Science.gov

Sample records for social hmo trends

  1. Utilization and costs of home-based and community-based care within a social HMO: trends over an 18-year period

    PubMed Central

    Leutz, Walter; Nonnenkamp, Lucy; Dickinson, Lynn; Brody, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Our objective was to describe the utilization and costs of services from 1985 to 2002 of a Social Health Maintenance Organization (SHMO) demonstration project providing a benefit for home-based and community-based as well as short-term institutional (HCB) care at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), serving the Portland, Oregon area. The HCB care benefit was offered by KPNW as a supplement to Medicare's acute care medical benefits, which KPNW provides in an HMO model. KPNW receives a monthly per capita payment from Medicare to provide medical benefits, and Medicare beneficiaries who choose to join pay a supplemental premium that covers prescription drugs, HCB care benefits, and other services. A HCB care benefit of up to $12,000 per year in services was available to SHMO members meeting requirement for nursing home certification (NHC). Methods We used aggregate data to track temporal changes in the period 1985 to 2002 on member eligibility, enrollment in HCB care plans, age, service utilization and co-payments. Trends in the overall costs and financing of the HCB care benefit were extracted from quarterly reports, management data, and finance data. Results During the time period, 14,815 members enrolled in the SHMO and membership averaged 4,531. The proportion of SHMO members aged 85 or older grew from 12 to 25%; proportion meeting requirements for NHC rose from 4 to 27%; and proportion with HCB care plans rose from 4 to 18%. Costs for the HCB care benefit rose from $21 per SHMO member per month in 1985 to $95 in 2002. The HCB care costs were equivalent to 12% to 16% of Medicare reimbursement. The HCB program costs were covered by member premiums (which rose from $49 to $180) and co-payments from members with care plans. Over the 18-year period, spending shifted from nursing homes to a range of community services, e.g. personal care, homemaking, member reimbursement, lifeline, equipment, transportation, shift care, home nursing, adult day care

  2. Trends in Hospital Cost and Revenue, 1994–2005: How Are They Related to HMO Penetration, Concentration, and For-Profit Ownership?

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Wu, Vivian Y; Melnick, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Objective Analyze trends in hospital cost and revenue, as well as price and quantity (1994–2005) as a function of health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration, HMO concentration, and for-profit (FP) HMO market share. Data Medicare hospital cost reports, AHA Annual Surveys, HMO data from Interstudy, and other supplemental data. Study Design A retrospective study of all short-term, general, nonfederal hospitals in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States from 1994 to 2005, using hospital/MSA fixed-effects translog regression models. Principal Findings A 10 percentage point increase in HMO enrollment is associated with 4.1–4.2 percent reduction in costs and revenues in the pre-2000 period but only a 2.1–2.5 percent reduction in the post-2000 period. Hospital revenue in HMO-dominant markets (highly concentrated HMO market and competitive hospital market) is 19–27 percent lower than other types of markets, and the difference is most likely due mainly to lower prices and to a lesser extent lower utilization. Conclusions The historical difference of lower spending in high HMO penetration markets compared with low HMO markets narrowed after 2000 and the relative concentration between HMO and hospital markets can substantially influence hospital spending. Additional research is needed to understand how different aspects of these two markets have changed and interacted and how they are causally linked to spending trends. PMID:19840134

  3. Met needs and unmet needs, and satisfaction among Social HMO members.

    PubMed

    Leutz, Walter; Capitman, John

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 800 members of four Social HMO demonstration sites, who were receiving home-based, community-based, and short-term institutional services under the demonstration's expanded community care benefits. The survey asked whether members needed help in 11 areas, whether they received help in each area from an informal caregiver, whether they wanted more help from the Social HMO, and whether help provided by both was adequate. Satisfaction with the program and with service coordination was also assessed. The adequacy of informal care differed by problem area, as did the help desired from the Social HMO and its responsiveness. Members were less satisfied when they had weaker informal care, were African American, and when they received inadequate help from the plan with ADLs, transportation, medical access, and managing money. Members were more satisfied when they were professionals, home owners, knew their service coordinator's name (or how to contact her), and received help with their problems. The findings point to the importance of clarifying divisions of labor with informal caregivers, as well as possible expansions in responsibilities for service coordinators and benefits beyond traditional boundaries. PMID:17347114

  4. Health plan satisfaction and risk of disenrollment among social/HMO and fee-for-service recipients.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, R; Preston, S; Harrington, C

    1996-01-01

    Health plan satisfaction among the elderly is affected by multiple individual and locational factors. We used a general behavioral framework of predisposing, enabling, and service use factors to produce adjusted satisfaction scores. These then were included in a logistic analysis to determine the effect of satisfaction on continued membership in social health maintenance organizations (S/HMOs) or continued participation in fee-for-service care. S/HMO members, after one year in the plan, generally reported satisfaction scores comparable to Medicare beneficiaries in fee-for-service care. Satisfaction with perceived physician quality and interpersonal relationships with the providers reduced the risk of disenrollment. Functional impairment reduced the likelihood of disenrollment, but this effect varied by community. Being impaired was protective in communities with established HMOs. In markets where HMOs were emerging or where intensive HMO competition was beginning, disability increased the likelihood of changing current coverage. S/HMO membership, after adjusting for the market area's general disenrollment propensities, had varying effects. Being a newly formed plan was not a consistent predictor of higher disenrollment rates. PMID:8675278

  5. HMO contracting: know your costs.

    PubMed

    Astle, S; Roth, R

    1987-07-01

    HMO contracting requires a detailed knowledge of patient costs. We addressed the need for sophisticated cost accounting and patient information systems as it pertains to HMO contracting. Agencies cannot afford to overlook the global applications of such systems. The ability of an agency to make informed and competitive financial decisions in any price-based payment environment is critical. A system that can accurately identify and assist with forecasting costs will be a valuable asset for an agency as it moves toward the price-based payment environment of the future. PMID:10301849

  6. Recent Trends in the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2004-01-01

    There are selected trends in the social studies which teachers need to understand and analyze. These trends are relatively stable with the realization that changes and modification do occur. New ideas in teaching and learning must come forth to keep abreast with changes in knowledge involving related social science academic disciplines and…

  7. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contributions for the HMO alternative. 417.157... Employee Health Benefits Plans § 417.157 Contributions for the HMO alternative. (a) General principles—(1... that provides for health benefits and is in effect at the time the HMO alternative is included....

  8. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... Benefits Plans § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative...

  9. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... Benefits Plans § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative...

  10. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... Benefits Plans § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative...

  11. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative in...

  12. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative in...

  13. HMO penetration: has it hurt public hospitals?

    PubMed

    Clement, J P; Grazier, K L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration within the public hospitals' market area affects the financial performance and viability of these institutions, relative to private hospitals. Hospital- and market-specific measures are examined in a fully interacted model of over 2,300 hospitals in 321 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in 1995. Although hospitals located in markets with higher HMO penetration have lower financial performance as reflected in revenues, expenses and operating margin, public hospitals are not more disadvantaged than other hospitals by managed care. PMID:11669291

  14. Impact of HMO market structure on physician-hospital strategic alliances.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, L R; Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Wholey, D R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of HMO market structure on the formation of physician-hospital strategic alliances from 1993 through 1995. The two trends, managed care and physician-hospital integration have been prominent in reshaping insurance and provider markets over the past decade. STUDY DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional data from the InterStudy HMO Census and the Annual Survey conducted by the American Hospital Association (AHA) between 1993 and the end of 1995 to examine the effects of HMO penetration and HMO numbers in a market on the formation of hospital-sponsored alliances with physicians. Because prior research has found nonlinear effects of HMOs on a variety of dependent variables, we operationalized HMO market structure two ways: using a Taylor series expansion and cross-classifying quartile distributions of HMO penetration and numbers into 16 dummy indicators. Alliance formation was operationalized using the presence of any alliance model (IPA, PHO, MSO, and foundation) and the sum of the four models present in the hospital. Because managed care and physician-hospital integration are endogenous (e.g., some hospitals also sponsor HMOs), we used an instrumental variables approach to model the determinants of HMO penetration and HMO numbers. These instruments were then used with other predictors of alliance formation: physician supply characteristics, the extent of hospital competition, hospital-level descriptors, population size and demographic characteristics, and indicators for each year. All equations were estimated at the MSA level using mixed linear models and first-difference models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Contrary to conventional wisdom, alliance formation is shaped by the number of HMOs in the market rather than by HMO penetration. This confirms a growing perception that hospital-sponsored alliances with physicians are contracting vehicles for managed care: the greater the number of HMOs to contract with, the greater the development of alliances

  15. Trends and Issues: Social and Economic Context. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Chris, Comp.

    This document presents an outline of a number of social, economic, and demographic trends that influence the effectiveness of instruction and the social development of youth across the country. It contains numbers and statistics, recommendations, and implications, along with 30 references. The document covers trends in the following areas: (1)…

  16. Forecasting Social Trends as a Basis for Formulating Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Arthur J.

    The paper describes how information regarding future trends is collected and made available to educational policy makers. Focusing on educational implications of social and population trends, the paper is based on data derived from use of trend forecasting by educational policy makers in Florida and other southeastern states. The document is…

  17. Determinants of HMO Formulary Adoption Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Dranove, David; Hughes, Edward FX; Shanley, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify economic and organizational characteristics that affect the likelihood that health maintenance organizations (HMOs) include new drugs on their formularies. Data Sources We administered an original survey to directors of pharmacy at 75 HMOs, of which 41 returned usable responses. We obtained drug-specific data from an industry trade journal. Study Design We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for fixed-drug effects and random-HMO effects. We used factor analysis to limit the number of predictors. Data Collection Methods We held initial focus groups to help with survey design. We administered the survey in two waves. We asked respondents to report on seven popular new drugs, and to describe a variety of HMO organizational characteristics. Principal Findings Several HMO organizational characteristics, including nonprofit status, the incentives facing the director of the pharmacy, size and make-up of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee, and relationships with drugs makers, all affect formulary adoption. Conclusions There are many organizational factors that may cause HMOs to make different formulary adoption decisions for certain prescription drugs. PMID:12650387

  18. Social Psychology: Trends, Assessment, and Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stryker, Sheldon

    1981-01-01

    Points out that sociologists should be aware of developments in the field of social psychology because sociological (particularly structural) analyses rest on assumptions about the social psychological properties of persons and processes. (DB)

  19. Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems. Data Trends #105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" presents findings from research examining the influence of collective socialization, concentration of disadvantage, and prevalence of crime on conduct problems among African…

  20. Social and Economic Context. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda, Comp.; Coffey, Elizabeth, Comp.

    Schools are very sensitive to the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that the United States is presently undergoing. They are at a disadvantage compared to most other social institutions because, in serving a younger population, they have less lead time to prepare for changes in the complexion of society. Young people in today's world…

  1. Impact of HMO mergers and acquisitions on financial performance.

    PubMed

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the effect of health maintenance organization (HMO) mergers and acquisitions on financial performance, as indicated by cash flow returns, profitability ratios, and efficiency indicators. Pooled, cross-sectional files of financial performance data were created for HMO mergers occurring in the period of 1988 to 1994. The study uses a time-series design involving the analysis of pre- and post-acquisition financial performance measured over a period of four years. Change scores for the industry-adjusted financial performance measures were calculated and then evaluated using t-tests. The study showed that HMO mergers had a positive effect on financial performance and efficiency. This effect disappeared, however, after adjusting for HMO industry returns. Potential synergies arising from HMO mergers have been largely illusory. Mergers may have been a result of non-value enhancing motives or management overconfidence. PMID:12462660

  2. China's Social Science Publications: Emerging Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Friedmann, Deborah

    The author describes characteristics of social science publications which suggest that in the future there will be an improved research climate for Chinese scholars and improved opportunities for collaborative work between Chinese and foreign researchers. The publications used as the data base for this presentation are quarterly or bimonthly…

  3. Case study. The little HMO that could: heart of America HMO in Rugby, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, L

    1995-11-01

    What does an HMO need to succeed in rural America? For this 3,000-member health plan, the key ingredients are enlightened self-interest by a committed medical group, support from local employers, low overhead, efficient practice styles, and luck in the form of benevolent state insurance rules. But a catastrophic illness almost doomed the plan in 1992 and convinced leaders of the need to grow. PMID:10152495

  4. Managed dental care in the HMO setting.

    PubMed

    Gong, C C

    1995-01-01

    DHMOs are gaining in popularity, and are the fastest-growing dental managed-care product, primarily because of their ability to reduce premium and patient costs. Dentistry, because of the strong correlation between prevention and disease control, is more suited to a managed-care system than medicine. However, there remains a wide gulf between theory and practice, as the DHMO industry continues to evolve. Poorly designed programs will save money but create problems with patient satisfaction and unmet treatment needs. Well-designed programs use the principles of population management to bring large numbers of patients to maintenance oral health levels. In any event, the continuing growth and development of DHMOs will benefit patients, group purchasers, and the dentists who can understand and embrace the concepts of dentistry in the HMO environment. PMID:9161149

  5. Desorption kinetics of {H}/{Mo(211) }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopinski, G. P.; Prybyla, J. A.; Estrup, P. J.

    1994-08-01

    The desorption kinetics of the {H}/{Mo(211) } chemisorption system were studied by thermal desorption and measurement of adsorption isobars. Analysis of the steady-state measurements permits the independent determination of the desorption energy ( Ed) and prefactor ( v). These quantities are found to depend strongly on coverage, with ( Ed) varying continuously from 145 {kJ}/{mol} at low coverage to 65 {kJ}/{mol} near saturation. Three regions of hydrogen adsorption are clearly indicated by the isobars as well as the thermal desorption traces. These regions can be correlated with structural changes observed previously with HREELS and LEED. The coverage dependence of the kinetic parameters is attributed to hydrogen-induced local distortions of the substrate structure. By relating the desorption energy to the isosteric heat the partial molar entropy is also extracted from the data and indicates localized adsorption as well as significant adsorbate-induced changes in the substrate degrees of freedom.

  6. Patterns and Trends of Canadian Social Work Doctoral Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, David W.; Lach, Lucyana; Blumenthal, Anne; Akesson, Bree

    2015-01-01

    The first social work doctoral program in Canada began in 1952. Relatively recently, the number of programs has grown rapidly, doubling in the past 10 years to 14 programs. Despite the expansion there is no systematic understanding of the patterns and trends in doctoral research. In this study we review 248 publicly available dissertations from…

  7. Distance Education Programs in Social Work: Current and Emerging Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Robert; Vakalahi, Halaevalu; Pierce, Dean; Pittman-Munke, Peggy; Adkins, Lynn Frantz

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on current and emerging trends in the use of distance education technologies in social work education. Areas studied include the extent of distance education programs, curricular areas covered, technologies used, pedagogical approaches, intentions for degree-program development, sources of pressure to adopt distance education…

  8. [Trends in social inequalities in health in Catalonia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Malmusi, Davide; Bartoll, Xavier; Puigpinós, Rosa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the evolution of social class inequalities in men and women in health status, health related behaviours and utilization of health services in Catalonia between 1994 and 2006. This is a study of trends based on the analysis of the Encuesta de Salud de Cataluña. To examine the association between 12 dependent variables and social class in each survey, robust Poisson regression models were fitted. People belonging to manual class showed the worst indicators. Over the period, social class inequalities in health status and health services utilisation tended to remain constant or to decrease (performing breast cancer screening). Conversely, inequalities in smoking increased. In Catalonia there are social class inequalities in health, among men and women, that tend to remain stable over the years. PMID:22310366

  9. Epinephrine autoinjector refill history in an HMO.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Michael S; Jung, Sandy Y; Chiang, Matthew L

    2011-02-01

    Epinephrine can be lifesaving in episodes of anaphylaxis, yet it is underprescribed and underused. Tracking of epinephrine refills over time for patients with a diagnosis of anaphylaxis has not been reported. This study reports on the refill history of 14,677 patients in a large HMO who received an initial dispensing of EpiPen (Dey Pharma, Basking Ridge, NJ) or EpiPen Jr between 2000 and 2006. A total of 6,776 (46%) refilled at least once. Twenty-five percent of the patients who were in the cohort for 5 years or more refilled multiple times, and 11% refilled consistently at all expected refill times. Infants through children 12 years of age were more likely to receive a refill dispensing (63%) compared with teenagers and adults (40%). The most common ICD-9 codes that were linked to the initial epinephrine dispensing were allergic disorder (37%), miscellaneous anaphylaxis/angioedema (23%), hymenoptera/insect bite or sting (14%), and specific or nonspecific food allergy (11%). A total of 79% of patients with a food-related ICD-9 code and 59% of patients with an insect sting-related ICD-9 code refilled epinephrine at least once. An opportunity exists to identify system-based as well as personal barriers in an ongoing effort to provide patients at risk with the tools and empowerment that could reduce their risk during life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. PMID:20957460

  10. Risky business: the risk-based, risk-sharing capitated HMO.

    PubMed

    Kazahaya, G I

    1986-08-01

    Hospitals are encountering a new type of HMO--the risk-based, risk-sharing capitated HMO. This new HMO arrangement redefines the role of the hospital, the physicians, and the HMO plan involved. Instead of placing the HMO at risk, the hospital and physicians are now financially responsible for services covered under the HMO plan. The capitated HMO is reduced to a third-party payer, serving as a broker between subscribers and providers. In this first of two articles on capitated HMOs, the risk-based, risk-sharing capitated HMO and its relationship to hospitals and physicians is defined. The second article will take this definition and apply it to managing, monitoring, and reporting on these types of programs from an accounting perspective. PMID:10277301

  11. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of... Medicare Contract § 417.442 Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a risk HMO or CMP must, during...

  12. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of... Medicare Contract § 417.442 Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a risk HMO or CMP must, during...

  13. Segmentation of hospital markets: where do HMO enrollees get care?

    PubMed

    Escarce, J J; Shea, J A; Chen, W

    1997-01-01

    Commercially insured and Medicare patients who are not in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) tend to use different hospitals than HMO patients use. This phenomenon, called market segmentation, raises important questions about how hospitals that treat many HMO patients differ from those that treat few HMO patients, especially with regard to quality of care. This study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery found no evidence that HMOs in southeast Florida systematically channel their patients to high-volume or low-mortality hospitals. These findings are consistent with other evidence that in many areas of the country, incentives for managed care plans to reduce costs may outweigh incentives to improve quality. PMID:9444826

  14. The economics of regulatory mandates on the HMO market.

    PubMed

    Encinosa, W

    2001-01-01

    Recently proposed HMO regulations have involved mandates of two forms: (1) minimum quality standards, and (2) mandated increases in access to speciality care. I show that piecemeal regulation, which uses only one of either mandate (1) or (2), may decrease welfare for all HMO consumers. Under full regulation using both (1) and (2), if the minimum standard is set too low, say, due to political bargaining, a floor-to-ceiling effect occurs. This involves HMOs setting quality at the minimum standard, even when their quality would be above the standard in an unregulated market. Finally, I show how premiums may either increase or decrease under a mandate. PMID:11148873

  15. How much segmentation is needed in the health care marketplace? An exploratory study of HMO and non-HMO customers.

    PubMed

    Tootelian, Dennis H; Mikhailitchenko, Andrey; Holst, Cindy; Gaedeke, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    The health care landscape has changed dramatically. Consumers now seek plans whose benefits better fit their health care needs and desires for access to providers. This exploratory survey of more than 1,000 HMO and non-HMO customers found significant differences with respect to their selection processes for health plans and providers, and their expectations regarding access to and communication with health care providers. While there are some similarities in factors affecting choice, segmentation strategies are necessary to maximize the appeal of a plan, satisfy customers in the selection of physicians, and meet their expectations regarding access to those physicians. PMID:26950537

  16. Both HMG boxes in Hmo1 are essential for DNA binding in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Ayako; Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Kasahara, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Hmo1, a member of the high mobility group B family proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, associates with the promoters of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) to direct accurate transcriptional initiation. Here, to identify factors involved in the binding of Hmo1 to its targets and the mechanism of Hmo1-dependent transcriptional initiation, we developed a novel reporter system using the promoter of the RPG RPS5. A genetic screen did not identify any factors that influence Hmo1 binding, but did identify a number of mutations in Hmo1 that impair its DNA binding activity in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Hmo1 binds to its target promoters autonomously without any aid of additional factors. Furthermore, characterization of Hmo1 mutants showed that the box A domain plays a pivotal role in DNA binding and may be required for the recognition of structural properties of target promoters that occur in native chromatin. PMID:25410521

  17. Implementation of an advance directives program in an HMO.

    PubMed

    Houseman, S H

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Group Health Association (GHA), an HMO in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, under the auspices of its Ethics Forum, undertook a major and ongoing project to educate its medical staff and patient members about the advantages and uses of advance directives. The following article describes how this project was implemented. PMID:10132938

  18. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Inclusion of Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations in Employee Health... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions for the HMO alternative. 417.157 Section 417.157 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  19. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Inclusion of Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations in Employee Health... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contributions for the HMO alternative. 417.157 Section 417.157 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  20. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... brochures and enrollment literature, it must, in the case of the HMO alternative, determine and distribute... plan. (3) A description of the methodology for computation. (g) CMS review of data. (1) CMS may request and review the data specified in paragraph (f) of this section on its own initiative or in response...

  1. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... brochures and enrollment literature, it must, in the case of the HMO alternative, determine and distribute... plan. (3) A description of the methodology for computation. (g) CMS review of data. (1) CMS may request and review the data specified in paragraph (f) of this section on its own initiative or in response...

  2. Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…

  3. An American Challenge: A Report on Economic Trends and Social Issues in Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couto, Richard A.

    This book provides an overview of economic trends and social issues in the 13 states and 399 counties of Appalachia, with emphasis on implications for families, children, and communities. It places the trends and issues of the Appalachian region within a national context. These trends include declining employment opportunities and wages, increased…

  4. Social Network Trend Analysis Using Frequent Pattern Mining and Self Organizing Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohuddin, Puteri N. E.; Christley, Rob; Coenen, Frans; Patel, Yogesh; Setzkorn, Christian; Williams, Shane

    A technique for identifying, grouping and analysing trends in social networks is described. The trends of interest are defined in terms of sequences of support values for specific patterns that appear across a given social network. The trends are grouped using a SOM technique so that similar tends are clustered together. A cluster analysis technique is then applied to identify "interesting" trends. The focus of the paper is the Cattle Tracing System (CTS) database in operation in Great Britain, and this is therefore the focus of the evaluation. However, to illustrate the wider applicability of the trend mining technique, experiments using a more standard, car insurance, temporal database are also described.

  5. The Social Sciences in the Schools: Purpose, Trends, Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick, Ed.; Beversdorf, Anne, Ed.

    Twenty-six social studies educators participated in a conference at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, in summer 1978 to ascertain the status and goals of social studies education. Specifically, conference participants examined recent social science research, explored curriculum development, and developed social studies classroom…

  6. 42 CFR 417.440 - Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or... MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Enrollment, Entitlement, and Disenrollment under Medicare Contract § 417.440 Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP. (a) Basic rules. (1) Subject...

  7. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS.... An HMO or CMP may disenroll a Medicare enrollee for cause if the enrollee's behavior is disruptive... behavior is not related to the use of medical services or to mental illness. (4) Documentation. The HMO...

  8. 45 CFR 146.119 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET.... (a) In general. A group health plan offering health insurance coverage through an HMO, or an HMO that offers health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, may impose an affiliation...

  9. Enrollees' Perceptions of Participating in the Education of Medical Students at an Academically Affiliated HMO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Sarah; Plasso, Ann; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.; Fletcher, Robert H.; Christiansen, Cindy L.; Inui, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the views of enrollees in an academically affiliated health maintenance organization (HMO) about participating in the education of medical students. Responses from 210 adults and 125 parents or guardians replying about children show that enrollees thought the HMO should be involved in teaching but they had specific concerns about the…

  10. #SocialNetworks: Making Nonfiction Trend in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta; Scott, Kelly; Simone, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Students must be proficient readers of nonfiction texts to be successful in school and life. Since engaging students in this genre can be challenging, this article focuses on how students can respond digitally and socially to nonfiction through the use of free, secure social networks. Not only can students become more engaged in learning when…

  11. Trends in Global Gender Inequality (Forthcoming, Social Forces)

    PubMed Central

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality for the world as a whole. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world’s population, we examine world trends over recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation, and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality. PMID:21643494

  12. Social Trends in Prescribing Mood-Modifying Drugs to Women

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Jim

    1987-01-01

    The author of this article looks at the accumulating research evidence which suggests that there has been inappropriate prescribing and overprescribing of mood-altering drugs to women. This, he holds, in large part reflects problems that are best approached from within the tradition and perspective of social medicine. Socio-health considerations illuminate the need for research in this field. PMID:21263994

  13. Social Bookmarking in Academic Libraries: Trends and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, Carla S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration of the potential utilization of social bookmarking web sites by academic libraries. These web sites, which allow users and organizations to create accounts for bookmarking online content, provide academic libraries tools to collaborate and network, organize and share electronic resources and teach information…

  14. Who's Trending in Agriculture? A Look at Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jarai

    2013-01-01

    Information spreads fast, but even faster with the use of social media. For instance, if one goes to twitter and searches "Farm Bill" it can be seen that many people have tweeted about the recent passing of the Farm Bill and re-tweeted information about this. This increased the attention given to this bill as seen by the hundreds of tweets on this…

  15. Global Trends and School-Based Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen-Meares, Paula; Montgomery, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, substantial advancements have been made across the globe that positively affect the ability for school-based social workers in the fields of practice, policy, and research to meet the needs of the world's youths. Nonetheless, children continue to suffer from poverty-stricken environments, absence of basic needs, poor or…

  16. Changes in the HMO marketplace and the new role of consumers.

    PubMed

    Drennan, R B

    2000-01-01

    The HMO marketplace is becoming increasingly dominated by two organizational structures: the network or mixed model and the IPA model. Combined, these two HMO structures represent over 80% of all plans. Both of these plan types tend to be decentralized and diverse, causing separation of ownership and control. This article uses agency theory to examine various control mechanisms including the involvement of the consumer. PMID:10947295

  17. Men and Cosmetics: Social and Psychological Trends of an Emerging Demographic.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan A; Mu, Euphemia W; Brauer, Jeremy A

    2015-09-01

    Though still accounting for a small fraction of all cosmetic procedures in the United States, men are an emerging and rapidly expanding demographic in the field of aesthetic medicine. In this article we highlight the trends contributing to the rise of male aesthetic procedures in dermatology, touching on social influences, psychological motivations, and treatment outcomes. PMID:26355623

  18. Social and Economic Trends in Rural America. The White House Rural Development Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.

    Emphasizing developmental problems caused by the rapid population and employment growth in rural America during the 1970's, this document describes social, economic, and governmental trends in rural America and suggests some federal policy choices that might be made in support of rural development. Problem areas and policy suggestions are…

  19. Social Boundaries and Marital Assimilation: Interpreting Trends in Racial and Ethnic Intermarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    Interracial/interethnic marriage in America is a barometer of racial/ethnic relations and intergroup social distance. Using data from the 5-percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we interpret trends in intermarriage in light of new assimilation theory, recent changes in racial classification, and rapid demographic…

  20. Social and Economic Trends: 1985-2000. Commission Report 84-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    Major social and economic trends in American and California life that will affect California's colleges and universities during the next 15 years are identified. Characteristics of the information-based economy are examined, along with projections concerning the 40 fastest-growing jobs between 1982 and 1995. College and university research has…

  1. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  2. Reflecting on Social Emotional Learning: A Critical Perspective on Trends in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    This critical cultural analysis of trends in the field of social emotional learning (SEL) in the United States considers how ideas concerning emotional skills and competencies have informed programmatic discourse. While currently stressing links between SEL and academic achievement, program literature also places emphasis on ideals of caring,…

  3. Can Social Security Explain Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Men in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.; Goodstein, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    After a long decline, the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) of older men in the United States leveled off in the 1980s, and began to increase in the late 1990s. We examine how changes in Social Security rules affected these trends. We attribute only a small portion of the decline from the 1960s-80s to the increasing generosity of Social…

  4. Caregiving, alcohol use, and mental health symptoms among HMO members.

    PubMed

    Polen, M R; Green, C A

    2001-08-01

    Using data from a survey of 5841 HMO members, we examined alcohol consumption, depression and anxiety symptoms, and health services use among 689 informal caregivers. Characteristics of caregivers included whom they cared for, types of care provided, number of people cared for, and whether care was provided in the caregiver's home. Outcome measures in hierarchical linear and logistic stepwise regression models included indicators of alcohol drinking pattern, symptoms of anxiety and depression, role limits due to emotional problems and self-reported doctor's visits. Adjusting for age and gender differences, caregivers reported more bodily pain, worse role functioning related to emotional problems, were more likely to screen as depressed, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety. Older caregivers, and those with greater vitality, had better mental health outcomes; caregivers with higher levels of education reported better psychological well-being and less interference with role functioning due to emotional problems. Caregivers did not make more doctor's visits than non-caregivers. No caregiving characteristics were consistently associated with both mental health and alcohol consumption outcomes. The relationship of the care recipient to the caregiver predicted mental health outcomes better than either the type of care, number cared for, or location of care. Both the type of care and relationship to the care provider were associated with alcohol consumption, and several gender interactions were identified. Our results confirm previous findings of greater mental health problems among caregivers, yet suggest that caregivers may not be seeking services commensurate to their needs. PMID:11488517

  5. Community characteristics as predictors of perceived HMO quality.

    PubMed

    Ahern, M M; Hendryx, M S

    1998-06-01

    We model the impact of community characteristics on people's perceptions of the quality of their health care experiences in HMOs. We focus on three community characteristics: sense of community, population density, and population diversity. Sense of community refers to people's perception of interconnection, shared responsibility, and common goals. Population density and population diversity are community characteristics that affect transactions costs in terms of time and energy, and affect people's perceptions of their community. We use data from a 1993 Florida poll to estimate the relationship between HMO members' perceptions of problems with health care experiences (cost, choice, access, satisfaction) and community characteristics. We find that all three community variables are significantly associated with perceptions of health care problems. We also find that effects of community variables operate differently for those in HMOs vs. those under traditional insurance. This study is consistent with research showing that community characteristics impact the health status of community institutions. Results suggest that providers may be able to improve care by being more responsive to individuals' need for community, that providers and communities can mutually gain by collaborating to improve community health, and that it may be cost-beneficial to factor community issues more strongly into health care policy. PMID:10671019

  6. Changes in disease patterns and related social trends.

    PubMed

    Powles, J

    1992-08-01

    Both the material and non-material aspects of social life are viewed as determinants of major transformations in the patterns of fatal disease and injury. A 'worst case' scenario for the burden of fatal disease is taken as a poor agrarian society precariously dependent on starchy staples and a narrow range of other foods. In such a society life expectancy may be as low as 20. However in many 'pre-modern' societies the regime of roughly matching fertility and mortality levels was set at a 'submaximal' level, with completed fertility rates moderated by marriage conventions. The relative importance of the factors contributing to the historical decline in fatal infection continues to be debated. Evidence on the central role of maternal literacy in the recent decline in Third World mortality suggests the importance of changes in the body of civil society as well as the activities of professionals and public agencies. The decline in fatal infections has been offset to varying extents by an increase in non-communicable disease (NCD): the Mediterranean and East Asia having smaller epidemics of NCDs and Eastern Europe having sustained rises of NCDs. Most industrialised countries have experienced declines in overall NCD mortality in the last 2 decades. Both the fall in fatal infection and the rise and early fall of NCDs can usefully be viewed against the baseline of hunter gatherer cultures. When this is done, the relationship between economic development and disease is seen to be complex. Much 'progress' has been achieved by countering (and then doing better than countering) the adverse effects of earlier developments. Although most members of the generation now alive have experienced marked health benefits from economic and technical advance, it is unclear whether these gains can be both sustained and generalised. It is possible that adverse lagged effects of current industrial (and military) activities will disrupt the habitat of future generations of our species through

  7. Weighing the views of a university hospital and medical school regarding an HMO.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, T J; Matthews, C W; Segadelli, L J

    1983-09-01

    After 14 years of study, the University of Michigan decided to terminate development of a health maintenance organization (HMO). The process was long and difficult because of the university's need to consider the HMO from the university's perspective of both an employer and a provider. As an employer, the university's early view was favorable and then declined when employee interest was found to be weak and the HMO's impact on the rapidly rising cost of the university's health insurance benefit was determined to be modest. As a provider, the university's view was mixed. In regard to its hospitals, the university's judgment was positive largely because it hoped that HMO incentives might help the hospitals remain viable in the health care delivery environment that was becoming increasingly competitive. From the Medical School's point of view, an HMO was felt not to be desirable because it could put in jeopardy the professional fee revenue used by the school to help underwrite its academic programs, which are the primary source of faculty pride and recognition. PMID:6887212

  8. Negotiating with the partners: a role of the HMO mental health director.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R O

    1981-08-01

    The mental health director in a health maintenance organization must successfully negotiate with a number of "partners" in the community and within the HMO in order to deliver high-quality services in a cost-effective fashion. These partners are companies whose employees are members, the members themselves, the HMO's primary care professionals, the mental health professionals, and the HMO administration. In addition, the models of treatment prevalent within a community constitute an intangible partner. Based on his experience in a mixed fee-for-service and HMO mental health department, the author describes negotiations of some difficult issues, which include whether patients can bypass their primary care physician and refer themselves to the mental health department, establishing co-payment rates for outpatient visits to prevent overutilization of mental health services, and dealing with companies who disagree with the HMO's treatment modalities. Although at times compromises are necessary, sometimes the mental health director must maintain a rigid position in order to protect a cost-effective program and promote smooth delivery of services. PMID:7250914

  9. Competition among Hospitals for HMO Business: Effect of Price and Nonprice Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gary J; Burgess, James F; Valley, Danielle

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate patterns of competition among hospitals for the business of health maintenance organizations (HMOs). The study focused on the relative importance of hospital price and nonprice attributes in the competition for HMO business. Data Sources/Study Setting The study capitalized on hospital cost reports from Florida that are unique in their inclusion of financial data regarding HMO business activity. The time frame was 1992 to 1997. Study Design The study was designed as an observational investigation of acute care hospitals. Principal Findings Results indicated that a hospital's share of HMO business was related to both its price and nonprice attributes. However, the importance of both price and nonprice attributes diminished as the number of HMOs in a market increased. Hospitals that were market share leaders in terms of HMO business (i.e., 30 percent or more market share) were superior, on average, to their competitors on both price and nonprice attributes. Conclusions Study results indicate that competition among hospitals for HMO business involves a complex set of price and nonprice attributes. The HMOs do not appear to focus on price alone. Hospitals likely to be the most attractive to HMOs are those that can differentiate themselves on the basis of nonprice attributes while being competitive on price as well. PMID:12479496

  10. Yeast high mobility group protein HMO1 stabilizes chromatin and is evicted during repair of DNA double strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Panday, Arvind; Xiao, LiJuan; Grove, Anne

    2015-01-01

    DNA is packaged into condensed chromatin fibers by association with histones and architectural proteins such as high mobility group (HMGB) proteins. However, this DNA packaging reduces accessibility of enzymes that act on DNA, such as proteins that process DNA after double strand breaks (DSBs). Chromatin remodeling overcomes this barrier. We show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMGB protein HMO1 stabilizes chromatin as evidenced by faster chromatin remodeling in its absence. HMO1 was evicted along with core histones during repair of DSBs, and chromatin remodeling events such as histone H2A phosphorylation and H3 eviction were faster in absence of HMO1. The facilitated chromatin remodeling in turn correlated with more efficient DNA resection and recruitment of repair proteins; for example, inward translocation of the DNA-end-binding protein Ku was faster in absence of HMO1. This chromatin stabilization requires the lysine-rich C-terminal extension of HMO1 as truncation of the HMO1 C-terminal tail phenocopies hmo1 deletion. Since this is reminiscent of the need for the basic C-terminal domain of mammalian histone H1 in chromatin compaction, we speculate that HMO1 promotes chromatin stability by DNA bending and compaction imposed by its lysine-rich domain and that it must be evicted along with core histones for efficient DSB repair. PMID:25979266

  11. The effects of method of presenting health plan information on HMO enrollment by Medicaid beneficiaries.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, R M; Curbow, B A; Owen, E; Burke, A

    1989-01-01

    Marketing strategies are critical for enhancing HMO enrollments among Medicaid beneficiaries when they are provided a choice of health plans. This study examined one component of marketing HMOs--the method of communicating the HMO's attributes. The purpose of the analysis was to determine if characteristics of Medicaid beneficiaries who enroll in HMOs vary by method of communicating information about health plan options. Data were analyzed from the marketing component of California's Prepaid Health Research, Evaluation, and Demonstration (PHRED) project. Five communication methods are examined in the article: brochure, film, county eligibility worker presentation, state representative presentation, and HMO representative presentation. The analysis reveals that each communication method is most effective with a different type of beneficiary. No single consumer characteristic is related to HMO enrollment across all five methods, although lack of a private physician and dissatisfaction with a current provider are associated with choice in four methods. Film is the best method for attracting persons who have an ongoing relationship with a provider. PMID:2668236

  12. 45 CFR 146.119 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion. 146.119 Section 146.119 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access...

  13. 45 CFR 146.119 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion. 146.119 Section 146.119 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE...

  14. 45 CFR 146.119 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion. 146.119 Section 146.119 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE...

  15. 45 CFR 146.119 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion. 146.119 Section 146.119 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE...

  16. 42 CFR 417.156 - When the HMO must be offered to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Inclusion of Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations in Employee Health... inclusion in a health benefits plan is received at a time when existing contracts or agreements do not provide for inclusion, the employing entity must include the HMO option in the health benefits plan at...

  17. 42 CFR 417.156 - When the HMO must be offered to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Inclusion of Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations in Employee Health... inclusion in a health benefits plan is received at a time when existing contracts or agreements do not provide for inclusion, the employing entity must include the HMO option in the health benefits plan at...

  18. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE...

  19. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  20. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  1. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE...

  2. 42 CFR 417.544 - Physicians' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.544 Physicians... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Physicians' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP. 417.544 Section 417.544 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  3. 42 CFR 417.544 - Physicians' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.544 Physicians... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physicians' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP. 417.544 Section 417.544 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits. 417.442 Section 417.442 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS,...

  5. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits. 417.442 Section 417.442 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS,...

  6. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of HMO2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Shaocheng; Zhang, Hongpeng; Jin, Li; Zhao, Shasha; Yang, Wei; Tang, Jian; Wang, Deqiang

    2014-01-01

    The high-mobility group protein (HMO2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a component of the chromatin-remodelling complex INO80, which is involved in double-strand break (DSB) repair. HMO2 can also bind DNA to protect it from exonucleolytic cleavage. Nevertheless, little structural information is available regarding these functions of HMO2. Since determination of three-dimensional structure is a powerful means to facilitate functional characterization, X-ray crystallography has been used to accomplish this task. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of HMO2 from S. cerevisiae are reported. The crystal belonged to space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.35, b = 75.69, c = 108.03 Å, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.0 Å. The crystals are most likely to contain one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a VM value of 3.19 Å(3) Da(-1). PMID:24419618

  7. Report finds Medicare HMO members are younger, healthier and lower cost than FFS seniors.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Data File: Are managed seniors healthier than those in fee for service? A recent study by the U.S. General Accounting Office looks at disenrollment rates and costs of chronically ill Medicare HMO members in California. The findings support the much-disputed theory that seniors enrolled in HMOs are younger, healthier, and lower cost. PMID:10175566

  8. A new research trend in social neuroscience: Towards an interactive-brain neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The ability to flexibly modulate our behaviors in social contexts and to successfully interact with other persons is a fundamental, but pivotal, requirement for human survival. Although previous social neuroscience research with single individuals has contributed greatly to our understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying social perception and social emotions, much of the dynamic nature of interactions between persons remains beyond the reach of single-brain studies. This has led to a growing argument for a shift to the simultaneous measurement of the brain activity of two or more individuals in realistic social interactions-an approach termed "hyperscanning." Although this approach offers important promise in unlocking the brain's role in truly social situations, there are multiple procedural and theoretical questions that require review and analysis. In this paper we discuss this research trend from four aspects: hyperscanning apparatus, experimental task, quantification method, and theoretical interpretation. We also give four suggestions for future research: (a) electroencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy are useful tools by which to explore the interactive brain in more ecological settings; (b) games are an appropriate method to simulate daily life interactions; (c) transfer entropy may be an important method by which to quantify directed exchange of information between brains; and (d) more explanation is needed of the results of interbrain synchronization itself. PMID:26271937

  9. Structured material combined HMO-silica fibers: preparation, optical and mechanical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, K.; Kobelke, J.; Litzkendorf, D.; Schwuchow, A.; Lindner, F.; Kirchhof, J.; Bartelt, H.; Auguste, J.-L.; Humbert, G.; Blondy, J.-M.

    2011-03-01

    We report about preparation technique and characterization of structured fibers composed of HMO core glasses and silica cladding. Two processes as material preparation techniques have been developed based on glasses prepared by melting of SAL (e.g. 70SiO2-20Al2O3-10La2O3) glasses and the reactive powder sintering (REPUSIL) method. The melted glasses have been characterized by dilatometrical methods to find Tg values of 827-875°C and expansion coefficients between 4.3 and 7.0×10-6 K-1. The latter is one order of magnitude higher than the expansion coefficient of pure silica glass. Structured fibers (SAL core, silica cladding) were fabricated following the Rod-in-Tube (RIT) and Granulate-in-Tube (GIT) process. The HMO glasses were chosen due du their high lanthanum content and the expected high nonlinearity, suitable for nonlinear applications (e.g. supercontinuum sources). The partial substitution of lanthanum by other rare earth elements (e.g. Ytterbium) allows the preparation of fibers with extremely high rare earth concentration up to 5 mol% Yb2O3. The concentration of alumina in the HMO glasses as "solubilizer" for lanthanide was adjusted to about 20 mol%. So we overcame the concentration limits of rare earth doping of MCVD (maximum ca. 2 mol% RE2O3). Nevertheless, the investigated HMO glasses show their limits by integration in structured silica based fibers: Optical losses are typically in the dB/m range, best value of this work is about 600 dB/km. The mechanical stability of fibers is influenced by mechanical strain caused by the high thermal expansion of the core material and the lower network bonding stability of the HMO glasses, but partially compensated by the silica cladding.

  10. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues—readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article. PMID:26155733

  11. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises.

    PubMed

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues-readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article. PMID:26155733

  12. Trends and social differences in alcohol consumption during the postcommunist transition in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994-2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20-64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania. PMID:22629164

  13. Trends and Social Differences in Alcohol Consumption during the Postcommunist Transition in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994–2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20–64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania. PMID:22629164

  14. Trends in Social Science: The Impact of Computational and Simulative Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario; Cecconi, Federico

    This paper discusses current progress in the computational social sciences. Specifically, it examines the following questions: Are the computational social sciences exhibiting positive or negative developments? What are the roles of agent-based models and simulation (ABM), network analysis, and other "computational" methods within this dynamic? (Conte, The necessity of intelligent agents in social simulation, Advances in Complex Systems, 3(01n04), 19-38, 2000; Conte 2010; Macy, Annual Review of Sociology, 143-166, 2002). Are there objective indicators of scientific growth that can be applied to different scientific areas, allowing for comparison among them? In this paper, some answers to these questions are presented and discussed. In particular, comparisons among different disciplines in the social and computational sciences are shown, taking into account their respective growth trends in the number of publication citations over the last few decades (culled from Google Scholar). After a short discussion of the methodology adopted, results of keyword-based queries are presented, unveiling some unexpected local impacts of simulation on the takeoff of traditionally poorly productive disciplines.

  15. Matisse: A Visual Analytics System for Exploring Emotion Trends in Social Media Text Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G; Beaver, Justin M; Pyle, Joshua M; BogenII, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamically mining textual information streams to gain real-time situational awareness is especially challenging with social media systems where throughput and velocity properties push the limits of a static analytical approach. In this paper, we describe an interactive visual analytics system, called Matisse, that aids with the discovery and investigation of trends in streaming text. Matisse addresses the challenges inherent to text stream mining through the following technical contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sentiment/emotion analytics, (3) interactive coordinated visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that accesses multiple levels of detail. In addition to positive/negative sentiment prediction, Matisse provides fine-grained emotion classification based on Valence, Arousal, and Dominance dimensions and a novel machine learning process. Information from the sentiment/emotion analytics are fused with raw data and summary information to feed temporal, geospatial, term frequency, and scatterplot visualizations using a multi-scale, coordinated interaction model. After describing these techniques, we conclude with a practical case study focused on analyzing the Twitter sample stream during the week of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. The case study demonstrates the effectiveness of Matisse at providing guided situational awareness of significant trends in social media streams by orchestrating computational power and human cognition.

  16. HMO membership, copayment, and initiation of care for cancer: a study of working adults.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, H P

    1987-01-01

    This study compares diagnosis and commencement of treatment for cancer among persons with fully financed fee-for-service coverage, persons with copaid fee-for-service coverage, and persons in an HMO (health maintenance organization). A total of 242 subjects actively employed at the time of their diagnosis were interviewed, typically within six months of beginning cancer treatment. After sex, age, income, education, residence (urban vs rural), and disease site and stage had been controlled, those who made copayments were found to have waited an average of 1.25 months longer (95 per cent confidence limit (cl) +/- .88) between initial suspicion of illness and obtaining a definitive diagnosis than those with full insurance coverage. Time from diagnosis until the beginning of treatment averaged .83 months longer (95 per cent cl +/- .41) for HMO members than those in fee-for-service. These relations were strongest in income categories equal to or exceeding $20,000 per year. PMID:3826465

  17. Do "any willing provider" and "freedom of choice" laws affect HMO market share?

    PubMed

    Morrisey, Michael A; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the effects of "any willing provider" (AWP) and "freedom of choice" (FOC) laws on the market share of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) in metropolitan statistical areas over the period 1989-95. We use pooled cross-section time-series regression techniques with year and state fixed effects. HMO market share is hypothesized to be a function of state laws, market characteristics, and state preference for managed care regulation. AWP and FOC laws are characterized by three alternative measures of regulatory intensity. The results suggest that FOC laws have a greater impact on market share than do AWP laws. More comprehensive regulation has a bigger impact than less encompassing laws, and laws limiting selective contracting with physicians are more effective in reducing HMO market share than are laws covering hospitals or pharmacies. PMID:15055835

  18. Quantifying the Economic and Cultural Biases of Social Media through Trending Topics.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Juan Miguel; Cuevas, Ruben; Gonzalez, Roberto; Azcorra, Arturo; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    Online social media has recently irrupted as the last major venue for the propagation of news and cultural content, competing with traditional mass media and allowing citizens to access new sources of information. In this paper, we study collectively filtered news and popular content in Twitter, known as Trending Topics (TTs), to quantify the extent to which they show similar biases known for mass media. We use two datasets collected in 2013 and 2014, including more than 300.000 TTs from 62 countries. The existing patterns of leader-follower relationships among countries reveal systemic biases known for mass media: Countries concentrate their attention to small groups of other countries, generating a pattern of centralization in which TTs follow the gradient of wealth across countries. At the same time, we find subjective biases within language communities linked to the cultural similarity of countries, in which countries with closer cultures and shared languages tend to follow each other's TTs. Moreover, using a novel methodology based on the Google News service, we study the influence of mass media in TTs for four countries. We find that roughly half of the TTs in Twitter overlap with news reported by mass media, and that the rest of TTs are more likely to spread internationally within Twitter. Our results confirm that online social media have the power to independently spread content beyond mass media, but at the same time social media content follows economic incentives and is subject to cultural factors and language barriers. PMID:26230656

  19. Quantifying the Economic and Cultural Biases of Social Media through Trending Topics

    PubMed Central

    Carrascosa, Juan Miguel; Cuevas, Ruben; Gonzalez, Roberto; Azcorra, Arturo; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    Online social media has recently irrupted as the last major venue for the propagation of news and cultural content, competing with traditional mass media and allowing citizens to access new sources of information. In this paper, we study collectively filtered news and popular content in Twitter, known as Trending Topics (TTs), to quantify the extent to which they show similar biases known for mass media. We use two datasets collected in 2013 and 2014, including more than 300.000 TTs from 62 countries. The existing patterns of leader-follower relationships among countries reveal systemic biases known for mass media: Countries concentrate their attention to small groups of other countries, generating a pattern of centralization in which TTs follow the gradient of wealth across countries. At the same time, we find subjective biases within language communities linked to the cultural similarity of countries, in which countries with closer cultures and shared languages tend to follow each other’s TTs. Moreover, using a novel methodology based on the Google News service, we study the influence of mass media in TTs for four countries. We find that roughly half of the TTs in Twitter overlap with news reported by mass media, and that the rest of TTs are more likely to spread internationally within Twitter. Our results confirm that online social media have the power to independently spread content beyond mass media, but at the same time social media content follows economic incentives and is subject to cultural factors and language barriers. PMID:26230656

  20. Text Stream Trend Analysis using Multiscale Visual Analytics with Applications to Social Media Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Beaver, Justin M; BogenII, Paul L.; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G; Pyle, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new visual analytics system, called Matisse, that allows exploration of global trends in textual information streams with specific application to social media platforms. Despite the potential for real-time situational awareness using these services, interactive analysis of such semi-structured textual information is a challenge due to the high-throughput and high-velocity properties. Matisse addresses these challenges through the following contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sen- timent/emotion analytics, (3) inferential temporal, geospatial, and term-frequency visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that progresses from macroscale to microscale views. In addition to describing these contributions, our work-in-progress paper concludes with a practical case study focused on the analysis of Twitter 1% sample stream information captured during the week of the Boston Marathon bombings.

  1. Evolving trends in nurse regulation: what are the policy impacts for nursing's social mandate?

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan; Thorne, Sally; Rodney, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    We recognize a paradox of power and promise in the context of legislative and organizational changes in nurse regulation which poses constraints on nursing's capacity to bring voice and influence to pressing matters of healthcare and public policy. The profession is at an important crossroads wherein leaders must be well informed in political, economic and legislative trends to harness the profession's power while also navigating forces that may put at risk its central mission to serve society. We present a critical policy analysis of the impact of recent regulatory trends on what the International Council of Nurses considers nursing's three 'pillars' - the profession of nursing, socioeconomic welfare of nurses and nurse regulation. Themes surfacing from this analysis include regulatory discontinuity, a tightening of regulatory control, and an increasingly managerial governance culture. These themes illuminate insights and strategies required to renew and revitalize the social mandate of our profession amidst a climate of urgency in the questioning of nurse scholars with respect to the future of the profession. At this historic juncture, nurses must clearly understand the implications of legislative and organizational regulatory changes to ensure the profession contributes to full capacity in achieving health and health equity globally. PMID:25382628

  2. Social gradients in binge drinking and abstaining: trends in a cohort of British adults

    PubMed Central

    Jefferis, Barbara J M H; Manor, Orly; Power, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate (1) social gradients in non‐drinking and binge drinking, and (2) changes in social gradients in drinking with increasing age. Methods British men and women born during the same week in March 1958 were prospectively followed up to adulthood. The frequency and amount of alcohol use were recorded at age 23, 33 and 42 years. Abstainers “never” drank, binge drinkers consumed ⩾10 units (men) and ⩾7 units (women) per occasion. Educational qualifications and occupation were reported at age 23 and 33 years. Logistic and repeated‐measures models were used to investigate associations between social position and drinking status at single and multiple ages in adulthood. Results Less educated men and women had greater odds of being non‐drinkers at each age in adulthood, with similar gradients at ages 23–42 years. At 23 years of age, men without qualifications had 2.94 times greater odds of non‐drinking than men with higher qualifications. Less educated men had greater odds of binge drinking, and gradients did not change at ages 23–42 years. At age 23 years, less educated women had lower odds of binge drinking (odds ratio (OR) 0.67 for women with no qualifications) than women with higher qualifications. By age 42 years, the gradient reversed, and less educated women had higher odds of binge drinking (OR 2.68). Conclusions Stable gradients in non‐drinking and trends in gradients in binge drinking may reinforce alcohol‐related health inequalities over time. PMID:17234875

  3. Trends in Education Access and Financing during the Transition in Central And Eastern Europe. Social Challenges of Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Bruno; Ringold, Dena

    This paper is one in a series of reports based upon data from the "Social Challenges of Transition (SCT)" database. This cross-country study examines empirical trends in access to and financing of education in nine Central and East European countries. The study substantially improves the understanding of the impact of transition on education…

  4. Hmo1 directs pre-initiation complex assembly to an appropriate site on its target gene promoters by masking a nucleosome-free region.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Koji; Ohyama, Yoshifumi; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2011-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hmo1 binds to the promoters of ∼ 70% of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) at high occupancy, but is observed at lower occupancy on the remaining RPG promoters. In Δhmo1 cells, the transcription start site (TSS) of the Hmo1-enriched RPS5 promoter shifted upstream, while the TSS of the Hmo1-limited RPL10 promoter did not shift. Analyses of chimeric RPS5/RPL10 promoters revealed a region between the RPS5 upstream activating sequence (UAS) and core promoter, termed the intervening region (IVR), responsible for strong Hmo1 binding and an upstream TSS shift in Δhmo1 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that the RPS5-IVR resides within a nucleosome-free region and that pre-initiation complex (PIC) assembly occurs at a site between the IVR and a nucleosome overlapping the TSS (+1 nucleosome). The PIC assembly site was shifted upstream in Δhmo1 cells on this promoter, indicating that Hmo1 normally masks the RPS5-IVR to prevent PIC assembly at inappropriate site(s). This novel mechanism ensures accurate transcriptional initiation by delineating the 5'- and 3'-boundaries of the PIC assembly zone. PMID:21288884

  5. Tooth Loss in the United Kingdom – Trends in Social Inequalities: An Age-Period-and-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed trends in social inequalities in tooth loss in the United Kingdom between 1988 and 2009. Data from 20,126 adults who participated in the latest three national Adult Dental Health Surveys in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were used. Social class was determined using the 6-point Registrar General’s Social Class. Three indicators of tooth loss were analysed; the proportion of edentate people among all adults and the number of teeth and the proportion with functional dentition (defined as having 20+ teeth) among dentate adults. Trends were modelled within an age, period and cohort framework using partial least squares regression (PLSR). Confidence intervals for PLSR estimates were obtained using non-parametric bootstrapping. The Slope and Relative Index of Inequality (SII and RII) were used to quantify social inequalities in tooth loss. Between 1988 and 2009, absolute inequalities in total tooth loss narrowed (SII changed from −28.4% to −15.3%) while relative inequalities widened (RII from 6.21 to 20.9) in the whole population. On the other hand, absolute and relative social inequality in tooth loss remained fairly stable over time among dentate adults. There was an absolute difference of 2.5–2.9 in number of teeth and 22–26% in the proportion with functional dentition between the lowest and highest social classes. In relative terms, the highest social class had 10–11% more teeth and 25–28% higher probability of having functional dentition than the lowest social class. The findings show pervasive inequalities in tooth loss by social class among British adults despite marked improvements in tooth retention in recent years and generations. In the whole adult population, absolute inequalities in tooth loss have narrowed while relative inequalities have increased steadily. Among dentate adults, absolute and relative inequalities in number of teeth and proportion of people with functional dentition have remained significant but

  6. The Role of Research in Integrated Health Care Systems: The HMO Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Thomas M; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Tolsma, Dennis D; Greene, Sarah M

    2004-01-01

    Integrated care systems have unique advantages for conducting research. The HMO Research Network (HMORN) includes research centers associated with 13 large integrated care systems whose research focuses on improving health and health care delivery using the extraordinary platform provided by these health systems. We conducted literature reviews and surveys and interviews with directors of HMORN research centers, research investigators, and selected support staff in order to identify the characteristics of the research in HMORN centers and to present examples of how this research has affected health and health policy. The 13 HMORN member health systems deliver health care to 13 million people. HMORN research centers have access to large, defined populations, comprehensive medical information, extensive computerized data systems and to medical care delivery systems that offer extraordinary research opportunities. HMORN centers publish about 1200 scientific articles each year and received about $180 million in external research funding in 2002, most of it from NIH, CDC, and other federal sources. More than 2000 research studies are currently underway at these centers, which employ approximately 1500 persons in the research activities. HMORN research centers have had a profound impact on health policy and care. New technologies are steadily expanding the research capacities of these research groups. Increased collaboration between academic and HMO researchers would enhance the work of both. PMID:26705313

  7. Social behavior in the “Age of Empathy”?—A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences

    PubMed Central

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the “social brain” that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what “social” means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what “social” means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the “social.” The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond. PMID:23755003

  8. 29 CFR 2590.701-7 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion. 2590.701-7 Section 2590.701-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Health...

  9. 29 CFR 2590.701-7 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion. (a) In general. A group health plan... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting... BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR...

  10. 29 CFR 2590.701-7 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion. (a) In general. A group health plan... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting... BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR...

  11. 29 CFR 2590.701-7 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion. (a) In general. A group health plan... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting... BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR...

  12. Perceived Impact of Distribution of a Self-Care Book on Members of an HMO in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Richard; Chng, Chwee Lye

    Research has shown that medical self-care holds promise in not only improving health, but also in potentially reducing the cost of medical care. A study was conducted to evaluate the perceived impact of the distribution of a self-care book on members of a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas, area. Data were…

  13. 42 CFR 417.556 - Apportionment: Provider services furnished by the HMO or CMP through arrangements with others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apportionment: Provider services furnished by the HMO or CMP through arrangements with others. 417.556 Section 417.556 Public Health CENTERS...

  14. Community-Based Family-Focused Practice and Social Network Intervention. Data Trends #129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" examines research on the "contribution of informal support linkages in the achievement of treatment outcomes" in three models of family-based practice: Intensive Family…

  15. Demographic Trends in Social Work over a Quarter-Century in an Increasingly Female Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert; Morrish, Jennifer Naranjo; Liu, Gan

    2008-01-01

    This article depicts the changing demographic portrait of social work education in the United States from 1974 through 2000 and considers the demographic shifts in the profession of social work. During this period, BSW and joint MSW-BSW programs increased from 150 to 404, MSW programs increased from 79 to 139, and social work doctoral programs…

  16. PhD versus DSW: A Critique of Trends in Social Work Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyriesa

    2016-01-01

    Social work educators are in a phase of reintroducing the doctor of social work (DSW) degree and refining distinctions between PhD and DSW doctoral programs. This article examines how the two options have been prey to a noticeable "seesaw of precedence", resulting in a debatable history of social work's approach to doctoral education…

  17. Outcome Studies in Social Work Journals: A Review of Publication Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCroy, Craig W.; Williams, Lela Rankin

    2013-01-01

    Social work practice emerges from research conducted with outcome studies that attempt to capture the "change" that social work services are designed to influence. However, it is unclear the extent to which social workers are prioritizing, and thereby producing, publications that investigate this change. We find that both the number and…

  18. Time trends in social differences in nutrition habits of a Lithuanian population: 1994-2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the post-communist transition period, political, economic, and social changes affected the lifestyles of the Lithuanian population, including their nutritional habits. However, people of lower socio-economic position were more vulnerable to these changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the trends in selected food habits of the Lithuanian adult population by their level of education and place of residence from 1994 to 2010. Methods The data were obtained from nine biannual cross-sectional postal surveys of Lithuanian health behaviours, beginning in 1994. Each survey used a randomly selected nationally representative sample of 3000 inhabitants aged 20-64 drawn from the population register. In total, 7358 men and 9796 women participated in these surveys. Questions about food consumption were included within all health behaviour questionnaires. Results During the transition period, use of vegetable oil in cooking and the frequency of consumption of fresh vegetables increased, use of butter on bread decreased, and the proportion of women drinking high-fat milk declined. Lithuanians with higher education reported more frequent use of vegetable oil in cooking as well as daily consumption of fresh vegetables than those with a lower level of education. Consumption of high-fat milk was inversely associated with educational background. In addition, the proportion of persons spreading butter on bread increased with higher education level. The greatest urban-rural difference was observed in high-fat milk consumption. The increase in the use of vegetable oil in cooking, and the reduction of spreading butter on bread was more evident among less educated and rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, a greater proportion of the rural population, compared to urban, reduced their use of butter on bread. Daily consumption of fresh vegetables increased most among highly educated Lithuanians. Conclusions The data from our study indicate beneficial dietary changes

  19. Overall, gender and social inequalities in suicide mortality in Iran, 2006–2010: a time trend province-level study

    PubMed Central

    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Saadat, Soheil; Shahnavazi, Hossein; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Suicide is a major global health problem imposing a considerable burden on populations in terms of disability-adjusted life years. There has been an increasing trend in fatal and attempted suicide in Iran over the past few decades. The aim of the current study was to assess overall, gender and social inequalities across Iran’s provinces during 2006–2010. Design Ecological study. Setting The data on distribution of population at the provinces were obtained from the Statistical Centre of Iran. The data on the annual number of deaths caused by suicide in each province were gathered from the Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization. Methods Suicide mortality rate per 100 000 population was calculated. Human Development Index was used as the provinces’ social rank. Gini coefficient, rate ratio and Kunst and Mackenbach relative index of inequality were used to assess overall, gender and social inequalities, respectively. Annual percentage change was calculated using Joinpoint regression. Results Suicide mortality has slightly increased in Iran during 2006–2010. There was a substantial and constant overall inequality across the country over the study period. Male-to-female rate ratio was 2.34 (95% CI 1.45 to 3.79) over the same period. There were social inequalities in suicide mortality in favour of people in better-off provinces. In addition, there was an increasing trend in these social disparities over time, although it was not statistically significant. Conclusions We found substantial overall, gender and social disparities in the distribution of suicide mortality across the provinces in Iran. The findings showed that men in the provinces with low socioeconomic status are at higher risk of suicide mortality. Further analyses are needed to explain these disparities. PMID:25138804

  20. The New Zealand Family and Social Change: A Trend Analysis. Occasional Papers in Sociology and Social Welfare No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburgh, Miriam Gilson

    Long term trends in non-Maori family formation, growth, and dissolution in New Zealand were investigated with data mainly derived from the statistical reports of government departments. Sources included census reports; vital, justice, medical, and migration statistics; life tables; and official yearbooks. To augment official statistical data, an…

  1. Managed care matures. What's behind the wave of anti-HMO legislation?

    PubMed

    van Amerongen, D

    1997-01-01

    At first glance, it may appear as if managed care itself may be doomed. The avalanche of bills, measures, initiatives, Federal regulations, etc., seemed overwhelming in late 1996. Did this, in fact, portend a national shift away from managed care? What does the consumer protection and regulatory activity really mean? What directions for the future can be identified? This article seeks to answer those questions and highlights a case study of "reform gone awry" that may hold lessons for the national scene. The anti-HMO legislation activity does not represent a repudiation of managed care. Rather, it may be seen as a maturing of the entire process of redefining our medical delivery and financing system. PMID:10167472

  2. HMO behavior and stock market valuation: what does Wall Street reward and punish?

    PubMed

    Pauly, M V; Hillman, A L; Furukawa, M F; McCullough, J S

    2001-01-01

    This article analyzes the variation in returns to owning stock in investor-owned health maintenance organizations (IOHMOs) for the period 1994-1997. The average return (measured by the change in the market value of the stock plus dividends) was close to zero, but returns were positive and high for firms operating in local markets that were and remained less competitive, with large nationwide scope, and with less rapidly growing panels of contracted physicians. Indicators of a firm's strategic direction were abstracted from their annual reports; firms pursuing a merger or acquisition strategy, and those emphasizing a utilization review strategy, showed lower returns than those that did not. Other strategy and market variables were not related to stock market returns over this period, and were also generally not related to price-earnings ratios. This analysis supports the view that competitive HMO markets best constrain profits to investor-owned firms. PMID:11669294

  3. Hospital social work in Australia: emerging trends or more of the same?

    PubMed

    Cleak, Helen M; Turczynski, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Social work in health care has been established for more than 100 years and is one of the largest areas of practice for social workers. Over time, demographic changes and growth in the aging population, increased longevity rates, an explosion in rates of chronic illness together with rapidly increasing cost of health care have created serious challenges for acute hospitals and health social workers. This article reviews the Australian health care system and policies with particular emphasis on the public hospital system. It then examines current hospital social work roles, including the continued role in discharge planning and expanding responsibility for emerging client problems, such as patient complexity, legal, and carer issues. The article concludes with a discussion of evolving issues and challenges facing health social work to ensure that social work remain relevant within this practice context. PMID:24628115

  4. Social media for empowering people with diabetes: Current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Galvez, Pedro; Suarez Mejias, Cristina; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2015-08-01

    The use of social media has become commonplace in society. Consequently, many people living with chronic conditions are turning to social media applications to support self-management. This paper presents a formative non-exhaustive review of research literature regarding the role of social media for diabetes type II empowerment. In our review, we identified several major areas for diabetes health social media research, namely: a) social network data analytics, b) mHealth and diabetes, c) gamification for diabetes, c) wearable, and d) MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). In all these areas, we analyzed how social media is being used and the challenges emerging from its application in the diabetes domain. PMID:26736711

  5. Recent Trends in Social Reproduction in France: Should the Political Promises of Education Be Revisited?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duru-Bellat, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Relying upon recent research, this article puts into perspective the evolution of inequalities concerning both education and life chances in France since the 1960s. While a dramatic expansion of education has taken place, what consequences can one observe as far as social mobility and more broadly social reproduction are concerned? In fact, French…

  6. Teaching Social Studies: Handbook of Trends, Issues, and Implications for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Virginia S., Ed.; Litle, James A., Ed.; Wilson, Gerald Lee, Ed.

    This book of essays provides a set of reference sources on the field of social studies. The introduction places the discipline in context, connecting it with the society and the world that it helps to explain. The 15 chapters include: (1) "Persistent Issues in the Social Studies" (Stanley P. Wronski); (2) "Reform Revisited: The Story of Elementary…

  7. How Activists and Media Frame Social Problems: Critical Events versus Performance Trends for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pride, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time of a tax…

  8. The evolving idea of social responsibility in bioethics: a welcome trend.

    PubMed

    Ahola-Launonen, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    This article discusses the notion of social responsibility for personal health and well-being in bioethics. Although social responsibility is an intrinsic aspect of bioethics, and its role is increasingly recognized in certain areas, it can still be claimed that bioethics in general is committed to an individualistic theoretical framework that disregards the social context in which decisions, health, and well-being are situated. The philosophical premises of this framework regard individuals as rational decisionmakers who can be held accountable for their health conditions and who should be the primary objects of intervention in attempts to reduce lifestyle-associated chronic diseases. There are, however, social determinants of health that challenge this conclusion. Because their impact can be controlled, to a certain extent, by social and public policy decisions, their existence shows the inadequacy of the purely individualistic approach. I suggest, accordingly, that bioethics would benefit, both academically and societally, from a more social perspective. Bioethical studies that acknowledge, from the start, the social determinants of health would be more amenable to constructive multi- and interdisciplinarity, and a more balanced account of responsibility would further the contribution of sound bioethical work to sensible public policies. PMID:25719356

  9. Medical cost-offset following treatment referral for alcohol and other drug use disorders in a group model HMO.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Freeborn, Donald K; Lynch, Frances L; Mullooly, John P; Dickinson, Daniel M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether specialty alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment is associated with reduced subsequent medical care costs. AOD treatment costs and medical costs in a group model health maintenance organization (HMO) were collected for up to 6 years on 1,472 HMO members who were recommended for specialty AOD treatment, and on 738 members without AOD diagnoses or treatment. Addiction Severity Index measures were also obtained from a sample of 293 of those recommended for treatment. Changes in medical costs did not differ between treatment and comparison groups. Nor did individuals with improved treatment outcomes have greater reductions in medical costs. AOD treatment costs were not inversely related to subsequent medical costs, except for a subgroup with recent AOD treatment. In the interviewed sample, better treatment outcomes did not predict lower subsequent medical costs. Multiple treatment episodes may hold promise for producing cost-offsets. PMID:16752110

  10. Effects of Macroeconomic Trends on Social Security Spending Due to Sickness and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jahangir; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.; Jansson, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the relationship between macroeconomic conditions, measured as unemployment rate and social security spending, from 4 social security schemes and total spending due to sickness and disability. Methods. We obtained aggregated panel data from 13 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries for 1980–1996. We used regression analysis and fixed effect models to examine spending on sickness benefits, disability pensions, occupational-injury benefits, survivor’s pensions, and total spending. Results. A decline in unemployment increased sickness benefits spending and reduced disability pension spending. These effects reversed direction after 4 years of unemployment. Inclusion of mortality rate as an additional variable in the analysis did not affect the findings. Conclusions. Macroeconomic conditions influence some reimbursements from social security schemes but not total spending. PMID:15514244

  11. The Postgraduate Premium: Revisiting Trends in Social Mobility and Educational Inequalities in Britain and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Joanne; Machin, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This report revisits the debate about why social mobility levels are relatively low in Great Britain and the United States of America compared to other countries. It focuses on three main areas within this debate: (1) the changing role of educational inequalities; (2) the expectation of ever higher levels of education as revealed in increasing…

  12. Preservice Teachers' Social Networking Use, Concerns, and Educational Possibilities: Trends from 2008 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joan E.; Ko, Yujung; Lim, Mihyun; Liu, Sa

    2015-01-01

    This four-year, cross-sectional study, situated in one U.S. university, investigated 206 preservice teachers' use of social network services (SNS) in teacher preparation and their disposition toward using it in their future teaching. Using descriptive survey methodology, results revealed nearly all preservice teachers used a general SNS (e.g.,…

  13. Trends Affecting Recruitment and Retention of Social Work Staff in Human Services Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewalt, Patricia L.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that working conditions will have marked influence on employee recruitment to and retention in social work profession. Sees graduates' expectations influenced by ability to exercise professional judgment, increased career orientation of women, frequency of midlife career change, and entry of newcomers from non-Western cultures. (Author/NB)

  14. National Trends in Elementary Instruction: Exploring the Role of Social Studies Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heafner, Tina L.; Fitchett, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Center for Educational Statistics research spanning fifteen years, researchers examined the impact of national educational policy implementation on the role of social studies in elementary schools. Specifically, with the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in 2007 and the continuation of federal-mandated…

  15. Social Networks and Physical Activity Behaviors Among Cancer Survivors: Data From the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey

    PubMed Central

    KIM, BANG HYUN; WALLINGTON, SHERRIE F.; MAKAMBI, KEPHER H.; ADAMS-CAMPBELL, LUCILE L.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relation between social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. The authors examined 873 cancer survivors (596 women, 277 men) 50 years of age or older who participated in the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that survivors who talked about health with friends/family were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.89, CI [1.01, 8.33]). Female survivors were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.65, CI [1.55, 4.53]) and more likely to have seen, heard, or read physical activity/exercise and cancer information within the past 12 months (OR = 2.09, CI [1.13, 3.85]) compared with their male counterparts. For male survivors, those who were a member of at least one community organization were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity/exercise recommendations (OR = 5.31, CI [1.32, 21.22]) than the men who were not members. Overall, cancer survivors with a social network (i.e., talking to family/friends about health) were more likely to pay attention to new exercise recommendations compared with those who did not have a social network. Significant differences were also observed by gender with physical activity levels, knowledge, and attitudes. Social networking is an important component in cancer survivorship and further research is needed to encourage social networking strategies that might facilitate in increasing physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. PMID:25978562

  16. Social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors: data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Wallington, Sherrie F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relation between social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. The authors examined 873 cancer survivors (596 women, 277 men) 50 years of age or older who participated in the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that survivors who talked about health with friends/family were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.89, CI [1.01, 8.33]). Female survivors were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.65, CI [1.55, 4.53]) and more likely to have seen, heard, or read physical activity/exercise and cancer information within the past 12 months (OR = 2.09, CI [1.13, 3.85]) compared with their male counterparts. For male survivors, those who were a member of at least one community organization were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity/exercise recommendations (OR = 5.31, CI [1.32, 21.22]) than the men who were not members. Overall, cancer survivors with a social network (i.e., talking to family/friends about health) were more likely to pay attention to new exercise recommendations compared with those who did not have a social network. Significant differences were also observed by gender with physical activity levels, knowledge, and attitudes. Social networking is an important component in cancer survivorship and further research is needed to encourage social networking strategies that might facilitate in increasing physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. PMID:25978562

  17. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  18. Screening and brief intervention for hazardous drinking in an HMO: effects on medical care utilization.

    PubMed

    Freeborn, D K; Polen, M R; Hollis, J F; Senft, R A

    2000-11-01

    This study examined whether a brief intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol consumption among primary care patients reduced use of medical care. In a parent, randomized controlled trial, at-risk drinkers identified in HMO outpatient waiting rooms were randomly assigned to receive usual care or brief clinician advice plus a 15-minute motivational counseling session. The current study (n = 514) examined the groups' use of outpatient and inpatient medical services during two years after intervention. Although the intervention reduced alcohol consumption at six-month follow-up, intervention and control groups made similar numbers of outpatient visits (M = 17.7 vs. 18.3, respectively; p = .47), were equally likely to be hospitalized (21.2% vs. 22.0%; p = .81), and among those hospitalized, had similar lengths of stay (4.7 vs. 6.6 days; p = .37). Although brief interventions to reduce hazardous drinking may potentially reduce medical care utilization, more evidence is needed to substantiate their practicality and cost-effectiveness. PMID:11070638

  19. Incidence and prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an HMO of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Mariela; Vicens, Jimena; Giunta, Diego Hernán; Rugiero, Marcelo; Cristiano, Edgardo

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ranges from 1.7 to 2.3 per 100,000 persons worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have been published in Latin America. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ALS in an HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) of Buenos Aires, capital city of Argentina. The population studied was affiliates of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, whose distribution across age and gender strata is similar to the population of Buenos Aires. Cases were detected from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010. Incidence density (ID) and prevalence for ALS were estimated for the whole period and at 31 December 2010, respectively. During the seven-year study period, the crude ID estimated was 3.17 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 2.24-4.48) and the age-adjusted ID for the Buenos Aires population was 2.23 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.45-3.01). Point prevalence at 31 December 2010 was 8.86 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 4.05-13.68). Mean age at diagnosis was 72.29 years (SD 8.5). In conclusion, estimated age-adjusted ID and prevalence of ALS were similar to the incidence and prevalence rates found in other geographical areas. PMID:23834086

  20. Behavioral, health, and cost outcomes of an HMO-based prenatal health education program.

    PubMed Central

    Ershoff, D H; Aaronson, N K; Danaher, B G; Wasserman, F W

    1983-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of a prenatal health education program conducted within a health maintenance organization (HMO) setting. Specifically, the behavioral, birth, and treatment-cost outcomes for 57 women in an experimental group who received individual nutrition counseling and a home-correspondence smoking cessation program were evaluated against the outcomes for 72 women in a control group who received standard prenatal care. In comparison with the controls, a greater percentage of women in the experimental group quit smoking during pregnancy (49.1 percent versus 37.5 percent). Of those who smoked throughout their pregnancy, women in the experimental group had a greater reduction in their mean rate of daily smoking. A significantly greater percentage of experimental group women adjusted their diets during the prenatal period (91 percent versus 68 percent), and particular success was achieved in increased consumption of dairy products and vegetables, decreased consumption of coffee, and adequate weight gain during pregnancy. Analysis of birth outcome data revealed that infants born to the experimental group had a significantly higher mean birth weight than infants born to the controls (121.34 oz versus 113.64 oz). The experimental group also had fewer low birth weight infants (7.0 percent versus 9.7 percent for controls). Hospital treatment cost savings associated with the reduced incidence of low birth weight infants among experimental group women yielded an overall benefit-cost ratio for the prenatal program of approximately 2:1. PMID:6419268

  1. Do HMOs reduce health care costs? A multivariate analysis of two Medicare HMO demonstration projects.

    PubMed Central

    McCombs, J S; Kasper, J D; Riley, G F

    1990-01-01

    Charge data from two Medicare HMO demonstration projects were analyzed to determine if prepaid plans achieved cost savings for enrolled beneficiaries. Fallon Community Health Plan of Massachusetts did not reduce total charges significantly for survivors in their first year postenrollment. However, the plan enjoyed reductions in total charges per month after the first year of nearly 38 percent (41 percent for Part A; 31 percent for Part B). Savings for decedents were more modest, reducing total charges per month by around 27 percent (19 percent, Part A; 68 percent, Part B). Greater Marshfield Community Health Plan of Wisconsin was not successful in controlling charges during the demonstration period. Marshfield incurred losses in the first postenrollment year for survivors due to a 38 percent increase in total charges per month (18 percent, Part A; 73 percent, Part B). In the second year postenrollment, the Marshfield plan was able to reduce losses for survivors to roughly 11 percent (-6 percent, Part A; 44 percent, Part B). For decedents, Marshfield experienced an increase in total charges per month of approximately 21 percent relative to fee-for-service comparisons, with Part B charges again much higher than those of the comparison group (47 percent). PMID:2211129

  2. The HMO Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse: A Public Data Model to Support Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Tyler R.; Ng, Daniel; Brown, Jeffrey S.; Pardee, Roy; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Hart, Gene; Steiner, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) is a public, non-proprietary, research-focused data model implemented at 17 health care systems across the United States. The HMORN has created a governance structure and specified policies concerning the VDW’s content, development, implementation, and quality assurance. Data extracted from the VDW have been used by thousands of studies published in peer-reviewed journal articles. Advances in software supporting care delivery and claims processing and the availability of new data sources have greatly expanded the data available for research, but substantially increased the complexity of data management. The VDW data model incorporates software and data advances to ensure that comprehensive, up-to-date data of known quality are available for research. VDW governance works to accommodate new data and system complexities. This article highlights the HMORN VDW data model, its governance principles, data content, and quality assurance procedures. Our goal is to share the VDW data model and its operations to those wishing to implement a distributed interoperable health care data system. PMID:25848584

  3. Comparison of use of outpatient mental health services in an HMO and fee-for-service plans. Sensitivity to definition of a visit.

    PubMed

    Wells, K B; Manning, W G; Benjamin, B

    1987-09-01

    Whereas previous authors have used a variety of strategies to identify use of mental health services, the sensitivity of estimates to the definition of a visit has been little studied. The authors examined the sensitivity of estimates of use of outpatient mental health services in both HMO and fee-for-service plans to the method of identifying outpatient mental health visits. The HMO and fee-for-service plans had identical benefits (i.e., free care). Data were from the Rand Health Insurance Study. Mental health visits were identified using two definitions: presence of a mental health diagnosis or procedure; and presence of a mental health procedure, diagnosis, or prescription for psychotropic medication in the absence of physical disorders requiring such medications. The major policy conclusions about lower levels of use in the HMO compared to fee-for-service plans were insensitive to the definition of a visit. Nevertheless, estimates of use of general medical providers were higher when psychotropic medications were included in the definition of a mental health visit; this sensitivity to definition was significantly greater for fee-for-service than HMO participants (P less than 0.05). Further, conclusions about the comparability of enrollment mental health status of patients treated by general medical providers in HMO and fee-for-service plans were somewhat sensitive to the definition of a visit. PMID:3695680

  4. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-01-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels. PMID:2116384

  5. The trend of body donation for education based on Korean social and religious culture.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Jang, Yoonsun; Park, Min Sun; Pae, Calvin; Park, Jinyi; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Park, Jin-Seo; Han, Seung-Ho; Koh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Until a century ago, Korean medicine was based mainly on Oriental philosophies and ideas. From a religious perspective, Chinese Confucianism was prevalent in Korea at that time. Since Confucianists believe that it is against one's filial duty to harm his or her body, given to them by their parents, most Koreans did not donate their bodies or organs for education in the past. However, by the end of the 20th century, a unique fusion of Western and Oriental medicines were produced on the Korean Peninsula, revolutionizing traditional perspectives on the human body, mortality, and the relationship of medical science to society. Koreans began to think about others' lives as well as their own by realizing the importance of donating one's organs and bodies for scientific purposes. Since then, the number of people donating their bodies to Korean medical and dental schools for the purpose of improving academic learning has increased dramatically. In response, Korean medical schools have begun to hold various types of funeral ceremonies to honor body donors. We have compared such ceremonies performed in Korea with those performed in the United States of America and Taiwan. These ceremonies are viewed as a suitable way to pay proper respect to the dead and to promote knowledge about body donation programs in Korea. Overall, the transition of religions and social ethics in Korea has greatly facilitated body bequeathal programs, benefiting both medical education and the Korean public health administration. PMID:21265035

  6. Implementing evidence-based practices for youth in an HMO: the roles of external ratings and market share.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, John; Daleiden, Eric; Dopson, Sue

    2011-05-01

    A qualitative study of child clinicians in a non-profit HMO examined implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for anxiety and oppositional defiant disorders using interviews and focus groups with 33 clinicians (97% of participants), and ethnography of emails and meetings. Analysis showed statistical measures of access and service-key elements of rating organizations' "report cards"- were central in creating "pressure" making transition to EBPs difficult. EBPs were secondary to access and service targets. "Research" and "statistics" were perceived as unrealistic, "literature" as lacking authority. Rating organizations should include outcome and fidelity metrics to align market share pressures with children's health. PMID:21461777

  7. Increasing physical activity, but persisting social gaps among middle-aged people: trends in Northern Sweden from 1990 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Nawi; Söderman, Kerstin; Norberg, Margareta; Öhman, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is identified as one important protective factor for chronic diseases. Physical activity surveillance is important in assessing healthy population behaviour over time. Many countries lack population trends on physical activity. Objective To present trends in physical activity levels in Västerbotten County, Sweden and to evaluate physical activity among women and men with various educational levels. Methods opulation-based cross-sectional and panel data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) during 1990–2007 were used. All individuals in Västerbotten County who turned 40, 50, or 60 years old were invited to their local primary health care for a health screening. Physical activity during commuting, recreational activities, physical exercise, and socio-demographic data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were categorised as sedentary, moderate physically active, or physically active. Results The prevalences of physically active behaviours increased from 16 to 24.2% among men and from 12.6 to 30.4% among women. Increases are observed in all educational groups, but gaps between educational groups widened recently. The level of sedentary behaviour was stable over the time period studied. The 10-year follow-up data show that the prevalences of physically active behaviours increased from 15.8 to 21.4% among men and 12.7 to 23.3% among women. However, 10.2% of men and 3.8% of women remained sedentary. Conclusion Despite the promising evidence of increasing physical activity levels among the population in Västerbotten County, challenges remain for how to reduce the stable levels of sedentary behaviours in some subgroups. Persisting social gaps in physical activity levels should be addressed further. An exploration of people's views on engaging in physical activity and barriers to doing so will allow better formulation of targeted interventions within this population. PMID:21799669

  8. Trends and social differentials in child mortality in Rwanda 1990–2010: results from three demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Binagwaho, Agnes; Persson, Lars-Åke; Selling, Katarina Ekholm

    2015-01-01

    Background Rwanda has embarked on ambitious programmes to provide equitable health services and reduce mortality in childhood. Evidence from other countries indicates that advances in child survival often have come at the expense of increasing inequity. Our aims were to analyse trends and social differentials in mortality before the age of 5 years in Rwanda from 1990 to 2010. Methods We performed secondary analyses of data from three Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010 in Rwanda. These surveys included 34 790 children born between 1990 and 2010 to women aged 15–49 years. The main outcome measures were neonatal mortality rates (NMR) and under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) over time, and in relation to mother's educational level, urban or rural residence and household wealth. Generalised linear mixed effects models and a mixed effects Cox model (frailty model) were used, with adjustments for confounders and cluster sampling method. Results Mortality rates in Rwanda peaked in 1994 at the time of the genocide (NMR 60/1000 live births, 95% CI 51 to 65; U5MR 238/1000 live births, 95% CI 226 to 251). The 1990s and the first half of the 2000s were characterised by a marked rural/urban divide and inequity in child survival between maternal groups with different levels of education. Towards the end of the study period (2005–2010) NMR had been reduced to 26/1000 (95% CI 23 to 29) and U5MR to 65/1000 (95% CI 61 to 70), with little or no difference between urban and rural areas, and household wealth groups, while children of women with no education still had significantly higher U5MR. Conclusions Recent reductions in child mortality in Rwanda have concurred with improved social equity in child survival. Current challenges include the prevention of newborn deaths. PMID:25870163

  9. Psychological and Social Factors Affecting Internet Searches on Suicide in Korea: A Big Data Analysis of Google Search Trends

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae Min; Song, Juyoung; Hayman, Laura L.; Woo, Jong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The average mortality rate for death by suicide among OECD countries is 12.8 per 100000, and 33.5 for Korea. The present study analyzed big data extracted from Google to identify factors related to searches on suicide in Korea. Materials and Methods Google search trends for the search words of suicide, stress, exercise, and drinking were obtained for 2004-2010. Analyzing data by month, the relationship between the actual number of suicides and search words per year was examined using multi-level models. Results Both suicide rates and Google searches on suicide in Korea increased since 2007. An unconditional slope model indicated stress and suicide-related searches were positively related. A conditional model showed that factors associated with suicide by year directly affected suicide-related searches. The interaction between stress-related searches and the actual number of suicides was significant. Conclusion A positive relationship between stress- and suicide-related searches further confirmed that stress affects suicide. Taken together and viewed in context of the big data analysis, our results point to the need for a tailored prevention program. Real-time big data can be of use in indicating increases in suicidality when search words such as stress and suicide generate greater numbers of hits on portals and social network sites. PMID:24339315

  10. [The economic crisis at the beginning of the XXI century and mortality in Spain. Trend and impact on social inequalities. SESPAS Report 2014].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Juárez, Sol; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the current economic crisis on mortality trends in Spain and its effect on social inequalities in mortality in Andalusia. We used data from vital statistics and the Population Register for 1999 to 2011, as provided by the Spanish Institute of Statistics, to estimate general and sex- and age-specific mortality rates. The Longitudinal Database of the Andalusian Population (2001 census cohort) was used to estimate general mortality rates and ratios by educational level. The annual percentages of change and trends were calculated using Joinpoint regressions. No significant change in the mortality trend was observed in Spain from 2008 onward. A downward trend after 1999 was confirmed for all causes and both sexes, with the exception of nervous system-related diseases. The reduction in mortality due to traffic accidents accelerated after 2003, while the negative trend in suicide was unchanged throughout the period studied. In Andalusia, social inequalities in mortality have increased among men since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to a more intense reduction in mortality among persons with a higher educational level. Among women, no changes were observed in the pattern of inequality. PMID:24612790

  11. Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

  12. Effects of short-term alcohol on the hepatic microsomal monooxygenase system (HMO) in rats receiving nutrition sufficient to promote normal' weight gains

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, T.; Ronis, M.; Lumpkin, C.; Ingelman-Sundberg, M.; Shahare, M.; Mercado, C.; Huang, J.; Irby, D.; Crouch, J. )

    1991-03-15

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of two clinically relevant diets on HMO and to determine if ethanol has demonstrable effects in the presence of dietary sources that promote normal growth rates. A model in which ethanol was infused directly into the stomach as part of a total enteral nutrition system (TEN) was used in the current study. The effects of the two liquid diets alone or of TEN where 35% of the total calories in the diets were replaced by ethanol for 8 days were examined on HMO of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. HMO activities were determined using standard enzyme assays with specific substrates and cytochrome P450 apoprotein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. The results of these studies suggest: that short-term dietary ethanol can induce CYP 2E1 in well nourished animals but that the level of induction is smaller than that previously reported using Lieber-DeCarli pair feeding regimens; that diet alone has a significant influence on constitutive levels of P450 isozymes including CYP 2E1; that diet influences the effects of ethanol on HMO; and that the TEN system is a useful model for the study of diet/drug interactions.

  13. Maintaining Medicare HMO's: Problems, Protections and Prospects. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine issues involved in maintaining and strengthening Medicare Health Maintenance Orgranizations (HMO). Opening statements are included from Representatives Edward Roybal, Matthew Rinaldo, Mario Biaggi, Don Bonker, Robert Borski, Louise…

  14. Latino Population Growth, Characteristics, and Settlement Trends: Implications for Social Work Education in a Dynamic Political Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Kilty, Keith M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies a number of significant contemporary trends in the Latino population, including the striking growth of the community, new points of entry and settlement for recent immigrants, the mixed-status nature of families, and the increase in the proportion of U.S. households that speak Spanish. The implications of these trends for…

  15. Towards the Year 2000: Demographic, Economic, Social, Political, and Educational Trends. OSISD Volume 5: Report Number 2. Special Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, May K. C.; And Others

    Factors that are likely to affect higher education in New Jersey and the nation are identified. Statistical data and a brief narrative summary cover major demographic, economic, sociopolitical, and higher education trends. Comparative economic data indicate trends in production, occupational employment, the civilian labor force, and personal…

  16. Collaborations in population-based health research: the 17th annual HMO Research Network Conference, March 23-25, 2011, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Tracy A; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Moreira, Andrea; Platt, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 16 health care systems with integrated research centers. Approximately 475 people participated in its 17(th) annual conference, hosted by the Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The theme, "Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research," reflected the network's emphasis on collaborative studies both among its members and with external investigators. Plenary talks highlighted the initial phase of the HMORN's work to establish the NIH-HMO Collaboratory, opportunities for public health collaborations, the work of early career investigators, and the state of the network. Platform and poster presentations showcased a broad spectrum of innovative public domain research in areas including disease epidemiology and treatment, health economics, and information technology. Special interest group sessions and ancillary meetings provided venues for informal conversation and structured work among ongoing groups, including networks in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, medical product safety, and mental health. PMID:22090515

  17. Children, Families and Poverty: Definitions, Trends, Emerging Science and Implications for Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 26, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Raver, Cybele

    2012-01-01

    Now, more than ever, it is crucial to address the topic of children and poverty in the U.S., given current scientific knowledge about poverty's influence on children and effective strategies to mitigate its negative impact. In this report, we summarize the best available information on definitions and trends in child poverty, policy responses to…

  18. Trends in Network Television Drama and Viewer Conceptions of Social Reality, 1967-1973. Violence Profile Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbner, George; Gross, Larry

    Trends in violence in television drama were measured over a seven-year period climaxing with 1973-1974. About 70 percent of programing in 1973 contained violent episodes, as opposed to 80 percent in 1967. However the proportion of domestic crime programs increased, while programs of historic or exotic episodes declined, so that violence was…

  19. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Cláudia Silva; Dias, Maria Angélica Salles; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Viana, Thaís Claudino; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma. PMID:27420078

  20. Gender differences in predictors of initiation, retention, and completion in an HMO-based substance abuse treatment program.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Dickinson, Daniel M; Lynch, Frances L; Bennett, Marjorie D

    2002-12-01

    We studied gender differences in treatment process indicators among 293 HMO members recommended for substance abuse treatment. Treatment initiation, completion, and time spent in treatment did not differ by gender, but factors predicting these outcomes differed markedly. Initiation was predicted in women by alcohol diagnoses; in men, by being employed or married. Failure to initiate treatment was predicted in women by mental health diagnoses; in men, by less education. Treatment completion was predicted in women by higher income and legal/agency referral; in men, by older age. Failure to complete was predicted in women by more dependence diagnoses and higher Addiction Severity Index Employment scores; in men, by worse psychiatric status, receiving Medicaid, and motivation for entering treatment. More time spent in treatment was predicted, in women, by alcohol or opiate diagnoses and legal/agency referral; in men, by fewer mental health diagnoses, higher education, domestic violence victim status, and prior 12-step attendance. Clinical implications of results are discussed. PMID:12495790

  1. HMO development in an academic medical center: the rise and fall of a prepaid health program in New York city.

    PubMed

    Bosch, S J; Deuschle, K W

    1993-08-01

    Through a documented case study the authors identify the critical factors that impede the introduction of prepaid medical care as part of education and practice within a prestigious and well established academic medical center. The inherent conflicts between individual fee-for-service practice and population-based prepaid practice and the resistance to innovations in medical care organization as they surfaced in that center, are presented. The need for a clear understanding of the complexities of HMO development and of an appreciation for the importance of a planning process in which all interested parties are involved, is emphasized. A clear commitment by policy makers, administrators and providers is highlighted as fundamental for the implementation of a system where practitioners are motivated to assume responsibility for the comprehensive care of a defined population that prepays for their services. The rewards as well as the difficulties for institutionalizing commitment to this form of health care delivery and impacting on medical education are discussed. PMID:8408749

  2. Stakeholder supportiveness and strategic vulnerability: implications for competitive strategy in the HMO industry.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, C J; Blair, J D; Smith, R R; Nix, T W; Savage, G T

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual and empirical analysis of the strategic vulnerability of HMOs shows that they are strategically vulnerable on the social dimension of stakeholder supportiveness. One of the major implications of this finding is that HMOs' cost leadership strategy cannot be sustained, given the competition from such substitutes as PPAs. PMID:2670835

  3. TREND DATA 1971 - 1995

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trend Data provides information up to 25 years of Veteran Data. Included are social and economic information about veterans, demographical and geographical veteran information, statistical information by veteran program areas and veteran survey information as well as references t...

  4. Are you using social media to build your practice? Patient trends and healthcare changes give new value to online presence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    Social media is an effective, efficient tool for physicians to use to grow their practices, network, and distribute information to large groups of people. While 87% of physicians use social media in their personal lives--everything from Facebook, to Twitter, to blogs and YouTube--only 26% use two or more sites for connecting professionally. What an opportunity they're missing! Healthcare professionals, in particular, must heed a few words of warning, but beyond that, there are some proven tricks for developing a respected, charismatic online presence. PMID:23167037

  5. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  6. Gender differences in outcomes in an HMO-based substance abuse treatment program.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Lynch, Frances L; Dickinson, Daniel M; Bennett, Marjorie D

    2004-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in treatment outcomes and outcomes predictors among 155 men and 81 women attending a gender-sensitive substance abuse treatment program. Bivariate analyses indicated women improved more than men in social/family and daily functioning domains, but differences disappeared after controlling for baseline characteristics. Multivariate models predicting treatment outcomes revealed that, across Addiction Severity Index domains, outcomes for men were predicted primarily by mental health and medical conditions, severity of the substance abuse problem, and treatment com- pletion. For women, in addition to treatment completion, outcomes were more likely to be predicted by social, socio-demographic, and life-history characteristics. For abstinence outcomes, women who completed treatment were 9 times as likely to be abstinent at 7-month follow-up as other women; men who completed were 3 times more likely to be abstinent than other men. Women with more severe psychiatric status and those who felt their life was out of control were less likely to be abstinent, as were men who lived alone. Clinicians targeting such factors differentially for men and women may enhance the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:15132342

  7. Women's health: marketing challenges for the 21st century. The future of women's health care reflects demographic, social, and economic trends. MHS staff.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    The notion of a separate "women's health" component within the U.S. health care system emerged in the 1980s as many health care organizations recognized the opportunities offered by this market. While originally addressed traditional women's needs such as OB services, the 1990s witnessed as expansion of the scope of women's services as baby-boom women became a driving force for consumerism. For health care marketers, the female market is in many THE market for health care for the future and health care organizations have responded to this opportunity in a variety of ways. Demographic, social, and economic trends will only serve to increase the importance of women as health care consumers. For both providers of care and marketers, the women's market is clearly a force to be reckoned with as health care enters the 21st century. PMID:11185874

  8. Competitive bidding for health insurance contracts: lessons from the online HMO auctions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Alok; Parente, Stephen T; Sanyal, Pallab

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare is an important social and economic component of modern society, and the effective use of information technology in this industry is critical to its success. As health insurance premiums continue to rise, competitive bidding may be useful in generating stronger price competition and lower premium costs for employers and possibly, government agencies. In this paper, we assess an endeavor by several Fortune 500 companies to reduce healthcare procurement costs for their employees by having HMOs compete in open electronic auctions. Although the auctions were successful in generating significant cost savings for the companies in the first year, i.e., 1999, they failed to replicate the success and were eventually discontinued after two more years. Over the past decade since the failed auction experiment, effective utilization of information technologies have led to significant advances in the design of complex electronic markets. Using this knowledge, and data from the auctions, we point out several shortcomings of the auction design that, we believe, led to the discontinuation of the market after three years. Based on our analysis, we propose several actionable recommendations that policy makers can use to design a sustainable electronic market for procuring health insurance. PMID:23224233

  9. Stemming the global obesity epidemic: What can we learn from data about social and economic trends?✩

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Summary Although the policy debate is only slowly moving away from the focus on individual-level psychological and social factors, the research community has largely recognized that changes in dietary and physical activity patterns are driven by changes in the environment and by the incentives that people face. Many factors have been suggested as causes of the ‘obesity epidemic’. Putting a multitude of isolated data points into a coherent picture is a challenging, but necessary, task to assess whether proposed solutions are promising or likely to lead down a blind alley. Conventional wisdom is an unreliable guide and some widely held beliefs are incorrect. Can one distinguish between important and less important behavioural changes and relate them to environmental incentives? People face trade-offs in allocating their scarce resources of time and money to best achieve their goals, including health. Studying what people are doing with their time and money is a good start towards understanding how economic incentives have altered energy intake and energy expenditure in a way that has led to weight gain. A challenging task for policy will be finding the right levers. Both economic and public health/medical perspectives play an important role in the policy process, but often approach policy questions in an incompatible way. Economics and public health perspectives can complement each other, but harnessing any synergy requires an understanding of the other perspective. Arguably the most effective community intervention would be multi-faceted and would include several goals about diet and physical activity. In practice, however, it appears that much more effort is devoted to promoting increased fruit/vegetable consumption, and exhorting individuals to increase physical activity than to environmental intervention that would make it easier for people to reduce energy intake and sedentary entertainment. Politically, it may often be more expedient to promote an increase

  10. HMO's and Medicare: Problems in the Oversight of a Promising Partnership. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine problems in the partnership of Medicare and Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO's). Opening statements are included from committee chairman Claude Pepper and from Representative Lawrence J. Smith. Two panels of witnesses address…

  11. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  12. Trends Shaping Education--2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This new biennial publication presents the latest available information on 26 major current trends in education, grouped in 9 broad themes (ageing, global challenges, the new economic landscape, work and jobs, the learning society, ICT, citizenship and the state, social connections and values, and sustainable affluence). For each trend, there is a…

  13. Enterprise Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Education research experts Eduventures released a report in February 2007 on where U.S. districts are headed with large system management. "Trends in K-12 Enterprise Management: Are Districts Ready to Cross the Chasm?" provides a detailed assessment of the themes and the trends that are driving the market for K-12 enterprise management systems.…

  14. Stability of frailty in the social/health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Hallfors, D; Leutz, W; Capitman, J; Ritter, G

    1994-01-01

    Although many long-term care (LTC) programs assume that the disabilities of their frail elderly participants are stable in nature, there has been suggestive evidence to the contrary. This study tests stability of disability among social/health maintenance organization (S/HMO) members who were judged eligible for admission into a nursing home. Identified persons were reassessed quarterly. By the end of 1 year, less than 50 percent were still considered to be nursing home eligible. Logit analysis revealed an increased likelihood of instability for persons who were newly identified as functionally disabled after hospitalization. Policy implications for capitated managed-care programs for the elderly are discussed. PMID:10138480

  15. Case management in the social health maintenance organization demonstrations

    PubMed Central

    Yordi, Cathleen L.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, case management departments and roles during the early years of the social health maintenance organization (S/HMO) demonstrations are compared. These organizations provide acute and chronic care services under a prepaid plan for the elderly. Eligibility criteria for case management and chronic care services at each site are compared, followed by a description of the resultant case mix of members receiving chronic care benefits. Case managers principal activities are described, and a preliminary assessment is made about the strength of the linkages that have been developed between the case management component of these plans and the larger health care system. PMID:10312977

  16. Instructional Time Trends. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Julie Rowland

    2015-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Education Commission of the States has tracked instructional time and frequently receives requests for information about policies and trends. In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation…

  17. Nationwide Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... includes ecstasy and LSD) in the past month. Cocaine use has gone down in the last few ...

  18. Program Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Articles by Moss, Van Huss, Raynor, Lynch, and Sullivan discuss the trends in all areas of vocational education. Includes information on how new technologies, life-styles, and job demands have changed or should change vocational education. (JOW)

  19. The impact of exposure to mass media campaigns and social support on levels and trends of HIV-related stigma and discrimination in Nigeria: tools for enhancing effective HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Fakolade, R; Adebayo, S B; Anyanti, J; Ankomah, A

    2010-05-01

    People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) often face stigma and discrimination, especially in developing countries. HIV-related stigma is expressed through social ostracism, personal rejection, direct and indirect discrimination, and denial from families and friends. Consequently, it is associated with reduced adoption of preventive and care behaviours, including condom use, seeking for HIV test and care-seeking behaviour subsequent to diagnosis. Ignorance about the epidemiology of the disease on modes of transmission and prevention aggravates HIV-related stigma in Nigeria. Behaviour change communication activities through mass media have been shown to be an effective approach in improving people's knowledge about the disease. This paper monitors trends in the level of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs in Nigeria between 2003 and 2007. It also evaluates the impact of exposure to mass media and social support on the levels of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs. A significant and positive trend was evident between 2003 and 2007 (p<0.0001). Furthermore, exposure to mass media communications on HIV and AIDS issues and social support were significantly related to the reduced stigma and discrimination against PLWHAs (p<0.0001). PMID:20018118

  20. Rural Conditions and Trends, 1990-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Conditions and Trends, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The five volumes of Rural Conditions and Trends for 1990-1994 contain information and statistical data on economic and social conditions and trends of interest to rural educators and researchers. Articles cover the following areas: macroeconomic trends; employment; unemployment; industry; earnings; income; poverty; population; national economic…

  1. Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of data which highlight trends in all sectors relevant to environmental policy. These data are presented in the form of charts and maps contained in 13 sections under the following headings: people and the land; critical areas (wetlands, wild areas, parks, historic places, and risk zones); human settlements; transportation;…

  2. Food Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  3. Exploring the role of cognitive and structural forms of social capital in HIV/AIDS trends in the Kagera region of Tanzania - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Frumence, Gasto; Eriksson, Malin; Nystrom, Lennarth; Killewo, Japhet; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-04-01

    The article presents a synthesis of data from three village case studies focusing on how structural and cognitive social capital may have influenced the progression of the HIV epidemic in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Grounded theory was used to develop a theoretical model describing the possible links between structural and cognitive social capital and the impact on sexual health behaviours. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were carried out to represent the range of experiences of existing social capital. Both structural and cognitive social capital were active avenues for community members to come together, empower each other, and develop norms, values, trust and reciprocal relations. This empowerment created an enabling environment in which members could adopt protective behaviours against HIV infection. On the one hand, we observed that involvement in formal and informal organisations resulted in a reduction of numbers of sexual partners, led people to demand abstinence from sexual relations until marriage, caused fewer opportunities for casual sex, and gave individuals the agency to demand the use of condoms. On the other hand, strict membership rules and regulations excluded some members, particularly excessive alcohol drinkers and debtors, from becoming members of the social groups, which increased their vulnerability in terms of exposure to HIV. Social gatherings (especially those organised during the night) were also found to increase youths' risk of HIV infection through instances of unsafe sex. We conclude that even though social capital may at times have negative effects on individuals' HIV-prevention efforts, this study provides initial evidence that social capital is largely protective through empowering vulnerable groups such as women and the poor to protect against HIV infection and by promoting protective sexual behaviours. PMID:25859616

  4. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  5. Social health maintenance organizations' service use and costs, 1985-89

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Charlene; Newcomer, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented in this article are aggregate utilization and financial data from the four social health maintenance organization (SIHMO) demonstrations that were collected and analyzed as a part of the national evaluation of the SIHMO demonstration project conducted for the Health Care Financing Administration. The S/HMOs, in offering a $6,500 to $12,000 chronic care benefit in addition to the basic HMO benefit package, had higher startup costs and financial losses over the first 5 years than expected, and controlling costs continues to be a challenge to the sites and their sponsors. PMID:10113612

  6. Information Technology: Perspectives and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Doug

    The full impact of the current information technology and networking revolution remains unknown, but the experiences of organizations and individuals who are using the tools and resources offered by information technology suggest that it may change our social fabric. Some of the current and emerging trends in information technology include: the…

  7. Economic and Labor Market Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…

  8. International Trends in Curriculum Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Metais, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    The International Review of Curriculum and Assessment Frameworks in 18 countries identified trends related to participation and engagement: responsiveness, inclusion, and curricular differentiation; key skills; and creativity development and citizenship education. Common economic and social pressures are leading to some convergence among nations.…

  9. America's Changing Population: Demographic Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the importance of migration trends in the United States away from the Northeastern urban areas into the sunbelt states of the West and Southwest. Emphasis is placed on ways in which this demographic transformation disturbs social, economic, and political arrangements. (DB)

  10. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  11. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  12. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  13. Social Class Differences in Secular Trends in Established Coronary Risk Factors over 20 Years: A Cohort Study of British Men from 1978–80 to 1998–2000

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Sheena E.; Whincup, Peter H.; Hardoon, Sarah L.; Lennon, Lucy T.; Morris, Richard W.; Wannamethee, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the UK since the late 1970s has declined more markedly among higher socioeconomic groups. However, little is known about changes in coronary risk factors in different socioeconomic groups. This study examined whether changes in established coronary risk factors in Britain over 20 years between 1978–80 and 1998–2000 differed between socioeconomic groups. Methods and Findings A socioeconomically representative cohort of 7735 British men aged 40–59 years was followed-up from 1978–80 to 1998–2000; data on blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, body mass index (BMI) and cigarette smoking were collected at both points in 4252 survivors. Social class was based on longest-held occupation in middle-age. Compared with men in non-manual occupations, men in manual occupations experienced a greater increase in BMI (mean difference = 0.33 kg/m2; 95%CI 0.14–0.53; p for interaction = 0.001), a smaller decline in non-HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.18 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.11–0.25, p for interaction≤0.0001) and a smaller increase in HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.04 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.02–0.06, p for interaction≤0.0001). However, mean systolic BP declined more in manual than non-manual groups (difference in mean change = 3.6; 95%CI 2.1–5.1, p for interaction≤0.0001). The odds of being a current smoker in 1978–80 and 1998–2000 did not differ between non-manual and manual social classes (p for interaction = 0.51). Conclusion Several key risk factors for CHD and type 2 diabetes showed less favourable changes in men in manual occupations. Continuing priority is needed to improve adverse cardiovascular risk profiles in socially disadvantaged groups in the UK. PMID:21603647

  14. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... up/change plans About Medicare health plans Medicare Advantage Plans + Share widget - Select to show Subcategories Getting ... plan? About Medicare health plans , current subcategory Medicare Advantage Plans , current page Medicare Medical Savings Account (MSA) ...

  15. Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Ida C.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the resources devoted by the United States to public social welfare programs. Compares these expenditures with those by other industrial nations and notes possible future trends. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  16. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  17. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  18. Suicide: current trends.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates. PMID:21999037

  19. Trends in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)

  20. Marketing Trends to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  1. Oregon Teacher Pathway: Responding to National Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villagómez, Amanda A.; Easton-Brooks, Donald; Gomez, Karyn; Lubbes, Tawnya; Johnson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    National population trends demonstrate a shift in the U.S. ethnic population, similar to changes in the ethnic landscape of U.S. public schools. However, the teaching landscape has not adjusted to align with student demographics. Research highlights the academic and social/emotional benefit for students of color who experience having a teacher of…

  2. Trends in Schooling: Demography, Performance and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mare, Robert D.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing "Social Indicators" (1979), discusses growth and distribution of schooling in the U.S., trends in student test performance, and major organizational changes in elementary/secondary education. Comments on quality of available data and suggests improvements for future reporting of educational indicators. (Reprint of article is available…

  3. Moral Education USA: Background and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    Current trends in ethical/moral instruction are placed in context by tracing educational and social change from the 19th century to the present. The focus on religion for salvation and on good behavior lasted in modified form well into the 19th century. In the late 19th century curriculum in the schools changed due to immigration, industrialism,…

  4. NASA trend analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  5. Health Inequalities: Trends, Progress, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Jarlenski, Marian P.; Bell, Caryn N.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Health inequalities, which have been well documented for decades, have more recently become policy targets in developed countries. This review describes time trends in health inequalities (by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status), commitments to reduce health inequalities, and progress made to eliminate health inequalities in the United States, United Kingdom, and other OECD countries. Time-trend data in the United States indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some health indicators, such as life expectancy, but a widening of the gap in others, such as diabetes prevalence. Similarly, time-trend data in the United Kingdom indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some indicators, such as hypertension prevalence, whereas the gap between social classes has increased for life expectancy. More research and better methods are needed to measure precisely the relationships between stated policy goals and observed trends in health inequalities. PMID:22224876

  6. Social work in postindustrial society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Edward R.

    1973-01-01

    Two major trends mark the transformation of industrial society into postindustrial society--increased social complexity and rapid social change. This article projects an image of social work in the future by describing some major problems people may face and presenting a model of an agency that might deal with them. (Author)

  7. Five Trends of School Arts Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Ren-Lai

    2006-01-01

    In the torrents of globalization and social transition in Taiwan, it is particularly important to reinforce a sense of cultural subjectivity and localization, and promote new trends of arts education that emphasize the development of self and spirit. The fundamental principles of these new trends are: (1) that the purpose of arts education is to…

  8. Relationships between Poverty and Psychopathology. Data Trends #97

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" asks: Does the stress and adversity associated with poverty cause mental illness or is poverty the result of downward social mobility of persons with mental illness? This is the…

  9. Research Trends in Deafness - State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Edna P., Ed.

    The state of the art monograph on research trends in deafness reviews 60 research studies concerning the deaf sponsored by the Social and Rehabilitation Service. The first of four major sections focuses upon research trends in occupational conditions of deaf people and reviews both research and program experimentation studies. The second section,…

  10. Social Security and Undergraduates with Disabilities: An Analysis of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey. Addressing Trends in Development in Secondary Education and Transition. Information Brief. Vol. 3, Issue 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Hugh; Conway, Megan A.; Change, Kelly B.T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this brief is to describe the characteristics of undergraduate students receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Social Security Administration (SSI) benefits as they relate to issues of participation in postsecondary education and employment. This brief describes results from the National Postsecondary Student Aid…

  11. Trends in Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald P.

    Based on the findings of a content analysis of representative literature on educational technology, this report examines the trends in educational technology from October 1, 1990 through September 30, 1991. Ten trends for 1991 are identified and discussed: (1) the creation of technology-based teaching/learning products is based largely on…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions on Use of Social Media in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media is tremendously increasing trend for personal use. At the same time, social media are penetrating to the educational settings as well. Thus purpose of this study is to investigate pre-service social studies teachers' conceptions on use of social media in social studies education; it is possible implications on social…

  6. Is Feminism Trending? Pedagogical Approaches to Countering (Sl)Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillard, Julianne

    2016-01-01

    As they say in social media, feminism is "trending"; feminist conversations, grassroots movements, and activism mark a fourth wave of feminist practice and theory defined by digital spaces. This article considers the effectiveness of using social media as both a course assignment and as a conduit for civic engagement. I analyse survey…

  7. Trends in stratospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Newman, P. A.; Rosenfield, J. E.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Boville, B. A.; Chandra, S.; Fels, S.; Fleming, E.; Gelman, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stratospheric temperatures for long-term and recent trends and the determination of whether observed changes in upper stratospheric temperatures are consistent with observed ozone changes are discussed. The long-term temperature trends were determined up to 30mb from radiosonde analysis (since 1970) and rocketsondes (since 1969 and 1973) up to the lower mesosphere, principally in the Northern Hemisphere. The more recent trends (since 1979) incorporate satellite observations. The mechanisms that can produce recent temperature trends in the stratosphere are discussed. The following general effects are discussed: changes in ozone, changes in other radiatively active trace gases, changes in aerosols, changes in solar flux, and dynamical changes. Computations were made to estimate the temperature changes associated with the upper stratospheric ozone changes reported by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus-7 and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) instruments.

  8. A modern trends retrospective.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Edward E

    2011-06-01

    Editorship of the Modern Trends section has been a great ride. The section raised the level of interest and readership of Fertility and Sterility, while providing important, up-to-date material for students, scientists and practitioners. PMID:21496803

  9. Skin Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indian/Alaska Native men. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander men. Women Increased significantly by 1.4% ... Indian/Alaska Native women. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ...

  10. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... significantly by 1.1% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ... significantly by 1.4% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Data source: Ryerson AB, Eheman CR, ...

  11. Lung Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... significantly by 1.8% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander men. Women Decreased significantly by 0.9% ... Indian/Alaska Native women. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ...

  12. Ovarian Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... year among Hispanic women. Remained level among American Indian/Alaska Native women. Decreased significantly by 0.9% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 in the United ...

  13. The Social Cognitive Development of Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barahal, Robert M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared the social cognitive styles of abused children with a control sample and found differences in perceived locus of control of social events and social role comprehensions. Similar trends emerged in perspective-taking skills and social sensitivity. Suggests these differences could not be attributed to IQ or class disparities. (Author)

  14. Ozone Trend Detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The detection of anthropogenic disturbances in the Earth's ozone layer was studied. Two topics were addressed: (1) the level at which a trend in total ozoning is detected by existing data sources; and (2) empirical evidence in the prediction of the depletion in total ozone. Error sources are identified. The predictability of climatological series, whether empirical models can be trusted, and how errors in the Dobson total ozone data impact trend detectability, are discussed.

  15. Further Trends in Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders-A Comparison of Risk factors for Symptoms Using Quality of Work Life Data From the 2002, 2006 and 2010 General Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Robert B.; Lowe, Brian; Ming-Lun, Lu; Krieg, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Report trends for risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Methods Three QWL surveys examine the risk factors for MSDs. Results Findings similar for several risk factors, but differences across the reporting years may reflect economic conditions. 2010 respondent numbers were reduced, some risk factors had pattern changes and there were gender and age differences. Trend analysis showed most significant changes were for the “Work Fast” risk factor. New 2010 “Physical Effort” item showed gender differences and items reflective of total worker health showed strong associations with “Back Pain” and “Pain in Arms.” Conclusions Intervention strategies should focus on physical exposures and psychosocial risk factors (work stress, safety climate, job satisfaction, supervisor support, work fast, work freedom, work time) that have been consistently related to reports of MSDs. Economic conditions will influence some psychosocial risk factors. PMID:26247646

  16. Trends in groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftis, Jim C.

    1996-02-01

    The term trend takes on a variety of meanings for groundwater quality in both a temporal and spatial context. Most commonly, trends are thought of as changes over time at either a regional or localized spatial scale. Generally water quality managers are most interested in changes associated with some form of human activity. Carefully defining what is meant by trend is a critical step in trend analysis and may be accomplished by formulating a statistical model which includes a trend component. Although there are a great many regional groundwater studies which provide a snapshot description of water quality conditions over an area at one point in time, there are relatively few which consider changes over time and fewer still which include a statistical analysis of long-term trend. This review covers both regional and localized studies of groundwater quality around the world, including a few snapshots, but focusing primarily on those studies which include an evaluation of temporal changes in groundwater quality. The studies include national assessments, agricultural case studies (the largest group, mostly regional in scope), urban case studies, and point source and hazardous waste case studies.

  17. Ozone trends: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehelin, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Appenzeller, C.; Eberhard, J.

    2001-05-01

    Ozone plays a very important role in our atmosphere because it protects any living organisms at the Earth's surface against the harmful solar UVB and UVC radiation. In the stratosphere, ozone plays a critical role in the energy budget because it absorbs both solar UV and terrestrial IR radiation. Further, ozone in the tropopause acts as a strong greenhouse gas, and increasing ozone trends at these altitudes contribute to climate change. This review contains a short description of the various techniques that provided atmospheric ozone measurements valuable for long-term trend analysis. The anthropogenic emissions of substances that deplete ozone (chlorine- and bromine-containing volatile gases) have increased from the 1950s until the second half of the 1980s. The most severe consequence of the anthropogenic release of ozone-depleting substances is the "Antarctic ozone hole." Long-term observations indicate that stratospheric ozone depletion in the southern winter-spring season over Antarctica started in the late 1970s, leading to a strong decrease in October total ozone means. Present values are only approximately half of those observed prior to 1970. In the Arctic, large ozone depletion was observed in winter and spring in some recent years. Satellite and ground-based measurements show no significant trends in the tropics but significant long-term decreasing trends in the northern and southern midlatitudes (of the order of 2-4% per decade in the period from 1970 to 1996 and an acceleration in trends in the 1980s). Ozone at northern midlatitudes decreased by -7.4±2% per decade at 40 km above mean sea level, while ozone loss was small at 30 km. Large trends were found in the lower stratosphere, -5.1±1.8% at 20 km and -7.3±4.6% at 15 km, where the bulk of the ozone resides. The possibility of a reduction in the observed trends has been discussed recently, but it is very hard to distinguish this from the natural variability. As a consequence of the Montreal Protocol

  18. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  19. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple headcounts of students going to…

  20. Trends in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas D.

    This paper describes trends in public elementary and secondary education in the United States. The data were obtained from the "Condition of Education" and the "Digest of Education Statistics," which are prepared annually by the National Center for Education Statistics. Information is presented on the following areas: enrollment, minority…

  1. Children's Books: Current Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Joan Stidham

    A major trend in children's literature is the growing academic recognition of the field--indicated by the large number of new texts that have been published since 1975. Scholarly periodicals in the field have likewise grown since the 1970s. Library science, elementary education and English literature have fostered the development of children's…

  2. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  3. Trends in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  4. Enrollment and Budget Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Community Coll. System, Hartford.

    This document discusses Fall 2001 enrollment and budget trends for Connecticut Community Colleges. It provides a map of the geographic planning regions as well as the geographic distribution of credit enrollments for the regions. The document shows the total credit enrollment for Fall 2001 was 42,642 students, which consisted of 28% full time and…

  5. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  6. Today's Recruitment Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Joe

    1996-01-01

    Five trends in the creation of college student recruitment publications are identified: (1) using market research and marketing principles; (2) targeting specific groups; (3) honesty about campus personality and reputation; (4) cost-effectiveness; and (5) creativity in using effective copy and design. (MSE)

  7. The Top Ten Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Trends shaping the workplace are increased skill requirements; more educated, diverse work force; continued corporate restructuring; change in size and composition of training departments; instructional technology advances; new training delivery methods; focus on performance improvement; integrated high-performance work systems; companies becoming…

  8. Trends Reshaping Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F.; Peek, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines current educational trends in the community colleges, based on critical issues addressed at the 2002 Community College Futures Assembly (CCFA) in Orlando, Florida. Describes the CCFA as an independent policy forum, sponsored by the University of Florida, that convenes annually. Discusses the top three critical issues presented: the needs…

  9. Five Trends for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Li, Rose Maria

    2007-01-01

    The authors look at important demographic trends that will have an effect on schools, including roller-coaster enrollments and increasing diversity. For example, compared with 10 years ago, the average child entering a U.S. school today is less likely to live in a family with two married parents but is more likely to have a living grandparent,…

  10. INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATIVE TRENDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will attempt to provide a pollution prevention legislative overview of where we have been, where we are, and some thoughts on pollution prevention legislative trends for the future. overnments have an important role to play by setting the regulatory framework, but clea...