formyl peptide receptor haplotypes toward bacterial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Gripentrog, Jeannie M.; Mills, John S.; Saari, George J.; Miettinen, Heini M.

    2008-01-01

    The chemoattractant neutrophil formyl peptide receptor (FPR) binds bacterial and mitochondrial N-formylated peptides, which allows the neutrophils to find the bacterial source and/or site of tissue damage. Certain inflammatory disorders may be due in part to an impaired innate immune system that does not respond to acute bacterial damage in a timely fashion. Since the human FPR is encoded by a large number of different haplotypes arising from ten single nucleotide polymorphisms, we examined the possibility that some of these haplotypes are functionally distinct. We analyzed the response of three common FPR haplotypes to peptides from Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis and human mitochondria. All three haplotypes responded similarly to the E. coli and mitochondrial peptides, whereas one required a higher concentration of the M. avium peptide fMFEDAVAWF for receptor downregulation, receptor signaling and chemotaxis. This raises the possibility of additional bacterial species differences in functional responses among FPR variants, and establishes a precedent with potentially important implications for our innate immune response against bacterial infections. We also investigated whether certain FPR haplotypes are associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by sequencing FPR1 from 148 Caucasian individuals. The results suggested that FPR haplotypes do not significantly contribute toward RA. PMID:18253729

  19. Haplotype Reconstruction in Large Pedigrees with Many Untyped Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Li, Jing

    Haplotypes, as they specify the linkage patterns between dispersed genetic variations, provide important information for understanding the genetics of human traits. However haplotypes are not directly available from current genotyping platforms, and hence there are extensive investigations of computational methods to recover such information. Two major computational challenges arising in current family-based disease studies are large family sizes and many ungenotyped family members. Traditional haplotyping methods can neither handle large families nor families with missing members. In this paper, we propose a method which addresses these issues by integrating multiple novel techniques. The method consists of three major components: pairwise identical-bydescent (IBD) inference, global IBD reconstruction and haplotype restoring. By reconstructing the global IBD of a family from pairwise IBD and then restoring the haplotypes based on the inferred IBD, this method can scale to large pedigrees, and more importantly it can handle families with missing members. Compared with existing methods, this method demonstrates much higher power to recover haplotype information, especially in families with many untyped individuals.

  20. Association of a Bovine Prion Gene Haplotype with Atypical BSE

    PubMed Central

    Clawson, Michael L.; Richt, Juergen A.; Baron, Thierry; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Czub, Stefanie; Heaton, Michael P.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Laegreid, William W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs) are recently recognized prion diseases of cattle. Atypical BSEs are rare; approximately 30 cases have been identified worldwide. We tested prion gene (PRNP) haplotypes for an association with atypical BSE. Methodology/Principle Findings Haplotype tagging polymorphisms that characterize PRNP haplotypes from the promoter region through the three prime untranslated region of exon 3 (25.2 kb) were used to determine PRNP haplotypes of six available atypical BSE cases from Canada, France and the United States. One or two copies of a distinct PRNP haplotype were identified in five of the six cases (p?=?1.3×10?4, two-tailed Fisher's exact test; CI95% 0.263–0.901, difference between proportions). The haplotype spans a portion of PRNP that includes part of intron 2, the entire coding region of exon 3 and part of the three prime untranslated region of exon 3 (13 kb). Conclusions/Significance This result suggests that a genetic determinant in or near PRNP may influence susceptibility of cattle to atypical BSE. PMID:18350166

  1. iXora: exact haplotype inferencing and trait association

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We address the task of extracting accurate haplotypes from genotype data of individuals of large F1?populations for mapping studies. While methods for inferring parental haplotype assignments on large F1?populations exist in theory, these approaches do not work in practice at high levels of accuracy. Results We have designed iXora (Identifying crossovers and recombining alleles), a robust method for extracting reliable haplotypes of a mapping population, as well as parental haplotypes, that runs in linear time. Each allele in the progeny is assigned not just to a parent, but more precisely to a haplotype inherited from the parent. iXora shows an improvement of at least 15% in accuracy over similar systems in literature. Furthermore, iXora provides an easy-to-use, comprehensive environment for association studies and hypothesis checking in populations of related individuals. Conclusions iXora provides detailed resolution in parental inheritance, along with the capability of handling very large populations, which allows for accurate haplotype extraction and trait association. iXora is available for non-commercial use from http://researcher.ibm.com/project/3430. PMID:23742238

  2. DoGSD: the dog and wolf genome SNP database

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bing; Zhao, Wen-Ming; Tang, Bi-Xia; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, He-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Hu; Zhu, Jun-Wei; Irwin, David M.; Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing technology has generated a deluge of genomic data from domesticated dogs and their wild ancestor, grey wolves, which have simultaneously broadened our understanding of domestication and diseases that are shared by humans and dogs. To address the scarcity of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data provided by authorized databases and to make SNP data more easily/friendly usable and available, we propose DoGSD (http://dogsd.big.ac.cn), the first canidae-specific database which focuses on whole genome SNP data from domesticated dogs and grey wolves. The DoGSD is a web-based, open-access resource comprising ?19 million high-quality whole-genome SNPs. In addition to the dbSNP data set (build 139), DoGSD incorporates a comprehensive collection of SNPs from two newly sequenced samples (1 wolf and 1 dog) and collected SNPs from three latest dog/wolf genetic studies (7 wolves and 68 dogs), which were taken together for analysis with the population genetic statistics, Fst. In addition, DoGSD integrates some closely related information including SNP annotation, summary lists of SNPs located in genes, synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs, sampling location and breed information. All these features make DoGSD a useful resource for in-depth analysis in dog-/wolf-related studies. PMID:25404132

  3. RASSF1A and the rs2073498 Cancer Associated SNP

    PubMed Central

    Donninger, Howard; Barnoud, Thibaut; Nelson, Nick; Kassler, Suzanna; Clark, Jennifer; Cummins, Timothy D.; Powell, David W.; Nyante, Sarah; Millikan, Robert C.; Clark, Geoffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    RASSF1A is one of the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressors yet identified in human cancer. It is pro-apoptotic and appears to function as a scaffolding protein that interacts with a variety of other tumor suppressors to modulate their function. It can also complex with the Ras oncoprotein and may serve to integrate pro-growth and pro-death signaling pathways. A SNP has been identified that is present in approximately 29% of European populations [rs2073498, A(133)S]. Several studies have now presented evidence that this SNP is associated with an enhanced risk of developing breast cancer. We have used a proteomics based approach to identify multiple differences in the pattern of protein/protein interactions mediated by the wild type compared to the SNP variant protein. We have also identified a significant difference in biological activity between wild type and SNP variant protein. However, we have found only a very modest association of the SNP with breast cancer predisposition. PMID:22649770

  4. SNPs and Haplotypes in Native American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Judith R.; Friedlaender, Françoise; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Furtado, Manohar; Fang, Rixun; Wang, Xudong; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal DNA polymorphisms can provide new information and understanding of both the origins of and relationships among modern Native American populations. At the same time that autosomal markers can be highly informative, they are also susceptible to ascertainment biases in the selection of the markers to use. Identifying markers that can be used for ancestry inference among Native American populations can be considered separate from identifying markers to further the quest for history. In the current study we are using data on nine Native American populations to compare the results based on a large haplotype-based dataset with relatively small independent sets of SNPs. We are interested in what types of limited datasets an individual laboratory might be able to collect are best for addressing two different questions of interest. First, how well can we differentiate the Native American populations and/or infer ancestry by assigning an individual to her population(s) of origin? Second, how well can we infer the historical/evolutionary relationships among Native American populations and their Eurasian origins. We conclude that only a large comprehensive dataset involving multiple autosomal markers on multiple populations will be able to answer both questions; different small sets of markers are able to answer only one or the other of these questions. Using our largest dataset we see a general increasing distance from Old World populations from North to South in the New World except for an unexplained close relationship between our Maya and Quechua samples. PMID:21913176

  5. Evidence for high-risk haplotypes and (CGG)n expansion in fragile X syndrome in the Hellenic population of Greece and Cyprus

    SciTech Connect

    Syrrou, M.; Georgiou, I.; Pagoulatos, G. [Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)] [and others] [Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); and others

    1996-07-12

    The expansion of the trinucleotide repeat (CGG){sub n} in successive generations through maternal meiosis is the cause of fragile X syndrome. Analysis of CA repeat polymorphisms flanking the FMR-1 gene provides evidence of a limited number of {open_quotes}founder{close_quotes} chromosomes and predisposing high-risk haplotypes related to the mutation. To investigate the origin of mutations in the fragile X syndrome in the Hellenic populations of Greece and Cyprus, we studied the alleles and haplotypes at DXS548 and FRAXAC2 loci of 16 independent fragile X and 70 normal control chromosomes. In addition, we studied 191 unrelated normal X chromosomes for the distribution and frequencies of CGG alleles. At DXS548, 6 alleles were found, 2 (194 and 196) of which were represented on fragile X chromosomes. At FRAXAC2, 6 alleles were found, 4 of which were present on fragile X chromosomes. Sixteen haplotypes were identified, but only 5 were present on fragile X chromosomes. The highest number of CGG repeats ({ge} 33) were associated with haplotypes 194-147, 194-151, 194-153, and 204-155. The data provide evidence for founder chromosomes and high-risk haplotypes in the Hellenic population. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. In Vivo Characterization of Human APOA5 Haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chapman-Helleboid, Audrey; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-10-01

    Increased plasma triglycerides concentrations are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies support a reproducible genetic association between two minor haplotypes in the human apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) and increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. We thus sought to investigate the effect of these minor haplotypes (APOA5*2 and APOA5*3) on ApoAV plasma levels through the precise insertion of single-copy intact APOA5 haplotypes at a targeted location in the mouse genome. While we found no difference in the amount of human plasma ApoAV in mice containing the common APOA5*1 and minor APOA5*2 haplotype, the introduction of the single APOA5*3 defining allele (19W) resulted in 3-fold lower ApoAV plasma levels consistent with existing genetic association studies. These results indicate that S19W polymorphism is likely to be functional and explain the strong association of this variant with plasma triglycerides supporting the value of sensitive in vivo assays to define the functional nature of human haplotypes.

  7. Visualisation of Associations Between Nucleotides in SNP Neighbourhoods

    E-print Network

    Toivonen, Hannu

    of Freiburg, D- 79110 Freiburg, Germany by various exogenous agents, such as UV radiation [Jiricny, 1998 A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a site in DNA where at least two different nucleotides occur]. The efficiency and specificity of these processes is DNA sequence dependent [Cooper and Krawczak, 1993]. Data

  8. GENOMIC TECHNOLOGIES FACILITY: Single SNP Genotyping USER/BILLING AGREEMENT

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    GENOMIC TECHNOLOGIES FACILITY: Single SNP Genotyping USER/BILLING AGREEMENT FOR OFF-CAMPUS USERS Please fill out completely, and email, fax or mail to: Genomic Technologies Facility Manager 2025 Roy J. Carver Co-Laboratory Center for Plant Genomics Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011-3650 515

  9. GENOMIC TECHNOLOGIES FACILITY: Single SNP Genotyping USER/BILLING AGREEMENT

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    GENOMIC TECHNOLOGIES FACILITY: Single SNP Genotyping USER/BILLING AGREEMENT FOR ON-CAMPUS USERS Please fill out completely, and email, fax or mail to: Genomic Technologies Facility Manager 2025 Roy J. Carver Co-Laboratory Center for Plant Genomics Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011-3650 515

  10. An MDL method for finding haplotype blocks and for estimating the strength of haplotype block boundaries.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, M; Perola, M; Varilo, T; Hennah, W; Ekelund, J; Lukk, M; Peltonen, L; Ukkonen, E; Mannila, H

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new method for finding haplotype blocks based on the use of the minimum description length principle. We give a rigorous definition of the quality of a segmentation of a genomic region into blocks, and describe a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the optimal segmentation with respect to this measure. We also describe a method for finding the probability of a block boundary for each pair of adjacent markers: this gives a tool for evaluating the significance of each block boundary. We have applied the method to the published data of Daly et al. The results are in relatively good agreement with the published results, but also show clear differences in the predicted block boundaries and their strengths. We also give results on the block structure in population isolates. PMID:12603053

  11. Whole-genome haplotyping using long reads and statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Kuleshov, Volodymyr; Xie, Dan; Chen, Rui; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Ma, Zhihai; Blauwkamp, Tim; Kertesz, Michael; Snyder, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The rapid growth of sequencing technologies has greatly contributed to our understanding of human genetics. Yet, despite this growth, mainstream technologies have not been fully able to resolve the diploid nature of the human genome. Here we describe statistically aided, long-read haplotyping (SLRH), a rapid, accurate method that uses a statistical algorithm to take advantage of the partially phased information contained in long genomic fragments analyzed by short-read sequencing. For a human sample, as little as 30 Gbp of additional sequencing data are needed to phase genotypes identified by 50× coverage whole-genome sequencing. Using SLRH, we phase 99% of single-nucleotide variants in three human genomes into long haplotype blocks 0.2-1 Mbp in length. We apply our method to determine allele-specific methylation patterns in a human genome and identify hundreds of differentially methylated regions that were previously unknown. SLRH should facilitate population-scale haplotyping of human genomes. PMID:24561555

  12. Haplotype analysis of ApoAI gene and sepsis-associated acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) is the major apoprotein constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL) which exerts innate protective effects in systemic inflammation. However, its role in the acute lung injury (ALI) has not been well studied. In the present study we investigated the association between polymorphisms of ApoA1 gene and ALI in a Chinese population. Methods Three polymorphisms of the ApoA1 gene (rs11216153, rs2070665, and rs632153) were genotyped by TaqMan method in 290 patients with sepsis-associated ALI, 285 patients sepsis alone and 330 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results We found rs11216153 polymorphism of ApoA1 was associated with ALI, the GG genotype and G allele was common in the ALI patients (76.9%, 88.1%, respectively) than both in the control subjects (55.8%, 75.8%, respectively) and in the sepsis alone patients (58.2%, 78.4%, respectively). Haplotype consisting of these three SNPs strengthened the association with ALI susceptibility. The frequency of haplotype GTG in the ALI samples was significantly higher than that in the healthy control group (OR?=?2.261, 95% CI: 1.735?~?2.946, P <0.001) and the sepsis alone group (OR?=?1.789, 95% CI: 1.373?~?2.331.P?haplotype TTG had a lower risk for ALI compared with healthy control group (OR?=?0.422, 95% CI: 0.310?~?0.574, P?

  13. Distribution of MICA alleles and haplotypes associated with HLA in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Chul-Woo; Hur, Seong-Suk; Kim, Yang-Kyum; Choi, Hee-Baeg; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2003-03-01

    The MICA (MHC class I chain-related gene A) is a polymorphic gene located 46 kb centromeric of the HLA-B gene, and is preferentially expressed in epithelial cells and intestinal mucosa. The MICA gene, similar to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, displays a high degree of genetic polymorphism in exons 2, 3, 4, and 5, amounting to 54 alleles. In this study, we investigated the polymorphisms at exons coding for extracellular domains (exons 2, 3, and 4), and the GCT repeat polymorphism at the transmembrane (exon 5) of MICA in 199 unrelated healthy Koreans. Eight alleles were observed in the Korean population, with allele frequencies for MICA*010, MICA*00201, MICA*027, MICA*004, MICA*012, MICA*00801, MICA*00901, and MICA*00701 being 18.3%, 17.8%, 13.6%, 12.3%, 11.1%, 10.8%, 10.6%, and 3.3%, respectively. Strong linkage disequilibria were also observed between the MICA and HLA-B gene-MICA*00201-B58, MICA*004-B44, MICA*00701-B27, MICA*00801-B60, MICA*00901-B51, MICA*010-B62, MICA*012-B54, and MICA*027-B61. In the analysis of the haplotypes of HLA class I genes (HLA-A, B, and C) and the MICA, the most common haplotype was MICA*004-A33-B44-Cw*07, followed by MICA*00201-A2-B58-Cw*0302 and MICA*012-A2-B54-Cw*0102. The MICA null haplotype might be identified in the HLA-B48 homozygous individual. These results will provide an understanding of the role of MICA in transplantation, disease association, and population analyses in Koreans. PMID:12590984

  14. Factor IX gene haplotypes and its relevance for the indirect genetic analysis of haemophilia B in its Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Monica; Singh, Puneetpal

    2008-07-01

    In developing countries, especially in those with limited facilities and low budget resources, a reliable approach to carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of haemophilia B might be based on indirect diagnostic strategies. As, the cost-effectiveness of indirect genetic analysis of haemophilia B has been little investigated so far, we here report our experience in India. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of DdeI/intron1, XmnI/intron 3 and HhaI/3' flanking region of the gene for factor IX (F9) was investigated in 68 individuals (23 haemophilia patients, 18 obligate carriers, 27 probable carriers) from 23 families of haemophilia B. Linkage disequilibrium analysis was done and haplotypes were generated employing the expectation-maximization algorithm. DdeI (+) and (-) allele frequencies were found to be 0.522 and 0.478, respectively, with the highest observed heterozygosity of 46.6% as compared to XmnI (24.4%) and HhaI (42.2%). The frequencies of haplotype III and VI, that is DdeI (+)-XmnI (-)-HhaI (-) and DdeI (-)-XmnI (-)-HhaI (-) were observed to be 0.363 and 0.257, respectively. Haplotype III was found to be the most heterogeneous that suggests its efficacy in the indirect genetic analysis of F9 gene. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed no association between DdeI/HhaI (D' = 0.092); however, significant but incomplete linkage disequilibrium was observed in XmnI/HhaI and DdeI/XmnI (D' = 0709, 0.515, respectively). The overall cumulative polymorphism information content of these three markers increased from about 0.33 to 0.72, which suggested the efficiency of haplotyping of these markers over individual gene analysis in the direction of carrier assessment of haemophilia B in India. PMID:18600094

  15. Y-STR haplotype diversity and population data for Central Brazil: implications for environmental forensics and paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Vieira, T C; Gigonzac, M A D; Silva, D M; Rodovalho, R G; Santos, G S; da Cruz, A D

    2014-01-01

    The central region of Brazil was colonized by internal migration of individuals of different origins, who contributed to the genetic diversity existing in this population. This study determined the allele frequencies and haplotype diversity of Y-STRs in Goiás State, Central Brazil, and compared the data obtained with a sample of the Brazilian population, consisting of individuals from the five geographical regions of Brazil. A total of 353 males were typed for 12 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers. We selected males who had no degree of relatedness, from the five mesoregions of Goiás State. DNA was extracted from blood samples followed by the amplification of the 12 Y-chromosome loci. The products were analyzed to obtain the allele profiles on an ABI3500 automated sequencer using the Gene Mapper software. Allele frequencies and haplotype diversity were estimated by direct counting, and gene diversity for each locus was computed using the Arlequin software. The results are consistent with the history of miscegenation of the population of Central Brazil, in which we observed 321 different haplotypes. The average gene diversity at the 12 loci was 0.645. DYS385b and DYS389I showed the highest (0.704) and lowest (0.520) genetic diversity values, respectively. The FST value between the Brazilian and Goiás populations was 0.00951, showing no statistical significance. The results of this study allowed the establishment of haplotypes found in the forensic samples of Goiás State serving as a reference in the elucidation of criminal cases and paternity tests, as well as population and evolutionary inferences. PMID:24841785

  16. A note on efficient computation of haplotypes via perfect phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Bafna, Vineet; Gusfield, Dan; Hannenhalli, Sridhar; Yooseph, Shibu

    2004-01-01

    The problem of inferring haplotype phase from a population of genotypes has received a lot of attention recently. This is partly due to the observation that there are many regions on human genomic DNA where genetic recombination is rare (Helmuth, 2001; Daly et al., 2001; Stephens et al., 2001; Friss et al., 2001). A Haplotype Map project has been announced by NIH to identify and characterize populations in terms of these haplotypes. Recently, Gusfield introduced the perfect phylogeny haplotyping problem, as an algorithmic implication of the no-recombination in long blocks observation, together with the standard population-genetic assumption of infinite sites. Gusfield's solution based on matroid theory was followed by direct theta(nm2) solutions that use simpler techniques (Bafna et al., 2003; Eskin et al., 2003), and also bound the number of solutions to the PPH problem. In this short note, we address two questions that were left open. First, can the algorithms of Bafna et al. (2003) and Eskin et al. (2003) be sped-up to O(nm + m2) time, which would imply an O(nm) time-bound for the PPH problem? Second, if there are multiple solutions, can we find one that is most parsimonious in terms of the number of distinct haplotypes. We give reductions that suggests that the answer to both questions is "no." For the first problem, we show that computing the output of the first step (in either method) is equivalent to Boolean matrix multiplication. Therefore, the best bound we can presently achieve is O(nm(omega-1)), where omega < or = 2.52 is the exponent of matrix multiplication. Thus, any linear time solution to the PPH problem likely requires a different approach. For the second problem of computing a PPH solution that minimizes the number of distinct haplotypes, we show that the problem is NP-hard using a reduction from Vertex Cover (Garey and Johnson, 1979). PMID:15700406

  17. Prion gene haplotypes of U.S. cattle

    PubMed Central

    Clawson, Michael L; Heaton, Michael P; Keele, John W; Smith, Timothy PL; Harhay, Gregory P; Laegreid, William W

    2006-01-01

    Background Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of a protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein. Characterizing linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype networks within the bovine prion gene (PRNP) is important for 1) testing rare or common PRNP variation for an association with BSE and 2) interpreting any association of PRNP alleles with BSE susceptibility. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms and haplotypes within PRNP from the promoter region through the 3'UTR in a diverse sample of U.S. cattle genomes. Results A 25.2-kb genomic region containing PRNP was sequenced from 192 diverse U.S. beef and dairy cattle. Sequence analyses identified 388 total polymorphisms, of which 287 have not previously been reported. The polymorphism alleles define PRNP by regions of high and low LD. High LD is present between alleles in the promoter region through exon 2 (6.7 kb). PRNP alleles within the majority of intron 2, the entire coding sequence and the untranslated region of exon 3 are in low LD (18.0 kb). Two haplotype networks, one representing the region of high LD and the other the region of low LD yielded nineteen different combinations that represent haplotypes spanning PRNP. The haplotype combinations are tagged by 19 polymorphisms (htSNPS) which characterize variation within and across PRNP. Conclusion The number of polymorphisms in the prion gene region of U.S. cattle is nearly four times greater than previously described. These polymorphisms define PRNP haplotypes that may influence BSE susceptibility in cattle. PMID:17092337

  18. Evaluation of the Haplotype Motif Model using the Principle of Minimum Description

    E-print Network

    length #12; Abstract We apply minimum description length (MDL) principles to evaluate the meritEvaluation of the Haplotype Motif Model using the Principle of Minimum Description Srinath Sridhar Winters foundation. #12; Keywords: single nucleotide polymorphism, haplotypes, minimum de­ scription

  19. High throughput SNP discovery and validation in the pig: towards the development of a high density swine SNP chip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments in sequencing technology have allowed the generation of millions of short read sequences in a fast and inexpensive way. This enables the cost effective large scale identification of hundreds of thousands of SNPs needed for the development of high density SNP arrays. Currently, a ...

  20. HLA-G 3' UTR haplotypes and HIV vertical transmission.

    PubMed

    Segat, Ludovica; Catamo, Eulalia; Fabris, Annalisa; Padovan, Lara; Morgutti, Marcello; Crovella, Sergio

    2009-09-10

    We evaluated the possible association of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) 3777G>C and 14-bp deletion/insertion (D/I) polymorphisms haplotypes and combined genotypes with perinatal HIV transmission in Brazilian children. The 3777G>C polymorphism alone has no effect on HIV vertical transmission but, when linked with the D allele, exerts a positive role in the protection. Indeed, we identified the DC HLA-G haplotype as significantly associated with a protective effect towards HIV vertical transmission. PMID:19581790

  1. The Extended Tau Haplotype and the Age of Onset of Dementia in Down Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma L. Jones; Marisa Margallo-Lana; Vee P. Prasher; Clive G. Ballard

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Most people with Down syndrome (DS) develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The extended tau haplotype has been linked to AD. In this study, we examined the haplotype’s effect on the age of onset of AD in DS. Methods: People with DS were assessed for dementia. Genotyping was performed for the extended tau haplotype, APOE anda polymorphism in APP, attt5–8. Results:

  2. Chemical bonding and Mössbauer spectroscopic investigations on ternary polyphosphides AgSbP 14, [Ag 3Sn]P 7 and [Au 3Sn]P 7

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Weihrich; Stefan Lange; Tom Nilges

    2009-01-01

    The present manuscript is dealing with chemical bonding and Mössbauer spectroscopic investigations on the coinage-metal polyphosphides AgSbP14, [Ag3Sn]P7 and [Au3Sn]P7. Sb(III) has been identified in the HgPbP14-type compound AgSbP14 by Mössbauer spectroscopic experiments, representing the first P14-polyphosphide with the cation combination M+(Ag)\\/M?3+(Sb). A combined spectroscopic and theoretical approach using various methods is applied to semi-conducting [Ag3Sn]P7 and [Au3Sn]P7 to characterize

  3. Genetic Epidemiology 36 : 1721 (2012) Haploscope: A Tool for the Graphical Display of Haplotype

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    2012-01-01

    Genetic Epidemiology 36 : 17­21 (2012) Haploscope: A Tool for the Graphical Display of Haplotype and inspection of haplotypes, is available for download at http://scheet.org/software. Genet. Epidemiol. 2011. 36 along a chromosome. Because haplotypes provide the basic representation of genetic information across

  4. An approach to mapping haplotype-specific recombination sites in human MHC class III

    SciTech Connect

    Levo, A.; Westman, P.; Partanen, J. [Finnish Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Studies of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in mouse indicate that the recombination sites are not randomly distributed and their occurrence is haplotype-dependent. No data concerning haplotype-specific recombination sites in human are available due to the low number of informative families. To investigate haplotype-specific recombination sites in human MHC, we describe an approach based on identification of recombinant haplotypes derived from one conserved haplotype at the population level. The recombination sites were mapped by comparing polymorphic markers between the recombinant and assumed original haplotypes. We tested this approach on the extended haplotype HLA A3; B47; Bf{sup *}F; C4A{sup *}1; C4B{sup *}Q0; DR7, which is most suitable for this analysis. First, it carries a number of rare markers, and second, the haplotype, albeit rare in the general population, is frequent in patients with 21-hydroxylase (21OH) defect. We observed recombinants derived from this haplotype in patients with 21OH defect. All these haplotypes had the centromeric part (from Bf to DR) identical to the original haplotype, but they differed in HLA A and B. We therefore assumed that they underwent recombinations in the segment that separates the Bf and HLA B genes. Polymorphic markers indicated that all break points mapped to two segments near the TNF locus. This approach makes possible the mapping of preferential recombination sites in different haplotypes. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Evaluation of Association Between HLA Class II DR4–DQ8 Haplotype and Type I Diabetes Mellitus in Children of East Azerbaijan State of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Nasrin; Shekari Khaniani, Mahmoud; Mansoori Derakhshan, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Association between HLA-DR4–DQ8 haplotype and type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-1A) was investigated in children of East Azerbaijan state of Iran because such an association has not been previously studied in this population. Methods: HLA-typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific priming. For haplotype analysis, the logistic regression model was performed. Results: Of the three investigated alleles, the frequency of DRB1*0401 was significantly higher among patients compared with that in healthy subjects (76.74% vs. 23.26%). Conclusion: The findings of the current study are consistent with those of previous studies and show that DRB1*0401 is associated with DM-1A; the frequencies of the two other alleles were also higher among patients, although the differences were not statistically significant. Two haplotypes associated with these alleles were also surveyed, and DRB1*0401?-DQA1*0301?, and DRB1*0401?-DQA1*0301?-DQB1*0302? were the most frequent haplotypes among the patient group. PMID:25789232

  6. Analysis of beta-globin gene haplotypes in Asian Indians: origin and spread of beta-thalassaemia on the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Varawalla, N Y; Fitches, A C; Old, J M

    1992-12-01

    beta-globin gene haplotypes were determined for 196 normal (beta-A) and 419 thalassaemia (beta-Th) chromosomes of individuals from four different regions of the Indian subcontinent; North-west Pakistan, Gujarat, Punjab and Sindh. Analysis of beta-A and beta-Th haplotypes and haplotype-mutation associations in each regional group along with a consideration of Indian history provided information about the origin and spread of beta-thalassaemia mutations on the Indian subcontinent. The data are consistent with relatively recent and local origins for most beta-thalassaemia mutations. The frequencies of particular alleles differ markedly in various regions and these may be useful population markers. Of the high frequency alleles, intervening sequence 1 (IVS-1) nucleotide 5 (G-C) and codons 41/42 (-CTTT) appear to be older as suggested by multiple haplotype associations and a widespread geographical distribution. The microepidemiology of beta-thalassaemia in this region reflects considerable ethnic diversity, gene flow from population migration and natural selection by malaria infection. PMID:1362388

  7. Admixture patterns and genetic differentiation in negrito groups from West Malaysia estimated from genome-wide SNP data.

    PubMed

    Jinam, Timothy A; Phipps, Maude E; Saitou, Naruya

    2013-01-01

    Southeast Asia houses various culturally and linguistically diverse ethnic groups. In Malaysia, where the Malay, Chinese, and Indian ethnic groups form the majority, there exist minority groups such as the "negritos" who are believed to be descendants of the earliest settlers of Southeast Asia. Here we report patterns of genetic substructure and admixture in two Malaysian negrito populations (Jehai and Kensiu), using ~50,000 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We found traces of recent admixture in both the negrito populations, particularly in the Jehai, with the Malay through principal component analysis and STRUCTURE analysis software, which suggested that the admixture was as recent as one generation ago. We also identified significantly differentiated nonsynonymous SNPs and haplotype blocks related to intracellular transport, metabolic processes, and detection of stimulus. These results highlight the different levels of admixture experienced by the two Malaysian negritos. Delineating admixture and differentiated genomic regions should be of importance in designing and interpretation of molecular anthropology and disease association studies. PMID:24297225

  8. Development of high-density SNP genotyping arrays for white spruce (Picea glauca) and transferability to subtropical and nordic congeners.

    PubMed

    Pavy, Nathalie; Gagnon, France; Rigault, Philippe; Blais, Sylvie; Deschênes, Astrid; Boyle, Brian; Pelgas, Betty; Deslauriers, Marie; Clément, Sébastien; Lavigne, Patricia; Lamothe, Manuel; Cooke, Janice E K; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Beaulieu, Jean; Isabel, Nathalie; Mackay, John; Bousquet, Jean

    2013-03-01

    High-density SNP genotyping arrays can be designed for any species given sufficient sequence information of high quality. Two high-density SNP arrays relying on the Infinium iSelect technology (Illumina) were designed for use in the conifer white spruce (Picea glauca). One array contained 7338 segregating SNPs representative of 2814 genes of various molecular functional classes for main uses in genetic association and population genetics studies. The other one contained 9559 segregating SNPs representative of 9543 genes for main uses in population genetics, linkage mapping of the genome and genomic prediction. The SNPs assayed were discovered from various sources of gene resequencing data. SNPs predicted from high-quality sequences derived from genomic DNA reached a genotyping success rate of 64.7%. Nonsingleton in silico SNPs (i.e. a sequence polymorphism present in at least two reads) predicted from expressed sequenced tags obtained with the Roche 454 technology and Illumina GAII analyser resulted in a similar genotyping success rate of 71.6% when the deepest alignment was used and the most favourable SNP probe per gene was selected. A variable proportion of these SNPs was shared by other nordic and subtropical spruce species from North America and Europe. The number of shared SNPs was inversely proportional to phylogenetic divergence and standing genetic variation in the recipient species, but positively related to allele frequency in P. glauca natural populations. These validated SNP resources should open up new avenues for population genetics and comparative genetic mapping at a genomic scale in spruce species. PMID:23351128

  9. A novel SNP of the PNRC1 gene and its association with reproductive traits in Tsaiya ducks.

    PubMed

    Chang, M-T; Cheng, Y-S; Huang, M-C

    2012-07-01

    Proline-rich nuclear receptor coactivator (PNRC)1 is a member of a new family of nuclear receptor coactivators capable of potentiating the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors. The objective was to investigate the relationship between PNRC1 genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reproductive traits in ducks. Brown Tsaiya ducks (N = 305) from two lines, a control line with no selection and the selected line, were used. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand polymorphism and DNA sequencing were done to screen polymorphisms of the PNRC1 gene. A novel SNP (G98T) in 3'-untranslated region of the PNRC1 gene was identified and resulted in two genotypes, GG and GT. The frequencies of genotype GG and allele G were higher in both lines investigated. Regarding egg weight at first egg (EWFE), based on SNP trait association analysis, ducks with the GG genotype had a 4.48 g per egg greater egg weight at first egg when compared with ducks of the GT genotype in the control line (P < 0.05). In addition, this SNP was associated with the hatchability rate (HR) in the selected line; ducks with the GT genotype had a 6.70% higher hatchability rate than those with the GG genotype (P < 0.05). Therefore, we inferred that the PNRC1 gene could be a candidate locus or linked to a major gene that influenced egg weight-related and hatchability traits in Tsaiya ducks. Further investigations on additional duck populations with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22494678

  10. Pneumocystis jirovecii haplotypes at the internal transcribed spacers of the rRNA operon in French HIV-negative patients with diverse clinical presentations of Pneumocystis infections.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Solene; Rouille, Amelie; Gueguen, Paul; Virmaux, Michele; Berthou, Christian; Guillerm, Gaëlle; Couturaud, Francis; Le Meur, Yann; Damiani, Celine; Totet, Anne; Nevez, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii, a transmissible fungus, is the causative agent of pulmonary infections. Its genomic diversity has appeared in reports from around the world but data on P. jirovecii genotypes in France are still limited. This study describes the typing of P. jirovecii isolates from 81 HIV-negative patients monitored at Brest University Hospital, Brittany, France, 40 of whom developed Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP), and remaining 41 patients were colonized by the fungus. The isolates were assayed at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 under improved amplification conditions to avoid in vitro ITS recombination. P. jirovecii ITS haplotypes were identified in 56/81 patients (31 PcP patients and 25 patients who were colonized) which revealed a high diversity in that 27 different haplotypes were identified. Eg was the most frequent haplotype (31/56, 55.3%), followed by Ec and Ai (5/56, 8.9% each). In contrast, Ne, usually the second most frequent haplotype in Europe and the USA, was observed in only 2/56 patients (3.6%). Mixed infections were detected in 18/56 patients (32.1%; 12 PcP patients and six who were colonized). No significant differences were observed in haplotype diversity, frequency of peculiar haplotypes, and mixed infection occurrence, between the two patient populations. The study, conducted with the largest HIV-negative patient population investigated so far, shows that ITS typing remains an efficient method for characterizing P. jirovecii among human populations, whatever their clinical presentation of Pneumocystis infections. PMID:23964829

  11. Phylogeographic study of Chinese seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis Rousi) reveals two distinct haplotype groups and multiple microrefugia on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongfang; Liu, Han; Yang, Mingbo; Bao, Lei; Ge, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Historical climate change can shape the genetic pattern of a species. Studies on this phenomenon provide great advantage in predicting the response of species to current and future global climate change. Chinese seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis) is one of the most important cultivated plants in Northwest China. However, the subspecies history and the potential genetic resources within the subspecies range remain unclear. In this study, we utilized two intergenic chloroplast regions to characterize the spatial genetic distribution of the species. We found 19 haplotypes in total, 12 of which were unique to the Chinese seabuckthorn. The populations observed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) consisted of most of the haplotypes, while in the northeast of the range of the subspecies, an area not on the QTP, only four haplotypes were detected. Our study also revealed two distinct haplotype groups of the subspecies with a sharp transition region located in the south of the Zoige Basin. 89.96% of the genetic variation located between the regions. Mismatch analysis indicated old expansions of these two haplotype groups, approximately around the early stage of Pleistocene. Additional morphological proofs from existing studies and habitat differentiation supported a long independent colonization history among the two regions. Potential adaptation probably occurred but needs more genome and morphology data in future. Chinese seabuckthorn have an older population expansion compared with subspecies in Europe. The lack of large land ice sheets and the heterogeneous landscape of the QTP could have provided extensive microrefugia for Chinese seabuckthorn during the glaciation period. Multiple localities sustaining high-frequency private haplotypes support this hypothesis. Our study gives clear insight into the distribution of genetic resources and the evolutionary history of Chinese seabuckthorn. PMID:25540697

  12. Phylogeographic study of Chinese seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis Rousi) reveals two distinct haplotype groups and multiple microrefugia on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongfang; Liu, Han; Yang, Mingbo; Bao, Lei; Ge, Jianping

    2014-11-01

    Historical climate change can shape the genetic pattern of a species. Studies on this phenomenon provide great advantage in predicting the response of species to current and future global climate change. Chinese seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis) is one of the most important cultivated plants in Northwest China. However, the subspecies history and the potential genetic resources within the subspecies range remain unclear. In this study, we utilized two intergenic chloroplast regions to characterize the spatial genetic distribution of the species. We found 19 haplotypes in total, 12 of which were unique to the Chinese seabuckthorn. The populations observed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) consisted of most of the haplotypes, while in the northeast of the range of the subspecies, an area not on the QTP, only four haplotypes were detected. Our study also revealed two distinct haplotype groups of the subspecies with a sharp transition region located in the south of the Zoige Basin. 89.96% of the genetic variation located between the regions. Mismatch analysis indicated old expansions of these two haplotype groups, approximately around the early stage of Pleistocene. Additional morphological proofs from existing studies and habitat differentiation supported a long independent colonization history among the two regions. Potential adaptation probably occurred but needs more genome and morphology data in future. Chinese seabuckthorn have an older population expansion compared with subspecies in Europe. The lack of large land ice sheets and the heterogeneous landscape of the QTP could have provided extensive microrefugia for Chinese seabuckthorn during the glaciation period. Multiple localities sustaining high-frequency private haplotypes support this hypothesis. Our study gives clear insight into the distribution of genetic resources and the evolutionary history of Chinese seabuckthorn. PMID:25540697

  13. Population distribution and ancestry of the cancer protective MDM2 SNP285 (rs117039649)

    PubMed Central

    Knappskog, Stian; Gansmo, Liv B.; Dibirova, Khadizha; Metspalu, Andres; Cybulski, Cezary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Aaltonen, Lauri; Vatten, Lars; Romundstad, Pål; Hveem, Kristian; Devilee, Peter; Evans, Gareth D.; Lin, Dongxin; Camp, Guy Van; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Osorio, Ana; Milani, Lili; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Zalloua, Pierre; Mouzaya, Francis; Bliznetz, Elena; Balanovska, Elena; Pocheshkova, Elvira; Ku?inskas, Vaidutis; Atramentova, Lubov; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Titov, Konstantin; Lavryashina, Maria; Yusupov, Yuldash; Bogdanova, Natalia; Koshel, Sergey; Zamora, Jorge; Wedge, David C.; Charlesworth, Deborah; Dörk, Thilo; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lønning, Per E.

    2014-01-01

    The MDM2 promoter SNP285C is located on the SNP309G allele. While SNP309G enhances Sp1 transcription factor binding and MDM2 transcription, SNP285C antagonizes Sp1 binding and reduces the risk of breast-, ovary- and endometrial cancer. Assessing SNP285 and 309 genotypes across 25 different ethnic populations (>10.000 individuals), the incidence of SNP285C was 6-8% across European populations except for Finns (1.2%) and Saami (0.3%). The incidence decreased towards the Middle-East and Eastern Russia, and SNP285C was absent among Han Chinese, Mongolians and African Americans. Interhaplotype variation analyses estimated SNP285C to have originated about 14,700 years ago (95% CI: 8,300 – 33,300). Both this estimate and the geographical distribution suggest SNP285C to have arisen after the separation between Caucasians and modern day East Asians (17,000 - 40,000 years ago). We observed a strong inverse correlation (r = -0.805; p < 0.001) between the percentage of SNP309G alleles harboring SNP285C and the MAF for SNP309G itself across different populations suggesting selection and environmental adaptation with respect to MDM2 expression in recent human evolution. In conclusion, we found SNP285C to be a pan-Caucasian variant. Ethnic variation regarding distribution of SNP285C needs to be taken into account when assessing the impact of MDM2 SNPs on cancer risk. PMID:25327560

  14. Integer Programming Approaches to Haplotype Inference by Pure Parsimony

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel G. Brown; Ian M. Harrower

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, Gusfield introduced the Haplotype Inference by Pure Parsimony (HIPP) problem and presented an integer program (IP) that quickly solved many simulated instances of the problem (1). Although it solved well on small instances, Gusfield's IP can be of exponential size in the worst case. Several authors (2), (3) have presented polynomial-sized IPs for the problem. In this paper,

  15. Marker haplotype association with growth in German cystic fibrosis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burkhard Tiimmler I; Antje Aschendorff; Thomas Darnedde; Karsten Fryburg; Günter Maass; Joachim Hundrieser

    1990-01-01

    In 84 families with 101 children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and 103 unaffected siblings, the haplotype of CF chromosomes was determined with six restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers that span the CF gene locus. Patient groups with different genotypes in the more distant flanking marker loci MET D, MET H, and D7S8 differed significantly from each other with respect

  16. Reporting of haplotypes with recessive effects on fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic discovery of five haplotypes with recessive effects on fertility requires new automated tracking methods for QTL causing embryo loss in breeding programs. Most of the losses are early in gestation. Approximate locations of the five QTL were refined using crossovers detected within the pedigr...

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Haplotype diversity generated by ancient recombination-like

    E-print Network

    Citi, Sandra

    Indonesia. In these latter populations, nearly every haplotype appears to be characterised by a unique A, B and DRB region. In the Indian population, however, a reshuffling of existing segments generated "new experienced a severe reduction in population during the Pleistocene due to a bot- tleneck caused by geographic

  18. ELECTRONIC LETTER Y chromosome haplotypes and testicular cancer in the

    E-print Network

    Weale, Michael E.

    was reported in prostate cancers,16­20 reinforcing a role for the Y chromosome in malig- nancy and cancerELECTRONIC LETTER Y chromosome haplotypes and testicular cancer in the English population LElreavey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J Med Genet 2003;40:e20(http://www.jmedgenet.com/cgi/content/full/40/3/e20) T esticular cancer (TC

  19. Nomenclature of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graziano, S.L.; Brown, K.H.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Congruence of genetic data is critical for comparative and collaborative studies on natural fish populations. A comprehensive list of reported mitochrondrial DNA haplotypes for Oncorhynchus mykiss generated using the S-Phe/P2 primer set is presented as a resource for future investigations of this species. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  20. Nomenclature of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graziano, Sara L.; Brown, K.H.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Congruence of genetic data is critical for comparative and collaborative studies on natural fish populations. A comprehensive list of reported mitochrondrial DNA haplotypes for Oncorhynchus mykiss generated using the S-Phe/P2 primer set is presented as a resource for future investigations of this species.

  1. Prion gene haplotypes of U.S. cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of a protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein. Characterizing linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype networks within the bovine prion gene (PRNP) is important for 1) test...

  2. Development and Evaluation of SoySNP50K, a High-Density Genotyping Array for Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L.; Jia, Gaofeng; Quigley, Charles V.; Fickus, Edward W.; Nelson, Randall L.; Cregan, Perry B.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to develop an Illumina Infinium BeadChip that contained over 50,000 SNPs from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). A total of 498,921,777 reads 35–45bp in length were obtained from DNA sequence analysis of reduced representation libraries from several soybean accessions which included six cultivated and two wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) genotypes. These reads were mapped to the soybean whole genome sequence and 209,903 SNPs were identified. After applying several filters, a total of 146,161 of the 209,903 SNPs were determined to be ideal candidates for Illumina Infinium II BeadChip design. To equalize the distance between selected SNPs, increase assay success rate, and minimize the number of SNPs with low minor allele frequency, an iteration algorithm based on a selection index was developed and used to select 60,800 SNPs for Infinium BeadChip design. Of the 60,800 SNPs, 50,701 were targeted to euchromatic regions and 10,000 to heterochromatic regions of the 20 soybean chromosomes. In addition, 99 SNPs were targeted to unanchored sequence scaffolds. Of the 60,800 SNPs, a total of 52,041 passed Illumina’s manufacturing phase to produce the SoySNP50K iSelect BeadChip. Validation of the SoySNP50K chip with 96 landrace genotypes, 96 elite cultivars and 96 wild soybean accessions showed that 47,337 SNPs were polymorphic and generated successful SNP allele calls. In addition, 40,841 of the 47,337 SNPs (86%) had minor allele frequencies ?10% among the landraces, elite cultivars and the wild soybean accessions. A total of 620 and 42 candidate regions which may be associated with domestication and recent selection were identified, respectively. The SoySNP50K iSelect SNP beadchip will be a powerful tool for characterizing soybean genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium, and for constructing high resolution linkage maps to improve the soybean whole genome sequence assembly. PMID:23372807

  3. Allele Polymorphism and Haplotype Diversity of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 Loci in Sequence-Based Typing for Chinese Uyghur Ethnic Group

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chun-mei; Zhu, Bo-feng; Deng, Ya-jun; Ye, Shi-hui; Yan, Jiang-wei; Yang, Guang; Wang, Hong-dan; Qin, Hai-xia; Huang, Qi-zhao; Zhang, Jing-Jing

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that the frequency distributions of HLA alleles and haplotypes vary from one ethnic group to another or between the members of the same ethnic group living in different geographic areas. It is necessary and meaningful to study the high-resolution allelic and haplotypic distributions of HLA loci in different groups. Methodology/Principal Findings High-resolution HLA typing for the Uyghur ethnic minority group using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based-typing method was first reported. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 104 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters for HLA loci were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. A total of 35 HLA-A, 51 HLA-B and 33 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified at the four-digit level in the population. High frequency alleles were HLA-A*1101 (13.46%), A*0201 (12.50%), A*0301 (10.10%); HLA-B*5101(8.17%), B*3501(6.73%), B*5001 (6.25%); HLA-DRB1*0701 (16.35%), DRB1*1501 (8.65%) and DRB1*0301 (7.69%). The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were HLA-A*3001-B*1302 (2.88%), A*2402-B*5101 (2.86%); HLA-B*5001-DRB1*0701 (4.14%) and B*0702-DRB1*1501 (3.37%). The three-locus haplotype at the highest frequency was HLA-A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701(2.40%). Significantly high linkage disequilibrium was observed in six two-locus haplotypes, with their corresponding relative linkage disequilibrium parameters equal to 1. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree between the Uyghur group and other previously reported populations was constructed on the basis of standard genetic distances among the populations calculated using the four-digit sequence-level allelic frequencies at HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Uyghur group belongs to the northwestern Chinese populations and is most closely related to the Xibe group, and then to Kirgiz, Hui, Mongolian and Northern Han. Conclusions/Significance The present findings could be useful to elucidate the genetic background of the population and to provide valuable data for HLA matching in clinical bone marrow transplantation, HLA-linked disease-association studies, population genetics, human identification and paternity tests in forensic sciences. PMID:21079793

  4. Y-SNP-genotyping - a new approach in forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lessig, R; Zoledziewska, M; Fahr, K; Edelmann, J; Kostrzewa, M; Dobosz, T; Kleemann, W J

    2005-11-25

    Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms, especially Y-STRs are well established in forensic routine case work. The STRs are used for identification in paternity deficiency cases and stain analysis with complicate mixtures of male and female DNA. In contrast, Y-chromosomal SNPs are a new tool in forensic investigations. At present, Y-SNPs are mainly used in molecular anthropology for evolutionary studies. Nevertheless, these markers could also provide very useful information for the analysis of forensic cases. The aim of the presented study was to test Y-SNP-typing for stain analyses using different methods-SNaPshot and MALDI-TOF MS. Both methods are based on the principle of minisequencing. The selected Y-SNP markers are suited to define the most important European haplogroups. PMID:16182959

  5. Geographic and voltinism differentiation among North American Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Brad S.; Sumerford, Douglas V.; Hellmich, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    DNA sequence of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and II (cox2) genes were characterized and used for population genetic analysis. Twenty-six point mutations were identified from a 2,156 bp DNA sequence alignment. The frequency of polymorphic cox1 DdeI and HaeIII, and cox2 Sau3AI and MspI restriction sites were determined from 1,414 individuals by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. Ten haplotypes were observed. A single haplotype was present among 90% of individuals examined, and a HaeIII haplotype was not present in samples from the Atlantic coast. Significant genetic differentiation existed between Atlantic coast and midwestern United States samples, and between sympatric uni- and bivoltine ecotypes. These genetic markers identify regional and ecotype differences in the North American O. nubilalis population. Abbreviation: D genetic distance PCR-RFLP Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism PMID:15861250

  6. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype studies of chromosome 8p 11. 1-21. 1 markers and Werner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang-En; Schellenberg, G.D.; Oshima, Junko; Martin, G.M.; Goddard, K.A.B.; Wijsman, E.M. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Miki, Tetsuro; Nakura, Jun; Ogihara, Toshio (Osaka Univ. (Japan)); Poot, M.; Hoehn, H. (Univ. of Wurzburg (Germany)) (and others)

    1994-08-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized as a progeroid syndrome, previously mapped to the 8p 11.2-21.1 region. Because WS is so rare, and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. Here the authors present the results of a search for a region that exhibits linkage disequilibrium with the disorder, under the assumption that identification of such a region may provide an alternative method of narrowing down the location of WRN, the gene responsible for WS. They present allele frequencies in Japanese and Caucasian cases and controls for D8S137, D8S131, D8S87, D8S278, D8S259, D8S283, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, ankyrin 1, D8S339, and two polymorphisms in glutathione reductase (GSR), covering [approximately] 16.5 cM in total. They show that three of the markers examined - D8S339 and both polymorphisms in the GSR locus - show strong statistically significant evidence of disequilibrium with WRN in the Japanese population but not in the Caucasian population. In addition, they show that a limited number of haplotypes are associated with the disease in both populations and that these haplotypes define clusters of apparently related haplotypes that may identify as many as eight or nine independent WRN mutations in these two populations. 36 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. High Throughput SNP Genotyping with Two Mini-sequencing Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunqing LUO; Libin DENG; Changqing ZENG; Y.-X. Jin

    2004-01-01

    Two mini-sequencing methods, FP-TDI (template-directed dye-terminator incorporation with fluorescence-polarization) and MassArray (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight detection mass spectrometry), were optimized. A numeric standard was introduced to evaluate the SNP scoring quality of FP-TDI assay, thus made the optimization work easier. At the same time, using multi-PCR technology, 8-plex genotyping of MassArray assay was successfully carried out,

  8. High-Throughput SNP Genotyping by SBE\\/SBH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ion I. Mùandoiu; Claudia Prùajescu

    Despite much progress over the past decade, current Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technologies still offer an insufficient degree of multiplexing when required to handle user-selected sets of SNPs. In this paper we propose a new genotyping assay architecture combining multiplexed solution-phase single-base extension (SBE) reactions with sequencing by hybridization (SBH) using universal DNA arrays such as all k-mer arrays.

  9. Introgression browser: high-throughput whole-genome SNP visualization.

    PubMed

    Aflitos, Saulo Alves; Sanchez-Perez, Gabino; de Ridder, Dick; Fransz, Paul; Schranz, Michael E; de Jong, Hans; Peters, Sander A

    2015-04-01

    Breeding by introgressive hybridization is a pivotal strategy to broaden the genetic basis of crops. Usually, the desired traits are monitored in consecutive crossing generations by marker-assisted selection, but their analyses fail in chromosome regions where crossover recombinants are rare or not viable. Here, we present the Introgression Browser (iBrowser), a bioinformatics tool aimed at visualizing introgressions at nucleotide or SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) accuracy. The software selects homozygous SNPs from Variant Call Format (VCF) information and filters out heterozygous SNPs, multi-nucleotide polymorphisms (MNPs) and insertion-deletions (InDels). For data analysis iBrowser makes use of sliding windows, but if needed it can generate any desired fragmentation pattern through General Feature Format (GFF) information. In an example of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions we visualize SNP patterns and elucidate both position and boundaries of the introgressions. We also show that our tool is capable of identifying alien DNA in a panel of the closely related S. pimpinellifolium by examining phylogenetic relationships of the introgressed segments in tomato. In a third example, we demonstrate the power of the iBrowser in a panel of 597 Arabidopsis accessions, detecting the boundaries of a SNP-free region around a polymorphic 1.17 Mbp inverted segment on the short arm of chromosome 4. The architecture and functionality of iBrowser makes the software appropriate for a broad set of analyses including SNP mining, genome structure analysis, and pedigree analysis. Its functionality, together with the capability to process large data sets and efficient visualization of sequence variation, makes iBrowser a valuable breeding tool. PMID:25704554

  10. openSNP–A Crowdsourced Web Resource for Personal Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Greshake, Bastian; Bayer, Philipp E.; Rausch, Helge; Reda, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Genome-Wide Association Studies are widely used to correlate phenotypic traits with genetic variants. These studies usually compare the genetic variation between two groups to single out certain Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that are linked to a phenotypic variation in one of the groups. However, it is necessary to have a large enough sample size to find statistically significant correlations. Direct-To-Consumer (DTC) genetic testing can supply additional data: DTC-companies offer the analysis of a large amount of SNPs for an individual at low cost without the need to consult a physician or geneticist. Over 100,000 people have already been genotyped through Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing companies. However, this data is not public for a variety of reasons and thus cannot be used in research. It seems reasonable to create a central open data repository for such data. Here we present the web platform openSNP, an open database which allows participants of Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing to publish their genetic data at no cost along with phenotypic information. Through this crowdsourced effort of collecting genetic and phenotypic information, openSNP has become a resource for a wide area of studies, including Genome-Wide Association Studies. openSNP is hosted at http://www.opensnp.org, and the code is released under MIT-license at http://github.com/gedankenstuecke/snpr. PMID:24647222

  11. A personalized and automated dbSNP surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Lin, Steve; Woon, Mark; Klein, Teri E; Altman, Russ B

    2003-01-01

    The development of high throughput techniques and large-scale studies in the biological sciences has given rise to an explosive growth in both the volume and types of data available to researchers. A surveillance system that monitors data repositories and reports changes helps manage the data overload. We developed a dbSNP surveillance system (URL: http://www.pharmgkb.org/do/serve?id=tools.surveillance.dbsnp) that performs surveillance on the dbSNP database and alerts users to new information. The system is notable because it is personalized and fully automated. Each registered user has a list of genes to follow and receives notification of new entries concerning these genes. The system integrates data from dbSNP, LocusLink, PharmGKB, and Genbank to position SNPs on reference sequences and classify SNPs into categories such as synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs. The system uses data warehousing, object model-based data integration, object-oriented programming, and a platform-neutral data access mechanism. PMID:16452787

  12. openSNP--a crowdsourced web resource for personal genomics.

    PubMed

    Greshake, Bastian; Bayer, Philipp E; Rausch, Helge; Reda, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Genome-Wide Association Studies are widely used to correlate phenotypic traits with genetic variants. These studies usually compare the genetic variation between two groups to single out certain Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that are linked to a phenotypic variation in one of the groups. However, it is necessary to have a large enough sample size to find statistically significant correlations. Direct-To-Consumer (DTC) genetic testing can supply additional data: DTC-companies offer the analysis of a large amount of SNPs for an individual at low cost without the need to consult a physician or geneticist. Over 100,000 people have already been genotyped through Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing companies. However, this data is not public for a variety of reasons and thus cannot be used in research. It seems reasonable to create a central open data repository for such data. Here we present the web platform openSNP, an open database which allows participants of Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing to publish their genetic data at no cost along with phenotypic information. Through this crowdsourced effort of collecting genetic and phenotypic information, openSNP has become a resource for a wide area of studies, including Genome-Wide Association Studies. openSNP is hosted at http://www.opensnp.org, and the code is released under MIT-license at http://github.com/gedankenstuecke/snpr. PMID:24647222

  13. Computational SNP analysis: current approaches and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ambuj; Rajendran, Vidya; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Shukla, Priyank; Tiwari, Shalinee; Purohit, Rituraj

    2014-03-01

    The computational approaches in determining disease-associated Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) have evolved very rapidly. Large number of deleterious and disease-associated nsSNP detection tools have been developed in last decade showing high prediction reliability. Despite of all these highly efficient tools, we still lack the accuracy level in determining the genotype-phenotype association of predicted nsSNPs. Furthermore, there are enormous questions that are yet to be computationally compiled before we might talk about the prediction accuracy. Earlier we have incorporated molecular dynamics simulation approaches to foster the accuracy level of computational nsSNP analysis roadmap, which further helped us to determine the changes in the protein phenotype associated with the computationally predicted disease-associated mutation. Here we have discussed on the present scenario of computational nsSNP characterization technique and some of the questions that are crucial for the proper understanding of pathogenicity level for any disease associated mutations. PMID:23852834

  14. Haplotypes in IL-8 Gene Are Associated to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lepre, Tiziana; Missiroli, Filippo; Zampatti, Stefania; Cascella, Raffaella; Borgiani, Paola; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Eandi, Chiara Maria; Cusumano, Andrea; Novelli, Giuseppe; Giardina, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of blindness in the developed world. The etiology of AMD is multifactorial due to the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. IL-8 has a role in inflammation and angiogenesis; we report the genetic characterization of IL-8 allele architecture and evaluate the role of SNPs or haplotypes in the susceptibility to wet AMD, case-control study. Methods Case-control study including 721 AMD patients and 660 controls becoming from Italian population. Genotyping was carried out by Real Time-PCR. Differences in the frequencies were estimated by the chi-square test. Direct sequencing was carried out by capillary electrophoresis trough ABI3130xl. Results rs2227306 showed a p–value of 4.15*10?5 and an Odds Ratio (OR) for T allele of 1.39 [1.19–1.62]. After these positive results, we sequenced the entire IL-8 regulatory and coding regions of 60 patients and 30 controls stratified for their genotype at rs2227306. We defined two different haplotypes involving rs4073 (A/T), rs2227306 (C/T), rs2227346 (C/T) and rs1126647 (A/T): A-T-T-T (p-value: 2.08*10?9; OR: 1.68 [1.43–1.97]) and T-C-C-A (p-value: 7.07*10?11; OR: 0.60 [0.51–0.70]). To further investigate a potential functional role of associated haplotypes, we performed an expression study on RNA extracted from whole blood of 75 donors to verify a possible direct correlation between haplotype and gene expression, failing to reveal significant differences. Conclusions These results suggest a possible secondary role of IL-8 gene in the development of the disease. This paper outlines the importance of association between inflammation and AMD. Moreover IL-8 is a new susceptibility genomic biomarker of AMD. PMID:23840568

  15. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 gene and IDH1 SNP 105C?>?T have a prognostic value in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1/IDH2) genes are metabolic enzymes, which are frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The enzymes acquire neomorphic enzymatic activity when they mutated. Methods We have investigated the frequency and outcome of the acquired IDH1/IDH2 mutations and the IDH1 SNP 105C?>?T (rs11554137) in 189 unselected de novo AML patients by polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by direct sequencing. The survival are presented in Kaplan Meier curves with log rank test. Multivariable survival analysis was conducted using Cox regression method, taking age, risk group, treatment, IDH1/2 mutations and IDH1 SNP105 genotype into account. Results Overall, IDH1/2 mutations were found in 41/187 (21.7%) of the AML patients. IDH1 codon 132 mutations were present in 7.9%, whereas IDH2 mutations were more frequent and mutations were identified in codon 140 and 172 in a frequency of 11.1% and 2.6%, respectively. The SNP 105C?>?T was present in 10.5% of the patients, similar to the normal population. A significantly reduced overall survival (OS) for patients carrying IDH2 codon 140 mutation compared with patients carrying wild-type IDH2 gene (p?SNP variant and the homozygous wild-type was observed in the intermediate risk FLT3 negative AML patients (p?=?0.004). Conclusions Our results indicate that AML-patients with IDH2 mutations or the IDH1 SNP 105C?>?T variant can represent a new subgroup for risk stratification and may indicate new treatment options. PMID:25324972

  16. Protocol for the mtSNP 11-plex Primer Extension Assay on the ABI 3100 CE Eleven mtSNP sites for separating the most

    E-print Network

    Amplification Add SNP primer(s) and SNaPshot mix SNP Extension (cycle sequencing) SAP treatment Data Analysis for separating the most common Caucasian HV1/HV2 type. The primary sequence variants are listed, with the r - Genetic Analyzer Buffer - GeneScan and Genotyper software programs Position Sequence Variation 477 T

  17. Optimal algorithms for haplotype assembly from whole-genome sequence data

    PubMed Central

    He, Dan; Choi, Arthur; Pipatsrisawat, Knot; Darwiche, Adnan; Eskin, Eleazar

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Haplotype inference is an important step for many types of analyses of genetic variation in the human genome. Traditional approaches for obtaining haplotypes involve collecting genotype information from a population of individuals and then applying a haplotype inference algorithm. The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies allows for an alternative strategy to obtain haplotypes by combining sequence fragments. The problem of ‘haplotype assembly’ is the problem of assembling the two haplotypes for a chromosome given the collection of such fragments, or reads, and their locations in the haplotypes, which are pre-determined by mapping the reads to a reference genome. Errors in reads significantly increase the difficulty of the problem and it has been shown that the problem is NP-hard even for reads of length 2. Existing greedy and stochastic algorithms are not guaranteed to find the optimal solutions for the haplotype assembly problem. Results: In this article, we proposed a dynamic programming algorithm that is able to assemble the haplotypes optimally with time complexity O(m × 2k × n), where m is the number of reads, k is the length of the longest read and n is the total number of SNPs in the haplotypes. We also reduce the haplotype assembly problem into the maximum satisfiability problem that can often be solved optimally even when k is large. Taking advantage of the efficiency of our algorithm, we perform simulation experiments demonstrating that the assembly of haplotypes using reads of length typical of the current sequencing technologies is not practical. However, we demonstrate that the combination of this approach and the traditional haplotype phasing approaches allow us to practically construct haplotypes containing both common and rare variants. Contact: danhe@cs.ucla.edu PMID:20529904

  18. Association of SNP rs9939609 in FTO gene with metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic subjects, rectruited from a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Fawwad, Asher; Siddiqui, Iftikhar Ahmed; Zeeshan, Nimra Fatima; Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Basit, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of SNP in FTO gene, rs9939609, with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in type 2 diabetic subjects at a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: We genotyped FTO rs9939609 SNP in 296 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Out Patient Department (OPD) of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (BIDE). MS was defined on the basis of International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education program (NCEP) criterion. Association between the rs9939609 SNP and MS was tested through chi-square and Z-tests by using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The frequency of MS as defined by IDF criterion was significantly higher in female subjects as compared to male subjects (p= 0.006). Carriers of ? 1 copy of the rs9939609 A allele were significantly more likely to had MS (69.6%) than non-carriers (30.4%), corresponding to a carrier odds ratio (OR) of 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] (0.29-0.93), with a similar trend for the ATP III-defined MS.“A” allele carriers under dominant model, carry all the criterion of MS more significantly as compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: The FTO rs9939609 SNP was associated with an increased risk for Metabolic Syndrome in type 2 diabetic populations at a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan. PMID:25878631

  19. Polymorphic haplotypes and recombination rates at the LDL receptor gene locus in subjects with and without familial hypercholesterolemia who are from different populations

    SciTech Connect

    Miserez, A.R.; Chiodetti, N.; Keller, U. (University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland)); Schuster, H. (Medizinische Poliklinik der Universitaet, Munich (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    RFLPs at the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor locus for TaqI, StuI, HincII, AvaII, ApaLI (5[prime] and 3[prime]), PvuII, and NcoI were studied in Swiss and German families with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). A total of 1,104 LDL receptor alleles were analyzed using Southern blotting and new PCR-based techniques for detection of the TaqI, StuI, HincII, AvaII, NcoI RFLPs. Two hundred fifty-six independent haplotypes from 368 individuals of 61 unrelated Swiss families, as well as 114 independent haplotypes from 184 subjects of 25 unrelated German families, were constructed. In 76 families, clinical diagnosis of FH was confirmed by cosegregation analysis. Of the 43 unique haplotypes consisting of seven RFLPs detected in the Swiss and Germans, only 9 were common in both population samples. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium revealed nonrandom associations between several of the investigated RFLPs. ApaLI (5[prime]), NcoI, PvuII, TaqI, and AvaII or HincII were particularly informative. Relative frequencies, heterozygosity indexes, and PICs of the RFLPs from the Swiss and Germans were compared with values calculated from reported haplotype data for Italians, Icelanders, North American Caucasians, South African Caucasians, and Japanese. Pairwise comparisons of population samples by common RFLPs demonstrated unexpected differences even between geographically adjacent populations (e.g., the Swiss and Germans). Furthermore, genetic distances from the Germans to the other Caucasians were larger than to the Japanese. An unexpected lack of correlation between linkage disequilibria and physical distances was detected for the German and Japanese data, possibly because of nonuniform recombination with excessively high rates between exon 13 and intron 15. Hence, the present study revealed a striking variety of polymorphic haplotypes and heterogeneity of RFLP frequencies and recombination rates among the seven population samples. 60 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. SNP-SNP interactions between dNTP supply enzymes and mismatch DNA repair in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, I Jung; Radivoyevitch, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    The dNTP supply system genes RRM1, DCTD, TYMS, TK1 and DCK balance dNTP pools to avoid incorrect insertions of bases (i.e. DNA mismatches) and the DNA mismatch repair system genes MLH1 and MSH2 are involved in removing such mismatches. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of interactions between these two systems, since greater mismatch production rates are expected to be more detrimental in cells that also have compromised mismatch removal rates. This conjecture was explored here specifically with respect to the development of breast cancer. More than 2400 breast cancer cases and controls are included in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset. For each of these individuals, a total of 99 SNPs (69 dNTP supply SNPs and 30 mismatch repair SNPs) and 2070 SNP-SNP interactions between these two groups were evaluated for their effect on breast cancer using logistic regression to compute odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of these, 12 SNPs had found statistically significant associations with breast cancer individually (Four of them to decrease risk and eight of them to increase risk) and 697 of 2070 two-way interactions were significant associated with the risk of breast cancer. Thus, our study suggests that mismatches contribute to the formation of breast cancer. PMID:21566726

  1. A cross-population extended haplotype-based homozygosity score test to detect positive selection in genome-wide scans

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Yiwei; Lange, Kenneth; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we developed a cross-population comparison test statistic to detect chromosome regions in which there is no significant excess homozygosity in one population but homozygosity remains high in the other. We treated an extended stretch of homozygosity as a surrogate indicator of a recent positive selection. Conditioned on existing linkage disequilibrium, we proposed to test the haplotype version of the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). For each population, we assumed that a random sample of unrelated individuals were typed on a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A pooled-test statistic was constructed by comparing the measurements of homozygosity of the two samples around a core SNP. In the chromosome regions where HWE is roughly true in one population and HWE is not true in the other, the pooled-test statistic led to significant results to detect the positive selection. We evaluated the performance of the test statistic by type I error comparison and power evaluation. We showed that the proposed test statistic was very conservative and it had good power when the selected allele remains polymorphic. Then, we applied the test to HapMap Phase II data to make a comparison with previous results and to search for new candidate regions.

  2. Significant Impact of the MTHFR Polymorphisms and Haplotypes on Male Infertility Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishi; Sarkar, Saumya; David, Archana; Gangwar, Pravin Kumar; Gupta, Richa; Khanna, Gita; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) converts 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate and affects the activity of cellular cycles participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, genome stability, maintenance of methyl pool, and gene regulation. Genetically compromised MTHFR activity has been suggested to affect male fertility. The objective of the present study was to find the impact on infertility risk of c.203G>A, c.1298A>C, and c.1793G>A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene. Methods PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing were used to genotype the common SNPs in the MTHFR gene in 630 infertile and 250 fertile males. Chi-square test was applied for statistical comparison of genotype data. Linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the frequency of common haplotypes were assessed using Haploview software. Biochemical levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) and folic acid were measured. Meta-analysis on c.1298A>C polymorphism was performed using data from ten studies, comprising 2734 cases and 2737 controls. Results c.203G>A and c.1298A>C were found to be unrelated to infertility risk. c.1793G>A was protective against infertility (P?=?0.0008). c.677C>T and c.1793G>A were in significant LD (D’?=?0.9). Folic acid and tHcy level did not correlate with male infertility. Pooled estimate on c.1298A>C data from all published studies including our data showed no association of this polymorphism with male infertility (Odds ratio?=?1.035, P?=?0.56), azoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.97, P?=?0.74), or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.92, p?=?0.29). Eight haplotypes with more than 1% frequency were detected, of which CCGA was protective against infertility (p?=?0.02), but the significance of the latter was not seen after applying Bonferroni correction. Conclusion Among MTHFR polymorphisms, c.203G>A and c.1298A>C do not affect infertility risk and c.1793G>A is protective against infertility. Haplotype analysis suggested that risk factors on the MTHFR locus do not extend too long on the DNA string. PMID:23874907

  3. Analysis of DNA polymorphisms in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) and development of an SNP-based map of expressed genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Schneider; Dagmar Kulosa; Thomas Rosleff Soerensen; Silke Möhring; Martin Heine; Gregor Durstewitz; Andreas Polley; Eberhard Weber; Jamsari; Jens Lein; Uwe Hohmann; Emma Tahiro; Bernd Weisshaar; Britta Schulz; Georg Koch; Christian Jung; Martin Ganal

    2007-01-01

    A panel of 13 sugar beet lines and one genotype each of the Beta vulgaris cultivars red beet and Swiss chard, and B. vulgaris ssp. maritima were used to identify polymorphisms in alignments of genomic DNA sequences derived from 315 EST- and 43 non-coding RFLP-derived\\u000a loci. In sugar beet lines, loci of expressed genes showed an average SNP frequency of

  4. Origin of celiac disease: how old are predisposing haplotypes?

    PubMed

    Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Rickards, Olga; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Pacciani, Elsa; Chilleri, Filiberto; Laterza, Lucrezia; Marangi, Giuseppe; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    We recently presented the case of a first century AD young woman, found in the archaeological site of Cosa, showing clinical signs of malnutrition, such as short height, osteoporosis, dental enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia, indirect sign of anemia, all strongly suggestive for celiac disease (CD). However, whether these findings were actually associated to CD was not shown based on genetic parameters. To investigate her human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II polymorphism, we extracted DNA from a bone sample and a tooth and genotyped HLA using three HLA-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms for DQ8, DQ2.2 and DQ2.5, specifically associated to CD. She displayed HLA DQ 2.5, the haplotype associated to the highest risk of CD. This is the first report showing the presence of a HLA haplotype compatible for CD in archaeological specimens. PMID:23066327

  5. Whole-genome haplotyping using long reads and statistical methods

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhihai; Blauwkamp, Tim; Kertesz, Michael; Snyder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth of sequencing technologies has greatly contributed to increasing our understanding of human genetics. Yet, in spite of this growth, mainstream technologies have been largely unsuccessful in resolving the diploid nature of the human genome. Here we describe statistically aided long read haplotyping (SLRH), a rapid, accurate method based on a simple experimental protocol that requires potentially as little as 30 Gbp of sequencing in addition to a standard (50x coverage) whole-genome analysis for human samples. Using this technology, we phase 99% of single-nucleotide variants in three human genomes into long haplotype blocks of 200 kbp to 1 Mbp in length. As a demonstration of the potential applications of our method, we determine allele-specific methylation patterns in a human genome and identify hundreds of differentially methylated regions that were previously unknown. Such information may offer insight into the mechanisms behind differential gene expression. PMID:24561555

  6. Genotype and haplotype distributions of MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C single nucleotide polymorphisms: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuji Ogino; Robert B. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    .  ?Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 677C>T and 1298A>C) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) decrease the activity of the enzyme, leading to hyperhomocysteinemia, particularly in folate-deficient states. We calculate\\u000a herein the haplotype frequencies of the MTHFR 677 and 1298 polymorphisms in pooled general populations derived from published data. We selected 16 articles that provided\\u000a reliable data on combined MTHFR genotypes

  7. Extended HLA-D region haplotype associated with celiac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, M.D.; Smith, J.R.; Austin, R.K.; Kelleher, D.; Nepom, G.T.; Volk, B.; Kagnoff, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    Celiac disease has one of the strongest associations with HLA (human leukocyte antigen) class II markers of the known HLA-linked diseases. This association is primarily with the class II serologic specificities HLA-DR3 and -DQw2. The authors previously described a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) characterized by the presence of a 4.0-kilobase Rsa I fragment derived from an HLA class II ..beta..-chain gene, which distinguishes the class II HLA haplotype of celiac disease patients from those of many serologically matched controls. They now report the isolation of this ..beta..-chain gene from a bacteriophage genomic library constructed from the DNA of a celiac disease patient. Based on restriction mapping and differential hybridization with class II cDNA and oligonucleotide probes, this gene was identified as one encoding an HLA-DP ..beta..-chain. This celiac disease-associated HLA-DP ..beta..-chain gene was flanked by HLA-DP ..cap alpha..-chain genes and, therefore, was probably in its normal chromosomal location. The HLA-DP..cap alpha..-chain genes of celiac disease patients also were studied by RFLP analysis. Celiac disease is associated with a subset of HLA-DR3, -DQw2 haplotypes characterized by HLA-DP ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-chain gene RFLPs. Within the celiac-disease patient population, the joint segregation of these HLA-DP genes with those encoding the serologic specificities HLA-DR3 and -DQw2 indicates: (i) that the class II HLA haplotype associated with celiac disease is extended throughout the entire HLA-D region, and (ii) that celiac-disease susceptibility genes may reside as far centromeric on this haplotype as the HLA-DP subregion.

  8. Frequency of Rare Allelic Variation in Candidate Genes among Individuals with Low and High Urinary Calcium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Toka, Hakan R.; Genovese, Giulio; Mount, David B.; Pollak, Martin R.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of rare allelic variants with extremes of 24-hour urinary calcium excretion because higher urinary calcium excretion is a dominant risk factor for calcium-based kidney stone formation. We resequenced 40 candidate genes potentially related to urinary calcium excretion in individuals from the Nurses' Health Studies I & II and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. A total of 960 participants were selected based on availability of 24-hour urine collection data and level of urinary calcium excretion (low vs. high). We utilized DNA sample pooling, droplet-based target gene enrichment, multiplexing, and high-throughput sequencing. Approximately 64% of samples (n?=?615) showed both successful target enrichment and sequencing data with >20-fold deep coverage. A total of 259 novel allelic variants were identified. None of the rare gene variants (allele frequencies <2%) were found with increased frequency in the low vs. high urinary calcium groups; most of these variants were only observed in single individuals. Unadjusted analysis of variants with allele frequencies ?2% suggested an association of the Claudin14 SNP rs113831133 with lower urinary calcium excretion (6/520 versus 29/710 haplotypes, P value?=?0.003). Our data, together with previous human and animal studies, suggest a possible role for Claudin14 in urinary calcium excretion. Genetic validation studies in larger sample sets will be necessary to confirm our findings for rs113831133. In the tested set of candidate genes, rare allelic variants do not appear to contribute significantly to differences in urinary calcium excretion between individuals. PMID:23991001

  9. High-Throughput SNP Genotyping by SBE\\/SBH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ion I. Mùandoiu; Claudia Prùajescu

    2006-01-01

    Despite much progress over the past decade, current Single Nucleotide\\u000aPolymorphism (SNP) genotyping technologies still offer an insufficient degree\\u000aof multiplexing when required to handle user-selected sets of SNPs. In this\\u000apaper we propose a new genotyping assay architecture combining multiplexed\\u000asolution-phase single-base extension (SBE) reactions with sequencing by\\u000ahybridization (SBH) using universal DNA arrays such as all $k$-mer arrays.

  10. Leveraging reads that span multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms for haplotype inference from sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Yun; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Wang, Zhanyong; He, Dan; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Eskin, Eleazar

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Haplotypes, defined as the sequence of alleles on one chromosome, are crucial for many genetic analyses. As experimental determination of haplotypes is extremely expensive, haplotypes are traditionally inferred using computational approaches from genotype data, i.e. the mixture of the genetic information from both haplotypes. Best performing approaches for haplotype inference rely on Hidden Markov Models, with the underlying assumption that the haplotypes of a given individual can be represented as a mosaic of segments from other haplotypes in the same population. Such algorithms use this model to predict the most likely haplotypes that explain the observed genotype data conditional on reference panel of haplotypes. With rapid advances in short read sequencing technologies, sequencing is quickly establishing as a powerful approach for collecting genetic variation information. As opposed to traditional genotyping-array technologies that independently call genotypes at polymorphic sites, short read sequencing often collects haplotypic information; a read spanning more than one polymorphic locus (multi-single nucleotide polymorphic read) contains information on the haplotype from which the read originates. However, this information is generally ignored in existing approaches for haplotype phasing and genotype-calling from short read data. Results: In this article, we propose a novel framework for haplotype inference from short read sequencing that leverages multi-single nucleotide polymorphic reads together with a reference panel of haplotypes. The basis of our approach is a new probabilistic model that finds the most likely haplotype segments from the reference panel to explain the short read sequencing data for a given individual. We devised an efficient sampling method within a probabilistic model to achieve superior performance than existing methods. Using simulated sequencing reads from real individual genotypes in the HapMap data and the 1000 Genomes projects, we show that our method is highly accurate and computationally efficient. Our haplotype predictions improve accuracy over the basic haplotype copying model by ?20% with comparable computational time, and over another recently proposed approach Hap-SeqX by ?10% with significantly reduced computational time and memory usage. Availability: Publicly available software is available at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/harsh Contact: bpasaniuc@mednet.ucla.edu or eeskin@cs.ucla.edu PMID:23825370

  11. SNP (–617C>A) in ARE-Like Loci of the NRF2 Gene: A New Biomarker for Prognosis of Lung Adenocarcinoma in Japanese Non-Smoking Women

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Yasuko; Nezu, Uru; Enokida, Yasuaki; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Kinoshita, Hiroko; Lezhava, Alexander; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Morita, Satoshi; Taguri, Masataka; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Miyagi, Yohei; Ishikawa, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The transcription factor NRF2 plays a pivotal role in protecting normal cells from external toxic challenges and oxidative stress, whereas it can also endow cancer cells resistance to anticancer drugs. At present little information is available about the genetic polymorphisms of the NRF2 gene and their clinical relevance. We aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NRF2 gene as a prognostic biomarker in lung cancer. Experimental Design We prepared genomic DNA samples from 387 Japanese patients with primary lung cancer and detected SNP (c.–617C>A; rs6721961) in the ARE-like loci of the human NRF2 gene by the rapid genetic testing method we developed in this study. We then analyzed the association between the SNP in the NRF2 gene and patients’ overall survival. Results Patients harboring wild-type (WT) homozygous (c.–617C/C), SNP heterozygous (c.–617C/A), and SNP homozygous (c.–617A/A) alleles numbered 216 (55.8%), 147 (38.0%), and 24 (6.2%), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that SNP homozygote (c.–617A/A) was significantly related to gender. Its frequency was four-fold higher in female patients than in males (10.8% female vs 2.7% male) and was associated with female non-smokers with adenocarcinoma. Interestingly, lung cancer patients carrying NRF2 SNP homozygous alleles (c.–617A/A) and the 309T (WT) allele in the MDM2 gene exhibited remarkable survival over 1,700 days after surgical operation (log-rank p?=?0.021). Conclusion SNP homozygous (c.–617A/A) alleles in the NRF2 gene are associated with female non-smokers with adenocarcinoma and regarded as a prognostic biomarker for assessing overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24040073

  12. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles and haplotypes in the Kinh population in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoa, B K; Hang, N T L; Kashiwase, K; Ohashi, J; Lien, L T; Horie, T; Shojima, J; Hijikata, M; Sakurada, S; Satake, M; Tokunaga, K; Sasazuki, T; Keicho, N

    2008-02-01

    Allele and haplotype frequencies of the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) were studied in the Kinh Vietnamese population. We analyzed 170 unrelated healthy individuals. DNA-based HLA typing was performed using a microsphere-based array genotyping platform with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes to distinguish HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles. A total of 21 HLA-A, 37 HLA-B, 18 HLA-C, 25 HLA-DRB1, and 14 HLA-DQB1 alleles were identified. HLA-A*1101, A*2402, A*3303, B*1502, B*4601, Cw*0102, Cw*0702, Cw*0801, DRB1*1202, DQB1*0301, DQB1*0303, and DQB1*0501 were found with frequencies higher than 10%. Two representative haplotypes bearing two to five HLA loci were A*1101-B*1502 and A*3303-B*5801 for HLA-A-B; Cw*0801-B*1502 and Cw*0102-B*4601 for HLA-C-B; B*1502-DRB1*1202 and B*4601-DRB1*0901 for HLA-B-DRB1; DRB1*1202-DQB1*0301 and DRB1*0901-DQB1*0303 for HLA-DRB1-DQB1; A*1101-Cw*0801-B*1502 and A*3303-Cw*0302-B*5801 for HLA-A-C-B; A*1101-B*1502-DRB1*1202 and A*2901-B*0705-DRB1*1001 for HLA-A-B-DRB1, A*1101-Cw*0801-B*1502-DRB1*1202-DQB1*0301 and A*2901-Cw*1505-B*0705-DRB1*1001-DQB1*0501 for HLA-A-C-B-DRB1-DQB1. Allele distribution and haplotype analysis demonstrated that the Vietnamese population shares HLA patterns with southern Chinese, Thai, Javanese and Micronesians, while it also retains unique characteristics. PMID:18086267

  13. Genome-wide SNP discovery in walnut with an AGSNP pipeline updated for SNP discovery in allogamous organisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A genome-wide set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a valuable resource in genetic research and breeding and is usually developed by re-sequencing a genome. If a genome sequence is not available, an alternative strategy must be used. We previously reported the development of a pipeline (AGSNP) for genome-wide SNP discovery in coding sequences and other single-copy DNA without a complete genome sequence in self-pollinating (autogamous) plants. Here we updated this pipeline for SNP discovery in outcrossing (allogamous) species and demonstrated its efficacy in SNP discovery in walnut (Juglans regia L.). Results The first step in the original implementation of the AGSNP pipeline was the construction of a reference sequence and the identification of single-copy sequences in it. To identify single-copy sequences, multiple genome equivalents of short SOLiD reads of another individual were mapped to shallow genome coverage of long Sanger or Roche 454 reads making up the reference sequence. The relative depth of SOLiD reads was used to filter out repeated sequences from single-copy sequences in the reference sequence. The second step was a search for SNPs between SOLiD reads and the reference sequence. Polymorphism within the mapped SOLiD reads would have precluded SNP discovery; hence both individuals had to be homozygous. The AGSNP pipeline was updated here for using SOLiD or other type of short reads of a heterozygous individual for these two principal steps. A total of 32.6X walnut genome equivalents of SOLiD reads of vegetatively propagated walnut scion cultivar ‘Chandler’ were mapped to 48,661 ‘Chandler’ bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences (BESs) produced by Sanger sequencing during the construction of a walnut physical map. A total of 22,799 putative SNPs were initially identified. A total of 6,000 Infinium II type SNPs evenly distributed along the walnut physical map were selected for the construction of an Infinium BeadChip, which was used to genotype a walnut mapping population having ‘Chandler’ as one of the parents. Genotyping results were used to adjust the filtering parameters of the updated AGSNP pipeline. With the adjusted filtering criteria, 69.6% of SNPs discovered with the updated pipeline were real and could be mapped on the walnut genetic map. A total of 13,439 SNPs were discovered by BES re-sequencing. BESs harboring SNPs were in 677 FPC contigs covering 98% of the physical map of the walnut genome. Conclusion The updated AGSNP pipeline is a versatile SNP discovery tool for a high-throughput, genome-wide SNP discovery in both autogamous and allogamous species. With this pipeline, a large set of SNPs were identified in a single walnut cultivar. PMID:22849334

  14. Determining the effectiveness of High Resolution Melting analysis for SNP genotyping and mutation scanning at the TP53 locus

    PubMed Central

    Garritano, Sonia; Gemignani, Federica; Voegele, Catherine; Nguyen-Dumont, Tú; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; De Silva, Deepika; Lesueur, Fabienne; Landi, Stefano; Tavtigian, Sean V

    2009-01-01

    Background Together single nucleotide substitutions and small insertion/deletion variants are the most common form of sequence variation in the human gene pool. High-resolution SNP profile and/or haplotype analyses enable the identification of modest-risk susceptibility genes to common diseases, genes that may modulate responses to pharmaceutical agents, and SNPs that can affect either their expression or function. In addition, sensitive techniques for germline or somatic mutation detection are important tools for characterizing sequence variations in genes responsible for tumor predisposition. Cost-effective methods are highly desirable. Many of the recently developed high-throughput technologies are geared toward industrial scale genetic studies and arguably do not provide useful solutions for small laboratory investigator-initiated projects. Recently, the use of new fluorescent dyes allowed the high-resolution analysis of DNA melting curves (HRM). Results Here, we compared the capacity of HRM, applicable to both genotyping and mutation scanning, to detect genetic variations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 with that of mutation screening by full resequencing. We also assessed the performance of a variety of available HRM-based genotyping assays by genotyping 30 TP53 SNPs. We describe a series of solutions to handle the difficulties that may arise in large-scale application of HRM to mutation screening and genotyping at the TP53 locus. In particular, we developed specific HRM assays that render possible genotyping of 2 or more, sometimes closely spaced, polymorphisms within the same amplicon. We also show that simultaneous genotyping of 2 SNPs from 2 different amplicons using a multiplex PCR reaction is feasible; the data can be analyzed in a single HRM run, potentially improving the efficiency of HRM genotyping workflows. Conclusion The HRM technique showed high sensitivity and specificity (1.0, and 0.8, respectively, for amplicons of <400 bp) for mutation screening and provided useful genotyping assays as assessed by comparing the results with those obtained with Sanger sequencing. Thus, HRM is particularly suitable for either performing mutation scanning of a large number of samples, even in the situation where the amplicon(s) of interest harbor a common variant that may disturb the analysis, or in a context where gathering common SNP genotypes is of interest. PMID:19222838

  15. Chloroplast DNA haplotypes in Nordic Silene dioica: postglacial immigration from the east and the south

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. U. Malm; H. C. Prentice

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of PCR\\/RFLP variation in 57 Nordic populations of the herb Silene dioica, revealed 13 composite chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotypes. The geographic distribution of the haplotypes suggests that the postglacial colonization of Fennoscandia by S. dioica may have involved immigration of populations from two main directions. The commonest cpDNA haplotype dominates in populations throughout most of Finland and northern and

  16. Multinomial logistic regression approach to haplotype association analysis in population-based case-control studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Hau Chen; Jau-Tsuen Kao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The genetic association analysis using haplotypes as basic genetic units is anticipated to be a powerful strategy towards the discovery of genes predisposing human complex diseases. In particular, the increasing availability of high-resolution genetic markers such as the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has made haplotype-based association analysis an attractive alternative to single marker analysis. RESULTS: We consider haplotype association analysis

  17. Structural Architecture of SNP Effects on Complex Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gamazon, Eric R.; Cox, Nancy J.; Davis, Lea K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the discovery of copy-number variation (CNV) across the genome nearly 10 years ago, current SNP-based analysis methodologies continue to collapse the homozygous (i.e., A/A), hemizygous (i.e., A/0), and duplicative (i.e., A/A/A) genotype states, treating the genotype variable as irreducible or unaltered by other colocalizing forms of genetic (e.g., structural) variation. Our understanding of common, genome-wide CNVs suggests that the canonical genotype construct might belie the enormous complexity of the genome. Here we present multiple analyses of several phenotypes and provide methods supporting a conceptual shift that embraces the structural dimension of genotype. We comprehensively investigate the impact of the structural dimension of genotype on (1) GWAS methods, (2) interpretation of rare LOF variants, (3) characterization of genomic architecture, and (4) implications for mapping loci involved in complex disease. Taken together, these results argue for the inclusion of a structural dimension and suggest that some portion of the “missing” heritability might be recovered through integration of the structural dimension of SNP effects on complex traits. PMID:25307299

  18. Structural architecture of SNP effects on complex traits.

    PubMed

    Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Davis, Lea K

    2014-11-01

    Despite the discovery of copy-number variation (CNV) across the genome nearly 10 years ago, current SNP-based analysis methodologies continue to collapse the homozygous (i.e., A/A), hemizygous (i.e., A/0), and duplicative (i.e., A/A/A) genotype states, treating the genotype variable as irreducible or unaltered by other colocalizing forms of genetic (e.g., structural) variation. Our understanding of common, genome-wide CNVs suggests that the canonical genotype construct might belie the enormous complexity of the genome. Here we present multiple analyses of several phenotypes and provide methods supporting a conceptual shift that embraces the structural dimension of genotype. We comprehensively investigate the impact of the structural dimension of genotype on (1) GWAS methods, (2) interpretation of rare LOF variants, (3) characterization of genomic architecture, and (4) implications for mapping loci involved in complex disease. Taken together, these results argue for the inclusion of a structural dimension and suggest that some portion of the "missing" heritability might be recovered through integration of the structural dimension of SNP effects on complex traits. PMID:25307299

  19. Predicting Breed Composition Using Breed Frequencies of 50,000 Markers from the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center 2,000 Bull Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate whether breed composition of crossbred cattle could be predicted using reference breed frequencies of SNP markers on the BovineSNP50 array. Semen DNA samples of over 2,000 bulls from 16 common commercial beef breeds were genotyped using the array and used to estimate cu...

  20. Identification of SNP barcode biomarkers for genes associated with facial emotion perception using particle swarm optimization algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Facial emotion perception (FEP) can affect social function. We previously reported that parts of five tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MET and AKT1 genes may individually affect FEP performance. However, the effects of SNP-SNP interactions on FEP performance remain unclear. Methods This study compared patients with high and low FEP performances (n?=?89 and 93, respectively). A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was used to identify the best SNP barcodes (i.e., the SNP combinations and genotypes that revealed the largest differences between the high and low FEP groups). Results The analyses of individual SNPs showed no significant differences between the high and low FEP groups. However, comparisons of multiple SNP-SNP interactions involving different combinations of two to five SNPs showed that the best PSO-generated SNP barcodes were significantly associated with high FEP score. The analyses of the joint effects of the best SNP barcodes for two to five interacting SNPs also showed that the best SNP barcodes had significantly higher odds ratios (2.119 to 3.138; P?SNP barcodes. In conclusion, the proposed PSO algorithm effectively identifies the best SNP barcodes that have the strongest associations with FEP performance. Conclusions This study also proposes a computational methodology for analyzing complex SNP-SNP interactions in social cognition domains such as recognition of facial emotion. PMID:24955105

  1. Native and European haplotypes of Phragmites Australis (common reed) in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Galatowitsch, S.M.; Larson, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is known to have occurred along the Platte River historically, but recent rapid increases in both distribution and density have begun to impact habitat for migrating sandhill cranes and nesting piping plovers and least terns. Invasiveness in Phragmites has been associated with the incursion of a European genotype (haplotype M) in other areas; determining the genotype of Phragmites along the central Platte River has implications for proper management of the river system. In 2008 we sampled Phragmites patches along the central Platte River from Lexington to Chapman, NE, stratified by bridge segments, to determine the current distribution of haplotype E (native) and haplotype M genotypes. In addition, we did a retrospective analysis of historical Phragmites collections from the central Platte watershed (1902-2006) at the Bessey Herbarium. Fresh tissue from the 2008 survey and dried tissue from the herbarium specimens were classified as haplotype M or E using the restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. The European haplotype was predominant in the 2008 samples: only 14 Phragmites shoots were identified as native haplotype E; 224 were non-native haplotype M. The retrospective analysis revealed primarily native haplotype individuals. Only collections made in Lancaster County, near Lincoln, NE, were haplotype M, and the earliest of these was collected in 1973. ?? 2011 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  2. Genetic variability of the SNPforID 52-plex identification-SNP panel in Central West Colombia.

    PubMed

    Porras, L; Phillips, C; Fondevila, M; Beltrán, L; Ortiz, T; Rondon, F; Barreto, G; Lareu, M V; Henao, J; Carracedo, A

    2009-12-01

    A set of autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci was analyzed using the 52-plex assay previously described by Sanchez et al. [J.J. Sanchez, C. Phillips, C. Borsting, K. Balogh, M. Bogus, M. Fondevila, C.D. Harrison, E. Musgrave-Brown, A. Salas, D. Syndercombe-Court, P.M. Schneider, A. Carracedo, N. Morling, A multiplex assay with 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms for human identification, Electrophoresis 27 (2006) 1713-1724] in 140 samples of unrelated individuals born in the Colombian regions of, Risaralda, Caldas, Quindio, Antioquia, Tolima and Valle, and 164 samples of unrelated individuals with declared Native American ancestry from Colombia. Allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest are presented for the 52 SNPs. All loci were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium while comparisons with population samples of Argentina, Portugal, Spain, Mozambique, and Taiwan revealed significant differences in allele frequency distributions. PMID:19948327

  3. [Haplotype diversity in mtDNA and Y-chromosome in populations of Altai-Sayan region].

    PubMed

    Gubina, M A; Damba, L D; Babenko, L; Romashchenko, V N; Voevoda, A G

    2013-03-01

    Polymorphism of mtDNA was examined in five ethnic populations that belong to the Turkic language group and inhabit the territory of the Altai-Sayan upland (N = 1007). Most of the haplogroups identified in the examined populations belonged to East Eurasian lineages. In all five populations, only three haplogroups, C, D, and F, were prevailing. The frequencies of the other six haplogroups (A, B, G, M, Y, and Z) varied in the range from 1.1 to 6.5%. Among West Eurasian haplogrous, the most common were haplogroups H, J, T, and U. An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups in 407 individuals showed that only two haplogroups, N* and R1a1, were present in all five populations examined. Moreover, in different ethnic groups, the highest frequencies were observed for C-M130, N-P43, and N-Tat haplogroups. The differences in the distribution patterns of ancient West Eurasian and East Eurasian haplotypes from Gorny Altai in the present-day populations from the northern part of Eurasia revealed can be explained in terms of the multistage expansion of humans across these territories. The ubiquity of haplotypes from haplogroup H and cluster U across the wide territory from the Yenisei River basin to the Atlantic Ocean can indicate directional human expansion, which most likely occurred out of Central Asia as early as in the Paleolithic era, and took place in several waves with the glacier retreat. PMID:23755537

  4. Unusual haplotype structure at the proximal breakpoint of In(2L)t in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Andolfatto, P; Wall, J D; Kreitman, M

    1999-01-01

    The existence of temporally stable frequency clines for In(2L)t in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster suggests a role for selection in the maintenance of this polymorphism. We have collected nucleotide polymorphism data from the proximal breakpoint junction regions of In(2L)t to infer its evolutionary history. The finding of a novel LINE-like element near the In(2L)t breakpoint junction in sampled inverted chromosomes supports a transposable element-mediated origin for this inversion. An analysis of nucleotide variation in a Costa Rican population sample of standard and inverted chromosomes indicates a unique and relatively recent origin for In(2L)t. Additional In(2L)t alleles from three geographically diverse populations reveal no detectable geographic differentiation. Low levels of In(2L)t nucleotide polymorphism suggest a recent increase in the inversion's frequency in tropical populations. An unusual feature of our sample of standard alleles is a marked heterogeneity in levels of linkage disequilibrium among polymorphic sites across the breakpoint region. We introduce a test of neutral equilibrium haplotype structure that corrects both for multiple tests and for an arbitrarily chosen window size. It reveals that an approximately 1.4-kb region immediately spanning the breakpoint has fewer haplotypes than expected under the neutral model, given the expected level of recombination in this genomic region. Certain features of our data suggest that the unusual pattern in standard chromosomes is the product of selection rather than demography. PMID:10545460

  5. Distribution of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 Genes and Haplotypes in the Tujia Population Living in the Wufeng Region of Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Cheng, Dangxiao; Tao, Ning; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Yulin; Qiu, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Background The distribution of HLA alleles and haplotypes varies widely between different ethnic populations and geographic areas. Before any genetic marker can be used in a disease-associated study it is therefore essential to investigate allelic frequencies and establish a genetic database. Methodology/Principal Findings This is the first report of HLA typing in the Tujia group using the Luminex HLA-SSO method HLA–A, –B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 124 unrelated healthy Tujia individuals, and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. In total 10 alleles were detected at the HLA–A locus, 21 alleles at the HLA–B locus and 14 alleles at the HLA-DRB1 locus. The most frequently observed alleles in the HLA-I group were HLA–A*02 (35.48%), A*11 (28.23%), A*24 (15.73%); HLA–B*40 (25.00%), B*46 (16.13%), and B*15 (15.73%). Among HLA-DRB1 alleles, high frequencies of HLA-DRB1*09 (25.81%) were observed, followed by HLA-DRB1*15 (12.9%), and DRB1*12 (10.89%). The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were A*02–B*46A (8.47%), followed by A*11–B*40 (7.66%), A*02–B*40 (8.87%), A*11–B*15 (6.45%), A*02–B*15 (6.05%), B*40–DRB1*09 (9.27%) and B*46–DRB1*09 (6.45%). The most common three-locus haplotypes found in the Tujia population were A*02–B*46–DRB1*09 (4.84%) and A*02–B*40–DRB1*09 (4.03%). Fourteen two-loci haplotypes had significant linkage disequilibrium. Construction of a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis using the allelic frequencies at HLA-A was performed to compare the Tujia group and twelve other previously reported populations. The Tujia population in the Wufeng of Hubei Province had the closest genetic relationship with the central Han population, and then to the Shui, the Miao, the southern Han and the northern Han ethnic groups. Conclusions/Significance These results will become a valuable source of data for tracing population migration, planning clinical organ transplantation, carrying out HLA-linked disease-associated studies and forensic identification. PMID:22719940

  6. Adiponectin gene SNP 276G --> T, nutrient intakes, and cardiovascular disease risk in Korean type 2 DM patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, So Young; Ryu, Han Kyoung; Park, Hee Jung; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in adiponectin gene has been associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was performed to investigate the association of SNP 276G-->T at adiponectin gene with CVD risk factors in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The subjects were 351 type 2 DM patients visited a DM clinic in Seoul, and the patients with known CVD were excluded. The adiponectin SNP 276G-->T was analyzed and dietary intakes were assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of G/G, G/T, and T/T genotype was 47.6%, 43.3%, and 9.1%, respectively. Male subjects with T/T genotype showed significantly lower level of adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol and significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) level compared to G/G and G/T genotypes. In G/G genotype, protein intake was negatively correlated to body weight, BMI, and waist circumference, and there were positive correlation between carbohydrate intake and BMI, waist-hip ratio, and ApoB/apoA-1 ratio in G/T genotype. However, in T/T genotype, there was no significant association between macronutrient intakes and anthropometric and hematological values. In conclusion, CVD risk would be high in type 2 DM patients with T/T genotype, and the association of macronutrient intakes with anthropometric and hematologic factors was different among the three adiponectin genotypes. These results may imply the need for different dietary management regime according to adiponectin genotype to lower CVD complications in Korean type 2 DM patients. PMID:20368963

  7. A novel non-synonymous SNP of the COLX gene and its association with duck reproductive traits.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mu-Tzu; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Huang, Mu-Chiou

    2012-10-01

    Type X collagen (COLX) is a known marker of chondrocyte hypertrophy, which is exclusively expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes and is reported to be involved in the process of mineralization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between COLX genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reproductive traits of Tsaiya ducks. A total of 336 Brown Tsaiya ducks from two lines, the control line (CL) with no selection and the selected line (SL), were employed for testing. We employed polymerase chain reaction -single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing to screen the polymorphisms of the COLX gene. One novel non-synonymous SNP in coding region (T74C: Val24Ala) of the COLX gene was found, and resulted in 3 genotypes TT, TC, and CC. The frequencies of genotype TT and allele T were high in both lines. Regarding egg weight at 40 weeks of age (EW40), based on SNP-trait association analysis, ducks with the CC genotype had a 4.09 and 4.15 g/egg lower EW40 as compared with ducks with the TT and TC genotypes in the CL, respectively (P < 0.05). In addition, significant positive dominance effect of 2.10 ± 1.05 g/egg for EW40 was detected (P = 0.0481). This finding indicated that selection for the genotype TT and TC ducks might contribute to an improved egg weight in the Tsaiya ducks. Further investigations on more duck populations with large sample sizes are needed to confirm. PMID:22659301

  8. [A total of 362 HLA different haplotypes and HLA recombination haplotypes based on analysis of their family pedigree in Chinese partial Han populations].

    PubMed

    Gao, Su-Qing; Cheng, Xi; Li, Qian; Li, Yu-Zhu; Deng, Zhi-Hui

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed to discover the novel HLA recombination haplotypes and investigate the distribution of haplotypes in Chinese Han population. Based on the HLA-A, B, DRB1 typing results of 179 family members, 791 haplotypes were assigned by the mode of inheritance. The results showed that a total of 4 novel recombinant haplotypes in HLA-DRB1 locus region were observed in 4 families, which ratio of paternal to maternal chromosomes was 3:1. The recombination ratio between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-A or B loci was 0.92% (4/433). There were a total of 362 kinds of HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 haplotypes to be confirmed in Chinese Han partial population. A33-B58-DR17, A2-B46-DR9, A30-B13-DR7, A11-B13-DR15, A11-B75-DR12 and A2-B46-DR14 were the most common haplotypes that was consistent with the distribution of HLA alleles in unrelated donors. There were A1-B63-DR12, A29-B46-DR15, A1-B61-DR10, A34-B35-DR9, A29-B54-DR4, A23-B13-DR16 and A34-B62-DR15 haplotypes and so on, which were rare haplotypes not yet reported in Chinese. It is concluded that the HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotypes would be confirmed by analysis of their family pedigree. The results obtained in this study are basic data for study of Chinese anthropology, organ transplantation and disease correlation analysis. PMID:19549408

  9. Development and Applications of a Bovine 50,000 SNP Chip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop an Illumina iSelect high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for cattle, the collaborative iBMC (Illumina, USDA ARS Beltsville, University of Missouri, USDA ARS Clay Center) Consortium first performed a de novo SNP discovery project in which genomic reduced representation l...

  10. A genome-wide SNP panel for genetic diversity, mapping and breeding studies in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide SNP resource was developed for rice using the GoldenGate assay and used to genotype 400 landrace accessions of O. sativa. SNPs were originally discovered using Perlegen re-sequencing technology in 20 diverse landraces of O. sativa as part of OryzaSNP project (http://irfgc.irri.org). An...

  11. A Coordinated Approach to Peach SNP Discovery in RosBREED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the USDA-funded multi-institutional and trans-disciplinary project, “RosBREED”, crop-specific SNP genome scan platforms are being developed for peach, apple, strawberry, and cherry at a resolution of at least one polymorphic SNP marker every 5 cM in any random cross, for use in Pedigree-Based Ana...

  12. Kernel Machine SNP-set Analysis for Censored Survival Outcomes in Genome-wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinyi; Cai, Tianxi; Wu, Michael C.; Zhou, Qian; Liu, Geoffrey; Christiani, David C.; Lin, Xihong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a powerful test for identifying SNP-sets that are predictive of survival with data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We first group typed SNPs into SNP-sets based on genomic features and then apply a score test to assess the overall effect of each SNP-set on the survival outcome through a kernel machine Cox regression framework. This approach uses genetic information from all SNPs in the SNP-set simultaneously and accounts for linkage disequilibrium (LD), leading to a powerful test with reduced degrees of freedom when the typed SNPs are in LD with each other. This type of test also has the advantage of capturing the potentially non-linear effects of the SNPs, SNP-SNP interactions (epistasis), and the joint effects of multiple causal variants. By simulating SNP data based on the LD structure of real genes from the HapMap project, we demonstrate that our proposed test is more powerful than the standard single SNP minimum p-value based test for association studies with censored survival outcomes. We illustrate the proposed test with a real data application. PMID:21818772

  13. Characterization of the Cattle HapMap Population using the Illumina Bovine-50K SNP Chip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Bovine 50K Illumina™ iSelect SNP chip (51,386 polymorphic SNP markers) was designed using a combination of publicly available SNPs along with highly informative novel SNPs discovered using a reduced representation and next-generation sequencing technology strategy. A total of 576 animals (426 mal...

  14. Molecular mapping of soybean rust resistance in soybean accession PI 561356 and SNP haplotype analysis of the Rpp1 region in diverse germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is one of the most economically important and destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and the discovery of novel SBR resistance genes is needed because of diversity in the pathogen. The objectives of this research were to m...

  15. Haplotype Association between Haptoglobin (Hp2) and Hp Promoter SNP (A-61C) May Explain Previous Controversy of Haptoglobin and Malaria Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon E. Cox; Conor Doherty; Sarah H. Atkinson; Chidi V. Nweneka; Anthony J. C. Fulford; Hala Ghattas; Kirk A. Rockett; Dominic P. Kwiatkowski; Andrew M. Prentice; Katrina Gwinn-Hardy

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundMalaria is one of the strongest recent selective pressures on the human genome, as evidenced by the high levels of varying haemoglobinopathies in human populations–despite the increased risk of mortality in the homozygous states. Previously, functional polymorphisms of Hp, coded by the co-dominant alleles Hp1 and Hp2, have been variously associated with several infectious diseases, including malaria susceptibility.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsRisk of

  16. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for cost efficient and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a leaf rust resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf rust resistance sources presently deployed in durum wheat breed...

  17. Comparison of Different Haplotype-Based Haplotype-Based Association Methods for Gene-Environment (G×E) Interactions in Case-Control Studies when Haplotype-Phase Is Ambiguous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Hein; Lars Beckmann; Jenny Chang-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We compared four haplotype-based approaches for the analysis of gene-environment interactions when haplotype-phase is ambiguous. The methods employ different versions of the expectation maximization algorithm and differ in the choice of the reference group and in the way the risk of disease is modeled (retrospective versus prospective). Furthermore, the methods are based on distinct assumptions (such as Hardy Weinberg

  18. TcSNP: a database of genetic variation in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Alejandro A.; Carmona, Santiago J.; Agüero, Fernán

    2009-01-01

    The TcSNP database (http://snps.tcruzi.org) integrates information on genetic variation (polymorphisms and mutations) for different stocks, strains and isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The database incorporates sequences (genes from the T. cruzi reference genome, mRNAs, ESTs and genomic sequences); multiple sequence alignments obtained from these sequences; and single-nucleotide polymorphisms and small indels identified by scanning these multiple sequence alignments. Information in TcSNP can be readily interrogated to arrive at gene sets, or SNP sets of interest based on a number of attributes. Sequence similarity searches using BLAST are also supported. This first release of TcSNP contains nearly 170 000 high-confidence candidate SNPs, derived from the analysis of annotated coding sequences. As new sequence data become available, TcSNP will incorporate these data, mapping new candidate SNPs onto the reference genome sequences. PMID:18974180

  19. Y Chromosomes Traveling South: The Cohen Modal Haplotype and the Origins of the Lemba—the “Black Jews of Southern Africa”

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mark G.; Parfitt, Tudor; Weiss, Deborah A.; Skorecki, Karl; Wilson, James F.; le Roux, Magdel; Bradman, Neil; Goldstein, David B.

    2000-01-01

    Summary The Lemba are a traditionally endogamous group speaking a variety of Bantu languages who live in a number of locations in southern Africa. They claim descent from Jews who came to Africa from “Sena.” “Sena” is variously identified by them as Sanaa in Yemen, Judea, Egypt, or Ethiopia. A previous study using Y-chromosome markers suggested both a Bantu and a Semitic contribution to the Lemba gene pool, a suggestion that is not inconsistent with Lemba oral tradition. To provide a more detailed picture of the Lemba paternal genetic heritage, we analyzed 399 Y chromosomes for six microsatellites and six biallelic markers in six populations (Lemba, Bantu, Yemeni-Hadramaut, Yemeni-Sena, Sephardic Jews, and Ashkenazic Jews). The high resolution afforded by the markers shows that Lemba Y chromosomes are clearly divided into Semitic and Bantu clades. Interestingly, one of the Lemba clans carries, at a very high frequency, a particular Y-chromosome type termed the “Cohen modal haplotype,” which is known to be characteristic of the paternally inherited Jewish priesthood and is thought, more generally, to be a potential signature haplotype of Judaic origin. The Bantu Y-chromosome samples are predominantly (>80%) YAP+ and include a modal haplotype at high frequency. Assuming a rapid expansion of the eastern Bantu, we used variation in microsatellite alleles in YAP+ sY81-G Bantu Y chromosomes to calculate a rough date, 3,000–5,000 years before the present, for the start of their expansion. PMID:10677325

  20. Computer programs for multilocus haplotyping of general pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.E.; O`Connell, J.R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sobel, E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    We have recently developed and implemented three different computer algorithms for accurate haplotyping with large numbers of codominant markers. Each of these algorithms employs likelihood criteria that correctly incorporate all intermarker recombination fractions. The three programs, HAPLO, SIMCROSS, and SIMWALK, are now available for haplotying general pedigrees. The HAPLO program will be distributed as part of the Programs for Pedigree Analysis package by Kenneth Lange. The SIMCROSS and SIMWALK programs are available by anonymous ftp from watson.hgen.pitt.edu. Each program is written in FORTRAN 77 and is distributed as source code. 15 refs.

  1. Association Between HLA Haplotypes and Increased Serum Levels of IgG4 in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Natalie L; Klingenberg, Olav; Juran, Brian D; Benito de Valle, Maria; Lindkvist, Björn; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Karlsen, Tom H; Hov, Johannes Roksund

    2015-05-01

    Increased serum levels of IgG4 have been reported in 9%-15% of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC); it is not clear whether this increase contributes to pathogenesis. We performed genetic analyses of the HLA complex in patients with PSC from Norway, Sweden, and from the United States. We found an association between levels of IgG4 above the upper reference limit and specific HLA haplotypes. These patients had a significantly lower frequency of the strongest PSC risk factor, HLA-B*08, than patients without increased IgG4, and significantly higher frequencies of HLA-B*07 and HLA-DRB1*15. HLA genotype therefore might affect the serum concentration of IgG4, and increased IgG4 might be a marker of a distinct phenotype of PSC. PMID:25655558

  2. The SCARB1 rs5888 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dong-Feng; Yin, Rui-Xing; Yan, Ting-Ting; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Cao, Xiao-Li; Miao, Lin; Li, Qing; Hu, Xi-Jiang; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Liu, Cheng-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Backgroud: The associations of scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels are inconsistant among diverse ethnic populations. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs5888 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Methods: Genotypes of the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP in 801 subjects of Mulao and 807 subjects of Han Chinese were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels and the T allelic frequency were higher in Mulao than in Han. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mulao were different among the genotypes, the subjects with TT genotype had lower HDL-C levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype in female (P < 0.05). For the Han population, serum triglyceride (TG), HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in males were different among the genotypes, the T allele carriers had lower serum HDL-C, ApoAI levels and ApoAI/ApoB ratio and higher serum ApoB levels than the T allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for all), the subjects with TT genotype had higher serum TG levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype. Serum HDL-C levels in Mulao females and serum HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in Han males were correlated with genotypes by the multiple linear regression analysis. Serum lipid parameters were also influenced by genotype-environmental interactions in Han but not in Mulao populations. Conclusions: These results suggest that the rs5888 SNP is associated with serum HDL-C levels in Mulao females, and TG, HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in Han males. The differences in serum ApoB levels between the two ethnic groups might partially attribute to different SCARB1 genotype-environmental interactions. PMID:23091409

  3. A worldwide population study of the Ag-system haplotypes, a genetic polymorphism of human low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Breguet, G; Bütler, R; Bütler-Brunner, E; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to examine the distribution of the Ag immunological polymorphism in human populations on a worldwide scale and to look for possible explanations of this distribution in the field of modern human peopling history and Ag-system evolution. Extensive Ag-antigene typings were carried out on 13 human population samples, including sub-Saharan African, European, west and east Asiatic, Melanesian, Australian aborigine, and Amerindian groups. Complete Ag-haplotype frequencies were estimated by maximum-likelihood-score procedures, and the data were analyzed by genetic distance computations and principal coordinate projections. With the exception of the Amerindian sample, the Ag polymorphism is shown to be highly polymorphic in all the populations tested. Their genetic relationships appear to be closely correlated to their geographical distribution. This suggests that the Ag system has evolved as a neutral or nearly neutral polymorphism and that it is highly informative for modern human peopling history studies. From the worldwide Ag haplotypic distributions, a model for the Ag molecular structure is derived. According to this model and to the most recent results obtained from molecular data, the establishment of the Ag polymorphism could be explained by several mutations and recombination events between the haplotypes most frequently found in human populations today. As a conclusion, genetic and paleontological data suggest that the genetic structure of caucasoid populations (located from North Africa to India) may be the least differentiated from an ancestral genetic stock. Worldwide genetic differentiations are properly explained as the results of westward and eastward human migrations from a Near East-centered but undefined geographical area where modern humans may have originated. The importance of Ag polymorphism analyses for the reconstruction of human settlement history and origins is discussed in the light of the main conclusions of the most recent genetic polymorphism studies. PMID:1689953

  4. Diversity of HLA-B61 alleles and haplotypes in East Asians and Spanish Gypsies.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, A; Tokunaga, K; Lin, L; Kashiwase, K; Tanaka, H; Herrero, M J; Vilches, C; Park, M H; Jia, G J; Chimge, N O; Sideltseva, E W; Ishikawa, Y; Akaza, T; Tadokoro, K; Juji, T

    1998-04-01

    The distribution of HLA-B61 alleles and their association with HLA-C and DRB1 alleles were investigated in six East Asian populations (South Korean, Chinese Korean, Man (Manchu), Northern Han, Mongolian and Buryat) and Spanish Gypsies and compared to our previous report on the Japanese population. The alleles were identified using a group-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genomic DNA followed by hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP). Both HLA-B*4002 and B*4006 were commonly detected in the South Korean, Chinese Korean, Man, Northern Han and Japanese populations, while HLA-B*4002 was predominant in the Mongolian and Buryat populations. Strong associations of B*4002 with Cw*0304 and of B*4006 with Cw*0801 were commonly observed in these East Asian populations. In contrast, in Spanish Gypsies, only HLA-B*4006 was found and the allele exhibited a strong association with Cw*1502. HLA-B*4003 was also identified in the South Korean, Chinese Korean, Northern Han, Mongolian and Japanese populations at relatively low frequencies, and exhibited an association with Cw*0304. Moreover, the association of these B61 alleles with the DRB1 alleles revealed considerable diversity among the different populations. HLA-B*4004 and B*4009 were not observed in these populations. Consequently, the frequencies of the B61 alleles varied among the different East Asian populations, but the individual B61 alleles were carried by specific haplotypes often regardless of the ethnic differences. PMID:9583807

  5. Association of p53 (-16ins-pro) haplotype with the decreased risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in Iranian-azeri patients.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Roghayeh; Hosseinpour Feizi, Mohammad Ali; Pouladi, Nasser; Babaei, Esmaeil; Montazeri, Vahid; Fakhrjoo, Ashraf; Sedaei, Ayda; Azarfam, Parvin; Nemati, Masoumeh

    2015-04-01

    Association of P53 polymorphisms with the increased risk of various cancers has been investigated in numerous studies. However, the results were conflicting and no polymorphism has been determined as a definite risk factor. It is likely that the study of P53 combined genotypes and haplotypes may be more useful than individual polymorphisms. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the associations of intron 3 Ins16bp and exon 4 Arg72Pro polymorphisms, as well as their combined genotypes and haplotypes with the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in Iranian-Azeri patients. This case-control study was performed on 84 Iranian Azeri patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and 150 healthy subjects. Intron 3 genotype was determined using PCR products analysis on polyacrylamide gels and AS-PCR was used for genotyping Arg72Pro polymorphism. The javastat online statistics package software and SHEsis program were applied for data analysis. There was no significant difference in genotype frequencies of both two polymorphisms between cases and controls. However, the (-16ins/-16ins) (Arg/Pro) genotype combination had a noticeable but not significant association with decreased risk of thyroid cancer development (OR?=?0.497 95%CI: 0.209-1.168 P?=0.080) and also the frequency of (-16ins-Pro) haplotype was significantly higher in controls rather than patients (OR?=?0.543 95%CI: 0.326-0.903 P?=0.018). In our study, there was association between (-16ins-Pro) haplotype with decreased risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma development in Iranian-Azeri patients. PMID:25410025

  6. Characterization of 40 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) via Tm-shift assay in the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain).

    PubMed

    Feng, Nana; Ma, Hongyu; Ma, Chunyan; Xu, Zhen; Li, Shujuan; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yuexing; Ma, Lingbo

    2014-08-01

    In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were identified, confirmed and genotyped in the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) using Tm-shift assay. High quality sequences (13, 311 bp long) were obtained by re-sequencing that contained 91 SNPs, with a density of one SNP every 146 bp. Of all 91 SNPs, 40 were successfully genotyped and characterized using 30 wild specimens by Tm-shift assay. The minor allele frequency per locus ranged from 0.017 to 0.500. The observed and expected heterozygosity, and polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.000 to 0.600, from 0.033 to 0.509, and from 0.033 to 0.375, respectively, with an average of 0.142, 0.239 and 0.198 per locus. Seventeen SNPs were significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci was detected after sequential Bonferroni correction (P > 0.00125). Seventeen SNPs were related with known function genes. This study provided new molecular markers for investigation of population genetic diversity, construction of genetic linkage maps and molecular marker-assisted selection in this important crustacean species. PMID:24867081

  7. Five novel loci for inherited hearing loss mapped by SNP-based homozygosity profiles in Palestinian families.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Hashem; Walsh, Tom; Rayyan, Amal Abu; Lee, Ming K; Higgins, Jake; Dickel, Diane; Lewis, Kristen; Thompson, James; Baker, Carl; Nord, Alex S; Stray, Sunday; Gurwitz, David; Avraham, Karen B; King, Mary-Claire; Kanaan, Moien

    2010-04-01

    In communities with high rates of consanguinity and consequently high prevalence of recessive phenotypes, homozygosity mapping with SNP arrays is an effective approach for gene discovery. In 20 Palestinian kindreds with prelingual nonsyndromic hearing loss, we generated homozygosity profiles reflecting linkage to the phenotype. Family sizes ranged from small nuclear families with two affected children, one unaffected sibling, and parents to multigenerational kindreds with 12 affected relatives. By including unaffected parents and siblings and screening 250 K SNP arrays, even small nuclear families yielded informative profiles. In 14 families, we identified the allele responsible for hearing loss by screening a single candidate gene in the longest homozygous region. Novel alleles included missense, nonsense, and splice site mutations of CDH23, MYO7A, MYO15A, OTOF, PJVK, Pendrin/SLC26A4, TECTA, TMHS, and TMPRSS3, and a large genomic deletion of Otoancorin (OTOA). All point mutations were rare in the Palestinian population (zero carriers in 288 unrelated controls); the carrier frequency of the OTOA genomic deletion was 1%. In six families, we identified five genomic regions likely to harbor novel genes for human hearing loss on chromosomes 1p13.3 (DFNB82), 9p23-p21.2/p13.3-q21.13 (DFNB83), 12q14.3-q21.2 (DFNB84; two families), 14q23.1-q31.1, and 17p12-q11.2 (DFNB85). PMID:19888295

  8. Cloud Computing-Based TagSNP Selection Algorithm for Human Genome Data

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Che-Lun; Chen, Wen-Pei; Hua, Guan-Jie; Zheng, Huiru; Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Lin, Yaw-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a fundamental role in human genetic variation and are used in medical diagnostics, phylogeny construction, and drug design. They provide the highest-resolution genetic fingerprint for identifying disease associations and human features. Haplotypes are regions of linked genetic variants that are closely spaced on the genome and tend to be inherited together. Genetics research has revealed SNPs within certain haplotype blocks that introduce few distinct common haplotypes into most of the population. Haplotype block structures are used in association-based methods to map disease genes. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm for identifying haplotype blocks in the genome. In chromosomal haplotype data retrieved from the HapMap project website, the proposed algorithm identified longer haplotype blocks than an existing algorithm. To enhance its performance, we extended the proposed algorithm into a parallel algorithm that copies data in parallel via the Hadoop MapReduce framework. The proposed MapReduce-paralleled combinatorial algorithm performed well on real-world data obtained from the HapMap dataset; the improvement in computational efficiency was proportional to the number of processors used. PMID:25569088

  9. Cloud computing-based TagSNP selection algorithm for human genome data.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Chen, Wen-Pei; Hua, Guan-Jie; Zheng, Huiru; Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Lin, Yaw-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a fundamental role in human genetic variation and are used in medical diagnostics, phylogeny construction, and drug design. They provide the highest-resolution genetic fingerprint for identifying disease associations and human features. Haplotypes are regions of linked genetic variants that are closely spaced on the genome and tend to be inherited together. Genetics research has revealed SNPs within certain haplotype blocks that introduce few distinct common haplotypes into most of the population. Haplotype block structures are used in association-based methods to map disease genes. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm for identifying haplotype blocks in the genome. In chromosomal haplotype data retrieved from the HapMap project website, the proposed algorithm identified longer haplotype blocks than an existing algorithm. To enhance its performance, we extended the proposed algorithm into a parallel algorithm that copies data in parallel via the Hadoop MapReduce framework. The proposed MapReduce-paralleled combinatorial algorithm performed well on real-world data obtained from the HapMap dataset; the improvement in computational efficiency was proportional to the number of processors used. PMID:25569088

  10. Association between Motilin Receptor Gene Haplotypes and Growth Traits in Japanese Hinai-dori Crossbred Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Rikimaru, Kazuhiro; Komatsu, Megumi; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body weight and average daily gain in a common region between ADL0198 (chr 1: 171.7 Mb) and ABR0287 (chr 1: 173.4 Mb) on chicken chromosome 1 in an F2 resource population produced by crossing low- and high-growth lines of the Hinai-dori breed. Motilin receptor (MLNR) is a candidate gene affecting growth traits in the region. In this study, we genotyped polymorphisms of the MLNR gene and investigated its association with growth traits in a Hinai-dori F2 intercross population. All the exons of the MLNR gene in the parental population were subjected to PCR amplification, nucleotide sequenced and haplotypes identified. To distinguish resultant diplotype individuals in the F2 population, a mismatch amplification mutation assay was performed. Three haplotypes (Haplotypes 1–3) were accordingly identified. Six genotypes produced by the combination of three haplotypes (Haplotype 1, 2, and 3) were examined in order to identify associations between MLNR haplotypes and growth traits. The data showed that Haplotype 1 was superior to Haplotype 2 and 3 in body weight at 10 and 14 weeks of age, average daily gain between 4 and 10 weeks, 10 and 14 weeks, and 0 and 14 weeks of age in female in F2 females. It was concluded that MLNR is a useful marker of growth traits and could be used to develop strategies for improving growth traits in the Hinai-dori breed. PMID:25049957

  11. Association between Motilin Receptor Gene Haplotypes and Growth Traits in Japanese Hinai-dori Crossbred Chickens.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Rikimaru, Kazuhiro; Komatsu, Megumi; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2014-03-01

    We previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body weight and average daily gain in a common region between ADL0198 (chr 1: 171.7 Mb) and ABR0287 (chr 1: 173.4 Mb) on chicken chromosome 1 in an F2 resource population produced by crossing low- and high-growth lines of the Hinai-dori breed. Motilin receptor (MLNR) is a candidate gene affecting growth traits in the region. In this study, we genotyped polymorphisms of the MLNR gene and investigated its association with growth traits in a Hinai-dori F2 intercross population. All the exons of the MLNR gene in the parental population were subjected to PCR amplification, nucleotide sequenced and haplotypes identified. To distinguish resultant diplotype individuals in the F2 population, a mismatch amplification mutation assay was performed. Three haplotypes (Haplotypes 1-3) were accordingly identified. Six genotypes produced by the combination of three haplotypes (Haplotype 1, 2, and 3) were examined in order to identify associations between MLNR haplotypes and growth traits. The data showed that Haplotype 1 was superior to Haplotype 2 and 3 in body weight at 10 and 14 weeks of age, average daily gain between 4 and 10 weeks, 10 and 14 weeks, and 0 and 14 weeks of age in female in F2 females. It was concluded that MLNR is a useful marker of growth traits and could be used to develop strategies for improving growth traits in the Hinai-dori breed. PMID:25049957

  12. HaploRec: efficient and accurate large-scale reconstruction of haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Eronen, Lauri; Geerts, Floris; Toivonen, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    Background Haplotypes extracted from human DNA can be used for gene mapping and other analysis of genetic patterns within and across populations. A fundamental problem is, however, that current practical laboratory methods do not give haplotype information. Estimation of phased haplotypes of unrelated individuals given their unphased genotypes is known as the haplotype reconstruction or phasing problem. Results We define three novel statistical models and give an efficient algorithm for haplotype reconstruction, jointly called HaploRec. HaploRec is based on exploiting local regularities conserved in haplotypes: it reconstructs haplotypes so that they have maximal local coherence. This approach – not assuming statistical dependence for remotely located markers – has two useful properties: it is well-suited for sparse marker maps, such as those used in gene mapping, and it can actually take advantage of long maps. Conclusion Our experimental results with simulated and real data show that HaploRec is a powerful method for the large scale haplotyping needed in association studies. With sample sizes large enough for gene mapping it appeared to be the best compared to all other tested methods (Phase, fastPhase, PL-EM, Snphap, Gerbil; simulated data), with small samples it was competitive with the best available methods (real data). HaploRec is several orders of magnitude faster than Phase and comparable to the other methods; the running times are roughly linear in the number of subjects and the number of markers. HaploRec is publicly available at . PMID:17187677

  13. FastHap: fast and accurate single individual haplotype reconstruction using fuzzy conflict graphs

    PubMed Central

    Mazrouee, Sepideh; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Understanding exact structure of an individual’s haplotype plays a significant role in various fields of human genetics. Despite tremendous research effort in recent years, fast and accurate haplotype reconstruction remains as an active research topic, mainly owing to the computational challenges involved. Existing haplotype assembly algorithms focus primarily on improving accuracy of the assembly, making them computationally challenging for applications on large high-throughput sequence data. Therefore, there is a need to develop haplotype reconstruction algorithms that are not only accurate but also highly scalable. Results: In this article, we introduce FastHap, a fast and accurate haplotype reconstruction approach, which is up to one order of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art haplotype inference algorithms while also delivering higher accuracy than these algorithms. FastHap leverages a new similarity metric that allows us to precisely measure distances between pairs of fragments. The distance is then used in building the fuzzy conflict graphs of fragments. Given that optimal haplotype reconstruction based on minimum error correction is known to be NP-hard, we use our fuzzy conflict graphs to develop a fast heuristic for fragment partitioning and haplotype reconstruction. Availability: An implementation of FastHap is available for sharing on request. Contact: sepideh@cs.ucla.edu PMID:25161222

  14. Evaluation of the Haplotype Motif Model using the Principle of Minimum Description

    E-print Network

    #12;Abstract We apply minimum description length (MDL) principles to evaluate the merit of relaxingEvaluation of the Haplotype Motif Model using the Principle of Minimum Description Srinath Sridhar Winters foundation. #12;Keywords: single nucleotide polymorphism, haplotypes, minimum de- scription length

  15. Finding Haplotype Block Boundaries by Using the Minimum-Description-Length Principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric C. Anderson; John Novembre

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for detecting haplotype blocks that simultaneously uses information about linkage-disequi- librium decay between the blocks and the diversity of haplotypes within the blocks. By use of phased single- nucleotide polymorphism data, our method partitions a chromosome into a series of adjacent, nonoverlapping blocks. The partition is made by choosing among a family of Markov models for

  16. Haplotype analysis of the 4p16.3 region in Portuguese families with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi S; Lee, Jong-Min; Gögele, Martin; D'Elia, Yuri; Pichler, Irene; Sequeiros, Jorge; Pramstaller, Peter P; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Alonso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary choreic movements, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes, caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat in HTT. We characterized the genetic diversity of the HD mutation by performing an extensive haplotype analysis of ?1Mb region flanking HTT in over 300 HD families of Portuguese origin. We observed that haplotype A, marked by HTT delta2642, was enriched in HD chromosomes and carried the two largest expansions reported in the Portuguese population. However, the most frequent HD haplotype B carried one of the largest (+12 CAGs) expansions, which resulted in an allele class change to full penetrance. Despite having a normal CAG distribution skewed to the higher end of the range, these two core haplotypes had similar expanded CAG repeat sizes compared to the other major core haplotypes (C and D) and there was no statistical difference in transmitted repeat instability across haplotypes. We observed a diversity of HTT region haplotypes in both normal and expanded chromosomes, representative of more than one ancestral chromosome underlying HD in Portugal, where multiple independent events on distinct chromosome 4 haplotypes have given rise to expansion into the pathogenic range. PMID:25656686

  17. Ancient mitochondrial haplotypes and evidence for intragenic recombination in a gynodioecious plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Städler; Lynda F. Delph

    2002-01-01

    Because of their extremely low nucleotide mutation rates, plant mitochondrial genes are generally not expected to show variation within species. Remarkably, we found nine distinct cytochrome b sequence haplotypes in the gynodioecious alpine plant Silene acaulis, with two or more haplotypes coexisting locally in each of three sampled regions. Moreover, there is evidence for intragenic recombination in the history of

  18. Wolbachia infection differs among divergent mitochondrial haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four mitochondrial (cytrochrome oxidase I) haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (S'ulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), have been identified in North America: western, central, northwestern,and southwestern. A recent study found that females of the northwestern haplotype mated by males o...

  19. Performance of single nucleotide polymorphisms versus haplotypes for genome-wide association analysis in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may benefit from using haplotype information for making marker-phenotype associations. Several rationales for grouping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) into haplotype blocks exist, but any advantage may depend on the genetic architecture of traits, patter...

  20. Whole-genome SNP association in the horse: identification of a deletion in myosin Va responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Samantha A; Gabreski, Nicole; Miller, Donald; Brisbin, Abra; Brown, Helen E; Streeter, Cassandra; Mezey, Jason; Cook, Deborah; Antczak, Douglas F

    2010-04-01

    Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A) and myosin Va (MYO5A). Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR-based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals. PMID:20419149

  1. Whole-Genome SNP Association in the Horse: Identification of a Deletion in Myosin Va Responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Samantha A.; Gabreski, Nicole; Miller, Donald; Brisbin, Abra; Brown, Helen E.; Streeter, Cassandra; Mezey, Jason; Cook, Deborah; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A) and myosin Va (MYO5A). Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR–based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals. PMID:20419149

  2. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in two North American indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Mattevi, V S; Fiegenbaum, M; Salzano, F M; Weiss, K M; Moore, J; Monsalve, M V; Devine, D V; Hutz, M H

    2000-07-01

    Haplotypes derived from five polymorphic restriction sites were determined in 50 Carrier-Sekani and 70 Mvskoke chromosomes, and the results were integrated with those previously obtained for 11 South American Indian populations. Eleven haplotypes were identified in the Mvskokes, while five were observed in the Carrier-Sekani. As in South American natives, haplotype 2 (+----) and 6 (-++ -+) were the most prevalent among the Mvskoke (46% and 30%, respectively). In the Carrier-Sekani, haplotype 2 was also the most common, but haplotype 5 (-+ -++) was somewhat more frequent (18%) than 6 (12%). High heterozygosities, as well as genetic differentiation, were observed among these two North American and two other South American groups (Mapuche and Xavante). They could be due to non-Indian admixture in the Mvskoke and Mapuche, but the findings in the other two populations require some other type of explanation. PMID:10861349

  3. Mutagenic primer design for mismatch PCR-RFLP SNP genotyping using a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Huei; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is useful in small-scale basic research studies of complex genetic diseases that are associated with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Designing a feasible primer pair is an important work before performing PCR-RFLP for SNP genotyping. However, in many cases, restriction enzymes to discriminate the target SNP resulting in the primer design is not applicable. A mutagenic primer is introduced to solve this problem. GA-based Mismatch PCR-RFLP Primers Design (GAMPD) provides a method that uses a genetic algorithm to search for optimal mutagenic primers and available restriction enzymes from REBASE. In order to improve the efficiency of the proposed method, a mutagenic matrix is employed to judge whether a hypothetical mutagenic primer can discriminate the target SNP by digestion with available restriction enzymes. The available restriction enzymes for the target SNP are mined by the updated core of SNP-RFLPing. GAMPD has been used to simulate the SNPs in the human SLC6A4 gene under different parameter settings and compared with SNP Cutter for mismatch PCR-RFLP primer design. The in silico simulation of the proposed GAMPD program showed that it designs mismatch PCR-RFLP primers. The GAMPD program is implemented in JAVA and is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/gampd/. PMID:22331864

  4. A customized pigmentation SNP array identifies a novel SNP associated with melanoma predisposition in the SLC45A2 gene.

    PubMed

    Ibarrola-Villava, Maider; Fernandez, Lara P; Alonso, Santos; Boyano, M Dolores; Peña-Chilet, Maria; Pita, Guillermo; Aviles, Jose A; Mayor, Matias; Gomez-Fernandez, Cristina; Casado, Beatriz; Martin-Gonzalez, Manuel; Izagirre, Neskuts; De la Rua, Concepcion; Asumendi, Aintzane; Perez-Yarza, Gorka; Arroyo-Berdugo, Yoana; Boldo, Enrique; Lozoya, Rafael; Torrijos-Aguilar, Arantxa; Pitarch, Ana; Pitarch, Gerard; Sanchez-Motilla, Jose M; Valcuende-Cavero, Francisca; Tomas-Cabedo, Gloria; Perez-Pastor, Gemma; Diaz-Perez, Jose L; Gardeazabal, Jesus; Martinez de Lizarduy, Iñigo; Sanchez-Diez, Ana; Valdes, Carlos; Pizarro, Angel; Casado, Mariano; Carretero, Gregorio; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Nagore, Eduardo; Lazaro, Pablo; Lluch, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Ribas, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    As the incidence of Malignant Melanoma (MM) reflects an interaction between skin colour and UV exposure, variations in genes implicated in pigmentation and tanning response to UV may be associated with susceptibility to MM. In this study, 363 SNPs in 65 gene regions belonging to the pigmentation pathway have been successfully genotyped using a SNP array. Five hundred and ninety MM cases and 507 controls were analyzed in a discovery phase I. Ten candidate SNPs based on a p-value threshold of 0.01 were identified. Two of them, rs35414 (SLC45A2) and rs2069398 (SILV/CKD2), were statistically significant after conservative Bonferroni correction. The best six SNPs were further tested in an independent Spanish series (624 MM cases and 789 controls). A novel SNP located on the SLC45A2 gene (rs35414) was found to be significantly associated with melanoma in both phase I and phase II (P<0.0001). None of the other five SNPs were replicated in this second phase of the study. However, three SNPs in TYR, SILV/CDK2 and ADAMTS20 genes (rs17793678, rs2069398 and rs1510521 respectively) had an overall p-value<0.05 when considering the whole DNA collection (1214 MM cases and 1296 controls). Both the SLC45A2 and the SILV/CDK2 variants behave as protective alleles, while the TYR and ADAMTS20 variants seem to function as risk alleles. Cumulative effects were detected when these four variants were considered together. Furthermore, individuals carrying two or more mutations in MC1R, a well-known low penetrance melanoma-predisposing gene, had a decreased MM risk if concurrently bearing the SLC45A2 protective variant. To our knowledge, this is the largest study on Spanish sporadic MM cases to date. PMID:21559390

  5. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Neutral Polymorphisms in the Last ZFX Intron: Analysis of the Haplotype Structure and Genealogy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jadwiga Jaruzelska; Ewa Zietkiewicz; Mark Batzer; David E. C. Cole; Jean-Paul Moisan; Rosaria Scozzari; Simon Tavare; Damian Labuda

    1999-01-01

    With 10 segregating sites (simple nucleotide polymorphisms) in the last intron (1089 bp) of the ZFX gene we have observed 11 haplotypes in 336 chromosomes representing a worldwide array of 15 human populations. Two haplotypes representing 77% of all chromosomes were distributed almost evenly among four continents. Five of the remaining haplotypes were detected in Africa and 4 others were

  6. Genome wide SNP array identified multiple mechanisms of genetic changes in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Stéphanie; Roumier, Christophe; Galiègue-Zouitina, Sylvie; Daudignon, Agnès; Herbaux, Charles; Aiijou, Rachid; Lainelle, Amélie; Broucqsault, Natacha; Bertrand, Elisabeth; Manier, Salomon; Renneville, Aline; Soenen, Valérie; Tricot, Sabine; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Duthilleul, Patrick; Preudhomme, Claude; Quesnel, Bruno; Morel, Pierre; Leleu, Xavier

    2013-11-01

    SNP array (SNPa) was developed to detect copy number alteration (CNA) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) without copy number changes, CN-LOH. We aimed to identify novel genomic aberrations using SNPa in 31 WM with paired samples. Methylation status and mutation were analyzed on target genes. A total of 61 genetic aberrations were observed, 58 CNA (33 gains, 25 losses) in 58% of patients and CN-LOH in 6% of patients. The CNA were widely distributed throughout the genome, including 12 recurrent regions and identified new cryptic clonal chromosomal lesions that were mapped. Gene set expression analysis demonstrated a relationship between either deletion 6q or gain of chromosome 4 and alteration of gene expression profiling. We then studied methylation status and sought for mutations in altered regions on target genes. We observed methylation of DLEU7 on chromosome 13 in all patients (n?=?12) with WM, and mutations of CD79B/CD79A genes (17q region), a key component of the BCR pathway, in 15% of cases. Most importantly, higher frequency of ?3 CNA was observed in symptomatic WM. In conclusion, this study expands the view of the genomic complexity of WM, especially in symptomatic WM, including a potentially new mechanism of gene dysfunction, acquired uniparental disomy/CN-LOH. Finally, we have identified new potential target genes in WM, such as DLEU7 and CD79A/B. PMID:23861223

  7. Genomic relationships computed from either next-generation sequence or array SNP data.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Enciso, M

    2014-04-01

    The use of sequence data in genomic prediction models is a topic of high interest, given the decreasing prices of current 'next'-generation sequencing technologies (NGS) and the theoretical possibility of directly interrogating the genomes for all causal mutations. Here, we compare by simulation how well genetic relationships (G) could be estimated using either NGS or ascertained SNP arrays. DNA sequences were simulated using the coalescence according to two scenarios: a 'cattle' scenario that consisted of a bottleneck followed by a split in two breeds without migration, and a 'pig' model where Chinese introgression into international pig breeds was simulated. We found that introgression results in a large amount of variability across the genome and between individuals, both in differentiation and in diversity. In general, NGS data allowed the most accurate estimates of G, provided enough sequencing depth was available, because shallow NGS (4×) may result in highly distorted estimates of G elements, especially if not standardized by allele frequency. However, high-density genotyping can also result in accurate estimates of G. Given that genotyping is much less noisy than NGS data, it is suggested that specific high-density arrays (~3M SNPs) that minimize the effects of ascertainment could be developed in the population of interest by sequencing the most influential animals and rely on those arrays for implementing genomic selection. PMID:24397314

  8. Inferring population size changes with sequence and SNP data: lessons from human bottlenecks

    PubMed Central

    Gattepaille, L M; Jakobsson, M; Blum, M GB

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing historical variation of population size from sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data is valuable for understanding the evolutionary history of species. Changes in the population size of humans have been thoroughly investigated, and we review different methodologies of demographic reconstruction, specifically focusing on human bottlenecks. In addition to the classical approaches based on the site-frequency spectrum (SFS) or based on linkage disequilibrium, we also review more recent approaches that utilize atypical shared genomic fragments, such as identical by descent or homozygous segments between or within individuals. Compared with methods based on the SFS, these methods are well suited for detecting recent bottlenecks. In general, all these various methods suffer from bias and dependencies on confounding factors such as population structure or poor specification of the mutational and recombination processes, which can affect the demographic reconstruction. With the exception of SFS-based methods, the effects of confounding factors on the inference methods remain poorly investigated. We conclude that an important step when investigating population size changes rests on validating the demographic model by investigating to what extent the fitted demographic model can reproduce the main features of the polymorphism data. PMID:23423148

  9. De novo SNP discovery in the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Norman, Anita J; Street, Nathaniel R; Spong, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Information about relatedness between individuals in wild populations is advantageous when studying evolutionary, behavioural and ecological processes. Genomic data can be used to determine relatedness between individuals either when no prior knowledge exists or to confirm suspected relatedness. Here we present a set of 96 SNPs suitable for inferring relatedness for brown bears (Ursus arctos) within Scandinavia. We sequenced reduced representation libraries from nine individuals throughout the geographic range. With consensus reads containing putative SNPs, we applied strict filtering criteria with the aim of finding only high-quality, highly-informative SNPs. We tested 150 putative SNPs of which 96% were validated on a panel of 68 individuals. Ninety-six of the validated SNPs with the highest minor allele frequency were selected. The final SNP panel includes four mitochondrial markers, two monomorphic Y-chromosome sex-determination markers, three X-chromosome SNPs and 87 autosomal SNPs. From our validation sample panel, we identified two previously known parent-offspring dyads with reasonable accuracy. This panel of SNPs is a promising tool for inferring relatedness in the brown bear population in Scandinavia. PMID:24260529

  10. Salt tolerance underlies the cryptic invasion of North American salt marshes by an introduced haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis (Poaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vasquez, E.A.; Glenn, E.P.; Brown, J.J.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Nelson, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    A distinct, non-native haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis has become invasive in Atlantic coastal Spartina marshes. We compared the salt tolerance and other growth characteristics of the invasive M haplotype with 2 native haplotypes (F and AC) in greenhouse experiments. The M haplotype retained 50% of its growth potential up to 0.4 M NaCl, whereas the F and AC haplotypes did not grow above 0.1 M NaCl. The M haplotype produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue and had higher relative growth rates than the native haplotypes on both freshwater and saline water treatments. The M haplotype also differed from the native haplotypes in shoot water content and the biometrics of shoots and rhizomes. The results offer an explanation for how the M haplotype is able to spread in coastal salt marshes and support the conclusion of DNA analyses that the M haplotype is a distinct ecotype of P. australis.

  11. Combined QTL and Selective Sweep Mappings with Coding SNP Annotation and cis-eQTL Analysis Revealed PARK2 and JAG2 as New Candidate Genes for Adiposity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Pierre-François; Boitard, Simon; Blum, Yuna; Parks, Brian; Montagner, Alexandra; Mouisel, Etienne; Djari, Anis; Esquerré, Diane; Désert, Colette; Boutin, Morgane; Leroux, Sophie; Lecerf, Frédéric; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Klopp, Christophe; Servin, Bertrand; Pitel, Frédérique; Duclos, Michel Jean; Guillou, Hervé; Lusis, Aldons J.; Demeure, Olivier; Lagarrigue, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Very few causal genes have been identified by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping because of the large size of QTL, and most of them were identified thanks to functional links already known with the targeted phenotype. Here, we propose to combine selection signature detection, coding SNP annotation, and cis-expression QTL analyses to identify potential causal genes underlying QTL identified in divergent line designs. As a model, we chose experimental chicken lines divergently selected for only one trait, the abdominal fat weight, in which several QTL were previously mapped. Using new haplotype-based statistics exploiting the very high SNP density generated through whole-genome resequencing, we found 129 significant selective sweeps. Most of the QTL colocalized with at least one sweep, which markedly narrowed candidate region size. Some of those sweeps contained only one gene, therefore making them strong positional causal candidates with no presupposed function. We then focused on two of these QTL/sweeps. The absence of nonsynonymous SNPs in their coding regions strongly suggests the existence of causal mutations acting in cis on their expression, confirmed by cis-eQTL identification using either allele-specific expression or genetic mapping analyses. Additional expression analyses of those two genes in the chicken and mice contrasted for adiposity reinforces their link with this phenotype. This study shows for the first time the interest of combining selective sweeps mapping, coding SNP annotation and cis-eQTL analyses for identifying causative genes for a complex trait, in the context of divergent lines selected for this specific trait. Moreover, it highlights two genes, JAG2 and PARK2, as new potential negative and positive key regulators of adiposity in chicken and mice. PMID:25653314

  12. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes reveal maternal population genetic affinities of Sea Island Gullah-speaking African Americans.

    PubMed

    McLean, David C; Spruill, Ida; Argyropoulos, George; Page, Grier P; Shriver, Mark D; Garvey, W Timothy

    2005-08-01

    To better understand the population substructure of African Americans living in coastal South Carolina, we used restriction site polymorphisms and an insertion/deletion in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to construct seven-position haplotypes across 1,395 individuals from Sierra Leone, Africa, from U.S. European Americans, and from the New World African-derived populations of Jamaica, Gullah-speaking African Americans of the South Carolina Sea Islands (Gullahs), African Americans living in Charleston, South Carolina, and West Coast African Americans. Analyses showed a high degree of similarity within the New World African-derived populations, where haplotype frequencies and diversities were similar. Phi-statistics indicated that very little genetic differentiation has occurred within New World African-derived populations, but that there has been significant differentiation of these populations from Sierra Leoneans. Genetic distance estimates indicated a close relationship of Gullahs and Jamaicans with Sierra Leoneans, while African Americans living in Charleston and the West Coast were progressively more distantly related to the Sierra Leoneans. We observed low maternal European American admixture in the Jamaican and Gullah samples (m = 0.020 and 0.064, respectively) that increased sharply in a clinal pattern from Charleston African Americans to West Coast African Americans (m = 0.099 and 0.205, respectively). The appreciably reduced maternal European American admixture noted in the Gullah indicates that the Gullah may be uniquely situated to allow genetic epidemiology studies of complex diseases in African Americans with low European American admixture. PMID:15624208

  13. Structural and biochemical analyses of the human PAD4 variant encoded by a functional haplotype gene.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Naoki; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Saito, Kengo; Osakabe, Akihisa; Sato, Mamoru; Yamada, Michiyuki; Akashi, Satoko; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Kagawa, Wataru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2011-02-01

    PAD4 is a peptidylarginine deiminase that catalyzes citrullination, a type of post-translational modification. In this reaction, arginine residues in proteins are converted to citrulline. PAD4 promotes the deimination of arginine residues in histones and may regulate transcription in the context of the chromatin. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the gene encoding PAD4 identified it as one of the genes associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. The PAD4 SNP involve three amino-acid substitutions: Ser55 to Gly, Ala82 to Val and Ala112 to Gly. Autoantibodies for improperly citrullinated proteins have been found in rheumatoid arthritis patients, suggesting that the PAD4(SNP) mRNA is more stable than the conventional PAD4 mRNA and/or the PAD4(SNP) protein possesses a higher citrullination activity than the PAD4 protein. In order to study the effects of the three amino-acid substitutions found in PAD4(SNP), the crystal structure of PAD4(SNP) was determined and it was found that the amino-acid substitutions in PAD4(SNP) only induced conformational changes within the N-terminal domain, not in the active centre for citrullination located in the C-terminal domain. Biochemical analyses also suggested that the citrullination activity of PAD4(SNP) may not substantially differ from that of conventional PAD4. These structural and biochemical findings suggested that the improper protein citrullination found in rheumatoid arthritis patients is not caused by defects in the citrullination activity of PAD4(SNP) but by other reasons such as enhanced PAD4(SNP) mRNA stability. PMID:21245532

  14. SNP Design from 454 Sequencing of Podosphaera plantaginis Transcriptome Reveals a Genetically Diverse Pathogen Metapopulation with High Levels of Mixed-Genotype Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tollenaere, Charlotte; Susi, Hanna; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Koskinen, Patrik; Tack, Ayco; Auvinen, Petri; Paulin, Lars; Frilander, Mikko J.; Lehtonen, Rainer; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecular tools may greatly improve our understanding of pathogen evolution and epidemiology but technical constraints have hindered the development of genetic resources for parasites compared to free-living organisms. This study aims at developing molecular tools for Podosphaera plantaginis, an obligate fungal pathogen of Plantago lanceolata. This interaction has been intensively studied in the Åland archipelago of Finland with epidemiological data collected from over 4,000 host populations annually since year 2001. Principal Findings A cDNA library of a pooled sample of fungal conidia was sequenced on the 454 GS-FLX platform. Over 549,411 reads were obtained and annotated into 45,245 contigs. Annotation data was acquired for 65.2% of the assembled sequences. The transcriptome assembly was screened for SNP loci, as well as for functionally important genes (mating-type genes and potential effector proteins). A genotyping assay of 27 SNP loci was designed and tested on 380 infected leaf samples from 80 populations within the Åland archipelago. With this panel we identified 85 multilocus genotypes (MLG) with uneven frequencies across the pathogen metapopulation. Approximately half of the sampled populations contain polymorphism. Our genotyping protocol revealed mixed-genotype infection within a single host leaf to be common. Mixed infection has been proposed as one of the main drivers of pathogen evolution, and hence may be an important process in this pathosystem. Significance The developed SNP panel offers exciting research perspectives for future studies in this well-characterized pathosystem. Also, the transcriptome provides an invaluable novel genomic resource for powdery mildews, which cause significant yield losses on commercially important crops annually. Furthermore, the features that render genetic studies in this system a challenge are shared with the majority of obligate parasitic species, and hence our results provide methodological insights from SNP calling to field sampling protocols for a wide range of biological systems. PMID:23300684

  15. Musical aptitude is associated with AVPR1A-haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Ukkola, Liisa T; Onkamo, Päivi; Raijas, Pirre; Karma, Kai; Järvelä, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Artistic creativity forms the basis of music culture and music industry. Composing, improvising and arranging music are complex creative functions of the human brain, which biological value remains unknown. We hypothesized that practicing music is social communication that needs musical aptitude and even creativity in music. In order to understand the neurobiological basis of music in human evolution and communication we analyzed polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A), serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), catecol-O-methyltranferase (COMT), dopamin receptor D2 (DRD2) and tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), genes associated with social bonding and cognitive functions in 19 Finnish families (n = 343 members) with professional musicians and/or active amateurs. All family members were tested for musical aptitude using the auditory structuring ability test (Karma Music test; KMT) and Carl Seashores tests for pitch (SP) and for time (ST). Data on creativity in music (composing, improvising and/or arranging music) was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire. Here we show for the first time that creative functions in music have a strong genetic component (h(2) = .84; composing h(2) = .40; arranging h(2) = .46; improvising h(2) = .62) in Finnish multigenerational families. We also show that high music test scores are significantly associated with creative functions in music (p<.0001). We discovered an overall haplotype association with AVPR1A gene (markers RS1 and RS3) and KMT (p = 0.0008; corrected p = 0.00002), SP (p = 0.0261; corrected p = 0.0072) and combined music test scores (COMB) (p = 0.0056; corrected p = 0.0006). AVPR1A haplotype AVR+RS1 further suggested a positive association with ST (p = 0.0038; corrected p = 0.00184) and COMB (p = 0.0083; corrected p = 0.0040) using haplotype-based association test HBAT. The results suggest that the neurobiology of music perception and production is likely to be related to the pathways affecting intrinsic attachment behavior. PMID:19461995

  16. HapStar: automated haplotype network layout and visualization.

    PubMed

    Teacher, A G F; Griffiths, D J

    2011-01-01

    Haplotype networks are commonly used for representing associations between sequences, yet there is currently no straightforward way to create optimal layouts. Automated optimal layouts are particularly useful not only because of the time-saving element but also because they avoid both human error and human-induced biases in the presentation of figures. HapStar directly uses the network connection output data generated from Arlequin (or a simple user-generated input file) and uses a force-directed algorithm to automatically lay out the network for easy visualization. In addition, this program is able to use the alternative connections generated by Arlequin to create a minimum spanning tree. HapStar provides a straightforward user-friendly interface, and publication-ready figures can be exported simply. HapStar is freely available (under a GPLv3 licence) for download for MacOSX, UNIX and Windows, at http://fo.am/hapstar. PMID:21429113

  17. Suggestive evidence for association between L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) gene haplotypes and bipolar disorder in Latinos: a family-based association study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Suzanne; Xu, Chun; Ramirez, Mercedes; Zavala, Juan; Armas, Regina; Contreras, Salvador A; Contreras, Javier; Dassori, Albana; Leach, Robin J; Flores, Deborah; Jerez, Alvaro; Raventós, Henriette; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Nicolini, Humberto; Escamilla, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Through recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS), several groups have reported significant association between variants in the alpha 1C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) and bipolar disorder (BP) in European and European-American cohorts. We performed a family-based association study to determine whether CACNA1C is associated with BP in the Latino population. Methods This study consisted of 913 individuals from 215 Latino pedigrees recruited from the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa Rica. The Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping Assay was used to genotype 58 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that spanned a 602.9 kb region encompassing the CACNA1C gene including two SNPs (rs7297582 and rs1006737) previously shown to associate with BP. Individual SNP and haplotype association analyses were performed using Family-Based Association Test (version 2.0.3) and Haploview (version 4.2) software. Results An eight-locus haplotype block that included these two markers showed significant association with BP (global marker permuted p = 0.0018) in the Latino population. For individual SNPs, this sample had insufficient power (10%) to detect associations with SNPs with minor effect (odds ratio = 1.15). Conclusions Although we were not able to replicate findings of association between individual CACNA1C SNPs rs7297582 and rs1006737 and BP, we were able to replicate the GWAS signal reported for CACNA1C through a haplotype analysis that encompassed these previously reported significant SNPs. These results provide additional evidence that CACNA1C is associated with BP and provides the first evidence that variations in this gene might play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder in the Latino population. PMID:23437964

  18. Association between SSCP haplotypes at the bovine growth hormone gene and milk protein percentage.

    PubMed

    Lagziel, A; Lipkin, E; Soller, M

    1996-03-01

    The bovine Growth Hormone gene (bGH) is an attractive candidate gene for milk production in cattle. Single-strand conformation polymorphisms at bGH were identified and used to define haplotype configurations at this gene in the Israeli Holstein dairy cattle population (Bos taurus) and in the parent animals of the International Bovine Reference Family Panel (a collection of B. taurus and B. indicus crosses). B. taurus and B. indicus haplotypes at the bGH gene differed qualitatively, confirming the previously proposed long evolutionary separation of these cattle subraces. Only a small number of bGH haplotypes were present in the Israel Holstein population. One of the haplotypes, apparently of B. indicus origin, was found to have a highly significant positive effect on milk protein percentage. This illustrates the utility of the haplotype approach for uncovering candidate gene involvement in quantitative genetic variation in agricultural populations. The strong effect of an indicine haplotype in a taurine background raises the possibility that indicine alleles at other candidate genes may comprise a genetic resource for improvement of taurine populations. It is proposed that haplotype analysis may be a useful adjunct to measures of genetic distance for evaluating rare breeds with respect to gene conservation. PMID:8849900

  19. SNP Discovery by Illumina-Based Transcriptome Sequencing of the Olive and the Genetic Characterization of Turkish Olive Genotypes Revealed by AFLP, SSR and SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2013-01-01

    Background The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a diploid (2n?=?2x?=?46) outcrossing species mainly grown in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oil-producing crop. Because of its economic, cultural and ecological importance, various DNA markers have been used in the olive to characterize and elucidate homonyms, synonyms and unknown accessions. However, a comprehensive characterization and a full sequence of its transcriptome are unavailable, leading to the importance of an efficient large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in olive. The objectives of this study were (1) to discover olive SNPs using next-generation sequencing and to identify SNP primers for cultivar identification and (2) to characterize 96 olive genotypes originating from different regions of Turkey. Methodology/Principal Findings Next-generation sequencing technology was used with five distinct olive genotypes and generated cDNA, producing 126,542,413 reads using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Following quality and size trimming, the high-quality reads were assembled into 22,052 contigs with an average length of 1,321 bases and 45 singletons. The SNPs were filtered and 2,987 high-quality putative SNP primers were identified. The assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with a Gene Ontology identifier. To identify the 96 olive genotypes, these SNP primers were applied to the genotypes in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Conclusions/Significance This study marks the highest number of SNP markers discovered to date from olive genotypes using transcriptome sequencing. The developed SNP markers will provide a useful source for molecular genetic studies, such as genetic diversity and characterization, high density quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, association mapping and map-based gene cloning in the olive. High levels of genetic variation among Turkish olive genotypes revealed by SNPs, AFLPs and SSRs allowed us to characterize the Turkish olive genotype. PMID:24058483

  20. Genome-Wide Joint Meta-Analysis of SNP and SNP-by-Smoking Interaction Identifies Novel Loci for Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Imboden, Medea; Koch, Beate; McArdle, Wendy L.; Smith, Albert V.; Smolonska, Joanna; Sood, Akshay; Tang, Wenbo; Wilk, Jemma B.; Zhai, Guangju; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aschard, Hugues; Burkart, Kristin M.; Curjuric, Ivan; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Elliott, Paul; Gu, Xiangjun; Harris, Tamara B.; Janson, Christer; Homuth, Georg; Hysi, Pirro G.; Liu, Jason Z.; Loehr, Laura R.; Lohman, Kurt; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Manning, Alisa K.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Obeidat, Ma'en; Postma, Dirkje S.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Chen, Ting-hsu; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Franceschini, Nora; Heinrich, Joachim; Rotter, Jerome I.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Williams, O. Dale; Bentley, Amy R.; Hofman, Albert; Laurie, Cathy C.; Lumley, Thomas; Morrison, Alanna C.; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Couper, David J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Liu, Yongmei; Wjst, Matthias; Wain, Louise V.; Vonk, Judith M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rochat, Thierry; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; O'Connor, George T.; North, Kari E.; Mirel, Daniel B.; Meibohm, Bernd; Launer, Lenore J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hammond, Christopher J.; Gläser, Sven; Marchini, Jonathan; Kraft, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Völzke, Henry; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Spector, Timothy D.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Jarvis, Deborah; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Heckbert, Susan R.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Boezen, H. Marike; Barr, R. Graham; Cassano, Patricia A.; Strachan, David P.; Fornage, Myriam; Hall, Ian P.; Dupuis, Josée; Tobin, Martin D.; London, Stephanie J.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic loci for spirometic measures of pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). Given that cigarette smoking adversely affects pulmonary function, we conducted genome-wide joint meta-analyses (JMA) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) associations on FEV1 and FEV1/FVC across 19 studies (total N?=?50,047). We identified three novel loci not previously associated with pulmonary function. SNPs in or near DNER (smallest PJMA?=?5.00×10?11), HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2 (smallest PJMA?=?4.35×10?9), and KCNJ2 and SOX9 (smallest PJMA?=?1.28×10?8) were associated with FEV1/FVC or FEV1 in meta-analysis models including SNP main effects, smoking main effects, and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) interaction. The HLA region has been widely implicated for autoimmune and lung phenotypes, unlike the other novel loci, which have not been widely implicated. We evaluated DNER, KCNJ2, and SOX9 and found them to be expressed in human lung tissue. DNER and SOX9 further showed evidence of differential expression in human airway epithelium in smokers compared to non-smokers. Our findings demonstrated that joint testing of SNP and SNP-by-environment interaction identified novel loci associated with complex traits that are missed when considering only the genetic main effects. PMID:23284291

  1. A general SNP-based molecular barcode for Plasmodium falciparum identification and tracking

    E-print Network

    Daniels, Rachel F.

    Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping provides the means to develop a practical, rapid, inexpensive assay that will uniquely identify any Plasmodium falciparum parasite using a small amount ...

  2. How do SNP ascertainment schemes and population demographics affect inferences about population history?

    E-print Network

    McTavish, Emily Jane Bell; Hills, David M

    2015-03-17

    and westslope cutthroat trout. Mol Ecol Resour. 2011;11:117–22. 15. Schwenke PL, Rhydderch JG, Ford MJ, Marshall AR, Park LK. Forensic identification of endangered Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using a multilocus SNP assay. Conserv Genet. 2006...

  3. An overview of SNP interactions in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Guo, Maozu; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Quan

    2015-03-01

    With the recent explosion in high-throughput genotyping technology, the amount and quality of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data has increased exponentially. Therefore, the identification of SNP interactions that are associated with common diseases is playing an increasing and important role in interpreting the genetic basis of disease susceptibility and in devising new diagnostic tests and treatments. However, because these data sets are large, although they typically have small sample sizes and low signal-to-noise ratios, there has been no major breakthrough despite many efforts, making this a major focus in the field of bioinformatics. In this article, we review the two main aspects of SNP interaction studies in recent years-the simulation and identification of SNP interactions-and then discuss the principles, efficiency and differences between these methods. PMID:25241224

  4. Gene-Environment Interaction in the Etiology of Mathematical Ability Using SNP Sets

    PubMed Central

    Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics ability and disability is as heritable as other cognitive abilities and disabilities, however its genetic etiology has received relatively little attention. In our recent genome-wide association study of mathematical ability in 10-year-old children, 10 SNP associations were nominated from scans of pooled DNA and validated in an individually genotyped sample. In this paper, we use a ‘SNP set’ composite of these 10 SNPs to investigate gene-environment (GE) interaction, examining whether the association between the 10-SNP set and mathematical ability differs as a function of ten environmental measures in the home and school in a sample of 1888 children with complete data. We found two significant GE interactions for environmental measures in the home and the school both in the direction of the diathesis-stress type of GE interaction: The 10-SNP set was more strongly associated with mathematical ability in chaotic homes and when parents are negative. PMID:20978832

  5. Edinburgh Research Explorer Development and validation of a high density SNP genotyping

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    , Brew, F, Tinch, AE, Gharbi, K & Hamilton, A 2014, 'Development and validation of a high density SNP Archibald1 , James E Bron2 , David J Penman2 , Alessandro Davassi5 , Fiona Brew5 , Alan E Tinch6 , Karim

  6. F-SNP: computationally predicted functional SNPs for disease association studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Phil Hyoun; Shatkay, Hagit

    2008-01-01

    The Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (F-SNP) database integrates information obtained from 16 bioinformatics tools and databases about the functional effects of SNPs. These effects are predicted and indicated at the splicing, transcriptional, translational and post-translational level. As such, the database helps identify and focus on SNPs with potential deleterious effect to human health. In particular, users can retrieve SNPs that disrupt genomic regions known to be functional, including splice sites and transcriptional regulatory regions. Users can also identify non-synonymous SNPs that may have deleterious effects on protein structure or function, interfere with protein translation or impede post-translational modification. A web interface enables easy navigation for obtaining information through multiple starting points and exploration routes (e.g. starting from SNP identifier, genomic region, gene or target disease). The F-SNP database is available at http://compbio.cs.queensu.ca/F-SNP/. PMID:17986460

  7. Interim report on updated microarray probes for the LLNL Burkholderia pseudomallei SNP array

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S; Jaing, C

    2012-03-27

    The overall goal of this project is to forensically characterize 100 unknown Burkholderia isolates in the US-Australia collaboration. We will identify genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from B. pseudomallei and near neighbor species including B. mallei, B. thailandensis and B. oklahomensis. We will design microarray probes to detect these SNP markers and analyze 100 Burkholderia genomic DNAs extracted from environmental, clinical and near neighbor isolates from Australian collaborators on the Burkholderia SNP microarray. We will analyze the microarray genotyping results to characterize the genetic diversity of these new isolates and triage the samples for whole genome sequencing. In this interim report, we described the SNP analysis and the microarray probe design for the Burkholderia SNP microarray.

  8. Inference of Population Structure using Dense Haplotype Data

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Daniel John; Hellenthal, Garrett

    2012-01-01

    The advent of genome-wide dense variation data provides an opportunity to investigate ancestry in unprecedented detail, but presents new statistical challenges. We propose a novel inference framework that aims to efficiently capture information on population structure provided by patterns of haplotype similarity. Each individual in a sample is considered in turn as a recipient, whose chromosomes are reconstructed using chunks of DNA donated by the other individuals. Results of this “chromosome painting” can be summarized as a “coancestry matrix,” which directly reveals key information about ancestral relationships among individuals. If markers are viewed as independent, we show that this matrix almost completely captures the information used by both standard Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and model-based approaches such as STRUCTURE in a unified manner. Furthermore, when markers are in linkage disequilibrium, the matrix combines information across successive markers to increase the ability to discern fine-scale population structure using PCA. In parallel, we have developed an efficient model-based approach to identify discrete populations using this matrix, which offers advantages over PCA in terms of interpretability and over existing clustering algorithms in terms of speed, number of separable populations, and sensitivity to subtle population structure. We analyse Human Genome Diversity Panel data for 938 individuals and 641,000 markers, and we identify 226 populations reflecting differences on continental, regional, local, and family scales. We present multiple lines of evidence that, while many methods capture similar information among strongly differentiated groups, more subtle population structure in human populations is consistently present at a much finer level than currently available geographic labels and is only captured by the haplotype-based approach. The software used for this article, ChromoPainter and fineSTRUCTURE, is available from http://www.paintmychromosomes.com/. PMID:22291602

  9. Association between VEGF polymorphisms (936c/t, -460t/c and -634g/c) with haplotypes and coronary heart disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xia; Liu, Lili; Niu, Jiamin; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Zengtang; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and coronary heart disease (CHD) susceptibility in Chinese Han population. Methods: 144 CHD patients and 150 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Three SNPs (936C/T, -460T/C and -634G/C) of VEGF were chose and then were genotyped with Sequenom time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the association of genotypes and haplotypes and CHD susceptibility. Results: The frequencies of -460T/C CC genotype (13.6%) was found higher in the case group than that of control group (6.7%), which indicated that CC genotype was a risk factor for CHD (OR=2.50, 95% CI=1.10-5.68). Correspondently, the C allele appeared to increase the risk of CHD (OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.07-2.22). For -634G/C polymorphism, the risk of the CC genotype carrier for CHD increased 2.24 fold compared to the wild genotype. Moreover, -634G/CC allele was significantly associated with CHD susceptibility (OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.15-2.36). In addition, +936C/T CT genotype and C allele appeared to be a genetic-susceptibility factors for CHD (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.44-4.10; OR=1.95, 95% CI=1.26-3.02). The haplotype analysis showed that T-C-T, C-C-C and C-G-C haplotypes all could increase the risk for CHD (OR: 2.43, 2.77 and 2.33). Conclusion: we concluded VEGF polymorphisms were associated with CHD susceptibility. Moreover, the haplotypes of T-C-T, C-C-C and C-G-C all could increase the risk for CHD. PMID:25755796

  10. Fetal Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia: Genetic Studies of the Arab-Indian Haplotype

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Duyen; Bae, Harold; Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola; Solovieff, Nadia; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Melista, Efthymia; Safaya, Surinder; Farrar, Lindsay A.; Suliman, Ahmed M.; Albuali, Waleed H.; Al Bagshi, Muneer H.; Akinsheye, Idowu; Gallagher, Patrick; Luo, Hong-yuan; Chui, David H.K.; Farrell, John J.; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Alsultan, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is common in the Middle East and India where the HbS gene is sometimes associated with the Arab-Indian (AI) ?-globin gene (HBB) cluster haplotype. In this haplotype of sickle cell anemia, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels are 3-4 fold higher than those found in patients with HbS haplotypes of African origin. Little is known about the genetic elements that modulate HbF in AI haplotype patients. We therefor studied Saudi HbS homozygotes with the AI haplotype (mean HbF 19.2±7.0%, range 3.6 to 39.6%) and known genotyped cis- and trans-acting elements associated with HbF expression. All cases, regardless of HbF concentration, were homozygous for AI haplotype-specific elements cis to HBB. SNPs in BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB that were associated with HbF in other populations explained only 8.8% of the variation of HbF. KLF1 polymorphisms associated previously with high HbF were not present In the 44 patients tested. The SNPs and genetic loci we have chosen for this study do not explain the high HbF in sickle cell patients with AI haplotype or its variation among patients with this haplotype. The dispersion of HbF levels among AI haplotype patients suggests that other genetic elements modulate the effects of the known cis- and trans-acting regulators. These regulatory elements, which remain to be discovered, might be specific in the Saudi and some other populations where HbF levels are especially high. PMID:23465615

  11. Haplotypes at LBX1 Have Distinct Inheritance Patterns with Opposite Effects in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Chettier, Rakesh; Nelson, Lesa; Ogilvie, James W.; Albertsen, Hans M.; Ward, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a clinically significant disorder with high heritability that affects 2–4% of the population. Genome-wide association studies have identified LBX1 as a strong susceptibility locus for AIS in Asian and Caucasian populations. Here we further dissect the genetic association with AIS in a Caucasian population. To identify genetic markers associated with AIS we employed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) design comparing 620 female Caucasian patients who developed idiopathic scoliosis during adolescence with 1,287 ethnically matched females who had normal spinal curves by skeletal maturity. The genomic region around LBX1 was imputed and haplotypes investigated for genetic signals under different inheritance models. The strongest signal was identified upstream of LBX1 (rs11190878, Ptrend = 4.18×10-9, OR = 0.63[0.54–0.74]). None of the remaining SNPs pass the genome-wide significance threshold. We found rs11190870, downstream of LBX1 and previously associated with AIS in Asian populations, to be in modest linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs11190878 (r2 = 0.40, D' = 0.81). Haplotype analysis shows that rs11190870 and rs11190878 track a single risk factor that resides on the ancestral haplotype and is shared across ethnic groups. We identify six haplotypes at the LBX1 locus including two strongly associated haplotypes; a recessive risk haplotype (TTA, Controlfreq = 0.52, P = 1.25×10-9, OR = 1.56), and a co-dominant protective haplotype (CCG, Controlfreq = 0.28, P = 2.75×10-7, OR = 0.65). Together the association signals from LBX1 explain 1.4% of phenotypic variance. Our results identify two clinically relevant haplotypes in the LBX1-region with opposite effects on AIS risk. The study demonstrates the utility of haplotypes over un-phased SNPs for individualized risk assessment by more strongly delineating individuals at risk for AIS without compromising the effect size. PMID:25675428

  12. ICAM-1 molecular mechanism and genome wide SNP's association studies.

    PubMed

    Anbarasan, C; Bavanilatha, M; Latchumanadhas, K; Ajit Mullasari, S

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages transformed foam cell formation occurs as a result of leukocyte accumulation mediated through intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), and E-selectin, secreted by inflamed or damaged endothelium. The key molecule is the ICAM-1, member of the adhesion immunoglobulin super family that maps to chromosome 19 p13.2-p13.3 codes for 505 amino acids have five extracellular domains including circulatory leukocytes binding site (primarily monocytes) for recruiting it at the sites of inflammation and the tight adhesion with vascular endothelium for the above mentioned pathogenesis as an initial step. Hence the objective of the current paper is to review the Genome Wide Association (GWA) studies and summarizes its understanding of functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP's) of ICAM-1 clinical association to provide better guidance for the clinicians and researchers of the merits, demerits of the current results and direct them to do research on larger number of population for better prospective. PMID:26138191

  13. Sturgeon conservation genomics: SNP discovery and validation using RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ogden, R; Gharbi, K; Mugue, N; Martinsohn, J; Senn, H; Davey, J W; Pourkazemi, M; McEwing, R; Eland, C; Vidotto, M; Sergeev, A; Congiu, L

    2013-06-01

    Caviar-producing sturgeons belonging to the genus Acipenser are considered to be one of the most endangered species groups in the world. Continued overfishing in spite of increasing legislation, zero catch quotas and extensive aquaculture production have led to the collapse of wild stocks across Europe and Asia. The evolutionary relationships among Adriatic, Russian, Persian and Siberian sturgeons are complex because of past introgression events and remain poorly understood. Conservation management, traceability and enforcement suffer a lack of appropriate DNA markers for the genetic identification of sturgeon at the species, population and individual level. This study employed RAD sequencing to discover and characterize single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA markers for use in sturgeon conservation in these four tetraploid species over three biological levels, using a single sequencing lane. Four population meta-samples and eight individual samples from one family were barcoded separately before sequencing. Analysis of 14.4 Gb of paired-end RAD data focused on the identification of SNPs in the paired-end contig, with subsequent in silico and empirical validation of candidate markers. Thousands of putatively informative markers were identified including, for the first time, SNPs that show population-wide differentiation between Russian and Persian sturgeons, representing an important advance in our ability to manage these cryptic species. The results highlight the challenges of genotyping-by-sequencing in polyploid taxa, while establishing the potential genetic resources for developing a new range of caviar traceability and enforcement tools. PMID:23473098

  14. Widespread and structured distributions of blood parasite haplotypes across a migratory divide of the Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus).

    PubMed

    Svensson, L M E; Ruegg, K C; Sekercioglu, C H; Sehgal, R N M

    2007-12-01

    We examined the phylogenetic distribution of cytochrome b haplotypes of the avian blood parasite genera Haemoproteus and Plasmodium across the migratory divide of the Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus) in British Columbia, Canada. From 87 host individuals, we identified 8 parasite haplotypes; 4 of Plasmodium and 4 of Haemoproteus. Six haplotypes were novel; 1 Haemoproteus haplotype was identical to H. majoris found in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus) in Sweden, and another halotype was identical to a Plasmodium haplotype found in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) in Oregon. The 2 most abundant parasite haplotypes were widely distributed across the contact zone, whereas 2 other parasite haplotypes seem to have structured distributions. Compared with 74 Plasmodium and Haemoproteus haplotypes published in GenBank, haplotypes recovered from Swainson's thrushes do not form monophyletic groups, and they are closely related to haplotypes from a variety of other hosts and localities. In addition, we recovered 2 Swainson's thrush Plasmodium haplotypes from the nonmigratory orange-billed nightingale thrush (Catharus aurantiirostris) in Costa Rica. This study is the first to elucidate avian blood parasite transmission, distribution, and phylogenetic relationships in an avian contact zone in North America. PMID:18314697

  15. SNP and gene networks construction and analysis from classification of copy number variations data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Detection of genomic DNA copy number variations (CNVs) can provide a complete and more comprehensive view of human disease. It is interesting to identify and represent relevant CNVs from a genome-wide data due to high data volume and the complexity of interactions. Results In this paper, we incorporate the DNA copy number variation data derived from SNP arrays into a computational shrunken model and formalize the detection of copy number variations as a case-control classification problem. More than 80% accuracy can be obtained using our classification model and by shrinkage, the number of relevant CNVs to disease can be determined. In order to understand relevant CNVs, we study their corresponding SNPs in the genome and a statistical software PLINK is employed to compute the pair-wise SNP-SNP interactions, and identify SNP networks based on their P-values. Our selected SNP networks are statistically significant compared with random SNP networks and play a role in the biological process. For the unique genes that those SNPs are located in, a gene-gene similarity value is computed using GOSemSim and gene pairs that have similarity values being greater than a threshold are selected to construct gene networks. A gene enrichment analysis show that our gene networks are functionally important. Experimental results demonstrate that our selected SNP and gene networks based on the selected CNVs contain some functional relationships directly or indirectly to disease study. Conclusions Two datasets are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the introduced method. Some statistical and biological analysis show that this shrunken classification model is effective in identifying CNVs from genome-wide data and our proposed framework has a potential to become a useful analysis tool for SNP data sets. PMID:21989070

  16. Prim-SNPing: a primer designer for cost-effective SNP genotyping.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Hung, Yu-Chen; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Gu, De-Leung; Yang, Cheng-Hong

    2009-05-01

    Many kinds of primer design (PD) software tools have been developed, but most of them lack a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping service. Here, we introduce the web-based freeware "Prim-SNPing," which, in addition to general PD, provides three kinds of primer design functions for cost-effective SNP genotyping: natural PD, mutagenic PD, and confronting two-pair primers (CTPP) PD. The natural PD and mutagenic PD provide primers and restriction enzyme mining for polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment of length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), while CTPP PD provides primers for restriction enzyme-free SNP genotyping. The PCR specificity and efficiency of the designed primers are improved by BLAST searching and evaluating secondary structure (such as GC clamps, dimers, and hairpins), respectively. The length pattern of PCR-RFLP using natural PD is user-adjustable, and the restriction sites of the RFLP enzymes provided by Prim-SNPing are confirmed to be absent within the generated PCR product. In CTPP PD, the need for a separate digestion step in RFLP is eliminated, thus making it faster and cheaper. The output of Prim-SNPing includes the primer list, melting temperature (Tm) value, GC percentage, and amplicon size with enzyme digestion information. The reference SNP (refSNP, or rs) clusters from the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism database (dbSNP) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and multiple other formats of human, mouse, and rat SNP sequences are acceptable input. In summary, Prim-SNPing provides interactive, user-friendly and cost-effective primer design for SNP genotyping. It is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/prim-snping. PMID:19480636

  17. HLA Class II Haplotypes Distinctly Associated with Vaso-Occlusion in Children with Sickle Cell Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Najat; Al-Ola, Khadija; Al-Subaie, Abeer M.; Ali, Muhallab E.; Al-Irhayim, Zaid; Al-Irhayim, A. Qader; Almawi, Wassim Y.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association of HLA class II alleles and haplotypes with sickle cell anemia vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). DRB1*100101 was positively associated, while DRB1*140101, DRB1*150101, and DQB1*060101 were negatively associated, with VOC. Both susceptible (DRB1*100101-DQB1*050101) and protective (DRB1*110101-DQB1*030101 and DRB1*150101-DQB1*060101) haplotypes were identified, indicating that HLA class II haplotypes influence VOC risk. PMID:18272668

  18. SNP discovery in nonmodel organisms: strand bias and base-substitution errors reduce conversion rates.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Barendse, William; Kijas, James W; Barris, Wes C; McWilliam, Sean; Bunch, Rowan J; McCullough, Russell; Harrison, Blair; Hoelzel, A Rus; England, Phillip R

    2015-07-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the marker of choice for genetic studies in organisms of conservation, commercial or biological interest. Most SNP discovery projects in nonmodel organisms apply a strategy for identifying putative SNPs based on filtering rules that account for random sequencing errors. Here, we analyse data used to develop 4723 novel SNPs for the commercially important deep-sea fish, orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), to assess the impact of not accounting for systematic sequencing errors when filtering identified polymorphisms when discovering SNPs. We used SAMtools to identify polymorphisms in a velvet assembly of genomic DNA sequence data from seven individuals. The resulting set of polymorphisms were filtered to minimize 'bycatch'-polymorphisms caused by sequencing or assembly error. An Illumina Infinium SNP chip was used to genotype a final set of 7714 polymorphisms across 1734 individuals. Five predictors were examined for their effect on the probability of obtaining an assayable SNP: depth of coverage, number of reads that support a variant, polymorphism type (e.g. A/C), strand-bias and Illumina SNP probe design score. Our results indicate that filtering out systematic sequencing errors could substantially improve the efficiency of SNP discovery. We show that BLASTX can be used as an efficient tool to identify single-copy genomic regions in the absence of a reference genome. The results have implications for research aiming to identify assayable SNPs and build SNP genotyping assays for nonmodel organisms. PMID:25388640

  19. New Explicit Expressions for Relative Frequencies of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms With Application to Statistical Inference on Population Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Polanski; M. Kimmel

    2003-01-01

    We present new methodology for calculating sampling distributions of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies in populations with time-varying size. Our approach is based on deriving analytical expressions for frequencies of SNPs. Analytical expressions allow for computations that are faster and more accurate than Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast to other articles showing analytical formulas for frequencies of SNPs, we derive expressions

  20. Haplotype C of growth hormone (GH) gene in Japanese Black cattle: structure of GH protein and a novel method for detection of the gene.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Abolfazl; Ardiyanti, Astrid; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Suzuki, Keiichi; Tanida, Nanako; Hirayama, Takuji; Roh, Sang-Gun; Nishio, Takeshi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    From a series of studies on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine growth hormone (GH) gene of Japanese Black cattle, the type-C (127(Val) and 172(Met) ) that is specific for this breed has been intensively focused upon because of the economic importance for carcass traits, such as intramuscular oleic acid contents. In the present study, we intended to analyze the 3-D structure of GH of haplotype C, and developed a novel method to detect the type C gene. Three-D analysis of the type C protein showed that the amino acid residues (127(Val) and 172(Met) ), which are present in the third and fourth helixes, respectively, and are important for binding with GH receptors, are shifted to deeper positions in the molecule compared with that for type A (127(Leu) and 172(Thr) ), implying the alteration of binding interaction with receptors. A novel, efficient and cost-effective method (Dot-blot-SNP technique) for type C genotyping was successfully established, of which the basal method was a reported genotyping of SNPs for a large number of plants, reducing the cost to 10% or less of direct sequencing. PMID:24128040

  1. Linkage mapping and molecular diversity at the flower sex locus in wild and cultivated grapevine reveal a prominent SSR haplotype in hermaphrodite plants.

    PubMed

    Battilana, Juri; Lorenzi, Silvia; Moreira, Flavia M; Moreno-Sanz, Paula; Failla, Osvaldo; Emanuelli, Francesco; Grando, M Stella

    2013-07-01

    Cultivars used for wine and table grape have self-fertile hermaphrodite flowers whereas wild European vines and American and Asian species are dioecious, having either male or female flowers. Consistent with previous studies, the flower sex trait was mapped as a single major locus on chromosome 2 based on a pure Vitis vinifera population segregating for hermaphrodite and female progeny, and a hybrid population producing all three flower sex types. The sex locus was placed between the same SSR and SNP markers on both genetic maps, although abnormal segregation hampered to fine map the genomic region. From a total of 55 possible haplotypes inferred for three SSR markers around the sex locus, in a population of 132 V. sylvestris accessions and 171 V. vinifera cultivars, one of them accounted for 66 % of the hermaphrodite individuals and may be the result of domestication. Specific size variants of the VVIB23 microsatellite sequence within the 3'-UTR of a putative YABBY1 gene were found to be statistically significantly associated with the sex alleles M, H and f; these markers can provide assistance in defining the status of wild grapevine germplasm. PMID:23532385

  2. SNP discovery in wild and domesticated populations of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, using genotyping-by-sequencing and subsequent SNP validation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Waldbieser, Geoff; Bosworth, Brian; Beck, Benjamin H; Thongda, Wilawan; Peatman, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, are valued in the United States as a trophy fishery for their capacity to reach large sizes, sometimes exceeding 45 kg. Additionally, blue catfish × channel catfish (I. punctatus) hybrid food fish production has recently increased the demand for blue catfish broodstock. However, there has been little study of the genetic impacts and interaction of farmed, introduced and stocked populations of blue catfish. We utilized genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to capture and genotype SNP markers on 190 individuals from five wild and domesticated populations (Mississippi River, Missouri, D&B, Rio Grande and Texas). Stringent filtering of SNP-calling parameters resulted in 4275 SNP loci represented across all five populations. Population genetics and structure analyses revealed potential shared ancestry and admixture between populations. We utilized the Sequenom MassARRAY to validate two multiplex panels of SNPs selected from the GBS data. Selection criteria included SNPs shared between populations, SNPs specific to populations, number of reads per individual and number of individuals genotyped by GBS. Putative SNPs were validated in the discovery population and in two additional populations not used in the GBS analysis. A total of 64 SNPs were genotyped successfully in 191 individuals from nine populations. Our results should guide the development of highly informative, flexible genotyping multiplexes for blue catfish from the larger GBS SNP set as well as provide an example of a rapid, low-cost approach to generate and genotype informative marker loci in aquatic species with minimal previous genetic information. PMID:24797164

  3. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA VARIATION AND HAPLOTYPE DIVERSITY AMONG SEASONALLY ISOLATED POPULATIONS OF INTERMITTENT STREAM FISHES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated population differentiation and haplotype diversity among seasonally fragmented populations of three stream fishes in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas. Within intermittent streams, riffles may dry during the summer, resulting in nearly to completely isolated pools. We sampled Lepomi...

  4. Studies at the hemochromatosis (HFE) locus : gene conversions, haplotypes, and association analysis

    E-print Network

    Kamihara-Ting, Junne

    2006-01-01

    Haplotype-based association studies offer an exciting potential methodology for the identification of genes that contribute to complex traits. There is thus great interest in understanding the biological forces that shape ...

  5. Chloroplast DNA Haplotype Variation within and among Populations of Coreopsis grandi'ora (Asteraceae)

    E-print Network

    Mason-Gamer, Roberta J.

    Chloroplast DNA Haplotype Variation within and among Populations of Coreopsis grandi and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut An intraspecific chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) restriction siteDNA variation for analyses of intraspecific and intrapopulational genetic structure and yielded evidence

  6. Species delimitation using genome-wide SNP data.

    PubMed

    Leaché, Adam D; Fujita, Matthew K; Minin, Vladimir N; Bouckaert, Remco R

    2014-07-01

    The multispecies coalescent has provided important progress for evolutionary inferences, including increasing the statistical rigor and objectivity of comparisons among competing species delimitation models. However, Bayesian species delimitation methods typically require brute force integration over gene trees via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), which introduces a large computation burden and precludes their application to genomic-scale data. Here we combine a recently introduced dynamic programming algorithm for estimating species trees that bypasses MCMC integration over gene trees with sophisticated methods for estimating marginal likelihoods, needed for Bayesian model selection, to provide a rigorous and computationally tractable technique for genome-wide species delimitation. We provide a critical yet simple correction that brings the likelihoods of different species trees, and more importantly their corresponding marginal likelihoods, to the same common denominator, which enables direct and accurate comparisons of competing species delimitation models using Bayes factors. We test this approach, which we call Bayes factor delimitation (*with genomic data; BFD*), using common species delimitation scenarios with computer simulations. Varying the numbers of loci and the number of samples suggest that the approach can distinguish the true model even with few loci and limited samples per species. Misspecification of the prior for population size ? has little impact on support for the true model. We apply the approach to West African forest geckos (Hemidactylus fasciatus complex) using genome-wide SNP data. This new Bayesian method for species delimitation builds on a growing trend for objective species delimitation methods with explicit model assumptions that are easily tested. [Bayes factor; model testing; phylogeography; RADseq; simulation; speciation.]. PMID:24627183

  7. Species Delimitation using Genome-Wide SNP Data

    PubMed Central

    Leaché, Adam D.; Fujita, Matthew K.; Minin, Vladimir N.; Bouckaert, Remco R.

    2014-01-01

    The multispecies coalescent has provided important progress for evolutionary inferences, including increasing the statistical rigor and objectivity of comparisons among competing species delimitation models. However, Bayesian species delimitation methods typically require brute force integration over gene trees via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), which introduces a large computation burden and precludes their application to genomic-scale data. Here we combine a recently introduced dynamic programming algorithm for estimating species trees that bypasses MCMC integration over gene trees with sophisticated methods for estimating marginal likelihoods, needed for Bayesian model selection, to provide a rigorous and computationally tractable technique for genome-wide species delimitation. We provide a critical yet simple correction that brings the likelihoods of different species trees, and more importantly their corresponding marginal likelihoods, to the same common denominator, which enables direct and accurate comparisons of competing species delimitation models using Bayes factors. We test this approach, which we call Bayes factor delimitation (*with genomic data; BFD*), using common species delimitation scenarios with computer simulations. Varying the numbers of loci and the number of samples suggest that the approach can distinguish the true model even with few loci and limited samples per species. Misspecification of the prior for population size ? has little impact on support for the true model. We apply the approach to West African forest geckos (Hemidactylus fasciatus complex) using genome-wide SNP data. This new Bayesian method for species delimitation builds on a growing trend for objective species delimitation methods with explicit model assumptions that are easily tested. [Bayes factor; model testing; phylogeography; RADseq; simulation; speciation.] PMID:24627183

  8. The CYP2C19 Intron 2 Branch Point SNP is the Ancestral Polymorphism Contributing to the Poor Metabolizer Phenotype in Livers with CYP2C19*35 and CYP2C19*2 Alleles.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Amarjit S; Prasad, Bhagwat; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Fohner, Alison; Finkelstein, David; Fan, Yiping; Wang, Shuoguo; Wu, Gang; Aklillu, Eleni; Sim, Sarah C; Thummel, Kenneth E; Schuetz, Erin G

    2015-08-01

    CYP2C19 rs12769205 alters an intron 2 branch point adenine leading to an alternative mRNA in human liver with complete inclusion of intron 2 (exon 2B). rs12769205 changes the mRNA reading frame, introduces 87 amino acids, and leads to a premature stop codon. The 1000 Genomes project (http://browser.1000genomes.org/index.html) indicated rs12769205 is in linkage disequilibrium with rs4244285 on CYP2C19*2, but found alone on CYP2C19*35 in Blacks. Minigenes containing rs12769205 transfected into HepG2 cells demonstrated this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alone leads to exon 2B and decreases CYP2C19 canonical mRNA. A residual amount of CYP2C19 protein was detectable by quantitative proteomics with tandem mass spectrometry in CYP2C19*2/*2 and *1/*35 liver microsomes with an exon 2 probe. However, an exon 4 probe, downstream from rs12769205, but upstream of rs4244285, failed to detect CYP2C19 protein in livers homozygous for rs12769205, demonstrating rs12769205 alone can lead to complete loss of CYP2C19 protein. CYP2C19 genotypes and mephenytoin phenotype were compared in 104 Ethiopians. Poor metabolism of mephenytoin was seen in persons homozygous for both rs12769205 and rs4244285 (CYP2C19*2/*2), but with little effect on mephenytoin disposition of CYP2C19*1/*2, CYP2C19*1/*3, or CYP2C19*1/*35 heterozygous alleles. Extended haplotype homozygosity tests of the HapMap Yorubans (YRI) showed both haplotypes carrying rs12769205 (CYP2C19*35 and CYP2C19*2) are under significant natural selection, with CYP2C19*35 having a higher relative extended haplotype homozygosity score. The phylogenetic tree of the YRI CYP2C19 haplotypes revealed rs12769205 arose first on CYP2C19*35 and that rs4244285 was added later, creating CYP2C19*2. In conclusion, rs12769205 is the ancestral polymorphism leading to aberrant splicing of CYP2C19*35 and CYP2C19*2 alleles in liver. PMID:26021325

  9. DERIVED SNP ALLELES ARE USED MORE FREQUENTLY THAN ANCESTRAL ALLELES AS RISK-ASSOCIATED VARIANTS IN COMMON HUMAN DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    GORLOVA, OLGA Y.; YING, JUN; AMOS, CHRISTOPHER I.; SPITZ, MARGARET R.; PENG, BO; GORLOV, IVAN P.

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary aspects of the genetic architecture of common human diseases remain enigmatic. The results of more than 200 genome-wide association studies published to date were compiled in a catalog (http://www.genome.gov/26525384/). We used cataloged data to determine whether derived (mutant) alleles are associated with higher risk of human disease more frequently than ancestral alleles. We placed all allelic variants into ten categories of population frequency (0%–100%) in 10% increments. We then analyzed the relationship between allelic frequency, evolutionary status of the polymorphic site (ancestral versus derived), and disease risk status (risk versus protection). Given the same population frequency, derived alleles are more likely to be risk associated than ancestral alleles, as are rarer alleles. The common interpretation of this association is that negative selection prevents fixation of the risk variants. However, disease stratification as early or late onset suggests that weak selection against risk-associated alleles is unlikely a major factor shaping genetic architecture of common diseases. Our results clearly suggest that the duration of existence of an allele in a population is more important. Alleles existing longer tend to show weaker linkage disequilibrium with neighboring alleles, including the causal alleles, and are less likely to tag a SNP-disease association. PMID:22809343

  10. Derived SNP alleles are used more frequently than ancestral alleles as risk-associated variants in common human diseases.

    PubMed

    Gorlova, Olga Y; Ying, Jun; Amos, Christopher I; Spitz, Margaret R; Peng, Bo; Gorlov, Ivan P

    2012-04-01

    Evolutionary aspects of the genetic architecture of common human diseases remain enigmatic. The results of more than 200 genome-wide association studies published to date were compiled in a catalog (). We used cataloged data to determine whether derived (mutant) alleles are associated with higher risk of human disease more frequently than ancestral alleles. We placed all allelic variants into ten categories of population frequency (0%-100%) in 10% increments. We then analyzed the relationship between allelic frequency, evolutionary status of the polymorphic site (ancestral versus derived), and disease risk status (risk versus protection). Given the same population frequency, derived alleles are more likely to be risk associated than ancestral alleles, as are rarer alleles. The common interpretation of this association is that negative selection prevents fixation of the risk variants. However, disease stratification as early or late onset suggests that weak selection against risk-associated alleles is unlikely a major factor shaping genetic architecture of common diseases. Our results clearly suggest that the duration of existence of an allele in a population is more important. Alleles existing longer tend to show weaker linkage disequilibrium with neighboring alleles, including the causal alleles, and are less likely to tag a SNP-disease association. PMID:22809343

  11. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome haplotype motifs as diagnostic markers of Jewish ancestry: a reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Taglioli, Luca; Bertoncini, Stefania; Francalacci, Paolo; Klyosov, Anatole; Pagani, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Several authors have proposed haplotype motifs based on site variants at the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) to trace the genealogies of Jewish people. Here, we analyzed their main approaches and test the feasibility of adopting motifs as ancestry markers through construction of a large database of mtDNA and NRY haplotypes from public genetic genealogical repositories. We verified the reliability of Jewish ancestry prediction based on the Cohen and Levite Modal Haplotypes in their "classical" 6 STR marker format or in the "extended" 12 STR format, as well as four founder mtDNA lineages (HVS-I segments) accounting for about 40% of the current population of Ashkenazi Jews. For this purpose we compared haplotype composition in individuals of self-reported Jewish ancestry with the rest of European, African or Middle Eastern samples, to test for non-random association of ethno-geographic groups and haplotypes. Overall, NRY and mtDNA based motifs, previously reported to differentiate between groups, were found to be more represented in Jewish compared to non-Jewish groups. However, this seems to stem from common ancestors of Jewish lineages being rather recent respect to ancestors of non-Jewish lineages with the same "haplotype signatures." Moreover, the polyphyly of haplotypes which contain the proposed motifs and the misuse of constant mutation rates heavily affected previous attempts to correctly dating the origin of common ancestries. Accordingly, our results stress the limitations of using the above haplotype motifs as reliable Jewish ancestry predictors and show its inadequacy for forensic or genealogical purposes. PMID:25431579

  12. Online reference database of European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Roewer; M. Krawczak; S. Willuweit; M. Nagy; C. Alves; A. Amorim; K. Anslinger; C. Augustin; A. Betz; E. Bosch; A. Cagliá; A. Carracedo; D. Corach; A.-F. Dekairelle; T. Dobosz; B. M. Dupuy; S. Füredi; C. Gehrig; L. Gusmaõ; J. Henke; L. Henke; M. Hidding; C. Hohoff; B. Hoste; M. A. Jobling; H. J. Kärgel; P. de Knijff; R. Lessig; E. Liebeherr; M. Lorente; B. Mart??nez-Jarreta; P. Nievas; M. Nowak; W. Parson; V. L. Pascali; G. Penacino; R. Ploski; B. Rolf; A. Sala; C. Schmitt; U. Schmidt; P. M. Schneider; R. Szibor; J. Teifel-Greding; M. Kayser

    2001-01-01

    The reference database of highly informative Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes (YHRD), available online at http:\\/\\/ystr.charite.de, represents the largest collection of male-specific genetic profiles currently available for European populations. By September 2000, YHRD contained 4688 9-locus (so-called “minimal”) haplotypes, 40% of which have been extended further to include two additional loci. Establishment of YHRD has been facilitated by the

  13. Distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes ( cytb ) in Polish populations of Emys orbicularis (L., 1758)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beata Prusak; Bart?omiej Najbar; S?awomir Mitrus; Grzegorz Grzybowski; Urszula Rogalla; Adam Hryniewicz; Robert Wróblewski; Robert Bochen; Tomasz Grzybowski

    2011-01-01

    The European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis, inhabits a wide distribution area in the western Palaearctic. Polish populations of pond turtle represent the nominotypical\\u000a subspecies Emys orbicularis orbicularis. The mitochondrial DNA haplotype (cytb gene) variation among 131 turtles from 26 locations in five regions of Poland was investigated. Five haplotypes belonging\\u000a to three distinct lineages were identified. Two clades (I and

  14. Fine-resolution mapping by haplotype evaluation: the examples of PFIC1 and BRIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura N. Bull; Jenneke A. Juijn; Mira Liao; Michiel J. T. van Eijk; Richard J. Sinke; Nicole L. Stricker; Joseph A. DeYoung; Victoria E. H. Carlton; Siamak Baharloo; L. W. J. Klomp; Daiki Abukawa; David E. Barton; Nathan M. Bass; Billy Bourke; Brendan Drumm; Irena Jankowska; Piero Lovisetto; Shirley McQuaid; Joanna Pawlowska; Yusaku Tazawa; Erica Villa; Niels Tygstrup; Ruud Berger; Alexander S. Knisely; Roderick H. J. Houwen; N. B. Freimer

    1999-01-01

    Loci for two inherited liver diseases, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) and progressive familial intrahepatic\\u000a cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1), have previously been mapped to 18q21 by a search for shared haplotypes in patients in two isolated\\u000a populations. This paper describes the use of further haplotype evaluation with a larger sample of patients for both disorders,\\u000a drawn from several different populations.

  15. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome haplotype motifs as diagnostic markers of Jewish ancestry: a reconsideration

    PubMed Central

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Taglioli, Luca; Bertoncini, Stefania; Francalacci, Paolo; Klyosov, Anatole; Pagani, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Several authors have proposed haplotype motifs based on site variants at the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) to trace the genealogies of Jewish people. Here, we analyzed their main approaches and test the feasibility of adopting motifs as ancestry markers through construction of a large database of mtDNA and NRY haplotypes from public genetic genealogical repositories. We verified the reliability of Jewish ancestry prediction based on the Cohen and Levite Modal Haplotypes in their “classical” 6 STR marker format or in the “extended” 12 STR format, as well as four founder mtDNA lineages (HVS-I segments) accounting for about 40% of the current population of Ashkenazi Jews. For this purpose we compared haplotype composition in individuals of self-reported Jewish ancestry with the rest of European, African or Middle Eastern samples, to test for non-random association of ethno-geographic groups and haplotypes. Overall, NRY and mtDNA based motifs, previously reported to differentiate between groups, were found to be more represented in Jewish compared to non-Jewish groups. However, this seems to stem from common ancestors of Jewish lineages being rather recent respect to ancestors of non-Jewish lineages with the same “haplotype signatures.” Moreover, the polyphyly of haplotypes which contain the proposed motifs and the misuse of constant mutation rates heavily affected previous attempts to correctly dating the origin of common ancestries. Accordingly, our results stress the limitations of using the above haplotype motifs as reliable Jewish ancestry predictors and show its inadequacy for forensic or genealogical purposes. PMID:25431579

  16. SNP Analysis Infers that Recombination Is Involved in the Evolution of Amitraz Resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A.; Madder, Maxime; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus, better known as the Asiatic cattle tick, is a largely invasive ectoparasite of great economic importance due to the negative effect it has on agricultural livestock on a global scale, particularly cattle. Tick-borne diseases (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) transmitted by R. microplus are alarming as they decrease the quality of livestock health and production. In sub-Saharan Africa, cattle represent a major source of meat and milk, but this region of the world is severely affected by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. The principal method for tick control is the use of chemical acaricides, notably amitraz, which was implemented in the 1990’s after resistance to other acaricides surfaced. However, the efficiency of chemical control is hindered by an increase in the frequency of mutant resistance alleles to amitraz in tick populations. Presently, the only way to assess amitraz resistance is by means of larval packet tests, but this technique is time-consuming and not particularly cost effective. The main aims of this study were t