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1

VARIABILIDAD ESPACIAL DE PROPIEDADES HIDRAULICAS Y ELEMENTOS TRAZA EN SUELOS AFECTADOS POR EL VERTIDO DE AZNALCOLLAR SOMETIDOS A RECUPERACION  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. Después del accidente minero de Aznalcóllar (25\\/04\\/98) se llevaron a cabo las labores de recuperación de los suelos, consistentes en: a) la remoción de los lodos depositados sobre la superficie de los mismos, así como de una capa de suelo contaminado de hasta 20 cm de profundidad, y b) la aplicación de enmiendas. Como consecuencia de estas labores, quedaron

F. Moreno; I. F. Girón; F. Cabrera

2

Methylocella silvestris sp. nov., a novel methanotroph isolated from an acidic forest cambisol.  

PubMed

Two strains of Gram-negative, aerobic, non-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped, methane-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from an acidic forest cambisol near Marburg, Germany, and were designated as strains BL2(T) and A1. These bacteria were morphologically and phenotypically similar to Methylocella palustris K(T). The cells possess a highly specific bipolar appearance. They lack the intracytoplasmic membranes common to all methane-oxidizing bacteria except Methylocella, but contain a vesicular membrane system connected to the cytoplasmic membrane. A soluble methane monooxygenase was present, but no particulate methane monooxygenase could be detected. These bacteria utilize the serine pathway for carbon assimilation. Strains BL2(T) and A1 are moderately acidophilic, mesophilic organisms capable of growth at pH values between 4.5 and 7 (with an optimum at pH 5.5) and at temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C. Compared with Methylocella palustris K(T), these strains have greater tolerance of cold temperatures, dissolved salts and methanol. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, of species with validly published names, strain BL2(T) is most closely related to Methylocella palustris K(T) (97.3 % identity), Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica ATCC 9039(T) (97.1 %) and Methylocapsa acidiphila B2(T) (96.2 %). The DNA G+C content is 60 mol% and the major phospholipid fatty acid is 18 : 1omega7. Strain BL2(T) showed only 21-22 % DNA-DNA hybridization with Methylocella palustris K(T). The data therefore suggest that strains BL2(T) and A1 represent a novel species of Methylocella; the name Methylocella silvestris sp. nov. is proposed, with strain BL2(T) (=DSM 15510(T)=NCIMB 13906(T)) as the type strain. PMID:13130000

Dunfield, Peter F; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Suzina, Natalia E; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Dedysh, Svetlana N

2003-09-01

3

Efecto de la fertilización sobre la calidad de la papa para procesamiento en dos suelos antioqueños con propiedades ándicas Effects of fertilization on the industrial quality of potato in two antioquian Andisol soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de tres niveles de NPK a la siembra (500, 1.500 y 3.000 kg·ha -1 ) en combinación con Ca (0, 2, 3 y 7 meq·100g -1 ), Mg (0; 0,7; 1,4 y 3,0 meq·100g -1 ), B (0; 0,5; 1,0 y 2,0 ppm) y S (0, 10, 20 y 40 ppm) sobre el

José M. Cotes

2008-01-01

4

Fire-induced transformation of C- and N- forms in different organic soil fractions from a Dystric Cambisol under a Mediterranean pine forest ( Pinus pinaster)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intensity forest fires in Mediterranean ecosystems probably have long-term effects on the organic matter (OM) of the forest soils. Therefore, we analyzed the quality and quantity of humic materials extracted from the A horizons (0–15cm) of a fire-affected (FA) and a control fire-unaffected (FU) Dystric Cambisol from the Sierra de Aznalcóllar (Spain). 13C and 15N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

Heike Knicker; Francisco J. González-Vila; Oliva Polvillo; José A. González; Gonzalo Almendros

2005-01-01

5

Impact of charcoal waste application on the soil organic matter content and composition of an Haplic Cambisol from South Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some regions in Brazil, charcoal is usually applied to the soil with the purpose to improve its fertility and its organic carbon (SOC) content. In Brazil, the use of charcoal waste from steel industry with agronomic purposes represents also an alternative and sustainable fate for this material. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of Eucalyptus charcoal waste application on the SOC content and on the soil organic matter (SOM) composition. Increasing doses of charcoal (0, 10, 20 and 40 Mg ha-1) were applied to an Haplic Cambisol, in Irati, South-Brazil. Charcoal was initially applied on the soil surface, and then it was incorporated at 10 cm with a harrow. Soil undisturbed and disturbed samples (four replicates) were collected in September 2011 (1 y and 9 months) after charcoal incorporation. Four soil depths were evaluated (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) and each replicate was composed by three subsamples collected within each plot. The soil samples were air dried, passed through a 9.51 mm sieve and thereafter through a 2.00 mm sieve. The SOC content and total N were quantified by dry combustion. The SOM was concentrated with fluoridric acid 10% and then the SOM composition was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis along the soil profile. The main impact of charcoal application occurred at the 0-5 cm layer of the area treated with the highest dose: SOC content increased in 15.5 g kg-1 in comparison to the soil without charcoal application. The intermediary doses also increased the SOC content, but the differences were not significant. No differences for N content were found in this soil depth. Further results were observed in the 10-20 cm soil depth, where the highest dose increased the SOC content and N content. Furthermore, this treatment increased the recalcitrance of the SOM, mainly at the 0-5 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers. No differences between doses of charcoal application were found in the 20-30 cm soil depth, suggesting that the charcoal has not migrated so deep in soil even after almost two years of its incorporation.

dos Anjos Leal, Otávio; Pinheiro Dick, Deborah; Cylene Lombardi, Kátia; Gonçalves Maciel, Vanessa

2014-05-01

6

HISTERECTOMÍA: UNA MIRADA DESDE EL SUELO PÉLVICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN La histerectomía constituye la segunda cirugía más efectuada en mujeres en edad fértil. Por esto cada día más ginecólogos se interesan en buscar técnicas de menor invasión. Dentro de este concepto y con el objetivo de preservar la indemnidad del suelo pélvico, muchos hemos propuesto la histerectomía supracervical por laparoscopía, como una de las técnicas quirúrgicas que más auge

2006-01-01

7

Gaseous Nitrogen Losses from a Cambisol Cropped to Spring Wheat with Urea Sizes and Placement Depths Globally identifying mitigation options for the emission of reactive N gases from agricultural  

Microsoft Academic Search

soils is a research priority. We investigated the effect of urea size and placement depth on sources and emissions of N gases from a Cambisol cropped to spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In Exp. 1, wheat received either prilled urea (PU) mixed within the soil, urea super granule (USG; diam. 10.1 mm) point-placed at a soil-depth of 7.5 cm, or

M. I. Khalil; M. Schraml

8

Characterization of hydrophobic acid fractions in water-soluble organic matter in Dystric Cambisol and in a stream in a small forested watershed: Seasonal and vertical variations in chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical properties of hydrophobic acid (HoA) fractions in water-soluble organic matter in soil and water are concerned with its interactions with mineral soil surfaces and organic pollutants. In 2004 we examined the seasonal and vertical changes in chemical properties of the HoA fraction in a Cambisol profile and compared these properties with those in the HoA fraction of an adjacent

Daichi Asakawa; Hidemasa Mochizuki; Yukiko Yanagi; Nobuhide Fujitake

2007-01-01

9

COMBATE DE LA PUDRICION PEDU.NCULAR DEL MANGO CAUSADA POR Botryodiplodia theobromae PAT. MEDIANTE EL MANTENIMIENTO DE LOS PEDICELOS Y EL DESLECHADO SOBRE LAMINAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se detennino el efecto de hacer el desle- Cultural practices to control of mango chado de frutos de mango en el suelo y sobre una stem-end rot caused by Botryodiplodia theo- lamina de hierro galvanizado (lamina de zinc), bromaes Pat. The following practices were eva- eliminando 0 dejando el pedunculo para ambos luated for the control of stem-end rot of

Eugenia Gonzalez; Gerardina Umana; Luis Felipe Arauz

10

Comentario sobre el artículo DINÁMICA DE SUELOS Y SUSTENTABILIDAD DE LA TIERRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pienso que discutir la optimista predicción teórica global del Sr. Revelle, en la perspectiva que él se pone es difícil, ya que se ubica en una situación ideal, en donde incluso, están resueltos los obstáculos de tipo económico. Tiene además, la ventaja de manejar cifras muy acertadas para afirmar su tesis. Sin embargo, pensar que los países en desarrollo puedan,

MARIO PERALTA

11

DESCOMPACTACIÓN DE SUELOS EN SIEMBRA DIRECTA: EFECTOS SOBRE LAS PROPIEDADES FÍSICAS Y EL CULTIVO DE MAÍZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

No-tilled soils have higher penetration resistances and bulk density values than tilled soils. Shallow compaction may be alleviated using deep tillage practices. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of soil alleviation on: 1- soil physical properties at maize sowing and harvest, 2- root abundance, maize yield and its components. Three experiments were conducted during the 2004\\/05

ÁLVAREZ CARINA ROSA; TABOADA MIGUEL ÁNGEL; BUSTINGORRI CAROLINA; GUTIÉRREZ BOEM; FLAVIO HERNÁN

12

Variation of the stability of complexes of Al(III) with a fulvic acid extracted from a humic cambisol soil in the pH range three to five  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of the aluminum ion [Al(III)] with the major constituent of soil organic matter, fulvic acids (FA), was investigated in the acid pH range. The complexation of a FA extracted from a humic cambisol soil (at a concentration of 80 mg/L) when titrated with Al(III) were monitored directly by synchronous fluorescence (SyF) spectroscopy at five pH values (3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0), at 25 C and with 0.1 N KNO{sub 3}. Inverted second derivative SyF data were preprocessed by a self-modeling mixture analysis method to obtain fluorescence enhancement profiles as a function of the increasing Al(III) concentration. Assuming that the concentration of complexes formed between Al(III) and FA is proportional to the fluorescence intensity, these profiles were adjusted to a 1:1 complexation model and the following conditional stability constants (log K{sub c}) were calculated (standard deviation in parenthesis), pH = 3.0, 4.3 (1); pH = 3.5, 4.3 (1); pH = 4.0, 5.0 (1); pH = 4.5, 5.1 (3); and pH = 5.0, 5.3 (2). These constants show that the stability of the complexes decreases markedly at pH < 4. The environmental implication of this result is that an increase in the extent of the dissociation of the Al(III) + FA complexes is expected at pH < 4, increasing the free Al(III) concentration and probably its ecotoxicity.

Esteves da Silva, J.C.G.; Machado, A.A.S.C. [LAQUIPAI, Porto (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias; Ramos, M.A.; Arce, F. [Univ. de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica; Rey, F. [Univ. de Vigo (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica

1997-09-01

13

LA ENERGÍA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE LOS SUELOS: ASPECTOS TEÓRICOS Y METODOLÓGICOS PARA SU EVALUACIÓN  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El suelo es un sistema abierto que tiende hacia un equilibrio dinámico acumulando y reciclando materia y energía a través del tiempo. Mediante un balance energético es posible evaluar la energía acumulada o la que circula a través de su masa. Esta miscelánea tiene por objetivo presentar aspectos teóricos y metodológicos para cuantificar la energía dinamizada durante la formación

AMÉRICO DEGIOANNI; ESTELA BRICCHI; EUGENIO HAMPP

2008-01-01

14

EFECTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE RESIDUOS ORGÁNICOS SOBRE EL CULTIVO DEL MAÍZ EN SUELOS DEGRADADOS DEL ESTADO YARACUY, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of applications of organic residues on maize performance in two soils of Yaracuy State, Venezuela The intense land cultivation for maize cropping on the last 50 years in Yaracuy State, Venezuela, caused an accelerated soil degradation expressed by loss of soil organic matter and crop productivity. With the objective of improving those parameters, the use of organic residues were

Isabel Arrieche; Orlando Mora

2005-01-01

15

Disertación sobre justicia y equidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

«Disertación sobre equidad y justicia» es básicamente una respuesta a una inquietud en particular que yo tenía sobre las distintas posiciones que existen sobre estos dos temas y cómo definir cuál es la más acertada. Hice una descripción del punto de vista de Amartya Sen -la violación de los derechos sobre la propiedad privada es justificable si evitan las hambrunas-

Sayuri P. Tamura

2001-01-01

16

EVALUACIÓN DE LOS MODELOS NUMÉRICOS DE FLUJO DE AGUA EN EL SUELO HYDRUS-2D Y SIMDAS EN RIEGO LOCALIZADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. En un sistema de riego localizado resulta muy importante conocer la distribución de agua en el suelo para evitar pérdidas por percolación y conseguir un nivel de producción óptimo. Para ello, en la fase inicial de diseño agronómico deben realizarse pruebas de campo previas, consistentes en aplicar un volumen de agua acorde a las necesidades del cultivo con un

G. Arbat; J. Puig; F. Ramírez de Cartagena

2003-01-01

17

EFECTO RESIDUAL DE LA ROCA FOSFÓRICA DE RIECITO MODIFICADA POR CALCINACIÓN O ACIDULACIÓN SOBRE PLANTAS DE MAÍZ EN SUELOS CON NIVEL VARIABLE DE CALCIO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual effect of acidulated or burnt Riecito phosphoric rock on maize grown in soils with variable levels of calcium With the purpose of evaluating the residual effect of phosphoric rock from Riecito (Venezuela) treated with vinaza or high temperatures, three successive crops of corn, used as indicative plant, were grown in an acid soil (pH 3.7) whitewashed up to pH

Shirley M. Fernández; Carlos A. Meza

2004-01-01

18

ESTABLECIMIENTO DE CULTIVOS DE COBERTURA Y EXTRACCIÓN TOTAL DE NUTRIENTES EN UN SUELO DE TRÓPICO HÚMEDO EN LA AMAZONÍA PERUANA ESTABLISHMENT OF COVER CROPS AND THEIR GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE IN A HUMID TROPICAL SOIL OF THE PERUVIAN AMAZON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Con la finalidad de evaluar el establecimiento de cinco cultivos de cobertura y determinar su aporte potencial a la fertilidad del suelo en función a la extracción total de nutrientes, se instaló un experimento en la Estación Experimental \\

Fernando Puertas; Enrique Arévalo; Luis Zúñiga; Julio Alegre; Oscar Loli; Hugo Soplin; Virupax Baligar

2008-01-01

19

Modelización de escenarios de cambio potencial en la vegetación y el uso de suelo en la Sierra Madre Oriental de San Luis Potosí, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenResumen Se realizó la modelación de la dinámica de cambio en el uso de suelo y la vegetación en la región de la Sierra Madre Oriental del estado de San Luis Potosí, considerado un sitio de importancia para la conservación en México por su alta biodiversidad. Para determinar la variación espacial se analizaron imágenes de satélite en un período de

Francisco Javier Sahagún-Sánchez; José Luis Flores Flores; Leonardo Chapa Vargas; Humberto Reyes-Hernández

2011-01-01

20

Modelización de escenarios de cambio potencial en la vegetación y el uso de suelo en la Sierra Madre Oriental de San Luis Potosí, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen:Se realizó la modelación de la dinámica de cambio en el uso de suelo y la vegetación en la región de la Sierra Madre Oriental del estado de San Luis Potosí, considerado un sitio de importancia para la conservación en México por su alta biodiversidad. Para determinar la variación espacial se analizaron imágenes de satélite en un período de 16

Francisco Javier Sahagún-Sánchez; José Luis Flores Flores; Leonardo Chapa Vargas; Humberto Reyes-Hernández

2011-01-01

21

Revisão sistemática sobre obesidade em adolescentes brasileiros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - O propósito deste estudo foi revisar, de forma sistemática, a literatura nacional sobre a prevalência e fatores associados à obesidade em adolescentes. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados Pubmed e Bireme, através dos descritores: \\

Rafael Miranda Tassitano; Maria Cecília Marinho Tenório; Pedro C Hallal

22

SOBRE LA FRACTURA DEL TEJIDO ÓSEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. En este trabajo se presentan dos modelos para la predicción de fracturas óseas debidas respectivamente a sobrecargas no fisiológicas y a cargas fisiológicas actuantes sobre un tejido degradado. En lo que se refiere al primero, se plantea un criterio de fractura desde un punto de vista de Mecánica de Medios Continuos, es decir, macroscópico, pero incluyendo la dependencia de

M Doblaré; J. M García-Aznar; M. J. Gómez-Benito

23

EVALUACIÓN DEL IMPACTO DEL CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO SOBRE EL VALOR ECONÓMICO DEL SUELO EN SISTEMAS AGRÍCOLAS DE CHILE Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the economical value of soil in agricultural systems in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climatic change would affect yield and management of crops. To the year 2050 the mean temperature would increase 1.5 ºC; at year 2100 between 1.0 to 3.5 ºC. In Chile there are few studies of this area. At international level are estimated changes in temperate and tropical zones that would affect negatively, for example, wheat (Triticum vulgare L.) and

24

Efecto de un manejo agricola alternativo de un aridisol del altiplano central de Bolivia sobre el almacenamiento de agua en el suelo. (Effects of an alternative management of water storage on aridisol at the Bolivian Altiplane).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present study, we deal with a test as a base to recommend the preparation of soil for cultures different from the usual method. On a 5 year old fellow land, a parcel was ploughed before and another after the wet season. Differences on the water sto...

V. Orsag

1989-01-01

25

EFECTO DEL GATUÑO SOBRE LA FERTILIDAD DEL SUELO Y LA BIOMASA HERBÁCEA EN PASTIZALES DEL CENTRO DE MÉXICO Effect of Catclaw Mimosa on Soil Fertility and Forage Yield in Rangelands in Central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El trabajo se realizó durante los años 2002 y 2003, en los estados de Aguascalientes y Jalisco, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del gatuño (Mimosa monancistra) en el grado de asociación de algunas variables edáficas, como pH, materia orgánica (MO), fósforo, calcio y magnesio, así como la cantidad de biomasa herbácea en tres sitios con diferente grado

Ernesto Flores; Juan Frías; Pedro Jurado; Víctor Olalde; Juan de Dios Figueroa; Arturo Valdivia; Edmundo García

26

Simulating transport of nitrogen and phosphorus in a Cambisol after natural and simulated intense rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense rainfall adversely affects agricultural areas, causing transport of pollutants. Physically-based hydrological models to simulate flows of water and chemical substances can be used to help decision-makers adopt measures which reduce such problems. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of SWAP and ANIMO models for simulating transport of water, nitrate and phosphorus nutrients, during intense rainfall events generated by a simulator, and during natural rainfall, on a volumetric drainage lysimeter. The models were calibrated and verified using daily time series and simulated rainfall measured at 10-minute intervals. For daily time-intervals, the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.865 for the calibration period and 0.805 for verification. Under simulated rainfall, these coefficients were greater than 0.56. The pattern of both nitrate and phosphate concentrations in daily drainage flow under simulated rainfall was acceptably reproduced by the ANIMO model. In the simulated rainfall, loads of nitrate transported in surface runoff varied between 0.08 and 8.46 kg ha- 1, and in drainage form the lysimeter, between 2.44 and 112.57 kg ha- 1. In the case of phosphate, the loads transported in surface runoff varied between 0.002 and 0.504 kg ha- 1, and in drainage, between 0.005 and 1.107 kg ha- 1. The use of the two models SWAP and ANIMO shows the magnitudes of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes transported by natural and simulated intense rainfall in an agricultural area with different soil management procedures, as required by decision makers.

Kaufmann, Vander; Pinheiro, Adilson; Castro, Nilza Maria dos Reis

2014-05-01

27

Lo que usted necesita saber sobre? el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

La serie de folletos Lo que usted necesita saber sobre? está diseñada para pacientes con cáncer y proporciona información sobre muchos tipos de cáncer. Cada folleto incluye información acerca de los síntomas, diagnóstico y tratamiento del cáncer. En todos los títulos de la serie, se ofrece también información adicional acerca de los problemas emocionales y preguntas para hacer al doctor.

28

Sobre el estado evolutivo de ? Pictoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en ? Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. ? Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a ?Pic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en ? Pic indica edades avanzadas para ? Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para ? Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

29

Consideraciones clínicas sobre la resorción radicular externa por impactación dentaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

La resorción externa por presión (RREP) consiste en una pérdida de tejido dentinario y cementario de las raíces dentarias que se origina a nivel del ligamento periodontal, ocasionada por presiones prolongadas y mantenidas sobre la raíz. Presentamos tres casos con diferente repercusión y tratamiento. Según el distinto grado de afecta­ ción se describe y clasifica el tratamiento de RREP a

Martínez Lozano MA; Forner Navarro L; Sánchez Cortés JL

30

Dairy liquid manure and no-tillage: Physical and hydraulic properties and carbon stocks in a Cambisol of Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of liquid manure is often related to risks of nutrient losses by runoff and thus to the deleterious effects on water quality; but scarce is the information about the beneficial effects of liquid manure on soil physical conditions and its contribution in reducing runoff and nutrient losses in long-term, especially in no-tillage (NT) soils in tropics and subtropics. This

José Elias Mellek; Jeferson Dieckow; Vagner Lopes da Silva; Nerilde Favaretto; Volnei Pauletti; Fabiane Machado Vezzani; Jorge Luiz Moretti de Souza

2010-01-01

31

Información sobre el cáncer para hispanos y latinos  

Cancer.gov

Cada vez más estadounidenses sobreviven al cáncer y continúan llevando vidas productivas. Sin embargo, muchos hispanos y latinos en los Estados Unidos no han escuchado este mensaje, y no se han beneficiado de los adelantos en los campos de la detección temprana y el tratamiento. El nuevo sitio web del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, http://www.cancer.gov/espanol, lanzado el día 2 de abril de 2007, comunica enérgicamente el mensaje de que el cáncer puede prevenirse y tratarse, y ofrece, además, información sobre todos los aspectos de la enfermedad.

32

Patrones locales de cambio globales: efectos de la emigración en el cambio de uso de suelo en el centro de México. El caso de la cuenca del Lago de Cuitzeo, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad existen notables desplazamientos de personas, ocasionados por la pobreza, las guerras, la degradación del medio ambiente, etc., en el planeta más de 125 millones de seres humanos viven fuera de sus países de origen. En este trabajo se describen las implicaciones de la migración sobre el cambio de cobertura y uso del terreno. El caso de estudio

Erna López; Gerardo Bocco

2007-01-01

33

LOS DERECHOS DE PROPIEDAD SOBRE LA TIERRA Reglas de juego y cambios en su institucionalidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los derechos de propiedad sobre la tierra todavía son objeto de estudio en el siglo XXI, aunque ya debiera ser un tema superado, desde México hasta Argentina para sólo mencionar a Latinoamérica, hay cuestiones de la tierra por resolver y disculpas para asumir actitudes al respecto; aquí se presenta una revisión sobre los cambios que han sucedido últimamente en Colombia,

Ricardo Lozano Botache; José M. González Afanador; Diana M. Osma R

2010-01-01

34

30 anos de investigação sobre externalidades do IDE para as empresas nacionais: que conclusões?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Durante as últimas três décadas, surgiu uma vasta literatura sobre a existência potencial de externalidades do IDE para as empresas domésticas traduzidas em ganhos de produtividade. Esta ocorrência relaciona-se com o facto de as empresas multinacionais possuírem activos intangíveis que podem ser transmitidos às empresas domésticas. A análise empírica não dá, contudo, indicações claras sobre o fenómeno. Neste artigo,

Nuno Crespo; Maria Paula Fontoura

2007-01-01

35

Recubrimientos sol-gel obtenidos por deposición electroforética (EPd) sobre metales  

Microsoft Academic Search

El proceso sol-gel es un método de gran interés para la producción de películas vítreas sobre metales, que actúan como barrera protectora frente a la oxidación y aumentan su resistencia a la corrosión. Se han obtenido recubrimientos inorgánicos e híbridos de distintas composiciones sobre distintos metales usando técnicas como inmersión, centrifugado y pulverización. Aunque estos métodos proporcionan recubrimientos con buenas

B. FERRARI; R. MORENO; A. dURÁN

36

Transformaciones en el Discurso sobre la Epidemia al VIH como una Epidemia Sexuada - Paradojas y Enigmas en la Respuesta Global  

Microsoft Academic Search

Así como el discurso sobre sexualidad experimentó la influencia central de los procesos técnicos y políticos generados por la epidemia, igualmente el discurso global sobre la epidemia de SIDA a lo largo de tres décadas ha sido marcado por estos momentos cambiantes en el discurso sobre la sexualidad y su diversidad. Desde un momento inicial en que el SIDA fue

Carlos F. Cáceres

37

NCI Anuncia Contribuciones para Incrementar Acceso de Minorías a Información sobre el Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) anunció este mes una variedad de contribuciones que totalizan casi 1 millón de dólares para ayudar a desarrollar la investigación y programas para comprender y finalmente romper la División Digital que existe en muchas poblaciones minoritarias para el acceso y uso de la información sobre el cáncer disponible en la Internet. Las contribuciones son un esfuerzo del Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer (CIS), dependiente de la NCI, para trabajar con grupos y organizaciones regionales para el control del cáncer para probar estrategias destinadas a aumentar las comunicaciones sobre el cáncer en comunidades deficientemente atendidas

38

Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

2003-08-01

39

Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer 1975-2002 con una sección especial sobre las tendencias de tratamiento: preguntas y respuestas  

Cancer.gov

Las organizaciones oncológicas principales de la nación informan que el riesgo de los estadounidenses de morir de cáncer sigue disminuyendo y que las tasas de casos nuevos de cáncer permanecen estables. El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2002, señala que las tasas de mortalidad de cáncer que se observaron para todos los cánceres combinados disminuyeron 1,1 por ciento por año de 1993 a 2002.

40

El Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Servicio de Información del Cáncer (CIS) del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer facilita la información más actualizada y precisa sobre el cáncer a pacientes, a sus familias, al público en general y a profesionales médicos. El CIS brinda respuestas personalizadas a preguntas específicas sobre el cáncer y asistencia a los fumadores que quieren abandonar el hábito. Comuníquese con el CIS al 1-800-422-6237 (1-800-4-CANCER) o al 1-877-448-7848 (1-877-44U-QUIT).

41

Prazer e perigo: notas sobre feminismo, sex-shops e S\\/M  

Microsoft Academic Search

O objeto deste artigo é o de discutir as novas conceituações sobre a sexualidade, desejo e corpo desenvolvidas pelas teorias feministas de origem anglo-saxã no exame da pornografia. Além de um mapeamento desta literatura, são analisados aspectos relacionados a novas formas de erotismo, a partir de pesquisa exploratória junto a sex-shops em São Francisco e Berkeley, EUA. São analisadas tendências

Maria Filomena Gregori

2004-01-01

42

SOBRE O PROCESSO DE MEDIAÇÃO SOCIAL NOS PROJETOS DE DESENVOLVIMENTO: UMA REFLEXÃO TEÓRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mediação social é um tema que nos últimos anos vem ganhando espaço nas discussões sobre o desenvolvimento rural, mais especificamente, nas questões referentes à intervenção para o desenvolvimento. Este processo compreende uma relação que se apresenta como uma “via de mão dupla”, ou seja, a via representa a relação, uma das mãos é os mediadores, e a outra é

Cidonea Machado Deponti; Jalcione Almeida

2008-01-01

43

Influência do óleo de linhaça sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a influência da adição de óleo de linhaça em substituição ao óleo de soja em rações para poedeiras semipesadas sobre o desempenho e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos. Utilizaram-se 192 poedeiras da linhagem Bovans Godline com 29 semanas de idade, distribuídas em seis tratamentos, que consistiram de uma dieta controle

Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Janete Gouveia de Souza; José Humberto Vilar da Silva; Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Raul da Cunha Lima Neto

2008-01-01

44

Agricultural use of three (sugar-beet) vinasse composts: effect on crops and chemical properties of a Cambisol soil in the Guadalquivir river valley (SW Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of concentrated beet-vinasse, a high-density syrupy waste from the sugar industry, constituted an environmental problem. Vinasse can be recycled as a fertiliser due to its high organic matter, N, and K contents. However, the direct application of vinasse is constrained by its high salinity (EC 250–300dSm?1; Na 28gkg?1) and high density (1.3gcm?3). These problems can be overcome by co-composting

Engracia Madejón; Rafael López; José M Murillo; Francisco Cabrera

2001-01-01

45

EFEITO DE ADITIVOS MINERAIS SOBRE AS PROPRIEDADES DE CHAPAS CIMENTO-MADEIRA 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO ñ O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adiÁªo de dois tipos de aditivos minerais (microssÌlica e metacaulim) sobre as propriedades de chapas de cimento-madeira, aplicando-se diferentes teores aditivos (0, 20 e 30%). O aglomerante empregado na produÁªo dos painØis foi o cimento Portland tipo ARI, juntamente com partÌculas de madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla. Os resultados indicaram

Gilmar Correia Silva; Jair Figueiredo

2006-01-01

46

EDUCAÇÃO SEXUAL NO 1ºCEB: PERCEPÇÕES DOS PROFESSORES SOBRE AS SUAS DIFICULDADES EM ÁREAS E TÓPICOS ESPECÍFICOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Pretendeu-se identificar as percepções de professores de 1ºCEB, sobre as suas dificuldades sobre a educação sexual e analisar alguns factores individuais com influência nestas concepções. Os dados recolhidos por um questionário construído para o efeito foram tratados estatisticamente no programa SPSS. Os resultados sugerem maiores dificuldades na área de expressões da sexualidade e menores na de relações interpessoais. Como

Zélia ANASTÁCIO; Graça S. CARVALHO; Pierre CLÉMENT

47

O que bil?ngues bimodais t?m a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bil?ngue?  

PubMed Central

O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada.

de Quadros, Ronice Muller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

2013-01-01

48

ANÁLISIS JURÍDICO PARA DETERMINAR LA VIOLACIÓN A LOS PRINCIPIOS DE; CONSTITUCIONALIDAD, LEGALIDAD Y SEGURIDAD, EN EL ARTÍCULO 215 DE LA LEY DEL IMPUESTO SOBRE LA RENTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar si las disposiciones fiscales del artículo 215 de la Ley del Impuesto sobre la Renta (LISR), sobre precios de transferencia a las empresas partes relacionadas, a las cuales les indica que deberán apegarse a la Guía de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE), violentan los principios de constitucionalidad, legalidad

Martha Luisa Puente Esparza; J. Humberto González Álvarez

2011-01-01

49

PRIMER REPORTE SOBRE FOTOSENSIBILIZACION CAUSADA POR Pithomices chartarum EN BORREGOS PASTOREANDO Brachiaria brizantha. EN LA ZONA CENTRO DEL ESTADO DE TAMAULIPAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: La creciente explosión demográfica, sobre todo en los países subdesarrollados, como lo es México, se han dado a la tarea de aumentar los productos alimentarios de origen animal por citar un ejemplo, la explotación de ovinos, mismo que a su vez se buscan nuevas alternativas para su alimentación, sobre todo con costos mínimos, por ello la utilización de recursos

O. S. Escamilla Gallegos; P. Zárate Fortuna; M. Rodríguez Morales; J. García Jiménez; M. González

50

NIVEL DE CONOCIMIENTOS SOBRE METODOS ANTICONCEPTIVOS PREVIOS AL INICIO DE LAS RELACIONES SEXUALES Y SU COMPARACION CON EL NIVEL DE CONOCIMIENTOS ACTUALES EN ESTUDIANTES DE MEDICINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: Introducción: Con entrenamiento adecuado, los estudiantes de medicina pueden convertirse en lí- deres de opinión con futura injerencia sobre las políticas de salud, así como ayudar al público a en- tender las consecuencias de los embarazos indeseados y del aborto. El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido examinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre métodos anticonceptivos (MAC) previos al inicio

Guillermo Horacio; Cáceres Pallavidino; Echevarría Avellaneda; Domingo José Pomares

51

O Debate sobre a Homossexualidade Mediado por Representações Sociais: Perspectivas Homossexuais e Heterossexuais The Debate on Homosexuality Mediated by Social Representations: Homosexual and Heterosexual Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as representações sociais da homossexualidade entre estudantes universitários, segundo orientação sexual e sexo. Foram aplicadas uma questão de associação livre sobre a palavra homossexualidade e outra sobre as possíveis causas da mesma, sendo os dados analisados segundo os princípios da análise de conteúdo. Houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos, possibilitando-nos encontrar diferentes maneiras

Anderson Scardua; Edson Alves de Souza

52

NCI en el congreso de ASCO: Breve reseña de los resultados de investigaciones sobre cánceres en mujeres  

Cancer.gov

En el congreso anual de la Sociedad Americana de Oncología Clínica (ASCO) 2014 celebrado en junio en Chicago, se destacaron los resultados de varios estudios clínicos patrocinados por el NCI sobre cánceres en la mujer. En su conjunto, estos resultados representan avances importantes en nuestra comprensión de cómo tratar estas enfermedades y mejorar las vidas de quienes se ven afectadas por ellas.

53

INFLUENCIA DEL RECUBRIMIENTO SUPERFICIAL SOBRE LAS PRESTACIONES FRENTE AL DESGASTE Y LA FATIGA DE UNA ALEACIÓN DE ALUMINIO 7075  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. En este trabajo se analiza el efecto ejercido por tres tipos de recubrimientos superficiales sobre las prestaciones frente al desgaste y la fatiga de una aleación de aluminio 7075, en estado T6, solubilización y maduración al pico de máxima resistencia. Los recubrimientos analizados fueron la deposición mediante la técnica de PVD de una capa de bisulfuro de molibdeno dopada

D. González; M. Brizuela; G. Atxaga; A. M. Irisarri; B. Zamorano

54

AVALIAÇÃO DA EFICÁCIA DOS MEIOS DE CONTROLO DAS INFESTANTES DO OLIVAL E SEUS EFEITOS SOBRE ARTRÓPODES DO SOLO  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho teve como objectivo avaliar a eficácia dos tratamentos contra as infestantes e os efeitos colaterais sobre os artrópodes existentes no solo. Para este efeito, delinearam-se cinco modalidades: Roundup Ultra, Basta S, mobilização superficial, monda térmica e ainda uma modalidade de referência, não intervencionada (Testemunha). Foram efectuadas contagens e identificação das infestantes e de artrópodes existentes no solo,

Carlos VEIGA; Catarina LOURENÇO; Francisco VIEIRA

55

Datos sobre la biometría del Pájaro moscón (Remiz pendulinus) en la provincia de Alicante (SE de España)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquesta nota presenta dades biomètriques sobre la longitud de l'ala i el pes del teixidor en una localitat d'hivernada de la provincia d'Alacant. Es va obtenir una mitjana de la longitud de l'ala de 55,88 mm (SD= 1,85; n= 51), amb un rang de 51-60 mm. La mitjana del pes va ser 9,33 g (SD=0,52; n=51) (8-10,5). No es van

Ignacio García Peiró

1991-01-01

56

Cálculo de una losa de pavimento apoyada en toda su extensión sobre una base granular con carga de esquina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se desarrolla el cálculo de un losa firme de hormigón apoyada sobre una base granular de módulo de reacción ?.\\u000aEl método ideado para este cálculo se basa en suponer las ecuaciones dadas por la elasticidad, válidas a cierta\\u000adistancia de los puntos de aplicación de las cargas (hipótesis de Saint-Venant), considerando un estado de\\u000adeformación cilíndrica. Para aplicar dichas

Javier Jenaro Mac-Lennan

1970-01-01

57

Estudio sobre las dosis de radiación y los riesgos de cáncer causados por la prueba atómica “Trinity” realizada en 1945  

Cancer.gov

El NCI tiene planeado realizar entrevistas en profundidad para determinar cuál era la alimentación característica de las poblaciones indígenas americanas, hispanas (latinas) y chicanas que vivían en New Mexico a mediados de 1940 y utilizar información fácilmente disponible sobre la alimentación y el estilo de vida de las poblaciones blancas. Estas entrevistas representan un paso importante para hacer estimaciones de las dosis de radiación generadas por la prueba Trinity.

58

nivel crítico de Zinc en suelos de costa r ica  

Microsoft Academic Search

critical available Zn level in costa r ican soils. The critical level for available Zn for 4 soil orders (Ultisols, Vertisols, Inceptisols and Andisols 25 each) in Costa Rica was determined with 5 extracting solutions: Modified Olsen (OM), Mehlich 3 (M3), Modified Morgan (MM), DTPA and HCl. Cate and Nelson's methodology was used in order to establish the critical levels.

Eloy Molina; Elemer Bornemisza

2006-01-01

59

ANÁLISIS DE CONTENIDO DE LAS PUBLICACIONES ESPAÑOLAS SOBRE RELACIONES VERTICALES ENTRE EMPRESAS \\/ CONTENT ANALYSIS OF SPANISH PUBLICATIONS ON VERTICAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ENTERPRISES  

Microsoft Academic Search

En los últimos años los investigadores han mostrado un creciente interés en las relaciones interorganizativas verticales, principalmente en la Cadena de Suministro. La ausencia de trabajos previos de revisión bibliográfica sobre este tema, que permitan plantear las cuestiones clave a estudiar en Gestión de la Cadena de Suministro, nos ha llevado a realizar un análisis de contenido de la investigación

M. T. Martínez Fernández; T Vallet Bellmunt; R. Barreda Tarrazona

2010-01-01

60

Algunos efectos del mercado único europeo sobre la economía española: Un análisis a través de un modelo de equilibrio general aplicado  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se examinan algunos efectos de la aplicación de las normas del Mercado Único europeo sobre la economía española. La metodología se basa en simulaciones a partir de un modelo de equilibrio general aplicado especialmente diseñado al efecto. El modelo tiene dos características particulares: por una parte, se incluyen aspectos de competencia imperfecta tales como rendimientos crecientes a

Antonio G. Gómez-Plana; Oscar Bajo-Rubio

61

Efeito do nível de concentrado sobre o peso dos órgãos internos e do conteúdo gastrintestinal de bovinos Nelore não-castrados  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O efeito de cinco níveis de concentrado na dieta foi avaliado sobre o conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal e o peso dos órgãos internos e dos compartimentos gastrintestinais de bovinos Nelore não-castrados. Vinte e cinco animais com peso médio de 330 kg e idade média de 20 meses foram distribuídos, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em cinco tratamentos com diferentes

Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Véras; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; José Fernando Coelho da Silva; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Rilene Ferreira Diniz Valadares; Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira; Cristina Maria Sá Fontes

2001-01-01

62

Entrevista a Leandro Cañibano, presidente de la Asociación Española de Contabilidad y Administración de Empresas, sobre las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrevista a Leandro Cañibano, presidente de la Asociación Española de Contabilidad y Administración de Empresas, sobre las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF). Interview to Leandro Cañibano, president of the Spanish Accounting Association of Business Administration, on the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

Leandro Cañibano

2010-01-01

63

Genesis of petroduric and petrocalcic horizons in Latinamerica volcanic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. In Latinamerica, from Mexico to Chile, there are indurated volcanic soils horizons, named 'tepetate' in Mexico or cangahua in the Andes Mountains. Apart from original volcanic tuffs, these horizons were produced by pedogenesis: either through a former weathering of volcanic ash layers into fragic and later to petrocalcic horizons; or after a former soil formation through a second process of transformation from clayey volcanic soils to silicified petroduric horizons. This oral presentation will briefly deal with the formation of petroduric horizons in Mexico and petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador. Petroduric horizon genesis in Mexico. A soil climato-toposequence, near to Veracruz (Rossignol & Quantin, 1997), shows downwards an evolution from a ferralic Nitisol to a petroduric Durisol. A Durisol profile comports these successive horizons: at the top A and Eg, then columnar Btg-sim, laminar Bt-sim , prismatic Bsim, plinthite Cg, over andesite lava flow. Among its main features are especially recorded: clay mineralogy, microscopy and HRTEM. These data show: an increase in cristobalite at the expenses of 0.7 nm halloysite in Egsiltans, laminar Bt-sim, around or inside the columns or prisms of Btg-sim and Bsimhorizons. HRTEM (Elsass & al 2000) on ultra thin sections reveals an 'epigenesis' of clay sheets by amorphous silica, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and microcrystalline cristobalite. From these data and some groundwater chemical analyses, a scenario of duripan formation from a past clayey Nitisol is inferred: clay eluviation-illuviation process? alternate redoximorphy? clay degradation, Al leaching and Si accumulation, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and cristobalite. Petrocalcic horizon genesis in Ecuador. A soil climato-toposequence on pyroclastic flows, near to Bolivar in Ecuador (Quantin & Zebrowski, 1997), shows downwards the evolution from fragic-eutric-vitric Cambisols to petrocalcic-vitric Phaeozems, at the piedmont under semi-arid climate. A complex soil profile of petrocalcic Phaeozem, derived from 4 pyroclastic layers, shows among its successive horizons: in layer 3 the 'upper cangahua' with petrocalcic features and in layer 4 the 'lower cangahua' with hard fragipan properties. The features of the petrocalcic cangahua differ from a Mexican fragipan (Hidalgo & al 1997) by: a hard calcrete, higher alkalinity, stability in water after HCl and NaOH treatment, 2-4% of 'free silica'. The macro and micro-morphology shows: the laminar calcite crust, at the top of cangahua, with alternate micrite-sparite layers; downwards, microcalcite infillings in the voids of a prismatic structure, invading the groundmass by epigenesis of clay sheets, together whith microcrystalline opal. From these data this scenario is inferred: after a former weathering of volcanic glass to form a clayey matrix, as well amorphous silica and microcalcite coatings and infillings, then a second process, perhaps due to drier climate, produced the laminar crust formation, by invasion of microcalcite in the matrix. Conclusion. The petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador was produced by two processes: from a former phase of weathering giving a fragic horizon to a second producing the accumulation of calcite and some opal over and inside the matrix, due to climate change. The petroduric horizon in Mexico, is the product of a very complex soil transformation, from a former clayey Nitisol, through four successive processes: clay eluviation-illuviation, alternate redoximorphy, clay degradation, finally a progressive silicification over and inside the groundmass, probably due to pedoclimate change. References F. Elsass, D. Dubroeucq & M. Thiry. 2000. Clay Minerals, 35, 477-489. C. Hidalgo, P. Quantin & F. Elsass. 1997. Memorias del III Simposio Internacional sobre Suelos volcanicos endurecidos (Quito 1996), p. 65-72. - P. Quantin & C. Zebrowski. 1997. idem, p. 29-47.- J.P. Rossignol & P. Quantin. 1997. idem, p. 73-82.

Quantin, Paul

2010-05-01

64

EVALUACIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO Y PRODUCCIÓN DE Pleurotus ostreatus SOBRE DIFERENTES RESIDUOS AGROINDUSTRIALES DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CUNDINAMARCA EVALUATION OF GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF Pleurotus ostreatus ON DIFFERENT AGROINDUSTRIALS WASTES OF CUNDINAMARCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Se llevó a cabo la evaluación del cultivo de Pleurotus ostreatus, para determinar el residuo sobre el cual este hongo genera mejor crecimiento y producción. Los sustratos evaluados fueron residuos agroindustriales del departamento de Cundinamarca (capacho de uchuva, cáscara de arveja y tusa de maíz); teniendo como sustrato control el aserrín de roble. Las mezclas a evaluar fueron empacadas

Claudia López-Rodríguez; Ricardo Hernández-Corredor; Christian Suárez-Franco; Marta Borrero; Facultad de Ciencias

2008-01-01

65

La implementación de acuerdos comerciales preferenciales en América Latina: Las experiencias de CH, CR, ES, PE en la implementación de las disposiciones sobre acceso a mercados en el marco de los tratados de libre comercio con Estados Unidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio abordará los desafíos y dificultades asociadas con la implementación y administración de las disposiciones sobre acceso a mercados, con especial énfasis en aquellas relacionadas con aduanas y facilitación del comercio. El análisis se realizará para los Tratados de Libre Comercio de Chile - EE.UU; Perú - EE.UU y para el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Estados Unidos, Centroamérica

Juan Luis Zuñiga; Brian Rankin Staples

2011-01-01

66

Effects of dietary lipid level on growth, survival and body composition of Brazilian codling (Urophycis brasiliensis Kaup, 1858) Efecto de los niveles de lípidos dietarios sobre el crecimiento, supervivencia y composición proximal de la brótola (Urophycis brasiliensis Kaup, 1858)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen.- El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar la influencia de los niveles de lípidos en dietas formuladas sobre el crecimiento, supervivencia, índice hepatosomático (HSI) y composición proximal del músculo e hígado de la brótola. Se fabricaron tres dietas diferentes (40% proteína cruda) con 3%, 6% y 10% de aceite de pescado, obteniendo un 5%, 8% y 11% de lípidos

Sergio N. Bolasina; Jorge L. Fenucci

2007-01-01

67

· • Estudo baseado na teoria piagetiana sobre a fidelidade em dois contos de As Mil e uma Noites na versão de Galland 1 Study based on Piaget's theory about fidelity in two stories extracted from \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Caracteriza-se por um estudo teórico numa visão piagetiana sobre dois contos da coletânea As Mil e uma Noites na versão de Galland. O objetivo é analisar, nas narrativas, a virtude e a fidelidade, verificando se as relações entre os personagens são mantidas pelo amor, pelo respeito mútuo e relações de eqüidade ou pelo medo e obediência apresentado entre os

Luana Carramillo Going

68

Estudio del comportamiento acustico de recubrimientos de suelo derivados de la madera  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a study of the vibroacoustic behaviour of laminate flooring and is partly accomplished by means of an experimental method somewhat simpler than that normally used at the present time and partly by a hybrid FEM-FDTD numerical method that reproduces the proposed experiment. The experimental configuration records the sounds emitted by laminate floors when impacted and the numerical

Jose Maria Gadea Borrell

2009-01-01

69

Balance de nutrientes en la rotación: Impacto en rendimientos y calidad de suelo 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient balance is defined as the difference between the amount of nutrients that enters and that exits a system defined in time and space. Nutrient balances for soils under field crop rotations are negative in Argentina and other countries of the Southern Cone region, decreasing crop yields and affecting soil sustainability in the mid- and long-term. Estimates for the

Fernando O. García

2003-01-01

70

DISEÑO EXPERIMENTAL PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN DE SOLUCIÓN DEL SUELO EN RÉGIMEN DE INSATURACIÓN (?600 KPA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different methods have been proposed to extract the soil solution in field, batch and soil column experiments: zero-tension or free drainage, suction cups, Rhizon soil water samplers, or centrifugation. Limitations of the different methods vary with the degree of soil disturbance and contamination of the soil solution, ion retention by the soil sampler, sufficient extraction volumes for analysis, and more

C. M. Regalado; A. Ritter; R. M. Rodríguez González; A. R. Socorro

71

Estudio del comportamiento acustico de recubrimientos de suelo derivados de la madera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes a study of the vibroacoustic behaviour of laminate flooring and is partly accomplished by means of an experimental method somewhat simpler than that normally used at the present time and partly by a hybrid FEM-FDTD numerical method that reproduces the proposed experiment. The experimental configuration records the sounds emitted by laminate floors when impacted and the numerical method allows the sound produced by the laminate floor to be determined before installation by previously reproducing its sound. The registers obtained from both methods are evaluated from the psychoacoustic perspective with the aim of determining the relevant parameters involved in their perception, and thus provide a method of distinguishing the effect of the different component materials on the sound produced by this type of floor covering. In the field of building acoustics, with which this work is involved, laminate flooring is seen as a good solution for deadening the noise of impacts. This question has now become important due to stricter building acoustic regulations (DB-HR Proteccion frente al ruido" del Codigo Tecnico de la Edificacion, CTE). Laminate floors possess the advantage that they can be installed over existing floor coverings. Their lightness, which adds little additional strain to structures, and the fact that they are easy to fit, make them an attractive solution at the present time and gives them promising prospects for the future. Of the different types available, synthetic laminate floors are now the most popular by far in almost all types of building and for this reason research is being carried out on the users' opinion of their quality and convenience. Among the factors that affect the latter quality is their acoustic behaviour as regards both the insulation of sound transmitted to neighbouring rooms and the sound reflected from the floor in the room in which it is installed. The conclusions reached in this work are related to the latter aspect, known as acoustic conditioning, rather than with acoustic insulation. Synthetic laminate floors are made of extremely rigid materials normally fitted over an underlay of softer material to improve thermal and acoustic behaviour and also make them more comfortable to walk on due to the underlay's shock-absorbing properties. This paper proposes a method of characterising synthetic laminate floors to provide an evaluation of the acoustic and psychoacoustic behaviour of the sound produced by the floor inside the room in which it is emitted. As has already been indicated, an experimental model is proposed to carry out tests on different combinations of synthetic laminate flooring and underlay materials. Sound registers are obtained directly from the experimental models by means of a measuring microphone and the psychoacoustic parameters that determine the acoustic qualities as perceived by human subjects are then determined. At the same time as these experiments are being carried out and analysed, a numerical model is implemented based on a combination of the finite elements method (FEM) and the finite difference in the time domain method (FDTD). This procedure is based on a finite elements 3D model with fluid-structural interaction to solve the dynamic problem caused by an impact. The velocity of each surface node is obtained from this model. By applying the method of finite difference in the time domain (FDTD), these velocities provide the sound pressure level at any point, according to the position of the microphone. This experiment enables different types of flooring to be characterised before they are fitted, provided that their mechanical characteristics (elastic modules and loss factors) are known. The subsequent processing of the sound archives obtained from the numerical experiment provides a method of identifying similarities between the results obtained from the physical experiment and those of the numerical model, thus demonstrating that it is possible to determine the acoustic quality of different types of flooring materials by numerical simulat

Gadea Borrell, Jose Maria

72

ÓXIDOS DE HIERRO LIBRES ASOCIADOS A CARBONO ORGÁNICO EN AGREGADOS DE SUELOS DEL PARTIDO DE BALCARCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

When organic matter is the principal stabilizing agent and soil aggregates structure is hierarchical, the mechanism of formation of aggregates drives to seclude the organic carbon in stable macroaggregates. This concept comes from research about the way as tillage alters the rate of formation and degradation of aggregates and, consequently, the natural dynamic of particulate organic matter and organomineral associations.

FABIAN NÉSTOR CABRIA; MARÍA ROSA BIANCHINI; MARÍA CLARA MEDIAVILLA

73

FRACCIONES DE FÓSFORO EN SUELOS DE CORRIENTES CON PRODUCCIÓN CITRÍCOLA, ARROCERA Y PASTORIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the phosphorus fractions in Entisolls, Alfisolls and Vertisolls and to analyze the effects of the production system employed (citrus, pasture and rice) on this fractionation. Three soils from fields that mainly contribute to the economy of Corrientes were selected. A simple random sampling of two treatments and five replicates was conducted in

CAROLINA FERNÁNDEZ LÓPEZ; RODOLFO MENDOZA; SARA VAZQUEZ

2006-01-01

74

TEMPERATURAS DE QUEMA Y PROPIEDADES FÍSICAS Y QUÍMICAS DE SUELOS DE LA REGIÓN SEMIÁRIDA PAMPEANA CENTRAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural and controlled burns are very frequent in the Caldenal area, located in the Central Semiarid Pampean Region, and the effects they produce on the physical and chemical properties of the soils are not well-known. The aim of this study was to find out the burning temperatures that produce changes in soil physical and chemical properties in the Caldenal

ESTELA HEPPER; ANA URIOSTE; VALERIA BELMONTE; DANIEL BUSCHIAZZO

2008-01-01

75

NIVELES CRÍTICOS DE NUTRIMENTOS EN SUELOS DE COSTA RICA UTILIZANDO LA SOLUCIÓN EXTRACTORA MEHLICH 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical nutrient levels in soils of Costa Rica with Mehlich 3 soil extractant. The critical levels of Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Cu, Zn, and Mn were studied in Ultisols, Inceptisols, Vertisols, and Andisols, using the extracting solution Mehlich 3. In Ultisols critical levels of 4.0, 0.8 and 0.2 cmol(+) l-1 were found for Ca, Mg, and K, respectively, and

Gilberto Cabalceta; Eloy Molina

2006-01-01

76

ROCA FOSFÓRICA ACIDULADA COMO FUENTE DE FÓSFORO EN UN SUELO ÁCIDO CON O SIN ENCALADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidulated phosphate rock as phosphorus source in limed and non-limed acid soils Partial acidulation of the phosphate rock (PR) with sulfuric acid (SA) has been successfully used to improve its solubility and increment the agronomic effectiveness of this P source. To prove the efficiency of PR acidulated with SA and\\/or ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), two greenhouse experiments were conducted with potted

Armando Morillo; Omaira Sequera; Ricardo Ramírez

2007-01-01

77

MODELO DE SIMULACIÓN DEL BALANCE HÍDRICO EN SUELOS CON FREÁTICA POCO PROFUNDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils with shallow water table have greater probability of being affected by waterlogging. The prediction of the water table depth temporal oscillation is an important tool to assess the risk of occurrence of such processes. The goal of this paper is to present the theoretical foundations, operative structure and predictive capacity of the water balance simulation model Freat.1. This model

AMÉRICO DEGIOANNI; JOSÉ CISNEROS; ALBERTO G CANTERO; HORACIO VIDELA

78

Claves para la Taxonomia de Suelos, Decima Edicion, 2006 (Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Tenth Edition, 2006).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication of this edition of Keys to Soil Taxonomy (the 10th edition) coincides with the 18th World Congress of Soil Science, to be held at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in July 2006. The last time the World Congress was hosted in the United States wa...

2006-01-01

79

CoNoCIMIeNToS SoBRe VIH\\/SIDA Y PRÁCTICAS SeXUALeS De eSCoLAReS De TACNA, PeRÚ 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSUMeN Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre el VIH\\/SIDA y las prácticas sexuales de los escolares de 14 a 17 años de la ciudad de Tacna, Perú. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre septiembre y noviembre del 2004, se realizó un muestreo probabilística bietápico por conglomerados en instituciones educativas nacionales y privadas. Se incluyeron 399 escolares que respondieron

Fresia Catacora-López; Javier Villanueva-Roque

80

ALGUNAS VERDADES SOBRE EL CAFÉ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world due to its organoleptic properties and its ability to keep individuals alert. However, its consumption is frequently associated with negative health effects. This paper reviews the most recent information about the relation between coffee and health. A number of epidemiological studies carried out in the last decade consistently

Martín Gotteland; Saturnino de Pablo V

2007-01-01

81

Sobre el origen del código  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several experimental evidences suggesting a primeval world where ribonucleic acid (RNA) was responsible of both code for genetic information, and of catalyze a limited number of reactions. Within this \\

Genético Fumiyoshi Watanabe; Michelle Robles; José A. García

2007-01-01

82

DISTRIBUCIÓN DE PLOMO EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS EN EL ENTORNO DE UNA PLANTA DE RECICLAJE DE BATERÍAS ÁCIDAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations and the distribution of lead in soils from a farmland near a battery recycling plant in Madrid (Spain) were investigated to establish a possible relationship with a recent episode of horses death that presented lead intoxication symptoms before dying. Total Pb and Cd levels presented a clear decrease with distance to the

Victoria CALA; Yukihiko KUNIMINE

83

DISTRIBUCION Y DISPONIBILIDAD DE ELEMENTOS POTENCIALMEN- TE TOXICOS EN SUELOS REPRESENTATIVOS DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES ENMENDADOS CON BIOSOLIDOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge can be applied to cropland to supply and recycle nutrients and organic carbon. Potentially toxic elements (EPT) in the sludge, however, are of environmental concern. A pot experiment was performed to study the effects of the application of biosolid (BIO) or biosolid containing 30% (P\\/ P) of its own incineration ash (BCEN) on soil properties and chemical extractability

SI TORRI; RS LAVADO

84

[The Spanish AIDS study group and Spanish national AIDS plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del plan nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].  

PubMed

This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group. PMID:23541879

Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

2013-12-01

85

Algumas Considerações Sobre a Sazonalidade no IPCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of the analysis of IPCA (Consumer Price Index) seasonality and its items in the period between January 1995 and December 2000. The discussion is based in the points surveyed by Bryan and Cecchetti (1995) regarding the idiosyncratic feature in the seasoning changes of the prices which imply that, despite the items in the IPCA present

Francisco Marcos R. Figueiredo; Roberta Blass Staub

2001-01-01

86

Preguntas para el doctor sobre el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacerle al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.

87

Todo Sobre OSHA (All About OSHA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthful workplace for their employees. OSHAs role is to assure the safety and health of Americas workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing par...

2006-01-01

88

Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

Candelaria, Cordelia

1980-01-01

89

Resolución de consultas anónimas sobre DNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen—La utilización de DNS como mecanismo base de nuevos servicios telemáticos basados en resolución de nombres puede suponer riesgos en seguridad y privacidad. La información intercambiada entre clientes y servidores viaja sin ningún tipo de protección. Dicha información puede ser capturada por malware o servidores de acceso deshonestos y acabar siendo vendida para su utilización en técnicas de spamming o

Joaquín García-Alfaro; Sergio Castillo-Pérez

90

Un estudio exploratorio sobre el desarrollo de creencias sobre síntomas como señales de hipertensión arterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aunque la hipertensión arterial es un trastorno asintomático, muchos pacientes hipertensos están con- vencidos de experimentar síntomas indicadores de los cambios en su tensión arterial (TA), y los con- sejos y prescripciones médicas pueden verse afectados por estas creencias. Diversos estudios han mos- trado que los pacientes hipertensos usan con frecuencia síntomas como indicadores del estado de su tensión arterial

Genoveva Granados Gámez; Jesús Gil Roales-Nieto; José Luis; Ybarra Sagarduy

2006-01-01

91

WSA index as an indicator of soil degradation due to erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of spatial distribution of soil aggregate stability as an indicator of soil degradation vulnerability is required for many scientific and practical environmental studies. The goal of our study was to assess predisposition of different soil types to change aggregate stability due to erosion. Five agriculture arable lands with different soil types were chosen. The common feature of these sites is relatively large slope and thus soils are impacted by water erosion. The first studied area was in Brumovice. The original soil type was Haplic Chernozem on loess, which was due to erosion changed into Regosol (steep parts) and Colluvial soil (base slope and the tributary valley). A similar process has been described at other four locations Vidim, Sedlcany, Zelezna and Hostoun, where the original soil types were Haplic Luvisol on loess and Haplic Cambisol on gneiss, Haplic Cambisol on shales, and Calcaric Cambisol on marlstone, respectively. The regular and semi-regular soil sampling grids were set at all five sites. The basic soil properties were measured and stability of soil aggregates (WSA index) was evaluated. In all cases, the higher aggregates stability was observed in soils, which were not (or only slightly) affected by water erosion and at base slope and the tributary valley (eroded soil particle accumulation). The lowest aggregate stability was measured at the steepest parts. When comparing individual sites, the highest WSA index, e.g. aggregate stability, was found in Sedlcany (Cambisol). Lower WSA indexes were measured on aggregates from Hostoun (Cambisol), Zelezna (Cambisol), Vidim (Luvisol) and the lowest values were obtained in Brumovice (Chernozem). The largest WSA indexes for Cambisols in comparison to Luvisols and Chernozem could be attributed to higher organic matter content and presence of iron oxides. Slightly higher aggregate stability of Luvisols in comparison to Chernozem, could be explained by the positive influence of clay (especially in form of clay coatings) and organic matter, and negative impact of pH. The largest range of WSA values were found for Sedlcany (WSA = 0.41 to 0.93), followed by Vidim (WSA = 0.32 to 0.78) and Brumovice (0.20 to 0.67), Zelezna (WSA = 0.35 to 0.78) and Hostoun (WSA = 0.53 to 0.85). This indicates that the largest impact of erosion on aggregate stability was measured for Cambisol in Sedlcany. Similar impact of soil erosion was observed for both soils on loess and Cambisol in Zelezna. The lowest impact of erosion on aggregate stability was measured for Cambisol in Hostoun. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic No. QJ1230319

Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Schmidtova, Zuzana; Kubis, Adam; Fer, Miroslav; Klement, Ales; Nikodem, Antonin

2014-05-01

92

EVALUACIÓN DE ALGUNAS MODIFICACIONES A LOS MÉTODOS DE EXTRACCIÓN DE QUISTES EN UN SUELO FRANCO-ARCILLOSO INFESTADO CON Globodera pallida (Stone 1973)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En enero del 2005, el laboratorio de nematología de la Universidad de Costa Rica diagnosticó la presencia de Globodera pallida en un cultivo de papa, ubicado en la zona Norte de Cartago. Esta plaga estaba ausente en Costa Rica, por lo tanto es necesario del uso de metodologías más rápidas y certeras, que le brinden al agricultor un diagnóstico

Danny Humphreys Pereira

93

Interpretacion de Fotografias Aereas para la Clasificacion y Elaboracion de Cartas Geograficas del Suelo (Interpretation of Photographs for the Classification and Production of Geographic Soil Maps).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1929, aerial photography has been a boon to soil mapping, both as a check on field studies, and as a temporary and partial substitute for them when necessary. When the latter situation is the case, the proper photographs and interpretation of them i...

1971-01-01

94

Obtencion de la funcion de transferencia del suelo mediante el filtro optimo de Wiener. (Soil transfer function obtention by Wiener's optimum filter).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transfer function in nuclear power plant Laguna Verde, Veracruz, using Wiener filter. This paper deal with identification of complex structural and soil-interaction systems often are modeling in nuclear industry. Nonparametric identification techniques ar...

J. H. Flores Ruiz

1987-01-01

95

Frozen Soil: A Material to Solve Problems in the Construction Industry (Suelo Congelado: Un Material para la So Lucion do Problemas en la Industria de la Construccion).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digging a well, restoring the foundations of a building or digging a tunnel in the soils of big cities constitute difficult projects due to a large number of already existing pipelines and sewers. When the city has a clayey subsoil with some content of wa...

J. A. Careaga E. R. Mayer

1975-01-01

96

EVALUACION DE ALGUNAS PROPIEDADES FISICAS DE SUELOS LUE- GO DE LA INTRODUCCION DE LABRANZAS VERTICALES EN UN SUE LO BAJO SIEMBRA DIRECTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

-3 in SD and 1.23 Mg m -3 in LV. At 13-18 cm depth the ?a values were similar in both treatments. The relative ?a was 91 % for SD and 84 % for LV. The aggregate stability index were 71 % and 66 % for SD and LV respectively. Besides the maximum mechanical resistance in SD, the corn yield

E ELISSONDO; JL COSTA; E SUERO; KP FABRIZZI; F GARCIA

2001-01-01

97

RELACIÓN SUELO-ÁRBOL Y FACTORES DE SITIO, EN PLANTACIONES JÓVENES DE TECA (Tectona grandis), EN LA ZONA OESTE DE LA CUENCA DEL CANAL DE PANAMÁ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recibido: 07\\/12\\/04 Aceptado: 01\\/03\\/05 RE SU MEN Mediante la utilización de un muestreo factorial estratificado con 4 repeticiones (3x3x4) se seleccionaron 36 parcelas permanentes de medición en plantaciones de teca en la zona oeste de la cuenca del Canal de Panamá. En la estratifi- cación se emplearon como criterios el incremento medio anual (IMA) en altura total y la pendiente

Manuel Mollinedo; Luis Ugalde; Alfredo Alvarado; Jean Mark Verjans; Luis Carles Rudy

2005-01-01

98

Los ojos de la NASA sobre la Tierra  

NASA Video Gallery

La NASA cuenta con más de una decena de satélites que estudian la Tierra. Conoce la información que recaban los satélites, junto con Gilberto Colón, asistente especial del subdirector del Centro de...

99

Lo que usted necesita saber sobre™ el cáncer de pulmón  

Cancer.gov

Folleto que describe las opciones de tratamiento, los diferentes médicos que tratan el cáncer de pulmón, la obtención de una segunda opinión, los cuidados de seguimiento y las fuentes de apoyo para alguien que ha sido diagnosticado recientemente con cáncer de pulmón.

100

Lo que usted necesita saber sobre? el cáncer de seno  

Cancer.gov

Publicación que describe las opciones de tratamiento, la obtención de una segunda opinión, los cuidados de seguimiento y las fuentes de apoyo para alguien que ha sido diagnosticado recientemente con cáncer de seno.

101

Semana da conscientização sobre a importânciado ácido fólico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Week of Awareness About the Importance of Folic Acid In the first week of October, the Associação Brasileira de Epilepsia (ABE) celebrated the Week of Awareness of the importance of folic acid. On this occasion, representatives of the ABE were present in Women's Outpatient Clinics such as Gynecology, Epilepsy Clinic and that of the Woman's Home giving information to women

Carina Nasser; Cássia Nobre; Suely Mesquita; José Gomes Ruiz; Hosana Reis Carlos; Lígia Prouvot; Elza Márcia

2005-01-01

102

Sobre as bases dos procedimentos investigativos em psicanálise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O presente trabalho examina as bases da pesquisa psicanalítica. Parte das marcas deixadas nas investigações psicanalíticas pelos procedimentos científicos de disciplinas como a neurologia e a neurofisiologia no século XIX. Em seguida, acompanha o surgimento de um novo objeto, o sujeito do inconsciente, o qual, ainda que requeira operações que mantenham o rigor e a precisão característicos do pensamento

Anna Carolina; Lo Bianco

103

Algo sobre el "Don" (Something about the Word "Don")  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the many uses of the honorific title of "Don" in Spanish literature and Spanish colloquial speech. It may be used to joke and express irony, as in the expression "don ladron" (sir thief), and forms part of many idiomatic expressions. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

Pruneda, Armandino G.

1975-01-01

104

Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

105

Verdad Sobre Teresita Terebrans (Truth About Tessie Terebrans).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pamphlet describes in very simple terms the habits of the pine weevil Dendroctonus terebrans. The insect attacks pine trees to get at the resin, which it needs for nourishment. Healthy trees can shed the insect, but trees damaged or exposed by poor lo...

W. H. Bennett H. E. Ostmark

1968-01-01

106

Lo que usted necesita saber sobre™ el cáncer de seno  

Cancer.gov

E-book que describe las opciones de tratamiento, los diferentes médicos que tratan el cáncer de seno, la obtención de una segunda opinión, los cuidados de seguimiento y las fuentes de apoyo para alguien que ha sido diagnosticado recientemente con cáncer de seno.

107

Consecuencias de las contracciones excentricas del diafragma sobre su funcion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and Objectives: Eccentric contractions are those that occur after a muscle has been stretched, and they can predispose the muscle to damage. Most previous studies have been performed on limb muscles, and the potential consequences of eccentric contractions on the respiratory muscles are therefore unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated eccentric contractions

Joaquim Gea; Ercheng Zhu; Juan B. Galdiz; Norman Comtois; Igor Salazkin; JoseAntonio Fiz; Alejandro Grassino

108

Consecuencias de las contracciones excéntricas del diafragma sobre su función  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and ObjectivesEccentric contractions are those that occur after a muscle has been stretched, and they can predispose the muscle to damage. Most previous studies have been performed on limb muscles, and the potential consequences of eccentric contractions on the respiratory muscles are therefore unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated eccentric contractions on

Joaquim Gea; Ercheng Zhu; Juan B. Gáldiz; Norman Comtois; Igor Salazkin; José Antonio Fiz; Alejandro Grassino

2009-01-01

109

Cambio Climático en Bolivia: Impactos sobre Bosque y Biodiversidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bolivia tiene un nivel de biodiversidad extremadamente alto y pocos países del mundo tienen mayor diversidad de ecosistemas que Bolivia, cuyas características geográficas varían en altura (entre 200 y 6000 m.s.n.m), precipitación (entre 200 y 5000 mm\\/año), temperaturas (glacial hasta tropical) y topografía, y por lo tanto en tipos de vegetación. Los principales tipos de ecosistemas son representados en 22

Lykke E. Andersen

2009-01-01

110

Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Primeros frutos (Initiative about Effectiveness: First Fruits).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin is a follow-up to No. 15 (PS 030 558), which examined some Effectiveness Initiative (EI) projects. This issue presents some beginning efforts to reflect on what has been learned through EI and to draw conclusions. The articles cover the results of EI projects from such angles as their relations with…

Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

2001-01-01

111

REGISTROS FÓSILES SOBRE LA EVOLUCIÓN HUMANA EN EL PLIOCENO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good number of new human fossils have been added in the last decades to the Pliocene record, between 5.3-1.8 MaBP, lightening an initial stage of the human evolution. These remains have been co- llected and examined from tens of sites in East- and South Africa, and the actual collection includes a dozen of species of hominid genera: Ardipithecus, Australopithecus,

EMILIANO AGUIRRE ENRÍQUEZ

112

[Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco, alcohol,…

Moreno, Steve

113

EFECTO DE LOS PROCESOS DE CRIOPRESERVACIÓN SOBRE LA FERTILIDAD SEMINAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryopreserved semen has impaired fertility compare to fresh semen. The lower post-thaw viability and fertility is related with the spermatozoa sub lethal dys- function establishes in part of the survival population. These facts are relations with many factors (e.g. cold shock, cooling rate, extender composition, and osmotic stress) during the cryopreservation process. In this paper factor affecting the quality or

MC Stornelli; CM Tittarelli; CA Savignone; MA Stornelli

114

Noves dades sobre briòfits semifòssils de la Garrotxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hom ha estudiat els briòfits semifòssils dels diferents nivells torbosos de quatre columnes sedimentàries extretes de dipòsits quaternaris de la zona volcànica de la Garrotxa. Hom ha determinat 5 taxons: Drepanocladus aduncus, Leptodyctium riparium, Eurhynchium\\u000aschleicheri, Homalothecium<\\/i> sp. i Meesia triquetra. M. triquetra<\\/i> no s'havia trobat mai a Catalunya i només se'n coneixen dues citacions a tota la península Ibèrica,

Ramón Pérez-Obiol; Creu Casas i Sicart

1999-01-01

115

Lo que usted necesita saber sobre™ el cáncer de pulmón  

Cancer.gov

E-book que describe las opciones de tratamiento, los diferentes médicos que tratan el cáncer de pulmón, la obtención de una segunda opinión, los cuidados de seguimiento y las fuentes de apoyo para alguien que ha sido diagnosticado recientemente con cáncer de pulmón.

116

Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

117

Sobre prestamos y clasificaciones linguisticas (Regarding Borrowing and Linguistic Classification).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the traditionally accepted etymologies of several lexical borrowings in the indigenous languages of the Americas within the framework of comparative linguistics and linguistic classification. The first section presents a general discussion of the problem of tracing lexical borrowings in this context. The section features a…

Key, Mary Ritchie

1988-01-01

118

Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes as an indicator for soil degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of soil organic carbon content (SOC) and stable carbon and oxygen isotope signatures (^13C) of soils were assessed for their suitability to detect early stage soil erosion. Results were validated with Cs-137 measurements. We investigated the soils in the alpine Urseren Valley (Southern Central Switzerland) which are highly impacted by soil erosion. Hill slope transects from uplands (cambisols) to

C. Alewell; M. Schaub; B. Seth

2009-01-01

119

Effects of lime and phosphate additions on nutrient status and growth of beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerating beech stands on Ferric Podzol and Dystric Cambisol were treated with crushed dolomitic lime and ground apatite (phosphorus fertiliser) alone or incombination in a randomised block design. The lime was applied 5 years before the P-fertiliser. Seedling growth, measured as stem diameter, was not affected by the treatments. The lime significantly affected 12, and the P-treatment 5, of 13

Martin Ljungström; Bengt Nihlgård

1995-01-01

120

Researches regarding the soil contamination with heavy metals in the Banat mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we studied the distribution of some heavy metals (iron, nickel, cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc, cooper) in soil samples derived from mountain area of Banat region, Ruschita village. The soils from research area is characterized as a hilly relief and belong to the following types of soil: cambisols, rendzinas, luthisols. The experimental results indicate that the analysed soil

I. Gogoasa; Gabriela Oprea; Despina-Maria Bordean; Liana Maria Alda

121

Impact of soil compaction upon soil water balance and maize yield estimated by the SIMWASER model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of the soil water balance model SIMWASER to predict the impact of soil compaction upon the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) is tested, using the results of a field experiment on the influence of soil compaction by wheel pressure upon soil structure, water regime and plant growth. The experimental site was located on an Eutric Cambisol with

E Stenitzer; E Murer

2003-01-01

122

Changes in hot water soil extracts brought about by nitrogen immobilization and mineralization processes during incubation of amended soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

During incubation of an acid cambisol and an alkaline fluvisol, amended with glucose and nitrate, hot water soil extracts were analysed for N content, ultraviolet absorption, and fluorescence. Humic substances in the hot water extracts and in a neutral sodium pyrophosphate extract were fractionated on polyvinylpyrrolidone and measured spectroscopically. Changes in the hot water and pyrophosphate extract compositions were related

G. Redl; C. Hübner; F. Wurst

1990-01-01

123

Effect of bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and low fungicide dose seed treatments on parasite fungus Aphanomyces cochlioides and sugar beet yield and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of sugar beet seed inoculation with a bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and treatment by fungicides Thi - ram 42-S and Dithane S-60 with and without seed inoculation aiming to control Aphanomyces cochlioides - root decay agent was studied. The trial lasted for three years on two soil types (Mollic Gleysols and Eutric Cambisols) . The following parameters of sugar beet

S. Kristek; A. Kristek; V. Guberac; A. Stanisavljevi?

2006-01-01

124

Invertebrate communities (Annelida and epigeic fauna) in three types of Estonian cultivated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities (annelids and epigeic fauna) in three types of cultivated soils were studied. Soil biota communities in the three most widespread soil types in Estonia (Calcaric Regosols, Calcaric Cambisols and Stagnic Luvisols) are influenced by environmental conditions, the factors connected to soil texture including moisture, organic matter content and pH being the most essential,

Mari Ivask; Annely Kuu; Mart Meriste; Jaak Truu; Marika Truu; Valmar Vaater

2008-01-01

125

The course of 15 N-ammonium nitrate in a spring barley cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

15N-labelled ammonium nitrate was applied to spring barley growing on a Cambisol soil in western Switzerland. Immobilization, plant uptake and disappearance of inorganic nitrogen were followed at frequent intervals. Fertilizer nitrogen disappeared shortly after its application, mainly through immobilization by soil microorganisms and absorption by the crop. Some of the added nitrogen was probably denitrified as a result of humid

G. J. M. Vos; B. Duquet; J. C. Vedy; J. A. Neyroud

1993-01-01

126

Soil type and land use intensity determine the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to test whether soil types can be characterized by their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities. To answer this question, a well-defined study area in the temperate climatic zone of Central Europe was chosen with a large spectrum of soils and parent materials. Representative soil samples were taken from three soil types (Cambisol, Fluvisol and

Fritz Oehl; Endre Laczko; Arno Bogenrieder; Karl Stahr; Robert Bösch; Marcel van der Heijden; Ewald Sieverding

2010-01-01

127

An English-Spanish Glossary of Terminology Used in Forestry, Range, Wildlife, Fishery, Soils, and Botany = Glosario en Ingles-Espanol de Terminologia Usada en Forestales, Pastizales, Fauna, Silvestre, Pesqueria, Suelos, y Botanica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents English-Spanish/Spanish-English equivalent translations of scientific and management terms commonly used in the field of natural resource management. The glossary is composed of two sections. Section 1 contains the English to Spanish translations, while Section 2 provides the Spanish to English translations. Each section is…

Medina, Alvin Leroy

128

Alternativas para el USO del Suelo en Areas Forestales del Tropico Humedo. Tomo 1-4 (Alternatives for using the Land in Forest Areas of the Humid Tropic. Volumes 1-4).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this publication are presented some results of the research done by members of the 'Agreement on planning the exploitation and utilization of tropical forest areas', signed on August, 1978 by the governments of West Germany and Mexico. Vol. I includes ...

H. Janka H. Steinlin

1981-01-01

129

PÉRDIDA DE SUELO, AGUA Y NUTRIENTES EN UN ACRISOL BAJO DIFERENTES SISTEMAS AGRÍCOLAS EN MICHOACÁN, MÉXICO * SOIL, WATER AND NUTRIENT LOSSES IN AN ACRISOL UNDER DIFFERENT AGRONOMIC SYSTEMS IN MICHOACAN, MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Campo Experimental Uruapan, INFAP, 3 IRD-Francia. 4 Instituto de Recursos Naturales. Colegio de Postgraduados. § Autor para correspondencia: ABSTRACT In the upper part of Cuitzeo Lake watershed, Michoacan, Mexico, farmers use a traditional short-fallow production system. With this system, land is sown one year, and left without cultivation from one to three years for grazing. This system is used

Lenin Ejecatl; Medina Orozco; Miguel Bravo Espinosa; Christian Prat; Mario Martínez Menes; Enrique Ojeda Trejo; Blanca Estela; Serrato Barajas

2008-01-01

130

CRECIMIENTO Y RENDIMIENTO DE NARANJA VALENCIA INJERTADA EN 16 PORTAINJERTOS DE CÍTRICOS ESTABLECIDOS EN SUELO CALCIMÓRFICO, Y CALIDAD DEL JUGO GROWTH AND YIELD OF VALENCIA ORANGE GRAFTED ON 16 CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS GROWING IN A CALCIMORPHIC SOIL, AND JUICE QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcimorphic properties or soils have negative effects on the development and yield of citrus in Colima. From 1992 to 2000, sixteen citrus rootstocks for Valencia orange were evaluated in a calcimorphic soil, with the objective of selecting citrus rootstocks adapted to this soil, with high yield and fruit juice quality. Treatments (rootstocks) were lemons, citranges, mandarins, limes and trifoliated; sour

Octavio Pérez-Zamora; Víctor Medina-Urrutia; Salvador Becerra-Rodríguez

131

Aplicacion de la espectrometria de alta resolucion de rayos x precedida por la activacion neutronica al analisis elemental de suelos. (Application of high resolution x-ray spectrometry preceded by neutron activation for elemental analysis of soil samples).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Utilization of High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometry preceded by activation of the samples by irradiation with neutron fluxes (NAA(sub R)X) is a relatively modern trend in application of nuclear techniques. This method may complement advantageously the usual...

A. Hernandez Rivero G. Capote Rodriguez E. Herrera Peraza

1996-01-01

132

Emergencia y sobrevivencia de gramíneas con diferentes secuencias de humedad\\/sequía en tres tipos de suelo Emergence and survival of native and introduced grasses in an arid environment under different wet-dry sequences in three soil types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land degradation can be reversed using revegetation. Reseeding in degraded pastures is high risk, and requires knowledge of grass species behavior under several precipitation regimens. A study was done to evaluate germination and survival of native and introduced gramineas in an arid environment under different wet-dry sequences and in different soil types. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Soils

Mario Humberto Esqueda Coronado; Alicia Melgoza Castillo; Manuel Sosa Cerecedo; Regina Carrillo Romo; Jorge Jiménez Castro

133

What has happened in about the last 20 years in the Canyoles watershed?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along history, the Mediterranean arid lands have undergone widespread land use transformation, especially in recent decades (Piqueras, 2012). There are changes driven by socio-economic conditions, such as European Agricultural Policies (MacDonald et al., 2000; Keenleyside and Tucker, 2010; Renwick et al., 2013), which have caused land degradation processes (soil erosion, soil sealing, water pollution, salinization, wildfires, land abandonment, urban sprawl and intensive agricultural practices). Land degradation is the results of a complex Socio Ecological System (SES) which should be addressed using the Geographical Information System (GIS) to identify and assess the spatial variation of land use change. Therefore, the aim of this work has been to describe and assess the land use change by human activities in a typical Mediterranean watershed (Cànyoles Valley) located at South-East of Iberian Peninsula as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project, which has undergone a quick land use change in last two decades (1986 - 2005). Results reveal that the surface area devoted to rainfed crops (e.g., olive crops (47 %) and vineyards (28 %) and forestry have decline significantly; while the citrus orchards (irrigated crops) and unproductive areas (e.g., roads and railways, urban areas) have been increasing its surface in just about last 20 years in 45 % and 67 %, respectively. According to the literature review (Cerdà, 1994; Cerdá et al., 1999, 2007; Cerdà, 2007; Bodí et al., 2012; González-Peñaloza, 2012) these recent changes, in the study site, have caused many environmental disturbances mainly due to the lack control strategies plans of land degradation. Acknowledgements This research is being conducted by the EU project "Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses" LEDDRA 243857 CONSORTIUM AGREEMENT. TR07 - VII PROGRAMA MARCO - ENERGÍA FP7-ENERGY-2007-2-TREN. - European Union FP7. ENV.2009 243857. Keywords: GIS, land use, degradation, Cànyoles valley, agricultural practices. References Bodí, M.B., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. 2012. Efectos de los incendios forestales en la vegetación y el suelo en la cuenca mediterránea: revisión bibliográfica. Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles 58, 33-35 Cerdà, A, Giménez - Morera, A. Terol, E., Domínguez, A. Jurgensen, M.F., Doerr, S.H. 1999. Cultivos de cítricos y erosión de suelos en el este de la Península Ibérica. En Control de la Degradación de los suelos y cambio global (Eds: Sánchez Díaz, J., Asins Velis, S.). IV Simposio sobre control de la degradación de los suelos y cambio global. Universitat de València. Valencia. 71 - 72. Cerdà, A. 1994. Arroyada superficial en terrazas de cultivo abandonadas. El caso del País Valenciano. Cuadernos de Geografía 56, 135-154 Cerdá, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road embankments in Eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environments 378, 151-155. González-Peñaloza, F.A., Cerdà, Zavala, L.M., Jordán, A. 2012. Do conservative agriculture practices increase soil water repellency? A case study in citrus-cropped soils. Soil & Tillage Research 124, 233 - 239. Keenleyside, C., Tucker, G.M. 2010. Farmland Abandonment in the EU: An assessment of Trend and Prospects. Report Prepared for WWF. Institute for European Environmental Policy, London. 93 pp. MacDonald, D., Crabtree, J.R., Wiesinger, G., Dax, T., Stamou, N., Fleury, P., Gutiérrez-Lazpita, J., Gibon, A. 2000. Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: Environmental consequenses and policy reponse. Journal of Environmental Management 59, 47-69. Piqueras, J. 2012. Geografía del Territorio Valenciano. Departament de Geografia, Universitat de València (Valencia, España). 256 pp. Renwick, A., Jansson, T., Verburg, P.H., Revoredo-Giha, C., Britz, W., Gocht, A., McCracken, D. 2013. Policy reforms and agricultural land abandonment in the EU. Land Use Policy 30, 446-457.

Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi; Díaz del Olmo, Fernando

2013-04-01

134

Content and persistence of extracellular DNA in native soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term persistence of soil extracellular DNA is questionable because of high potential activity of nucleases produced by soil microorganisms. By the other hand, the relative persistence of DNA-like biopolymers could be due to their adsorption on clay minerals and humus substances in soil. High-specific and ultra sensitive reagent PicoGreenTM (Molecular Probes) permits the quantitative assessment of microbial dsDNA in diluted soil extracts giving a good tool for tracing the DNA fate in soil. Our goal was to determine intracellular and extracellular DNA content in cambisol (loamy sand) and in chernozem (silty loam) soils and to investigate the possible adsorption and degradation of extracellular DNA in soil. Optimized procedure of mechanical and enzymatic destruction of cell walls was used for direct extraction of microbial DNA with Tris-EDTA buffer (Blagodatskaya et al., 2003). Extracellular dsDNA was determined in distilled water and in Tris-EDTA extracts without enzymatic or mechanical treatments. DNA content was determined after addition of PicoGreen to diluted soil extracts. Degradation of extracellular DNA was traced during 24 h incubation of 2 µg lambda-phage DNA in soil. Possible DNA adsorption to soil matrix was determined by recovery of lambda -phage DNA added to autoclaved soil. Extracellular dsDNA was absent in water extracts of both soils. The content of extracellular dsDNA extracted by Tris-EDTA buffer was 0.46 µg/g in chernozem and 1.59 µg/g in cambisol amounting 0.43 and 2.8% of total dsDNA content in these soils, respectively. 100% and 64.8% of added extracellular lambda -phage dsDNA was found in cambisol and chernozem soils, respectively, in 5 h after application. 39% and 73.5% of added DNA disappeared in cambisol and in chernozem, respectively, during 24 h incubation. Degradation rate of extracellular DNA depended on microbial biomass content, which was 2.5 times higher in chernozem as compared to cambisol. Maximum adsorption of DNA by soils was observed in cambisol and reached 2.7% of added amount. We speculate that probability of gene transfer could be rather high in soils, taking into account possible increase of extracellular DNA content after transient environmental events (i.e. drying - rewetting and freezing - thawing).

Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Anderson, Traute-Heidi; Kuzyakov, Yakov

2014-05-01

135

El efecto del cloruro de N-cetilpiridina sobre la absorción de un colorante reactivo sobre Leacril. Potencial zeta y termodinámica de absorción  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nous avons entrepis des recherches de type expérimentel sur l'absorption et le potentiel de flux de Remazol Blue R (RBB-R) avec des fibres Leacril traitées et non traitées avec 10^-3 M de chlorure de N-cétylpyridine (N-CP-CI). Les modèles de faisceaux capillaires utilisés sont ceux de Goring et Mason, Biefer et Mason, et Chang et Roberston. Le comportement qualitatif du potential

Manuel Espinosa Jiménez; Alfonso Ontiveros Ortega; E. Giménez Martín

1970-01-01

136

Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control  

SciTech Connect

Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue realizado como parte de un estudio de factibilidad para determinar si conota es una candidata apropiada para un programa de control biologico clasico. En general, especimenes de aproximadamente unos 4,000 artropodos y unos 400 nematodos fueron recolectados. Muestras recolectadas pasando una red sobre vegetacion mezclada, cortando la vegetacion y tomando centros del suelo fueron dominados por representantes de artropodos de los ordenes de Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, y Acari. Nematodos en el genero Pratylenchus, que causan lesiones sobre tejido, fueron asociados regularmente con las raices de conota. Ninguno de los organismos recolectados eran especialistas sobre conota. Aunque el control biologico clasico de la conota es factible basado sobre la magnitud de la infestacion, las perdidas economicas, la resistencia hacia los metodos de control convencionales y el informe en la India de un posible enemigo natural especifico a esta planta, la posicion botanica de este pasto maleza requiere una evaluacion de riesgo economico formal antes de continuar con un programa de control biologico clasico. (author)

Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr. [University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620 (United States)

2007-03-15

137

Microbial populations in heated soils inoculated with cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of soil microbiota in four heated (350??°C, 1?h) soils (one Ortic Podsol over sandstone and three Humic Cambisol\\u000a over granite, schist or limestone) inoculated (1.5??g chlorophyll?a g–1 soil or 3.0??g chlorophyll?a g–1 soil) with cyanobacteria (Oscillatoria PCC9014, Nostoc PCC9025, Nostoc PCC9104, Scytonema CCC9801, and a mixture of the four) was studied by cultural methods. The aims of the

M. J. Acea; N. Diz; A. Prieto-Fernández

2001-01-01

138

Improving phosphorus availability in two upland soils of Vietnam using Tithonia diversifolia H  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus was added to two acidic upland soils (a Cambisol and a Ferralsol) at two rates (9 mg P kg?1 and 145 mg P kg?1) either in an inorganic P form (KH2PO4) or as a green manure (Tithonia diversifolia H. at 2.5 g kg?1 and 40 g kg?1). The effect of P source on the chemical availability of P was assessed in

Phan Thi Cong; Roel Merckx

2005-01-01

139

Role of nitrification and denitrification for NO metabolism in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Release and uptake of NO was measured in a slightly alkaline (pH 7.8) and an acidic (pH 4.7) cambisol. In the alkaline soil under aerobic conditions, NO release was stimulated by ammonium and inhibited by nitrapyrin. Nitrate accumulated simultaneously and was also inhibited by nitrapyrin.15NO was released after fertilization with15NH4NO3 but not with NH415NO3. The results indicate that in aerobic

Armim Remde; Ralf Conrad

1991-01-01

140

Response of Nematodes in a Hapli-Udic Argosol to Urea Amended with Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors 1 1 Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Support Foundation of China (No. 2005CB121105) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2005AA001480)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of urea amended with urease and nitrification inhibitors on soil nematode communities were studied in a Hapli-Udic Argosol (Cambisol, FAO) in Liaoning Province of Northeast China. A completely random design with four treatments, i.e., conventional urea (CU), slow-release urea amended with a liquid urease inhibitor (SRU1), SRU1 + nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (SRU2), and SRU1 + nitrification inhibitor 3, 5-dimethylpyrazole

Jian-Feng HUA; Yong JIANG; Wen-Ju LIANG

2006-01-01

141

Effect of composted sewage sludge amendment on soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal sewage sludge previously composted with sawdust (CSS) was applied to an eutric sandy cambisol at rates of 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30 g#lbkg. Incubation and pot experiments were conducted to evaluate CSS effectiveness on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) soil availability and on plant nutrition. The CSS rates did not increase soil mineral N and had little effect on

João Coutinho; Margarida Arrobas; Olga Rodrigues

1997-01-01

142

Use of dairy-industry sludge as fertiliser for grasslands in northwest Spain: heavy metal levels in the soil and plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of dairy-plant sludge for fertilisation of a Cambisolic soil was investigated in northwest Spain. Soil properties (pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter content, NO3?, P, Ca, Mg, Na, K and Al) and soil and plant tissue heavy metal contents (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr) were determined in 12 grassland plots fertilised over a 1–4-year period with

M. E López-Mosquera; C Moirón; E Carral

2000-01-01

143

Effect of P and Zn fertilisation on biomass yield and its uptake by maize lines (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three maize inbred lines (Os86-39, Os89-35 and Os87-24) were grown in pots with Eutric Cambisol using 9 fertilisation variants (control 10 kg\\/ha Zn - on soil surface; 5 kg\\/ha - foliar application; 61 kg\\/ha P; 61 kg\\/ha P and 10 kg\\/ha Zn - on soil surface; 61 kg\\/ha P and 5 kg\\/ha Zn - foliar application; 183 kg\\/ha P; 183

G. Bukvi?; M. Antunovi?; S. Popovi?; M. Rastija

2003-01-01

144

Soil organic carbon stocks, distribution, and composition affected by historic land use changes on adjacent sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic alterations in land use from forest to grassland and cropland to forest were used to determine impacts on carbon\\u000a (C) stocks and distribution and soil organic matter (SOM) characteristics on adjacent Cambisols in Eastern Germany. We investigated\\u000a a continuous Norway spruce forest (F-F), a former cropland afforested in 1930 (C-F), and a grassland deforested in 1953 (F-G).\\u000a For C

Carsten W. Mueller; Ingrid Koegel-Knabner

2009-01-01

145

Differences in growth and nutrient uptake from a coarse-soil substrate by ectomycorrhizal- and fungicide-treated Picea abies seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to quantify the importance of ectomycorrhizal fungi on nutrient uptake from the coarse-soil fraction of a haplic\\u000a Cambisol (alumic), a microcosm study that allowed for nutrient budgets was designed. Ectomycorrhizal- and fungicide-treated\\u000a spruce seedlings were grown on isolated and cleaned gneiss fragments (6.3 mm > Ø > 2 mm) from 90 cm soil depth. The substrate\\u000a was the only source of Ca, K and Mg.

Nina KoeleErnst; Ernst E. Hildebrand

2011-01-01

146

Effect of cropland management and slope position on soil organic carbon pool at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter is strongly related to soil type, landscape morphology, and soil and crop management practices. Therefore, long-term (15–36-years) effects of six cropland management systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in 0–30cm depth were studied for the period of 1939–1999 at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds (<3ha, Dystric Cambisol, Haplic Luvisol, and Haplic Alisol) near Coshocton, OH, USA.

Yueli Hao; Rattan Lal; Lloyd Owens; R Cesar C. Izaurralde; W. M Post; Daniel Hothem

2002-01-01

147

Pedogenesis and nickel biogeochemistry in a typical Albanian ultramafic toposequence.  

PubMed

This study aimed at relating the variability of Ni biogeochemistry along the ultramafic toposequence to pedogenesis and soil mineralogy. Hypereutric Cambisols dominate upslope; Cambic Vertisols and Fluvic Cambisols occur downslope. The soil mineralogy showed abundance of primary serpentine all over the sequence. It is predominant upslope but secondary smectites dominate in the Vertisols. Free Fe-oxides are abundant in all soils but slightly more abundant in the upslope soils. Whereas serpentines hold Ni in a similar and restricted range in every soil (approx. 0.3 %), Ni contents in smectites may vary a lot and Mg-rich and Al-poor smectites in the Vertisol could hold up to 4.9 % Ni. Ni was probably adsorbed onto amorphous Fe-oxides and was also exchangeable in secondary smectites. High availability of Ni in soils was confirmed by DTPA extractions. However, it varied significantly along the toposequence, being higher in upslope soils, where Ni-bearing amorphous Fe-oxides were abundant and total organic carbon higher and sensibly lower downslope on the Vertisols: NiDTPA varied from 285 mg kg(-1) in the surface of soil I (upslope) to 95.9 mg kg(-1) in the surface of Fluvic Cambisols. Concentration of Ni in Alyssum murale shoots varied from 0.7 % (Hypereutric Cambisols) to 1.4 % (Hypereutric Vertisol). Amazingly, Ni uptake by A. murale was not correlated to NiDTPA, suggesting the existence of specific edaphic conditions that affect the ecophysiology of A. murale upslope. PMID:24718927

Bani, Aida; Echevarria, Guillaume; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Gjoka, Fran; Sulçe, Sulejman; Morel, Jean Louis

2014-07-01

148

ASPECTOS PSICOSSOCIAIS DA MEDICINA PREDITIVA: REVISÃO DA LITERATURA SOBRE TESTES DE RISCOS GENÉTICOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to review and reflect about psychosocial issues concerning genetic tests, in the context of the new medical paradigm of Predictive Medicine and the emerging perspective of Psychosocial Genetics. Psychosocial implications underlying the practice of genetic tests for late onset diseases require a special attention and a systematic multidisciplinary approach, including psychosocial evaluation and intervention, in order to

José A. Zagalo-Cardoso; Luísa Rolim

2005-01-01

149

Traumatic Brain Injury. Fact Sheet = Lesion Cerebral Traumatica (TBI). Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, offers general information about traumatic brain injury. Information includes a definition, incidence, individual characteristics, and educational implications. The signs of traumatic brain injury are listed and include physical disabilities, difficulties with thinking, and social, behavioral,…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

150

Sobre las edades de las componentes del sistema PSR B1855+09  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years several low-mass white dwarfs (helium white dwarfs, He WD) have been detected as companions to millisecond pulsars. In this kind of systems, pulsar emission is activated by mass transfer episodes, which also lead to the formation of the He WD, thus if we set the zero age point at the end of this mass loss transfer episodes, the ages of both objects should be the same. In this sense, PSR B1855+09 system casts some doubts about the correctness of theoretical white dwarf models. The age of the pulsar inferred from its spin-down rate is 5 Gyr. However, existing determination of the mass of the white dwarf companion of this system and recent optical detection of it, which has allowed to infer its effective temperature, have led to an estimative age of 10 Gyr for the white dwarf. Noteworthly, available theoretical calculations used to infer the cooling age of the He WDs, neglect element diffusion. In this work, we present evolutionary calculations for He WDs taking into account the effects of gravitational settling, and chemical and thermal diffusion in a self consistent way, and in particular we use the results to determine cooling ages for He WDs. We find that models within the mass range 0.19 <= M/Msolar <= 0.41 suffer from diffusion-induced thermonuclear flashes, during which an appreciable amount of the hydrogen of the envelope is burnt. Only after the hydrogen envelope has been reduced enough so as not to be able to produce another thermonuclear flash, He WD models evolve towards their final cooling track. During this evolutionary stage, cooling rate is determined by whether stable hydrogen burning is relevant or not. We find that diffusion-induced thermonuclear flashes reduce the hydrogen envelope so as to prevent stable hydrogen burning from being an appreciable source of energy for the models, which are then forced to a rapid cooling. In this way, expected ages for these objects are drastically reduced when compared to the case in which diffusion is neglected (as these models predict thick hydrogen envelopes and thus, a cooling stage dominated by stable hydrogen burning). In particular, we find for the white dwarf companion to PSR B1855+09 an age of 4±2 Gyr, which is in very good agreement with the spin-down age of this pulsar and also shows that the age discrepancy previously found is due to an oversimplification in the physical ingredients of theoretical models.

Serenelli, A. M.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

151

Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their inci- dence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectio- nism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory

S. Márquez

2008-01-01

152

INFORMACIÓN SOBRE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE ALGUNAS ESPECIES DE AVES DE ECUADOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

New records or confirmation of recently reported distributional range extensions or altitudinal movements are given or 14 species of birds from Ecuador: Cairina moschata, Netta erythrophthalma, Leucopternis semiplumbeus, Forpus coelestis, Crotophaga sulcirostris, Eriocnemis mosquera, Furnarius cinnamomeus, Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii, Phlegopsis nigromaculata, Querula purpurata, Cyclarhis gujanensis, Progne subis, Haplospiza rustica y Carduelis olivacea. The new records and their releva nce to the

Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia

153

Notas sobre los Sonidos Consonantes en Espanol (Notes on Consonant Sounds in Spanish)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the Spanish phonetic system, as set forth by Navarro Tomas in his "Manual de Pronunciacion Espanola," and discusses the influences exerted by certain sounds over others. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

Ezquerra, Raimundo

1974-01-01

154

Opiniones de Arrow sobre la equidad, la eficiencia y la democracia  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. La función objetiva de la economía. Arrow (1975a, pp. 6-7) considera que el creciente papel del gobierno es tal vez la más grande de todas las tendencias contradictorias del capitalismo contemporáneo. Las metas y las funciones del gobierno difieren marcadamente de las perseguidas por empresas lucrativas. El crecimiento de su papel y su tamaño no podrá dejar de afectar

G. R. Feiwel

1987-01-01

155

Perspectivas de las mujeres maltratadas sobre la violencia de pareja en México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To identify personal, cultural, and institutional factors that hinder the solution to domestic violence. Ma- terial and Methods. In Quintana Roo, Coahuila, and Mex- ico City, 26 in-depth interviews with women currently suffering from intimate partner violence and others who had already found a solution were carried out, between May and November 2003. Results. Among women's explana- tions to

Carolina Agoff; Ari Rajsbaum; Cristina Herrera

2006-01-01

156

Diseño metodológico de la Encuesta Nacional sobre Violencia contra las Mujeres en México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the methodology, the research de- signs used, the estimation and sample selection, variable definitions, collection instruments, and operative design and analytical procedures for the National Survey Violence Against Women in Mexico. Material and Methods. A com- plex (two-step) cross-sectional study was designed and the qualitative design was carried out using in-depth interviews and participant observation in health

Gustavo Olaiz; Aurora Franco; Oswaldo Palma; Carlos Echarri; Rosario Valdez; Cristina Herrera

2006-01-01

157

Diseño metodológico dela Encuesta Nacional sobre Violencia contra las Mujeres en México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective. To describe the methodology, the research de- signs used, the estimation and sample selection, variable definitions, collection instruments, and operative design and analytical procedures ,for the National Survey Violence Against Women,in Mexico. Material and Methods. A com- plex (two-step) cross-sectional study was designed and the qualitative design was carried out using in-depth interviews and participant observation,in health,care units.

Gustavo Olaiz; Aurora Franco; Lic en Tr Soc; Oswaldo Palma; Carlos Echarri; en Demografía; M en Antrop; Cristina Herrera

158

FRANKENFOODS E REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS: percepções contemporâneas sobre biotecnologia, natureza e alimentação  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an analysis of contemporary perceptions of biotechnology, nature and food, this work is an endeavour to provide elements and analytical perspectives that contribute to an understanding of the social representations about genetically modified crops and foods.

Renata Menasche

159

Efecto de las colisiones sobre el Plano Fundamental de bulbos de galaxia espirales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aspects of the Fundamental Plane (FP) relation for ellipticals and early type bulges can be explained assuming the virialization of the systems, however, the observed dispersions are larger than instrumentation errors and have been thought to have physical basis. Even more, it is expected that the scatter and the position that different objects ocupy on it, could give clues on the mechanisms of galaxy formation and on the evolutionary path of galaxies. The FP relation has been observed and confirmed in the local Universe and it has been recently estimated for galaxies at intermediate redshifts. However, these estimations are based on a low statitical number and effects such as the evolution of the stellar populations and the presence of dust may introduce additional dispersion. Scannapieco & Tissera (2003) studied the mass distribution of disk systems and the way in which this distribution is modified by mergers. These authors have used numerical simulations which included gravitation, hydrodynamics, cooling and stellar formation in a cosmological frame work. As a consecuence, the collision parameters and the physical features of the simulated objects are the result of the consistent formation of the structure in a hierarchical scenario. The results show that depending on the caracteristics of the potential well, some systems may suffer gas inflows as a result of tidal fields during the orbital decay of the satellite system. This gas inflow originates a star burst previous to the fusion (i.e. secular evolution) which tends to form bulges with exponential profiles. In this work we present preliminary results on the effects of mergers on the FP defined by bulges. We found that the simulated bulges determines a FP in agreement with observations. We have detected that the mergers could significantly affect the FP depending on the internal properties of the galactic systems. And, particularly, secular evolution is found to play a critical role in the determination of a FP with the observed slope (Smith Castelli et al., 2004, in preparation).

Smith Castelli, A.; Scannapieco, C.; Tissera, P.

160

Estudo sobre excrecao de (sup 210) Po na urina. (Excretion of (210) Po in urine).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The urine of mines's workers is analysed to detect the presence of (210) Po. The results were compared the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples were analysed and confirmed the (210) presence. The control population was divided in smok...

A. M. G. Fonseca Azeredo

1988-01-01

161

Enfrentando a mastectomia: análise dos relatos de mulheres mastectomizadas sobre questões ligadas à sexualidade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facing mastectomy: analysis of the discourse of mastectomized women about questions of sexuality. This research intended to analyze the self-perception of sexuality of six 37 to 55 year old women who had been submitted to radical mastectomy one and a half to eight years before. For this analysis, the author chose the technique of content analysis, according to which the

Tânia Pires Duarte; Ângela Nobre de Andrade

2003-01-01

162

Impacto de oito semanas de treinamento com pesos sobre a força muscular de homens e mulheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact of an eight-week weight training program on the mus- cular strength of men and women The objective of the present study was to verify the impact of an eight-week weight training program (WT) on the muscular strength. To do so, 23 men (20.7 ± 1.7 years) and 15 women (20.9 ± 2.1 years), apparently healthy and moderately active (regular

Raphael Mendes Ritti Dias; Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino; Emanuel Péricles Salvador; Fábio Yuzo Nakamura; Fábio Luiz Cheche Pina; Arli Ramos de Oliveira

2005-01-01

163

Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

164

EFEITO DE ADITIVOS MINERAIS SOBRE AS PROPRIEDADES DE CHAPAS CIMENTO-MADEIRA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the two minerals additives (microsilica and meta-kaolin) on the properties of wood cement-bonded particleboard (WCBP) with different amounts (0%, 20% and 30%) of additives. Portland cement of high initial resistance was used in the production of panels as binder material. It was mixed with Eucalyptus urophylla wood particles to

Gilmar Correia Silva; Jair Figueiredo; Érika da Silva Ferreira

165

POTENCIAL INSETICIDA DO EXTRATO DE Piper tuberculatum (PIPERACEAE) SOBRE Alabama argillacea (HUEBNER, 1818) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants from Piperaceae family are known to contain in their composition substances with insecticidal properties. Identification and isolation of compounds from these plants represent an alternative to conventional chemical insecticides, representing a promosing alternative to the incorporation of nex substances to the pest management, with important ecological advantages, like low environmental and human impact. The present study was developed to

JOSÉ EDNILSON MIRANDA; JOSÉ EUDES DE MORAIS; KELLY CRISTINA G. ROCHA; HOSANA M. D. NAVICKIENE; J. KATO; MAYSA FURLAN

166

Una nota sobre el modelo de telaraña y los mercados a futuro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalmente se acepta que los mercados que funcionan con expectativas del tipo “telaraña” son ineficientes y que agentes con expectativas correctas podrían explotar esta ineficiencia ya sea a través de convertirse en productores del bien en cuestión o vendiendo las predicciones propias que serían más acertadas que la del tipo “telaraña”. Esta nota presenta un tercer método para explotar las

Maurice W. Schiff

1982-01-01

167

Incidencia de los tipos del mercado monetario sobre los precios de las operaciones bancarias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a global frame leading to the elaboration of an interest rate risk pricing model applicable to financial institutions which takes the basis risk into account, the current paper analyses the long-term impact of the most representative Spanish monetary market interest rates variations over the interest rates offered by financial institutions. With that purpose, Johansen’s cointegration methodology is applied by

Cristóbal González Baixauli; Román Ferrer

1998-01-01

168

EFECTO DE LA DENSIDAD DE SIEMBRA SOBRE EL RENDIMIENTO Y CALIDAD DEL FORRAJE DE MAÍZ1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of plant density on yield and quality of corn fodder. The experiment was condunted at the Alfredo Volio Mata Experimental Station of the University of Costa Rica, located at 1542 meters above sea level. The purpose was to determine the effect of plant density on total forage mass and the nutritive value of corn. Three diferent plant distances we-

Jorge Elizondo; Carlos Boschini

169

Um Estudo sobre Gerência de Configuração de Software aplicada ao Desenvolvimento Baseado em Componentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to analyze the Software Configurati on Management (SCM) approach for conventional development and identify points that need to be tai lored to support Component Based Development (CBD). We believe that adapting SCM process to support CBD by applying variants for producer and consumer teams is the best way to take advantage of the benefits of SCM a

Ribeiro Dantas; Hamilton Oliveira; Leonardo Gresta; Paulino Murta; Cláudia Maria; Lima Werner

170

Reflexiones sobre el buen gobierno corporativo en las empresas periodõ ´sticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: El interes por el gobierno corporativo en las empresas informativas no es un tema nuevo, pero ha adquirido singular relevancia en los ultimos anos, como resultado de las transformaciones que se han vivido en los esquemas de propiedad y de gestion de las compan ˜õ ´as. En este artõ ´culo se trata de explicar por quela naturaleza de los

Angel Arrese

171

Influência do ciclo de polimerização sobre a dimensão vertical de oclusão em próteses totais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimensional changes in the acrylic resin base during polymeri- zation procedure can cause increase in occlusion vertical dimen- sion in complete dentures. The objective of this study was to eva- luate the influence of different polimerization cycles in water bath on the occlusion vertical dimension in complete dentures. Three cycles were used to cure upper complete dentures, one for a

ANDREA LÚCIA ALMEIDA DE CARVALHO; MARCO ANTONIO COMPAGNONI; DÉBORA BARROS

172

Efeitos do treinamento aeróbio de alta intensidade sobre a economia de corrida em atletas de endurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORTIZ, M. J.; STELLA, S.; MELLO, M. T.; DENADAI, B. S. Effects of high intensity aerobic training on the ruming economy in endurance runners. R. bras. Ci. e Mov. 2003; 11(3): 53-56. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of high intensity training on running economy (RE) in endurance athletes. Seventeen runners (33.4 + 4.4 years; 62.7

Marcelo Janini Ortiz; Benedito Sérgio Denadai; Sérgio Stella; Marco Túlio de Mello

173

Sobre a quantizacao de um sistema classicamente caotico. (Quantization of classically chaotic system).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some propeties of a quantization in terms of observables of a classically chaotic system, which exhibits a strange are studied. It is shown in particular that convenient expected values of some observables have the correct classical limit and that in thes...

N. F. Godoy

1988-01-01

174

ÁREA TEMÁTICA : Finanças REFLEXOS DA VARIAÇÃO CAMBIAL SOBRE OS RESULTADOS DAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to analyze the consequences of the exchange rate fluctuation on the results and market value of the Brazilian flat steel companies, in the last five years. In this period, two different scenarios could be identified: in 2002, when the US dollar strengthened relative to the Real, and, in 2003\\/2004, when an appreciation of the

ROSANA TAVARES

175

Perspectiva General sobre la Sordo-Ceguera (Overview on Deaf-Blindness). DB-LINK.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview provides basic information on the causes of deaf-blindness and the particular challenges faced by individuals who are deaf-blind. Causes of deaf-blindness include various syndromes, multiple congenital anomalies, prematurity, congenital prenatal dysfunction, and various postnatal causes. Differences between people deaf-blind from…

Miles, Barbara

176

Actitud en niños y adultos sobre los estereotipos de género en juguetes infantiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. El trabajo muestra cómo a través del juego las nuevas generaciones aprenden y reproducen los patrones de conducta que observan en su entorno familiar, social, escolar y, especialmente, en los medios de comunicación. En este estudio participan 400 niños de entre tres y siete años de edad y 200 universitarios, y se realiza un análisis de las preferencias y

María del Carmen; Martínez Rein; Manuel Vélez Ce

2008-01-01

177

neuromuscular sobre o consumo máximo de oxigênio e salto vertical em atletas iniciantes de voleibol  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO As alterações ocorridas na performance motora de jovens en- volvidos em treinamentos especializados ainda não são muito cla- ras. Este é um conhecimento de suma importância para a correta prescrição desses treinos. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do treinamento nas variáveis neuromotoras e orgânicas de jovens atletas na modalidade voleibol em diferentes momen- tos do programa.

Alexandre Altini Neto; Ídico Luiz Pellegrinotti; Maria Imaculada; L. Montebelo

178

Conocimientos maternos sobre signos de peligro en diarrea aguda en el marco de la estrategia AIEPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

de hidratación. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo por medio de una encuesta. Se aplicó un instrumento de investigaciones operativas de AIEPI, a 204 cuidadores elegidos consecutivamente que asistieron por primera vez a la consulta de crecimiento y desarrollo de un hospital de nivel I en Popayán, Colombia. Se midieron variables: edad materna, sexo, edad del niño, área (rural-urbana), estrato socioeconómico, vínculo al

MARIO FRANCISCO DELGADO; CARLOS HERNÁN S IERRA; JOSÉ ANDRÉS CALVACHE; ÁNGELA MARÍA RÍOS; CATALINA MOSQUERA; INGRID SALAS; FRANCISCO AGREDO; RUBIEL MENESES

2006-01-01

179

EFECTO DEL USO DE ALCOHOL EN GEL SOBRE LAS INFECCIONES NOSOCOMIALES POR Klebsiella pneumoniae MULTIRRESISTENTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of alcohol-gel hand hygiene on nosocomial infections due to multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Handwashing is considered the most important and effective infection control measure to prevent transmission of nosocomial pathogens. However, compliance with handwashing by health care workers is low. A new modality for hand hygiene is alcohol gel rub, which reduces time required, does not damage the skin and

JOAQUIN BERMEJO; ARNOLDO WERTZ; BLANCA BENCOMO; PATRICIA LESNABERES; RODOLFO NOTARIO

180

Evite los Conceptos Erróneos cuando Enseñe sobre las Plantas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.

David R. Hershey (biology education consultant;)

2005-05-01

181

The Science and Engineering of Materials Documento Sobre Ciencia E Engenharia DOS Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Priorities in projects being developed in materials science and engineering are defined for the following sub-areas: semiconductors, ceramics, glasses, conjugate materials, catalysts, rubber, plastics, firewoods, materials for civil construction, and mate...

1981-01-01

182

La atención de enfermería sobre el impacto de la enfermedad crónica en la familia  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 . La magnitud del impacto que una enfermedad provoca en la familia y la persona, está determinada por factores tales como: la forma en que inicia, el curso, las demandas que genera, el grado de incapaci- dad que causará, la gravedad, la frecuencia de las recaídas, los pro- blemas que se desencadenarán li- gados con las tareas del ciclo

Elena Mora-Escalante

183

Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre el tabaquismo en estudiantes de Enfermería y Obstetricia del Instituto \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of smoking in people in the phase of academic education is important considering that they will orientate about the risks of chronic diseases in the future. This cross-sectional observational descriptive study with an analytical component determined prevalence, characteristics of the smoking habit, knowledge and attitudes towards the smoking in students registered in 2007 in the Institute \\

Morel de Festner JC; Andrés Barbero

2008-01-01

184

Profesionalismo: Un estudio fenomenologico sobre experiencias de universitarios en programas de salud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some studies suggest that, upon admission, medicine programs students display eagerness for community service, aspirations to be useful, and to contribute to society's well-being. Those same studies reflect that qualities of idealism, moral nature, and internal motivation, suffer a subsequent diminishing. The researchers inferred that the main reason for this process of change in the mood and disposition of these future physicians lies in the modeling they receive from medical professionals throughout clinical learning activities, by way of behavior and relationships exhibited during daily interaction with peers, patients and the students themselves. This phenomenological study used a cross-sectional sample to explore the experiences of future health workers as they went through didactic and clinical phases of their training curriculum. The study employed semi-structured interviews and reflective journals to explore those experiences and to discover the meanings ascribed by the participants. The analysis revealed that the students defined "professionalism" in terms of scientific knowledge, commitment, respect for human dignity, comradeship, courtesy, empathy, integrity, altruism, motivation. They also described their feelings as they went through the didactic and clinical experiences, and recognized as very important the extracurricular activities of community service, describing them as useful opportunities which contributed to understand their work in terms of a mission dedicated to the achievement of the social benefit. From their individual perspectives, the clinical environment could, in general, be described as congruent with those characteristics of professionalism. During the study we had the opportunity to share, in a little deeper way, the environment... the world... of this small group of young students as we went on trying to decipher their feelings and thoughts. At the end, we realized the richness of their sensibilities, we perceived the intensity of their moral and ethical convictions, we were able to understand their concerns, worries, struggles and efforts. This life event had profound and significant repercussions in our personal and professional life. As a result, and from now on, we will no longer look at our young scholars and apprentices without imagining a noble spirit, with goals which at times could seem unattainable... without completely visualizing or conceiving real hope for a better country.

Lopez Ortiz, Wilma J.

185

30 Anos de Investigação Sobre Externalidades do IDE para as Empresas Domésticas – Que Conclusões?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last three decades, a vast literature emerged on the empirical evidence of productivity spillovers from FDI. This is related to the fact that multinational firms own intangible assets which may be transmitted to domestic firms and thereby raise their productivity level. Results obtained so far are however mixed, and it does not seem possible to get a straightforward

Nuno Crespo; Maria Paula Fontoura

2006-01-01

186

Programa de relajación creativa y su incidencia sobre los niveles de creatividad motriz infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In\\u2029 this\\u2029 study\\u2029 we\\u2029 analyse\\u2029 the\\u2029 effects\\u2029 that\\u2029 a\\u2029 creative\\u2029 relaxation\\u2029 programme\\u2029 can\\u2029 have\\u2029 on\\u2029 the\\u2029 levels\\u2029 of\\u2029 motor\\u2029 creativity\\u2029 (fluidity,\\u2029 originality\\u2029 and\\u2029 imagination)\\u2029 of\\u2029 a\\u2029 group\\u2029 of\\u2029 children\\u2029 in\\u2029 the\\u2029 last\\u2029 year\\u2029 of\\u2029 Infant\\u2029 Education.\\u2029For\\u2029this\\u2029purpose,\\u2029two groups\\u2029of\\u2029children\\u2029took\\u2029part:\\u2029a control\\u2029group\\u2029that\\u2029did\\u2029not\\u2029receive\\u2029an\\u2029 intervention\\u2029programme\\u2029and\\u2029an\\u2029experimental\\u2029group\\u2029that\\u2029received\\u2029a\\u2029creative\\u2029relaxation\\u2029programme.\\u2029The\\u2029 levels\\u2029of\\u2029motor\\u2029creativity of\\u2029the\\u2029two\\u2029groups\\u2029were\\u2029assessed using\\u2029the\\u2029test\\u2029Thinking\\u2029Creatively\\u2029in\\u2029Action\\u2029 and\\u2029 Movement\\u2029 by\\u2029 Torrance.\\u2029 A\\u2029 significant\\u2029 improvement\\u2029 in\\u2029 the\\u2029 variables\\u2029 studied\\u2029 was\\u2029 perceived\\u2029 in\\u2029 the\\u2029 experimental\\u2029group\\u2029in\\u2029comparison\\u2029to\\u2029the\\u2029control\\u2029group.

2008-01-01

187

Contribución a la teoría de Chandrasekhar sobre la dinámica de los sistemas estelares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within Chandrasekhar's theory on the dynamics of stellar systems, the shape of regular extragalactic nebulae is explained. Starting from the mentioned author's differential equations several important theorems are proved, which allow to attack the problem from a new point of view. Al first approximation, it is supposed that a regular extragalactic nebula is a stellar system the velocity field of

Juan J. de Orús

2007-01-01

188

Notas sobre o conceito de empresário e empresa no código civil brasileiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of entrepreneur that Brazilian legislators introduced in the Civil Code lacks precision. Interpreters must peruse several other articles to understand the meaning of said concept. The ambiguity created by the wording of article 966 and its sole paragraph leads to the conclusion that, regardless the fact that this part of the Brazilian Civil Code is designated as \\

Rachel Sztajn

189

Comparación de dos técnicas anestésicas sobre los niveles plasmáticos de marcadores inflamatorios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: The aim of this work was to determine and compare plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipoperoxides in patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia or regional anesthesia. Methods: Two groups of 15 patients of both sexes were sub- mitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy either with general or regional anesthesia. In

Alejandro Bravo-Cuéllar; José Enrique Romero-Ramos; Georgina Hernández-Flores; Felipe de Jesús Romo-Pérez; Luis Bravo-Cuéllar; José Manuel Lerma-Díaz

2007-01-01

190

Evidencia reciente sobre programas preescolares (Recent Evidence on Preschool Programs). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that growing evidence indicates that high-quality preschool child development programs contribute to the short- and long-term development of children living in poverty, this Digest summarizes recently reported experimental and quasi-experimental studies of Head Start and similar programs. Recently reported experimental studies include those…

Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

191

Astroblema Domo de Vargeão, SC Registro de Impacto Meteorítico sobre Rochas Vulcânicas da Bacia do Paraná  

Microsoft Academic Search

O Domo de Vargeão é um dos raros exemplos de astroblemas em território brasileiro. Localizada na região oeste do estado de Santa Catarina, esta notável depressão circular possui aproximadamente 12 quilômetros de diâmetro e exibe desníveis abruptos de até 150 m entre suas bordas e as porções internas. A feição circular hoje existente nesse local representa o remanescente erosivo de

Alvaro Penteado Crósta; César Kazzuo-Vieira; Asit Choudhuri; Alfonso Schrank

192

Abertura Financeira e Vulnerabilidade Externa na América Latina: os impactos sobre Brasil, México e Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Este trabalho, na primeira seção, define o que costuma ser entendido como um processo de abertura financeira, identifica os níveis que compõem este processo, e lista as principais justificativas teóricas costumeiramente apresentadas para a implementação deste tipo de política. Na segunda seção, discute-se teoricamente o impacto dos processos de liberalização financeira na autonomia de política econômica e no grau

Juan Pablo Painceira; Marcelo Dias Carcanholo

193

Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

2000-01-01

194

PROGRAMAS DE TRANSFERÊNCIAS DE RENDA NO BRASIL: IMPACTOS SOBRE A DESIGUALDADE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the contribution of cash transfer programmes to the observed fall in inequality in Brazil between 1995 and 2004 as well as its impact on poverty. We use the 2004 Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD) that for the first time collected data on the incidence of some of the cash transfer programmes. We develop a methodology to separate

Fabio Veras Soares; Sergei Soares; Marcelo Medeiros; Rafael Guerreiro Osório

2006-01-01

195

Crescimento de filmes anodicos sobre niobio. (Growth of anodic films on niobium).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The analysis of the response of the galvanostatic growth of anodic films on niobium metal in aqueous solutions is shown. The first spark voltage showed a dependence upon value of current density that could be explained as the incorporation of anions into ...

M. A. B. Gomes L. O. S. Bulhoes

1988-01-01

196

Competência social e empatia: um estudo sobre resiliência com crianças em situação de pobreza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social competence and empathy: Study about resilience with children in poverty Resumo O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a competência social e a empatia em crianças escolares que vivem em situação de po- breza. Participaram da pesquisa 100 crianças, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre seis e nove anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Teste das Histórias Incompletas (THI)

Alessandra Marques Cecconello; Sílvia Helena Koller

2000-01-01

197

Um estudo sobre a permanência e a evasão na Educação a Distância 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes a research carried out in distance education. In this experience it was our aim to investigate the evasion in this education system, distance education. The interactions were analysed in the light of some categories in order to identify the dialoguesconversations in the perspective of Paulo Freires and Jean Piagets theories. It showed the need of dialogue conversation

Rute Vera; Maria Favero

198

Sobre la aplicación de la analogía para derivar un teorema extendido de Pitágoras para el tetraedro  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Abbssttrraacctt:: The trirectangular tetrahedron is a three-dimensional generalization of the two-dimensional right triangle. It is a corner cut from a cube by means of an oblique plane, just as a right triangle is a corner cut from a square by means of an oblique line. The tetrahedron mentioned also obeys an Extended Pythagorean Theorem in which the sum of

M. A. Murray-Lasso

2003-01-01

199

DESENVOLVIMENTO RURAL, MULHERES E TERRA - UM OLHAR SOBRE TIMOR-LESTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

O caminho percorrido para que as questões do género e do desenvolvimento e em especial a sua interligação sejam assuntos importantes e alvo de atenção tanto académica como política, foi longo. Várias áreas do conhecimento, como a sociologia, a antropologia e a economia, contribuem para a construção do conhecimento neste domínio, a par de outras mais recentes como os estudos

Vanda Margarida De Jesus Dos Santos Narciso; Pedro Damiao de Sousa Henriques

2008-01-01

200

EFECTOS SOBRE LA ENFERMEDAD CARDIOVASCULAR DE LA TERAPIA HORMONAL DE REEMPLAZO EN LA MUJER CLIMATERICA: ACTUALIZACION  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN CLIMATERIC WOMAN The reason of this review is that when being coronary heart disease (CHD) the main cause of morbility and mortality in 65 years older women from west countries (45 % of the deaths) and to exist controversy in the prescription of the hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for primary and

Luis Daniel Navarro

201

ACTIVIDADES DESARROLLADAS EN EL PROGRAMA DE INVESTIGACION INTENSIVA SOBRE MARLINES EN VENEZUELA. PERÍODO 2006-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper describes the activities carried out in the Enhanced Research Program on Billfish in Venezuela (PIIMV) for the period from January 2006 to July 2007. During the period indicated 16 trips were carried out in 2006 and four in 2007, monitored by PIIMV observers, which represented a coverage rate in 2006 of 7% for all the trips made

Luís A. Marcano; Freddy Arocha; José Alío; Jesús Marcano; A. Lárez; X. Gutiérrez; G. Vizcaino

202

NOTAS SOBRE NEÓFITAS 3. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE ALGUNAS BRASSICACEAE DE RECIENTE INTRODUCCIÓN EN EL CENTRO DE MÉXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional information is presented on the distribution of various exotic species of Brassicaceae, introduced recently to central Mexico. Three populations of Thlaspi arvense L. and Sinapis alba L. are reported. The species Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC., Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagrèze-Fossat and Brassica tournefortii Gouan, known previously from northern Mexico, are now naturalized at various localities in the central part of

HEIKE VIBRANS

203

Reflexiones sobre el sistema y las políticas de innovación del País Vasco  

Microsoft Academic Search

El primer capítulo de este documento compara el sistema de innovación vasco con el de otros países avanzados, basándose para ello en las estadísticas de I+D y en el indicador europeo de innovación (EIS). En segundo lugar, el sistema vasco se compara con el de otras regiones, basándose en las tipologías de regiones europeas y españolas elaboradas por el autor,

Mikel Navarro

204

TRATAMIENTOS CRIOGÉNICOS SOBRE EL ACERO F1560 CEMENTADO PARA LA MEJORA DE PROPIEDADES A FATIGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The F1560 carburized steel is used in the gears manufacturing industry and high hardness values combined with good toughness are required in order to withstand wear and fatigue problems. Cryogenic treatments have been used for some time to improve the properties of different automotive devices and it could be a way to increase the gear life. However one inconvenience is

M. Preciado; M. Solaguren-Beascoa; P. M. Bravo; J. M. Alegre

2008-01-01

205

Estimativa de impacto da amamentação sobre a mortalidade infantil Impact estimates of breastfeeding over infant mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Infant mortality in the state of São Paulo has decreased in the last years and it seems to be leveling off at a limit beyond which further reductions are challenging. Early neonatal causes account for 50% of these deaths and the remaining are mostly due to pneumonia and diarrhea. This study is to assess the impact of breastfeeding over

Maria Mercedes Loureiro Escuder; Sonia Isoyama Venancio; Julio César Rodrigues

206

Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Un entorno para el aprendizaje (Initiative about Effectiveness: An Environment for Learning).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin presents articles focusing on the Effectiveness Initiative (EI), a project of the Bernard van Leer Foundation for making a qualitative analysis of those elements of the programs of Early Childhood Development (ECD) that benefit the participants and their communities and cultures. The first article…

Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

2000-01-01

207

FUNCIÓN SOCIAL DE LAS LÁGRIMAS: UNA INDAGACIÓN EMPÍRICA SOBRE LOS TIPOS DE LLANTO EMOCIONAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human emotional interchange implicates expression\\/recognition of emotions. The human face is a conspicuous place to express\\/read emotion. Certain emotions associate with emotional tearing, differentiable from basal and reflex tearing. Murube, Murube and Murube (1999) classified emotional tearing in requesting- and offering -help. The validity of that typology was evaluated using faces of people of both sexes crying because of their

OSCAR SIERRA FITZGERALD; BEATRIZ E. MEJÍA CONSTAÍN

208

Um Estudo sobre Técnicas de Aprendizado de Máquina aplicadas à Mineração de Dados  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative study between the application of Artificial Neural Networks and the k-Means algorithm, for Data Mining. Such machine learning techniques are used as tools for data classification and clustering. The database used treats on a psychological experiment that analyses the human behavior based in a scale. Resumo. Este artigo apresenta um estudo comparativo entre a aplicação

Maicon de Brito; Denise Regina Pechmann

2007-01-01

209

Territorios agrarios y realidades rururbanas: Reflexiones sobre el desarrollo rural a partir del caso pampeano bonaerense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate on rural development has undergone a strong renewal due to transformations in agriculture, and in rural economies and societies. In this context, a broader vision of the rural medium has been observed, which includes rururban spaces where services and supply chains relating to local and regional production and consume are located. Of particular importance are non-agricultural occupations as

Silvia Gorenstein; Martín Napal; Mariana Olea

2007-01-01

210

Impacto da redução dos encargos trabalhistas sobre a formalização e o salário das empregadas domésticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente artigo faz uma avaliação da polarização de renda no Brasil para os anos de 1981 e 2003. Após diferenciar os conceitos de polarização e de desigualdade de renda, calculamos o índice de polarização da renda no Brasil, com base na metodologia proposta por Esteban, Gradin e Ray (1999). Os resultados indicam que a bipolarização se manteve praticamente constante

Maria Isabel Accoroni Theodoro; Luiz Guilherme Scorzafave

2008-01-01

211

Políticas trabalhista, Fundiária e de Crédito Agrícola e Seus Impactos Adversos Sobre a Pobreza no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the question of the concentrated pattern of agriculturaldevelopment in Brazil, as expressed in the predominance of large-scale production,high level of mechanization and low absorption of non-qualified labor. It is proposed,initially, the existence of two conflicting explanations for this fact: the first, thatblames our historical heritage, characterized by the predominance of the latifúndio,with the implication that the solution

Gervásio Castro de Rezende

2006-01-01

212

Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

213

Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

Fulei-Szanto, Andres

1974-01-01

214

Acción biocida de plantas de Piper tuberculatum Jacq. sobre Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidóptera, Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biocid action of DCM:MeOH (2:1), EtOH and aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and mature spikes (with fruits and seeds) of field plants and DCM:MeOH (2:1) extract of in vitro plants of Piper tuberculatum on III larval stage of Diatraea saccharalis was evaluated. The method was by inoculating the previously eluted extract with distillate water as topic applications on the

Gladys V. Soberón; Consuelo Rojas; Jorge Saavedra; Massuo J. Kato; Guillermo E. Delgado

215

O olhar da equipe e usuários de um hospital geral sobre a necessidade de intervenção psicológica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intervention of the psychology professional in the hospital context is becoming more and more necessary and common. In view of this, the present article is a research report that was carried out in a public hospital in Santa Maria city in the Rio Grande do Sul state. It aims to analyses the expectations of the health staff and users

Jossiele Fighera; Eliani Venturini Viero

216

La realidad sobre el “Gou Qi Zi” o bayas Goji (Fructus Lycii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gou Qi Zi or Goji berry (Fructus Lycii), classified in the chinese pharmacopeia as yin nutrients for liver blood and kidney essence deficiencies, have immunostimulatory, hematopoietic, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypotensive and even antineoplastic coadjuvant properties, which have even been demonstrated in several trials, both in animals and humans.Despite these excellent properties, a «mythifying» advertising campaign has led to massive production and

F. Salgado

2011-01-01

217

Declaración sobre los cambios que tendrán lugar próximamente en los programas de estudios clínicos del NCI  

Cancer.gov

Los estudios clínicos son elementos fundamentales en la transformación de los descubrimientos científicos en métodos prácticos para prevenir y tratar el cáncer. En esta declaración, hacemos un resumen de los cambios que están teniendo lugar en las organizaciones que realizan estudios clínicos bajo los auspicios del NCI.

218

Efeito de ambiente sobre a produtividade de feijão carioca para o Estado de Santa Catarina  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON YIELD OF CARIOCA BEAN IN SANTA CATARINA STATE Fifteen common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated as to adaptability and stability of grain yield in five environments for crop season and late crop season, during 2006 and 2007. Adaptability and stability were estimate by Eberhart and Russell (1966) and by Wricke e Weber (1986) methods. The

Fabiani Da Rocha; Diego Toaldo; Leiri Daiane Barili; Naine Martins do Vale; Soraya Garcia; Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra; Gilcimar Adriano Vogt; Altamir Frederico Guidolin

2009-01-01

219

Efecto del lavado con etilendiamina sobre las propiedades de las nanopartículas de óxido de estaño  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tin oxide, is a compound used in many technological applications among them as gas sensor and in the production of varistors, electronic devices, electrocatalitic electrodes and fotovoltaic cells, among others. In this work the controlled precipitation method was used to synthesize tin oxide of nanometric size using tin sulfate precursor. The control of different stages of the synthesis process was

M. S. CAStro; J. B. Justo

220

RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES DO BALANÇO DE ENERGIA SOBRE O OCEANO ATLÂNTICO TROPICAL (PROJETO FluTuA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observational campaign carried out on May 15-24, 2002, as part of the FluTuA Program, is described here. During 10 days, 5 minute averaged measurements of (i) solar radiation fluxes (incoming and outcoming) and long wave radiation fluxes (atmospheric and surface emission), at 6 m above the sea level; (ii) air temperature, relative humidity and horizontal wind components, at 11

Jacyra Soares; Amauri Pereira de Oliveira; Jacques Servain; Sarasvati de Araújo Bacellar

221

Use of Physio-Hydrological Units for SMOS Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station Study Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SMOS space mission will soil moisture over the continents and ocean surface salinity with the sufficient resolution to be used in global climate change studies. With the aim of validating SMOS land data and products at the Valencia Anchor Station site (VAS) in a Mediterranean Ecosystem area of Spain, we have designed a sample methodology using a subdivision of the landscape in environmental units related to the spatial variability of soil moisture (Millán-Scheiding, 2006; Lopez-Baeza, et al. 2008). These physio-hydrological units are heterogeneously structured entities which present a certain degree of internal uniformity of hydrological parameters. The units are delimited by integrating areas with the same physio-morphology, soil type, vegetation, geology and topography (Flugel, et al 2003; Millán-Scheiding et al, 2007). Each of these units presented over the same pedological characteristics, vegetation cover, and landscape position should have a certain degree of internal uniformity in its hydrological parameters and therefore similar soil moisture (SM). The main assumption for each unit is that the dynamical variation of the hydrological parameters within one unit should be minimum compared to the dynamics of another unit. This methodology will hopefully provide an effective sampling design consisting of a reduced number of measuring points, sparsely distributed over the area, or alternatively, using SM validation networks where each sampling point is located where it is representative of the mean soil moisture of a complete unit area. The Experimental Plan for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the VAS area of April-May 2008 used this environmental subdivision in the selection and sampling of over 21.000 soil moisture points in a control area of 10 x 10 km2. The ground measurements were carried out during 4 nights corresponding to a drying out period of the soil. The sampling consisted of 700 plots with 4 volumetric SM cylinders and 7 Delta-T Theta Probe measurements (with 3 repetitions each), covering the whole area. This experimental campaign permits the characterization of the soil moisture distribution within each physio-hydrological unit and results in a soil moisture map of the VAS site. All of it used for the validation of the aircraft observations done throughout the campaign. The ground measurement results obtained indicate that soil properties and vegetation cover are the parameters of the physio-hydrological units that most influence the moisture of the soil. This relationship will permit a more simple delimitation of the physio-hydrological Units and a reduction of the number of sample points for the calibration/validation of SMOS products. References: Lopez-Baeza, E., R. Acosta, M.C. Antolin, F. Belda, A. Cano, E. Carbo, M. Crapeau, A. Fidalgo S. Juglea, Y. Kerr, B. Martinez, C. Millan-Scheiding, D. Rodriguez, K. Saleh, J. Sanchis, J.-P. Wigneron(10), Other Contributors: J.E. Balling, C. Domenech, EOLAB, A.G. Ferreira J. Ferrer, J. Grant, J. Marco C. Narbon, B. Navascues, OCEANSNELL, E. Rodriguez-Camino, N. Skou, S. Søbjærg, P. Soriano, J. Tamayo, S. Tauriainen, E. Torre G. Torregrosa, A. Velazquez Blazquez, S. Vidal (2008): Validation of SMOS Products over Mediterranean Ecosystem Vegetation at the Valencia Anchor Station Reference Area. SMOS Cal/Val AO I.D. no. 3252. Experimental Plan SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign. University of Valencia, April 2008 Millan-Scheiding, C. (2006): Aproximación a la Humedad del Suelo en el Altiplano de Requena-Utiel. Preparación para la Campaña de Cal/Val de la Misión Espacial SMOS. Trabajo de Investigación de III Ciclo. Universidad de Valencia. Millán-Scheiding, C., C. Antolín, A. Cano, E. López-Baeza (2007): Uso de Unidades Fisio-Hidrológicas en la Monitorización de la Humedad del Suelo con SMOS. III Simposio Nacional sobre el Control de la Degradación de Suelos y la Desertificación. Costa Calma (Pájara), Fuerteventura, 16 al 20 de Septiembre 2007

Millán-Scheiding, C.; Antolín, C.; Marco, J.; Soriano, M. P.; Torre, E.; Requena, F.; Carbó, E.; Cano, A.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

2009-04-01

222

Estandarizacion de un metodo de cuantificacion de azufre por fluorescencia de rayos X, en una solucion extractora de sulfato disponible en suelo. (Standardization of a sulfur quantitative analysis method by X ray fluorescence in a leaching solution for bio-available sulfates in soil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for bio-available sulfate analysis in soils is described. A Ca(H2PO4) leaching solution was used for soil samples treatment. A standard NaSO4 solution was used for preparing a calibration curve and also the fundamental parameters method approach ...

E. Morales S E. Aguilar S

1989-01-01

223

Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) contamination of soil poses severe health risks to humans through vegetable consumption. The variations of Pb concentration in different parts of rootstalk vegetables (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Pb treatments (125 mg kg(-1) and 250 mg kg(-1) for Ferralsols; 150 mg kg(-1) and 300 mg kg(-1) for Cambisols) in a pot experiment. The Pb concentration in edible parts was higher in Ferralsols under two Pb treatments, with range from 0.28 to 4.14, 0.42-10.66 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) respectively, and all of them exceeded the food safety standard (0.1 mg kg(-1)) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO. The Pb concentration in edible parts was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and the interaction between these two factors. The variation of Pb concentration in different cultivars was partially governed by Pb absorption and the transfer of Pb from aerial to edible part. The results revealed that caution should be paid to the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables in Pb-contaminated Ferralsols without any agronomic management to reduce Pb availability and plant uptake. For Cambisols with slight to moderate Pb contamination, growing potato cultivar Shandong No.1 and Chongqing No.1 was effective in reducing the risk of Pb entering human food chain. The results suggest the possibility of developing cultivar- and soil-specific planting and monitoring guidelines for the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables on slight to moderate Pb-contaminated soils. PMID:23542226

Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong

2013-06-15

224

Soil-geomorphology interactions and paleoclimatic implications of an ornithogenic soil toposequence on Rata Island, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, South Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of highly phosphatized soils on sites of avian activity is a common feature of oceanic islands. We characterized a toposequence of phosphatic soils on Rata Island, to evaluate the soil genesis based on local topographic variations. For this purpose, four soils ranging from the upper hill down to the lowest landscape position on the island, representing a range of parent materials (basalt and calcareous sands), were analyzed. In the lowest landscape position a shallow Regosol was identified, strongly influenced by birds and marine sprays, developed on “karstified” Pleistocene calcarenites; the three other soils in the upper part of the toposequence are Ornithogenic Cambisols, ranging from a deep Cambisol profile on Basalt lava to intermediate Cambisols on mixed colluvial sediments of the basalt/calcareous. The lowermost Regosol is associated with a rugged landscape with strong calcarenite dissolution and karstification. The soil phosphatization is clearly an inherited process of the Late Quaternary age, when climate conditions were different. Initial weathering took place in the last interglacial period, under wetter conditions during which the Tertiary basalts were strongly weathered, leaving corestones in a saprolitic, oxidized mass. In the late Pleistocene, a gentle surface distributed these weathering products along the pediment slopes as colluvial materials, whereas in the coastal areas aeolian processes formed large sand dunes composed of reworked calcareous sands from marine sources during a time of very low sea level. During this time, widespread bird activity accounted for secondary apatite formation on the surface of calcareous oolites. Finally, the Holocene warming was accompanied by increasing sea level, enhanced tropical weathering, Fe and Al mobility and variscite formation superimposed on degraded Ca-phosphates, forming two phase phosphatic aggregates.

de Oliveira, Fábio Soares; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Abrahão, Walter Antônio Pereira; Clemente, Eliane de Paula; Simas, Felipe Nogueira Bello

2014-07-01

225

Soil-strain compatibility: the key to effective use of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculants?  

PubMed

Consistency of response to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation is required for efficient use of AM fungi in plant production. Here, we found that the response triggered in plants by an AM strain depends on the properties of the soil where it is introduced. Two data sets from 130 different experiments assessing the outcome of a total of 548 replicated single inoculation trials conducted either in soils with a history of (1) high input agriculture (HIA; 343 replicated trials) or (2) in more pristine soils from coffee plantations (CA; 205 replicated trials) were examined. Plant response to inoculation with different AM strains in CA soils planted with coffee was related to soil properties associated with soil types. The strains Glomus fasciculatum-like and Glomus etunicatum-like were particularly performant in soil relatively rich in nutrients and organic matter. Paraglomus occultum and Glomus mosseae-like performed best in relatively poor soils, and G. mosseae and Glomus manihotis did best in soils of medium fertility. Acaulospora scrobiculata, Diversispora spurca, G. mosseae-like, G. mosseae and P. occultum stimulated coffee growth best in Chromic, Eutric Alluvial Cambisol, G. fasciculatum-like and G. etunicatum-like in Calcaric Cambisol and G. manihotis, in Chromic, Eutric Cambisols. Acaulospora scrobiculata and Diversispora spurca strains performed best in Chromic Alisols and Rodic Ferralsols. There was no significant relationship between plant response to AM fungal strains and soil properties in the HIA soil data set, may be due to variation induced by the use of different host plant species and to modification of soil properties by a history of intensive production. Consideration of the performance of AM fungal strains in target soil environments may well be the key for efficient management of the AM symbiosis in plant production. PMID:20552233

Herrera-Peraza, Ricardo A; Hamel, Chantal; Fernández, Félix; Ferrer, Roberto L; Furrazola, Eduardo

2011-04-01

226

Effect of long-term phosphorus fertilization on soil Se and transfer of soil Se to crops in northern Japan.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) fertilizer can potentially serve as a source for Se accumulation in croplands. Furthermore, it has been reported that the addition of P fertilizer to soil may enhance Se availability. Japanese agricultural soils are typically enriched in P as a result of long-term, excessive P fertilization. Therefore, we conducted a three-year field experiment in order to evaluate the effect of P fertilization on the Se content of soils and crops. Potato, wheat and barley were cultivated with and without P fertilization at two field sites in Hokkaido (northern Japan) with different levels of historical P accumulation. The first field site consisted of an Andosol soil with low available P and the second site, a Cambisol soil with high available P. The three years of continuous P fertilization over the course of the experiment did not result in a significant increase in the Se content of soils or plants. The Se content of soils and plants, however, was higher in soil samples from the Cambisol field site than from the Andosol field site, and total soil Se was significantly correlated with available soil P. Soluble soil Se and the soil-plant transfer factor for Se were not affected by P fertilization. Thus, we concluded that the higher plant Se content at the Cambisol field site was primarily due to the higher levels of accumulated Se in the soil at the site and that historical excess P fertilization typical of agricultural soils in Japan contributes to increased Se uptake by crops. PMID:24875865

Altansuvd, Javkhlantuya; Nakamaru, Yasuo M; Kasajima, Shinya; Ito, Hirotake; Yoshida, Hozumi

2014-07-01

227

Low intensity ultrasonic vibration amplitude as a tool for characterisation water stable soil aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic dispersion of soil aggregates is a useful method to determine soil aggregate stability. Commercially available ultrasonic devices, however, operate at relatively high ultrasonic power, which hampers the analysis of less stable aggregates. Ultrasonic power is controlled in these devices with rather low accuracy and is used for correlation with the process of soil disaggregation. Self-developed ultrasonic equipment remedies these shortcomings by using low intensity ultrasonic vibrations. The vibration amplitude rather than the ultrasonic power is used to control the magnitude of loading in the dispersion experiment. Under well-defined geometrical conditions, the vibration amplitude strongly correlates with the magnitude of the acoustic pressure waves emitted into the fluid that cause disaggregation of soil particles. Samples of aggregates 2 000 - 250 ?m of a degraded loamy silt chernozem, a loamy clay cambisol and a loamy sand cambisol had been collected under different tillage regimes in Austria: conventional tillage (CT) with mechanical weed control, reduced tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT) with inter cropping in winter. The cavitation threshold of gas saturated de-ionized water was determined at an ultrasonic vibration amplitude of 0.5-0.6 µm at 20 kHz frequency (acoustic pressure 0.9-1.1 bar) with a diode array spectrophotometer. Subsequent experiments were performed near this limit to be able to characterize weakly aggregated soils. Measuring soil aggregate stability (SAS) according to DIN norm showed greater aggregate stability of cambisol than of chernozem, however, could hardly show influences of tillage. Better results were obtained with the USAS (ultrasound soil aggregate stability) method, which on the one hand validated the SAS results. On the other hand it was possible to show an influence of soil tillage on aggregate stability, which significantly decreased from NT to RT and to CT for both soil types. The measurements correlated with total organic carbon content in aggregates that was greater in no tillage than in conventional tillage and larger in cambisol than in highly degraded chernozem. The data suggest that the dynamic of soil dispersion depends on the absorbed ultrasonic energy and the vibration amplitude. Promising results were obtained at ultrasonic vibration amplitudes of 0.5 ?m and 2 ?m, respectively. Dispersion experiments at 5 ?m did not allow for a differentiation between soil types nor tillage variant, which indicates that low intensity vibrations should be used to monitor differences in aggregate stabilities.

Mentler, Axel; Schomakers, Jasmin; Mayer, Herwig

2013-04-01

228

Observaciones de campo sobre la biologia de Metriona elatior (Col.: Chrysomelidae) en Solanum elaeagnifolium (Solanaceae) del uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  Field observations on the biology ofMetriona elatior (Col.: Chrysomelidae) onSolanum elaeagnifolium (Solanaceae) from Uruguay.\\u000a \\u000a Specimens ofMetriona elatior were found feeding on leaves of the silverleaf nightshade,Solanum elaeagnifolium, from the eastern of Uruguay since 1984. According to a field study the young leaves were skeletonized since spring to early\\u000a autumn by larvae and adults. Oothecae and pupae were found mainly on

R. Ponce de Leon; E. Morelli; P. Gonzalez Wainer

1993-01-01

229

Impacto dos transtornos depressivos e ansiosos sobre as manifestações da menopausa Impact of depressive and anxiety disorders over menopause manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish for the first time in a Brazilian outpatient sample the impact of depressive and anxiety disorders over the symptoms of the Blatt-Kupperman menopausal index (B-K). Methods: Women (n = 86) receiving care in the menopause clinic at Instituto de Ginecologia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro were consecutively assessed using a structured diagnostic instrument (MINI 4.4)

Andre Barciela Veras; Arabella Rassi; Livia Mitsue; Gomes Yukizaki; Luisa Duarte Novo; Flávia Schueler Franco; Antonio Egídio Nardi

230

Estudios Sobre Politica Cientifica y Tecnologica de Panama (Studies on the Scientific and Technological Policy in Panama).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In broad terms, all papers deal with technology transfer in terms of industrial property, inventions, patents, technical know-how, scientific and technological needs analyses, the R&D system, and science policy in Panama. Possible problem areas are identi...

1977-01-01

231

Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and "Tendencias y…

Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

232

Influência de fatores químicos do solo sobre a incidência do mal-do-Panamá na bananeira cv. pacovan na Paraíba  

Microsoft Academic Search

This objective of this work was to investigate the correlation of chemicals soil factors and its influences with the incidence and severity of Panama disease ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense ) in banana tree ( Musa sapientium cv. pacovan) in the State of Paraíba. The work was carried out at Areia, Alagoa Nova, Bananeiras and Lagoa Seca Municipalities, where

Edson Batista Lopes; Carlos Henrique de Brito; Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque; Arlington Ricardo

233

Efecto de la radiacion ionizante sobre el genoma de drosophila melanogaster. (Radiation effects on the Drosophila melanogaster genome).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When DNA of living beings has been damaged, the cells show different responses depending on their physiological state. Repair mechanisms can be classified into two groups: constitutive which are always present in the cells and inductible, which must be st...

C. Arceo-Maldonado

1989-01-01

234

Algumas Considerações sobre as Metodologias de Cálculo da Estimativa da Incerteza de Medição Citadas no ISO GUM 95  

Microsoft Academic Search

According the requisites of the ISO\\/IEC 17025 Standard all the laboratories of the Brazilian Net of Calibration (RBC) and of the Brazilian Net of Testing (RBLE) must present the uncertainties of the measurement results from their accredited jobs. And specifically, the laboratories of the RBLE have their dead line in December 2002 stipulated by Inmetro. Probably, since this subject is

Paulo R. G. Couto; Jackson da Silva Oliveira; Leonardo Rodrigues Cinelli

235

¿Qué traen las personas al juego? Experimentos de campo sobre la cooperación en los recursos de uso común  

Microsoft Academic Search

El estudio de la acción colectiva requiere la comprensión de los incentivos individuales y de las restricciones institucionales que guían a las personas en la decisión de cooperar o no, en el grupo que enfrenta este dilema. El uso de ecosistemas locales por parte de grupos de individuos es sólo un ejemplo en el que la extracción individual incrementa el

Cárdenas Juan Camilo; Elinor Ostrom

2004-01-01

236

Teorí­as de primer y segundo orden sobre el potencial de ciertas figuras de equilibrio de cuerpos celestes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mecánica Celeste es la determinación de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su solución mediante métodos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitación, el generado por su fuerza centrí­fuga y el generado por la fuerza de atracción entre los cuerpos. Los métodos clásicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos métodos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casuí&stica y que permiten una manipulación efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de armónicos esféricos como combinacióon lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios próximos. Se ha elaborado un método analítico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinación del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios próximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema

Gumbau, Manuel Forner

2010-11-01

237

PEQUENAS EMPRESAS DE FAST FOOD: UMA ANÁLISE JUNTO AO CLIENTE SOBRE A QUALIDADE DO ATENDIMENTO NO SEGMENTO DE ALIMENTAÇÃO RÁPIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fast food industry has generated billions o f dollars around the globe. In the seventies, Americans have to spend more than six bi llion dollars in this type of meal, in the year two thousand, that figure was up to eighteen t imes greater. The three major U.S. networks Burger King, McDonald's and Tricon Global Restaurants, every two

Cléber Alves Ferreira

238

Amenaza y persuasión en mensajes de salud sobre consumo de alcohol: de la teoría a la práctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about alcohol and its consequences comes from two opposing poles. On the one hand, messages about the benefits of drinking alcohol coming from publicity, group of friends or the social milieu in general. On the other hand, the information provided by professionals and health authorities, which is based, mainly, in explaining the possible negative consequences of consumption, with the

ORDOÑANA MARTÍN; GÓMEZ AMOR

239

CORROSIÓN BAJO TENSIÓN DE UN RECUBRIMIENTO DE VIDRIO SOBRE Ti6Al4V PARA APLICACIONES BIOMÉDICAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present the microstructural and stress-corrosion contact behaviour of two glass-based coatings with different SiO2 (61% and 64%) content on the Ti6Al4V alloy. These coatings are designed for biomedical implants in order to improve the fixation to the host bone. The glasses used for the coatings belongs to the SiO2-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5 system and they were obtained using a

J. Pavón; M. Caillate; M. Anglada; E. Saiz; A. P. Tomsia

240

Efecto del Potencial Sobre la Corrosión Bajo Tensión de Latón - ? en Soluciones De NaNo2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the electrode potential, solution pH and copper alloy content on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility and crack propagation rate of ?- brass in 1M NaNO2 solution have been studied. The materials tested were pure copper (99.99%) and ?-brasses with the following nominal compositions (wt %):.63Cu-37Zn; 70Cu-30Zn; 80Cu-20Zn; 90Cu- 10Zn. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility was determined by means

M. Graciela Alvarez; Patricia Lapitz; Silvia Fernandez; José R. Galvele

241

Efeito de diferentes níveis de sombreamento sobre o crescimento inicial de Jatropha curcas L. em casa de vegetação5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed getting information about the best luminosity to improve the initial growth of Jatropha curcas L. plants. The study was carried out during six month in the green house of Faculdade Salesiana de Vitória, ES, Brazil. Plants, obtained from seed germination and one month old, were submitted to four different shading levels (40%, 50%, 70% e 87%). The

Rosemary B Sesma; Valdir G Demuner; Selma A Hebling

242

Una nota sobre la sostenibilidad fiscal y el nexo entre los ingresos y gastos del Gobierno Colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se analiza empíricamente la sostenibilidad fiscal en Colombia a través de las técnicas de cointegración. En particular, usando los ingresos tributarios y los gastos primarios del gobierno nacional central para el período 1990Q1 a 2008Q4 (datos reales y ajustados por el ciclo económico), en el documento se examina si las cuentas fiscales del gobierno han sido sostenibles

Ignacio Lozano; Enrique Cabrera

2009-01-01

243

El efecto de las prácticas de gobierno corporativo sobre la valuación de mercado y políticas de pago de compañías chilenas  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo nos preguntamos si las prácticas de conducción empresarial al nivel de compañía en un país dado inciden o no en la valuación de mercado de esas compañías. Esta cuestión es esencial para poder evaluar los beneficios potenciales que puede reportar a las empresas un cambio de sus prácticas, aún cuando las mismas

Fernando Lefort; Eduardo Walker

2005-01-01

244

Estudio de los efectos de la ayuda al desarrollo sobre el comportamiento fiscal de los gobiernos en Centroamérica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desde su aparición, el papel y la efectividad de la ayuda al desarrollo ha sido una cuestión muy debatida tanto por la comunidad científica como por otras esferas de la sociedad, políticos, técnicos y evidentemente, la población civil. Pese al notable descenso en los flujos de ayuda internacional durante la última década del siglo pasado, esta vía de financiación sigue

Mariola Gozalo Delgado

2006-01-01

245

Sobre el principio y posterior hegemonía económico-política y militar de EE.UU tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las principales tendencias de desarrollo económico y social dentro de la estructura del capitalismo moderno se expresan en EE.UU de la forma más preponderante. La posición político-militar del gigante americano lo transforma en el centro neurálgico del imperialismo mundial, al liderar el bloque del Atlántico Norte, y al llevar a cabo una política de reacción contra las fuerzas de Movimiento

José Antonio Ascanio Barrio

2011-01-01

246

Conhecimento sobre o molusco gigante africano Achatina fulica entre estudantes de uma escola pública na Região Metropolitana do Recife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' knowledge on the African giant mollusk Achatina fulica in a public school in the Recife metropolitan region. The African giant mollusk Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Brazil in 1988 as a substitute for the European escargot Helix sp. This action did not induce the expected results and the gastropod has become an invasive species according to records

Renata Manzi de Souza; Ângelo Giuseppe; Chaves Alves; Marcos Souto Alves

247

Efecto del glicerol sobre la catálisis por fosfatasa ácida de bajo peso molecular de hígado de alpaca (Lama pacos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effect of glycerol on hydrolisis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate at pH 5,0 by low molecular weight acid phosphatase from alpaca liver. Design: Experimental analytical study. Setting: Biochemistry and Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Materials: Disodic p-nitrophenyl phosphate salt, glacial acetic acid, glycerol, tricloroacetic acid, sulfuric acid, ammonium molibdate,

Emilio Guija; Fernando Arauco; Hielke Haak-Mares; Mercedes Soberón

2007-01-01

248

Primeres interaccions depredatòries del Bernat Pescaire (Ardea cinerea) sobre nius de Cotorreta de Pit Gris (Myiopsitta monachus) a Barcelona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les poblacions silvestres de Bernat Pescaire i Cotorreta de Pit Gris han estat presents en els jardins de la ciutat de Barcelona, cohabitant sense problemes aparents des de 1974. En aquesta nota es presenten les primeres accions depredadores del Bernat Pescaire en nius de Cotorreta de Pit Gris. Vuit de les onze interaccions foren observades en nius considerats grans (més

Josep García; Xavier Tomás

2009-01-01

249

Primeras interacciones depredatorias de Garza Real Ardea cinerea sobre nidos de Cotorra Argentina Myiopsitta monachus en Barcelona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first records of the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea preying on nests of the Monk Parakeet Myiopsitta monachus in Barcelona Grey Herons and Monk Parakeets have co-existed in the gardens of the city of Barcelona (NE Spain) since 1974, apparently without problems. The first records of Grey Herons preying on nests of Monk Parakeets are presented in this note. Eight

Josep García; Xavier Tomás

2007-01-01

250

Study of the Surface Layer on an Extremely Rough Surface US Estudo DA Camada Limite Superficial Sobre Superficie Extremamente Rugosa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental data for the surface layer obtained over a rough surface of a tropical savannah were used to compute the stability functions for momentum (phi sub M) and sensible heat (phi sub H) under unstable conditions. The computed functions are consider...

L. D. A. Sa L. C. B. Molion

1983-01-01

251

Scientific Theory on the Origin of the Solar System . Teoria Cientifica Sobre El Origen Del Sistema Solar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theory, based on solar activity, for the origin of the solar system is discussed. The formation of the planets and their atmospheres, the origin of the sun, and meteorites are also discussed. The observations since 1949 supporting the theory are present...

G. Tapia De Navarro

1970-01-01

252

Más Conceptos Erróneos a Evitar en la Enseñanza sobre las Plantas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.

David Hershey (biology education consultant;)

2006-04-01

253

El Impacto de los Cambios Climáticos sobre la Salud en Bolivia: Estimación de Costos y Beneficios hasta el 2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bolivia es en uno de los países con mayor vulnerabilidad a enfermedades en Latinoamérica. De los 327 municipios que se tenían el 2003, gran parte de ellos presentaron altos grados de vulnerabilidad en lo que se refiere a las Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (EDA’s) e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (IRA’s) en el occidente del país y alta vulnerabilidad en Malaria y Dengue

Oscar Molina

2009-01-01

254

EFECTO DE LAS DIETAS DE ALIMENTACIÓN SOBRE LA BIOLOGÍA Y TABLA DE VIDA DE Euseius concordis (CHANT) (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of diets on biology and life table of Euseius concordis (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Laboratory studies to obtain information about biology and life tables of the predatory mite Euseius concordis (Chant) were carried out. Mites were sampled in grapevines 'Criolla Negra', in Tarabana, Lara state, Venezuela. At the laboratory, E. concordis was fed on two sources consisting in minnieroot pollen

NOTA TÉCNICA; Carmen Escalona; Carlos Vásquez

2005-01-01

255

Estudios com XPS del oxido formado sobre Ti puro. (XPS studies of the oxide formed on pure Ti).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The XPS technique was used to study titanium samples oxidized at 200 ton of pure oxigen at different times and temperatures with the aim of producing variable oxide thicknesses. The thicknesses of different oxigen layers were determined by the nuclear rea...

P. Cremery D. David G. Beranger C. Oviedo E. A. Garcia

1980-01-01

256

EFECTO DEL PACLOBUTRAZOL Y LOS NITRATOS DE POTASIO Y CALCIO SOBRE EL DESARROLLO DEL MANGO 'TOMMY ATKINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of paclobutrazol and nitrates of potasium and calcium on the development of the mango 'Tommy Atkins' Effects of paclobutrazol, nitrates of potassium (KNO3) and calcium (Ca(NO3)2) on the growth and development of mango 'Tommy Atkins' were studied. Four-year old trees grafted on mango 'Hilacha', spaced 8 m x 4 m, were used under a completely randomized design with a

Katiuska Cárdenas; Eybar Rojas

257

Liv and Lucky in Liverland. . . Color Us Healthy! A Workbook about Your Liver = Un Cuaderno de trabajo sobre tu higado.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook/coloring book, on the liver and good health is designed for primary school students. The 21 line drawings illustrate different aspects of liver function, maintaining a healthy liver, and preventing liver disease. Each page is captioned in both English and Spanish. (ND)

1995

258

INFLUÊNCIA DO ETEFON NA DISTRIBUIÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES E CARBOIDRATOS E SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO EM VIDEIRAS JOVENS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethephon has been used in the tropical and subtropical regions of Brazil, where the vegetative growth of grapevine is continuous, with different finalities. However, little is know about the effects of this treatment on the distribution and accumulation of nutrients and carbohydrates and on the growth of grapevine. For this purpose, young plants of SO4 rootstock were sprayed with ethephon

PAULA GUERRA SCHENATO; GEORGE WELLINGTON MELO; HENRIQUE PESSOA DOS SANTOS; FLÁVIO BELLO FIALHO; GUSTAVO BRUNETTO; LIANE TEREZINHA DORNELES

259

Influencia de las técnicas de ahorro energético sobre la saturación de oxígeno en paciente con EPOC portador de oxígeno líquido  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the case of a 76-year-old male diagnosed of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in chronic respiratory insufficiency phases with home oxygen-therapy criteria, carrier of a portable oxygen therapy system. During exercise he presented desaturation that seriously limited all of his daily life activities. The patient was included in a respiratory rehabilitation program consisting of health care education,

M. Molleda-Marzo; R. Coll-Artés; M. T. Pascual-Soria; H. Prieto-Arce

2008-01-01

260

Imaginarios sobre inmigración peruana en la prensa escrita chilena: una mirada a la instalación de la agenda de la diferencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Build and install the media agenda in the public opinion is well know routine exercise in the written press. This article works its relationship with immigration and how it represents and is marking its footprint in the chilean press. Peruvian immigration and a look at the press coverage are chosen to reflect a relationship that comes to stress the concept

261

Influencia del Secado sobre la Captación de Agua de Pectina Extraída a partir del Citrus x Aurantifolia Swingle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study analyzed the effect of temperature during the drying of the pectin and its result over the gellying. This research seeks to prevent the separation of the metilester's groups of polygalacturonic acid and provides an optimum temperature at which the pectin suffered a minor loss of quality which allows the molecule keeps more esterified, increasing their gellying capacity.

Cecilia Grunauer E; Fabiola Cornejo

262

Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios clínicos sobre el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a cabo tratamientos para el cáncer y estudios clínicos.

263

General Information about Learning Disabilities (Fact Sheet Number 7) = Informacion General sobre Impedimentos en el Aprendizaje (Fact Sheet Number 19).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…

Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

264

A INFORMAÇÃO SOBRE A SATISFAÇÃO DO CONSUMIDOR E SEU PAPEL NA GESTÃO DA QUALIDADE EM EMPRESAS DE ALIMENTOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer satisfaction is one of the most frequently focused themes in specialized publications and widely recognized as one of the main objectives of the quality management activities within the companies. Thus, information about consumer satisfaction is of great importance mainly to enterprises to the consumer market as the food industry. This paper results from a qualitative research based on case

Roberto Giloli Rotondaro; Isabel Cristofoletti; Aymeé Tamara Torres

265

El Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo para los Grupos Especiales. Monografias sobre el Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish translation of ED 132 428 includes the three papers representing Office of Education attempts to face the need for improving delivery of career education to special portions of the population. New additions are brief sections on basic definitions and additional considerations of the significance of work. The first paper, on career…

Hoyt, Kenneth B.

266

Nuevos resultados sobre la cinemática global y nuclear de NGC 253: movimientos no circulares y emisión en Br ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuing with previous research (Camperi et al., BAAA, 54, 377, 2011), new heliocentric radial velocity distributions are presented for the nearby galaxy NGC 253, obtained from the ionized hydrogen recombination line H?. These distributions have been derived from long-slit spectroscopy for various position angles. It is also shown the heliocentric radial velocity distribution corresponding to part of the infrared data (ionized hydrogen recombination line Br?) observed with the Phoenix spectrograph of the Gemini South Observatory. Sequential mapping with the long slit using this instrument will enable to study in detail the kinematics of the galaxy's core, which is strongly obscured by dust. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Camperi, J. A.; Gunthardt, G. I.; Díaz, R. J.; Agüuero, M. P.; Gimeno, G.; Pessev, P.

267

Abuso de Inhalantes. Instituto Nacional Sobre el Abuse de Drogas. (Inhalant Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National surveys indicate that more than 22.9 million Americans have abused inhalants at least once in their lives. NIDA's Monitoring the Future study reveals that approximately 17.3 percent of eighth-graders have abused inhalants. Parents and children ne...

2005-01-01

268

The ABCs of Special Education: A Handbook for Parents = El ABS Sobre Educacion Especial: Un Folleto para los Padres.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bilingual handbook is intended to help parents understand their rights under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The following topics are addressed: the Act's legislative history, identification of special education, explanation of P.L. 94-142, parents' rights to know, student records, student testing, students'…

Ewing, Preston E., Jr.; Hinton, Valeska S.

269

Hydrogeology in North America: past and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l'hydrogéologie est à la transition entre la volonté de découvrir de nouvelles ressources et l' exploitation la plus bénéfique au possible, et un management judicieux des ressources finies, interconnectées, qui sont vitales pour l' approvisionnement des hommes et autres formes de vie. Le futur de l' hydrogéologie sera dicté par la balance subtile dans laquelle intervient les cycles de l'hydrologie, de l'érosion, de la nutrition, et la décision d'une société technologique qui s'adapterait aux contraintes de la balance, ou qui continuerait d'exploiter les systèmes hydrologiques pour un bénéfice maximum. Par ailleurs il y a une nette tendance à inclure les aspects écologiques, les aspects environnementaux, et les changements humains qui pourraient être influencés par les modifications hydrogéologiques observées depuis une dizaine d'années. Este articulo es una retrospectiva sobre la evolución de la hidrogeología en Norte América en los pasados dos siglos, y una breve especulación de su futuro. La historia de la hidrogeología está marcada por desarrollos en muchos campos diferentes tal como hidrología de aguas subterráneas, mecánica de suelos, ciencia del suelo, geología económica, ingeniería del petróleo, geología estructural, geoquímica, geofísica, geología marina, y más recientemente, ecología. El campo se ha enriquecido por las contribuciones de investigadores distinguidos en todos esos campos. Actualmente, la hidrogeología se encuentra en transición de un estado de descubrir nuevos recursos y explotarlos eficientemente para un beneficio máximo, a un estado de gestión juiciosa de recursos finitos, interconectados, que son vitales para el sustento de humanos y otras cosas vivientes. El futuro de la hidrogeología posiblemente esté determinado por el balance sutil con el cual funcionan los ciclos nutricionales, erosionales e hidrológicos, y la decisión de una sociedad tecnológica para ya sea adaptarse a las restricciones impuestas por el balance o para continuar con la explotación de los sistemas hidrogeológicos para un benefici

Narasimhan, T. N.

2005-03-01

270

Spanish Network on Effects of Wildfires on Soils. The view after 5 years of networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. WHAT IS FUEGORED? The Spanish Thematic Network "Effects of Wildfires on Soils" (FUEGORED, http://grupo.us.es/fuegored) has been working for over 5 years at becoming a point of reference for the study of fire-affected soils and restoration strategies. FUEGORED started in 2007, originally scheduled to run three years, as a result of the interest of Spanish researchers for developing better strategies and scientific interchange of ideas, people and collaboration between research groups. The first steps towards the establishment of a working group were a series of fieldtrips through Spain (2003), USA (2004) and Portugal (2005), where discussions about problems and research strategies arised. In its early years the network was supported by the former Ministry of Science and Innovation. This is a project to review scientific knowledge developed to date and discuss and propose future developments in scientific research about the effects of wildfires on soils. The objectives of the network are to promote and disseminate scientific research findings, provide technical and management information, and facilitate transference of knowledge between scientists, forest managers, students and society. 2. WHO IS IN THE NETWORK? The research group consists of the leading names of Spanish science in the topic and young talents, which are currently developing the most innovative research lines. Currently, the network is formed by 245 members, researchers from over 30 Spanish universities and research centers to provide the experience of decades of scientific and technical work in areas affected by forest fires and outstanding foreign researchers from Europe, Australia and America, including countries such as Australia, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, UK, USA and others. Forest managers and technicians from various institutions are also present. 3. MAIN ACHIEVEMENTS Four international congresses have been promoted by the network in Valencia, 2008, Seville, 2009, Santiago de Compostela, 2010 and Tenerife, 2012 (the next meeting will be held in Barcelona in 2014). In addition, several contributions, courses and workshops have been celebrated in Spanish or international forums as the EGU General Assembly, the International Meeting of Fire Effects on Soil Properties (FESP2011 and forthcoming FESP2013) and the International Conference on Geomorphology have been also sponsored. Other activities include the publication of book series (two volumes have been published: Cerdá and Jordán, 2010; Cerdà and Mataix-Solera, 2009. The third one is currently in preparation), books of abstracts (Díaz-Raviña et al., 2010; Jordán et al., 2009), a series of technical reports (in preparation) and special issues in international journals (in, for example, Catena, Geoderma, Environmental Research or the International Journal of Wildland Fire). A four-monthly journal (FLAMMA; http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/flamma) is published regularly since 2010 with an increasing audience and issues scheduled until 2014. Also, the network has promoted voluntary environmental actions and educational activities. 4. MAIN CHALLENGES The next challenges are to continue promoting the interaction between scientists, decision makers, forest management staff and end-users and to establish new connections with European institutions and research groups. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Spanish Thematic Network "Effects of Wildfires on Soils" was supported between 2007 and 2009 by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (projects CGL2007-28764-E 2007-2008 and CGL2008-01632-E 2009). REFERENCES Cerdà, A. Jordán, A. (Eds.). 2010. Actualización de Métodos y Técnicas para el Estudio de los Suelos Afectados por Incendios Forestales [Updated methods and techniques for the study of soils affected by wildfires; in Spanish]. Cátedra de Divulgació de la Ciència, Universitat de València, FUEGORED 2010. Valencia. 521 pp. ISBN: 978-84-370-7887-8. Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (Eds). 2009. Efectos de los incendios forestales sobre los suelos en España. El estado de la cuestión vis

Jordán, Antonio; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi

2013-04-01

271

Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont que des pratiques forestières non coordonnées sont susceptibles d'exacerber les crues. La recharge des nappes est affectée par la foresterie, surtout à cause de prélèvements plus importants de l'eau du sol par les arbres et à cause de la capacité accrue des sols forestiers à retenir de l'eau, conduisant à de plus fortes teneurs en matières organiques. Les taux de recharge sous les forêts peuvent être réduits d'un dixième par rapport à la prairie ou à la lande. La qualité de l'eau souterraine peut être affectée par une acidification accrue et par une nitrification sous les forêts, provoquées pour une part par une fixation des polluants atmosphériques par le couvert forestier et pour une autre part par un dépôt plus important d'une litière plus fortement acide. Les taux de recharge plus lente des nappes sous les forêts conduisent à des retards importants dans la manifestation de la détérioration de la qualité de l'eau souterraine. Resumen. Se han iniciado los planes para duplicar la proporción de terrenos reforestados en Irlanda hacia el año 2035. El plan, impulsado por fines económicos, ignora los impactos potenciales medioambientales de la silvicultura, y, en particular, los impactos a los recursos de aguas subterráneas y a su calidad. Puesto que el 25 % del agua potable en Irlanda es suministrada por medio de aguas subterráneas, dichos impactos son importantes. Las investigaciones de campo indican que la reforestación lleva a una reducción de la escorrentía de hasta un 20 %, fundamentalmente por la interceptación de la lluvia en las copas de los árboles, mientras que la deforestación tiene el impacto opuesto. Las implicaciones son tales que las prácticas forestales descoordinadas pueden aumentar enormemente el riesgo de inundaciones. También la recarga a los acuíferos se ve afectada por la reforestación, debido, sobre todo, al uso del agua del suelo por los árboles y a la mayor capacidad de retención de los suelos en zonas boscosas, al disponer de más materia orgánica. Las tasas de recarga en zonas boscosas puede

Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

2001-07-01

272

Soil Type-Dependent Responses to Phenanthrene as Revealed by Determining the Diversity and Abundance of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Ring-Hydroxylating Dioxygenase Genes by Using a Novel PCR Detection System? †  

PubMed Central

A novel PCR primer system that targets a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD?) genes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was developed and used to study their abundance and diversity in two different soils in response to phenanthrene spiking. The specificities and target ranges of the primers predicted in silico were confirmed experimentally by cloning and sequencing of PAH-RHD? gene amplicons from soil DNA. Cloning and sequencing showed the dominance of phnAc genes in the contaminated Luvisol. In contrast, high diversity of PAH-RHD? genes of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was observed in the phenanthrene-spiked Cambisol. Quantitative real-time PCR based on the same primers revealed that 63 days after phenanthrene spiking, PAH-RHD? genes were 1 order of magnitude more abundant in the Luvisol than in the Cambisol, while they were not detected in both control soils. In conclusion, sequence analysis of the amplicons obtained confirmed the specificity of the novel primer system and revealed a soil type-dependent response of PAH-RHD? gene-carrying soil bacteria to phenanthrene spiking.

Ding, Guo-Chun; Heuer, Holger; Zuhlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Kogel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

2010-01-01

273

Evaluating the importance of surface soil contributions to reservoir sediment in alpine environments: a combined modelling and fingerprinting approach in the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil in alpine environments plays a key role in the development of ecosystem. Identify, maintain and preserve its resources, as well as recognize processes that would affect them are important and of practical interest. Environmental concerns about these fragile systems which are threatened by the human pressure and climatic change have stressed the need to gather information in soil erosion processes. As most mountain alpine environment the Benasque catchment is characterized by temperatures below freezing that can last from November to April, strong rainfall events and rugged topography. Indirect studies, such as combined model approaches, could be an alternative to evaluate soil erosion on these areas. In this study the complementary tools of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and fingerprinting procedure were used to assess an initial approach on soil erosion processes which take place in the area of the Posets-Maladeta National Park (Central Spanish Pyrenees). Soil erosion rates and sediment contribution of potential sediment sources (Kastanozem/Phaeozem; Fluvisol; Cambisol and channel bed sediments) were assessed. SWAT model identified Cambisols as the main source of sediment of the Benasque catchment with the highest specific sediment yields and Phaeozems and Fluvisols were identified as the lowest sediment contributors. Spring and winter performed the highest and lowest specific sediment yield, respectively. Fingerprinting procedure identified channel bed sediment and Fluvisols as the main sediment sources indicating the main influence of connectivity. The combined approach enabled us to better understand soil erosion processes in the Benasque alpine catchment.

Palazón, L.; Gaspar, L.; Latorre, B.; Blake, W.; Navas, A.

2014-05-01

274

Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable iron isotope ratios in three soils (two Podzols and one Cambisol) were measured by MC-ICPMS to investigate iron isotope fractionation during pedogenic iron transformation and translocation processes under oxic conditions. Podzolization is a soil forming process in which iron oxides are dissolved and iron is translocated and enriched in the subsoil under the influence of organic ligands. The Cambisol was studied for comparison, representing a soil formed by chemical weathering without significant translocation of iron. A three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate operationally-defined iron mineral pools (i.e., poorly-crystalline iron oxides, crystalline iron oxides, silicate-bound iron) from the soil samples. Iron isotope ratios of total soil digests were compared with those of the separated iron mineral pools. Mass balance calculations demonstrated excellent agreement between results of sequential extractions and total soil digestions. Systematic variations in the iron isotope signature were found in the Podzol profiles. An enrichment of light iron isotopes of about 0.6‰ in ? 57Fe was found in total soil digests of the illuvial Bh horizons which can be explained by preferential translocation of light iron isotopes. The separated iron mineral pools revealed a wide range of ? 57Fe values spanning more than 3‰ in the Podzol profiles. Strong enrichments of heavy iron isotopes in silicate-bound iron constituting the residue of weathering processes, indicated the preferential transformation of light iron isotopes during weathering. Iron isotope fractionation during podzolization is probably linked to the ligand-controlled iron translocation processes. Comparison of iron isotope data from eluvial and illuvial horizons of the Podzol profiles revealed that some iron must have been leached out of the profile. However, uncertainties in the initial iron content and iron isotopic composition of the parent materials prevented thorough mass balance calculations of iron fluxes within the profiles. In contrast to the Podzol profiles, the Cambisol profile displayed uniform ? 57Fe values across soil depth and showed only a small enrichment of light iron isotopes of about 0.4‰ in the poorly-crystalline iron oxide pool extracted by 0.5 M HCl. This work demonstrates that significant iron isotope fractionations can occur during pedogenesis in oxic environments under the influence of organic ligands. Our findings provide new insights into fractionation mechanisms of iron isotopes and will help in the development of stable iron isotopes as tracers for biogeochemical iron cycling in nature.

Wiederhold, Jan G.; Teutsch, Nadya; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Halliday, Alex N.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

2007-12-01

275

Stable Cu isotope fractionation in soils during oxic weathering and podzolization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper stable isotope ratios are fractionated during various biogeochemical processes and may trace the fate of Cu during long-term pedogenetic processes. We assessed the effects of oxic weathering (formation of Cambisols) and podzolization on Cu isotope ratios (? 65Cu). Two Cambisols (oxic weathered soils without strong vertical translocations of soil constituents) and two Podzols (soils showing vertical translocation of organic matter, Fe and Al) were analyzed for Cu concentrations, partitioning of Cu in seven fractions of a sequential extraction and ? 65Cu values in bulk soil. Cu concentrations in the studied soils were low (1.4-27.6 ?g g -1) and Cu was mainly associated with strongly bound Fe oxide- and silicate-associated forms. Bulk ? 65Cu values varied between -0.57‰ and 0.44‰ in all studied horizons. The O horizons had on average significantly lighter Cu isotope compositions (-0.21‰) than the A horizons (0.13‰) which can either be explained by Cu isotope fractionation during cycling through the plants or deposition of isotopically light Cu from the atmosphere. Oxic weathering without pronounced podzolization in both Cambisols and a weakly developed Podzol (Haplic Podzol 2) caused no significant isotope fractionation in the single profiles, while a slight tendency to lower ? 65Cu values with depth was visible in all four profiles. This is the opposite depth distribution of ? 65Cu values to that we observed in hydromorphic soils (soils which show indication of redox changes because of the influence of water saturation) in a previous study. In a more pronounced Podzol (Haplic Podzol 1), ? 65Cu values and Cu concentrations decreased from Ah to E horizons and increased again deeper in the soil. Humus-rich sections of the Bhs horizon had higher Cu concentrations (2.8 ?g g -1) and a higher ? 65Cu value (-0.18‰) than oxide-rich sections (1.9 ?g g -1, -0.35‰) suggesting Cu translocation between E and B horizons as organo-Cu complexes. The different depth distributions in oxic weathered and hydromorphic soils and the pronounced vertical differences in ? 65Cu values in Haplic Podzol 1 indicate a promising potential of ? 65Cu values to improve our knowledge of the fate of Cu during long-term pedogenetic processes.

Bigalke, Moritz; Weyer, Stefan; Wilcke, Wolfgang

2011-06-01

276

To the soil genesis in tundra-forest ecotone belt in the Northeastern European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecotone belt representing the gradual transition between different bioclimatic zones (taiga and tundra) is of specific research interest. This transition zone is characterized by variety of landscapes and soil cover affected by climate changes which were accompanied with shifts of natural zones during Holocene. Paleoclimate changes had complicated the specifity of pedogenesis in the ecotone. The aim of the study was to reveal soil geneses in forest-tundra ecotone zone. The study area is characterized by drained topography and soil forming deposits represented by silty loams covering watersheds, permafrost is massive island and up to 50 m thick, permafrost table located at depths of 0,5-8 m. Vegetation cover is birch-spruce light forests where lichen-moss ground cover dominates, tree height is up to 4-6 m. Fe-illuvial svetlozoms (according to Russian classification 2004) were chosen as the study objects. According to WRB (2007) these soils are classified as Cambisols. In this soil study the complex approach was used, it includes (i) analysis of both structural organization and differentiation of functioning products on undisturbed monolith structure using mezo-micromorthologic methods; (ii) reveal of main soil-forming processes based on physical-chemical soil analysis. Quantitative chemical analysis has been conducted at an accredited laboratory "Ecoanalit" affiliated at Institute of Biology Komi SC UB RAS (Syktyvkar). Studied Cambisols are developed in upland forest sites located in the forest-tundra subzone. These soils are recognized by combination of podzolic, Fe-illuvial and cryomethamorphic horizons in the soil profile. Using of present-day methods and approaches for soil profile studies allowed to reveal the polygenesis of Cambisols which structure represents two pedogenic stages. The basis to determine these stages are the morphological features (structural organization, differentiation of cutan complex) as well as recent and inherited features of pedogenic and cryogenic processes. Upper soil has signs of present-day "cryogenic" evolution phase: features of migration of Al-Fe-humus complexes down profile. Middle and lower part of soil profile have features of taiga soil formation occurred during the Middle Holocene. Taiga stage of soil formation could be diagnosed by the presence of fragments of clay cutans and humic pedorelics. Destruction of cutan complex is a result of sharp climatic cooling occurred in Subboreal period when cryomethamorphic horizon was formed. The similar type of profile structure could be explained by specifity of soil evolution in the transition zone impacted by repeated tree line shifts during Holocene. The study was supported by Program of UD RAS, project #12--4-1004 «Soil genesis in Cryolithozone of the European North-East on Abrupt Climate & Human-induced impact».

Shakhtarova, Olga; Rusanova, Galina; Lapteva, Elena

2013-04-01

277

EFEITOS DE LUZ ESTROBOSCÓPICA SOBRE O DELTA SMELT (HYPOMESUS TRANSPACIFICUS ) EM LABORATÓRIO. EXPERIÊNCIA NORTE-AMERICANA E SUAS APLICAÇÕES PARA ESPÉCIES DE PEIXES BRASILEIROS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-physical barriers had been tested in US and Canada as a system to avoid fish entrance in harmful areas at power plants or in canals for water delivery and irrigation. Among these barriers we tested strobe light's effect on delta smelt, a small osmerid endemic to the San Francisco Estuary. The results of the tests conducted at the USBR Hydraulic

Luiz Gustavo; M. SILVA

278

Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

279

QUALIDADE AMBIENTAL (?) EM ÁREAS DE EXPANSÃO URBANA: UM ESTUDO DE CASO SOBRE A PERDA DA COBERTURA VEGETAL DO BAIRRO PARQUE VERDE - BELÉM\\/PA  

Microsoft Academic Search

O crescimento acelerado das cidades acarretou sérios prejuízos à qualidade ambiental das áreas de expansão urbana, pois a ocupação urbana desordenada configurada nestes espaços substituiu de forma degradante o espaço natural transformando-o em espaço construído sem qualquer planejamento urbano que levasse em conta a vegetação como componente essencial da qualidade de vida humana. Dentro deste contexto, o bairro Parque Verde,

CIÊNCIA EDUCAÇÃO; SUELLEN CRISTINA; VIDAL COSTA; NÍVIA BERNA DA SILVEIRA CORRÊA

280

Actividad antioxidante de la melatonina sobre el hígado graso inducido por etionina en ratones# Antioxidant activity of melatonin on fatty liver induced by ethionine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of melatonin in female mice with ethionine-induced hepatic oxidative stress (HOS), and the effect of this hormone on the gluthatione peroxidase enzyme antioxidant activity. Twenty adult female NMRI mice were given intraperitoneally 3 mg\\/kg melatonin in 1% ethanol daily for 15 days, and 1% ethanol to the control

SM Ferraro; A López-Ortega

281

Relación entre el potencial zeta y la deposición en el lavado de impurezas sólidas sobre tejidos de algodón, poliéster y poliéster-algodón tratados con diferentes aprestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of solid impurities of textile substrates, in washing, is due to different causes which can be of mechanical, chemicai, electrical or adsorption origin.\\u000aThe electrical phenomenon is studied by the electrokinetic potential or zeta potential. This potential depends on the fibre surface and the polar medium in which in steeped. For this reason, we used cotton, polyester, and polyester-cotton

Francisco Javier Carrión Fité; José Ribé Pons

1970-01-01

282

Estudos polarograficos sobre o comportamento do indio (III) em meio aquoso de azoteto de sodio. (Polarographic studies about indium (III) behaviour in aqueous media of sodium azide).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present study shows some polarographic behavior of indium (III) in azide media that is close those observed in a thiocyanate solution. The presence of azide ligand decreases the overpotential in the discharge of indium whose catalytic character can be...

R. Tokoro

1988-01-01

283

Acupuntura de compensación (balance): un estudio experimental sobre su eficacia en el tratamiento de los dolores radiculares en un modelo de rata con hernia discal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common clinical disease accounting for lumbocrural pain in the majority of the patients. The incidence of LDH has risen quickly in the past years. The theory of balance acupuncture is a new method firstly established by Dr. Wang Wenyuan and further developed according to a large amount of clinical studies which have come to

Y. Wang; H. Yuan; D. Xu; W. Y. Wang

2010-01-01

284

Perspectivas sobre las escuelas charter: Una resena para padres de familia (Perspectives on Charter Schools: A Review for Parents). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, charter schools have gained popularity with parents, students, and others as alternatives to public schools, but what are charter schools and what effects are they having? This Spanish-language Digest defines charter schools and clarifies some of the administrative and legal details surrounding such schools. The Digest also lays out some…

Donahoo, Saran

285

Análisis de la influencia de polimorfismos en APOE, APOA5, LPL, LIPC y CETP sobre los niveles de triglicéridos en población laboral malagueña  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionTriglyceride levels are considered to be an independent vascular risk factor. The influence of polymorphisms in genes such as APOE, APOA5, LPL, LIPC and CETP on these levels has been separately described. The aim of the present study was to analyze the combined effects of these polymorphisms and their interaction with environmental factors.

María José Ariza; Ana María Hornos; Francisco Javier Barón; Eva Calvo-Bonacho; José Rioja; Pedro Valdivielso; Juan Carlos Sainz-Gutierrez; Montserrat Ruiz-Moraga; José Antonio Gelpi; Pedro González-Santos; Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Chaparro

2011-01-01

286

Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

de Souza, R. S.

2003-08-01

287

Sobre o metodo de particao e a teoria quantica de perturbacao - espectros discretos. (Partitioning method and the perturbation quantum theory - discrete spectra).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lower and upper bounds to eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation H (Psi) = E (Psi) (H = H(sub 0) + V) and the convergence condition, in Schonberg's perturbation theory, are presented. These results are obtained using the partitioning technique. It is pr...

P. G. Logrado

1982-01-01

288

Observaciones sobre la biología de Octopus mimus (Cephalopoda: Octopoda) en la costa peruana Observations about the biology of Octopus mimus (Cephalopoda: Octopoda) in the Peruvian coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gould Octopus, Octopus mimus Gould, 1852 is widely distributed along the Peruvian coast and is target of an important artisanal fishery. The size-weight relationship in Ilo and Callao shows an allometric growth for both sexes. The females reach a spawning size at 14,3 cm of mantle length. That size was used to estimate a minimum weight of catch of

Franz Cardoso; Piero Villegas; Carlota Estrella

289

EFECTO DE LA AMILORIDA Y SU DERIVADO DICLOROBENZAMIL SOBRE LA AURICULA AISLADA DEL ACURE (Cavia porcellus): INTERACCION CON OTRAS MANIOBRAS INOTROPICAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inotropic and chronotropic effects of Amiloride (AMI) and Dichloro-benzamil Amiloride (DBC-AMI) were studied on the guinea pig isolated atria, also, the interaction between these drugs and Beta-methyl-Digoxin (BM-DIGO), epinephrine and low extracellular potassium (1 mM). AMI (10 M) has a negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects, not dependent on the autonomic system. DCB-AMI has a bimodal effect on the

M. Padrón-Nieves; C. Alfonso; V. Lamanna; M. Pérez-González

290

Efeitos da Exploração Madeireira de Baixo Impacto sobre uma Comunidade de Aves de Sub-bosque na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Pará, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Este estudo compara a resposta de uma comunidade aves à exploração madeireira de baixo impacto através da distribuição das espécies em floresta controle e manejada ao longo de cinco anos com amostragem pré e pós-exploração. O procedimento de ordenação mostrou que a similaridade da comunidade de aves após a exploração madeireira foi menor que a similaridade entre as amostras

Luiza Magalli; Pinto HENRIQUES; Joseph M. WUNdERLE; C. OREN; Michael R. WILLIG

291

Guia para la Ensenanza Combinada de Ingles y Ciencia. Para Padres/sobre Padres. (A Guide to Teaching English and Science Together. For Parents/about Parents).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past, students who knew only a little English (called limited English proficient, or LEP), were usually taught only low-level science and mathematics. Now, new science and mathematics teaching methods can help LEP students get a good education in both fields. This guide will help parents know if their children are learning as much as…

Schwartz, Wendy

292

Revisão sistemática sobre a efetividade da fisioterapia aquática no tratamento da fibromialgia Effectiveness of aquatic physical therapy in treating patients with fibromyalgia: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Physical therapy interventions promote functionality and fostering quality of life in the rheumatic diseases. Comparison between aquatic physical therapy and a non specific exercise program execution or physical therapy executed on land, for patients with fibromyalgia. The study type was the systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Patients with fibromyalgia whose diagnostic was based on the criteria of the

Regiane Mazzarioli; Pereira Nogueira; Jefferson Rosa Cardoso

293

[Actividad inhibitoria de dihidroxifenil propenona sobre betalactamasas de Enterobacter cloacae: estudio preliminar en el desarrollo de fármacos para enfrentar la resistencia bacteriana].  

PubMed

Introduction: Enterobacter cloacae is a pathogenic microorganism with the ability to produce betalactamase enzymes, which makes them resistant to betalactamic antibiotics. Additionally, the limited activity of enzymatic inhibitors has been identified, and, therefore, the design of new drugs and the promotion of their rational use are the only possibilities to overcome this problem. Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of dihydroxy-phenyl-propenone on a clinical isolate of E. cloacae , as well as its activity on a betalactamase isolated from this resistant microorganism in order to contribute to the search for new betalactamase inhibitors. Materials and methods: Dihydroxy-phenyl-propenone chalcone was synthesized and evaluated on a clinical isolate of E. cloacae to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution; once the betalactamase enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography, a spectrophotometric analysis was done to evaluate its kinetic activity. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration value of dihydroxy-phenyl-propenone on E. cloacae was 35 µg/ml; the recovery percentage of the betalactamase from the microorganism was 31.75% and the kinetic parameters were V max =1.7 x 10 -3 µM/min and K M = 2330 µM, which show an important inhibitory activity. Conclusion: Dihydroxy-phenyl-propenone has shown inhibitory activity on betalactamase enzymes and the ability to protect the chemical integrity of betalactamic antibiotics; this synergistic effect turns it into a promising compound in the search for new alternatives to overcome bacterial resistance. PMID:24968043

Mora, Cristina Lucía; Castaño, Julián; Jaramillo, María Consuelo

2014-04-01

294

Resultados preliminares sobre a implantacao de laboratorio para a medida do radiocarbono natural. (Preliminary results on the implantation of a laboratory for the measurement of natural radiocarbon).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Though the project 'Amazonia I', activity 'Paleoclimatology', sub-project 'hydrologic cycle', the Centro de Energia Nuclear da Agricultura (CENA) from Universidade de Sao Paulo has received recently, from Atomic Energy International Agency a research appa...

C. L. R. Pessenda R. Pessenda V. F. Nascimento Filho R. L. Victoria E. Matsui

1990-01-01

295

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Newsletter, July 1991-December 1992 = Boletin de Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Asuntos Indigenas, Septiembre 1991-Diciembre 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains seven consecutive English-language issues of the IWGIA Newsletter, from July 1991 through December 1992, followed by the seven corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide educators with a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination of indigenous peoples around the world.…

IWGIA Newsletter, 1992

1992-01-01

296

Efeitos da adição de vagens de algaroba sobre a composição química e a microbiota fúngica de silagens de capim-elefante  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this trial was to evaluate the chemical composition and fungal microbiota of different proportions of elephantgrass and mesquite pod silages: 100:0, 67:33, 34:66, and 0:100, respectively. A complete randomized design with four replications per treatment was used. The material was ensiled in PVC silos and remained sealed during a 120-days period. After opening the silos, silage samples

Ângela Maria Vieira Batista; Adriana Guim; Iraci Saraiva Souza; Krystyna Gourlach Lira; Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos Santos; José Carlos Batista Dubeux Júnior

2006-01-01

297

EFECTO DEL HIDRÓXIDO DE COBRE SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE LAS ESPECIES ARBÓREAS Pachyra insignes y Andira inermis EN CONDICIONES DE VIVERO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of cupric hydroxide on root and shoot growth of container grown Pachyra insignis and Andira inermis under nursery conditions Circling, matting and kinking roots constitute a problem for the container nursery industry. Studies have demonstrated the usefulness of chemical root pruning with copper hydroxide. The application of copper compounds to inner wall surface of containers prevents root growth at

María E. Arboleda; Dámaso Bautista

2002-01-01

298

Steppin' On Up: A Post-Secondary Guide for Migrant Students = Tomando Accion: Una Guia para los Estudiantes Migrantes Sobre Que Hacer Despues de la Escuela Secundaria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bilingual guide (English and Spanish) provides information for migrant students on postsecondary education. The guide includes information on: (1) career planning, involving self-exploration, occupational exploration, and strategies for reaching career objectives; (2) planning for postsecondary education during high school, including a…

Western Stream Migrant Education Program Coordination Center, Portland, OR.

299

ANÁLISIS ESPECTRAL (3D) ELECTROENCEFALOGRÁFICO DE LOS EFECTOS DE LA INHALACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOS VOLÁTILES INDUSTRIALES SOBRE EL SUEÑO Y LA ATENCIÓN EN EL HUMANO  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A series of clinical observations have confirmed the presence of drastic alterations on the wake-sleep cycle associated with indus- trial solvent inhalation. The psychotropic effects of these substances embrace a diversity of functions in humans, such as the capacity to attend to, and respond with readiness, to the environmental stimulus; besides it affects the capacity to estimate time. The

Adrián Martínez; Gustavo Luna; José María Calvo; Alejandro Valdés-Cruz; Victor Magdaleno-Madrigal; Rodrigo Fernández-Mas; David Martínez; Augusto Fernández-Guardiola

2002-01-01

300

Tax and Record Keeping Information for Family Child Care = Informacion Sobre los Impuestos y la Documentacion para el Cuidado Infantil en el Hogar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet from the Children's Foundation, in both English- and Spanish-language versions, provides advice to child care providers on record-keeping methods. The pamphlet also gives definitions and guidance on business expenses (100% deductible, shared personal and business, and depreciated capital expenses), time-space formula, self-employment…

Gellert, Sandra

301

EFEITO DA ADUBAÇÃO ORGÂNICA SOBRE AS FRAÇÕES DE CARBONO DE SOLOS CUL TIVADOS COM ALFACE AMERICANA Organic fertilizer effects upon carbon fractions from soils cultivated with iceberg lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of organic and mineral fertilizers and liming, on humic, fulvic, and organic carbon fractions of an Inceptisol and an Oxisol grown with lettuce. The experiment was carried out at the Soil Science Department of Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. It was performed with 5 levels of soil conditioner (0, 20, 40, 100,

Edilene Carvalho Santos Marchi; Marco Antônio Rezende Alvarenga; Giuliano Marchi; Carlos Alberto Silva; Jarso Luiz de Souza Filho

302

A música como experiência e diferencial mercadológico no turismo: um estudo de caso sobre o trecho Serro a São Gonçalo do Rio Preto - Estrada Real - MG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for places, which provide meaningful and unique experiences, is increasing in the tourism activity, and consequently, it is necessary to change the marketing strategy in places and attractions. The musical expression of Minas Gerais is not promoted as cultural contrast, although it is a great tourist attraction. This article suggests the use of the experimental marketing and the

Mariana Helena; Diniz Ferreira; Mileno Dias Marquezini

303

FACTORES QUE INFLUYEN SOBRE LA EMERGENCIA DE PLÁNTULAS DE BORRAJA (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) FACTORS INFLUENCING BORAGE (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) SEEDLING EMERGENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Borago officinalis L. seeds and the whole plant are used as medicinal plants. Gamma linolenic acid, an important essential fatty acid from the omega-6 family is present in its seeds. Objectives: To analyze the effect of the seeding depth, seed maturity, germination promoters, and\\/or stratification on the emergence percentage, vigor index and time to reach a 50% emergence were

Alejandro Solís; Rosemarie Wilckens; Maritza Tapia; Susana Fischer; Daniel Sorlino; Marisol Berti

304

Mejoramiento de la Calidad Nutritiva de los Cereales: Informe del Seminario sobre Produccion Selectiva y Fortificacion (Improving the Nutrient Quality of Cereals).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under joint sponsorship of AID and the Ralston Purina Company, sixteen experts participated in workgroups focused on: various techniques of selective production and fortification; wheat; rice; corn; sorghum and millet; and alternative methods of forticati...

1974-01-01

305

NOTA TÉCNICA EFECTO DE LAS DIETAS DE ALIMENTACIÓN SOBRE LA BIOLOGÍA Y TABLA DE VIDA DE Euseius concordis (CHANT) (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of diets on biology and life table of Euseius concordis (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Laboratory studies to obtain information about biology and life tables of the predatory mite Euseius concordis (Chant) were carried out. Mites were sampled in grapevines 'Criolla Negra', in Tarabana, Lara state, Venezuela. At the laboratory, E. concordis was fed on two sources consisting in minnieroot pollen

Carmen Escalona; Carlos Vásquez

306

Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

Puriefoy, Wendy D.

2007-01-01

307

How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

National PTA, Chicago, IL.

308

Ciclos políticos en Colombia: impacto fiscal en el siglo XX e impacto sobre la distribución del ingreso durante los ultimos 30 años  

Microsoft Academic Search

La orientación ideológica de los gobiernos, el momento de las elecciones y los intereses particulares de los dirigentes pueden afectar de manera importante la política económica en cualquiera de sus componentes. Se puede esperar que un gobierno establezca sus políticas en materia económica, ya sea siguiendo los preceptos ideológicos que el partido político al cual pertenece haya proclamado, o bien,

John Jairo Gómez Ríos

2008-01-01

309

Caso Chernobyl: sus repercusiones en el sistema Internacional sobre responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares. (Chernobyl case: its repercussions on the International System on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. T...

J. L. Gonzalez Guadarrama

1992-01-01

310

AS AÇÕES LINGÜÍSTICO-DISCURSIVAS NO DISCURSO JURÍDICO: UMA VISÃO SOBRE A IMAGEM DA MULHER NOS CRIMES CONTRA OS COSTUMES DO CÓDIGO PENAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Este artigo propõe uma análise da imagem da mulher que se esboça em alguns artigos do Código Penal Brasileiro. Para isso, vale mo-nos de algumas orientações teóricas da Análise do Discurso, no que diz respeito a Formaçõe s Discursivas, Ação e Racionalidade e Intencionalidade. Através desse aparato teórico, o trabalho levanta algumas questões de ordem lingüístico-discursivas, fundadoras de um

Carla Roselma; Athayde GUIMARAES; Gustavo Miranda SILVA; Priscilla Chantal; Duarte MARCHESANI

311

Estudio comparativo entre dos fuentes alimentarias aportadoras de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-3 y su efecto sobre el timo y el perfil lipídico de ratas  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Comparative study between two different sources of n-3 poliunsaturated fatty acids and it effect on thymus and lipid profile in rats. In the present paper we analyzed the effect caused by different recovery diets enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA n-3) on thymus and serum lipid pattern. Severe depleted weanling Wistar rats (D) were divided in three groups

Inés Fernandez; Anabel N. Pallaro; Nora H. Slobodianik

2007-01-01

312

Efeitos de um programa de orientação de atividade física e nutricional sobre o nível de atividade física de mulheres fisicamente ativas de 50 a 72 anos de idade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of an intervention program of physical activity and nutrition orientation on the physical activity level of physical- ly active women aged 50 to 72 years old The promotion of a physically active lifestyle in elderly people has been used as a strategy to promote improvement in health standards and quality of life. The objective of this study was to

Marcela Ferreira; Sandra Matsudo; Victor Matsudo; Glaucia Braggion

2005-01-01

313

EFEITO DO NÍVEL DE TRIGO NA DIETA E DO PERCENTUAL DE GRÃOS GERMINADOS SOBRE A QUALIDADE DOS PELLETS E A QUALIDADE DE CARCAÇA DE FRANGOS DE CORTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE EFFECT OF FEEDING DIETS CONTAINING INCREASING LEVELS OF WHEAT, AND PERCENTAGE OF GERMINATED GRAINS ON PELLET QUALITY AND CARCASS QUALITY OF BROILERS. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding diets containing increasing levels of wheat and percentage of germinated grains on pellet quality and the carcass quality of broilers. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa

Roberto A

314

Percepción de los Clientes Bancarios sobre las Acciones de Recuperación del Servicio en Chile Perception of the Retail Banking Customers Regarding the Service Recovery Efforts in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. El artículo valida, desde el punto de vista de los clientes bancarios, seis acciones que los bancos deberían tomar para manejar los reclamos de los clientes. Ellas son la corrección de los errores, la indemnización, la atención a los consumidores, el tiempo que se demoran los bancos en dar una respuesta al reclamo y el tiempo y esfuerzo que

2008-01-01

315

Politica Nacional sobre Discapacidad: Un Informe del Progreso, Diciembre 2000-Diciembre 2001 (National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2000-December 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report (written in Spanish) of the National Council on Disability (NCD) describes the nation's progress in advancing public policies to increase the inclusion, empowerment, and independence of people with disabilities in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The report covers December 2000 through December 2001. It reviews…

National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

316

V Congresso Brasileiro de Agroinformática, SBI-AGRO Londrina, 28 a 30 de setembro de 2005 ORGANIZANDO INFORMAÇÃO NA WEB SOBRE AGROECOLOGIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to improve the access of producers and extension technicians to the information of the thematic Agroecology, it is been developed an environment in web that uses tools that allow the dialogs between the interested parties, and organizes information to the events and notices of the area. The representation of the knowledge uses, beyond the traditional structures, a site of

LAURIMAR GONÇALVES VENDRUSCULO; FRANCISCO MIGUEL CORRALES; JOÃO ALFREDO DE CARVALHO; MANOEL SILVA CUNHA; MARCELO MIKIO HANASHIRO

2005-01-01

317

Estudo Sobre a Vegetacao Aquatica e Marginal Relacionada com a Vida dos Peixes (Study on Aquatic and River Margins Vegetation Related to Fish Life).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is part of the Ichthyology Research Project of the Araguaia-Tocantis region. The objective was to identify the aquatic and river margins species which are directly or indirectly related to the fish life, specifically as a source of food for the...

J. E. de Paula

1978-01-01

318

Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)  

EPA Science Inventory

Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina....

319

INFLUÊNCIA DA QUANTIDADE DE LEVEDURA E GORDURA VEGETAL SOBRE OS PARÂMETROS FÍSICOS E DE TEXTURA NO PÃO TIPO FRANCÊS PRÉ ASSADO CONGELADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

French bread represents 85% of the Brazilian bread market and frozen bread is a trend in this market. The objective of this project is to study the influence of yeast and vegetal shortening on physical and textural parameters of frozen part baked breads stored for 28 days. The objective was to produce a frozen part baked bread with physical and

Laura G. CARR; Carmen C. TADINI

320

Television Viewing = Lo que los padres de estudiantes dotados necesitan saber sobre ver...television. What Parents of Gifted Students Need To Know about...Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet (Practitioner's Guide), in both an English version and a Spanish version, is intended to help parents apply the findings of research to parental mediation of television viewing by their children, including gifted children. Research facts are briefly summarized and implications for the home are drawn. Suggestions for parents are…

Siegle, Del, Ed.

321

INFLUÊNCIA DA SANIFICAÇÃO SOBRE A QUALIDADE DE MELÃO AMARELO MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADO: PARTE II Influence of the sanitation on the quality of the fresh cut yellow melon: part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

+ 1 o C durante 16 dias. Foram realizadas análises de sabor, textura, aparência e cor. Ocorreu redução linear nos valores das notas de sabor e textura ao longo do período de armazenamento. As notas variaram entre 8 (muito boa) e 7 (moderadamente boa) nos períodos iniciais, reduzindo para 6 (ligeiramente boa) e 5 (indiferente) ao final do período de

Helga Parra dos Santos; Roberta Hilsdorf; Piccoli do Valle

322

Efecto del quitosán de alto peso molecular y del alginato de sodio sobre la hidrofobicidad y adhesión de Candida albicans a células  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the effect of the high molecular weight chitosan (HMWC) and of sodium alginate (NaAL) on surface hydrophobicity of Candida albicans and on adhesion of the yeast to epithelial cells and fibroblasts of different proceeding. For this study, a collection strain and seven isolates of C. albicans from saliva (patients with denture

Ana Isabel Azcurra; Silvina Ruth Barembaum; María Alejandra Bojanich; Silvia Edith Calamari; Javier Aguilar; Luis José Battellino; Susana Tereza Dorronsoro

323

Influence of the Environment on the Mechanical Characteristics of Composite Materials: Design Considerations Influencia Del Medio Ambiente Sobre Las Caracteristicas Mecanicas de Los Materiales Compuestos. Consideraciones de Diseno.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of temperature and humidity on the mechanical behavior of composite materials are discussed. The absorption of humidity by a polymeric matrix is reviewed. Other environmental factors, such as radiation and time, and their effects are also exam...

J. P. Sanjaunbenito

1983-01-01

324

Etica Comercial: Manual sobre la Administracion de una Empresa Comercial Responsable. (Business Ethics: A Manual for Managing a Responsible Business Enterprise in Emerging Market Economics.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Published under the auspices of the Commerce Department's Good Governance Program, this book is a comprehensive manual on how to design and implement a business ethics program that is in accordance with modern standards of responsible business conduct. It...

2006-01-01

325

6. Seminario IIE-ININ-IMP sobre especialidades tecnologicas. Mesa 8: computacion. (6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP on technological specialties. Topic 8: computation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document includes 10 papers presented at the 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP (Mexico) on technological specialties in the field of computation. (Topic 8). Three items were in INIS subject scope and a separate abstract was prepared for each of them. (At...

1992-01-01

326

Sistema de cúmulos globulares de la galaxia lenticular NGC 6861: en busca de indicios sobre la formación de las S0s.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a preliminar photometric study of the globular cluster system (GCS), associated to the lenticular galaxy (S0) NGC 6861, which is located in a low density environment (d˜31.8 Mpc). It is based on GEMINI/GMOS images (GS-2010B-Q-2: PI Lilia P. Bassino) in the filters g', r', i' of three fields, one of them centered in the galaxy. We find a large number of GCs candidates and detect the presence of at least two sub-populations of GCs (``blue''/metal-poor and ``red''/metal-rich). The spatial distribution of ``red'' candidates presents a higher concentration toward the galaxy (associated to the bulge?), while the distribution of ``blue'' candidates is more homogeneus over the three fields (associated to the halo?). In the color-magnitud diagram, the ``blue'' GC candidates show a possible mass-luminosity relation, known as ``blue-tilt'', probably detected for the first time in a lenticular galaxy. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Escudero, C. G.; Faifer, F. R.; Bassino, L. P.; Calderón, J. P.; Caso, J. P.

327

Pick and Choose: A Videotape Series on Nutrition for Migrant Families (Coja y Escoja: Peliculas para Television Sobre la Nutricion para las Familias Migratorias).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major problems faced by migrant workers throughout the United States is a lack of awareness of the relationship between proper diet and an individual's general health and well being. To help solve this problem was the major objective of the series "Pick and Choose." The three 15-minute programs in the series present information related…

1979

328

Políticas Trabalhista e Fundiária e seus Efeitos Adversos Sobre o Emprego Agrícola, a Estrutura Agrária e o Desenvolvimento Territorial Rural no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the question of the concentrated pattern of agricultural developmentin Brazil, as expressed in the predominance of large-scale production, high level ofmechanization and low absorption of non-qualified labor. It is proposed, initially, theexistence of two conflicting explanations for this fact: the first, that blames our historicalheritage, characterized by the predominance of the latifúndio, with the implication thatthe solution

Gervásio Castro de Rezende

2005-01-01

329

Adiccion al Tabaco. Instituto Nacional Sobre el Abuso de Drogas (Tobbaco Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tobacco use kills nearly half a million Americans each year, with one in every six U.S. deaths the result of smoking. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, causing many diseases and compromising smokers health in general. Nicotine, a component of ...

2007-01-01

330

Cocaina Abuso y Adiccion. Instituto Nacional Sobre el Abuso de Drogas (Cocaine Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cocaine abuse and addiction continues to be a problem that plagues our nation. For instance, from 1965 to 1967, only 0.1 percent of youths had ever used cocaine, but rates rose throughout the 1970s and 1980s, reaching 2.2 percent in 1987. After a brief de...

2005-01-01

331

Tips for Parents on Keeping Children Drug Free = Consejos para Los Padres Sobre Como Mantener a Los Hijos Libres de La Droga.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that recent trends in youth drug use have stabilized; however, the rates of use remain at high levels. It has been shown that the earlier drug use is initiated, the more likely a person is to develop drug problems later in life. Youth substance abuse may lead to many other problems that affect not only the child, but also the…

Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

332

Abuso de la Marihuana. Instituto Nacional Sobre el Abuso de Drogas (Marijuana Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of marijuana can produce adverse physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral changes, and contrary to popular belief it can be addictive. Marijuana smoke, like cigarette smoke, can harm the lungs. The use of marijuana can impair short-term memory,...

2005-01-01

333

Abuso y Adiccion a la Metanfetamina. Instituto Nacional Sobre el Abuse de Drogas. (Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The abuse of methamphetamine a potent and highly addictive psychostimulant is a very serious problem in the United States. Methamphetamine abuse leads to devastating medical, psychological, and social consequences. Adverse health effects include memory lo...

2007-01-01

334

VIH/SIDA. Instituto Nacional Sobre el Abuse de Drogas. (HIV/AIDS. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Initially characterized by relatively localized outbreaks, HIV/AIDS has now become a pandemic that has literally put the world at risk, affecting diverse populations in different ways. And while all nations are affected by HIV/AIDS, each faces differing u...

2006-01-01

335

Heroina: Abuso y Adiccion. Instituto Nacional Sobre el Abuso de Drogas (Heroin Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heroin is a highly addictive drug, and its abuse has repercussions that extend far beyond the individual user. The medical and social consequences of drug abuse HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, fetal effects, crime, violence, and disruptions in family, workplace, ...

2005-01-01

336

Abuso de la MDMA (Extasis). Instituto Nacional Sobre el Abuso de Drogas (MDMA (Ecstasy) Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The so-called club drug MDMA continues to be used by millions of Americans across the country, despite evidence of its potential harmful effects. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or ecstasy) has gained a deceptive reputation as a safe drug among i...

2006-01-01

337

INFORMAÇÃO E USABILIDADE EM AÇÕES ESTRATÉGICAS EMPRESARIAIS: ANÁLISE SOBRE GESTÃO DA INFORMAÇÃO 6 USABILITY AND INFORMATION IN BUSINESS' STRATEGIC ACTIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face à importância da informação para o atual contexto social, em especial para a gestão empresarial, analisa-se a informação como um ativo a ser gerenciado, uma vez que é infinitamente reutilizável, não deteriorável e nem tampouco depreciável. A gestão da informação transforma valores e cultura organizacionais. Sua efetivação contribui para o alcance dos atuais desafios das empresas: qualidade, produtividade e

Andreina Alves de Sousa

338

Área temática: Globalização e internacionalização de empresas Participação em Feiras: Uma Pesquisa Exploratória sobre Expositores Brasileiros e Estrangeiros em Eventos Internacionais  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international activity most associated with the increase of the company's competitiveness is the participation in international trade shows. This article identifies the main facts which encourage the participation of Brazilian and foreign exhibitors in international fairs. The data were collected live during the International Food Fair (Sial) that took place in Paris in 2006 and via email. To form

ERICA PIROS KOVACS; BRIGITTE RENATA BEZERRA DE OLIVEIRA; STEVEN PAUL; SMREKAR ALBUQUERQUE; Faculdade Maurício de Nassau

339

Parenting Information for Parents: Books 1-3 (Informacion Para Los Padres Sobre La Crianza De Los Hijos: Libros 1-3).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 3 booklets provide ideas, guidelines, and activities for establishing effective parenting and are part of a series of 22 booklets specifically designed to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. The first booklet (booklet #20) discusses preparation for parenthood, infant and toddler developmental stages, the importance…

Moreno, Steve

340

Borrowing Basics. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Prestamos. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, an introduction to credit, is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to decide when and how to use…

Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

341

Identificación y fortalecimieto de centralidades urbanas: El caso de Quito  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muchas ciudades latinoamericanas experimentan un crecimiento territorial desbalanceado en el que coexisten áreas muy dinámicas con otras fuertemente rezagadas en términos sociales y económicos, habitualmente localizadas en la periferia urbana. Ese desbalance se refleja en un suministro de servicios, empleos, áreas verdes, espacios públicos y comunales, así como en usos de suelo, que son muy desiguales para diferentes áreas de

Fernando Cuenin; Mauricio Silva

2010-01-01

342

Balance de nutrientes y necesidades de fertilización del cultivo de trigo 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

El balance de nutrientes es la diferencia entre la cantidad de nutrientes que entran y que salen de un sistema definido en el espacio y en el tiempo. En general, estos balances se consideran para la capa de suelo explorada por las raíces en períodos anuales. Esta definición permite estimar balances nutricionales de un lote en una campaña agrícola a

Fernando O. García

343

ERUPCIÓN DEL VOLCÁN HUDSON Y CRISIS GANADERA EN LA MESETA CENTRAL SANTACRUCEÑA, PATAGONIA ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

El sector ovino-extensivo de la Meseta Central Santacruceña, extensa región ecológica del centro-Norte de la provincia de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina), en las últimas décadas atraviesa una situación de crisis, evidenciada en el escaso porcentaje de parcelas que mantienen el uso del suelo tradicional. Las interpretaciones con respecto a las causas de la crisis no son muy numerosas, en la

Alberto Vazquez

2012-01-01

344

Estudio Hidrológico del río Arlanzón a su paso por el Término Municipal de Burgos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Para la ordenación del territorio en el Término Municipal de Burgos se necesita conocer el riesgo de inundación por las aguas de los ríos Arlanzón, Vena, Cardeñadijo y Ubierna. Por ello, se ha realizado un estudio hidrológico de la cuenca del Arlanzón partiendo de los datos de precipitaciones, cartografía referente a usos del suelo, edafología, geología y topografía, fotografías aéreas

Iñigo OLEAGORDIA MONTAÑA; Rebeca RODRÍGUEZ GARCÍA; Joaquín NAVARRO HEVIA; CASTILLO NOVO

345

Contenido de hierro y cinc en la semilla y su respuesta al nivel de fertilización con fósforo en 40 variedades de fríjol colombianas Seed iron and zinc content and their response to phosphorus fertilization in 40 Colombian bean varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

El mejoramiento del fríjol en Colombia ha producido un amplio número de variedades para diferentes zonas agroecológicas y con diferentes rangos de adaptación. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron determinar la calidad nutricional del fríjol en Colombia en cuanto al contenido de hierro y cinc en el grano y entender cómo los niveles de fertilización del suelo alta y baja

Carolina Astudillo; Matthew W. Blair

2008-01-01

346

MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA ESTIMAR EL ESPACIAMIENTO ENTRE DRENES SUBTERRÁNEOS EN RÉGIMEN TRANSITORIO Mathematical Model for Estimating Spacing Between Subterranean Drains in Transitory Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Para el diseño de sistemas de drenaje subterráneo existen diferentes modelos, tanto para régimen permanente, como transitorio; sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos no se han obtenido para condiciones de suelo y clima semiáridas. Por lo tanto, este trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar una ecuación empírica para régimen transitorio que permitiera determinar el espaciamiento entre drenes paralelos, considerando los intervalos

Pablo Miguel Coras-Merino

2006-01-01

347

Formation of soil diversity in the mountainous tropics and subtropics: Rocks, time, and erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of soils and complexity of soil cover in humid tropics and subtropics, especially in the mountain regions, cannot be fully explained by climatic control over soil formation. The objective of the research was to investigate the role of time and erosion processes as factors controlling soil diversity in humid tropical and subtropical mountains that differ in the characteristics of the parent rocks. The study is based on the concept of two main pathways of the weathering of silicate rocks, depending on whether phyllosilicates are present or lacking in their composition. This has a direct relationship to thickness and properties of the weathered mantle. A chronosequence of soils on river and marine terraces developed on weathered chloritized diabase porphyrites were studied in humid subtropics of the South Caucasus, on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Georgia. On a terrace sequence with sand and pebble marine sediments that ranges in age from 1000 to 500 000 years, Regosols, Ferralic Cambisols, Haplic Nitisols and Stagnic Acrisols are defined as consecutive stages of time-dependent soil formation. An erosional soil sequence in the hilly-mountain area of this region shows "regressive soil development", from Stagnic Acrisols to Regosols/Leptosols. The erosion truncates relatively thick pre-erosion soils and regolith layer-by-layer; the exposed deep horizons play the role of parent rock for soil formation. In addition, soil sequences traced across hillslopes composed of serpentinite, ultrabasic and sedimentary rocks devoid of phyllosilicates have been studied in tropical regions of western Cuba. A mosaic of Ferralsols, Cambisols and Leptosols was formed under erosional impact on pre-erosion shallow soils and regolith. Time-dependent and erosion-dependent regularities of pedogenesis play an essential role in soil diversity and usually complicate initial soilscape, leading to formation of soils typical for extra-tropical/subtropical conditions.

Gracheva, R.

2011-12-01

348

Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.  

PubMed

Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. PMID:24631613

Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

2014-05-15

349

Seasonal variability of soil aggregate stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variability of soil properties measured in surface horizons of three soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem, Haplic Cambisol) was studied in years 2007 and 2008. Undisturbed and disturbed soil samples were taken every month to evaluate field water content, bulk density, porosity, ration of gravitational and capillary pores, pHKCl and pHH2O, organic matter content and its quality, aggregate stability using WSA index. In addition, micromorphological features of soil aggregates were studied in thin soil sections that were made from undisturbed large soil aggregates. Results showed that soil aggregate stability depended on stage of the root zone development, soil management and climatic conditions. Larger aggregate stabilities and also larger ranges of measure values were obtained in the year 2007 then those measured in 2008. This was probably caused by lower precipitations and consequently lower soil water contents observed in 2007 than those measured in 2008. The highest aggregate stability was measured at the end of April in the years 2007 and 2008 in Haplic Luvisol and Greyic Phaeozem, and at the end of June in the year 2007 and at the beginning of June in 2008 in Haplic Cambisol. In all cases aggregate stability increased during the root growth and then gradually decreased due to summer rainfall events. Aggregate stability reflected aggregate structure and soil pore system development, which was documented on micromorphological images and evaluated using the ration of gravitational and capillary pores measured on the undisturbed sol samples. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic grant No. 526/08/0434, and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports grant No. MSM 6046070901.

Rohoskova, M.; Kodesova, R.; Jirku, V.; Zigova, A.; Kozak, J.

2009-04-01

350

Atrazine degradation and residues distribution in two acid soils from temperate humid zone.  

PubMed

Mineralization of atrazine and formation of extractable and non-extractable "bound" residues were followed under laboratory conditions in two contrasting soils (organic C, texture, and atrazine application history) from northern Spain. The soils, a Humic Cambisol (MP) and a Gleyic Cambisol (G) were incubated with labeled atrazine (ring-13C atrazine) at field application dose and measurements were made at different time intervals during 3 mo. Fate and behavior of atrazine along the incubation showed different patterns between the two soils, the time taken for degradation of 50% (DT50) being 9 and 44 d for MP and G soils, respectively. In MP soil, with 40 yr of atrazine application and lower organic C and clay content, more than 89% of U-13C-atrazine added was mineralized after 12 wk, with most mineralization occurring within the first 2 wk. G soil, with 10 yr of atrazine application, exhibited a more progressive U-13C-atrazine mineralization, reaching 54% of initially added atrazine at 12 wk. Hydroxyatrazine and deisopropylatrazine were the metabolites founded in the extractable fraction, demonstrating that both chemical and biological processes are involved in atrazine degradation. Soil G showed during all the incubation times an extractable residues fraction greater than that in MP soil, indicating a high potential risk of soil and water contamination. Rapid microbial degradation through s-triazine ring cleavage was proposed to be the main decomposition pathway of atrazine for the two soils studied. Bound residues pool also differed notably between soils accounting for 9 and 41% of initially added atrazine, the higher values shown by soil with higher organic matter and clay content (G soil). PMID:17485714

Mahía, J; Díaz-Raviña, M

2007-01-01

351

Comparison of transport in lysimeters with undisturbed loamy sand and silty soil using non invasive imaging with electrical resistivity tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of chemicals through soil is subject to the 3-D structure of the soil hydraulic properties (e.g. unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function) and state variables (e.g. water content). Although this is known for decades, it is still difficult to quantitatively predict solute transport especially when preferential flow or fingering occurs. One reason for this is the shortcoming of 3-D data on both the solute transport process itself and its determining parameters. Lysimeters provide excellent means to control the boundary conditions and are accessible from all sides. Filled with undisturbed soil and equipped with geophysical imaging devices they provide a valuable tool to visualize and better understand solute transport in natural soils. In our study we conducted solute tracer step experiments on two distinct undisturbed unsaturated field soils (gleyic Cambisol and orthic Luvisol). The boundary conditions were set to constant irrigation (1.5 cm/day) at the top and a constant suction at the bottom. Tracer breakthrough was monitored using 3-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR). We used the effluent tracer breakthrough and TDR measured breakthrough as a ground truth for the ERT data. From these data, apparent convection-dispersion transport parameters were derived. We found considerably different transport velocities and dispersivities for the two soils. In the orthic Luvisol, distinct preferential transport paths were visualized and followed in time. In the gleyic Cambisol we observed minor heterogeneities in the transport front which were aligned to the plowing direction. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ERT to characterize and compare the 3-D spatio-temporal evolution of solute fronts. The results are beneficial to investigate relationships between soil structure and the transport process and to explain the scale dependency of the transport processes from the spatial structure of the process at a smaller scale.

Garre, S.; Köstel, J.; Vanderborght, J.; Javaux, M.

2009-04-01

352

Influence of polluted air on chemical composition of elements from forest ecosystems from the region of Srednogorie (Bulgaria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studied region is situated on the south steep slopes of Central Balkan Mountains with south-west and south-east aspects. In the lower parts sediments parent materials are presented sandstones, shales, limestones and conglomerates. Over 800 m the southern Bulgarian granites, gneiss and crystalline shale are distributed and the formed soils could be referred as Eutric-Dystric Cambisols. In the middle forest zone of the area the pure and mixed beech forest (Fagus sylvatica L.) are distributed. The most distributed soil types in studied region are Dystric Cambisols. Soil acidity slightly varies pH is between 4.7 and 5.0 while more acid are the superficial 0-5 cm of soils. The mean values of organic carbon content are higher for the upper soil layer (61.7 g/kg). The heavy metals contents (Cu, Pb and Zn) in the superficial layers are little higher compared with the determined limit values for soils. The content of Zn increased toward deeper layers of soil profile, while the content of Cu decreased slowly. For the Pb small variation in the profile distribution are observed. Concerning the heavy metals content in forest floor layers higher values are determined for Cu and Pb in Aof and Aoh, 540 mg/kg and 903 mg/kg for Cu and 100 mg/kg and 168 mg/kg for Pb respectively. These high values of Cu are indicator for anthropogenic influence in the region, provoked by the activities of copper production enterprise CPE Georgi Damyanov in town of Srednogorie. The high values for heavy metals content in forest floor, the significant soil organic matter content and lower pH values supposed a higher anthropogenic impact on brown forest soils in studied region.

Sokolovska, Maria; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Slavtcheva, Evguenia; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

2014-05-01

353

Impact of varying soil structure on transport processes in different diagnostic horizons of three soil types.  

PubMed

When soil structure varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, it has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. This paper focuses on the effect of soil structure variations on the transport of pesticides in the soil above the water table. Transport of a pesticide (chlorotoluron) initially applied on soil columns taken from various horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol) was studied using two scenarios of ponding infiltration. The highest infiltration rate and pesticide mobility were observed for the Bt(1) horizon of Haplic Luvisol that exhibited a well-developed prismatic structure. The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of large capillary pores and gravitational pores. Water infiltration rates were reduced during the experiments by a soil structure breakdown, swelling of clay and/or air entrapped in soil samples. The largest soil structure breakdown and infiltration decrease was observed for the Ap horizon of Haplic Luvisol due to the low aggregate stability of the initially well-aggregated soil. Single-porosity and dual-permeability (with matrix and macropore domains) flow models in HYDRUS-1D were used to estimate soil hydraulic parameters via numerical inversion using data from the first infiltration experiment. A fraction of the macropore domain in the dual-permeability model was estimated using the micro-morphological images. Final soil hydraulic parameters determined using the single-porosity and dual-permeability models were subsequently used to optimize solute transport parameters. To improve numerical inversion results, the two-site sorption model was also applied. Although structural changes observed during the experiment affected water flow and solute transport, the dual-permeability model together with the two-site sorption model proved to be able to approximate experimental data. PMID:19062128

Kodesová, Radka; Vignozzi, Nadia; Rohosková, Marcela; Hájková, Tereza; Kocárek, Martin; Pagliai, Marcello; Kozák, Josef; Sim?nek, Jirka

2009-02-16

354

Organic carbon distribution, speciation, and elementalcorrelations within soil microaggregates: applications of STXM and NEXAFSspectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Soils contain the largest inventory of organic carbon on the Earth's surface. Therefore, it is important to understand how soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed in soils. This study directly measured SOC distributions within soil microaggregates and its associations with major soil elements from three soil groups (Phaeozem, Cambisol, and Ultisol), using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at a spatial resolution of 30 nm. Unlike previous studies, small intact soil microaggregates were examined directly in order to avoid preparatory procedures that might alter C speciation. We found that SOC exists as distinct particles (tens to hundreds of nm) and as ubiquitous thin coatings on clay minerals and iron-oxides coatings. The distinct SOC particles have higher fractions of aromatic C than the coatings. NEXAFS spectra of the C coatings within individual microaggregates were relatively similar. In the Phaeozem soil, the pervasive spectral features were those of phenolic and carboxylic C, while in the Cambisol soil the most common spectral feature was the carboxyl peak. The Ultisol soil displayed a diffuse distribution of aromatic, phenolic, and carboxylic C peaks over all surfaces. In general, a wide range of C functional groups coexist within individual microaggregates. In this work we were able to, for the first time, directly quantify the major mineral elemental (Si, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Ti) compositions simultaneously with C distribution and speciation at the nm to {mu}m scale. These direct microscale measurements will help improve understanding on SOC-mineral associations in soil environments.

Wan, Jiamin; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.

2007-03-15

355

Tempo de plantar e tempo de colher: as representações sociais de profissionais de saúde e idosos sobre o processo de envelhecimento Time to plant and time to crop: social representations of health professionals and elderly about the aging process Tiempo de plantar e tiempo de cosechar: representaciones sociales de profesionales de la salud y ancianos sobre el proceso de envejecimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil is going through a demographic transition process, because the human being longevity. The present descriptive qualitative study investigates the relation between the partaken overview and the health professionals' practice in this process. Ten participants were questioned, health professional and the users of the service of health attention. Software of content analyses was used. The results show different social representations

Elizete Maria Bachi Comerlato; Iraci Guimarães; Elioenai Dornelles Alves

356

Soil and substrate morphology as witnesses of present and former agricultural landscape management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and tillage erosion, combined with the effect of successive regrouping of the land campaigns, have sensibly modified the morphology of cultivated hillslopes. Nowadays, we can still observe over cultivated landscapes various anthropogenic structures (e.g. lynchets) that correspond to former and/or present field limits. The aim of this work is to spatially characterise the geometry of these various structures, and to assess their relation with soil variability. The 10 ha studied site corresponds to an hillslope located in a small calcareous watershed near Tours in the Parisian Basin (France). Soils are mainly Cambisols (calcaric), Epileptic cambisols (calcaric) and Colluvic cambisols. This watershed is characterised by the presence of many soil accumulation structures and has been submitted to an important regrouping of the lands since the 1960's. The existing structures were accurately located and defined through a topographical analysis (slope, profile curvature...), and then related to past and present field limits using aerial photographies and cadastral maps. Two main morphological structures, deeply marked in the topography, are identified. The most remarkable type corresponds to well developed lynchets located at the lower part of field limits. Secondary structures, less marked than lynchets, are linked to field limits which existed at least since 1836, but that disappeared from the 1960's. These secondary structures look like longitudinal bulges placed perpendicularly to the direction of the main slope. A soil survey on these two geomorphic structure types has been performed in order to determine their specific geometry. Lynchets are characterised by a large increase in the thickness of soils: from 35 cm at 24 m upslope to more than 120 cm on its top. But, in some cases, the elevation study shows a topographical discontinuity between the top of the accumulation and the field or road below, discontinuity that is more important than the maximum soil thickness observed in the lynchet. This implies that the substrate, which is mostly homogeneous, has been largely excavated below these limits certainly due to repeated tillage operations. Concerning the secondary structures, soil thickness increases slightly from 35 cm at 16 m up- and downslope the former field limit to 70 cm at the maximum of the bulges convexity. However, the slope morphology seems to show larger soil accumulation considering a regular substrate morphology along the hillslope profile. Here too, by combining soil thickness and surface topography, we show that the substrate has certainly been strongly remodelled at these former field limits by tillage erosion. The spatial variability of the various soils types is closely linked to the sequence of structures oriented perpendicularly to the direction of the main slope. Although the current topography is clearly marked by various structures linked to former and present field limits, it appears that soil thickness is not the only factor explaining these large variations in the slope morphology: long-term agricultural practices, certainly tillage, "shape" the substrate as well. It is thus important to take into account these substrate excavations for sediment budget studies. The use of tracers such as 137Cs will allow to understand the intensity of these morphological changes at the slope scale within the last decades.

Chartin, C.; Salvador-Blanes, S.; Hinschberger, F.; Bourennane, H.; Macaire, J.-J.

2009-04-01

357

Stable isotope signatures in bulk samples from two soils with contrasting characteristics. What do they tell about ongoing pedogenic processes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been proven as a promising tool for the monitoring of biogeochemical processes in soil. In this work, stable isotope signatures of light elements ?15N, ?13C, ?18O and ?D were determined for two soils with contrasting characteristics in terms of climate, vegetation, land use and management. The studied soils were a Cambisol from a subtropical area (Paraná region, South Brazil) and an Arenosol from a Mediterranean climate (Andalusia, South Spain). A Flash 2000 HT (N, C, S, H and O) elemental analyzer (Thermo Scientific) coupled to a Delta V Advantage IRMS (Thermo Scientific) was used. Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand (o ) deviations from appropriate standards recognized by the international atomic energy agency (IAEA). In a first approach we took advantage of the well-known different ?13C signature between plants using either the C4 or C3 carbon fixation pathway (O'Leary, 1981). The Arenosol (Spain) revealed a ?13C signature which is clearly in the range of C3 plants (-26 to -30 o ). Different plant canopies (tree, shrubs or ferns) caused only slight variations ?13C (STD= 0.98). In contrast, the Cambisol (Brazil) showed less depletion of the heavier carbon isotope corresponding to C4 predominant vegetation. In addition an increase from -19 o in the soil surface (0 - 5 cm) to -16 o in the subsoil (20 - 30 cm) was observed in line with a recent (2 years old) shift of the land use from the predominant C4 grassland to eucalypt (C3) cultivation. Crossplots of ?15N vs. ?18O may provide information about nitrate (NO3-) sources and N cycling (Kendall, 1998). In the Mediterranean Arenosol this signal (?18O = 30o ?15N = 2o ) was found compatible with a predominant nitrate atmospheric deposition, whereas the signal in the Brazilian Cambisol pointed to the use of a mineral N fertilization with signs of denitrification processes (?18O = 13o ?15N = 9o ). No conclusive results could be obtained from the ?D isotopic signature probably due to overlapping of the ?D signals from the organic and the mineral fractions. For a more detailed analysis steps allowing their separation are necessary (Ruppenthal et al. (2013) and references therein). Kendall, C. 1998. Tracing nitrogen sources and cycling in catchments. In Isotopes Tracers in Catchments Hydrology (C. Kendall and J. J. McDonnell, Eds). Elsevier Science B. V., Amsterdam, 519-576. O'Leary, M.H. 1981. Carbon isotope fraction in plants. Phytochemistry 20: 553-567. Ruppenthal, M., Oelmann, Y., Wilcke, W. 2013. Optimized demineralization technique for the measurement of stable isotope ratios of nonexchangeable H in soil organic matter. Environmental Science and Technology 47: 949-957.

Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; dos Anjos Leal, Otávio; Knicker, Heike; Pinheiro Dick, Deborah; González-Vila, Francisco J.; González-Pérez, José A.

2014-05-01

358

Uncertainties and Solutions Related to Use of WRB (2007) in the Boreo-nemoral zone, Case of Latvia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relatively high diversity of soils groups according to the WRB (2007) classification is observed in forest ecosystems in the boreo-nemoral zone in Latvia. This is due to the geological genesis of area and environmental conditions (Kasparinskis, Nikodemus, 2012), as well as historical land use and management (Nikodemus et al., 2013). Due to the relatively young soils, Albic, Spodic and Cambic horizons are relatively weakly expressed in many cases. Relatively well developed Albic horizons occur in sandy forest soils, but unusually well expressed Spodic features are observed. In some cases there is a Cambic horizon, however location of Cambisols in the WRB (2007) soil classification sequence does not provide an opportunity to classify these soils as Cambisols, but they are classified as Arenosols. This sequence does not reflect the logical sheme of soil development, and therefore raises the question about location of Podzols, Arenosols and Cambisols in the sequence of WRB (2007) soil classification. Soils with two parent materials (abrupt textural change) are relatively common in Latvia, where conceptually on the small scale mapping results in classification as the soil group Planosols, but in many cases there is occurrence of Fluvic materials, as parent material in the upper part of the soil profile is formed by Baltic Ice lake sandy sediments - this leads to question about the location of Fluvisols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. Soil research has found cases, where a relatively well developed Spodic horizon was established as the result of ground water table depth in areas of abrupt textural change. In this case the profile corresponds to the soil group of Podzols, however in some cases - Gleysols not Planosols due to a high ground water table. Therefore there is a need for discussion also about the location of Podzols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. The above mentioned questions raise problems related to unambiguous determination of soil groups. Soil classification must be very precise by reflecting relationships of soil forming processes. In the development of international soil classification it is advisable to pay more attention on ecological processes. This study was supported by the European Social Fund No. 2013/0020/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/13/APIA/VIAA/066. References: IUSS Working Group, 2007. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006, first update 2007. World Soil Resources Reports 103. FAO, Rome. 103-116. Kasparinskis R., Nikodemus O. 2012. Influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and diversity of forest soil in Latvia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences. 61(1): 48-64. Nikodemus O., Kasparinskis R., Kukuls I. 2013. Influence of Afforestation on Soil Genesis, Morphology and Properties in Glacial Till Deposits. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 59(3): 449-465.

Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Rolavs, Nauris

2014-05-01

359

Todo Alumno: Un Manual de Recursos de PEER sobre Educacion Basada en Normas y Alumnos con Discapacidades (Every Single Student: A PEER Resource Manual on Standards-Based Education and Students with Disabilities).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual in Spanish covers thirteen different topics relevant to the education of students with disabilities in the era of educational reform and standards-based education. Sections include: (1) "Raising Standards of Learning: Standards-Based Education and Students with Disabilities" (Janet R. Vohs, Julia K. Landau, and Carolyn Romano); (2)…

Landau, Julia K., Ed.; Romano, Carolyn A., Ed.; Vohs, Janet R., Ed.

360

EVALUACIÓN DE UN MODELO PREDICTIVO SOBRE EL EFECTO DE LA TEMPERATURA Y HUMEDAD EN LA DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE RASTROJO DE TRIGO1 Evaluation of a predictive model of the effect of temperature and humidity on wheat straw decomposition1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this work were to evaluate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw decomposition rates under different temperature and humidity levels in two locations, and to compare the actual measurements with predictions made with the crop growth simulator CropSyst. The decomposition rate was evaluated for three quantities of wheat straw (3; 6; and 9 t ha-1) left on the soil

Víctor García de Cortázar

361

IX SEMEAD - Agosto de 2008 Tema: Empreendedorismo nas Organizações Área Temática: Organizações do 3º Setor AS PERCEPÇÕES SOBRE AS DIMENSÕES DE ATUAÇÃO DO ASSOCIATIVISMO EMPRESARIAL E SUAS CONTRIBUIÇÕES PARA O JOVEM EMPREENDEDOR DA CIDADE DE SÃO PAULO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented paper aims to analyze the perception on 3 dimensions of business associateship (management skill, business relationship and representativeness) by young entrepreneurs, besides putting in context the associativity movement in Brasil. In order to do so, the article presents a brief theoretical review, a few data on the entrepreneurial context in Brasil and finally a quantitative survey research introduces

CARLOS EDUARDO; MACHADO MUNHOZ; FAESP. IPCA

362

Levantamento bibliografico de trabalhos realizados sobre aves, peixes e produtos de peixe, especiarias e condimentos irradiados. (Bibliographic review of works accomplished about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products , spices and condiments).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of foods that can be irradiated and its respective nominal doses are shown. Bibliographic reviews of works performed about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products, spices and condiments are shown. The irradiation purpose in chicken were to increa...

B. Bernardes M. Dias Filho

1983-01-01

363

EFEITO DA CELULASE SOBRE A DECOMPOSIÇÃO DO PERGAMINHO E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NA VELOCIDADE E PORCENTAGEM DE GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE CAFEEIRO 1 Effect of the cellulase about the decomposition of the parchment and speed of germination of coffee seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 em tampão citrato de potássio 0,05 mol.L -1 . Observou-se que a quantidade de açúcar liberado in vitro foi diretamente relacionada com a concentração de enzima, e que houve aumento expressivo e linear na quantidade de açúcares redutores liberados nas duas concentrações (1,6 e 3,2 g.L -1 ) à medida que se aumentou o tempo de incubação das amostras

Juliana de Fátima Sales; Amauri Alves de Alvarenga; João Almir de Oliveira; Francisco Dias Nogueira; Fabiano Guimarães Silva; André Dely Veiga

364

CONHECIMENTO SOBRE REPRODUÇÃO E SEXO SEGURO DE ADOLESCENTES DE UMA ESCOLA DE ENSINO MÉDIO E FUNDAMENTAL DE FORTALEZA - CEARÁ KNOWLEDGE OF REPRODUCTION AND SAFE SEX AMONG TEENAGERS FROM A HIGHSCHOOL IN FORTALEZA - CEARÁ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: adolescents and young adults constitute a group of increasing risk for sexually transmissible diseases (STD), including HIV infec- tion. The greatest vulnerability of the young people comes from inconsistencies in the use of condoms associated to the raising taxes of sexual acti- vity with different partners. Objective: this study aims to evaluate the knowledge of adolescents from a high

Mônica C Façanha; Beatriz LF Menezes; Ana DB Fontenele; Marina A Melo; Adivânia S Pinheiro; Cecília S Carvalho; Ivna A Porto; Larissa OC Pereira

365

Boquejo Sobre la Geologia Estructural y el Vulcanismo en el Altiplano Central de los Andes Bolivianos (Sketch on the Structural Geology and Vulcanism in the Central High Plateau of the Bolivian Andes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite Program has as an objective the development of tectonic maps for Bolivia. Maps were prepared using the images of ERTS-1 in a preliminary study of alignme...

C. E. Brockman

1973-01-01

366

Effect of titanium surface roughness on human bone marrow cell proliferation and differentiation. An experimental study 1 Efeito da rugosidade de superfície de discos de titânio sobre a proliferação e diferenciação de células de medula óssea humana. Estudo experimental  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow-derived cells cultured on titanium surfaces with different roughness characteristics. Methods: Cells obtained from the iliac crest of an adult human donor were routinely processed and cultured on titanium surfaces of varying roughness, according to their preparation method: polishing only (smooth surface) and polishing followed by etching with HF\\/HNO 3

Novaes Silva; Marília Gerhardt

2009-01-01

367

Efectos de los campos magnéticos de baja y extremadamente baja frecuencia sobre el desarrollo del globo ocular en el embrión de pollo Effects of low and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on eye development in chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We performed an experimental study on the possible effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on eye develop- ment. Material and methods: An incubator (Masalles 65) was pla- ced between two Heltmholtz coils (homogeneous EMF genera- tor). The biological material studied was Gallus Domesticus embr- yo exposed to EMF during a 15 or 21-day incubation period. Three experiments were conducted including

Casanova Llivina; Pascual Morenilla; López Soler; Roda Moreno

368

O CONHECIMENTO DOS ALUNOS DE ENFERMAGEM SOBRE ÁLCOOL E DROGAS THE KNOWLEDGE OF NURSING STUDENTS ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS EL CONOCIMENTO DE LOS ALUMNOS DE ENFERMARIA ACERCA DE ALCOHOL Y DROGAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to know the knowledge acquired by undergraduate nursing students concerning alcohol and drugs. The research was developed in 1998 at the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing. Results: most students did not remember or attend classes discussing that topic; they had never dealt with substance users; however, they correctly responded to the concepts

Margarita A. Villar Luis; Sandra Cristina Pillon

369

The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

370

MØtodo Mªe Canguru: aplicaÁªo no Brasil, evidŒncias cientÌficas e impacto sobre o aleitamento materno Kangaroo Mother Care: scientific evidences and impact on breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the history of the Kangaroo Mother Care and present scientific evidence about benefits of this practice on morbidity and mortality, psychological and neurological development and breastfeeding of low birth weight infants. Sources of data: Papers about Kangaroo Mother Care published from 1983 to 2004 were consulted, selected in Medline and Lilacs, as well as books, thesis and

Sonia Isoyama Venancio; Honorina de Almeida

371

Graftizacao do n-vinil-2-pirrolidona sobre o polietileno por irradiacao gama: preparacao e caracterizacao. (Grafting of n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone over polyethylene by gamma irradiation: preparation and characterization).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some parameters for the preparation of low density polyethylene films (LDPE) grafted with N-vinyl-2-pirrolidone (NVP) by the simultaneous irradiation method were determined. The concentration of NVP for a grafting degree of 69% (maximum) was 60% (v/v), at...

A. A. A. Queiroz O. Z. Higa

1991-01-01

372

Sobre un Cambio Sintactico en el Espanol Canario: del Indicativo al Subjuntivo y Condicional (Concerning a Syntactic Change in the Spanish of the Canary Islands: From the Indicative to the Subjunctive and Conditional).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many sociolinguistic studies validate the importance of the relationship among social variables that satisfactorily explain the correlation between linguistic and social phenomena. The intersection of sex, sociocultural level, and age initiates syntactic change that first appears in the vernacular and progresses to the accepted standard. (52…

Serrano, Maria Jose

1995-01-01

373

Aplicacion de tecnicas de fosfatacion sobre acero al carbon y aluminio, utilizando como agente oxidante la nitroguanidina. (Application of phosphating techniques to aluminium and carbon steel surfaces using nitro guanidine as oxidizing agent.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phosphate coatings are inorganic crystalline deposits laid down uniformly on properly prepared surfaces by a chemical reaction with the treated base metal. The reaction consists in dissolving some surface metal by acid attack and then causing surface neut...

S. A. Briseno

1995-01-01

374

Informacion sobre el estudio de factibilidad para el reracking en las instalaciones de piscinas de la Central Electronuclear de Juragua. (Information on the feasibility study for the reracking in the fuel storage pools of the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1993, in the Juragua Nuclear Power Plants as engineering evaluation programme was initiated in the storage area of irradiated nuclear fuel, where work in order to determine the feasibility of capacity increase for storage of irradiated nuclear fuel...

J. M. Rodriguez I. Rodriguez D. Lopez R. Guerra M. Rodriguez

1995-01-01

375

Como Promover el Exito de las Ninas y las Minorias en las Ciencias y en las Matematicas. Para Padres/sobre Padres (How To Promote the Science and Mathematics Achievement of Females and Minorities. For Parents/about Parents).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some minority and female students traditionally have not been given the help they need to enroll and succeed in mathematics and science classes. Now, however, various approaches are available to give these students the extra attention they need. Parents can help children develop an interest in science and mathematics by: (1) identifying role…

Schwartz, Wendy

376

O Desempenho de Adultos Jovens e Idosos na Iowa Gambling Task (IGT): Um Estudo sobre a Tomada de Decisão Decision-making Capacity of Young Adults and Older Adults as Measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to analyze the decision-making capacity of young adults and older adults. The Iowa Gambling Task, which was adapted for the Brazilian Portuguese in the present study, was used to measure decision- making. The sample consisted of 82 healthy persons divided in two groups: Group 1 - 42 young adults and Group 2 - 40 elders. The results

Daniela Di Giorgio Schneider; Maria Alice de Mattos; Pimenta Parente

377

The effect of the body mass index on postoperative complications of coronary artery bypass grafting in elderly O efeito do índice de massa corporal sobre as complicações no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio em idosos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of BMI (body mass index) in the postoperative period of elderly patients undergoing CABG. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study, carried out in academic hospital, with all patients (n=290), aged or above 60 years, undergone CABG, from August 2006 to July 2007. The patients were divided into tertiles of BMI (<22, 22-27,> 27kg\\/m²). The variables included in

Cíntia REIS; Sandra Mari BARBIERO; Luciane RIBAS

2008-01-01

378

O efeito do índice de massa corporal sobre as complicações no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio em idosos The effect of the body mass index on postoperative complications of coronary artery bypass grafting in elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of BMI (body mass index) in the postoperative period of elderly patients undergoing CABG. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study, carried out in academic hospital, with all patients (n=290), aged or above 60 years, undergone CABG, from August 2006 to July 2007. The patients were divided into tertiles of BMI (<22, 22-27,> 27kg \\/m²). The variables included

Cíntia REIS; Sandra Mari BARBIERO; Luciane RIBAS

379

Efeitos de baixas doses de radiacao gama de cobalto-60 sobre sementes de feijao, arroz e rabanete. (Effects of cobalt-60 low doses radiation on bean, rice and radish seeds).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) were studied. Bean and rice seeds were irradiated with 3.5 and 7.7 Gy (32 Gy/h). There was an apparent acceleration ...

O. K. Kikuchi

1987-01-01

380

Changes in the Vertical Structure of the Waters Above the Rim of the Continental Shelf due to the Influence of Winds (Modificacoes na Estrutura Vertical das Augas Sobre a Borda da Plataforma Continental por Influencia do Vento).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to study the relationship between wind variations and the vertical structure of the water (upwelling) and witness the role played by this upwelling in the fertilization of the euphotic zone, the Oceanographic Ship 'ALMIRANTE SALDANHA' was anchore...

P. C. Moreira da Silva R. F. Rodrigues

1969-01-01

381

Efeito dos raios-x sobre o tubulo contorcido proximal de rim de camundongo (Mus musculus). Estudo ultra-estrutural. (X-rays effect on the proximal tubes of murine kidney (Mus musculus). Ultra-structural study).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The kidney alterations in mice it was submitted to total irradiation was studied, trying to determine which lesions were produced and in which sequence its occur. Knowing that irradiation, since in low doses, decrease the organism survival, since anticipa...

I. P. Pacheco

1973-01-01

382

La Seccion de Investigacion sobre Educacion Medica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (The Medical Education Investigation Section of the School of Medicine of UNAM).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of Mexican medical education needs for the future. To plan for these needs, SISEM of UNAM was formed with the objectives of carrying out and promoting investigations in the different areas of medical education. It also wants to distribute the information…

Campillo Sainz, Carlos; Alvarez, Tostado, Juan

383

Grupo de Trabajo Para la Preparacion del Proyecto Sobre el Desarrolo de Servicias de Bibliotecas y de Informacion Cientifica y Tecnica (Working Group for the Preparation of the Proposal on the Development of Library Services and Scientific and Technical Information).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of Iberoamerican Education, an intergovernmental body based on educational and cultural cooperation for the purpose of disseminating information, documentation, advice, and assistance in the field of education, co-sponsors (with UNESCO) the work represented in this study of library and information planning and facilities in the Andean…

Oficina de Educacion Iberoamericana, Madrid (Spain).

384

Efecto del extracto de metanol de Achyranthes aspera linn. sobre la hepatotoxicidad inducida por rifampicina en ratas Effect of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera linn. On rifampicin- induced hepatotoxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT Methanol extract of aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) was tested for its effect on Methanol extract of aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) was tested for its effect on Methanol extract of aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) was tested for its effect on Methanol extract of aerial parts

BAFNA AR; MISHRA SH

385

A Contribuição da Economia das Convenções para o Entendimento sobre a Coordenação de Arranjos Produtivos na Pecuária de Corte Grupo de pesquisa: Estrutura, Evolução e Dinâmica dos Sistemas Agroalimentares e Cadeias Agroindustriais  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of a great number of networks based i n cooperation relations has questioned of the factors that can contribute for the success of such enterprises. Amongst the factors that help to understand the development of networks the coordination between the participants is of great importance. This article h ad as objective to identify which mechanisms of coordination used

CAXIAS DO SU

386

Feet First: A Booklet About Foot Care for Older People and People Who Have Diabetes (Primero los Pies: Un Folleto Sobre el Cuidado de los Pies para Personas de Edad y Personas con Diabetes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accord with the search for more effective ways to improve nursing care, the Division of Nursing has prepared this booklet as an example of a simplified type of teaching aid which the people who work in the health professions may find useful in helping ...

1972-01-01

387

EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL CONTENT ON DECLARATIVE MEMORY: TWO STUDIES CONDUCTED ON HEALTHY SUBJECTS AND CEPHALALGIC PATIENTS EFECTOS DEL CONTENIDO EMOCIONAL SOBRE LA MEMORIA DECLARATIVA: DOS ESTUDIOS EFECTUADOS EN SUJETOS SANOS Y PACIENTES CEFALÁLGICOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies suggest that emotional arousal can promote memory storage. We report two studies evaluating the ef fects of emotional content on declarative memory, conducted with healthy subjects and cephalgic patients. We utilized an adaptation of two versions of the same story, with different arousing properties (neutral or emotional), which have been already employed in experiments involving the enhancing effects

A. Gasbarri; B. Arnone; A. Pompili; A. Marchetti; P. Di Fabrizio; S. Saad Calil; M. C. Tavares; C. Tomaz

388

Mision Informacion: Entrevista a Empleados en el Lugar donde Trabajan; Observar a Obreros mientras Trabajan; Programa sobre Experiencia Laboral (Mission Information: Worksite Interview, Shadow Community Workers, Work Experience Program). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work-study guide is the third volume in the advanced level of a career education curriculum for elementary-secondary migrant children. Complementing the secondary level job information text and a workbook about decision making and self-awareness, the work-study guide is designed to accompany work exploration and experience programs. It…

Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

389

EFECTO DE LA EXCLUSIÓN COMPETITIVA SOBRE LA MORTALIDAD E ÍNDICES DE PRODUCCIÓN DE POLLOS DE ENGORDE. Effect of the Competitive Exclusion on Mortality and Productive Performance in Broilers Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that the administration from gastroin- testinal microflora of a healthy adult bird to a new born chick accelerates the maturation of the intestinal microflora and in- creases the resistance to Salmonellas colonization in the treated chicks. This concept known as Competitive Exclusion (EC) based on the fact that this mature intestinal flora excludes certain enteric pathogens,

Ana María Arzálluz-Fischer; Hirwin S. Rincón-Reyes; Saulo H. Urdaneta; Darwuin Arrieta; Leonardo A. Boscán-Duque; María Urdaneta-Rincón; Rafaela Muñoz-Gotera

390

QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE FEIJÃO EM PLANTIO DIRETO SOBRE DIFERENTES COBER TURAS DE PLANT AS EM DIAMANTINA, MG Physiological quality seeds of bean in no-tillage system over different coverings of plants in Diamantina, MG1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective this work was evaluate the effect of different coverings plants on the physiological quality seeds of bean in no- tillage system in Diamantina MG. The experiment was installed in the Campus II of UFVJM, in a Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico, in blocks randomized design, with ten treatments and four replicates. The treatments were constituted of control chemical and

Ubirajara Russi Nunes; Nelson França Santos; Valter Carvalho; Andrade Júnior; Delacyr da Silva; Brandão Júnior; Geraldo Durães Pereira

391

Actas de la 4th mesa redonda sobre investigacion en "Lenguas Extranjeras" en la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana 1996. (Proceedings from the 4th Roundtable on Investigation in Foreign Languages in the Autonomous Metropolitan University 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles included in this volume were selected as exemplary papers from the conference in Mexico. The goal of the forum was to provide an opportunity for researchers from the three branches of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM) to meet and discuss research projects currently in progress at the university. The works presented here…

Zoreda, Margaret Lee, Comp.; Diop, Mamoudou Si, Comp.; Vivaldo Lima, Javier, Comp.

392

Efeito de antagonistas histaminergicos sobre o desenvolvimento de edema pulmonar em camundongos infectados com P-berghei. (Effect of a histaminergic antagonist over the pulmonary edema in P. berghei infected mice).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The involvement of histaminergic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of pulmonary oedema observed in p. berghei - infected mice was investigated. Histamine concentrations in plasma and whole blood of infected and normal mice were determined by radioenzymatic a...

M. A. Martins

1985-01-01

393

Reaching Higher. A Parent's Guide to the Washington Assessment of Learning. Revised = Para llegar mas arriba. Una guia para padres sobre la evaluacion del aprendizaje de los estudiantes del estado de Washington (Washington Assessment of Student Learning). Revisado.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide in English and Spanish is designed to answer questions parents may have about the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), including how it will help improve their children's education, how it is scored, and how to use the information it provides. In Washington, clear educational goals for subject content, thinking skills, and…

Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

394

Fortalecete! Pensamientos e ideas sobre el desarrollo de curriculo para maestras de educacion basica en espanol ("Get Energized! Thoughts and Ideas on Curriculum Development for Spanish Basic Education Teachers").  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet outlines approaches to adult basic education Spanish literacy. It includes the following: explanatory note for English (non-Spanish) readers; general goals of a Spanish language literacy (SLL) program in Holyoke, Massachusetts; checklists; learning objectives for reading and writing; SLL lesson plan guide; outline for SLL curriculum…

Holyoke JUNTOS Adult Basic Education Collaborative, MA.

395

Estudo polarografico sobre a formacao de complexos entre indio (III) e azoteto de sodio, em meio aquoso. (Polarographic study about the complex formation between indium (III) and sodium azide, in aqueous media).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present work is a branch of the main work concerned with the complex formation between several metal cations and azide ligand in aqueous media. The polarographic behavior of indium in azide system showed the tendency of complexation. Using polarograph...

R. Tokoro M. Bertotti

1988-01-01

396

A Study of the Vertical Transport of Momentum, Sensible Heat, and Water Vapor over Vegetation-Covered Surfaces in the Tropics Um Estudo DOS Transportes Verticais de Momentum, Calor Sensivele Vapor d'Agua Sobre Superficie Vegetada Nos Tropicos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The energy balance changes with aerodynamic characteristics of the surface for four successive crop stage are presented. Parameterizations are used to calculate the sensible and water vapor fluxes. The results of the momentum, sensible heat and water vapo...

R. G. B. Andre

1981-01-01

397

Some Aspects of Income Taxation of Public Enterprises (Quelques aspects de l'imposition du revenu des entreprises publiques) (Varios aspectos relacionados con la aplicación de impuestos sobre la renta de empresas publicas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public ownership of business in many countries is no longer confined to traditional fiscal or natural monopolies. Many governments have established or assumed ownership of nontraditional enterprises that generate profits and compete with private enterprise. In view of these developments, the almost exclusive emphasis, in the public finance literature, on traditional monopolies is no longer appropriate; greater emphasis should be

Robert H. Floyd

1978-01-01

398

Influencia de la edad y habito de fumar sobre las frecuencias espontanea y radioinducida de micronucleos en linfocitos humanos. (Influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the spontaneous and radiation induced micronuclei frequencies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method...

M. Di Giorgio N. Nasazzi M. L. Heredia

1995-01-01

399

Pruebas Genéticas Predictivas y Percepción de Riesgos. Apuntes para la Comunicación Pública de Contenidos sobre Biotecnología. Predictive Genetic Testing and Risk Perception. Notes for Public Communication of Biotechnological Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deal with the relationship between health researchers and the lay diffusion of their biotechnological findings. Our goal is to emphasize the importance of studying how health journalists and health professionals, focused in the idea of genetic risk, build up categories and channel information in such a way that eventually collaborate, inadvertently with misunderstandings, the enhancement of prejudice and, according

Luis David Castiel; Javier Sanz Valero

400

DESARROLLO DE LA TÉCNICA DE PULSO GALVANOSTÁTICO PARA MEDICIÓN DE CORROSIÓN SOBRE LA INTERFASE CONCRETO-ACERO. Development of the Technique of Pulse Galvanostatic for Measurement of Corrosion on Interphase Steel - concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Se presenta el diseño de un prototipo de sistema potenciostático utilizando instrumentación virtual, que implementa la técnica de pulso galvanostático. La técnica consiste en la impresión de un pulso de corriente eléctrica del orden de los microamperios cuya duración es de 10 segundos, mostrando la respuesta en voltaje experimentada por la interfase, con lo que se obtiene información cuantitativa

MIGUEL ALVAREZ; WILLIAM APERADOR; ORLANDO FERNANDEZ; CESAR ORTIZ

401

On the Weather of Venezuela: A Summary Report on the Venezuela Experiments of 1969 and 1972. (Sobre el Estado del Tiempo en Venezuela: Resumen del Estudio de los Experimentos Realizados en Venezuela en 1969 y 1972).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the bilingual (Spanish and English) Technical Memo, On the Weather of Venezuela, the methodology and execution of the Venezuela meteorological and hydrological experiments of 1969 and 1972 are discussed first. Then the radiation balance and water balan...

H. Riehl

1977-01-01

402

Relatorio Final Sobre o Ensino Bilingue: Resultados da Avaliacao Externa da Experiencia de Escolarizacao Bilingue em Mocambique (PEBIMO) (Final Report on Bilingual Education: Results of External Evaluation of an Experiment in Bilingual Education in Mozambique).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The PEBIMO project was designed to determine whether bilingual education could improve the quality of primary education in Mozambique, recognizing that Portuguese is not the native language of the majority of Mozambican students. The project began in 1992 with 8 cohorts of first grade in 2 provinces; during this investigation, students were in…

Benson, Carolyn J.

403

Diferentes tipos de hidratação durante o exercício prolongado e sua influência sobre o sódio plasmático Different types of hydration during a lenghened exercise and their influence on plasmatic sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at identifying alterations in plasmatic sodium concentration, concerning four hydration procedures: a) water ad libitum; b) scheduled water; c) sport drink of type1 (SD-T1); d) and sport drink of type 2 (SD-T2). An intragroup (intranalysis) and an intergroup (interanalysis) were performed on hydration procedures during a physical work with a duration of 120 minutes and an intensity

Salvador Zamora Navarro

404

Estudios Sobre Equilibrios de Polianiones. Xiii. Polimerizacion de Los Teluratos en Nacl 1 M Y 25 Degrees (Studies Concerning the Equilibria of Polyanions. Xiii. Polymerization of Tellurates in One Molar Nacl Solution at 25 Degrees C).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydrolysis of telluric acid was studied in 1M NaCl ionic medium. The H(+) concentration was measured using a glass electrode. B, the total tellurium concentration and Z, the number of H(+) split off per tellurium atom, were varied as follows: (0.005 M...

F. Brito

1966-01-01

405

Can We Talk? Helping Families Talk about Self-Esteem, Sex, and Peer Pressure. Training Package = Conversamos? Ayudando a Familias a Hablar sobre la Autoestima, el Sexo, y la Presion de los Amigos. Paquete de Capacitacion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This English and Spanish language multimedia packet comprises an educational curriculum designed to help families talk about self-esteem, sex, and peer pressure with their children in grades 4 through 8. The packet consists of a planning and training manuals, family activity books, and a videotape. The curriculum is comprised of four parent…

Cappello, Dominic; Newberry, Jerald

406

Manual de Adiestramiento sobre Terapia de Rehidratacion Oral y Control de las Enfermedades Diarreicas (Oral Rehydration Therapy and the Control of Diarrheal Diseases). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-53.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language manual was developed to train Peace Corps volunteers and other community health workers in Spanish-speaking countries in oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the control of diarrheal diseases. Using a competency-based format, the manual contains three training modules (organized in seven sessions) that focus on interrelated…

Clark, Mari; And Others

407

Western Hemisphere Conference on Persons with Disabilities. Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., March 14-18, 1993) = Conferencia Hemisferica Occidental sobre Personas con Discapacidades. Actas de la Conferencia. (Washington, D.C., 14 al 18 de Marzo de 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the proceedings of a conference which brought together delegates and First Ladies representing western hemisphere nations to address needs and issues affecting people with disabilities in the Americas. It presents the texts of two keynote addresses: "Small Triumphs, Big Victories: A Global View of Persons with Disabilities,"…

Kelley, Jerry D., Ed.; And Others

408

Efeito DA Concentracao de Dois Tipos de Sedimento Em Suspensao Sobre a Colorimetria E Reflectancia DA Agua (Effect of the Concentration of Two Types of Sediment on Water Colorimetry and Reflectance).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory study was made to assess the effect of suspended sediment concentrations on water colorimetry and reflectance. Two kinds of sediment were used, each with similar silt and clay proportions. These sediments originated from TE (Terra Roxa Estrut...

R. B. Desouza I. M. Felix J. E. Mantovani E. M. L. M. Novo

1991-01-01

409

Educacion, Salud y Bienestar para el Nino Preescolar y la Familia (7 de Enero--29 de Febrero de 1996). Informe Curso sobre (Education, Health and Welfare for Small Children. January 7 - February 29, 1996. Report of a Course.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language report (with an English summary) describes a course on interagency cooperation held at the Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Center in Haifa, Israel. The course, with 30 Central and South American participants, discusses the necessity of pooling resources and sharing responsibility among institutions in various…

Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

410

Receta para el Exito. Una Guia Actualizada para Padres sobre el Mejoramiento de las Escuelas de Colorado y Logros Estudiantiles (Recipe for Success: An Updated Parents' Guide to Improving Colorado Schools and Student Achievement).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish language guide describes ways that parents can help improve student achievement and school quality. It answers such questions as: how to choose the right early-education opportunity for a preschooler; how to make sure a 5-year-old is ready for school; how to help a daughter do well in school; how to work with a daughter's or son's…

Taher, Bonnie; Durr, Pamela

411

Spatial variability of cv Tempranillo phenology within the Ribera del Duero DO (Spain) related to soil type and plot characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vineyards in the Ribera del Duero area (Spain) date back to the roman time, with significant fluctuations throughout the centuries, reaching consolidation and stable production in the 10th and 11th centuries. The present Ribera del Duero Designation of Origen (DO) started in 1980 and has increased from less than 6,000 ha planted to more than 21,000 ha planted by 2010 and becoming one the top regions for wine production in Spain with success in the global wine market. Vineyards of Ribera del Duero are found along 115 km of the Duero River. Within this distance, differences in elevation and topography produce differences in climate, which provide the means by which a zonification for vineyard management can be assessed. In this work, the differences in phenological growth characteristics for the Tempranillo variety were analyzed within the Ribera del Duero DO and related to soil and plot characteristics. Phenology dates, referenced to different Baggiolini classification stages, were evaluated in 20 control plots distributed throughout the Ribera del Duero DO during the period 2004-2012. These years presented different climatic characteristics, which were analyzed from daily temperature and precipitation series recorded from 1980 to 2012 at five stations located along the Duero River. Most vineyards were cultivated under rainfed conditions. In order to evaluate the spatial variability in phenology, climate and soils, the plots were classified using a hierarchical cluster multivariate analysis. Parameters such as the elevation, the distance to river and the soil type were taken into account in the classification. According to the WRB classification (2006) the main soil types in the area are Calcaric Cambisols, Eutric Cambisols, Calcic Luvisol, Calcaric fluvisols, Eutric fluvisols and in less proportion Lithic Leptosols and Calcaric Rogosols. Four different groups were observed, with differences in elevation, distance to the Duero River and the soil type. The differences in phenology among groups started in stage G and were observed until the end of the growing cycle. Despite the high variability driven by the year to year in climate characteristics, it was possible to define the soil and plot characteristics that favour advanced phenology within the Ribera del Duero DO.

Ramos, Maria C.; Jones, Gregory V.; Yuste, Jesús

2014-05-01

412

About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area, which landscape is characterized by till and limestone plains with thin Quaternary cover, the soil cover is more heterogeneous than in previous area. Kuusiku soil cover is more variegated by the soil texture and as well as by the genesis of soils. In addition to Cambisols, Leptosols, Gleysols and Luvisols may be found here as well. The dominating soils in Olustvere research area, which is situated on wavy upland plateau, are Albeluvisols.

Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

2013-04-01

413

Effect of compost supplies on soil bulk density and aggregate stability. Results from a six years trial in two experimental fields in Northern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a long term trial (2002-2007) on the effect of different organic amendments on topsoil structural properties at the end of the 6th year are presented. Two soils located in two experimental farms of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), namely a silty clay loam Haplic Calcisol under sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L.) continuous cropping, and a silty Calcaric Cambisols under peach (Persica vulgaris, Mill.), have been treated with a different amount of organic amendments. Four different treatments were tested plus control: manure (10 Mg ha-1 y-1), low input compost (5 and 10 Mg ha-1 y-1), high input compost (10 and 40 Mg ha-1 y-1), and no-tillage. In all the plots soil samples were collected three times every year: at the beginning of the growing season, at full crop coverage and after harvest. At each time, samples were collected in three replicates and soil bulk density and aggregate stability were measured. At the end of the 6 years trial 930 bulk density and 405 aggregate stability measurements were made available. The influence of organic amendments on soil physical properties is different according to the considered soil property and to the different soils. Soil bulk density (BD) shows clear and statistically significant differences among the tested theses, all with a marked seasonality and distinct temporal trends. The overall trends observed in the two soils are coherent with the amount of organic matter distributed in the different theses and with the field operations (tillage mainly), but with a short term effect. More important, over the period of observation and within each year, the treatments exhibit cyclical variations due to climate seasonality. Among the treatments, that with distribution of manure exhibits the weakest seasonal variations and a substantially stable general trend, with BD values slightly lower than those observed for the control. Different effects are also observed on soil aggregates stability, but also in this case a temporal trend is not clearly detectable, suggesting that the amendments have no cumulative effect at least during the 6 years of observations, and the responses are different in the two trials: slightly positive for the low compost supply in the silty clay loam Haplic Calcisol and negative for both low and high compost supply in the silty Calcaric Cambisols. The dominant issue is the seasonal variability of aggregate resistance which is well shown at the site where more data are available. Data also hints an ambiguous behavior of the compost: increasing the amount of applied compost leads to a slight increase in aggregate stability which is then followed by a decrease, as if the aggregation capability of the compost is counteracted by a dispersion effect.

Calzolari, C.; Ungaro, F.; Salvador, P.; Torri, D.

2009-04-01

414

The new lysimeter station Zurich-Reckenholz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Zurich-Reckenholz location a new lysimeter station was build at the campus of the Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART. Altogether 72 lysimeters were monolithically excavated, each with 1 m2 surface area and a depth of 150 cm. All lysimeters can operate from a walkable basement. Three different agricultural soils (loamy luvisol over gravel, sandy-loamy luvisol over ground moraine, loamy-silty gleyic cambisol over ground moraine) were installed. 12 of the lysimeters are weighable and were instrumented with tensiometers, temperature sensors, suction cups and TDR-probes in four depths (10, 30, 60, and 90 cm), each with two replicates. 60 lysimeters are non-weighable and the seepage water is measured by a tipping counter. All lysimeters are used for agronomic experiments. The main focus is the water flow and nitrate leaching by different cropping systems, cultivation, fertilization, and soil types. All experiments have three replicates. The construction of the lysimeter station was finished by the end of 2008. The first experiments will start in spring of 2009. Keywords: nitrate leaching, water transport, seepage water, soil monolith, lysimeter technique

Prasuhn, V.; Spiess, E.; Seyfarth, M.

2009-04-01

415

Leptospirosis Outbreaks in Nicaragua: Identifying Critical Areas and Exploring Drivers for Evidence-Based Planning  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. In Central America, leptospirosis outbreaks have been reported in almost all countries; Nicaragua in particular has faced several outbreaks. The objective of this study was to stratify the risk and identify “critical areas” for leptospirosis outbreaks in Nicaragua, and to perform an exploratory analysis of potential “drivers”. This ecological study includes the entire country (153 municipalities). Cases from 2004 to 2010 were obtained from the country’s health information system, demographic and socioeconomic variables from its Census, and environmental data from external sources. Criteria for risk stratification of leptospirosis were defined. Nicaragua reported 1,980 cases of leptospirosis during this period, with the highest percentage of cases (26.36%) in León, followed by Chinandega (15.35%). Among the 153 municipalities, 48 were considered critical areas, 85 were endemic and 20 silent. Using spatial and statistical analysis, the variable presenting the most evident pattern of association with critical areas defined by top quintile of incidence rate is the percentage of municipal surface occupied by the soil combination of cambisol (over pyroclastic and lava bedrock) and andosol (over a volcanic ashes foundation). Precipitation and percentage of rural population are also associated with critical areas. This methodology and findings could be used for Nicaragua’s Leptospirosis Intersectoral Plan, and to identify possible risk areas in other countries with similar drivers.

Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Bacallao, Jorge; Soto, Aida; Marquino, Wilmer; Altamirano, Lesbia; Saenz, Carlos; Marin, Jesus; Jimenez, Eduardo; Moynihan, Matthew; Espinal, Marcos

2012-01-01

416

Comparative study on carbon accumulation in soils under managed and unmanaged forests in Central Balkan Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each soil has a carbon storage capacity, which depends on many factors including type of soil, vegetation, precipitation and temperature. The aim of this work is to compare the carbon accumulation in forest floor layers and mineral soil horizons under managed and unmanaged spruce and beech forest ecosystems developed on Cambisols in Central Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria. We have investigated two managed and two unmanaged forests - pure stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). In each experimental site one representative soil profile was prepared with additional 4 sampling profiles for more precise determination of spatial variability of soil characteristic at site level. The forest floor was sampled in 3 repetitions per site, by a plastic frame (25:25 cm). The textural composition of soil, bulk density, coarse fraction content, pH, carbon and nitrogen content were analysed for forest floor layers and soil at different soil depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-50 cm). Both European beech and Norway spruce stands had higher accumulation of organic matter in the forest floor and the Ah horizon under unmanaged conditions. When managed, carbon contents tended to be higher in deeper horizons of the mineral soil, probably due to differences in microclimate after cutting. However, the variability in carbon storage was higher in managed sites which may reflect a higher degree of disturbance. Further work will analyse the soil carbon dynamics using radiocarbon as a tracer.

Naydenova, Lora; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Leifeld, Jens

2014-05-01

417

Release of aged 14C-atrazine residues from soil facilitated by dry-wet cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermittent dry-wet cycles may have an important effect on soil structure and aged pesticide residues release (1). A laboratory study was conducted to assess the maximum potential of water extractable aged atrazine residues influenced by soil drying and wetting. The used soil was obtained from an outdoor lysimeter (gleyic cambisol; Corg: 1.45%), containing environmentally aged (22 years) 14C-atrazine residues. For the experiment, soil from 0-10 cm depth was used since most residual 14C activity was previously found in this layer (2,3). Triplicate soil samples with a residual water content of approx. 8% were either dried (45° C) prior water addition or directly mixed with distilled water (soil+water: 1+2, w:w). The samples were shaken (150 rmp, 60 min, at 21° C), centrifuged (approx. 2000 g), and the supernatants were filtered. Water-extracted residual 14C activity was detected via liquid scintillation counter. The total water-extracted 14C activity (the amount of residual 14C activity in a sample equals 100%) was significantly higher (p

Jablonowski, N. D.; Yu, K.; Koeppchen, S.; Burauel, P.

2012-04-01

418

Edaphic factors affecting the vertical distribution of radionuclides in the different soil types of Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

The specific activities of natural radionuclides ((40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th) and Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs were measured in soil profiles representing typical soil types of Belgrade (Serbia): chernozems, fluvisols, humic gleysols, eutric cambisols, vertisols and gleyic fluvisols. The influence of soil properties and content of stable elements on radionuclide distribution down the soil profiles (at 5 cm intervals up to 50 cm depth) was analysed. Correlation analysis identified associations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (137)Cs with fine-grained soil fractions. Significant positive correlations were found between (137)Cs specific activity and both organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and specific electrical conductivity were also positively correlated with the specific activity of (137)Cs. The strong positive correlations between (226)Ra and (232)Th specific activities and Fe and Mn indicate an association with oxides of these elements in soil. The correlations observed between (40)K and Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn and also between (137)Cs and Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn could be attributed to their common affinity for clay minerals. These results provide insight into the main factors that affect radionuclide migration in the soil, which contributes to knowledge about radionuclide behaviour in the environment and factors governing their mobility within terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:22072061

Dragovi?, Snežana; Gaji?, Boško; Dragovi?, Ranko; Jankovi?-Mandi?, Ljiljana; Slavkovi?-Beškoski, Latinka; Mihailovi?, Nevena; Mom?ilovi?, Milan; ?uji?, Mirjana

2012-01-01

419

Constraint on selenium bioavailability caused by its geochemical behavior in typical Kaschin-Beck disease areas in Aba, Sichuan Province of China.  

PubMed

Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteoarthropathy, is distributed in the low-selenium (Se)-belt that stretches from northeast to southwest China. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between low bioavailabitity of Se and KBD. The present study examined the behavior of Se and other elements in areas with varying levels of KBD prevalence using pedological and geochemical methods. Rhizosphere soil samples obtained from the KBD-stricken Aba area were classified into Ustic Isohumisols (J2), Udic Luvisols (L4), Stagnic Gleysols (I2), and Cryic Cambisols (M1) and the integrated constraints on selenium bioavailability in these soils were analyzed. We found that Se concentration in soil profiles from a typical KBD area ranged between 0.08?g·g(-1) and 0.215?g·g(-1), indicating absent and marginal bioavailability, respectively. This suggested that low Se bioavailability may be a feature that soils inherit from their Se-deficient parent materials. Moreover, the soil types examined showed different geochemical behaviors such as eluviation for soluble Se(VI), migration of Se(IV) for its adsorption on clay and sesquioxide, and extreme redox conditions. In conclusion, a higher level of Se bioavailability in environment might be related to a lower risk of KBD, and our results offer a foundation for scientific theory on ecological geochemistry and improve our understanding of KBD. PMID:24995640

Lv, Yaoyao; Yu, Tao; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhao, Wanfu; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qian

2014-09-15

420

The chronological position of the Lohne Soil in the Nussloch loess section - re-evaluation for a European loess-marker horizon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loess section of Nussloch in southwestern Germany is a key profile for the reconstruction of the terrestrial palaeo-environment of central Europe at the time of the Last Glacial and Interglacial. Recently, the significance of the site for palaeo-environmental and geoarchaeological research increased additionally, with the discovery of unique Palaeolithic cultural remains from anatomically and culturally modern humans that invaded southwestern Germany during the Weichselian (Würmian) Pleniglacial period. At Nussloch, a chrono-stratigraphical key position is taken by a Middle Pleniglacial Cambisol remain which, under the designation Lohne Soil, serves as an important pedostratigraphic marker horizon for the greater area. Repeatedly, Greenland interstadial (GIS) 8 was suggested as a likely period of soil formation for the Lohne Soil. This interpretation is yet not justified on the basis of published chronometric data. Critical assessment of the data points to a later period of soil formation, likely during GIS7 to GIS5. This conclusion is supported by a new set of radiocarbon ages for the Nussloch site which are presented here for the first time. Consequences of a revised chronology for correlations of Pleniglacial Cryosols below and above the Lohne Soil with Greenland interstadials are discussed. The implications are important for European loess research as the Nussloch section serves as a reference base for loess sections throughout Europe.

Kadereit, Annette; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Wagner, Günther A.

2013-01-01

421

Vertical nutrient and trace element migration in cambisoils after application of residues from anaerobic digestion of pig manure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cambisols sampled in alpine pastures were packed into soil columns in order to monitor downward migration of nutrient and trace elements, applied within the residue from anaerobic digestion of a pig manure. 2 rain events per week were simulated. The manure added substantial amounts of K, ammonium, Na, Ca, P, S, Cl, B, Zn and Cu to the soil, whereas Mg, Mn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd and V were at the same level. In the eluates, total elemental composition as well as nitrate and ammonium were monitored. Addition of soluble Fe (at 1000 mg/l as FeCl3) decreased the release of soluble sulphate, but had no significant effect on the release of Fe and P. During subsequent rain events, exchangeable K remained enriched in the topsoil, wheras total sulfur moved to deeper layers. After 8 weeks, the columns were dismantled and analyzed for quasi-total and mobile fractions. Both in topsoils and subsoils, manure addition finally increased soil pH in case of low P soils, but decreased soil pH in case of high pH soils. Effects of manure applications on groundwater formation processes will be discussed.

Sager, Manfred; Unterfrauner, Hans

2013-04-01

422

Aluminium and sulphates transport within the catchment in the Jizera Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil acidification (due to acid deposition, acid parent rocks, high precipitation, and specific vegetation) presents a serious problem mainly in forest soils. It can result in a release of potentially toxic aluminium forms. To predict potential aluminium and sulphates leakage into the groundwater, soil water regime and substances transport may be simulated using the numerical models. Typical acid soil profiles (Podzols, Cambisols) present in the Jizera Mountains under various plant cover (spruce forest, beech forest, grass) were chosen to asses potential groundwater contamination in this area. Soil hydraulic properties and properties affecting dissolved substances transport of all diagnostic horizons were studied in the laboratory. The numerical model HYDRUS-1D was applied to simulate water, aluminium and sulphates transport within the soil profiles. Soil water regime, aluminium and sulphate transport reflected various retention ability and different sorption properties of studied soils, which were significantly affected by organic matter origin (plant cover). Simulated trends of dissolved substances fluxes at the bottoms of soil profiles corresponded with the trends of dissolved substances observed in the mountain streams.

Nikodem, A.; Kodesova, R.; Pavlu, L.; Boruvka, L.; Drabek, O.; Tejnecky, V.; Bubenickova, L.

2009-04-01

423

Community level physiological profiles (CLPP), characterization and microbial activity of soil amended with dairy sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland). Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha(-1) and 26 Mg·ha(-1)) and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H). These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments. PMID:22737006

Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy

2012-01-01

424

Field-scale phosphorus losses from a drained clay soil in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to determine and discuss field-scale phosphorus losses via subsurface tile drains. A total phosphorous (Tot-P) export, which averaged 0·29 kg ha-1 year-1, was measured over a six-year period from the 4·43 ha drainage system of a Eutric Cambisol in Central Sweden. The main part (63%) was in particulate form (PP) while the remainder was either in phosphate form (PO4-P) or in other dissolved or colloidal forms. A very small area, less than 1% of the soil surface, was demonstrated to be hydraulically active by using a staining technique in soil monoliths taken from the field. The stained macropores were few, but were continuous downward, and were relatively evenly distributed among the eight 7 dm2 areas that were investigated. The transport from the field mainly occurred in episodes during which the relationship between phosphorus concentration and discharge was characterized by hysteresis loops. On average, half of the yearly P transport occurred in 140 hours. Compared with flow-proportional and frequent sampling, manual and fortnightly sampling underestimated the transport of Tot-P and suspended solids (SS) by 59 and 42%, respectively, during the six years studied. Amounts of different phosphorus forms exported through the tile drains were very similar to those reported from other clay soils in Northern Europe and North America.

Ulén, Barbro; Persson, Kristian

1999-12-01

425

Conventional tillage versus organic farming in relation to soil organic carbon stock in olive groves in Mediterranean rangelands (southern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration is a soil variable subject to changes. The management system is a key factor that influences these changes. To determine the long-term effects of the management system on SOC stocks (SOCS) in olive groves, 114 soil profiles were studied in the Los Pedroches Valley (Mediterranean rangelands - southern Spain) for 20 years. The management practices were conventional tillage (CT) and organic farming (OF) in four soil types: Cambisols (CMs), Regosols (RGs), Luvisols (LVs) and Leptosols (LPs). Soil properties were statistically analysed by management techniques, soil types and horizons. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between soil types and management practices. It was equally observed that the management system affected SOCS. In addition, the total SOCS during the 20-year experiment increased in OF with respect to CT by 72 and 66% in CMs and LVs respectively. SOC showed significant differences for horizons (p < 0.05) in relation to the management type. The stratification ratio (SR) was used as an indicator of soil quality based on the influence of surface SOC levels on erosion control, water infiltration and nutrient conservation with respect to deep layers. The SR of SOC from the surface to depth was greater in CT compared to OF with the exception of RGs. In all cases, the SR of SOC was >2. These results indicate high soil quality and that management practices affect SOC storage in the Los Pedroches Valley.

Parras-Alcántara, L.; Lozano-García, B.

2014-05-01

426

Dynamics of Bacterial Communities in Two Unpolluted Soils after Spiking with Phenanthrene: Soil Type Specific and Common Responders  

PubMed Central

Considering their key role for ecosystem processes, it is important to understand the response of microbial communities in unpolluted soils to pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Phenanthrene, a model compound for PAH, was spiked to a Cambisol and a Luvisol soil. Total community DNA from phenanthrene-spiked and control soils collected on days 0, 21, and 63 were analyzed based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities increasingly deviated with time between spiked and control soils. In taxon specific DGGE, significant responses of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria became only detectable after 63?days, while significant effects on Betaproteobacteria were detectable in both soils after 21?days. Comparison of the taxonomic distribution of bacteria in spiked and control soils on day 63 as revealed by pyrosequencing indicated soil type specific negative effects of phenanthrene on several taxa, many of them belonging to the Gamma-, Beta-, or Deltaproteobacteria. Bacterial richness and evenness decreased in spiked soils. Despite the significant differences in the bacterial community structure between both soils on day 0, similar genera increased in relative abundance after PAH spiking, especially Sphingomonas and Polaromonas. However, this did not result in an increased overall similarity of the bacterial communities in both soils.

Ding, Guo-Chun; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

2012-01-01

427

Relationship between fire temperature and changes in chemical soil properties: a conceptual model of nutrient release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fire temperatures (i.e., soil heating) on nutrient release and aggregate physical changes in soil. A preliminary conceptual model of nutrient release was established based on results obtained from a controlled burn in a slash-and-burn agricultural system located in Brazil. The study was carried out in clayey subtropical soil (humic Cambisol) from a plot that had been fallow for 8 years. A set of three thermocouples were placed in four trenches at the following depths: 0 cm on the top of the mineral horizon, 1.0 cm within the mineral horizon, and 2 cm within the mineral horizon. Three soil samples (true independent sample) were collected approximately 12 hours post-fire at depths of 0-2.5 cm. Soil chemical changes were more sensitive to fire temperatures than aggregate physical soil characteristics. Most of the nutrient response to soil heating was not linear. The results demonstrated that moderate temperatures (< 400°C) had a major effect on nutrient release (i.e., the optimum effect), whereas high temperatures (> 500 °C) decreased soil fertility.

Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Doerr, Stefan H.

2014-05-01

428

Effect of application of phosphate and organic manure-based fertilizers on arsenic transformation in soil columns.  

PubMed

The mobility of arsenic in Cambisol under the influence of added barnyard manure and application of a phosphate solution to the soil was described on the basis of column experiments. A soil sample containing 126 mg/kg total As and 3.72 mg/kg specifically-sorbed As was extracted using demineralized water (DIW) or a 28 micromol/l phosphate solution in a column containing untreated soil and in a column with added barnyard fertilizer. The pH, Eh, alkalinity, main components, including DOC, and selected trace elements (Al, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Ba and As) were determined in the extracts. Hydrodynamic tests of the flow and transport of the substances in the columns were carried out. The addition of barnyard manure was manifested in elevated concentrations of the main inorganic components, DOC and Al and a decrease in the Eh value and Mn concentration. Application of a phosphate solution was manifested in a decrease in the NO(3) and SO(4) concentrations, probably as a result of the effect of increased biological fixation. The As concentration in extracts varied from 8.8 to 15.5 microg/l and was not dependent on the composition of the extracting solution or the addition of barnyard fertilizer. PMID:17370134

Sisr, Ludek; Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Strnad, Ladislav; Sebek, Ondrej

2007-12-01

429

The influence of copper on tebuconazole sorption onto soils, humic substances, and ferrihydrite.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate how the presence of Cu influences tebuconazole (Teb) sorption onto contrasting soil types and two important constituents of the soil sorption complex: hydrated Fe oxide and humic substances. Tebuconazole was used in commercial form and as an analytical-grade chemical at different Teb/Cu molar ratios (1:4, 1:1, 4:1, and Teb alone). Increased Cu concentrations had a positive effect on tebuconazole sorption onto most soils and humic substances, probably as a result of Cu-Teb tertiary complexes on the soil surfaces. Tebuconazole sorption increased in the following order of different Teb/Cu ratios 1:4>1:1>4:1>without Cu addition, with the only exception for the Leptosol and ferrihydrite. The highest K f value was observed for humic substances followed by ferrihydrite, the Cambisol, the Arenosol, and the Leptosol. The sorption of analytical-grade tebuconazole onto all matrices was lower, but the addition of Cu supported again tebuconazole sorption. The Teb/Cu ratio with the highest Cu addition (1:4) exhibited the highest K f values in all matrices with the exception of ferrihydrite. The differences in tebuconazole sorption can be attributed to the additives present in the commercial product. This work proved the importance of soil characteristics and composition of the commercially available pesticides together with the presence of Cu on the behavior of tebuconazole in soils. PMID:23247513

?adková, Eva; Komárek, Michael; Kaliszová, Regina; Száková, Ji?ina; Van?k, Aleš; Bordas, François; Bollinger, Jean-Claude

2013-06-01

430

Evaluation of remediation process with plant-derived biosurfactant for recovery of heavy metals from contaminated soils.  

PubMed

A washing process was studied to evaluate the efficiency of saponin on remediating heavy metal contaminated soils. Three different types of soils (Andosol: soil A, Cambisol: soil B, Regosol: soil C) were washed with saponin in batch experiments. Utilization of saponin was effective for removal of heavy metals from soils, attaining 90-100% of Cd and 85-98% of Zn extractions. The fractionations of heavy metals removed by saponin were identified using the sequential extraction. Saponin was effective in removing the exchangeable and carbonated fractions of heavy metals from soils. In recovery procedures, the pH of soil leachates was increased to about 10.7, leading to separate heavy metals as hydroxide precipitates and saponin solute. In addition recycle of used saponin is considered to be effective for the subsequent utilization. The limits of Japanese leaching test were met for all of the soil residues after saponin treatment. As a whole, this study shows that saponin can be used as a cleaning agent for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. PMID:12365835

Hong, Kyung-Jin; Tokunaga, Shuzo; Kajiuchi, Toshio

2002-10-01

431

Short-term effects on soil properties and wheat production from secondary paper sludge application on two Mediterranean agricultural soils.  

PubMed

This study was conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the potential use of SPS as a fertilizer, amendment and/or liming agent for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two representative Mediterranean agricultural soils, a Cambic Arenosol (cmAR) and a Cromic Cambisol (crCM) were used. Treatments included four sludge rates ranging from 0 to 40 g kg(-1) (equivalent of 0, 38, 88 and 120 Mg ha(-1)). A significant increment in soil pH, organic carbon, N total, available P and exchangeable K were observed in both soils. Sludge application significantly increased N and decreased Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations in wheat. Wheat grain yields were reduced by 33% and 37% when 120 Mg SPS ha(-1) was applied to cmAR and crCM soils, respectively, due apparently to unavailability of Mg. However, straw yields, with much lower Mg requirements, increased significantly with SPS rates. Secondary pulp mill sludge seems to be a potential source of organic matter, N, P, K and a potential soil amendment liming agent for acid soils, when appropriate supplemental fertilizer was provided. For grain crops grown in these soils, addition of Mg is required for proper nutrient balance. PMID:17964139

Rato Nunes, J; Cabral, F; López-Piñeiro, A

2008-07-01

432

Spectroscopic characterization of natural humic substances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition and structure of humic substances were established based on spectroscopic studies (EDXS, SRATR FTIR, and 13C NMR). Humic acids were isolated from different matrices such as soils, compost, lignite, and commercial lignohumate. The btained results showed the highest content of aromatic groups in lignite and humic acids of Chernozem. The aromaticity degree (a) calculated from 13C NMR spectroscopy data decreased in the following order: lignite > Chernozems > lignohumate > Luvisols > compost > Cambisols. Infrared spectroscopy detected bands indicative of aliphatic groups (C-H at 2925 cm-1); aromatic groups (C=C at 1620 cm-1); phenolic groups (at 1404-1419 cm-1); and carboxyl and carbonyl groups (at 1225-1223 cm-1) in all studied humic acid samples. The main differences were found in the fingerprint region of 1700-1000 cm-1. The reactivity of humic acids given by the O/R ratio showed that the highest amount of n-alkyl groups were in the lignohumate samples. EDX spectroscopy indicated elements occurring in situ. Soil humic acids contained Fe, Cu, Zn, Ti, Ca, K, S, P, Si, and Br.

Hladký, J.; Pospíšilová, L.; Liptaj, T.

2013-03-01

433

Consejos para pacientes que reciben radioterapia  

Cancer.gov

Una serie de 11 páginas individuales que ofrece consejos sobre cómo controlar los efectos secundarios de la radioterapia. Cada página incluye el punto de vista de personas con cancer sobre la radioterapia.

434

Instantánea del cáncer de esófago  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de esófago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

435

Instantánea del cáncer de próstata  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de próstata; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

436

Instantánea del cáncer de estómago  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de estómago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

437

Instantánea de los cánceres de hígado y de las vías biliares  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de hígado y de las vías biliares; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

438

Prevención del cáncer de boca (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de labio o de boca, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de esta enfermedad.

439

Instantánea del sarcoma de Kaposi  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma de Kaposi; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

440

Instantánea del cáncer de tiroides  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de tiroides; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

441

Instantánea del cáncer de ovario  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de ovario; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

442

Instantánea del cáncer de cuello uterino  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de cuello uterino; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

443

Instantánea del cáncer de seno (mama)  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de seno (mama); así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

444

Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

445

Instantánea de los cánceres de cabeza y cuello  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de cabeza y cuello; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

446

Instantánea del cáncer de endometrio  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de endometrio; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

447

48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Empresas (Business Trade Tax). (7) Impuestos Especiales de Fabricacion (Special Products Tax). (8) Impuesto Sobre el Petroleo y Derivados (Tax on Petroleum and its By-Products). (9) Impuesto Sobre el Uso de Telefona (Telephone Tax)....

2009-10-01

448

48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Empresas (Business Trade Tax). (7) Impuestos Especiales de Fabricacion (Special Products Tax). (8) Impuesto Sobre el Petroleo y Derivados (Tax on Petroleum and its By-Products). (9) Impuesto Sobre el Uso de Telefona (Telephone Tax)....

2010-10-01

449

La terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

450

Instantánea de los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

451

Instantánea del cáncer de vejiga  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de vejiga; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

452

Instantánea del cáncer de riñón  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de riñón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

453

Treatments for Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... y la diabetes Ofrece información general sobre la nutrición, incluyendo cuánto, cuándo y cómo debe comer un ... diabetes es una compilación de la serie sobre nutrición titulada Tengo Diabetes, en particular, los títulos Qué, ...

454

Instantánea del cáncer de páncreas  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de páncreas; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

455

Instantánea del cáncer de pulmón  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de pulmón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

456

Influence of Nutritional Recovery on the Leptin Axis in Severely Malnourished Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing 166% of levels observed in control group. sOB-R decreased sig- nificantly (P 0.001), and a 142-fold molar excess of sOB-R over leptin was found. There were significant correlations between leptin and IGF-I after 2 wk and IGF-binding protein-3 during the whole study. sOB-R was not correlated with any anthropometric data, whereas IGF-I was a predictor of sOB-R variance in

Katja Stein; Edgar Vasquez-Garibay; Juergen Kratzsch; Enrique Romero-Velarde; Gerhard Jahreis

457

Cartes de Salvador Espriu a Vilama Devi i a Manuel de Seabra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vint-i-una cartes de Salvador Espriu adreçades a Vimala Devi i a Manuel de Seabra sobre l'obra literària de Vimala Devi, sobre el procés de traducció de 'La pell de brau' al portuguès i a l'esperanto a càrrec de Manuel de Seabra i, finalment, sobre l'ideari iberista de l'escriptor català.

Víctor Martínez-Gil

2005-01-01

458

NATUREZA DA CIÊNCIA E ENSINO DE FÍSICA: CONSTRUINDO RELAÇÕES A PARTIR DO ESTUDO DA ÓPTICA NEWTONIANA NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS TEACHING: BUILDING CONECTIONS THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF NEWTONIAN OPTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A busca por um ensino de física que desperte o senso crítico de alunos e professore s sobre assuntos relacionados à C iência tem promovido a criação de diversas propostas e iniciativas que envolvam a discussão da Natureza da Ciência (NdC). A NdC pode ser definida como um conjunto de saberes sobre a C iência e sobre os processos que

Breno Arsioli Moura; Cibelle Celestino Silva

2008-01-01

459

Determinantes de la mortalidad y la prevalencia de enfermedades diarreicas agudas en menores de cinco años en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo analiza los efectos que sobre la salud de los niños menores de cinco años tienen las características sanitarias de sus viviendas en Colombia. Específicamente, se consideran los impactos de estos factores sobre la mortalidad y la prevalencia de enfermedades diarreicas agudas (EDA). Así mismo, se estima la influencia del origen racial sobre las condiciones de salud de los

Mauricio Rodriguez Gomez

2012-01-01

460

Groundwater evolution beneath Hat Yai, a rapidly developing city in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many cities and towns in South and Southeast Asia are unsewered, and urban wastewaters are often discharged either directly to the ground or to surface-water canals and channels. This practice can result in widespread contamination of the shallow groundwater. In Hat Yai, southern Thailand, seepage of urban wastewaters has produced substantial deterioration in the quality of the shallow groundwater directly beneath the city. For this reason, the majority of the potable water supply is obtained from groundwater in deeper semi-confined aquifers 30-50 m below the surface. However, downward leakage of shallow groundwater from beneath the city is a significant component of recharge to the deeper aquifer, which has long-term implications for water quality. Results from cored boreholes and shallow nested piezometers are presented. The combination of high organic content of the urban recharge and the shallow depth to the water table has produced strongly reducing conditions in the upper layer and the mobilisation of arsenic. A simple analytical model shows that time scales for downward leakage, from the surface through the upper aquitard to the semi-confined aquifer, are of the order of several decades. Résumé. De nombreuses villes du sud et du sud-est de l'Asie ne possèdent pas de réseaux d'égouts et les eaux usées domestiques s'écoulent souvent directement sur le sol ou dans des canaux et des cours d'eau de surface. Ces pratiques peuvent provoquer une contamination dispersée de la nappe phréatique. A Hat Yai (sud de la Thaïlande), les infiltrations d'eaux usées domestiques sont responsables d'une détérioration notable de la qualité de la nappe phréatique directement sous la ville. Pour cette raison, la majorité de l'eau potable est prélevée dans des aquifères semi-captifs plus profonds, situés entre 30 et 50 m sous la surface. Cependant, une drainance à partir de la nappe phréatique sous la ville constitue une composante significative de la recharge de l'aquifère plus profond, ce qui aura, à long terme, des implications sur la qualité de l'eau. Les résultats fournis par des forages carottés et des piézomètres peu profonds sont présentés. La combinaison entre une concentration élevée en matières organiques, provenant de la recharge par les eaux usées domestiques, et la faible profondeur de la nappe a produit des conditions fortement réductrices dans le niveau supérieur et une mobilisation de l'arsenic. Un modèle analytique simple montre que les échelles de temps pour la drainance vers le bas, à partir de la surface au travers de l'imperméable supérieur vers l'aquifère semi-captif, sont de l'ordre de quelques dizaines d'années. Resumen. Muchas ciudades en el sur y sudeste de Asia carecen de sistemas de saneamiento, por lo que las aguas residuales urbanas son a menudo vertidas bien directamente al suelo o bien a canales de aguas superficiales. Esta práctica puede provocar la contaminación difusa de las aguas subterráneas someras. En Hat Yai, al sur de Tailandia, la percolación de aguas residuales urbanas ha producido un deterioro substancial de la calidad del acuífero somero sobre el que se sitúa la ciudad. Por ello, la mayor parte del suministro de agua potable se obtiene a partir de aguas subterráneas de acuíferos semiconfinados más profundos, localizados entre 30 y 50 m bajo la superficie. No obstante, el goteo desde el acuífero freático constituye una fracción importante de la recarga al acuífero profundo, hecho que tiene implicaciones en lo que respecta a la calidad del agua a largo plazo. Se presentan en este artículo los resultados de testigos de sondeos y de multi-piezómetros someros. El alto contenido en materia orgánica de las aguas urbanas, unido a la cercanía del nivel freático, ha producido la movilización de arsénico al crearse condiciones altamente reductoras. Un modelo matemático sencillo indica que el tiempo de tránsito desde la superficie hasta el acuífero semiconfinado es del orden de varias décadas.

Lawrence, A. R.; Gooddy, D. C.; Kanatharana, P.; Meesilp, W.; Ramnarong, V.

2000-09-01

461

Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of <2 mm was mixed with surface soil to a depth of 15 cm in plots of 33 m2 each (n=4). Barley (at the Chernozem soil) and maize (at the Cambisol) were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. The highest crop yields at both study sites were observed after a biochar application rate of 90 t/ha and an abundant nitrogen supply (mineral N fertilizer rates: 120 kg/ha for barley, 150 kg/ha for corn). An omission of biochar addition at the same nitrogen addition rate resulted in a yield decrease of 10 % for barley although the total N uptake was 11 % higher but P and K uptake decreased by 14 and 6 %. This indicates that the higher yields with biochar were accompanied by increased availability of P and K but not N. The N deficiency treatment (with biochar amendment) resulted in yield decreases of 23 %, which were similar as the reductions of N uptake while reductions of P and K uptake were less pronounced. For corn, the omission of biochar caused only marginal yield effects (6%) and no significant changes in the N, P, and K uptake rates. Deficient N supply, however, resulted in severe yield reductions (46%) in spite of the high biochar application rate. The reductions of macronutrient uptake were in the same range for N (44%) but lower for P, K, Ca and Mg (19 to 33%). In summary, N and Cu were the elements that were least available for plant uptake at high biochar application rates.

Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

2013-04-01

462

Soil as one of the Istrian terroir attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first written document of viniculture and wine production in Istria dates from antiquity, indicating a very long tradition. Istrian wines are very well known for its quality. It has been commonly accepted that quality, taste and style of wine depends on terroir, i.e. the local environment (eg. soil, bedrock, climate). Good terroirs are those permitting complete but quite slow maturation of cultivars. Although nowadays a strong debate arises concerning the concept of terroir, mainly referring to the relationship between soil properties and wine quality, our goal was to define different soils in Istrian vineyards, to compare their composition and properties and to explain how they could indirectly influence wine quality. As Istrian Malvasia, an indigenous grapevine variety, is the most widespread cultivar in Istria (1,858.8ha, i.e. about 60% of total vineyard surface), soils on different bedrock in vineyards of these variety were chosen for investigation. The studied vineyards, held by the three most prominent Istrian viticulturists known for high and constant quality of this sort of wine with some difference in taste and style, are as follows: (1) Monte Coronichi characterised by soil developed on Cretaceous limestone and wine of characteristic gentle fruit aroma and nice roundness and saltines; (2) Sveta Lucija characterised by soil developed on Eocene flysch and wine with fruit flavour, good body and extract; and (3) Grimalda characterised by soil developed of Eocene flysch and wine with delicate ripe fruit aroma, very good balance and saltines. The study comprised of field soil characterization and collection of disturbed and undisturbed samples from each soil horizon, as well as comprehensive pedological, mineralogical and geochemical soil analyses. It was determined that terra rossa soil is present on limestone at Monte Coronichi; while two different soils are developed on Eocene flysch, vertic cambisol at Sveta Lucija and eutric brown soil at Grimalda. While terra rossa has the same texture throughout profile (clay), the texture of the other two soils varies from silty clay to loam, creating conditions for better drainage. The mineral content of these soils differs significantly. Kaolinite, followed by illite, quartz and hematite dominate in terra rossa. Calcite, followed by quartz and plagioclase dominate in vertic cambisol which clay mineral content is represented by illite and swelling clays. The main mineral phases of Grimalda soil are calcite, quartz and mixed layered clays. Clay mineral content of these soils is in line with cation exchange capacity indicating higher nutrient retention in soils developed on flysch. It should be emphasised that soil is only one of many attributes of terroir which could influence the taste of the wine. Data acquired in this investigation could be used for the appellation, i.e. a legally defined and protected geographical indication, of Istrian Malvasia.

Mileusni?, Marta; Tomaši?, Elizabeta; Durn, Goran; Ottner, Franz; Wriessnig, Karin; Gracin, Leo; Husnjak, Stjepan

2014-05-01

463

Combining a coupled FTIR-EGA system and in situ DRIFTS for studying soil organic matter in arable soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimized spectroscopic method combining quantitative evolved gas analysis via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-EGA) in combination with a qualitative in situ thermal reaction monitoring via diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situT DRIFTS) is being proposed to rapidly characterize soil organic matter (SOM) to study its dynamics and stability. A thermal reaction chamber coupled with an infrared gas cell was used to study the pattern of thermal evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to relate evolved gas (i.e., CO2) to different qualities of SOM. Soil samples were taken from three different arable sites in Germany: (i) the Static Fertilization Experiment, Bad Lauchstädt (Chernozem), from treatments of farmyard manure (FYM), mineral fertilizer (NPK), their combination (FYM + NPK) and control without fertilizer inputs; (ii) Kraichgau; and (iii) Swabian Alb (Cambisols) areas, Southwest Germany. The two latter soils were further fractionated into particulate organic matter (POM), sand and stable aggregates (Sa + A), silt and clay (Si + C), and NaOCl oxidized Si + C (rSOC) to gain OM of different inferred stabilities; respiration was measured from fresh soil samples incubated at 20 °C and 50% water holding capacity for 490 days. A variable long path length gas cell was used to record the mid-infrared absorbance intensity of CO2 (2400 to 2200 cm-1) being evolved during soil heating from 25 to 700 °C with a heating rate of 68 °C min-1 and holding time of 10 min at 700 °C. Separately, the heating chamber was placed in a diffuse reflectance chamber (DRIFTS) for measuring the mid-infrared absorbance of the soil sample during heating. Thermal stability of the bulk soils and fractions was measured via the temperature of maximum CO2 evolution (CO2max). Results indicated that the FYM + NPK and FYM treatments of the Chernozem soils had a lower CO2max as compared to both NPK and CON treatments. On average, CO2max of the Chernozem was much higher (447 °C) as compared to the Cambisol sites (Kraichgau 392 °C; Swabian Alb 384 °C). The POM fraction had the highest CO2max (477 °C), while rSOC had a first peak at 265 °C at both sites and a second peak at 392 °C for the Swabian Alb and 482 °C for the Kraichgau. The CO2max increased after 490 day incubation, while the C lost during incubation was derived from the whole temperature range but a relatively higher proportion from 200 to 350 °C. In situT DRIFTS measurements indicated decreases in vibrational intensities in the order of C-OH = unknown C vibration < C-H < -COO/C =C < C = C with increasing temperature, but interpretation of vibrational changes was complicated by changes in the spectra (i.e., overall vibrational intensity increased with temperature increase) of the sample during heating. The relative quality changes and corresponding temperatures shown by the in situT DRIFTS measurements enabled the fitting of four components or peaks to the evolved CO2 thermogram from the FTIR-EGA measurements. This gave a semi-quantitative measure of the quality of evolved C during the heating experiment, lending more evidence that different qualities of SOM are being evolved at different temperatures from 200 to 700 °C. The CO2max was influenced by long-term FYM input and also after 490 days of laboratory incubation, indicating that this measurement is an indicator for the relative overall SOM stability. The combination of FTIR-EGA and in situT DRIFTS allows for a quantitative and qualitative monitoring of thermal reactions of SOM, revealing its relative stability, and provides a sound basis for a peak fitting procedure for assigning proportions of evolved CO2 to different thermal stability components.

Demyan, M. S.; Rasche, F.; Schütt, M.; Smirnova, N.; Schulz, E.; Cadisch, G.

2013-05-01

464

The creation of a digital soil map for Cyprus using decision-tree classification techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the increasing threats soil are experiencing especially in semi-arid, Mediterranean environments like Cyprus (erosion, contamination, sealing and salinisation), producing a high resolution, reliable soil map is essential for further soil conservation studies. This study aims to create a 1:50.000 soil map covering the area under the direct control of the Republic of Cyprus (5.760 km2). The study consists of two major steps. The first is the creation of a raster database of predictive variables selected according to the scorpan formula (McBratney et al., 2003). It is of particular interest the possibility of using, as soil properties, data coming from three older island-wide soil maps and the recently published geochemical atlas of Cyprus (Cohen et al., 2011). Ten highly characterizing elements were selected and used as predictors in the present study. For the other factors usual variables were used: temperature and aridity index for climate; total loss on ignition, vegetation and forestry types maps for organic matter; the DEM and related relief derivatives (slope, aspect, curvature, landscape units); bedrock, surficial geology and geomorphology (Noller, 2009) for parent material and age; and a sub-watershed map to better bound location related to parent material sources. In the second step, the digital soil map is created using the Random Forests package in R. Random Forests is a decision tree classification technique where many trees, instead of a single one, are developed and compared to increase the stability and the reliability of the prediction. The model is trained and verified on areas where a 1:25.000 published soil maps obtained from field work is available and then it is applied for predictive mapping to the other areas. Preliminary results obtained in a small area in the plain around the city of Lefkosia, where eight different soil classes are present, show very good capacities of the method. The Ramdom Forest approach leads to reproduce soil classes with a success percentage included between 88% (calcaric fluvic Cambisols and vertic Cambisols) and 96% (skeletric calcaric Regosols and calcaric lithic Leptosols). In a parallel study, characteristic profiles are assigned to every soil class. The soil classes will be field checked with mapped and unmapped areas including points with new soil properties. This study is part of the AGWATER project (AEIFORIA/GEORGO/0311(BIE)/06), co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Research Promotion Foundation. Cohen, D.R., Rutherford, N.F., Morisseau, E., and Zissimos, A.M.: Geochemical Atlas of Cyprus. Sydney: UNSW Press; 2011. McBratney, A.B., Mendonça Santos, M.L., and Minasny, B.: On digital soil mapping. Geoderma 117, 3-52, 2003 Noller, J.: The Geomorphology of Cyprus. Cyprus Geological Survey, Open File Report, 269 p, 2009.

Camera, Corrado; Zomeni, Zomenia; Bruggeman, Adriana; Noller, Joy; Zissimos, Andreas

2014-05-01

465

Vertical variations of soil hydraulic properties within two soil profiles and its relevance for soil water simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of soil water dynamics can be valuable tools for the assessment of different soil and land management practices. For accurate simulations, the soil hydraulic properties (SHP), i.e. the hydraulic conductivity and water retention function have to be properly known. They can be either estimated from physical soil properties by pedotransfer functions (PTF) or measured. In most studies, soil profiles are analyzed and sampled with respect to their pedogenic horizons. While considerable effort has been put on horizontal spatial SHP variations, vertical changes within soil profiles have not been analyzed in detail. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (i) the SHP measurement along vertical transects within two soil profiles, (ii) to evaluate their spatial variation and correlation with physical soil properties, and (iii) to assess the impact of the SHP determination method and its spatial discretization on simulated soil water balance components. Two soils, an agriculturally used silty-loam Chernozem and a forested sandy Cambisol were sampled in 0.05 m increments along vertical transects. The parameters of a dual porosity model were derived using the evaporation method and scaling was applied to derive representative mean SHP parameters and scaling factors as a measure of spatial variability. State-space models described spatial variations of the scaling factors by physical soil properties. Simulations with HYDRUS 1D delivered the soil water balance for different climatic conditions with the SHP being estimated from horizon-wise PTFs, or discretized either sample-wise, according to the pedogenic horizons, or as hydrologically relevant units (hydropedological approach). Considerable SHP variations were found for both soil profiles. In the Chernozem, variations of the hydraulic conductivity were largest within the ploughed Ap-horizon and could be attributed to variations in soil structure (macropores). In the subsoil, soil water retention showed a gradual decrease within each horizon. The observed water retention variations could be described by state-space models that comprised the contents of clay and total carbon, whereas variations of the hydraulic conductivity were described by clay content and total porosity. The hydraulic conductivity in the Cambisol was slightly undulating throughout the profile. Here, water retention was largest in the upper part of the profile and considerably decreased within the lower part of the Bhs-horizon. Simulated soil water balance components differed distinctly between the SHP discretizations. Compared to observed soil water contents, the simulations where the SHP were given by small-scale layers or hydropedological units performed best for both experimental sites. The different SHP discretizations mainly affected the estimated drainage losses and the simulated crop transpiration under medium to dry climatic conditions. The study confirmed the importance of an adequate spatial SHP discretization. The results indicate that SHP estimations by PTFs or the standard horizon-mean sampling strategy might fail to parameterize soil water simulations, especially in structured soils. The presented hydropedological approach showed a way to receive good simulation results by reducing the SHP observation density.

Schwen, Andreas; Zimmermann, Michael; Bodner, Gernot

2014-08-01

466

Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil management induced variability, there was a strong interaction with soil type and climate conditions. There was also a relatively high variability within the same soil management and soil type class, indicating farm to farm variability in conditions and history of soil management. Based on this dataset two different approaches were taken to: A) evaluate the risk of soil degradation based on a limited set of soil properties, B) assess the effect of changes in SMS on soil biodiversity by using terminal restriction profiles (TRFs) derived from T-RFLP analysis of amplified 16S rDNA as. The results indicates the potential of both approaches to assess the risk of soil degradation (A) and the impact on soil biodiversity (B) upon appropriate benchmarking to characterize the interaction between soil management and soil type References Álvarez, S., Soriano, M.A., Landa, B.B., and Gómez, J.A. 2007. Soil properties in organic olive orchards compared with that in natural areas in a mountainous landscape in southern Spain. Soil Use Manage 23:404-416. Gómez, J.A., Álvarez, S., and Soriano, M.A. 2009. Development of a soil degradation assessment tool for organic olive groves in southern Spain. Catena 79:9-17. Landa, B.B., Montes-Borrego, M., Aranda, S., Soriano, M.A., Gómez, J.A., and Navas-Cortés, J.A. 2013. Soil factors involved in the diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain. Environmental Microbiology Reports (accepted) Soriano, M.A., Álvarez, S., Landa, B.B., and Gómez, J.A. 2013. Soil properties in organic olive orchards following different weed management in a rolling landscape of Andalusia, Spain. Renew Agr Food Syst (in press), doi:10.1017/S1742170512000361.

Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

2014-05-01

467

A long-term field experiment of soil transplantation demonstrating the role of contemporary geographic separation in shaping soil microbial community structure.  

PubMed

The spatial patterns of microbial communities are largely determined by the combined effects of historical contingencies and contemporary environmental disturbances, but their relative importance remains poorly understood. Empirical biogeographic data currently available are mostly based on the traditional method of observational survey, which typically involves comparing indigenous microbial communities across spatial scales. Here, we report a long-term soil transplantation experiment, whereby the same two soils (red Acrisol and purple Cambisol from Yingtan) were placed into two geographic locations of ?1000 km apart (i.e., Yingtan in the mid-subtropical region and Fengqiu in warm-temperate region; both located in China). Twenty years after the transplantation, the resulting soil microbial communities were subject to high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Additionally, bacteria and archaea involved in nitrogen cycling were estimated using clone library analysis of four genes: archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA,nirK, and nifH. Data of subsequent phylogenetic analysis show that bacteria, fungi, and other microbial eukaryotes, as well as the nitrogen cycling genes, are grouped primarily by the factor of geographic location rather than soil type. Moreover, a shift of microbial communities toward those in local soil (i.e., Chao soil in Fengqiu) has been observed. The results thus suggest that the historical effects persistent in the soil microbial communities can be largely erased by contemporary disturbance within a short period of 20 years, implicating weak effects of historical contingencies on the structure and composition of microbial communities in the soil. PMID:24772284

Sun, Bo; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Yuji; Li, Yun; Dong, Zhixin; Li, Zhongpei; Zhang, Xue-Xian

2014-04-01

468

Extracellular enzyme activities in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador affected by low soil P status and land-use change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the enzymatic response of microorganisms in soils having a low P status and being subjected to global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change. Along a land-use sequence (natural forest - young pasture - old pasture - abandoned pasture - shrubland) in the Andes of southern Ecuador mineral topsoils of Cambisols / Umbrisols were investigated. We tested whether the activities of the six hydrolytic enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase, acid phosphomonoesterase) were affected by nutrient status and land-use induced alterations in soil pH (pHH2O from 3.7 to 5.2), resource quantity and quality (e.g. a SOC:N:P ratio from 182:13:1 to 1050:38:1) and microbial community structure (as monitored by phospholipid fatty acids). Microbial production of acid phosphatase responded to the low P status of the sites by a higher investment in the acquisition of P compared to C. We determined three major drivers of enzyme activities: 1.) Microbial demand for P regulated the production of acid phosphatase, provided that N and C were available. At the natural forest site the two-fold higher specific activity of acid phosphatase pointed to a high microbial P-demand, whereas the production of acid phosphatase was constrained by the availability of N and DOC after pasture abandonment. 2.) Microbial biomass that was controlled by pH and resource availability (total soil N (organic and inorganic N), organic P (Bray-fraction)) was the main driver for cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. 3.) Substrate induction due to increased litter inputs of herbaceous plant species seemed to regulate ?-glucosidase and xylanase activities during secondary succession. In contrast, alterations in the abundance of microbial groups affected the variation in extracellular enzyme activities only marginally. At the level of broadly defined microbial groups (PLFA), our results point to functional similarity in the decomposition of simple organic material.

Tischer, Alexander; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Ute, Hamer

2014-05-01

469

Stability of amorphous hydrous manganese oxide in contrasting soils and implications for its use in chemical stabilization of metals/metalloids in contaminated soil environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous manganese oxides are known to be efficient sorbents in soils and thus useful in remediation technologies. A novel amorphous hydrous manganese oxide (HMO) was prepared by a modified procedure generally used for birnessite synthesis. Its long-term stability in view of possible applications for chemical stabilization of metals/metalloids in polluted soils was evaluated. HMO was sealed in experimental bags prepared from polyamide fabric (pore size 1 um) and placed in the pots containing 200 g of soil. Three contrasting soils were used (two cambisols with pH values of 4.2 and 5.4, respectively, and a chernozem with a pH of 7.3). Each pot was equipped with a rhizon pore water sampler and the water content was maintained at 80% WHC throughout the experiment. HMO and pore waters were sampled after 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days of incubation. Up to 113 mg Mn/L was released into pore water at the beginning of the experiment in more acidic soils indicating a slight dissolution of HMO surfaces. Manganese release into the pore water stabilized after 15 days in agreement with mass loss measurements. Mass loss decreased again after 60 days of the incubation for the neutral soil due to the formation of secondary rhodochrosite (MnCO3) detected on the HMO surfaces by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The efficiency of HMO for trace metal retention in soils (e.g., Zn) slightly decreased after 60 days, probably due to the mineralogical transformation of the sorbent leading to decrease of binding surfaces. Nevertheless, only approximately 10% of HMO dissolved after 90 days of experiment showing that this sorbent can be relatively stable in the studied soils. Its binding capacity for metals/metalloids should be further tested in soils with elevated contaminant concentrations.

Ettler, V.; Knytl, V.; Komarek, M.; Della Puppa, L.; Mihaljevic, M.; Sebek, O.

2012-04-01

470

Bacterial Diversity in Agricultural Soils during Litter Decomposition  

PubMed Central

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified fragments of genes coding for 16S rRNA was used to study the development of bacterial communities during decomposition of crop residues in agricultural soils. Ten strains were tested, and eight of these strains produced a single band. Furthermore, a mixture of strains yielded distinguishable bands. Thus, DGGE DNA band patterns were used to estimate bacterial diversity. A field experiment performed with litter in nylon bags was used to evaluate the bacterial diversity during the decomposition of readily degradable rye and more refractory wheat material in comparable luvisols and cambisols in northern, central, and southern Germany. The amount of bacterial DNA in the fresh litter was small. The DNA content increased rapidly after the litter was added to the soil, particularly in the rapidly decomposing rye material. Concurrently, diversity indices, such as the Shannon-Weaver index, evenness, and equitability, which were calculated from the number and relative abundance (intensity) of the bacterial DNA bands amplified from genes coding for 16S rRNA, increased during the course of decomposition. This general trend was not significant for evenness and equitability at any time. The indices were higher for the more degradation-resistant wheat straw than for the more easily decomposed rye grass. Thus, the DNA band patterns indicated that there was increasing bacterial diversity as decomposition proceeded and substrate quality decreased. The bacterial diversity differed for the sites in northern, central, and southern Germany, where the same litter material was buried in the soil. This shows that in addition to litter type climate, vegetation, and indigenous microbes in the surrounding soil affected the development of the bacterial communities in the litter.

Dilly, Oliver; Bloem, Jaap; Vos, An; Munch, Jean Charles

2004-01-01

471

Effect of polyacrylamide as a post-fire erosion mitigation treatment during consecutive rainstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) has been proven to be an effective chemical soil amendment for reducing erosion in arable lands and infrastructure projects, but few attempts have been made to use it as a post-fire mitigation measure. Moreover, the mechanisms by which PAM reduces soil erosion are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the use of 50 kg/ha granular PAM as a post-fire amendment on infiltration rate (IR), runoff and soil loss both in laboratory and field experiments involving multiple rainstorms. In the laboratory experiments, three consecutive storms separated by drying periods were applied by means of a rainfall simulator to two contrasting soils affected by fire (Humic Cambisol and Calcic Regosol). During the 1st rainstorm, PAM decreased IR and increased runoff in both soils due to an increase in viscosity of the runoff and soil solution. At the same time, a reduction in soil loss was observed in both PAM-treated soils compared to the untreated controls. During the first drying period, PAM was irreversibly adsorbed to soil particles, and in the following storms PAM-induced soil loss reduction persisted while the effect of the polymer on IR and runoff was reversed. Differences in the effect of PAM on soil erosion between soils were attributed to changes in the electrolyte concentration of runoff and soil solution. The positive effect of PAM on post-fire soil loss was confirmed in field experiments with erosion plots constructed in the burnt Calcic Regosol. The application of 25 and 50 kg/ha of granular PAM reduced soil erosion by 23 and 57%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Runoff was reduced only in the 50 kg/ha treatment. It is suggested that the application of PAM could be a good alternative to current post-fire erosion mitigation measures.

Inbar, Assaf; Ben-Hur, Meni; Sternberg, Marcelo; Liñares, Marcos

2014-05-01

472

Effect of different kinds of crop residues on aggregate-protected soil organic matter fractions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter content of soils determines many important soil properties, such as soil structure, fertility and water-management. To improve its fertility and quality, returning different kinds of organic matter to soil has a long historical tradition. Ameliorating of soil and enhancing its fertility by enhancing its carbon stock with organic matter incorporation (like farmyard manure, crop residues or green manure) are general practices, but the extent of the amelioration depends much on several factors such as quantity, quality of the used organic matters. Quality of soil organic matters is affected by their chemical build-up, which differs by their origin (i.e. plant species); and their decomposability is affected by particle-size, protection by soil aggregates and the extent of their association to mineral surfaces. In our paper we investigated the effect of three different kinds of organic matter incorporation on aggregate-protected organic matter fractions: (1) Maize stem (M), (2) Wheat straw (W), and (3) Maize stem & Wheat straw (MW). Our samples were originated from Keszthely, Western Hungary, where the texture of the investigated soil is Sandy loam, the type of soil is Eutric Cambisol (soil type FAO), or Alfisol (soil type USDA). SOM fractions might be isolated and measured by physical fractionation of soil (Cambardella and Elliott (1992), Jensen et al. (1992)). Firstly, microaggregates were separated according to their particle-size with physical fractionation (i.e. wet sieving) (Six et al. (2000a)). Each sample was pre-treated by capillary wetting and was sieved for 2 min in an analytic sieve shaker machine with the following aperture sizes: 2 mm, 250 ?m, 53 ?m. Therefore 4 fractions were resulted: (1) the >2000 ?m large macro-, (2) the 250-2000 ?m small macro-, (3) the 53-250 ?m microaggregates, and (4) the

Huisz, A.

2009-04-01

473

Inverse modelling of multiple infiltration-outflow experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes of (quasi)steady state water flow rates were observed in laboratory infiltration experiments done on columns of compacted sand and on two undisturbed soil columns of sandy loam and loamy sand cambisol soil. Infiltration-outflow experiments consisted of series of ponded infiltration runs with seepage face boundary condition at the lower end of columns. The initial water contents were different for each run. The results of the experiment done on an undisturbed soil column showed that the flux rates and water contents measured during quasi-steady state differ between infiltration runs. This finding contradicts the standard theory. The fluctuations of the water content during the steady state flow can be ascribed to the variations in volume of the entrapped air. The same behaviour was not observed in the sample of homogeneous sand. Computer tomography was used to characterize the structure of the undisturbed soil sample with focus on potential preferential flow pathways. In order to asses the changes between runs quantitatively, hydraulic characteristics were estimated for each infiltration run separately by inverse modelling. Experimental outflow data and tensiometric pressure head data were used as an input for inverse modelling. Numerical code based on dual permeability approach was coupled with parameter estimator. Result of the inverse modelling for each column is specific set of hydraulic properties for each infiltration run of particular soil column. Since we hypothesise that the steady state flow is affected by soil water content at the beginning of the infiltration run, we will study the relationships between initial moistures and hydraulic parameters values. Furthermore we will test if the above phenomena can be ascribed to hysteresis of hydraulic functions.

Sobotková, M.; Snehota, M.; Dohnal, M.; Cislerova, M.

2009-04-01

474

Soil-plant water status and wine quality: the case study of Aglianico wine (the ZOViSA project)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terroir analysis, aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production, needs to be strongly rooted on hydropedology. In fact, the relations between wine quality and soil moisture regime during the cropping season is well established. The ZOViSA Project (Viticultural zoning at farm scale) tests a new physically oriented approach to terroir analysis based on the relations between the soil-plant water status and wine quality. The project is conducted in southern Italy in the farm Quintodecimo of Mirabella Eclano (AV) located in the Campania region, devoted to quality Aglianico red wine production (DOC). The soil spatial distribution of study area (about 3 ha) was recognized by classical soil survey and geophysics scan by EM38DD; then the soil-plant water status was monitored for three years in two experimental plots from two different soils (Cambisol and Calcisol). Daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind), daily soil water variables (through TDR probes and tensiometers), crop development (biometric and physiological parameters), and grape must and wine quality were monitored. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied in the two experimental plots to estimate soil-plant water status in different crop phenological stages. The effects of crop water status on crop response and wine quality was evaluated in two different pedo-systems, comparing the crop water stress index with both: crop physiological measurements (leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and wine quality (aromatic response). Finally a "spatial application" of the model was carried out and different terroirs defined.

Bonfante, Antonello; Manna, Piero; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonietta; De Mascellis, Roberto; Caputo, Pellegrina; Delle Cave, Aniello; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Gianpiero; Minieri, Luciana; Moio, Luigi; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

2014-05-01

475

Response of soil microbial communities to fire and fire-fighting chemicals.  

PubMed

Worldwide, fire-fighting chemicals are rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective and efficient tool in wildfires control and in prescribed burns for habitat management. However, despite its widespread use as water additives to control and/or slow the spread of fire, information concerning the impact of these compounds on soil ecosystems is scarce. In the present work we examine, under field conditions, the response of the microbial communities to three different fire-chemicals at normal doses of application. The study was performed with a Humic Cambisol over granite under heath, located in the temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain) with the following treatments: unburned soil (US) and burned soil added with water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). The microbial mass (microbial C), activity (?-glucosidase, urease) and community structure [phospholipids fatty acids (PLFA) pattern] were measured on soil samples collected at different sampling times during a 5year period after a prescribed fire. The results showed a negative short-term effect of the fire on the microbial properties. The microbial biomass and activity levels tended to recover with time; however, changes in the microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) were still detected 5years after the prescribed fire. Compared to the burned soil added with water, the ammonium polyphosphate and the Firesorb treatments were the fire-fighting chemicals that showed a higher influence on the microbial communities over the whole study period. Our data indicated the usefulness of the PLFAs analysis to detect the long-term impact of both fire and fire-fighting chemicals on the soil microbial communities and hence on the soil quality of forest ecosystems. PMID:20888616

Barreiro, A; Martín, A; Carballas, T; Díaz-Raviña, M

2010-11-15

476

Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe Soil Water Measurements over Complex Terrain in Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of surface soil water (rooting zone) has become evident with climate change affecting rainfall patterns and crop production. The use of Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) for measuring surface soil water has become increasingly popular. The advantage of CRNP is that it is a non-invasive technique for measuring soil water content at an area-wide scale, in contrast to more conventional, techniques which measure mainly at field scale (point level). The CRNP integrates over a circular area of ca. 600 meters in diameter, to a depth of 70 cm, giving an average value for soil water content. Cosmic radiation interacting with the Earth's atmosphere continuously generates neutrons. At Earth's surface, these neutrons interact with surface water, and are slowed down. At sub-micrometer geometrics, these neutrons affect semiconductor devices, so they can be counted, slow and fast ones separately. From the difference in numbers between fast and slow neutrons, soil water content is calculated. As first in Austria, a CRNP (CRS 1000/B model) consisting of two neutron counters (one tuned for slow, the other one for fast neutrons), data logger and an Iridium modem, has been installed at Petzenkirchen research station of the Doctoral Programme for Water Resource Systems (TU Vienna) at 48.14 latitude and 15.17 longitude, 100 km west of Vienna, in late autumn 2013. The research station is located in an undulating agricultural landscape, characterized by heavy Cambisols and Planosols, and winter wheat and barley as main crops in winter, and maize and sunflower in summer. In addition, an in-situ soil moisture network consisting of 32 stations of Time Domain Transmissivity (TDT) sensors measuring soil water at 4 depths (0.05, 0.10,0.20 and 0.50 m) over an area of 64 ha has been established. This TDT network is currently being used to validate the use of the innovative CRNP technique. First results will be shown at the EGU 2014.

Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Weltin, Georg; Kheng Heng, Lee; Wahbi, Ammar; Oismueller, Markus; Dercon, Gerd

2014-05-01

477

Effect of cropland management and slope position on soil organic carbon pool at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds  

SciTech Connect

Soil organic matter is strongly related to soil type, landscape morphology, and soil and crop management practices. Therefore, long-term (15-36-years) effects of six cropland management systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in 0-30 cm depth were studied for the period of 1939-1999 at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds (<3 ha, Dystric Cambisol, Haplic Luvisol, and Haplic Alisol) near Coshocton, OH, USA. Six management treatments were: (1) no tillage continuous corn with NPK (NC); (2) no tillage continuous corn with NPK and manure (NTC-M); (3) no tillage corn?soybean rotation (NTR); (4) chisel tillage corn?soybean rotation (CTR); (5) moldboard tillage with corn?wheat?meadow?meadow rotation with improved practices (MTR-I); (6) moldboard tillage with corn?wheat?meadow?meadow rotation with prevalent practices (MTR-P). The SOC pool ranged from 24.5Mgha?1 in the 32-years moldboard tillage corn (Zea mays L.)?wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?meadow?meadow rotation with straight row farming and annual application of fertilizer (N:P:K = 5:9:17) of 56?112 kg ha?1 and cattle (Bos taurus) manure of 9Mg ha?1 as the prevalent system (MTR-P) to 65.5Mgha?1 in the 36-years no tillage continuous corn with contour row farming and annual application of 170?225 kgNha?1 and appropriate amounts of P and K, and 6?11Mgha?1 of cattle manure as the improved system (NTC-M).

Hao, Yueli; Lal, Rattan; Owens, Lloyd; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, W M.; Hothem, Daniel

2002-12-01

478

Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - The German-speaking friends of the Scottish soil characters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartoon figures of soil profiles with faces, legs, arms and funny names: the Scottish soil characters Rusty (Cambisol), Heather (Podzol), Pete (Histosol) and five others were developed at the James Hutton Institute in Aberdeen for outreach activities. They represent eight soil types that are common in Scotland. Recently they have become movie stars in an animated film, where they speak with a Scottish accent. The Scottish soil characters are a true soil science communication success story and it would be great if they had friends in many places to tell some stories from the underground in the respective native languages. This contribution will introduce the draft for 13 German-speaking soil characters that represent the most common soil types in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Each name is a play on words with respect to German soil classification terms and serves as a mnemonic for typical characteristics of these soils. The 'hair' shows detailed vegetation and the context with common land use. For non-soil scientists the soil characters can be used as story-tellers, e.g. about their life (soil evolution), home (spatial distribution), job (function), fears (threats) and joys (best-practice land use, restoration). Because the International Year of Soil (2015) is an excellent opportunity for new outreach activities, the aim is to publish the German-speaking soil characters as a collaboration of the Austrian, German and Swiss Soil Science Societies. The soil characters could be used in print or online formats, and even - as can be seen in Aberdeen - as human-sized walking soil profiles.

Hofmann, Anett

2014-05-01

479

Microbially-mediated transformation and mobilization of soil Fe-organic associations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter (OM) has been proposed to be stabilized in the long term via sorption to iron((oxy)hydr)oxides under aerobic conditions. However, in an anaerobic environment, Fe-organic associations may be subject to microbial reduction and mobilization, which counteract the suggested stabilizing effect of Fe compounds. Desorption of OM can result in its microbial decomposition causing the emission of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) or release of associated contaminants into the soil solution and groundwater. While the reductive dissolution of pure iron((oxy)hydr)oxides by dissimilatory FeIII reducing bacteria is well established, little is known about the influence of natural OM on microbially mediated mobilization of Fe-organic associations. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the effect of adsorbed OM on microbial FeIII reduction of Fe-organic associations with regard to (i) the composition of OM, (ii) the carbon loading, and (iii) surface coverage and/or pore blockage by adsorbed OM. Mineral-organic associations with varying carbon contents were synthesized using several iron((oxy)hydr)oxides (Goethite, Lepidocrocite, Ferrihydrite, Hematite, Magnetite) and OM of different origin (dissolved OM extracted from the Oa horizon of a Podzol and Oi horizon of a Cambisol, extracellular polymeric substance extracted from Bacillus subtilis). Incubation experiments under anaerobic conditions were conducted for 16 days using two different strains of dissimilatory FeIII reducing bacteria (Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter metallireducens). At five sampling points in time the solution phase was analyzed for pH, Fetotal, and FeII. The initial mineral-organic associations and post-incubation phase were characterized by N2 gas adsorption, FTIR, XRD, and XPS. The results indicate that the composition of OM and carbon loading significantly influence the rate and extend of microbial reduction of Fe-organic associations depending on the type of microbial strain and iron((oxy)hydr)oxide used.

Poggenburg, Christine; Mikutta, Robert; Schippers, Axel; Dohrmann, Reiner; Kaufhold, Stephan; Guggenberger, Georg

2014-05-01

480

Infiltration in heterogeneous soil monitored by neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of infiltration in near-saturated soil and fate of residual air bubbles was studied using neutron imaging. It is the continuation of previous study on flow instability. Ponding infiltration-outflow experiment conducted at NEUTRA beamline of the Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut aimed at i) characterizing the types of structures susceptible to air trapping, ii) monitoring of entrapped air and water redistribution during steady state flow iii) imaging the process of entrapped air dissolution. Experiments were conducted on series of undisturbed samples of soil from the Cambisol series and on an artificially prepared sample. The latter was composed of coarse sand (representing pathways of fast preferential flow), which surrounded blocks of fine ceramic. Cumulative infiltration and outflow fluxes of water were measured gravimetrically by two precision digital scales thus the full water balance data were obtained. Small samples (30 mm in diameter) were used to achieve good spatial resolution of neutron images. Degassed water was used to dissolve bubbles of entrapped air at the end of infiltration experiments. The neutron radiography and tomography data show quantitatively exchange of water and air between domains of fine and coarse materials during quasi-steady state flow in the sample. The redistribution of the entrapped air directly affected the hydraulic conductivity. On neutron tomography images the gradual dissolving of trapped air bubbles was clearly detected. The effect also led to significant increase of hydraulic conductivity. The obtained data show clearly that air as a non-wetting phase should not be overlooked in case of near-saturated infiltration in soil with preferential flow. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 14-03691S.

Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sacha, Jan; Vontobel, Peter; Cislerova, Milena

2014-05-01

481

Soil cover by natural trees in agroforestry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dehesa is common agroforestry system in the Iberian Peninsula. These open oak parklands with silvo-pastoral use cover about two million hectares. Traditionally annual pastures have been grazed by cows, sheep and also goats while acorns feed Iberian pig diet. Evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) has other uses as fuelwood collection and folder after tree pruning. The hypothesis of this work is that tree density and canopy depend on soil types. We using the spanish GIS called SIGPAC to download the images of dehesa in areas with different soil types. True colour images were restoring to a binary code, previously canopy colour range was selected. Soil cover by tree canopy was calculated and number of trees. Processing result was comparable to real data. With these data we have applied a dynamic simulation model Dehesa to determine evergreen oak acorn and annual pasture production. The model Dehesa is divided into five submodels: Climate, Soil, Evergreen oak, Pasture and Grazing. The first three require the inputs: (i) daily weather data (maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation); (ii) the soil input parameters for three horizons (thickness, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and bulk density); and (iii) the tree characterization of the dehesa (tree density, canopy diameter and height, and diameter of the trunk). The influence of tree on pasture potential production is inversely proportional to the canopy cover. Acorn production increase with tree canopy cover until stabilizing itself, and will decrease if density becomes too high (more than 80% soil tree cover) at that point there is competition between the trees. Main driving force for dehesa productivity is soil type for pasture, and tree cover for acorn production. Highest pasture productivity was obtained on soil Dystric Planosol (Alfisol), Dystric Cambisol and Chromo-calcic-luvisol, these soils only cover 22.4% of southwest of the Iberian peninssula. Lowest productivity was obtained on Dystric Lithosol.

Diaz-Ambrona, C. G. H.; Almoguera Millán, C.; Tarquis Alfonso, A.

2009-04-01

482

XANES spectroscopy as a tool to trace phosphorus transformation during soil genesis and mountain ecosystem development from lake sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate phosphorus (P) species modifications triggered by soil genesis and mountain ecosystem development after glacial retreat using a lake sediment archive (Lake Anterne, North French Alps). Five lake sediment samples, representative of different stages of soil and ecosystem development, were selected for P speciation analyses. Furthermore, a sequence of current soils from the catchment was analyzed to better constrain our interpretations of the lacustrine archive. Synchrotron techniques (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) mapping and P K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy) were applied to lake sediments, soils, and standards (mineral and organic) to distinguish between different P species. The results show that soil development during the first millennia of the Holocene triggered increased P species diversity. At the onset of the Holocene, P was present as apatite when rocks and leptosols dominated the catchment. Pedogenic processes then led to apatite dissolution and the formation of large amounts of P on metal/clay-organic complexes. P geochemistry during the main step of soil genesis (early leptosols dominated by apatite, low weathered cambisols with P mainly adsorbed on iron oxides, highly weathered podzols with large amounts of P on Al/Fe/clay organic complexes) is thus clearly recorded in lake sediments. P K-edge XANES spectroscopy is particularly relevant as qualitative method to study P species in soils and lake sediments at high spatial resolution. Such resolution is needed to reveal the diversity of small P particles and like this better characterize the P cycle and improve our understanding of ecosystem evolution.

Giguet-Covex, C.; Poulenard, J.; Chalmin, E.; Arnaud, F.; Rivard, C.; Jenny, J.-P.; Dorioz, J.-M.

483

Evaluation of the use of soil ion exchange properties for predicting streamwater chemistry in upland catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of soil ion exchange chemistry for predicting streamwater quality is evaluated using soil and streamwater chemical data from ten upland catchments in NE Scotland. The study catchments vary from those dominated by acid hill peats, alpine soils and podzols to those dominated by more base-rich soils, including cambisols and gleysols. Soil and streamwater chemical data combined with precipitation and parent material chemistry are also used to investigate sources and pathways of water movement. In all soils studied, Ca and Mg are the dominant exchangeable base cations in the surface soil horizons. In most soils, Na becomes increasingly important on the exchange complex with depth down the soil profile. Plots of the relative proportions of Na:Ca:Mg in streamwater show that, during periods of high discharge, streamwater chemistry tends to become relatively more Na-rich compared with Ca and Mg. Using triangular diagrams, streamwater chemistry can be described as a mixture of geochemically distinct packages of water derived from precipitation inputs, specific parent materials and key soil horizons, although spatially important soils within catchments may be relatively unimportant in controlling streamwater chemistry. Changes in streamwater chemistry at high flow can be explained by dilution of water derived from groundwater sources or the B/C horizon, either with laterally flowing water from the upper soil horizons, or with precipitation. In conclusion, changes in the relative proportions of Na:Ca:Mg in streamwater during storms suggest that precipitation chemistry may play a greater role than hitherto suggested in modifying solute chemistry during periods of high flow.

Billett, Michael F.; Cresser, Malcolm S.

1996-11-01

484

Carbosoil, a land evaluation model for soil carbon accounting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The belowground carbon content is particularly difficult to quantify and most of the time is assumed to be a fixed fraction or ignored for lack of better information. In this respect, this research presents a land evaluation tool, Carbosoil, for predicting soil carbon accounting where this data are scarce or not available, as a new component of MicroLEIS DSS. The pilot study area was a Mediterranean region (Andalusia, Southern Spain) during 1956-2007. Input data were obtained from different data sources and include 1689 soil profiles from Andalusia (S Spain). Previously, detailed studies of changes in LU and vegetation carbon stocks, and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamic were carried out. Previous results showed the influence of LU, climate (mean temperature and rainfall) and soil variables related with SOC dynamics. For instance, SCS decreased in Cambisols and Regosols by 80% when LU changed from forest to heterogeneous agricultural areas. Taking this into account, the input variables considered were LU, site (elevation, slope, erosion, type-of-drainage, and soil-depth), climate (mean winter/summer temperature and annual precipitation), and soil (pH, nitrates, CEC, sand/clay content, bulk density and field capacity). The available data set was randomly split into two parts: training-set (75%), and validation-set (25%). The model was built by using multiple linear regression. The regression coefficient (R2) obtained in the calibration and validation of Carbosoil was >0.9 for the considered soil sections (0-25, 25-50, and 50-75 cm). The validation showed the high accuracy of the model and its capacity to discriminate carbon distribution regarding different climate, LU and soil management scenarios. Carbosoil model together with the methodologies and information generated in this work will be a useful basis to accurately quantify and understanding the distribution of soil carbon account helpful for decision makers.

Anaya-Romero, M.; Muñoz-Rojas, M.; Pino, R.; Jordan, A.; Zavala, L. M.; De la Rosa, D.

2012-04-01

485

Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) in the profile may constitute an important factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing due to bioturbation, and organic matter leaching. In this study we quantified the contribution of these three processes using Bayesian parameter estimation for the mechanistic SOM profile model SOMPROF. Based on organic carbon measurements, 13 parameters related to decomposition and transport of organic matter were estimated for two temperate forest soils: an Arenosol with a mor humus form (Loobos, the Netherlands), and a Cambisol with mull-type humus (Hainich, Germany). Furthermore, the use of the radioisotope 210Pbex as tracer for vertical SOM transport was studied. For Loobos, the calibration results demonstrate the importance of organic matter transport with the liquid phase for shaping the vertical SOM profile, while the effects of bioturbation are generally negligible. These results are in good agreement with expectations given in situ conditions. For Hainich, the calibration offered three distinct explanations for the observations (three modes in the posterior distribution). With the addition of 210Pbex data and prior knowledge, as well as additional information about in situ conditions, we were able to identify the most likely explanation, which indicated that root litter input is a dominant process for the SOM profile. For both sites the organic matter appears to comprise mainly adsorbed but potentially leachable material, pointing to the importance of organo-mineral interactions. Furthermore, organic matter in the mineral soil appears to be mainly derived from root litter, supporting previous studies that highlighted the importance of root input for soil carbon sequestration. The 210Pbex measurements added only slight additional constraint on the estimated parameters. However, with sufficient replicate measurements and possibly in combination with other tracers, this isotope may still hold value as tracer for SOM transport.

Braakhekke, M. C.; Wutzler, T.; Beer, C.; Kattge, J.; Schrumpf, M.; Ahrens, B.; Schöning, I.; Hoosbeek, M. R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.; Reichstein, M.

2013-01-01

486

Estimating hydraulic conductivity of internal drainage for layered soils in situ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil hydraulic conductivity (K function) of three layered soils cultivated at Paradys Experimental Farm, near Bloemfontein (South Africa), was determined from in situ drainage experiments and analytical models. Pre-ponded monoliths, isolated from weather and lateral drainage, were prepared in triplicate on representative sites of the Tukulu, Sepane and Swartland soil forms. The first two soils are also referred to as Cutanic Luvisols and the third as Cutanic Cambisol. Soil water content (SWC) was measured during a 1200 h drainage experiment. In addition soil physical and textural data as well as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were derived. Undisturbed soil core samples of 105 mm with a height of 77 mm from soil horizons were used to measure soil water retention curves (SWRCs). Parameterization of SWRC was through the Brooks and Corey model. Kosugi and van Genuchten models were used to determine SWRC parameters and fitted with a RMSE of less 2%. The SWRC was also used to estimate matric suctions for in situ drainage SWC following observations that laboratory and in situ SWRCs were similar at near saturation. In situ K function for horizons and the equivalent homogeneous profiles were determined. Model predictions based on SWRC overestimated horizons K function by more than three orders of magnitude. The van Genuchten-Mualem model was an exception for certain soil horizons. Overestimates were reduced by one or more orders of magnitude when inverse parameter estimation was applied directly to drainage SWC with HYDRUS-1D code. Best fits (R2 ? 0.90) were from Brooks and Corey, and van Genuchten-Mualem models. The latter also predicted the profiles' effective K function for the three soils, and the in situ based function was fitted with R2 ? 0.98 irrespective of soil type. It was concluded that the inverse parameter estimation with HYDRUS-1D improved models' K function estimates for the studied layered soils.

Mavimbela, S. S. W.; van Rensburg, L. D.

2013-11-01

487

Contents and composition of organic matter in subsurface soils affected by land use and soil mineralogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use and mineralogy affect the ability of surface as well as subsurface soils to sequester organic carbon and their contribution to mitigate the greenhouse effect. This study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of land use (i.e., arable and forest) and soil mineralogy on contents and composition of soil organic matter (SOM) from subsurface soils. Seven soils different in mineralogy (Albic and Haplic Luvisol, Colluvic and Haplic Regosol, Haplic and Vertic Cambisol, Haplic Stagnosol) were selected within Germany. Soil samples were taken from forest and adjacent arable sites. First, particulate and water soluble organic matter were separated from the subsurface soil samples. From the remaining solid residues the OM(PY) fractions were separated, analyzed for its OC content (OCPY) and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. For the arable subsurface soils multiple regression analyses indicate significant positive relationships between the soil organic carbon contents and the contents of i) exchangeable Ca and oxalate soluble Fe, and Alox contents. Further for the neutral arable subsurface soils the contents OCPY weighted by its C=O contents were found to be related to the contents of Ca indicating interactions between OM(PY) and Ca cations. For the forest subsurface soils (pH <5) the OCPY contents were positively related with the contents of Na-pyrophosphate soluble Fe and Al. For the acidic forest subsurface soils such findings indicate interactions between OM(PY) and Fe3+ and Al3+ cations. The effects of land use and soil mineralogy on contents and composition of SOM and OM(PY) will be discussed.

Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Kaiser, Michael

2010-05-01

488

A long-term field experiment of soil transplantation demonstrating the role of contemporary geographic separation in shaping soil microbial community structure  

PubMed Central

The spatial patterns of microbial communities are largely determined by the combined effects of historical contingencies and contemporary environmental disturbances, but their relative importance remains poorly understood. Empirical biogeographic data currently available are mostly based on the traditional method of observational survey, which typically involves comparing indigenous microbial communities across spatial scales. Here, we report a long-term soil transplantation experiment, whereby the same two soils (red Acrisol and purple Cambisol from Yingtan) were placed into two geographic locations of ?1000 km apart (i.e., Yingtan in the mid-subtropical region and Fengqiu in warm-temperate region; both located in China). Twenty years after the transplantation, the resulting soil microbial communities were subject to high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Additionally, bacteria and archaea involved in nitrogen cycling were estimated using clone library analysis of four genes: archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA,nirK, and nifH. Data of subsequent phylogenetic analysis show that bacteria, fungi, and other microbial eukaryotes, as well as the nitrogen cycling genes, are grouped primarily by the factor of geographic location rather than soil type. Moreover, a shift of microbial communities toward those in local soil (i.e., Chao soil in Fengqiu) has been observed. The results thus suggest that the historical effects persistent in the soil microbial communities can be largely erased by contemporary disturbance within a short period of 20 years, implicating weak effects of historical contingencies on the structure and composition of microbial communities in the soil.

Sun, Bo; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Yuji; Li, Yun; Dong, Zhixin; Li, Zhongpei; Zhang, Xue-Xian

2014-01-01

489

Effects of methamidophos on the community structure, antagonism towards Rhizoctonia solani, and phlD diversity of soil Pseudomonas.  

PubMed

A microcosm incubation study using an aquic brown soil from northeast China (a Cambisol in the UN Food and Agriculture Organization FAO Soil Taxonomy) was conducted to examine the effects of different concentrations (0, 50, 150, and 250 mg kg(-1)) of methamidophos (O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioato) on Pseudomonas, one of the most important gram-negative bacteria in soil. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was performed to study the Pseudomonas community structure, an in vitro assay was made to test the antagonistic activity of isolated Pseudomonas strains against soil-borne Rhizoctonia solani, a major member of the pathogens highly related to soil-borne plant diseases, and special primer amplification and sequencing were performed to investigate the diversity of phlD, an essential gene in the biosynthesis of 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2, 4-DAPG), which has biocontrol activity in phlD(+)isolates. With exposure to increasing methamidophos concentrations, the total number of soil Pseudomonas ARDRA patterns decreased significantly, but with less change in the same treatments over 1, 3, and 5 weeks of incubation. The number of isolated Pseudomonas strains with antagonistic activity against R. solani as well as the diversity and appearance frequency of the strains' phlD gene also decreased with increasing concentrations of methamidophos, especially at high methamidophos concentrations. Applying methamidophos could increase the risk of soil-borne plant diseases by decreasing the diversity of the soil Pseudomonas community and the amount of R. solani antagonists, particularly those with the phlD gene. PMID:20390954

Wu, Minna; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Huiwen; Cai, Yinghui; Zhang, Chenggang

2010-04-01

490

Water repellency in an Alpine forest soil and its impact on hydraulic characteristics under simulated climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate of Alpine environments is expected to change dramatically as a consequence of global climate change. In this ecologically sensitive environment, prolonged dry periods and an increased occurence of extreme rainfall events is forecasted by many climate change models. On the other hand, soil water repellency (SWR) is known to affect hydraulic processes in soils, particularly in acidic forest soils and as a consequence of prolonged dry periods. By changing the soil surface properties, SWR also changes the hydraulically effective properties of soils. The quantification of the spatial occurence and degree of hydrophobicity is a crucial prerequirement for ecological and hydrological impact assessment and developing new models. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to quantify soil water repellency in an Alpine forest with respect to its spatial variability and affected by different simulated climatic regimes. The study was accomplished in the Rosalian mountains, some 60 km south of Vienna, Austria. The vegetation was a mature beech forest and the soil was a Podsolic Cambisol over weathered granitic rock debris. As parts of the experimental plot were covered by plastic roofs and artificially irrigated, three different treatments were tested: Compared to the natural precipitation (control), the irrigation amount was reduced with two drought degrees (moderate and extreme). Within a small grid, 9 samples were taken per treatment in two depths (surface and 0.10 m). The contact angle was determined with the modified sessile drop method. Additionally, total and organic carbon contents and the hydraulic soil properties were quantified. Infiltration experiments were performed with a tension infiltrometer using water and ethanol. The results showed considerable water repellency with at least subcritical contact angles for all treatments. Contact angles increased to above 90 degree at the moderate and extreme drought treatments. Differences between intrinsic and apparent hydraulic properties as reflected by the ethanol and water infiltration, respectively, increased with increasing drought degree.

Schwen, Andreas; Zimmermann, Michael; Lamparter, Axel; Woche, Susanne; Bachmann, Jörg

2014-05-01

491

Spatial variability of microbial activity and substrate utilization patterns in top- and subsoils under European beech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of subsoils in the global carbon cycle is poorly understood and probably underestimated. This is due to an incomplete understanding of processes and mechanisms that influence carbon storage and decomposition in deeper soil horizons. Microbial communities play an important role in these processes, as their presence, structure and function are crucial for the decomposition and/or stabilization of organic compounds. In this study, carried out in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest on a podzolic Cambisol near Hannover, the spatial variability of microbial activity and substrate utilization patterns were investigated in the subsoil. For this purpose, samples were taken from regular grids at dm distances in three soil profiles of 1.85 m depth and 3.15 m length, totaling 192 soil samples. Activities of 9 extracellular enzymes of the C-, S-, P- and N-cycle were determined with a multi-substrate enzymatic assay and for substrate utilization patterns the MicroRespTM method was applied. The results showed a strong decline of microbial activity from topsoil to subsoil. Enzyme activities varied greatly at the dm scale. The correlation of the variability of both microbial activity and substrate utilization patterns with depth and soil parameters such as pH, soil water content, total and dissolved organic carbon was tested with a principal component analysis. Existing dependencies of the variabilities on these parameters help to verify the hypotheses that microbial activity is spatially highly variable in the subsoil and this variability is due to the existence of certain hot spots of substrate availability and that outside these 'hot spots' the microbial activity and thus the decomposition of SOM are mainly limited by substrate availability.

Niebuhr, Jana; Heinze, Stefanie; Mikutta, Robert; Mueller, Carsten W.; Preusser, Sebastian; Marschner, Bernd

2014-05-01

492

Manual for ERLE (Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment). Instructions and information for institutions of higher learning concerning used energy-related laboratory equipment grants; Manual para ERLE [Equipo de Laboratorio Relacionado con la Energia]. Instrucciones e informacion para instituciones de educacion superior sobre subvenciones de equipo de laboratorio usado relacionado con la energia  

SciTech Connect

This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

Not Available

1994-10-01

493

PRODUCCIÓN DE COMPLEJOS ENZIMÁTICOS CELULOLÍTICOS MEDIANTE EL CULTIVO EN FASE SÓLIDA DE Trichoderma sp. SOBRE LOS RACIMOS VACÍOS DE PALMA DE ACEITE COMO SUSTRATO PRODUCTION OF ENZYMATIC COMPLEX IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION BY Trichoderma sp. USING PALM OIL EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB) AS SUBSTRATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil palm industry in Colombia, the fifth world manufacter, generates lignocelulosic waste like the empty fruit bunch (EFB), which remains after removing the fruit of oil palm. Keeping in mind this characteristic, it can be used as substrate for cellulases production. In this study we evaluate the productivity of cellulases through native crop of Trichoderma viride T12 using EFB.