Sample records for social network variables

  1. Social network variables in alcoholics anonymous: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Groh, D R; Jason, L A; Keys, C B

    2008-03-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA's impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  2. Social network variables in alcoholics anonymous: A literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Groh; L. A. Jason; C. B. Keys

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24

  3. Social Networking? Secure Networking?

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Social Networking? Secure Networking? Teaching & Learning Technology Roundtable February 2010 #12 ­ The intent behind the current security measures in place at OHSU ­ The OHSU Social Networking Guidelines 2. To begin a campus wide dialogue exploring the changing world of online social networking and it

  4. Social Networks\\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad A. Al-Daraiseh; Afnan S. Al-Joudi; Hanan B. Al-Gahtani; Maha S. Al-Qahtani

    2014-01-01

    Privacy breaches and Identity Theft cases are increasing at an alarming rate. Social Networking Sites (SN’s) are making it worse. Facebook (FB), Twitter and other SN’s offer attackers a wide and easily accessible platform. Privacy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is extremely important due to cultural beliefs besides the other typical reasons. In this research we comprehensively cover

  5. Connectibles : tangible social networking

    E-print Network

    Kalanithi, Jeevan James

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents "Connectibles," an instantiation of a tangible social network, a new type of social network application rooted in physical objects and real world social behavior. This research is inspired by social ...

  6. Social Networks, Social Media, Social Change

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    CHAPTER XX Social Networks, Social Media, Social Change Jürgen Pfeffer, Kathleen M. Carley Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, USA jpfeffer@cs.cmu.edu, kathleen.carley@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Social Media. In particular, the Arab Spring 2011 has been heralded as a social media based social transformation

  7. Semantic Social Network Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Erétéo; Fabien L. Gandon; Olivier Corby; Michel Buffa

    2009-01-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) tries to understand and exploit the key features of social networks in order to manage their life cycle and predict their evolution. Increasingly popular web 2.0 sites are forming huge social network. Classical methods from social network analysis (SNA) have been applied to such online networks. In this paper, we propose leveraging semantic web technologies to

  8. Social Learning in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Lamberson, Peter John

    This paper analyzes a model of social learning in a social network. Agents decide whether or not to adopt a new technology with unknown payoffs based on their prior beliefs and the experiences of their neighbors in the ...

  9. Social Networks Ulrik Brandes

    E-print Network

    Brandes, Ulrik

    26 Social Networks Ulrik Brandes University of Konstanz Linton C. Freeman University of California, Irvine Dorothea Wagner Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 26.1 Social Network Analysis 26.2 Visualization · Cohesion · Two-mode networks · Dynamics 26.4 Trends and Challenges Social networks provide a rich source

  10. Social skill as a determinant of social networks and perceived social support in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Macdonald; H. J. Jackson; R. L. Hayes; A. J. Baglioni; C. Madden

    1998-01-01

    Factors influencing supportive social networks of people with schizophrenia are little understood. Data from 46 outpatients with schizophrenia were analysed using structural equation modelling to test plausible sets of inter-relationships between social skill, social networks, and social support. The data supported a tentative model about the causal relationships between variables. Paths showed that people with greater social skill had larger

  11. Social Insect Networks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Fewell (Arizona State University; School of Life Sciences)

    2003-09-26

    Social insect colonies have many of the properties of adaptive networks. The simple rules governing how local interactions among individuals translate into group behaviors are found across social groups, giving social insects the potential to have a profound impact on our understanding of the interplay between network dynamics and social evolution.

  12. Social language network analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Scholand; Yla R. Tausczik; James W. Pennebaker

    2010-01-01

    In this note we introduce a new methodology that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to identify socially situated relationships between individuals, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized. We call this approach social language network analysis (SLNA). We describe the philosophical antecedents of SLNA, the mechanics of preprocessing, processing, and post-processing stages, and the results

  13. Social Networks and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.; And Others

    In a longitudinal study of the network characteristics that assist elderly individuals to meet their needs, as well as the effects of change in four categories of social network dimensions (social interaction, network structure, member attribute, environmental attribute), 133 elderly residents of 18 midtown Manhattan single room occupancy (SRO)…

  14. Social Network Current State of Social Network in terms of

    E-print Network

    Gunes, Mehmet Hadi

    Social Network Analysis Current State of Social Network in terms of public data availability #12;Agenda · Introduction · Related Work · My project · Conclusion #12;Popularity of Social Network #12;Popularity of Social Network Survey Social networking sites and our lives by Pew Internet 47% of American

  15. Visualizing Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Carlos D.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    With today‘s ubiquity and popularity of social network applications, the ability to analyze and understand large networks in an efficient manner becomes critically important. However, as networks become larger and more complex, reasoning about social dynamics via simple statistics is not a feasible option. To overcome these limitations, we can rely on visual metaphors. Visualization nowadays is no longer a passive process that produces images from a set of numbers. Recent years have witnessed a convergence of social network analytics and visualization, coupled with interaction, that is changing the way analysts understand and characterize social networks. In this chapter, we discuss the main goal of visualization and how different metaphors are aimed towards elucidating different aspects of social networks, such as structure and semantics. We also describe a number of methods where analytics and visualization are interwoven towards providing a better comprehension of social structure and dynamics.

  16. Social network visualization in epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Christakis; James H. Fowler

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks

  17. Decentralized Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anwitaman; Buchegger, Sonja; Vu, Le-Hung; Strufe, Thorsten; Rzadca, Krzysztof

    Current Online social networks (OSN) are web services run on logically centralized infrastructure. Large OSN sites use content distribution networks and thus distribute some of the load by caching for performance reasons, nevertheless there is a central repository for user and application data. This centralized nature of OSNs has several drawbacks including scalability, privacy, dependence on a provider, need for being online for every transaction, and a lack of locality. There have thus been several efforts toward decentralizing OSNs while retaining the functionalities offered by centralized OSNs. A decentralized online social network (DOSN) is a distributed system for social networking with no or limited dependency on any dedicated central infrastructure. In this chapter we explore the various motivations of a decentralized approach to online social networking, discuss several concrete proposals and types of DOSN as well as challenges and opportunities associated with decentralization.

  18. Search using social networks

    E-print Network

    Ammar, Ammar (Ammar T.)

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we present an approach to the problem of personalized web search which makes use of the searcher's social network, in addition to the hyper-link based score used in most search engines. This combination of ...

  19. SOCIAL NETWORKS, INFORMATION, AND COORDINATION The Role of Information and Influence in Social Networks Examining the Association Between Social Network Structure and Job Mobility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL DAVERN; DAVID S. HACHEN

    This article examines two mechanisms through which social networks are related to job mobility: (1) access to diverse sources of information about job openings and (2) nonredundant sources of influence. Using data on job changing and social networks among television station managers, we assess the extent to which job information and influence variables mediate the relationship between social network structure

  20. Trust Maximization in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Justin; Fang, Xing

    Trust is a human-related phenomenon in social networks. Trust research on social networks has gained much attention on its usefulness, and on modeling propagations. There is little focus on finding maximum trust in social networks which is particularly important when a social network is oriented by certain tasks. In this paper, we propose a trust maximization algorithm based on the task-oriented social networks.

  1. Virtual private social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Conti; Arbnor Hasani; Bruno Crispo

    2011-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are having a significant impact on the social life of many people - even beyond the millions of people that use them directly. These websites usually allow users to present a profile of themselves through a long list of very detailed information. However, even when such SNSs have advanced privacy policies, users are often not aware

  2. Visualizing Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linton Freeman

    2000-01-01

    Two distinct forms of display have been used to construct images of networks, one based on points and lines and the other on matrices. In most point and line displays the points represent social actors and the lines represent connections among the act ors. In matrix displays the rows and columns both represent social actors and numbers or symbols in

  3. Psychological dimensions of social networks: A multimethod analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barton J. Hirsch

    1979-01-01

    Two exploratory studies are reported which sought to iden@ important psychological dimensions of social networks. Both studies investigated the social networks of college students, using as subfects the same 16 male and 16 female students. The first study employed multiple regression to generate predictor variables to students'ratings of satisfaction with their social network. The second study assessed how structurally contrasting

  4. Social Network Visualization in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks is a key to both research and interventions. Network images supplement statistical analyses and allow the identification of groups of people for targeting, the identification of central and peripheral individuals, and the clarification of the macro-structure of the network in a way that should affect public health interventions. People are inter-connected and so their health is inter-connected. Inter-personal health effects in social networks provide a new foundation for public health. PMID:22544996

  5. Community Evolution Prediction in Dynamic Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Zaiane, Osmar R.

    Community Evolution Prediction in Dynamic Social Networks Mansoureh Takaffoli, Reihaneh Rabbany and customer targeting. Community structure of social networks may undergo different temporal events and transition for communities in dynamic social networks. Our framework incorporates key features related

  6. Social Psychology Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Plous, Scott

    With over 11,000 links contained within its pages, the Social Psychology Network site is arguably the largest social psychology database on the Internet. Maintained by Professor Scout Plous of Wesleyan University, the site has been generously supported by the National Science Foundation. Visitors will appreciate the very clean layout of the siteâ??s homepage, as they are presented with a search engine, along with a number of electronic forums, and a listing of related topics. To delve into the siteâ??s contents, visitors may wish to select from any one of the areas on the left-hand side of the homepage, which include listings of doctoral programs in social psychology and teaching resources. There are numerous other options for interested parties, and they lead to such offerings as rankings of doctoral programs in the field and distance learning options in the field. Finally, visitors can also view many of the siteâ??s documents in a number of languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.

  7. Privacy in Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Beye; Arjan J. P. Jeckmans; Zekeriya Erkin; P. H. Hartel; Reginald Lagendijk; Qiang Tang

    2012-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) have become part of daily life for millions of users. Users building explicit networks that represent their social relationships and often share a wealth of personal information to their own benefit. The potential privacy risks of such behavior are often underestimated or ignored. The problem is exacerbated by lacking experience and awareness in users, as well

  8. Social networks and the development of social skills in cowbirds

    PubMed Central

    White, David J.; Gersick, Andrew S.; Snyder-Mackler, Noah

    2012-01-01

    The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing with the challenges posed in within-group interactions. We examined how social skills develop in captive, adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that were exposed to differing levels of ‘social complexity’ across a 2-year experiment. After each year, subjects housed in groups with dynamic social structure (where many individuals entered and exited the groups during the year) outcompeted birds who had been housed in static groups. Exposure to dynamic structure subsequently led to substantial changes to the social networks of the home conditions during the breeding season. Static groups were characterized by a predictable relationship between singing and reproductive success that was stable across years. In dynamic conditions, however, males showed significant variability in their dominance status, their courting and even in their mating success. Reproductive success of males varied dramatically across years and was responsive to social learning in adulthood, and socially dynamic environments ‘trained’ individuals to be better competitors, even at an age when the development of many traits important for breeding (like song quality) had ended. PMID:22641827

  9. Social networks and the development of social skills in cowbirds.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Gersick, Andrew S; Snyder-Mackler, Noah

    2012-07-01

    The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing with the challenges posed in within-group interactions. We examined how social skills develop in captive, adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that were exposed to differing levels of 'social complexity' across a 2-year experiment. After each year, subjects housed in groups with dynamic social structure (where many individuals entered and exited the groups during the year) outcompeted birds who had been housed in static groups. Exposure to dynamic structure subsequently led to substantial changes to the social networks of the home conditions during the breeding season. Static groups were characterized by a predictable relationship between singing and reproductive success that was stable across years. In dynamic conditions, however, males showed significant variability in their dominance status, their courting and even in their mating success. Reproductive success of males varied dramatically across years and was responsive to social learning in adulthood, and socially dynamic environments 'trained' individuals to be better competitors, even at an age when the development of many traits important for breeding (like song quality) had ended. PMID:22641827

  10. Social Science Research Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP), this site allows users to freely access thousands of abstracts and full-text research papers. The core of the site is the SSRN Electronic Library, which contains an Abstract Database with over 15,600 entries and an Electronic Paper Collection, which currently contains over 4,200 full-text papers. Users can search title, abstract, and author fields, or browse the journals, which are grouped under the five respective Research Networks that form the SSRN: Accounting, Economics, Latin American, Financial, and Legal Scholarship. Within each journal entry, users may select from several display options to narrow their results and available full-text documents are indicated by a special symbol. Information on each of the five networks, including conference and job announcements, as well as information on subscribing and a list of site licenses, is accessible via a menu panel on the left side of the main page. According to SSEP, access to the abstracts and full-text papers will remain free of charge to all users until \\"the next revision to the web site this winter.\\"

  11. Variability Aware Network Utility Maximization

    E-print Network

    Joseph, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Network Utility Maximization (NUM) provides the key conceptual framework to study resource allocation amongst a collection of users/entities across disciplines as diverse as economics, law and engineering. In network engineering, this framework has been particularly insightful towards understanding how Internet protocols allocate bandwidth, and motivated diverse research on distributed mechanisms to maximize network utility while incorporating new relevant constraints, on energy/power, storage, stability, etc., for systems ranging from communication networks to the smart-grid. However when the available resources and/or users' utilities vary over time, a user's allocations will tend to vary, which in turn may have a detrimental impact on the users' utility or quality of experience. This paper introduces a generalized NUM framework which explicitly incorporates the detrimental impact of temporal variability in a user's allocated rewards. It explicitly incorporates tradeoffs amongst the mean and variability in ...

  12. Introduction to Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Ang, Chee Siang

    Social Network analysis focuses on patterns of relations between and among people, organizations, states, etc. It aims to describe networks of relations as fully as possible, identify prominent patterns in such networks, trace the flow of information through them, and discover what effects these relations and networks have on people and organizations. Social network analysis offers a very promising potential for analyzing human-human interactions in online communities (discussion boards, newsgroups, virtual organizations). This Tutorial provides an overview of this analytic technique and demonstrates how it can be used in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research and practice, focusing especially on Computer Mediated Communication (CMC). This topic acquires particular importance these days, with the increasing popularity of social networking websites (e.g., youtube, myspace, MMORPGs etc.) and the research interest in studying them.

  13. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tom A B; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

    2010-06-01

    A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator. PMID:25419259

  14. Social Snapshots: Digital Forensics for Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Social Snapshots: Digital Forensics for Online Social Networks Markus Huber Martin Mulazzani for harvesting such data from social networking websites. Our approach uses a hybrid system that is based on a custom add-on for social networks in combination with a web crawl- ing component. The datasets that our

  15. SSRM: Structural Social Role Mining for Dynamic Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Zaiane, Osmar R.

    by certain expectations. Social roles are mainly used to define the influence of members on the networkSSRM: Structural Social Role Mining for Dynamic Social Networks Afra Abnar, Mansoureh Takaffoli, expectations, and responsibilities. Identifying the roles that individuals play in a social network has various

  16. Social networks and social competence: exploring the effects of early adolescent friendships.

    PubMed

    Cauce, A M

    1986-12-01

    This study explored the relationship between friendship social network variables and social competence indices using a sample of 98 young black lower SES adolescents. Analyses indicated that perceived emotional support received from friends and the number of reciprocated best friends in an adolescents' social network were related positively. Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived friend emotional support and number of reciprocated best friends contributed independently to school competence, peer competence, and perceived self-competence measures. The friendship network's school achievement orientation was related positively to school competence but was unrelated to peer or perceived self-competence. Friendship network density did not add to the variance explained by the other network variables. Methodological contributions of this study include the development of a computer program to map friendship networks and the expansion of network analysis beyond the examination of social support functions. PMID:3799553

  17. Key allocation schemes for private social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Byron Frikken; Preethi Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel scheme for key management in social networks that is a first step towards the creation of a private social network. A social network graph (i.e., the graph of friendship relationships) is private and social networks are often used to share content, which may be private, amongst its users. In the status quo, the

  18. Social networks and social integration panel1 A longitudinal survey

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Social networks and social integration panel1 A longitudinal survey The processes of entering adult life, starting work and developing social networks Hypotheses, development of the survey of Health and Social Affairs (DRASS), the Calvados Regional Department of Health and Social Affairs

  19. An algorithmic approach to social networks

    E-print Network

    Liben-Nowell, David

    2005-01-01

    Social networks consist of a set of individuals and some form of social relationship that ties the individuals together. In this thesis, we use algorithmic techniques to study three aspects of social networks: (1) we analyze ...

  20. Inferring Private Information Using Social Network Data

    E-print Network

    Kantarcioglu, Murat

    Inferring Private Information Using Social Network Data Jack Lindamood and Murat Kantarcioglu for released social networking data to infer undisclosed private in- formation about individuals. We purposes. These search results contained social security num- bers, addresses, and pornographic search

  1. Topological effects of network structure on long-term social network dynamics in a wild mammal.

    PubMed

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Booms, Andrew S; Holekamp, Kay E

    2015-07-01

    Social structure influences ecological processes such as dispersal and invasion, and affects survival and reproductive success. Recent studies have used static snapshots of social networks, thus neglecting their temporal dynamics, and focused primarily on a limited number of variables that might be affecting social structure. Here, instead we modelled effects of multiple predictors of social network dynamics in the spotted hyena, using observational data collected during 20 years of continuous field research in Kenya. We tested the hypothesis that the current state of the social network affects its long-term dynamics. We employed stochastic agent-based models that allowed us to estimate the contribution of multiple factors to network changes. After controlling for environmental and individual effects, we found that network density and individual centrality affected network dynamics, but that social bond transitivity consistently had the strongest effects. Our results emphasise the significance of structural properties of networks in shaping social dynamics. PMID:25975663

  2. Topological effects of network structure on long-term social network dynamics in a wild mammal

    PubMed Central

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Booms, Andrew S.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2015-01-01

    Social structure influences ecological processes such as dispersal and invasion, and affects survival and reproductive success. Recent studies have used static snapshots of social networks, thus neglecting their temporal dynamics, and focused primarily on a limited number of variables that might be affecting social structure. Here, instead we modelled effects of multiple predictors of social network dynamics in the spotted hyena, using observational data collected during 20 years of continuous field research in Kenya. We tested the hypothesis that the current state of the social network affects its long-term dynamics. We employed stochastic agent-based models that allowed us to estimate the contribution of multiple factors to network changes. After controlling for environmental and individual effects, we found that network density and individual centrality affected network dynamics, but that social bond transitivity consistently had the strongest effects. Our results emphasise the significance of structural properties of networks in shaping social dynamics. PMID:25975663

  3. Spinning Multiple Social Networks for Semantic Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Matsuo; Masahiro Hamasaki; Yoshiyuki Nakamura; Takuichi Nishimura; Kôiti Hasida; Hideaki Takeda; Junichiro Mori; Danushka Bollegala; Mitsuru Ishizuka

    2006-01-01

    Social networks are important for the Semantic Web. Several means can be used to obtain social networks: using social networking services, aggregating Friend- of-a-Friend (FOAF) documents, mining text informa- tion on the Web or in e-mail messages, and observing face-to-face communication using sensors. Integrating multiple social networks is a key issue for further uti- lization of social networks in the

  4. Social Trust in Opportunistic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sacha Trifunovic; Franck Legendre; Carlos Anastasiades

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic networks enable mobile users to participate in various social interactions with applications such as content distribution and micro-blogs. Because of their distributed nature, securing user interactions relies rather on trust than hard cryptography. Trust is often based on past user interactions such as in reputation systems relying on ratings. Yet, a more fundamental trust, social trust - assessing a

  5. Users Positions in Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasim Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Social networks are a new phase in human interaction: usingtechnology to connect people online, the social nehvorks of today havebecome a central part of the lives of millions of people. People use socialnetworks for sharing various infonrmation with their friends and family. Thisinformation can take the forn of text, video, images, sound etc. and it is whatforms the collection of

  6. Measurement of Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjoka, Mina

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of online social networks (OSN) has risen to unprecedented levels, with the most popular ones having hundreds of millions of users. This success has generated interest within the networking community and has given rise to a number of measurement and characterization studies, which provide a first step towards their…

  7. Computational Statistical Methods for Social Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David R.; Krivitsky, Pavel N.; Schweinberger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We review the broad range of recent statistical work in social network models, with emphasis on computational aspects of these methods. Particular focus is applied to exponential-family random graph models (ERGM) and latent variable models for data on complete networks observed at a single time point, though we also briefly review many methods for incompletely observed networks and networks observed at multiple time points. Although we mention far more modeling techniques than we can possibly cover in depth, we provide numerous citations to current literature. We illustrate several of the methods on a small, well-known network dataset, Sampson’s monks, providing code where possible so that these analyses may be duplicated. PMID:23828720

  8. Brain networks of social comparison.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Gayannée; Lindner, Michael; Mussweiler, Thomas; Ihssen, Niklas; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-27

    Social comparison, that is, the process of comparing oneself to other people, is a ubiquitous social cognitive mechanism; however, so far its neural correlates have remained unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that social comparisons are supported by partly dissociated networks, depending on whether the dimension under comparison concerns a physical or a psychological attribute. We measured brain activity with functional MRI, whereas participants were comparing their own height or intelligence to that of individuals they personally know. Height comparisons were associated with higher activity in a frontoparietal network involved in spatial and numerical cognition. Conversely, intelligence comparisons recruited a network of midline areas that have been previously implicated in the attribution of mental states to oneself and others (Theory of mind). These findings suggest that social comparisons rely on diverse domain-specific mechanisms rather than on one unitary process. PMID:23407275

  9. Personalized social search based on the user's social network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Carmel; Naama Zwerdling; Ido Guy; Shila Ofek-koifman; Nadav Har'el; Inbal Ronen; Erel Uziel; Sivan Yogev; Sergey Chernov

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates personalized social search based on the user's social relations { search results are re-ranked ac- cording to their relations with individuals in the user's social network. We study the eectiveness of several social network types for personalization: (1) Familiarity-based network of people related to the user through explicit familiarity con- nection; (2) Similarity-based network of people \\\\similar\\

  10. Vaccines, Contagion, and Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Ogburn, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Consider the causal effect that one individual's treatment may have on another individual's outcome when the outcome is contagious, with specific application to the effect of vaccination on an infectious disease outcome. The effect of one individual's vaccination on another's outcome can be decomposed into two different causal effects, called the "infectiousness" and "contagion" effects. We present identifying assumptions and estimation or testing procedures for infectiousness and contagion effects in two different settings: (1) using data sampled from independent groups of observations, and (2) using data collected from a single interdependent social network. The methods that we propose for social network data require fitting generalized linear models (GLMs). GLMs and other statistical models that require independence across subjects have been used widely to estimate causal effects in social network data, but, because the subjects in networks are presumably not independent, the use of such models is generall...

  11. Deployment of DNIDS in Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meytal Tubi; Rami Puzis; Yuval Elovici

    2007-01-01

    Internet users form social networks as they communicate with each other. Computer worms and viruses exploit these social networks in order to propagate to other users. In this paper we present a new framework aimed at slowing down or even preventing the propagation of computer worms and viruses in social networks. In the first part of the framework a social

  12. Social Market: Combining Explicit and Implicit Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Social Market: Combining Explicit and Implicit Social Networks Davide Frey, Arnaud Jegou, and Anne lead research and ap- plications to focus more and more on their users. Online social networks such as Facebook provide users with the ability to maintain an unprece- dented number of social connections

  13. AlwaySocial: Social Networking in the Real World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nir J. Peer

    Social networking is nowadays a popular way for people to socialize and network professionally. Currently, social net- working websites provide a mostly online experience whether they are accessed from a computer or a mobile phone. This leads to a chasm between online social activities and those done in the actual world. As there is no direct way to turn an

  14. Cyber stalking: The social impact of social networking technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haryani Haron; F. B. M. Yusof

    2010-01-01

    Social networking technology provides a social, collaborative and interactive platform for Internet users. The advances in social networking technology improve the socialization among Internet users. Users become more open in expressing their thoughts and sharing information, and along the way this contributes to the rise of internet violations. One of the violation faced by the internet users is cyber stalking.

  15. Social networks and the Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo

    Social networks and the Semantic Web Peter Mika Business Informatics group Dept. of Computer technology for the social sciences Social network mining from the Web Semantics-based data management Browsing and visualization Case study Network Analysis of Semantic Web research 2. Network Analysis

  16. Topological evolution of virtual social networks by modeling social activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin; Dong, Junyu; Tang, Ruichun; Xu, Mantao; Qi, Lin; Cai, Yang

    2015-09-01

    With the development of Internet and wireless communication, virtual social networks are becoming increasingly important in the formation of nowadays' social communities. Topological evolution model is foundational and critical for social network related researches. Up to present most of the related research experiments are carried out on artificial networks, however, a study of incorporating the actual social activities into the network topology model is ignored. This paper first formalizes two mathematical abstract concepts of hobbies search and friend recommendation to model the social actions people exhibit. Then a social activities based topology evolution simulation model is developed to satisfy some well-known properties that have been discovered in real-world social networks. Empirical results show that the proposed topology evolution model has embraced several key network topological properties of concern, which can be envisioned as signatures of real social networks.

  17. Spontaneous Social Networks DIPLOMARBEIT

    E-print Network

    people and edges representing social relations. This social graph is commonly very rigid in semantics. Applications operate on top of SSNs. The application defines the purpose and properties of the SSN and provides the users an interface to a SSN. The goal of this diploma thesis is the design of a standard

  18. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  19. Activity based interfaces in online social networks

    E-print Network

    Laraqui, Jawad

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the project is to explore how activity-based interfaces can create more meaningful experiences for the users and builders of online social networking sites. Medina, a social-networking site based on the idea ...

  20. Social Networking: It's Not What You Think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the current uses of the social networking sites available on the internet. It list some of the skills that are now considered obsolete and reviews the major social networking sites.

  1. Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey The Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Gail E.

    Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey The Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey The Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey is part of a research project survey #12;0% 100% Yes Unsure No Yes Unsure No Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey

  2. Evolution in Social Networks: A Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myra Spiliopoulou

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a There is much research on social network analysis but only recently did scholars turn their attention to the volatility of\\u000a social networks. An abundance of questions emerged. How does a social network evolve – can we find laws and derive models\\u000a that explain its evolution? How do communities emerge in a social network and how do they expand or shrink?

  3. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-02-21

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations. PMID:24561513

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF A VARIABLE STRUCTURE NEURAL NETWORK

    E-print Network

    1 IMPLEMENTATION OF A VARIABLE STRUCTURE NEURAL NETWORK Billie Yevonne Pearce Certificate IMPLEMENTATION OF A VARIABLE STRUCTURE NEURAL NETWORK Billie Yevonne Pearce A Project Submitted to the Computer STRUCTURE NEURAL NETWORK Billie Yevonne Pearce Master of Software Engineering, May 12, 2001 (B.S. Computer

  5. Social Networks in Sports V. Boginski1

    E-print Network

    Butenko, Sergiy

    Social Networks in Sports V. Boginski1 , S. Butenko2 , P. M. Pardalos1 , and O. Prokopyev1 1 of the most interesting real-life graph applications ­ so-called "social networks" where the vertices are real if the corresponding two persons know each other. Social networks are associated with a famous "small-world" hypothesis

  6. Social Networks: Prestige, Centrality, and Influence

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Social Networks: Prestige, Centrality, and Influence Agnieszka Rusinowska1 , Rudolf Berghammer2 and influence concepts in social networks, and present the relation-algebraic approach to the concepts of power flows. Furthermore, we present a certain model of influence in a social network and discuss some

  7. Extracting Social Networks from Instant Messaging Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Resig; Santosh Dawara; Christopher M. Homan; Ankur Teredesai

    2004-01-01

    In the analysis of large-scale social networks, a central prob- lem is how to discover how members of the network to be analyzed are related. Instant messaging (IM) is a popu- lar and relatively new form of social interaction. In this paper we study IM communities as social networks. An ob- vious barrier to such a study is that there

  8. Personalized Feed Recommendation Service for Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huajing Li; Yuan Tian; Wang-Chien Lee; C. Lee Giles; Meng-Chang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Social network systems (SNSs) such as Facebook and Twitter have recently attracted millions of users by providing social network based services to support easy message posting, information sharing and inter-friend communication. With the rapid growth of social networks, users of SNSs may easily get overwhelmed by the excessive volume of information feeds and felt challenging to digest and find truly

  9. Measurement and analysis of online social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Mislove; Massimiliano Marcon; P. Krishna Gummadi; Peter Druschel; Bobby Bhattacharjee

    2007-01-01

    Online social networking sites like Orkut, YouTube, and Flickr are among the most popular sites on the Internet. Users of these sites form a social network, which provides a powerful means of sharing, organizing, and finding con- tent and contacts. The popularity of these sites provides an opportunity to study the characteristics of online social network graphs at large scale.

  10. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers' efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users' locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  11. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers’ efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users’ locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  12. Privacy and Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Dianne M.; Duven, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    College students are relying on the Internet to make connections with other people every day. As the Internet has developed and grown, so have the capabilities for interaction. Social networking sites, a group of Web sites that provide people with the opportunity to create an online profile and to share that profile with others, are a part of…

  13. Reconfiguration and Search of Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lianming; Peng, Aoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Social networks tend to exhibit some topological characteristics different from regular networks and random networks, such as shorter average path length and higher clustering coefficient, and the node degree of the majority of social networks obeys exponential distribution. Based on the topological characteristics of the real social networks, a new network model which suits to portray the structure of social networks was proposed, and the characteristic parameters of the model were calculated. To find out the relationship between two people in the social network, and using the local information of the social network and the parallel mechanism, a hybrid search strategy based on k-walker random and a high degree was proposed. Simulation results show that the strategy can significantly reduce the average number of search steps, so as to effectively improve the search speed and efficiency. PMID:24574861

  14. Temporal distance metrics for social network analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Tang; Mirco Musolesi; Cecilia Mascolo; Vito Latora

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of social and technological networks has at- tracted a lot of attention as social networking applications and mobile sensing devices have given us a wealth of real data. Classic studies looked at analysing static or aggre- gated networks, i.e., networks that do not change over time or built as the results of aggregation of information over a certain

  15. Peer and social networks in job search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Marmaros; Bruce Sacerdote

    2002-01-01

    We examine how Dartmouth College seniors use social networks to obtain their first jobs. We do this by analyzing self reports of networking and by examining the correlation in employment outcomes among randomly assigned freshman roommates and hallmates. We find that the use of social networks differs for men and women and for white and nonwhite students. Networking also differs

  16. Social Network Analysis of Social Capital in Collaborative Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn A. Mandarano

    2009-01-01

    Social capital is an important primary outcome of collaborative planning and is deemed a precursor to arriving at successful collaborative planning outcomes such as more effective collective action and both individual and social benefits. Although commonly used definitions of social capital stress the importance of social networks, recent scholarly research tends to overlook the importance of understanding how collaborative efforts

  17. Leveraging social networks for toxicovigilance.

    PubMed

    Chary, Michael; Genes, Nicholas; McKenzie, Andrew; Manini, Alex F

    2013-06-01

    The landscape of drug abuse is shifting. Traditional means of characterizing these changes, such as national surveys or voluntary reporting by frontline clinicians, can miss changes in usage the emergence of novel drugs. Delays in detecting novel drug usage patterns make it difficult to evaluate public policy aimed at altering drug abuse. Increasingly, newer methods to inform frontline providers to recognize symptoms associated with novel drugs or methods of administration are needed. The growth of social networks may address this need. The objective of this manuscript is to introduce tools for using data from social networks to characterize drug abuse. We outline a structured approach to analyze social media in order to capture emerging trends in drug abuse by applying powerful methods from artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling. First, we describe how to obtain data from social networks such as Twitter using publicly available automated programmatic interfaces. Then, we discuss how to use artificial intelligence techniques to extract content useful for purposes of toxicovigilance. This filtered content can be employed to generate real-time maps of drug usage across geographical regions. Beyond describing the real-time epidemiology of drug abuse, techniques from computational linguistics can uncover ways that drug discussions differ from other online conversations. Next, graph theory can elucidate the structure of networks discussing drug abuse, helping us learn what online interactions promote drug abuse and whether these interactions differ among drugs. Finally, agent-based modeling relates online interactions to psychological archetypes, providing a link between epidemiology and behavior. An analysis of social media discussions about drug abuse patterns with computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling permits the real-time monitoring and characterization of trends of drugs of abuse. These tools provide a powerful complement to existing methods of toxicovigilance. PMID:23619711

  18. Improved community model for social networks based on social mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Zhen; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an improved community model for social networks based on social mobility. The relationship between the group distribution and the community size is investigated in terms of communication rate and turnover rate. The degree distributions, clustering coefficients, average distances and diameters of networks are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses the small-world property and can reproduce social networks effectively and efficiently.

  19. Social Insects: A Model System for Network Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Daniel; Blonder, Benjamin; Dornhaus, Anna

    Social insect colonies (ants, bees, wasps, and termites) show sophisticated collective problem-solving in the face of variable constraints. Individuals exchange information and materials such as food. The resulting network structure and dynamics can inform us about the mechanisms by which the insects achieve particular collective behaviors and these can be transposed to man-made and social networks. We discuss how network analysis can answer important questions about social insects, such as how effective task allocation or information flow is realized. We put forward the idea that network analysis methods are under-utilized in social insect research, and that they can provide novel ways to view the complexity of collective behavior, particularly if network dynamics are taken into account. To illustrate this, we present an example of network tasks performed by ant workers, linked by instances of workers switching from one task to another. We show how temporal network analysis can propose and test new hypotheses on mechanisms of task allocation, and how adding temporal elements to static networks can drastically change results. We discuss the benefits of using social insects as models for complex systems in general. There are multiple opportunities emergent technologies and analysis methods in facilitating research on social insect network. The potential for interdisciplinary work could significantly advance diverse fields such as behavioral ecology, computer sciences, and engineering.

  20. Will Learning Social Inclusion Assist Rural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Current research on social networks in some rural communities reports continuing demise despite efforts to build resilient communities. Several factors are identified as contributing to social decline including globalisation and rural social characteristics. Particular rural social characteristics, such as strong social bonds among members of…

  1. An Anonymous Social Network of Opinions

    E-print Network

    Haralabopoulos, Giannis

    2015-01-01

    Research interest on Online Social Networks, has increased dramatically over the last decade, mainly because online networks provide a vast source of social information. Graph structure, user connections, growth, information exposure and diffusion of online social networks, are some of the most frequently researched subjects. However, some areas of these networks are overlooked or even unconsidered, such as anonymity, equality and bias. In the limited bibliography available, such features seem to be influential to social interactions. Based on an extensive thinking of these studies, we aim to determine how universal anonymity affects: bias, user equality, information propagation, sharing and exposure, connection establishment and network structure. Thus we propose a new Anonymous Online Social Network, which will facilitate every type of monitoring and data analysis. A network that will provide an insight to our scientific pursues, which would be impossible to research in traditional Online Social Networks.

  2. Towards location-based social networking services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Yin Chow; Jie Bao; Mohamed F. Mokbel

    2010-01-01

    Social networking applications have become very important web services that provide Internet-based platforms for their users to interact with their friends. With the advances in the location-aware hardware and software technologies, location-based social networking applications have been proposed to provide services for their users, taking into account both the spatial and social aspects. Unfortunately, none of existing location-based social networking

  3. An Introduction to Social Network Data Analytics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charu C. Aggarwal

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a The advent of online social networks has been one of the most exciting events in this decade. Many popular online social networks\\u000a such as Twitter, LinkedIn, and Facebook have become increasingly popular. In addition, a number of multimedia networks such as Flickr have also seen an increasing level of popularity in recent years. Many such social networks are extremely rich

  4. Analysis and Visualization of Social Networks Ulrik Brandes1

    E-print Network

    Brandes, Ulrik

    of analysis provided, and visualization principles governing our choiceAnalysis and Visualization of Social Networks Ulrik Brandes1 and Dorothea Wagner2 1 University exploration of social networks. Social network analysis is a methodological approach in the social sciences

  5. Women, Social Networks, and HIV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wassie Kebede

    2012-01-01

    HIV\\/AIDS has been a growing problem since the 1980s. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between social networks of women and their HIV\\/AIDS status in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data from 24 women, 14 of whom were HIV positive. A content analysis technique was applied and UCINET software was used to

  6. Text Mining in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

    Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

  7. Community structure in social and biological networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Girvan; M. E. J. Newman

    2002-01-01

    A number of recent studies have focused on the statistical properties of networked systems such as social networks and the Worldwide Web. Researchers have concentrated particularly on a few properties that seem to be common to many networks: the small-world property, power-law degree distributions, and network transitivity. In this article, we highlight another property that is found in many networks,

  8. Social Network Closure and Child Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Newsome, Deborah; Nickerson, Pamela; Bazley, Ronda

    2001-01-01

    Identified fourth graders' peer groups and measured social network closure--extent to which meaningful social relationships exist between children and their friends' parents and among parents whose children are friends. Found that higher social network closure related to higher academic achievement and lower parent-reported externalizing…

  9. Boosting social network connectivity with link revival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Tian; Qi He; Qiankun Zhao; Xingjie Liu; Wang-chien Lee

    2010-01-01

    Online social networking platforms have become a popular channel of communications among people. However, most people can only keep in touch with a limited number of friends. This phenomenon results in a low-connectivity social network in terms of communications, which is inefficient for information propagation and social engagement. In this paper, we introduce a new recommendation service, called link revival,

  10. Social network influence and market instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-H. Steffi Yang

    2009-01-01

    Models of social networks depict individuals’ dependency. They offer a systematic way to capture the connectedness and opinion formations in the complex web of interpersonal influences. This paper studies price stability of a capital market, where the dynamics of participants’ opinion formations is formalized using social network models. Stability condition is derived. It is also identified how network structures are

  11. Localization versus globalization of social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasin Hamidi; Yasaman Hamidi; Shahrbanou Mehrbabak

    2011-01-01

    Social networks, a new generation of sites that focus these days on global networks, Internet users are located. Based on online sites such organizations are working and each batch of Internet users with specific characteristics make together. Social networks such as media know that the possibility of achieving a new way to communicate and share content on that have provided

  12. Promoting social networks among Computer Science students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathrin Figl; Sonja Kabicher; Katharina Toifl

    2008-01-01

    The main scientific aim of this study was to investigate how Computer Science students regarded their social networks among study colleagues. The study was conducted at the Research Lab for Educational Technologies (University of Vienna) in order to find connecting factors for improving students' networks by means of curricular design as well as in single courses. Social Networks drawings and

  13. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  14. Social Networks and Social Influences in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterell, John

    Young people are concerned with making and keeping friends, and they invest a great deal of energy in group social life to do so. This book charts the interactions of young people both in and out of school and the role of peers and friends in strengthening social attachments and in establishing social identities. It describes how social identities…

  15. One Health in social networks and social media.

    PubMed

    Mekaru, S R; Brownstein, J S

    2014-08-01

    In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media's strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting,the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message. PMID:25707189

  16. Challenges of Social Cognitive Network Science: Network Science Collaborative Technology Alliance Perspective

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    Challenges of Social Cognitive Network Science: Network Science Collaborative Technology Alliance Research Center of the Network Science Collaborative Technology Alliance. The focus is on potential impact of social cognitive network science. Keywords--social cognitive networks; communities; trust; team

  17. Database partitioning strategies for social network data

    E-print Network

    Moll Thomae, Oscar Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I designed, prototyped and benchmarked two different data partitioning strategies for social network type workloads. The first strategy takes advantage of the heavy-tailed degree distributions of social ...

  18. Opinion Dynamics and Learning in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2012-08-30

    We provide an overview of recent research on belief and opinion dynamics in social networks. We discuss both Bayesian and non-Bayesian models of social learning and focus on the implications of the form of learning (e.g., ...

  19. Discovering Mobile Social Networks by Semantic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jason J.; Choi, Kwang Sun; Park, Sung Hyuk

    It has been important for telecommunication companies to discover social networks from mobile subscribers. They have attempted to provide a number of recommendation services, but they realized that the services were not successful. In this chapter, we present semantic technologies for discovering social networks. The process is mainly composed of two steps; (1) profile identification and (2) context understanding. Through developing a Next generation Contents dElivery (NICE) platform, we were able to generate various services based on the discovered social networks.

  20. Privacy preserving social networking through decentralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Cutillo; R. Molva; T. Strufe

    2009-01-01

    The recent surge in popularity of on-line social network applications raises serious concerns about the security and privacy of their users. Beyond usual vulnerabilities that threaten any distributed application over Internet, on-line social networks raise specific privacy concerns due their inherent handling of personal data. In this paper we point to the centralized architecture of existing on-line social networks as

  1. Arc Reversals in Hybrid Bayesian Networks with Deterministic Variables

    E-print Network

    Cinicioglu, Esma N.; Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2009-05-01

    This article discusses arc reversals in hybrid Bayesian networks with deterministic variables. Hybrid Bayesian networks contain a mix of discrete and continuous chance variables. In a Bayesian network representation, a continuous chance variable...

  2. Bayesian Networks for Social Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; White, Amanda M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.

    2011-03-28

    This paper describes a body of work developed over the past five years. The work addresses the use of Bayesian network (BN) models for representing and predicting social/organizational behaviors. The topics covered include model construction, validation, and use. These topics show the bulk of the lifetime of such model, beginning with construction, moving to validation and other aspects of model ‘critiquing’, and finally demonstrating how the modeling approach might be used to inform policy analysis. To conclude, we discuss limitations of using BN for this activity and suggest remedies to address those limitations. The primary benefits of using a well-developed computational, mathematical, and statistical modeling structure, such as BN, are 1) there are significant computational, theoretical and capability bases on which to build 2) ability to empirically critique the model, and potentially evaluate competing models for a social/behavioral phenomena.

  3. Bayesian Networks for Social Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Paul; White, Amanda; Walsh, Stephen; Dalton, Angela; Brothers, Alan

    This paper describes a body of work developed over the past five years. The work addresses the use of Bayesian network (BN) models for representing and predicting social/organizational behaviors. The topics covered include model construction, validation, and use. These topics show the bulk of the lifetime of such model, beginning with construction, moving to validation and other aspects of model "critiquing", and finally demonstrating how the modeling approach might be used to inform policy analysis. The primary benefits of using a well-developed computational, mathematical, and statistical modeling structure, such as BN, are 1) there are significant computational, theoretical and capability bases on which to build 2) the ability to empirically critique the model, and potentially evaluate competing models for a social/behavioral phenomenon.

  4. Social Capital in Friendship-Event Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Licamele; Lise Getoor

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine a particular form of social network which we call a friendship-event network. A friendship-event network captures both the friendship rela- tionship among a set of actors, and also the organizer and participation relationships of actors in a series of events. Within these networks, we formulate the notion of social capital based on the actor-organizer friendship

  5. Antisocial Networks: Turning a Social Network into a Botnet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elias Athanasopoulos; A. Makridakis; Spyros Antonatos; D. Antoniades; Sotiris Ioannidis; Kostas G. Anagnostakis; Evangelos P. Markatos

    2008-01-01

    Antisocial Networks are distributed systems based on social networking Web sites that can be exploited by attackers, and directed to carry out network attacks. Malicious users are able to take control of the visitors of social sites by remotely manipulating their browsers through legitimate Web control functionality such as image-loading HTML tags, JavaScript instructions, etc. In this paper we experimentally

  6. Follow-up Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey The Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Gail E.

    Follow-up Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey The Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey The Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey is part of a research project-up Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey The Social Networks and Online Privacy Concerns Survey

  7. Social Influence Based Clustering of Heterogeneous Information Networks

    E-print Network

    Liu, Ling

    Social Influence Based Clustering of Heterogeneous Information Networks Yang Zhou College based information networks. In this paper, we present a social influence based clustering framework, Experimentation, Performance Keywords Graph Clustering, Heterogeneous Network, Social Influence 1. INTRODUCTION

  8. Using social networks to harvest email addresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iasonas Polakis; Georgios Kontaxis; Spiros Antonatos; Eleni Gessiou; Thanasis Petsas; Evangelos P. Markatos

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is one of the most popular Internet activities with millions of members from around the world. However, users are unaware of the privacy risks involved. Even if they protect their private information, their name is enough to be used for malicious purposes. In this paper we demonstrate and evaluate how names extracted from social networks can be used

  9. Harvesting knowledge from computer mediated social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oluwafemi S. Ogunseye; Philip K. Adetiloye; Samuel O. Idowu; Olusegun Folorunso; Adio T. Akinwale

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to focus on how the advantages of computer mediated social networks (CMSN) can be effectively harnessed to create value for organizations in the form of ready knowledge and quick solutions to problems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A knowledge capture technique – the Delphi technique – was fused into the social networking process. A model was designed to

  10. Entrepreneurial Idea Identification through Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of social network websites may signal a change in the way the next generation of entrepreneurs identify entrepreneurial ideas. An important part of the entrepreneurship literature emphasizes how vital the use of social networks is to entrepreneurial idea identification, opportunity recognition, and ultimately new venture…

  11. Asset Pricing Implications of Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han N. Ozsoylev

    Recent empirical studies suggest that social networks, according to which communi- cation takes place, have a significant impact on traders' financial decisions. Motivated by this evidence, we propose an asset pricing model in which agents communicate informa- tion according to a social network. In the proposed model, agents initially have imper- fect and diverse information about the asset payoff structure.

  12. Social Network Mining with Nonparametric Relational Models

    E-print Network

    Tresp, Volker

    Social Network Mining with Nonparametric Relational Models Zhao Xu1 , Volker Tresp2 , Achim) introduce nonparametric mixture models into relational learning and have been successful in many relational- munity detection, link prediction and product recommendation. In an IHRM-based social network model, each

  13. College students' social networking experiences on Facebook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiffany A. Pempek; Yevdokiya A. Yermolayeva; Sandra L. Calvert

    2009-01-01

    Millions of contemporary young adults use social networking sites. However, little is known about how much, why, and how they use these sites. In this study, 92 undergraduates completed a diary-like measure each day for a week, reporting daily time use and responding to an activities checklist to assess their use of the popular social networking site, Facebook. At the

  14. Targeted advertising for online social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinaki Mitra; Kamal Baid

    2009-01-01

    Generating targeted advertisements for online social networks is a problem of growing interest. Monetizing activity in online social networks has been the topic of heated discussion lately. The undiscriminating tastes and spending power of a majority of its members makes this medium for self-expression and opinion sharing a very lucrative venue for advertising. The recent $240 million investment by Microsoft

  15. Abusing Social Networks for Automated User Profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Balduzzi; Christian Platzer; Thorsten Holz; Engin Kirda; Davide Balzarotti; Christopher Kruegel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Recently, social networks such as Facebook have experienced a huge surge in popularity. The amount,of personal information stored in these sites calls for appropriate security precautions to pro- tect this data. In this paper, we describe how we are able to take advantage of a common weakness, namely the fact that an attacker can query the social network for

  16. LINK PREDICTION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS Link Prediction

    E-print Network

    Zaki, Mohammed Javeed

    Chapter 1 LINK PREDICTION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS Link Prediction Mohammad Al Hasan eBay Research Labs as followed (based upon the definition in Liben-Nowell and Kleinberg [36]): Given a social network G(V, E) in which an edge e = (u, v) E represents some form of interactions between its endpoints at a particular

  17. Multidimensional Visualization System for Travel Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Chiara Caschera; Fernando Ferri; Patrizia Grifoni; Tiziana Guzzo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we provide a multidimensional visualization system for travel social network. This system allows to analyse the structure and the social aggregation of travel networks providing different perspectives according to three dimensions: the space that defines locations connected to the members; the time that defines temporal evolution about tourist interests of the members; and coordinates involving classes of

  18. Motivations for social networking at work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Morris Dimicco; David R. Millen; Werner Geyer; Casey Dugan; Beth Brownholtz; Michael J. Muller

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of a social networking site inside of a large enterprise enables a new method of communication between colleagues, encouraging both personal and professional sharing inside the protected walls of a company intranet. Our analysis of user behavior and interviews presents the case that professionals use internal social networking to build stronger bonds with their weak ties and to

  19. Bootstrapping opportunistic networks using social roles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Bigwood; Tristan Henderson

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic routing protocols can enable mes- sage delivery in disconnected networks of mobile devices. To conserve energy in mobile environments, such routing protocols must minimise unnecessary message-forwarding. This paper presents an opportunistic routing protocol that leverages social role information. We compute node roles from a social network graph to identify nodes with similar contact re- lationships, and use these roles

  20. Offering a Job: Meritocracy and Social Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Trond; Saporta, Ishak; Seidel, Marc-David L.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the impact of sex, race, and social networks in the hiring processes of a midsize, high-technology organization using information about applicants (n=35,229) from 1985-94. Reports that for gender, age and education account for all sex differences; for ethnic minorities, the hiring process is partly reliant on social networks. (CMK)

  1. Online Games, Virtual Worlds, and Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    JOUR 447: Online Games, Virtual Worlds, and Social Networks Virtual Island Making #12;One element how to use the game engine, Unity3D. Following the same instructions, each student creatively designed in the look and design of the virtual islands. JOUR 447: Online Games, Virtual Worlds, and Social Networks

  2. Literature Overview - Privacy in Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Beye; Arjan Jeckmans; Zekeriya Erkin; P. H. Hartel; Reginald Lagendijk; Qiang Tang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Online Social Networks (OSNs) have become an important part of daily life for many. Users build explicit networks to represent their social relationships, either existing or new. Users also often upload and share a plethora of information related to their personal lives. The potential privacy risks of such behavior are often underestimated or ignored. For example, users

  3. Internet-Based Community Networks: Finding the Social in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K. Faith

    In this chapter we explore the concept of community within social networks and the effect that this primarily social construct can have on the way in which we understand trust within an online network. To do this we analyse and compare a number of the definitions that are both traditionally used to identify online communities and which have developed with the advent of semantically described social networks. Taking these definitions we apply them to a number of groups within a visualisation of a social network and, using this case study, consider the differences that are apparent between the types of groups. Finally, we discuss how the social implications inherent within the definition of community interact with the trust and reputation systems that exist in such networks. In doing so, we focus on the social aspect of the social network and the ways in which the social and technical worlds entwine.

  4. 13-12-16 Big Data in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Stojmenovic, Ivan

    13-12-16 1 Big Data in Social Networks Ivan Stojmenovic University of Ottawa December 2013 Outline Big Data Big Data in Social Networks 4V in Big Data from Social Networks Harnessing Big Data from Social Networks Small Social Data vs Big Data Community structure Space ­crossing community

  5. Emotional intelligence, personality, social networks, and social perception 

    E-print Network

    DeBusk, Kendra Portia Adrienne Howard

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a relatively new concept in the field of psychology, introduced by Salovey and Mayer in 1990. Research on EI has found associations among EI and social network size, health and well-being, ...

  6. Social networks and context-aware spam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garrett Brown; Travis Howe; Micheal Ihbe; Atul Prakash; Kevin Borders

    2008-01-01

    Social networks are popular for online communities. This paper evaluates the risk of sophisticated context-aware spam that could result from information sharing on social networks and discusses potential mitigation strategies. Unlike normal spam, context-aware spam would likely have a high click-through rate due to exploitation of authentic social connections. Context-aware spam could lead to more insidious attacks that try to

  7. Analysis of Social Networks by Tensor Decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergej Sizov; Steffen Staab; Thomas Franz

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The Social Web fosters novel applications targeting a more efficient and satisfying user guidance in modern social networks,\\u000a e.g., for identifying thematically focused communities, or finding users with similar interests. Large scale and high diversity\\u000a of users in social networks poses the challenging question of appropriate relevance\\/authority ranking, for producing fine-grained\\u000a and rich descriptions of available partners, e.g., to guide

  8. Massive Social Network Analysis: Mining Twitter for Social Good

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Ediger; Karl Jiang; Jason Riedy; David A. Bader; Courtney D. Corley; Robert M. Farber; William N. Reynolds

    2010-01-01

    Social networks produce an enormous quantity of data. Facebook consists of over 400 million active users sharing over 5 billion pieces of information each month. Analyzing this vast quantity of unstructured data presents challenges for software and hardware. We present GraphCT, a Graph Characterization Toolkit for massive graphs representing social network data. On a 128-processor Cray XMT, GraphCT estimates the

  9. Location Privacy Protection on Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Zhan; Xing Fang

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a Location information is considered as private in many scenarios. Protecting location information on mobile ad-hoc networks\\u000a has attracted much research in past years. However, location information protection on social networks has not been paid much\\u000a attention. In this paper, we present a novel location privacy protection approach on the basis of user messages in social\\u000a networks. Our approach grants flexibility

  10. Evolving spiking networks with variable resistive memories.

    PubMed

    Howard, Gerard; Bull, Larry; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Gale, Ella; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Neuromorphic computing is a brainlike information processing paradigm that requires adaptive learning mechanisms. A spiking neuro-evolutionary system is used for this purpose; plastic resistive memories are implemented as synapses in spiking neural networks. The evolutionary design process exploits parameter self-adaptation and allows the topology and synaptic weights to be evolved for each network in an autonomous manner. Variable resistive memories are the focus of this research; each synapse has its own conductance profile which modifies the plastic behaviour of the device and may be altered during evolution. These variable resistive networks are evaluated on a noisy robotic dynamic-reward scenario against two static resistive memories and a system containing standard connections only. The results indicate that the extra behavioural degrees of freedom available to the networks incorporating variable resistive memories enable them to outperform the comparative synapse types. PMID:23614774

  11. Multilayer weighted social network model.

    PubMed

    Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved. PMID:25493837

  12. Multilayer weighted social network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved.

  13. A Participatory Evaluation of the Use of Social Networking Tools in a High School Math Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormald, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    As we move into the 21st century, the needs of our students are more variable than ever. There has been a proliferation of social networking usage in society yet there has been little use of those emerging tools in schools as a means to enhance student learning. It is a common practice in school districts to block social networking sites and…

  14. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  15. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    PubMed

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers. PMID:21483683

  16. Social Network Analysis for Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Thomas W.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Czaja, Sara; Chu, Kar-Hai; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. The social network perspective is useful for understanding, monitoring, influencing, or evaluating the implementation process when programs, policies, practices, or principles are designed and scaled up or adapted to different settings. We briefly describe common barriers to implementation success and relate them to the social networks of implementation stakeholders. We introduce a few simple measures commonly used in social network analysis and discuss how these measures can be used in program implementation. Using the four stage model of program implementation (exploration, adoption, implementation, and sustainment) proposed by Aarons and colleagues [1] and our experience in developing multi-sector partnerships involving community leaders, organizations, practitioners, and researchers, we show how network measures can be used at each stage to monitor, intervene, and improve the implementation process. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. We conclude with expected benefits and challenges associated with this approach. PMID:26110842

  17. Social Network Analysis for Program Implementation.

    PubMed

    Valente, Thomas W; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Czaja, Sara; Chu, Kar-Hai; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. The social network perspective is useful for understanding, monitoring, influencing, or evaluating the implementation process when programs, policies, practices, or principles are designed and scaled up or adapted to different settings. We briefly describe common barriers to implementation success and relate them to the social networks of implementation stakeholders. We introduce a few simple measures commonly used in social network analysis and discuss how these measures can be used in program implementation. Using the four stage model of program implementation (exploration, adoption, implementation, and sustainment) proposed by Aarons and colleagues [1] and our experience in developing multi-sector partnerships involving community leaders, organizations, practitioners, and researchers, we show how network measures can be used at each stage to monitor, intervene, and improve the implementation process. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. We conclude with expected benefits and challenges associated with this approach. PMID:26110842

  18. Modeling social network topologies in elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain; Viga-de Alva, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Complex networks are used to describe interactions in many real world systems, including economic, biological and social systems. An analysis was done of inter-student friendship, enmity and kinship relationships at three elementary schools by building social networks of these relationships and studying their properties. Friendship network measurements were similar between schools and produced a Poisson topology with a high clustering index. Enmity network measurements were also similar between schools and produced a power law topology. Spatial confinement and the sense of belonging to a social group played vital roles in shaping these networks. Two models were developed which generate complex friendship and enmity networks that reproduce the properties observed at the three studied elementary schools. PMID:23408976

  19. Modeling Social Network Topologies in Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain; Viga-de Alva, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Complex networks are used to describe interactions in many real world systems, including economic, biological and social systems. An analysis was done of inter-student friendship, enmity and kinship relationships at three elementary schools by building social networks of these relationships and studying their properties. Friendship network measurements were similar between schools and produced a Poisson topology with a high clustering index. Enmity network measurements were also similar between schools and produced a power law topology. Spatial confinement and the sense of belonging to a social group played vital roles in shaping these networks. Two models were developed which generate complex friendship and enmity networks that reproduce the properties observed at the three studied elementary schools. PMID:23408976

  20. Network Awareness, Social Context and Persuasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Steiny

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings a sociological perspective to an area dominated by social psychology, that of persuasion. It discusses how\\u000a networks can be used to describe context for persuasive messages. It has been previously argued that network awareness, having\\u000a knowledge of how networks affect behavior and perception, combined with knowledge of the networks in some part of society\\u000a such as an

  1. Topics in social network analysis and network science

    E-print Network

    O'Malley, A James

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces statistical methods used in the analysis of social networks and in the rapidly evolving parallel-field of network science. Although several instances of social network analysis in health services research have appeared recently, the majority involve only the most basic methods and thus scratch the surface of what might be accomplished. Cutting-edge methods using relevant examples and illustrations in health services research are provided.

  2. Women’s Social Networks and Birth Attendant Decisions: Application of the Network-Episode Model

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Bernard, H. Russell; Sibley, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the association of women's social networks with the use of skilled birth attendants in uncomplicated pregnancy and childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh. The Network-Episode Model was applied to determine if network structure variables (density / kinship homogeneity / strength of ties) together with network content (endorsement for or against a particular type of birth attendant) explain the type of birth attendant used by women above and beyond the variance explained by women's individual attributes. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 246 women, 18–45 years of age, using survey and social network methods between October and December 2008. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Results suggest that the structural properties of networks did not add to explanatory value but instead network content or the perceived advice of network members add significantly to the explanation of variation in service use. Testing aggregate network variables at the individual level extends the ability of the individual profile matrix to explain outcomes. Community health education and mobilization interventions attempting to increase demand for skilled attendants need to reflect the centrality of kinship networks to women in Bangladesh and the likelihood of women to heed the advice of their network of advisors with regard to place of birth. PMID:22196965

  3. Social Network Change Detection Ian A. McCulloh and Kathleen M. Carley

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Control, CUSUM, Al-Qaeda, IkeNet, Terrorism #12;iii Abstract Changes in observed social networks may pressures, or individual roles expand or contract. Often, these gradual changes reflect a fundamental, reflecting normal day-to- day variability

  4. Privacy in Online Social Networks and Richard Chbeir2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Privacy in Online Social Networks Elie Raad1 and Richard Chbeir2 1 Memorial University and Privacy Preserving in Social Networks (2013) 3-45" #12;With the proliferation of online social networks richard.chbeir@univ-pau.fr Abstract. Online social networks have become an important part of the online

  5. Producing timely recommendations from social networks through targeted search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Gürsel; Sandip Sen

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in interest and partic- ipation in social networking websites recently. For many users, social networks are indispensable tools for sharing personal information and keeping abreast with updates by their acquaintances. While there has been research on un- derstanding the structure and effects of social networks, re- search on using social networks for developing targeted

  6. Social Capital Companion: Capturing Personal Networks as They are Lived

    E-print Network

    Brandes, Ulrik

    the main factors that account for social network dynamics, including social influence through alters al. (2010). A personal network study that seeks to separate social influence from social selectionSocial Capital Companion: Capturing Personal Networks as They are Lived J¨urgen Lerner1 , Miranda

  7. Empirical analysis of an evolving social network.

    PubMed

    Kossinets, Gueorgi; Watts, Duncan J

    2006-01-01

    Social networks evolve over time, driven by the shared activities and affiliations of their members, by similarity of individuals' attributes, and by the closure of short network cycles. We analyzed a dynamic social network comprising 43,553 students, faculty, and staff at a large university, in which interactions between individuals are inferred from time-stamped e-mail headers recorded over one academic year and are matched with affiliations and attributes. We found that network evolution is dominated by a combination of effects arising from network topology itself and the organizational structure in which the network is embedded. In the absence of global perturbations, average network properties appear to approach an equilibrium state, whereas individual properties are unstable. PMID:16400149

  8. Online social network sensors for influenza outbreaks

    E-print Network

    Everett, Katie Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown strong correlations between postings on the online social network Twitter where users complain of influenza-like symptoms, and clinical data on actual influenza rates. In addition, previous ...

  9. Social networks in improvement of health care.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the "nodes" of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens' associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs, procedures, etc., which gives a special emphasis on public health aspects of information, especially in the field of medicine and health care. The authors of this paper discuss the role and practical importance of social networks in improving the health and solving of health problems without the physical entrance into the health care system. Social networks have their advantages and disadvantages, benefits and costs, especially when it comes to information which within the network set unprofessional people from unreliable sources, without an adequate selection. The ethical aspect of the norms in this segment is still not adequately regulated, so any sanctions for the unauthorized and malicious use of social networks in private and other purposes in order to obtain personal gain at the expense of individuals or groups (sick or healthy, owners of certain businesses and companies, health organizations and pharmaceutical manufacturers, etc.), for which there is still no global or European codes and standards of conduct. Cyber crime is now one of the mostly present types of crime in modern times, as evidenced by numerous scandals that are happening both globally and locally. PMID:23922516

  10. Enterprise social networks : engaging employees and sustaining participation

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Payal

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships pervade every aspect of human life and development of social networks at work is inevitable. Enterprise social networking solutions provide a platform for employees to formally foster these professional ...

  11. Introduction to Network Science 1 Complex Social System, Elections

    E-print Network

    Safro, Ilya

    Introduction to Network Science 1 Complex Social System, Elections Centrality measures an importance of network's element (nodes, links, edges). #12;Introduction to Network Science 2 Complex Social-degree centrality index = number of in-edges #12;Introduction to Network Science 3 Complex Social System, Network II

  12. Mining Information of Anonymous User on a Social Network Service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Soo Cho; Jae Yoel Yoon; Iee Joon Kim; Ji Yeon Lim; Seung Kwan Kim; Ung-Mo Kim

    2011-01-01

    2 vntlffl, 3 uk3080789, Abstract— The growing number of individuals is recently writing their own opinions or information freely at the network space on the web such as the blog or Online Cafe and these network spaces are developed toward a new service called social network. Consequently, a lot of researchers are studying this social network lively. The social network

  13. Social network analysis and dual rover communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) refers to the collection of techniques, tools, and methods used in sociometry aiming at the analysis of social networks to investigate decision making, group communication, and the distribution of information. Human factors engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a social network analysis on communication data collected during a 14-day field study operating a dual rover exploration mission to better understand the relationships between certain network groups such as ground control, flight teams, and planetary science. The analysis identified two communication network structures for the continuous communication and Twice-a-Day Communication scenarios as a split network and negotiated network respectfully. The major nodes or groups for the networks' architecture, transmittal status, and information were identified using graphical network mapping, quantitative analysis of subjective impressions, and quantified statistical analysis using Sociometric Statue and Centrality. Post-questionnaire analysis along with interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages of each network structure with team members identifying the need for a more stable continuous communication network, improved robustness of voice loops, and better systems training/capabilities for scientific imagery data and operational data during Twice-a-Day Communications.

  14. Social network classification incorporating link type values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond Heatherly; Murat Kantarcioglu; Bhavani M. Thuraisingham

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—Classification of nodes in a social network and its applications to security informatics have been extensively studied in the past. However, previous work generally does not consider the types of links (e.g., whether a person is friend or a close friend) that connect social networks members,for classification purposes. Here, we propose modified Naive Bayes Classification schemes to make,use of the

  15. Towards Detecting Influential Users in Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Afrasiabi Rad; Morad Benyoucef

    \\u000a One of online social networks’ best marketing strategies is viral advertisement. The influence of users on their friends can\\u000a increase or decrease sales, so businesses are interested in finding influential people and encouraging them to create positive\\u000a influence. Models and techniques have been proposed to facilitate finding influential people, however most fail to address\\u000a common online social network problems such

  16. Intelligent Ubiquitous Services Based on Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason J. Jung

    \\u000a A number of studies have been conducted on discovering useful information from social networks among people. Particularly,\\u000a on ubiquitous environment, the social network between people, regarded as the channel for exchanging and propagating their\\u000a contexts, plays a crucial role on being aware of the user contexts. To efficiently discover the contexts of a certain users,\\u000a the contexts of his neighbors

  17. Spatializing Social Networks: Using Social Network Analysis to Investigate Geographies of Gang Rivalry, Territoriality, and Violence in Los Angeles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Radil; Colin Flint; George E. Tita

    2010-01-01

    Social network analysis is an increasingly prominent set of techniques used in a number of social sciences, but the use of the techniques of social network analysis in geography has been challenged because of a perceived lack of geographic nuance or consideration of spatialities of context in social networks. The concept of social position and the associated technique of structural

  18. Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja

    2014-08-01

    Individuals within social groups often show consistent differences in behaviour across time and context. Such interindividual differences and the evolutionary challenge they present have recently generated considerable interest. Social insects provide some of the most familiar and spectacular examples of social groups with large interindividual differences. Investigating these within-group differences has a long research tradition, and behavioural variability among the workers of a colony is increasingly regarded as fundamental for a key feature of social insects: division of labour. The goal of this review is to illustrate what we know about both the proximate mechanisms underlying behavioural variability among the workers of a colony and its ultimate consequences; and to highlight the many open questions in this research field. We begin by reviewing the literature on mechanisms that potentially introduce, maintain, and adjust the behavioural differentiation among workers. We highlight the fact that so far, most studies have focused on behavioural variability based on genetic variability, provided by e.g. multiple mating of the queen, while other mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavioural differentiation among workers have been largely neglected. These include maturational, nutritional and environmental influences. We further discuss how feedback provided by the social environment and learning and experience of adult workers provides potent and little-explored sources of differentiation. In a second part, we address what is known about the potential benefits and costs of increased behavioural variability within the workers of a colony. We argue that all studies documenting a benefit of variability so far have done so by manipulating genetic variability, and that a direct test of the effect of behavioural variability on colony productivity has yet to be provided. We emphasize that the costs associated with interindividual variability have been largely overlooked, and that a better knowledge of the cost/benefit balance of behavioural variability is crucial for our understanding of the evolution of the mechanisms underlying the social organization of insect societies. We conclude by highlighting what we believe to be promising but little-explored avenues for future research on how within-colony variability has evolved and is maintained. We emphasize the need for comparative studies and point out that, so far, most studies on interindividual variability have focused on variability in individual response thresholds, while the significance of variability in other parameters of individual response, such as probability and intensity of the response, has been largely overlooked. We propose that these parameters have important consequences for the colony response. Much more research is needed to understand if and how interindividual variability is modulated in order to benefit division of labour, homeostasis and ultimately colony fitness in social insects. PMID:24341677

  19. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  20. The Social Network and Alcohol Use*

    PubMed Central

    Homish, Gregory G.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has found that a drinking-supportive social network has a strong influence on heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems over time. The objective of this work was to understand the individual difference and interpersonal factors that predict changes in the social network relevant to alcohol use. Method: Data are from a large, ongoing prospective sample of 634 newly married couples in the United States. The current study examined the association between individual, relationship, and partner factors as they relate to changes in the number of drinking buddies in the social network during the first 7 years of marriage. Results: After controlling for the number of drinking buddies before marriage, as well as the frequency of heavy drinking, several individual, relationship, and partner factors were associated with changes in the social network over time. For both husbands and wives, alcohol expectancies and a partner's social network related to changes in the number of drinking buddies over time. Additionally, husbands with higher levels of extroversion and agreeableness had a greater number of drinking buddies over time. Among wives, personality factors were not related to changes in the number of drinking buddies over time. Conclusions: This work extends previous research by examining factors that predict changes in the social network that are most influential in alcohol use. Identifying these factors is important for informing prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:18925349

  1. District Policy and Teachers' Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Russell, Jennifer Lin

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers increasingly include provisions aimed at fostering professional community as part of reform initiatives. Yet little is known about the impact of policy on teachers' professional relations in schools. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and methodologically from qualitative social network analysis, this article explores…

  2. Facebook, Social Networking, and Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven A.; Mulligan, Jamie R.; Ishida, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    Brown (2012) asserts that faculty perceptions of Web 2.0 for teaching will influence its adoption. For example, social media's influence on educational delivery is growing (Hrastinski and Dennon 2012). Zulu et al. (2011) note that business educators are only beginning to understand social networking related to education. We report an exploratory…

  3. Motivating contributors in social media networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivek K. Singh; Ramesh Jain; Mohan S. Kankanhalli

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advancements in user-driven social media platforms, tools for studying user behavior patterns and motivations remain primitive. We highlight the voluntary nature of user contributions and that users can choose when (and when not) to contribute to the common media pool. We use a Game theoretic framework to study the dynamics of a social media network wherein contribution costs

  4. Social media networking: Facebook and Twitter.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Andrew; Jackson, Rem; Baum, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The new wave of marketing and practice promotion will include social media networking. This article will discuss Facebook and Twitter. After reading this article you, will have an understanding of these two important aspects of social media and how you might use Facebook and Twitter in your practice to enhance your communication with your existing patients and attract new patients. PMID:21243885

  5. Measuring Privacy Risk in Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Becker

    Measuring privacy risk in online social networks is a challenging task. One of the fundamental difficulties is quantifying the amount of information revealed unin- tentionally. We present PrivAware, a tool to detect and report unintended information loss in online social net- works. Our goal is to provide a rudimentary framework to identify privacy risk and provide solutions to reduce information

  6. Spatial and Social Networks in Organizational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineman, Jean D.; Kabo, Felichism W.; Davis, Gerald F.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the enabling factors of innovation has focused on either the social component of organizations or on the spatial dimensions involved in the innovation process. But no one has examined the aggregate consequences of the link from spatial layout, to social networks, to innovation. This project enriches our understanding of how innovation…

  7. Western and Eastern views on social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to examine social networks from a Western and Eastern view. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses case study methodology to gather evidence of how world pioneering firms from Asia and Europe measure and report their social connections from a Western perspective. Findings – It is examined the basic indicators firms use to measure

  8. Network analysis in comparative social sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenia Roldán Vera; Thomas Schupp

    2006-01-01

    This essay describes the pertinence of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for the social sciences in general, and discusses its methodological and conceptual implications for comparative research in particular. The authors first present a basic summary of the theoretical and methodological assumptions of SNA, followed by a succinct overview of its application to diverse fields of study. They then exemplify in

  9. Practical Recommendations on Crawling Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minas Gjoka; Maciej Kurant; Carter T. Butts; Athina Markopoulou

    2011-01-01

    Our goal in this paper is to develop a practical framework for obtaining a uniform sample of users in an online social network (OSN) by crawling its social graph. Such a sample allows to estimate any user property and some topological properties as well. To this end, ?rst, we consider and compare several candidate crawling techniques. Two approaches that can

  10. Master's Thesis Growth in Online Social Networks: Sheer Volume vs Social

    E-print Network

    Moon, Sue B.

    Master's Thesis Growth in Online Social Networks: Sheer Volume vs Social Interaction ( Chun, Hyunwoo) Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Division of Computer Science Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 2008 #12; Growth in Online Social Networks: Sheer

  11. Computing in Social Networks Andrei Giurgiu1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that enables secret sharing and distributed verifica- tions which leverage the social aspect of the network of such networks is still growing regularly by the day, e.g. Facebook boasts by now more than 400 millions users, this poses several privacy problems, besides scalability. For instance, there is no guarantee that Facebook

  12. Computing in Social Networks Andrei Giurgiu1

    E-print Network

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    that enables secret sharing and distributed verifications which leverage the social aspect of the network of such networks is still growing regularly by the day, e.g. Facebook boasts by now more than 400 millions users, this poses several privacy problems, besides scalability. For instance, there is no guarantee that Facebook

  13. Mothers' personal social networks and child maltreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Salzinger; Sandra Kaplan; Connie Artemyeff

    1983-01-01

    The social networks of 32 mothers in families being treated in a hospital-based program for indicated cases of child abuse and neglect were compared to the networks of a demographically comparable control group of 24 mothers whose children were not subject to maltreatment. The mean age of Ss in both samples was 35 yrs. The clinic mothers were found to

  14. Beyond Ning: Rolling Your Own Social Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Sumner

    2010-01-01

    Ning has recently announced plans to discontinue its free service, requiring network creators to pay for service or leave Ning altogether. In this session we'll look at how this decision affects educational users of Ning, as well as alternative, DIY social networking software packages such as Elgg, Buddypress, and Community Engine.

  15. Groupthink and Peer Pressure: Social Influence in Online Social Network Groups Pan Hui, Sonja Buchegger

    E-print Network

    Hui, Pan "Ben"

    Groupthink and Peer Pressure: Social Influence in Online Social Network Groups Pan Hui, Sonja number of strangers. Keywords-social networks; social influence; I. INTRODUCTION Social influence occurs view of social influence, more specifically a quantitative study of the in- fluence of neighbours

  16. Multimedia Information Networks in Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liangliang; Qi, Guojun; Tsai, Shen-Fu; Tsai, Min-Hsuan; Pozo, Andrey Del; Huang, Thomas S.; Zhang, Xuemei; Lim, Suk Hwan

    The popularity of personal digital cameras and online photo/video sharing community has lead to an explosion of multimedia information. Unlike traditional multimedia data, many new multimedia datasets are organized in a structural way, incorporating rich information such as semantic ontology, social interaction, community media, geographical maps, in addition to the multimedia contents by themselves. Studies of such structured multimedia data have resulted in a new research area, which is referred to as Multimedia Information Networks. Multimedia information networks are closely related to social networks, but especially focus on understanding the topics and semantics of the multimedia files in the context of network structure. This chapter reviews different categories of recent systems related to multimedia information networks, summarizes the popular inference methods used in recent works, and discusses the applications related to multimedia information networks. We also discuss a wide range of topics including public datasets, related industrial systems, and potential future research directions in this field.

  17. Predicting Influential Users in Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rumi Ghosh; Kristina Lerman

    2010-01-01

    Who are the influential people in an online social network? The answer to\\u000athis question depends not only on the structure of the network, but also on\\u000adetails of the dynamic processes occurring on it. We classify these processes\\u000aas conservative and non-conservative. A random walk on a network is an example\\u000aof a conservative dynamic process, while information spread

  18. Visual Matrix Clustering of Social Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; May, Richard A.

    2013-07-01

    The prevailing choices to graphically represent a social network in today’s literature are a node-link graph layout and an adjacency matrix. Both visualization techniques have unique strengths and weaknesses when applied to different domain applications. In this article, we focus our discussion on adjacency matrix and how to turn the matrix-based visualization technique from merely showing pairwise associations among network actors (or graph nodes) to depicting clusters of a social network. We also use node-link layouts to supplement the discussion.

  19. How Do Online Social Networks Grow?

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Konglin; Li, Wenzhong; Fu, Xiaoming; Nagler, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Online social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Gowalla allow people to communicate and interact across borders. In past years online social networks have become increasingly important for studying the behavior of individuals, group formation, and the emergence of online societies. Here we focus on the characterization of the average growth of online social networks and try to understand which are possible processes behind seemingly long-range temporal correlated collective behavior. In agreement with recent findings, but in contrast to Gibrat's law of proportionate growth, we find scaling in the average growth rate and its standard deviation. In contrast, Renren and Twitter deviate, however, in certain important aspects significantly from those found in many social and economic systems. Whereas independent methods suggest no significance for temporally long-range correlated behavior for Renren and Twitter, a scaling analysis of the standard deviation does suggest long-range temporal correlated growth in Gowalla. However, we demonstrate that seemingly long-range temporal correlations in the growth of online social networks, such as in Gowalla, can be explained by a decomposition into temporally and spatially independent growth processes with a large variety of entry rates. Our analysis thus suggests that temporally or spatially correlated behavior does not play a major role in the growth of online social networks. PMID:24940744

  20. Developmental stress predicts social network position

    PubMed Central

    Boogert, Neeltje J.; Farine, Damien R.; Spencer, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The quantity and quality of social relationships, as captured by social network analysis, can have major fitness consequences. Various studies have shown that individual differences in social behaviour can be due to variation in exposure to developmental stress. However, whether these developmental differences translate to consistent differences in social network position is not known. We experimentally increased levels of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in nestling zebra finches in a fully balanced design. Upon reaching nutritional independence, we released chicks and their families into two free-flying rooms, where we measured daily social networks over five weeks using passive integrated transponder tags. Developmental stress had a significant effect on social behaviour: despite having similar foraging patterns, CORT chicks had weaker associations to their parents than control chicks. Instead, CORT chicks foraged with a greater number of flock mates and were less choosy with whom they foraged, resulting in more central network positions. These findings highlight the importance of taking developmental history into account to understand the drivers of social organization in gregarious species. PMID:25354917

  1. Online social networking: a primer for radiology.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Prasanth M; Seagull, F Jacob; Nagy, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Online social networking is an immature, but rapidly evolving industry of web-based technologies that allow individuals to develop online relationships. News stories populate the headlines about various websites which can facilitate patient and doctor interaction. There remain questions about protecting patient confidentiality and defining etiquette in order to preserve the doctor/patient relationship and protect physicians. How much social networking-based communication or other forms of E-communication is effective? What are the potential benefits and pitfalls of this form of communication? Physicians are exploring how social networking might provide a forum for interacting with their patients, and advance collaborative patient care. Several organizations and institutions have set forth policies to address these questions and more. Though still in its infancy, this form of media has the power to revolutionize the way physicians interact with their patients and fellow health care workers. In the end, physicians must ask what value is added by engaging patients or other health care providers in a social networking format. Social networks may flourish in health care as a means of distributing information to patients or serve mainly as support groups among patients. Physicians must tread a narrow path to bring value to interactions in these networks while limiting their exposure to unwanted liability. PMID:21360214

  2. Psy 992 Social Network Analysis Syllabus 1 Social Network Analysis (Psy 992)

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    Psy 992 Social Network Analysis Syllabus 1 Social Network Analysis (Psy 992) Fall 2012 Instructor Readings: Other readings are listed in the course outline. Readings are available in PDF format on Angel are posted on Angel under the Lessons tab. Deadlines for each assignment are listed in the Course Schedule

  3. Business Success Through Social Networks? A Comment on Social Networks and Business Success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Egbert

    2009-01-01

    In the literature on entrepreneurship in developing coun- tries, the argument that social networks are an essential factor for entrepreneurial success has been given considerable attention. This article challenges this one-sided view by pointing out negative and restrictive effects of social networks on entrepreneurial success in particular, and on economic development in general. The article is structured as a comment

  4. A Social Network Comparison of Low-Income Black and White Newlywed Couples.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Grace L; Kennedy, David; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2014-10-01

    Relative to White families, Black families have been described as relying on extended social networks to compensate for other social and economic disadvantages. The presence or absence of supportive social networks should be especially relevant to young couples entering marriage, but to date there has been little effort to describe the social networks of comparable Black and White newlyweds. The current study addressed this gap by drawing on interviews with 57 first-married newlyweds from low-income communities to compare the composition and structure of Black and White couples' duocentric social networks. The results indicated that low-income Black couples entered marriage at a social disadvantage relative to White couples, with more family relationships but fewer positive relationships and fewer sources of emotional support (for wives), fewer connections to married individuals, and fewer shared relationships between spouses. Black couples' relative social disadvantages persisted even when various economic and demographic variables were controlled. PMID:25214673

  5. Survey of Trust Based Communications in Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawat Chomphoosang; Ping Zhang; Arjan Durresi; Leonard Barolli

    2011-01-01

    Social networking is become important component of our daily lives. People use them to share important personal data. However, most users do not fully realize the security implications of using social networks. Furthermore, social net- works are vulnerable to many security attacks. One major threat remains the alteration of data in social networks. In this paper we review several techniques

  6. Analysing the simultaneous dynamics of social networks and individual behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom A. B. Snijders

    A natural way to think of social and economic interaction structure is in terms of social networks. Studies of social networks have focused traditionally on the role of networks as opportunities and constraints for the behavior and performance of the actors. The behavior and performance of individual persons and other social actors (e.g., firms, organizations) is conditioned to an important

  7. A Fast Approximation for Influence Maximization in Large Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Chung, Chin-Wan

    A Fast Approximation for Influence Maximization in Large Social Networks Jong-Ryul Lee Dept the spread of influence in a social network for a given parameter k. A social net- work is represented number of influenced users on a social network, and it is usually approximated by Monte-Carlo simulations

  8. Social Networks 23 (2001) 261283 Peer influence groups: identifying dense

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    2001-01-01

    Social Networks 23 (2001) 261­283 Peer influence groups: identifying dense clusters in large influence; Cohesion; Methods 1. Introduction Early social network theorists argued that the power of social and availability of social network data. This represents a poverty of riches, however, since many of our analysis

  9. iLink : search and routing in social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Davitz; Jiye Yu; Sugato Basu; David Gutelius; Alexandra Harris

    2007-01-01

    The growth of Web 2.0 and fundamental theoretical breakthroughs have led to an avalanche of interest in social networks. This paper focuses on the problem of modeling how social networks accomplish tasks through peer production style collaboration. We propose a general interaction model for the underlying social networks and then a specific model (iLink for social search and message routing.

  10. Social networks as a service in modern enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zakaria Maamar; Youakim Badr

    2009-01-01

    The power of social networks stems from their ability to capture real-world phenomena such as collaboration, competition, and partnerships. Social networks provide means for enterprises to capture and expose many informal connections between their stakeholders. In this paper, we discuss how social networks could sustain growth and unfold business opportunities in modern enterprises. Furthermore, we study various types of social

  11. Establishing Social Norms for Privacy in Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Kang; Lalana Kagal

    Most social networks have implemented extensive and com- plex privacy controls in order to battle the host of privacy concerns that initially plagued their online communities. These privacy controls have taken the form of access restriction, which allow users to construct barri- ers preventing unwanted users from viewing their personal information. However, this system leaves users unprotected in cases in

  12. Social networks, incentives, and search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon M. Kleinberg

    2006-01-01

    The role of network structure has grown in significance over the past ten years in the field of information retrieval, stimulated to a great extent by the importance of link analysis in the development of Web search techniques [4]. This body of work has focused primarily on the network that is most clearly visible on the Web: the network of

  13. Control of Preferences in Social Networks Georgios C. Chasparis

    E-print Network

    Shamma, Jeff S.

    in a social network. We seek to compute policies that account for i) endogenous network influences, ii and Watts 2002), the convergence of beliefs in a social network (Golub and Jackson 2007) or the influenceControl of Preferences in Social Networks Georgios C. Chasparis Jeff S. Shamma July 8, 2012

  14. Security and privacy in online social networks: A survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prateek Joshi; C.-C. Jay Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Social networking becomes increasingly important due to the recent surge in online interaction. Social network analysis can be used to study the functioning of computer networks, information flow patterns in communities, and emergent behavior of physical and biological systems. In this paper, the mathematical formulation and computational models for security and privacy of social network data are discussed. Several possible

  15. Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks Lilian Weng, Filippo Menczer & Yong, and marketing applications. D iseases, ideas, innovations, and behaviors spread through social networks1 marketing6,19 , network science20,21 , commun- ication22 , and social media analytics23­25 . Network

  16. Massive Social Network Analysis: Mining Twitter for Social Good

    SciTech Connect

    Ediger, David; Jiang, Karl; Riedy, Edward J.; Bader, David A.; Corley, Courtney D.; Farber, Robert M.; Reynolds, William

    2010-10-11

    Social networks produce an enormous quantity of data. Facebook consists of over 400 million active users sharing over 5 billion pieces of information each month. Analyzing this vast quantity of unstructured data presents challenges for software and hardware. We present GraphCT, a Graph Characterization Tooklit for massive graphs representing social network data. On a 128-processor Cray XMT, GraphCT estimates the betweenness centrality of an artificially generated (R-MAT) 537 million vertex, 8.6 billion edge graph in 55 minutes. We use GraphCT to analyze public data from Twitter, a microblogging network. Twitter's message connections appear primarily tree-structured as a news dissemination system. Within the public data, however, are clusters of conversations. Using GraphCT, we can rank actors within these conversations and help analysts focus attention on a much smaller data subset.

  17. The fundamental structures of dynamic social networks

    E-print Network

    Sekara, Vedran; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Networks provide a powerful mathematical framework for analyzing the structure and dynamics of complex systems (1-3). The study of group behavior has deep roots in the social science literature (4,5) and community detection is a central part of modern network science. Network communities have been found to be highly overlapping and organized in a hierarchical structure (6-9). Recent technological advances have provided a toolset for measuring the detailed social dynamics at scale (10,11). In spite of great progress, a quantitative description of the complex temporal behavior of social groups-with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns expressed on the timescale of years-is still absent. Here we uncover a class of fundamental structures embedded within highly dynamic social networks. On the shortest time-scale, we find that social gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. We show that cores represent social contexts (9), with recur...

  18. Social Networks and Social Support: Implications for Natural Helper and Community Level Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A. Israel

    1985-01-01

    The convincing evidence of the relationship between social support, social networks, and health status has influenced the development of program strategies which are relevant to health education. This article focuses on the linkage between social support and social networks and health education programs which involve interventions at the network and community level. Two broad strategies are addressed: programs enhancing entire

  19. The Effects of Social Influence on User Acceptance of Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Qin; Yongbeom Kim; Jeffrey Hsu; Xin Tan

    2011-01-01

    With the proliferation of online social networks, understanding how and why individuals adopt and use online social networks can help managers and marketers to design better methods and approaches towards engaging their users. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of user acceptance of online social networks, with particular attention given to the effects of social influence.

  20. Adoption of Social Networking in Education: A Study of the Use of Social Networks by Higher Education Students in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mukhaini, Elham M.; Al-Qayoudhi, Wafa S.; Al-Badi, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of social networks is a growing phenomenon, being increasingly important in both private and academic life. Social networks are used as tools to enable users to have social interaction. The use of social networks (SNs) complements and enhances the teaching in traditional classrooms. For example, YouTube, Facebook, wikis, and blogs provide…

  1. Persistent ISR: the social network analysis connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Elizabeth K.

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance provides decision makers with unprecedented access to multisource data collected from humans and sensor assets around the globe, yet these data exist in the physical world and provide few overt clues to meaning behind actions. In this paper we explore the recent growth in online social networking and ask the questions: 1) can these sites provide value-added information to compliment physical sensing and 2) what are the mechanisms by which these data could inform situational awareness and decision making? In seeking these answers we consider the range of options provided by Social Network Analysis (SNA), and focus especially on the dynamic nature of these networks. In our discussion we focus on the wave of reform experienced by the North African nations in early 2011 known as the Arab Spring. Demonstrators made widespread use of social networking applications to coordinate, document, and publish material to aid their cause. Unlike members of covert social networks who hide their activity and associations, these demonstrators openly posted multimedia information to coordinate activity and stimulate global support. In this paper we provide a review of SNA approaches and consider how one might track network adaptations by capturing temporal and conceptual trends. We identify opportunities and challenges for merging SNA with physical sensor output, and conclude by addressing future challenges in the persistent ISR domain with respect to SNA.

  2. Parental Social Network and Child's Friendship Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlendorff, Harald; Oswald, Hans

    This study analyzed the relation between the friendship networks of parents and the peer networks of their children. Subjects were 255 second- through fifth-grade children of an inner-city primary school in the western part of Berlin, Germany, who were interviewed about friends. In the interview, children were asked to name other children with…

  3. The Effects of Privacy Concern and Social Influence on User Acceptance of Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Qin; Yongbeom Kim; Xin Tan; Jeffrey Hsu

    2009-01-01

    With the proliferation of online social networks, understanding how and why individuals adopt and use online social networks can help managers and marketers to design better methods and approaches towards engaging users of these kinds of networks. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of user acceptance of online social networks, with particular attention given to a

  4. A Social Network Profile and HIV Risk Among Men on Methadone: Do Social Networks Matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabila El-Bassel; Louisa Gilbert; Elwin Wu; Mingway Chang

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes structural and HIV-related network characteristics and examines associations between these various social network domains and HIV risk behaviors among a sample of 356 men randomly selected from a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) in New York City. Multiple logistic regression analyses suggest that (1) a higher level of perceived sexual risk among network members, referred to as

  5. Signed networks in social media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jure Leskovec; Daniel P. Huttenlocher; Jon M. Kleinberg

    2010-01-01

    Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonisti c) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social n et- works that has focused almost exclusively on positive inter- pretations of links between people, we study how the inter- play between positive and negative relationships affects t he structure of

  6. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A

    2014-09-16

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  7. CASINO: Towards Conformity-aware Social Influence Analysis in Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Aixin, Sun

    CASINO: Towards Conformity-aware Social Influence Analysis in Online Social Networks Hui Li herolee Technological University, Singapore, 639798 ABSTRACT Social influence analysis in online social networks is the study of people's influence by analyzing the social interactions between in- dividuals. There have been

  8. Fine-grained Feature-based Social Influence Evaluation in Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    1 Fine-grained Feature-based Social Influence Evaluation in Online Social Networks Guojun Wang's social influence is essential for various applications in online social networks (OSNs). We propose a fine-grained feature-based social influence (FBI) evaluation model. First, we construct a user

  9. Origin of peer influence in social networks.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Flávio L; Santos, Marta D; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2014-03-01

    Social networks pervade our everyday lives: we interact, influence, and are influenced by our friends and acquaintances. With the advent of the World Wide Web, large amounts of data on social networks have become available, allowing the quantitative analysis of the distribution of information on them, including behavioral traits and fads. Recent studies of correlations among members of a social network, who exhibit the same trait, have shown that individuals influence not only their direct contacts but also friends' friends, up to a network distance extending beyond their closest peers. Here, we show how such patterns of correlations between peers emerge in networked populations. We use standard models (yet reflecting intrinsically different mechanisms) of information spreading to argue that empirically observed patterns of correlation among peers emerge naturally from a wide range of dynamics, being essentially independent of the type of information, on how it spreads, and even on the class of underlying network that interconnects individuals. Finally, we show that the sparser and clustered the network, the more far reaching the influence of each individual will be. PMID:24655286

  10. The Majority Illusion in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Lerman, Kristina; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Social behaviors are often contagious, spreading through a population as individuals imitate the decisions and choices of others. A variety of global phenomena, from innovation adoption to the emergence of social norms and political movements, arise as a result of people following a simple local rule, such as copy what others are doing. However, individuals often lack global knowledge of the behaviors of others and must estimate them from the observations of their friends' behaviors. In some cases, the structure of the underlying social network can dramatically skew an individual's local observations, making a behavior appear far more common locally than it is globally. We trace the origins of this phenomenon, which we call "the majority illusion," to the friendship paradox in social networks. As a result of this paradox, a behavior that is globally rare may be systematically overrepresented in the local neighborhoods of many people, i.e., among their friends. Thus, the "majority illusion" may facilitate the ...

  11. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, JIN; NIE, FEIPING; HUANG, HENG; TU, YI-CHENG; LEI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:24729776

  12. The Simultaneous Effects of Spatial and Social Networks on Cholera Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Giebultowicz, Sophia; Ali, Mohammad; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study uses social network and spatial analytical methods simultaneously to understand cholera transmission in rural Bangladesh. Both have been used separately to incorporate context into health studies, but using them together is a new and recent approach. Data include a spatially referenced longitudinal demographic database consisting of approximately 200,000 people and a database of all laboratory-confirmed cholera cases from 1983 to 2003. A complete kinship-based network linking households is created, and distance matrices are also constructed to model spatial relationships. A spatial error-social effects model tested for cholera clustering in socially linked households while accounting for spatial factors. Results show that there was social clustering in five out of twenty-one years while accounting for both known and unknown environmental variables. This suggests that environmental cholera transmission is significant and social networks also influence transmission, but not as consistently. Simultaneous spatial and social network analysis may improve understanding of disease transmission. PMID:22187553

  13. The Social Phobia Psychotherapy Research Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Leichsenring; J. Hoyer; M. Beutel; S. Herpertz; W. Hiller; E. Irle; P. Joraschky; H. H. König; T. M. de Liz; B. Nolting; K. Pöhlmann; S. Salzer; H. Schauenburg; U. Stangier; B. Strauss; C. Subic-Wrana; S. Vormfelde; G. Weniger; U. Willutzki; J. Wiltink; E. Leibing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Social Phobia Psychotherapy Research Network. The research program encompasses a coordinated group of studies adopting a standard protocol and an agreed-on set of standardized measures for the assessment and treatment of social phobia (SP). In the central project (study A), a multicenter randomized controlled trial, refined models of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy and manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy

  14. Detecting Emotional Contagion in Massive Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Coviello, Lorenzo; Sohn, Yunkyu; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Franceschetti, Massimo; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony. PMID:24621792

  15. Burstiness and Aging in Social Temporal Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moinet, Antoine; Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2015-03-01

    The presence of burstiness in temporal social networks, revealed by a power-law form of the waiting time distribution of consecutive interactions, is expected to produce aging effects in the corresponding time-integrated network. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model, in which interactions among the agents are ruled by a renewal process, that is able to reproduce this aging behavior. We develop an analytic solution for the topological properties of the integrated network produced by the model, finding that the time translation invariance of the degree distribution is broken. We validate our predictions against numerical simulations, and we check for the presence of aging effects in a empirical temporal network, ruled by bursty social interactions.

  16. Structure-Preserving Sparsification of Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Lindner, Gerd; Hamann, Michael; Meyerhenke, Henning; Wagner, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Sparsification reduces the size of networks while preserving structural and statistical properties of interest. Various sparsifying algorithms have been proposed in different contexts. We contribute the first systematic conceptual and experimental comparison of \\textit{edge sparsification} methods on a diverse set of network properties. It is shown that they can be understood as methods for rating edges by importance and then filtering globally by these scores. In addition, we propose a new sparsification method (\\textit{Local Degree}) which preserves edges leading to local hub nodes. All methods are evaluated on a set of 100 Facebook social networks with respect to network properties including diameter, connected components, community structure, and multiple node centrality measures. Experiments with our implementations of the sparsification methods (using the open-source network analysis tool suite NetworKit) show that many network properties can be preserved down to about 20\\% of the original set of edges....

  17. Googling Social Interactions: Web Search Engine Based Social Network Construction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Pan-Jun; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-01-01

    Social network analysis has long been an untiring topic of sociology. However, until the era of information technology, the availability of data, mainly collected by the traditional method of personal survey, was highly limited and prevented large-scale analysis. Recently, the exploding amount of automatically generated data has completely changed the pattern of research. For instance, the enormous amount of data from so-called high-throughput biological experiments has introduced a systematic or network viewpoint to traditional biology. Then, is “high-throughput” sociological data generation possible? Google, which has become one of the most influential symbols of the new Internet paradigm within the last ten years, might provide torrents of data sources for such study in this (now and forthcoming) digital era. We investigate social networks between people by extracting information on the Web and introduce new tools of analysis of such networks in the context of statistical physics of complex systems or socio-physics. As a concrete and illustrative example, the members of the 109th United States Senate are analyzed and it is demonstrated that the methods of construction and analysis are applicable to various other weighted networks. PMID:20657762

  18. Exploring the propensity to perform social activities: a social network approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Antonio Carrasco; Eric J. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Conceptual and empirical models of the propensity to perform social activity–travel behavior are described, which incorporate\\u000a the influence of individuals’ social context, namely their social networks. More explicitly, the conceptual model develops\\u000a the concepts of egocentric social networks, social activities, and social episodes, and defines the three sets of aspects\\u000a that influence the propensity to perform social activities: individuals’ personal

  19. Fluctuations and Slow Variables in Genetic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bundschuh, R.; Hayot, F.; Jayaprakash, C.

    2003-01-01

    Computer simulations of large genetic networks are often extremely time consuming because, in addition to the biologically interesting translation and transcription reactions, many less interesting reactions like DNA binding and dimerizations have to be simulated. It is desirable to use the fact that the latter occur on much faster timescales than the former to eliminate the fast and uninteresting reactions and to obtain effective models of the slow reactions only. We use three examples of self-regulatory networks to show that the usual reduction methods where one obtains a system of equations of the Hill type fail to capture the fluctuations that these networks exhibit due to the small number of molecules; moreover, they may even miss describing the behavior of the average number of proteins. We identify the inclusion of fast-varying variables in the effective description as the cause for the failure of the traditional schemes. We suggest a different effective description, which entails the introduction of an additional species, not present in the original networks, that is slowly varying. We show that this description allows for a very efficient simulation of the reduced system while retaining the correct fluctuations and behavior of the full system. This approach ought to be applicable to a wide range of genetic networks. PMID:12609864

  20. Social networks for lonely objects

    E-print Network

    Kestner, John Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Visions of ubiquitous computing describe a network of devices that quietly supports human goals, but this may also add complexity to an already frustrating relationship between humans and their electronic objects. As we ...

  1. Social networks and models for collective motion in animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai W. F. Bode; A. Jamie Wood; Daniel W. Franks

    2011-01-01

    The theory of collective motion and the study of animal social networks have, each individually, received much attention.\\u000a Currently, most models of collective motion do not consider social network structure. The implications for considering collective\\u000a motion and social networks together are likely to be important. Social networks could determine how populations move in, split\\u000a up into and form separate groups

  2. A Social Network System for Analyzing Publication Activities of Researchers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Abbasi; Jörn Altmann

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Social networks play an increasingly important role in knowledge management, information retrieval, and collaboration. In\\u000a order to leverage the full potential of social networks, social networks need to be supported through technical systems. Within\\u000a this paper, we introduce such a technical system. It is called AcaSoNet. It is a system for identifying and managing social\\u000a networks of researchers. In particular,

  3. Social network theory: new insights and issues for behavioral ecologists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Sih; Sean F. Hanser; Katherine A. McHugh

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, few studies have used social network theory (SNT) and metrics to examine how social network structure (SNS)\\u000a might influence social behavior and social dynamics in non-human animals. Here, we present an overview of why and how the\\u000a social network approach might be useful for behavioral ecology. We first note four important aspects of SNS that are commonly\\u000a observed,

  4. Data-Driven Modeling and Analysis of Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Divyakant Agrawal; Bassam Bamieh; Ceren Budak; Amr El Abbadi; Andrew Flanagin; Stacy Patterson

    \\u000a With hundreds of millions of users worldwide, social networks provide incredible opportunities for social connection, learning,\\u000a political and social change, and individual entertainment and enhancement in a wide variety of forms. In light of these notable\\u000a outcomes, understanding information diffusion over online social networks is a critical research goal. Because many social\\u000a interactions currently take place in online networks, we

  5. Estimating Domain-based User Influence in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Estimating Domain-based User Influence in Social Networks Mario Cataldi École Centrale Paris Paris is to provide an unsupervised technique for estimating influence of users of social network, on a community-Aude Aufaure École Centrale Paris Paris, France marie-aude.aufaure@ecp.fr ABSTRACT Social networks

  6. Social Network User Influence Dynamics Jingxuan Li1

    E-print Network

    Li, Tao

    Social Network User Influence Dynamics Prediction Jingxuan Li1 , Wei Peng2 , Tao Li1 , and Tong Sun based on Continuous-Time Markov Process to predict the influence dynamics of social network users, where 7808, pp. 310­322, 2013. c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 #12;Social Network User Influence

  7. Sequential Influence Models in Social Networks Information Science

    E-print Network

    Kleinberg, Jon

    Sequential Influence Models in Social Networks Dan Cosley Information Science Cornell University)). More recently, computer scientists have be- gun developing models for influence in social networks, mo to model influence in a social network using a probabilistic framework: as a behavior spreads through

  8. Autotagging Facebook: Social network context improves photo annotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zak Stone; Todd Zickler; Trevor Darrell

    2008-01-01

    Most personal photos that are shared online are embedded in some form of social network, and these social networks are a potent source of contextual information that can be leveraged for automatic image understanding. In this paper, we investigate the utility of social network context for the task of automatic face recognition in personal photographs. We combine face recognition scores

  9. Using social network analysis to enhance information retrieval systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Kirchhoff; Katarina Stanoevska-Slabeva; Thomas Nicolai; Matthes Fleck; Katarina Stanoevska

    Abstract Although there is an increasing interest about social networks in general, there is little attention about the application ,of social ,network analysis to information ,retrieval systems. Recent studies (Borgatti et al. 2003; Cross et al. 2001) suggest ,that a social ,network ,of a person,has a significant ,impact ,on his ,or her information ,acquisition. Therefore the paper proposes,the application ,of

  10. Exploring Educational and Cultural Adaptation through Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sherry D.; Magro, Michael J.; Sharp, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Social networking sites have seen tremendous growth and are widely used around the world. Nevertheless, the use of social networking sites in educational contexts is an under explored area. This paper uses a qualitative methodology, autoethnography, to investigate how social networking sites, specifically Facebook[TM], can help first semester…

  11. Using Social Networks to Create Powerful Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenox, Marianne; Coleman, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Regular readers of "Computers in Libraries" are aware that social networks are forming increasingly important linkages to professional and personal development in all libraries. Live and virtual social networks have become the new learning playground for librarians and library staff. Social networks have the ability to connect those who are…

  12. Predictors of Social Network Composition among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, K.D.; Whitbeck, L.B.; Hoyt, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research on the social support networks of homeless and runaway youth suggest the social networks of runaway youth are made up largely of transient deviant peer relationships. This paper examined social network characteristics of 428 homeless and runaway adolescents from small-to moderate-sized cities in four Midwestern states. We…

  13. Modelling and Reasoning Languages for Social Networks Policies

    E-print Network

    Governatori, Guido

    Modelling and Reasoning Languages for Social Networks Policies Guido Governatori and Renato that Social Networks have taken off, the need to revisit Policy languages and realign them towards Social Networks requirements has become more apparent. One such language is explored as to its applicability

  14. Preserving Privacy in Social Networks Against Neighborhood Attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Zhou; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    Recently, as more and more social network data has been published in one way or another, preserving privacy in publishing social network data becomes an important con- cern. With some local knowledge about individuals in a social network, an adversary may attack the privacy of some victims easily. Unfortunately, most of the previous studies on privacy preservation can deal with

  15. Expert finding on social network with link analysis approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Kardan; Amin Omidvar; Farzad Farahmandnia

    2011-01-01

    With the appearance of social networks in the Internet, the communications between people took a new form. Nowadays, lots of people with different goals are registered in social networks and do wide range of activities. One of the most important feature of social networks is knowledge sharing. The main problem regarding to this issue is a wide range of shared

  16. The long tail of social networking.: Revenue models of social networking sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albrecht Enders; Harald Hungenberg; Hans-Peter Denker; Sebastian Mauch

    2008-01-01

    Summary Benefiting from new Internet technologies and altered user behavior, social networking sites have become the poster child of a series of new web services that have been emerging with the advent of \\

  17. Algorithmic Crowdsourcing (and Applications in Social Networking)

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    Gray Jim Gray, Turing Award winner, went missing with his sailboat outside San Francisco Bay of people online) to do micro-work (small jobs) that solves problems (that software or one user cannot translation Social network survey HotPOST 2013 #12;Basic Components Requester People submit jobs Human

  18. The Social Network Classroom Peter Bunus

    E-print Network

    Burns, Peter

    , blogging, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube. 1 Introduction Teens and college students, ages 12 to 28 years, have and integration of Facebook, Twitter, Blogger YouTube and iTunes services for delivering educational material%), reading blogs (43%) or use social networking sites (67%). The survey from Table 1 shows that teens

  19. Video Game Industry as a Social Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Morelli; Mehmet Hadi Gunes

    2012-01-01

    The video game market is a complex system where the relationships between game titles and publishers is convoluted. While some publishers are responsible for a large number of titles others seem to be less successful. In an attempt to understand the characteristics and evolution of the video game industry, we analyze the market using social network analysis. For this purpose,

  20. Using Social Networking in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Elizabeth Blakesley

    2009-01-01

    With celebrities discussing Twitter on television talk shows, Facebook being used by people to share pictures of their grandchildren, and academic seminars being delivered in Second Life, it is hard to get through a day without being faced with some sort of social networking tool. Librarians often talk about the importance of outreach and of…

  1. Social Network Analysis of Video Bloggers' Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Warmbrodt; Hong Sheng; Richard Hall

    2008-01-01

    Vidoe blogs (or vlogs) have become increasingly popular in recent years. As the main motivation for vlogging is to interact with other vloggers, it is important to investigate the structure of the videobloggers' community and the interactions among vloggers. This research conducted a quantitative analysis using social network analysis. A list of personal vloggers was identified from VlogDIR and linking

  2. Social Networking Postings: Views from School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marlynn M.; Lake, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous recent media accounts indicate that teachers are being fired, put on probation, or otherwise censured because of information found on their social networking sites (SNS). While the literature in business, psychology, and pharmacy shows initial investigations of the impact of SNS information on hiring decisions, this area has not been…

  3. Social Networks in Transnational and Virtual Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Vivian; Fay Sudweeks

    There has been extensive research on social networks but little is known about why some communities survive and some disintegrate. This paper provides a framework to explain similarities in many types of communities. In particular, a comparison of transnational communities and virtual communities high- lights the efficacy of the framework in explaining how strong relationships within communities are de- pendent

  4. Security and Privacy in Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutillo, Leucio Antonio; Manulis, Mark; Strufe, Thorsten

    Social Network Services (SNS) are currently drastically revolutionizing the way people interact, thus becoming de facto a predominant service on the web, today.1 The impact of this paradigm change on socioeconomic and technical aspects of collaboration and interaction is comparable to that caused by the deployment of World Wide Web in the 1990s.

  5. Website Structure Mining using Social Network Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rocío Martínez-Torres; Sergio L. Toral Marín; Beatriz Palacios; Federico Barrero

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Web sites are typically designed attending to a variety of criteria. However, web site structure determines browsing behavior and way-finding results. The aim of this study is to identify the main profiles of web sites' organizational structure by modeling them as graphs and considering several social network analysis features. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study based on 80 institutional

  6. Electronic Social Networks, Teaching, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidduck, Anne Banks

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between electronic social networks, teaching, and learning. Previous studies have shown a strong positive correlation between student engagement and learning. By extending this work to engage instructors and add an electronic component, our study shows possible teaching improvement as well. In particular,…

  7. Libraries' Place in Virtual Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Brian S.

    2007-01-01

    Do libraries belong in the virtual world of social networking? With more than 100 million users, this environment is impossible to ignore. A rising philosophy for libraries, particularly in blog-land, involves the concept of being where the users are. Simply using new media to deliver an old message is not progress. Instead, librarians should…

  8. Social Networking Services in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Peter; Rothe, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on the use of the social networking service NING in a cross-location e-learning setting named "Net Economy." We describe how we implemented NING as a fundamental part of the setting through a special phase concept and team building approach. With the help of user statistics, we examine…

  9. Characterizing privacy in online social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balachander Krishnamurthy; Craig E. Wills

    2008-01-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) with half a billion users have dramatically raised concerns on privacy leakage. Users, often willingly, share personal identifying information about themselves, but do not have a clear idea of who accesses their private information or what portion of it really needs to be accessed. In this study we examine popular OSNs from a viewpoint of characterizing

  10. Evolutionary Games and Social Networks in

    E-print Network

    Scerri, Paul

    explore use of evolutionary game theory (EGT) [5] to model the dynamics of adaptive opponent strategies. 1 Introduction We use evolutionary game theory (EGT) [5] to model the dynamics of adaptive opponentChapter 1 Evolutionary Games and Social Networks in Adversary Reasoning Katia Sycara Paul Scerri

  11. Game theoretic models for social network analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narahari Yadati; Ramasuri Narayanam

    2011-01-01

    The existing methods and techniques for social network analysis are inadequate to capture both the behavior (such as rationality and intelligence) of individuals and the strategic interactions that occur among these individuals. Game theory is a natural tool to overcome this inadequacy since it provides rigorous mathematical models of strategic interaction among autonomous, intelligent, and rational agents. Motivated by the

  12. Exploring Temporal Communication Through Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liaquat Hossain; Kon Shing Kenneth Chung; Shahriar Tanvir Hasan Murshed

    2007-01-01

    The dissemination of information in social networks and the relative effect of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) use has long been an interesting area of study in the field of sociology, human computer interaction and computer supported cooperative work. To date, a lot of research has been conducted regarding an actor's mobile phone usage behavior while disseminating information within a

  13. Happiness is assortative in online social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Bollen; Bruno Goncalves; Guangchen Ruan; Huina Mao

    2011-01-01

    Social networks tend to disproportionally favor connections between individuals with either similar or dissimilar characteristics. This propensity, referred to as assortative mixing or homophily, is expressed as the correlation between attribute values of nearest neighbour vertices in a graph. Recent results indicate that beyond demographic features such as age, sex and race, even psychological states such as \\

  14. Lead users in social networks of children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Molenmaker; J. Kratzer; M. C. Achterkamp

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The goal of this research is to fill the gap in lead users' research under children. An effort is made to analyze the characteristics of lead users in social networks of children. Furthermore, their role in the adoption and diffusion of innovations is examined. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An experiment is conducted at primary schools in The Netherlands, with children

  15. Social networks and risk of neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzan L. Carmichael; Gary M. Shaw; Eric Neri; Donna M. Schaffer; Steve Selvin

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of social support and social networks to risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) has not been explored, despite evidence that various aspects of the social environment contribute to their etiology. Using data from a population-based case–control study of deliveries occurring in California from 1989 to 1991, this study investigates whether social networks, as measured by the presence and

  16. Recommending collaboration with social networks: a comparative evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. McDonald

    2003-01-01

    Studies of information seeking and workplace collaboration often find that social relationships are a strong factor in determining who collaborates with whom. Social networks provide one means of visualizing existing and potential interaction in organizational settings. Groupware designers are using social networks to make systems more sensitive to social situations and guide users toward effective collaborations. Yet, the implications of

  17. Dynamic social network analysis using conversational dynamics in social networking and microblogging environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocco, Gabriel; Savell, Robert; Cybenko, George

    2010-04-01

    In many security environments, the textual content of communications may be unavailable. In these instances, it is often desirable to infer the status of the network and its component entities from patterns of communication flow. Conversational dynamics among entities in the network may provide insight into important aspects of the underlying social network such as the formational dynamics of group structures, the active state of these groups, individuals' roles within groups, and the likelihood of individual participation in conversations. To gain insight into the use of conversational dynamics to facilitate Dynamic Social Network Analysis, we explore the use of interevent timings to associate entities in the Twitter social networking and micro-blogging environment. Specifically, we use message timings to establish inter-nodal relationships among participants. In addition, we demonstrate a new visualization technique for tracking levels of coordination or synchronization within the community via measures of socio-temporal coherence of the participants.

  18. Influence of Reciprocal Links in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Sun, Gui-Quan; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2014-01-01

    How does reciprocal links affect the function of real social network? Does reciprocal link and non-reciprocal link play the same role? Previous researches haven't displayed a clear picture to us until now according to the best of our knowledge. Motivated by this, in this paper, we empirically study the influence of reciprocal links in two representative real datasets, Sina Weibo and Douban. Our results demonstrate that the reciprocal links play a more important role than non-reciprocal ones in information diffusion process. In particular, not only coverage but also the speed of the information diffusion can be significantly enhanced by considering the reciprocal effect. We give some possible explanations from the perspectives of network connectivity and efficiency. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding and application of the reciprocal effect in directed online social networks. PMID:25072242

  19. Influence of reciprocal links in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Sun, Gui-Quan; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2014-01-01

    How does reciprocal links affect the function of real social network? Does reciprocal link and non-reciprocal link play the same role? Previous researches haven't displayed a clear picture to us until now according to the best of our knowledge. Motivated by this, in this paper, we empirically study the influence of reciprocal links in two representative real datasets, Sina Weibo and Douban. Our results demonstrate that the reciprocal links play a more important role than non-reciprocal ones in information diffusion process. In particular, not only coverage but also the speed of the information diffusion can be significantly enhanced by considering the reciprocal effect. We give some possible explanations from the perspectives of network connectivity and efficiency. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding and application of the reciprocal effect in directed online social networks. PMID:25072242

  20. Social Network Sites (SNS): do they match ? Definitions and methods for social sciences and marketing research

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Social Network Sites (SNS): do they match ? Definitions and methods for social sciences. This will be made possible thanks to a return to core disciplines in human and social sciences (mainly history and marketing research Abstract : Social Networks Sites (SNS) such as Facebook, MySpace, Skyrock.com or Linkedin

  1. Five-year trajectories of social networks and social support in older adults with major depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corrine I. Voils; Jason C. Allaire; Maren K. Olsen; David C. Steffens; Rick H. Hoyle; Hayden B. Bosworth

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research with nondepressed adults suggests that social networks and social support are stable over the life course until very late age. This may not hold true for older adults with depression. We examined baseline status and trajectories of social networks and social support at the group and individual levels over five years. METHODS: The sample consisted of 339 initially

  2. A Social Network Model Based on Caveman Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yihjia Tsai; Ping-Nan Hsiao; Ching-Chang Lin

    2006-01-01

    The study suggests a model for social network based on a caveman network. The model we propose can fit the following two properties: (1) `small-world property' which has high clustering coefficient, and (2) `scale-free property' which has power law degree distribution. In addition, the model is modified to match the s-metric property. The s-metric property provides a new viewpoint of

  3. General Network Properties of Friendship Online Social Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haris Memic

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a This paper explores visiting metrics and some of the more important general network properties of Fitcolab online social network\\u000a (OSN). The wide array of statistics was explored in order to obtain general insight that will not only be useful by itself\\u000a but would also serve as the starting platform for more focused research endeavors that are to be based on

  4. Detecting Change in Longitudinal Social Networks Ian McCulloh

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Detecting Change in Longitudinal Social Networks Ian McCulloh Network Science Center, U.S. Military Acknowledgements This research is part of the ARO Change Detection project with the USMA Network Science Center

  5. Dynamic Social Networks in Recovery Homes

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Light, John M.; Stevens, Edward B.; Beers, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Acute treatment aftercare in the form of sober living environments—i.e., recovery houses—provide an inexpensive and effective medium-term treatment alternative for many with substance use disorders. Limited evidence suggests that house-situated social relationships and associated social support are critical determinants of how successful these residential experiences are for their members, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying these relationships. This study explored the feasibility of using dynamic social network modeling to understand house-situated longitudinal associations among individual Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) related recovery behaviors, length of residence, dyadic interpersonal trust, and dyadic confidant relationship formation processes. Trust and confidant relationships were measured 3 months apart in U.S. urban-area recovery houses, all of which were part of a network of substance use recovery homes. A stochastic actor-based model was successfully estimated from this data set. Results suggest that confidant relationships are predicted by trust, while trust is affected by recovery behaviors and length of residence. Conceptualizing recovery houses as a set of independent, evolving social networks that can be modeled jointly appears to be a promising direction for research. PMID:24217855

  6. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  7. Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that social networks influence the evolution of cooperation, but to date there have been few experimental studies. Observational data suggest that a wide variety of behaviors may spread in human social networks, but subjects in such studies can choose to befriend people with similar behaviors, posing difficulty for causal inference. Here, we exploit a seminal set of laboratory experiments that originally showed that voluntary costly punishment can help sustain cooperation. In these experiments, subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of different groups to play a series of single-shot public goods games with strangers; this feature allowed us to draw networks of interactions to explore how cooperative and uncooperative behaviors spread from person to person to person. We show that, in both an ordinary public goods game and in a public goods game with punishment, focal individuals are influenced by fellow group members’ contribution behavior in future interactions with other individuals who were not a party to the initial interaction. Furthermore, this influence persists for multiple periods and spreads up to three degrees of separation (from person to person to person to person). The results suggest that each additional contribution a subject makes to the public good in the first period is tripled over the course of the experiment by other subjects who are directly or indirectly influenced to contribute more as a consequence. These results show experimentally that cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks. PMID:20212120

  8. Exploratory community sensing in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrabrov, Alexy; Stocco, Gabriel; Cybenko, George

    2010-04-01

    Social networks generally provide an implementation of some kind of groups or communities which users can voluntarily join. Twitter does not have this functionality, and there is no notion of a formal group or community. We propose a method for identification of communities and assignment of semantic meaning to the discussion topics of the resulting communities. Using this analysis method and a sample of roughly a month's worth of Tweets from Twitter's "gardenhose" feed, we demonstrate the discovery of meaningful user communities on Twitter. We examine Twitter data streaming in real time and treat it as a sensor. Twitter is a social network which pioneered microblogging with the messages fitting an SMS, and a variety of clients, browsers, smart phones and PDAs are used for status updates by individuals, businesses, media outlets and even devices all over the world. Often an aggregate trend of such statuses may represent an important development in the world, which has been demonstrated with the Iran and Moldova elections and the anniversary of the Tiananmen in China. We propose using Twitter as a sensor, tracking individuals and communities of interest, and characterizing individual roles and dynamics of their communications. We developed a novel algorithm of community identification in social networks based on direct communication, as opposed to linking. We show ways to find communities of interest and then browse their neighborhoods by either similarity or diversity of individuals and groups adjacent to the one of interest. We use frequent collocations and statistically improbable phrases to summarize the focus of the community, giving a quick overview of its main topics. Our methods provide insight into the largest social sensor network in the world and constitute a platform for social sensing.

  9. Approaches for user profile Investigation in Orkut Social Network

    E-print Network

    Singh, Rajni Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    Internet becomes a large and rich repository of information about us as individually. Any thing form user profile information to friends links the user subscribes to are reflection of social interactions as user has in real worlds. Social networking has created new ways to communicate and share information. Social networking websites are being used regularly by millions of people, and it now seems that social networking will be an enduring part of everyday life. Social networks such as Orkut, Bebo, MySpace, Flickr, Facebook, Friendster and LinkedIn, have attracted millions of internet user who are involved in bogging, participatory book reviewing, personal networking and photo sharing. Social network services are increasingly being used in legal and criminal investigations. Information posted on sites such as Orkut and Facebook has been used by police, probation, and university officials to prosecute users of said sites. In some situations, content posted on web social network has been used in court. In the p...

  10. Privacy engineering for social networks

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jonathan

    2013-01-08

    AND J. ANDERSON. Think of the children [online]. Dec. 2008. URL: http://www.lightbluetouchpaper.org/2008/12/12/think-of-the- children/. xi AUTHOR PUBLICATIONS [19] J. BONNEAU, J. ANDERSON, R. J. ANDERSON, AND R. CLAY- TON. Democracy theatre on Facebook... ” comes from Goffman’s theatrical analogy for social interaction [115], itself based on Shakespeare’s declaration that “all the world’s a stage, and men and women merely players” [215]. In a theatre, footlights de- fine the conventional physical boundary...

  11. Degree correlations in signed social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, Valerio; Bianconi, Ginestra; Capocci, Andrea; Colaiori, Francesca; Panzarasa, Pietro

    2015-03-01

    We investigate degree correlations in two online social networks where users are connected through different types of links. We find that, while subnetworks in which links have a positive connotation, such as endorsement and trust, are characterized by assortative mixing by degree, networks in which links have a negative connotation, such as disapproval and distrust, are characterized by disassortative patterns. We introduce a class of simple theoretical models to analyze the interplay between network topology and the superimposed structure based on the sign of links. Results uncover the conditions that underpin the emergence of the patterns observed in the data, namely the assortativity of positive subnetworks and the disassortativity of negative ones. We discuss the implications of our study for the analysis of signed complex networks.

  12. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  13. A Model of Genetic Variation in Human Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2008-01-01

    Social networks influence the evolution of cooperation and they exhibit strikingly systematic patterns across a wide range of human contexts. Both of these facts suggest that variation in the topological attributes of human social networks might have a genetic basis. While genetic variation accounts for a significant portion of the variation in many complex social behaviors, the heritability of egocentric social network attributes is unknown. Here we show that three of these attributes (in-degree, transitivity, and centrality) are heritable. We then develop a "mirror network" method to test extant network models and show that none accounts for observed genetic variation in human social networks. We propose an alternative "attract and introduce" model that generates significant heritability as well as other important network features, and we show that this model with two simple forms of heterogeneity is well suited to the modeling of real social networks in humans. These results suggest that natural selection ...

  14. Associative face co-occurrence networks for recommending friends in social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heung-Nam Kim; Jin-Guk Jung; Abdulmotaleb El Saddik

    2010-01-01

    In social network services, which have become widely used as an important tool to share rich information, making new friends is the most basic functionality to enable users to take advantage of their social networks. However, in current social network services, making new friends still relies on manually browsing networks of current friends. Even though the most services try to

  15. A practical guide to social networks.

    PubMed

    Cross, Rob; Liedtka, Jeanne; Weiss, Leigh

    2005-03-01

    Saying that networks are important is stating the obvious. But harnessing the power of these seemingly invisible groups to achieve organizational goals is an elusive undertaking. Most efforts to promote collaboration are haphazard and built on the implicit philosophy that more connectivity is better. In truth, networks create relational demands that sap people's time and energy and can bog down entire organizations. It's crucial for executives to learn how to promote connectivity only where it benefits an organization or individual and to decrease unnecessary connections. In this article, the authors introduce three types of social networks, each of which delivers unique value. The customized response network excels at framing the ambiguous problems involved in innovation. Strategy consulting firms and new-product development groups rely on this format. By contrast, surgical teams and law firms rely mostly on the modular response network, which works best when components of the problem are known but the sequence of those components in the solution is unknown. And the routine response network is best suited for organizations like call centers, where the problems and solutions are fairly predictable but collaboration is still needed. Executives shouldn't simply hope that collaboration will spontaneously occur in the right places atthe right times in their organization. They need to develop a strategic, nuanced view of collaboration, and they must take steps to ensure that their companies support the types of social networks that best fit their goals. Drawing on examples from Novartis, the FAA, and Sallie Mae, the authors offer managers the tools they need to determine which network will deliver the best results for their organizations and which strategic investments will nurture the right degree of connectivity. PMID:15768681

  16. From biological and social network metaphors to coupled bio-social wireless networks

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Anil Kumar, V.S.; Marathe, Madhav V.

    2010-01-01

    Biological and social analogies have been long applied to complex systems. Inspiration has been drawn from biological solutions to solve problems in engineering products and systems, ranging from Velcro to camouflage to robotics to adaptive and learning computing methods. In this paper, we present an overview of recent advances in understanding biological systems as networks and use this understanding to design and analyse wireless communication networks. We expand on two applications, namely cognitive sensing and control and wireless epidemiology. We discuss how our work in these two applications is motivated by biological metaphors. We believe that recent advances in computing and communications coupled with advances in health and social sciences raise the possibility of studying coupled bio-social communication networks. We argue that we can better utilise the advances in our understanding of one class of networks to better our understanding of the other. PMID:21643462

  17. Privacy policies for shared content in social network sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Cinzia Squicciarini; Mohamed Shehab; Joshua Wede

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is one of the major technological phenomena of the Web 2.0, with hundreds of millions of subscribed users.\\u000a Social networks enable a form of self-expression for users and help them to socialize and share content with other users.\\u000a In spite of the fact that content sharing represents one of the prominent features of existing Social network sites, they

  18. Potential banana skins in animal social network analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard James; Darren P. Croft; Jens Krause

    2009-01-01

    Social network analysis is an increasingly popular tool for the study of the fine-scale and global social structure of animals.\\u000a It has attracted particular attention by those attempting to unravel social structure in fission–fusion populations. It is\\u000a clear that the social network approach offers some exciting opportunities for gaining new insights into social systems. However,\\u000a some of the practices which

  19. Social Network, Social Support, and Loneliness in Older Persons with Different Chronic Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda W. J. H. Penninx; Theo van Tilburg; Didi M. W. Kriegsman; A. Joan P. Boeke; Dorly J. H. Deeg; Jacques Th. M. van Eijk

    1999-01-01

    Objectives:This study examines whether patterns of social network size, functional social support, and loneliness are different for older persons with different types of chronic diseases. Methods:In a community-based sample of 2,788 men and women age 55 to 85 years participating in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, chronic diseases status, social network size, support exchanges, and loneliness were assessed. Results:Social network

  20. Security and Privacy in Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leucio Antonio Cutillo; Mark Manulis; Thorsten Strufe

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a \\u000a Social Network Services (SNS) are currently drastically revolutionizing the way people interact, thus becoming de facto a predominant service on the web, today.1 The impact of this paradigm change on socioeconomic and technical aspects of collaboration and interaction is comparable\\u000a to that caused by the deployment of World Wide Web in the 1990s.

  1. iPhone Messaging and Social Networking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Sande; Erica Sadun

    \\u000a Your iPhone is not only a powerful phone but also a messaging heavyweight. It supports text and multimedia messaging out of\\u000a the box, can do AIM-style instant messaging and Internet chats with third-party apps, and can even be used for voice and video\\u000a chats. Social networking services have expanded exponentially over the past few years, and the iPhone has been

  2. Qualitative Analysis of Commercial Social Network Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Lester; Wolfson, Ouri; Adjouadi, Malek; Rishe, Naphtali

    Social-networking sites have become an integral part of many users' daily internet routine. Commercial enterprises have been quick to recognize this and are subsequently creating profiles for many of their products and services. Commercial enterprises use social network profiles to target and interact with potential customers as well as to provide a gateway for users of the product or service to interact with each other. Many commercial enterprises use the statistics from their product or service's social network profile to tout the popularity and success of the product or service being showcased. They will use statistics such as number of friends, number of daily visits, number of interactions, and other similar measurements to quantify their claims. These statistics are often not a clear indication of the true popularity and success of the product. In this chapter the term product is used to refer to any tangible or intangible product, service, celebrity, personality, film, book, or other entity produced by a commercial enterprise.

  3. SoNARS: A Social Networks-Based Algorithm for Social Recommender Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Carmagnola; Fabiana Vernero; Pierluigi Grillo

    2009-01-01

    User modeling systems have been influenced by the overspread of Web 2.0 and social networks. New systems aimed at helping\\u000a people finding information of interest and including “social functions” like social networks, tagging, commenting, inserting\\u000a content, arose. Such systems are the so-called “social recommender systems”. The idea at the base of social recommender systems\\u000a is that the recommendation of content

  4. Assessing Group Interaction with Social Language Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholand, Andrew J.; Tausczik, Yla R.; Pennebaker, James W.

    In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.

  5. Assessing group interaction with social language network analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Pennebaker, James (UT Austin); Scholand, Andrew Joseph; Tausczik, Yla R. (UT Austin)

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.

  6. Social Network Influences on Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Treboux; Nancy A. Busch-Rossnagel

    1990-01-01

    Within a socialization paradigm, a model was developed and tested to examine social network influences on adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use. It was hypothesized that the social network influences of parents and peers would affect the contraceptive knowledge and premarital sexual attitudes of adolescents. In turn, knowledge and attitudes were expected to influence sexual behavior and contraceptive use. The

  7. The role of social networks in students' learning experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilaria Liccardi; Asma Ounnas; Reena Pau; Elizabeth Massey; Päivi Kinnunen; Sarah Lewthwaite; Marie-anne Midy; Chandan Sarkar

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the role of social networks in computer science education. The Internet shows great potential for enhancing collaboration between people and the role of social software has become increasingly rele- vant in recent years. This research focuses on analyzing the role that social networks play in students' learning experi- ences. The construction of

  8. The Need for a Social Network 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Bernd W.

    2011-01-01

    At the 2011 ALA conference, social media was still a topic of many discussions. For the past few years, librarians have shared their efforts to incorporate social networking applications like Facebook and Twitter as part of library services. Some librarians have taken on the challenge of establishing a social network for their library, while…

  9. How Argumentation can Enhance Dialogues in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    McBurney, Peter

    .ebay.com) and consumer review sites, like Tripad- visor (www.tripadvisor.com) or Epinions (www.epinions.com), which.kiva.org), to promote ethical values and social help. Regardless of the purpose of the social networking, in all for the time being decision support, leisure or ethics oriented social networking sites, as the scope

  10. Legal Risks for Students Using Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael; de Zwart, Melissa; Lindsay, David; Phillips, Michael

    2010-01-01

    There are significant privacy, intellectual property, copyright and disclosure risks associated with the ill-considered use of social networking sites, however, the implementation of regulatory actions may also undermine the social and emerging educational utility of social networking sites for young people. Inevitably the burden of dealing with…

  11. A novel method for worm containment on dynamic social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nam P. Nguyen; Ying Xuan; M. T. Thai

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction of the World Wide Web and online social networks, people now have sought ways to socialize and make new friends online over a greater distance. Popular social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Bebo have witnessed rapid increases in space and the number of online users over a short period of time. However, alongside with these

  12. Database Submission - The Evolving Social Network of Marketing Scholars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Goldenberg; Barak Libai; Eitan Muller; Stefan Stremersch

    2010-01-01

    The interest in social networks among marketing scholars and practitioners has sharply increased in the last decade. One social network of which network scholars increasingly recognize the unique value is the academic collaboration (coauthor) network. We offer a comprehensive database of the collaboration network among marketing scholars over the last 40 years (available at http:\\/\\/mktsci.pubs.informs.org. Based on the ProQuest database,

  13. On-light: optical social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionísio, Rogério P.

    2014-07-01

    Social networks are a recent phenomenon of communication, with a high prevalence of young users. This concept serves as a motto for a multidisciplinary project, which aims to create a simple communication network, using light as the transmission medium. Mixed team, composed by students from secondary and higher education schools, are partners on the development of an optical transceiver. A LED lamp array and a small photodiode are the optical transmitter and receiver, respectively. Using several transceivers aligned with each other, this configuration creates a ring communication network, enabling the exchange of messages between users. Through this project, some concepts addressed in physics classes from secondary schools (e.g. photoelectric phenomena and the properties of light) are experimentally verified and used to communicate, in a classroom or a laboratory.

  14. Social Networks and Careers of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, Laura T.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the general population indicate that social networks influence a person's employment situation and career, especially in regard to how a person finds and gets a good job. Recent studies suggest that networks may function in similar ways for people with certain disabilities. In order to learn about the role that social networks played in…

  15. Pioneers of Influence Propagation in Social Networks Kumar Gaurav

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pioneers of Influence Propagation in Social Networks Kumar Gaurav UPMC/Inria/ENS 23 avenue d.Keeler@inria.fr ABSTRACT With the growing importance of corporate viral marketing campaigns on online social networks, the interest in studies of influence propagation through networks is higher than ever. In a viral marketing

  16. Wireless Social Community Networks: A Game-Theoretic Analysis

    E-print Network

    Marbach, Peter

    Wireless Social Community Networks: A Game-Theoretic Analysis Mohammad Hossein Manshaei, Julien: marbach@cs.toronto.edu Abstract--Wireless social community networks have been cre- ated as an alternative to cellular wireless networks to provide wireless data access in urban areas. By relying on access points

  17. Social Networks: A strategy for non-profit organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osmar Arandia Pérez; Luis Portales Derbéz

    2012-01-01

    On recent years, researchers in management and strategic management have developed a common interest in social capital, and social network, as a possibility for the organizations to enhance their performance. The strategic network perspective avers that the embeddedness of firms in networks of external relationships with other organizations holds significant implications for firm performance (Zaheer & Bell, 2005). Zaheer and

  18. The ties that lead: A social network approach to leadership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prasad Balkundi; Martin Kilduff

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates, for leadership research, the implications of new directions in social network theory that emphasize networks as both cognitive structures in the minds of organizational members and opportunity structures that facilitate and constrain action. We introduce the four core ideas at the heart of the network research program: the importance of relations, actors' embeddedness, the social utility of

  19. Online social networks: Why do students use facebook?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christy M. K. Cheung; Pui-Yee Chiu; Matthew K. O. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The growth and popularity of online social networks has created a new world of collaboration and communication. More than a billion individuals around the world are connected and networked together to create, collaborate, and contribute their knowledge and wisdom. Despite the importance of online social networks, there is relatively little theory-driven empirical research available to address this new type of

  20. The effect of social interaction on learning engagement in a social networking environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Lu; Daniel Churchill

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social interactions among a class of undergraduate students on their learning engagement in a social networking environment. Thirteen undergraduate students enrolled in a course in a university in Hong Kong used an Elgg-based social networking platform throughout a semester to develop their digital portfolios and interact with each other. Student online activities were analyzed

  1. Navigating Social Networking and Social Media in School Psychology: Ethical and Professional Considerations in Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Andy V.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking and social media have undoubtedly proliferated within the past decade, allowing widespread communication and dissemination of user-generated content and information. Some psychology graduate programs, including school psychology, have started to embrace social networking and media for instructional and training purposes; however,…

  2. The Effect of Social Interaction on Learning Engagement in a Social Networking Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social interactions among a class of undergraduate students on their learning engagement in a social networking environment. Thirteen undergraduate students enrolled in a course in a university in Hong Kong used an Elgg-based social networking platform throughout a semester to develop their digital portfolios…

  3. A generational comparison of social networking site use: the influence of age and social identity.

    PubMed

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N=256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer communication, and social compensation. Regardless of age, participants reporting high collective self-esteem and group identity were more likely to use social networking sites for peer communication and social identity gratifications, while those reporting negative collective self-esteem were more likely to use social networking sites for social compensation. The theoretical implications of the strong relationship between social identity gratifications and social compensation are discussed. PMID:22808625

  4. Countervailing social network influences on problem behaviors among homeless youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Rice; Judith A. Stein; Norweeta Milburn

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and were more likely to have HIV risk and anti-social

  5. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  6. Ternary Social Networks: Dynamic Balance and Self-Organized Criticality

    E-print Network

    Meng, Qing-Kuan; Zhu, Jian-Yang

    2010-01-01

    Antal et al. [Phys. Rev. E \\textbf{72}, 036121 (2005)] have studied the balance dynamics on the social networks. In this paper, based on the model proposed by Antal et al., we improve it and generalize the binary social networks to the ternary social networks. When the social networks get dynamically balanced, we obtain the distributions of each relation and the time needed for dynamic balance. Besides, we study the self-organized criticality on the ternary social networks based on our model. For the ternary social networks evolving to the sensitive state, any small disturbance may result in an avalanche. The occurrence of the avalanche satisfies the power-law form both spatially and temporally. Numerical results verify our theoretical expectations.

  7. Graph visualization by organized clustering: application to social and biological networks

    E-print Network

    Villa-vialaneix, Nathalie

    data Many sources of large networks social networks (emails, collaborations, phone calls, etc interactions, etc.) #12;Network data Many sources of large networks social networks (emails, collaborations (community extraction) supervised analysis ... #12;Visualization from clustering Large graph visualization

  8. Social Network Status and Depression Among Adolescents: An Examination of Social Network Influences and Depressive Symptoms in a Chinese Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Okamoto; C. Anderson Johnson; Adam Leventhal; Joel Milam; Mary Ann Pentz; David Schwartz; Thomas W. Valente

    2011-01-01

    Examination of social networks may provide some insight into the role of peers in the vulnerability of some adolescents to depression. Social network data was incorporated into multilevel models of depressive symptoms from a large sample of Chinese adolescents. Being nominated as a friend was more important than being nominated as most liked. Network centrality was associated with depression. The

  9. Researching the Geography of Social Relations Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Friendship Networks on Social Network Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Escher

    This doctoral research is examining the geography of social relations by analysing the spatial distribution of friendship networks on social network sites such as MySpace and Facebook. The major hypothesis is that even in times of the Internet distance still matters so that friendship networks on these online sites have primarily a local focus around the place of residence of

  10. Social Network Security: A Brief Overview of Risks and Solutions

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    Social network security, social engineering, XSS, CSRF, DoS, stalking, OpenID, Facebook, twitter, Linked friend; there are the mere acquaintances all the way to those with whom we share our deepest secrets

  11. Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks

    E-print Network

    Hill, Alison Lynn

    Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, ...

  12. Tie strength in question answer on social network sites

    E-print Network

    Panovich, Katrina Marie

    Asking friends, colleagues, or other trusted people to help answer a question or find information is a familiar and tried-and-true concept. Widespread use of online social networks has made social information seeking easier, ...

  13. Open-source social Network Assessment Survey System (NASS)

    E-print Network

    Du, Aaron (Aaron Yinan)

    2005-01-01

    The selection of targeted survey questions and the design of survey questionnaires are instrumental in the social networks research. With the accelerating growth of theory and experimental knowledge in the area of social ...

  14. Social Network Theory in Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Peter A.

    Collaborative groups are important both in the learning environment of engineering education and, in the real world, the business of engineering design. Selecting appropriate individuals to form an effective group and monitoring a group's progress are important aspects of successful task performance. This exploratory study looked at using the concepts of cognitive social structures, structural balance, and centrality from social network analysis as well as the measures of emotional intelligence. The concepts were used to analyze potential team members to examine if an individual's ability to perceive emotion in others and the self and to use, understand, and manage those emotions are a factor in a group's performance. The students from a capstone design course in computer engineering were used as volunteer subjects. They were formed into groups and assigned a design exercise to determine whether and which of the above-mentioned tools would be effective in both selecting teams and predicting the quality of the resultant design. The results were inconclusive with the exception of an individual's ability to accurately perceive emotions. The instruments that were successful were the Self-Monitoring scale and the accuracy scores derived from cognitive social structures and Level IV of network levels of analysis.

  15. Social diffusion and global drift on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayama, Hiroki; Sinatra, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    We study a mathematical model of social diffusion on a symmetric weighted network where individual nodes' states gradually assimilate to local social norms made by their neighbors' average states. Unlike physical diffusion, this process is not state conservational and thus the global state of the network (i.e., sum of node states) will drift. The asymptotic average node state will be the average of initial node states weighted by their strengths. Here we show that, while the global state is not conserved in this process, the inner product of strength and state vectors is conserved instead, and perfect positive correlation between node states and local averages of their self-neighbor strength ratios always results in upward (or at least neutral) global drift. We also show that the strength assortativity negatively affects the speed of homogenization. Based on these findings, we propose an adaptive link weight adjustment method to achieve the highest upward global drift by increasing the strength-state correlation. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed through numerical simulations and implications for real-world social applications are discussed.

  16. Trust and compactness in social network groups.

    PubMed

    De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Rosaci, Domenico; Sarné, Giuseppe M L

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind group formation and evolution in social networks is considered an instrumental milestone to better describe how individuals gather and form communities, how they enjoy and share the platform contents, how they are driven by their preferences/tastes, and how their behaviors are influenced by peers. In this context, the notion of compactness of a social group is particularly relevant. While the literature usually refers to compactness as a measure to merely determine how much members of a group are similar among each other, we argue that the mutual trustworthiness between the members should be considered as an important factor in defining such a term. In fact, trust has profound effects on the dynamics of group formation and their evolution: individuals are more likely to join with and stay in a group if they can trust other group members. In this paper, we propose a quantitative measure of group compactness that takes into account both the similarity and the trustworthiness among users, and we present an algorithm to optimize such a measure. We provide empirical results, obtained from the real social networks EPINIONS and CIAO, that compare our notion of compactness versus the traditional notion of user similarity, clearly proving the advantages of our approach. PMID:25099965

  17. Third Agers and Social Networking in Higher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M. Connolly; Gabriele Meiselwitz

    \\u000a With an aging population and the social networking boom significant research has been performed in three areas. The first\\u000a is the challenge higher education institutions face integrating social networking sites in class offerings. Students are embracing\\u000a this medium at an accelerated rate; however, the benefits of social networking for students are not always clear. Secondly,\\u000a this paper will look into

  18. Legal and Ethical Implications of Corporate Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gundars Kaupins; Susan Park

    2011-01-01

    Corporate social networking sites provide employees and employers with considerable opportunity to share information and become\\u000a friends. Unfortunately, American and international laws do not directly address social networking site usage. The National\\u000a Labor Relations Act, civil rights laws, and various common law doctrines such as employment at-will and defamation provide\\u000a the pattern for future social networking laws. Ethical considerations such

  19. Antecedents and Consequences of Online Social Networking Behavior: The Case of Facebook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Acar

    2008-01-01

    Despite the recent popularity of online social networks, there are few available studies that explain the differences between real life and internet social networks. Authoritative information about the outcomes of using social networking websites is even more sparse. In an attempt to close this literature gap, this exploratory study found that online social networks and real life social networks are

  20. Comparative social network analysis in a leaf-roosting bat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloriana Chaverri

    2010-01-01

    Even though social network analysis provides an important tool to characterize and compare societies, no studies have used\\u000a its analytical applications to characterize patterns of sociality in bats. Here I use social network analysis to characterize\\u000a and compare patterns of sociality between three populations of the leaf-roosting bat Thyroptera tricolor. Sites differed in the density of furled leaves used by

  1. Friendship and Social Networks in a Continuing Care Retirement Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candace Stacey-Konnert; Jon Pynoos

    1992-01-01

    This study presents qualitative and quantitative data describingfriendship and social interaction in a continuing care retirement community (CCRC), and social ties to persons living elsewhere. Structured interviews, including an adapted version of Fischer's Social Network Index, were conducted with 50 residents (mean age = 80.9 years). On average, residents reported social networks of 8.2 members, comprising kin (2.46), nonkin residing

  2. Analyzing covert social network foundation behind terrorism disaster

    E-print Network

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses a method to analyze the covert social network foundation hidden behind the terrorism disaster. It is to solve a node discovery problem, which means to discover a node, which functions relevantly in a social network, but escaped from monitoring on the presence and mutual relationship of nodes. The method aims at integrating the expert investigator's prior understanding, insight on the terrorists' social network nature derived from the complex graph theory, and computational data processing. The social network responsible for the 9/11 attack in 2001 is used to execute simulation experiment to evaluate the performance of the method.

  3. Novel Visualizations and Interactions for Social Networks Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riche, Nathalie Henry; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    In the last decade, the popularity of social networking applications has dramatically increased. Social networks are collection of persons or organizations connected by relations. Members of Facebook listed as friends or persons connected by family ties in genealogical trees are examples of social networks. Today's web surfers are often part of many online social networks: they communicate in groups or forums on topics of interests, exchange emails with their friends and colleagues, express their ideas on public blogs, share videos on YouTube, exchange and comment photos on Flickr, participate to the edition of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia or contribute to daily news by collaborating to Wikinews or Agoravox.

  4. Social Networking—Another Breach In The Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamnote, Gajendra; Patil, Gajendra; Shejole, Amol

    2010-11-01

    With the increasing popularity of social networks like Facebook and MySpace, such sites have lately become the favourite destinations for spammers and attackers. Social networks have experienced complex social engineering attacks, massive spam and aggressive malware distribution in the recent past. This paper presents a practical case study of social engineering, malware distribution and phishing attacks against social networking sites that are identified over last few months. It is explained how private data of the users are exposed to attackers and how easily their privacy is compromised as a result of these attacks and their own careless behaviour.

  5. SM: Enabling Efficient Offline Access to Online Social Media and Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    O2 SM: Enabling Efficient Offline Access to Online Social Media and Social Networks Ye Zhao1 , Ngoc media access on mobile devices, and propose an Offline Online Social Media (O2 SM) Middle- ware to: (i) rank the social media streams based the probability that a given user views a given content item

  6. SocialCloud: Using Social Networks for Building Distributed Computing Services

    E-print Network

    Kim, Dae-Shik

    SocialCloud: Using Social Networks for Building Distributed Computing Services Abedelaziz Mohaisen investigate a new computing paradigm, called SocialCloud, in which computing nodes are governed by social ties existing computing paradigms, such as grid computing and the conventional cloud computing paradigms. We

  7. Optimizing online social networks for information propagation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan-Bing; Wang, Guan-Nan; Zeng, An; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Online users nowadays are facing serious information overload problem. In recent years, recommender systems have been widely studied to help people find relevant information. Adaptive social recommendation is one of these systems in which the connections in the online social networks are optimized for the information propagation so that users can receive interesting news or stories from their leaders. Validation of such adaptive social recommendation methods in the literature assumes uniform distribution of users' activity frequency. In this paper, our empirical analysis shows that the distribution of online users' activity is actually heterogenous. Accordingly, we propose a more realistic multi-agent model in which users' activity frequency are drawn from a power-law distribution. We find that previous social recommendation methods lead to serious delay of information propagation since many users are connected to inactive leaders. To solve this problem, we design a new similarity measure which takes into account users' activity frequencies. With this similarity measure, the average delay is significantly shortened and the recommendation accuracy is largely improved. PMID:24816894

  8. Understanding Spreading Patterns on Social Networks Based on Network Topology

    E-print Network

    Saxena, Akrati; Gupta, Yayati

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the proposal of first epidemic model, scientists have been attempting to estimate the growth of a disease/contagion while in its premature stage. Despite being the focus of researchers for a long time, understanding epidemiology remains as error prone as a weather forecast, mainly because of the unavailability of large amount of data. An epidemic spread is analogous to the diffusion of memes in social networking sites. Diffusion of memes can be easily studied provided large datasets and computational powers to extract information from online networks. So, studying a meme spreading pattern can help us in understanding epidemiology. In this paper, we analyse the impact of the topology of a social network, specifically its meso scale properties- community structure and core-periphery structure, on a meme traversing over it. We propose a meme propagation model for synthetic scale free graphs which resemble real world graphs and observe the process of a meme going viral on such a network. We also valida...

  9. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples. PMID:24001298

  10. Dimensionality of Social Networks Using Motifs and Eigenvalues

    PubMed Central

    Bonato, Anthony; Gleich, David F.; Kim, Myunghwan; Mitsche, Dieter; Pra?at, Pawe?; Tian, Yanhua; Young, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the dimensionality of social networks, and develop experiments aimed at predicting that dimension. We find that a social network model with nodes and links sampled from an m-dimensional metric space with power-law distributed influence regions best fits samples from real-world networks when m scales logarithmically with the number of nodes of the network. This supports a logarithmic dimension hypothesis, and we provide evidence with two different social networks, Facebook and LinkedIn. Further, we employ two different methods for confirming the hypothesis: the first uses the distribution of motif counts, and the second exploits the eigenvalue distribution. PMID:25188391

  11. A degree centrality in multi-layered social network

    E-print Network

    Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemys?aw; Musia?, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Multi-layered social networks reflect complex relationships existing in modern interconnected IT systems. In such a network each pair of nodes may be linked by many edges that correspond to different communication or collaboration user activities. Multi-layered degree centrality for multi-layered social networks is presented in the paper. Experimental studies were carried out on data collected from the real Web 2.0 site. The multi-layered social network extracted from this data consists of ten distinct layers and the network analysis was performed for different degree centralities measures.

  12. An LDA-based Community Structure Discovery Approach for Large-Scale Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haizheng Zhang; Baojun Qiut; C. Lee Giles; Henry C. Foley; John Yen

    2007-01-01

    ó Community discovery has drawn signicant re- search interests among researchers from many disciplines for its increasing application in multiple, disparate areas, including computer science, biology, social science and so on. This paper describes an LDA(latent Dirichlet Allocation)-based hierarchical Bayesian algorithm, namely SSN-LDA(Simple Social Network LDA). In SSN-LDA, communities are modeled as latent variables in the graphical model and dened

  13. Transformational leadership and group interaction as climate antecedents: a social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Dov; Tenne-Gazit, Orly

    2008-07-01

    In order to test the social mechanisms through which organizational climate emerges, this article introduces a model that combines transformational leadership and social interaction as antecedents of climate strength (i.e., the degree of within-unit agreement about climate perceptions). Despite their longstanding status as primary variables, both antecedents have received limited empirical research. The sample consisted of 45 platoons of infantry soldiers from 5 different brigades, using safety climate as the exemplar. Results indicate a partially mediated model between transformational leadership and climate strength, with density of group communication network as the mediating variable. In addition, the results showed independent effects for group centralization of the communication and friendship networks, which exerted incremental effects on climate strength over transformational leadership. Whereas centralization of the communication network was found to be negatively related to climate strength, centralization of the friendship network was positively related to it. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:18642981

  14. Differences in Beliefs about Psychological Services in the Relationship between Sociorace and One's Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Jeffrey P.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The roles of previous psychological service use and social network variables in beliefs about psychological services were examined with 184 college students. Having friends and family members who used psychological services, being female, and having used psychological services positively related with beliefs about psychological services.…

  15. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Robert J., Jr.; Acevedo, M.A.; Reichert, B.E.; Pias, K.E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2011-01-01

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data.

  16. How can social network analysis contribute to social behavior research in applied ethology?

    PubMed Central

    Makagon, Maja M.; McCowan, Brenda; Mench, Joy A.

    2013-01-01

    Social network analysis is increasingly used by behavioral ecologists and primatologists to describe the patterns and quality of interactions among individuals. We provide an overview of this methodology, with examples illustrating how it can be used to study social behavior in applied contexts. Like most kinds of social interaction analyses, social network analysis provides information about direct relationships (e.g. dominant–subordinate relationships). However, it also generates a more global model of social organization that determines how individual patterns of social interaction relate to individual and group characteristics. A particular strength of this approach is that it provides standardized mathematical methods for calculating metrics of sociality across levels of social organization, from the population and group levels to the individual level. At the group level these metrics can be used to track changes in social network structures over time, evaluate the effect of the environment on social network structure, or compare social structures across groups, populations or species. At the individual level, the metrics allow quantification of the heterogeneity of social experience within groups and identification of individuals who may play especially important roles in maintaining social stability or information flow throughout the network. PMID:24357888

  17. Quantum network dense coding via continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiahao; He, Guangqiang

    2014-08-01

    We present a dense coding network based on continuous-variable graph state along with its corresponding protocol. A scheme to distill bipartite entanglement between two arbitrary modes in a graph state is provided in order to realize the dense coding network. We also analyze the capacity of network dense coding and provide a method to calculate its maximum mutual information. As an application, we analyze the performance of dense coding in a square lattice graph state network. The result showed that the mutual information of the dense coding is not largely affected by the complexity of the network. We conclude that the performance of dense coding network is very optimistic.

  18. Local Nash Equilibrium in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M. A.; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures. PMID:25169150

  19. Local Nash equilibrium in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures. PMID:25169150

  20. Multiple-membership multiple-classification models for social network and group dependences

    PubMed Central

    Tranmer, Mark; Steel, David; Browne, William J

    2014-01-01

    The social network literature on network dependences has largely ignored other sources of dependence, such as the school that a student attends, or the area in which an individual lives. The multilevel modelling literature on school and area dependences has, in turn, largely ignored social networks. To bridge this divide, a multiple-membership multiple-classification modelling approach for jointly investigating social network and group dependences is presented. This allows social network and group dependences on individual responses to be investigated and compared. The approach is used to analyse a subsample of the Adolescent Health Study data set from the USA, where the response variable of interest is individual level educational attainment, and the three individual level covariates are sex, ethnic group and age. Individual, network, school and area dependences are accounted for in the analysis. The network dependences can be accounted for by including the network as a classification in the model, using various network configurations, such as ego-nets and cliques. The results suggest that ignoring the network affects the estimates of variation for the classifications that are included in the random part of the model (school, area and individual), as well as having some influence on the point estimates and standard errors of the estimates of regression coefficients for covariates in the fixed part of the model. From a substantive perspective, this approach provides a flexible and practical way of investigating variation in an individual level response due to social network dependences, and estimating the share of variation of an individual response for network, school and area classifications. PMID:25598585

  1. The complex problem of monetizing virtual electronic social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric K. Clemons

    2009-01-01

    As traditional advertising is losing its impact, both advertisers and the media owners who are dependent upon them are desperately seeking alternative ways to reach consumers and alternative ways to earn revenues by doing so. Although there are many ways to earn money from social network traffic, attempting to do so by treating social networks as just another entertainment medium

  2. Social networks, normative influence and health delivery in rural Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaberi Gayen; Robert Raeside

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the association of social networks with the experience of neonatal death and the type of assistance that a woman obtains at childbirth in rural Bangladesh. Data were collected by interviewing 694 women from seven villages using a structured questionnaire. From the use of both social network analysis and statistical methods, we find that the experience of neonatal

  3. On the Impact of Social Network Profiling on Anonymity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Díaz; Carmela Troncoso; Andrei Serjantov

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies anonymity in a setting where individuals who communicate with each other over an anonymous channel are also members of a social network. In this setting the social network graph is known to the attacker. We propose a Bayesian method to combine multiple available sources of information and obtain an overall measure of anonymity. We study the effects

  4. Mobile Human Network Management and Recommendation by Probabilistic Social Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Ki Min; Sung-Bae Cho

    2011-01-01

    Recently, inferring or sharing of mobile contexts has been actively investigated as cell phones have become more than a communication device. However, most of them focused on utilizing the contexts on social network services, while the means in mining or managing the human network itself were barely considered. In this paper, the SmartPhonebook, which mines users' social connections to manage

  5. An Organizational Framework of Personal Health Records for Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Syed Omair

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes an organizational framework for creating a community to share personal health record (PHR) information in the form of a Health Records Social Network (HRSN). The work builds upon existing social network community concepts as well as the existing Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) model used by the medical community and…

  6. The Social Networking Arena: Battle of the Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clipson, Timothy W.; Wilson, S. Ann; DuFrene, Debbie D.

    2012-01-01

    Social networking via texting, Facebook, Twitter, and similar media is enormously popular with students, though it often leads to communication challenges along gender lines. Research supports the fact that men and women have divergent expectations for social networking and use it differently. Students can benefit from classroom experiences that…

  7. A Survey on Link Prediction Models for Social Network Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Wei Xiang

    Link prediction for social network data is a fundamental data mining task in various application domains, including social network analysis, in- formation retrieval, recommendation systems, record linkage, marketing and bioinformatics. There are a variety of techniques for the link prediction problem, ranging from graph theory, metric learning, statistical relational learning to matrix factorization and probabilistic graphical models. In this survey,

  8. Neighbor Query Friendly Compression of Social Networks Hossein Maserrat

    E-print Network

    Pei, Jian

    Neighbor Query Friendly Compression of Social Networks Hossein Maserrat School of Computing Science Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC, Canada jpei@cs.sfu.ca ABSTRACT Compressing social networks can should be compressed in a way that they still can be queried efficiently without decompres- sion

  9. Unveiling Facebook: A Measurement Study of Social Network Based Applications

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    Unveiling Facebook: A Measurement Study of Social Network Based Applications Atif Nazir, Saqib Raza social networking sites such as Facebook and MyS- pace have become increasingly popular, with close to 500 million users as of August 2008. The introduction of the Facebook Developer Platform and Open

  10. Social networks and infectious disease: The Colorado Springs study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Klovdahl; J. J. Potterat; D. E. Woodhouse; J. B. Muth; S. Q. Muth; W. W. Darrow

    1994-01-01

    The social network paradigm provides a set of concepts and methods useful for studying the structure of a population through which infectious agents transmitted during close personal contact spread, and an opportunity to develop improved disease control programs. The research discussed was a first attempt to use a social network approach to better understand factors affecting the transmission of a

  11. Statistical Analysis of Social Networks Krista J. Gile

    E-print Network

    Gile, Krista J.

    Statistical Analysis of Social Networks Krista J. Gile University of Massachusetts, Amherst Octover of Washington · Krista J. Gile, UMass, Amherst · Mark S. Handcock, UCLA · Lisa G. Johnston, Tulane University://www.math.umass.edu/~ gile #12;Social Network Analysis [2] Career Path (how it felt) math people q q q q qqqHigh School

  12. Social Networks of Homeless Youth in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Suzanne; Holloway, Ian; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Bowman, Richard; Tucker, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of social networks, and the risks and supports present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African…

  13. A New Addiction for Teacher Candidates: Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cam, Emre; Isbulan, Onur

    2012-01-01

    With the transition to being a knowledge-based society, the internet usage has become an irreplaceable part of life. As socials networks have come into our lives, the internet usage has taken a different dimension. People can affiliate to social networks in order to make friends, exchange information, find partners, and to play games. The process…

  14. Social Networking as a New Trend in E-Marketing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Andrew Yang; Dan J. Kim; Vishal Dhalwani

    2007-01-01

    In the world of e-marketing, new business models are frequently introduced, and new trends have started to emerge. One such latest trend is social networking websites, many of which have attracted not only large number of users and visitors, but also online advertising companies to place their ads on the sites. In this paper we explore online social networking as

  15. Social Network Positions and Smoking Experimentation among Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Dong, Qi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between peer social network positions and smoking experimentation among Chinese adolescents. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were administered to 1040 adolescents in grades 6, 8, and 10. Paired-friendship linkages were used to assign participants into 3 mutually exclusive social network positions.…

  16. The Knowledge Base Evolution in Biotechnology: A Social Network Analysis.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Knowledge Base Evolution in Biotechnology: A Social Network Analysis. Jackie Kraffta of social network analysis (SNA) within an evolutionary framework, to investigate the knowledge base dynamics of the biotechnology sector. Knowledge is here considered a collective good represented as a co

  17. Analyzing Implicit Social Networks in Multiplayer Online Games

    E-print Network

    Kuipers, Fernando A.

    1 Analyzing Implicit Social Networks in Multiplayer Online Games Alexandru Iosup, Ruud van de. Contact: {A.Iosup,R.vandeBovenkamp,S.Shen,L.Jia,F.A.Kuipers}@tudelft.nl Abstract--For many networked games enhance user-experience, and extend the success of each game. Un- derstanding the social structure

  18. Privacy in Online Social Networks Michael Beye1

    E-print Network

    Privacy in Online Social Networks Michael Beye1 , Arjan Jeckmans2 , Zekeriya Erkin1 , Pieter Hartel risks and privacy-preserving solutions. 1 Introduction In recent years, Online Social Networks (OSNs2 , Reginald Lagendijk1 , and Qiang Tang2 1 Information Security and Privacy Lab, Faculty of EEMCS

  19. Applications to Improve Privacy on Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Víctor Rodríguez; Anna Carreras; Eva Rodríguez; Jaime Delgado

    Privacy management is different across the many online social networks and not always satisfies the user expectations. Some social networks members may demand choosing their privacy preferences more richly and exercise a tighter control on the information they drop. For this regard, it is under question if some of the Digital Rights Management systems features may be incorporated to the

  20. A Collaborative Framework for Privacy Protection in Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    A Collaborative Framework for Privacy Protection in Online Social Networks Yan Zhu1,2 , Zexing Hu1, 2010 Abstract With the wide use of online social networks (OSNs), the problem of data privacy has attracted much attention. Several approaches have been proposed to address this issue. One of privacy

  1. Diffusion of innovations through social networks of children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurien Kunst; Jan Kratzer

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to examine the role of social networks of children on the diffusion of an innovation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The impact of social networks on the adoptive behavior of children is measured in the study and then compared to more traditional marketing strategies. Therefore an experiment was conducted on three primary public schools in The Netherlands, with

  2. User Perceptions of Music Content on Social Network Websites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoon Hwa Cho

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed user perceptions of social network websites and music content based on uses and gratification. This method helped to analyze social network websites as a mass media channel and determine how websites were used by participants. Interviews for this research were conducted via online instant messenger tools including 23 participants from the Republic of Korea and the U.S.

  3. Emergence, evolution and scaling of online social networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le-Zhi; Huang, Zi-Gang; Rong, Zhi-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Online social networks have become increasingly ubiquitous and understanding their structural, dynamical, and scaling properties not only is of fundamental interest but also has a broad range of applications. Such networks can be extremely dynamic, generated almost instantaneously by, for example, breaking-news items. We investigate a common class of online social networks, the user-user retweeting networks, by analyzing the empirical data collected from Sina Weibo (a massive twitter-like microblogging social network in China) with respect to the topic of the 2011 Japan earthquake. We uncover a number of algebraic scaling relations governing the growth and structure of the network and develop a probabilistic model that captures the basic dynamical features of the system. The model is capable of reproducing all the empirical results. Our analysis not only reveals the basic mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the retweeting networks, but also provides general insights into the control of information spreading on such networks. PMID:25380140

  4. Tie-RBAC: An application of RBAC to Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Tapiador, Antonio; Salvachúa, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the application of role-based access control to social networks, from the perspective of social network analysis. Each tie, composed of a relation, a sender and a receiver, involves the sender's assignation of the receiver to a role with permissions. The model is not constrained to system-defined relations and lets users define them unilaterally. It benefits of RBAC's advantages, such as policy neutrality, simplification of security administration and permissions on other roles. Tie-RBAC has been implemented in a core for building social network sites, Social Stream.

  5. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks.

    PubMed

    Zlati?, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks. PMID:19905191

  6. Social Network Extraction and Analysis Based on Multimodal Dyadic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Escalera, Sergio; Baró, Xavier; Vitrià, Jordi; Radeva, Petia; Raducanu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions are a very important component in people’s lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times’ Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links’ weights are a measure of the “influence” a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network. PMID:22438733

  7. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  8. A Brief Survey on Anonymization Techniques for Privacy Preserving Publishing of Social Network Data

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Richard "Hao"

    between social actors. Many different kinds of social networks present in our life such as friendship networks, telephone call networks, and academia co-authorship networks. Due to the rapidly increasing

  9. On New Characterizations of Social Influence in Social Networks Makan Fardad, Fu Lin, Xi Zhang, and Mihailo R. Jovanovic

    E-print Network

    Fardad, Makan

    On New Characterizations of Social Influence in Social Networks Makan Fardad, Fu Lin, Xi Zhang with that of other measures of influence developed in the social networks literature. Index Terms-- Betweenness influence, social networks, sparsity, stochastic matrices. I. INTRODUCTION Influencing public opinion

  10. Social isolation and perceived barriers to establishing social networks among Latina immigrants.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Kaltman, Stacey

    2014-03-01

    Research has identified numerous mechanisms through which perceived social isolation and lack of social support negatively impact health. Little research attention has been dedicated to factors that influence the development of social networks, which have the potential to decrease perceptions of social isolation and provide social support. There is mixed evidence concerning the availability of supportive social networks for Latinos in the US. This study explores trauma-exposed Latina immigrants' experiences of social isolation in the US and its perceived causes. Twenty-eight Latina immigrant women participated in an interview about traumatic experiences. Informal help seeking and the availability of friendships in the US were also queried. Frequent comparisons between experiences in their home countries and in the US shaped the emerging themes of social isolation and lack of social support. Women reported feeling lonely, isolated, closed-in, and less free in the US due to family separation and various obstacles to developing and maintaining relationships. Socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial barriers were offered as explanations for their limited social networks in the US. Understanding experiences of social isolation as well as barriers to forging social networks can help inform the development of social support interventions that can contribute to improved health among Latinos. PMID:24402726

  11. Unveiling facebook: a measurement study of social network based applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atif Nazir; Saqib Raza; Chen-nee Chuah

    2008-01-01

    Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MyS- pace have become increasingly popular, with close to 500 million users as of August 2008. The introduction of the Facebook Developer Platform and OpenSocial allows third- party developers to launch their own applications for the existing massive user base. The viral growth of these social applications can potentially influence how content

  12. Relationships in Reform: The Role of Teachers' Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Alan J.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Bolivar, Jose M.; Burke, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Scholars have focused their attention on systemic reform as a way to support instructional coherence. These efforts are often layered on to existing social relationships between school staff that are rarely taken into account when enacting reform. Social network theory posits that the structure of social relationships may influence the…

  13. Regional Actor Networks Between Social Capital and Regional Governance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietrich Fürst; Herbert Schubert; Ansgar Rudolph; Holger Spieckermann

    The development of regions depends on the social capital of regional actors. Reliable relations between actors help to move in a personal network. Social capital is a connecting bridge supporting the exchange of resources between actors. According to Coleman there are two basic principles which have to be maintained in order to create sufficiently social capital: \\

  14. Increasing Social Capital for Disaster Response through Social Networking Services (SNS) in Japanese Local Governments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander R. M. Schellong; J. W. Goethe

    Researchers have argued that social networks within a community have positive effects on people's behavior in the four stages of disaster. The Japanese government is testing Social Networking Service (SNS) at the municipal level with the intention to improve community building, democratic processes and disaster management. This paper presents results from two case studies of local SNS in Yatsushiro city,

  15. Reputation Cascade Model Over Social Connections in Online Social Networks Maziar Gomrokchi

    E-print Network

    Bentahar, Jamal

    Reputation Cascade Model Over Social Connections in Online Social Networks Maziar Gomrokchi. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model of reputation cascade through the network. This model helps of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we develop a new reputation cascade model in OSN context

  16. Generalizing terrorist social networks with K-nearest neighbor and edge betweeness for social network integration and privacy preservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuning Tang; Christopher C. Yang

    2010-01-01

    Social network analysis has been shown to be effective in supporting intelligence and law enforcement force to identify suspects, terrorist or criminal subgroups, and their communication patterns. However, social network data owned by individual law enforcement units contain private information that must be preserved before sharing with other law enforcement units. Such privacy issue tremendously reduces the utility of the

  17. Frequency-Variable Air Conditioner Controller Using Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuepeng Liu; Dongmei Zhao; Jianxin Wu

    2009-01-01

    It is common to control the frequency-variable air conditioner by using PED controller. However, the paper designs an algorithm for frequency-variable air conditioner by using neural networks. The neural network frame has the following characteristics: three-layer frame, two inputs, one output, while the hidden middle layer is designed with five nodes, input layer with linear signal, output layer with linear

  18. Implications for social policy of variability in racial groups.

    PubMed

    Helms, Janet E

    2008-11-01

    Social policy and federal and state legislation require the use of single cut scores when tests of cognitive ability, knowledge, or skills (CAKS) are used to make high-stakes assessment decisions, such as whether students or employees may be promoted. Rationales offered for the requirement are that cut scores provide objective standards and are fairer than using subjective criteria, such as racial group membership. It is argued that failure to consider threats to statistical conclusion validity, such as differences in variability between groups, obscures the differential impact of using a common cut score as the basis for highstakes decisions. Analyses of 40 Black and White samples revealed that (a) Whites might be considerably advantaged and Blacks might be considerably disadvantaged by the same cut score and (b) depending on where the cut score is set, decisions based on ratios of numbers of Whites numbers of Blacks might be fairer than use of CAKS test cut scores. Implications for assessment practice and social policy are discussed. PMID:19014231

  19. A Social Network–Informed Latent Class Analysis of Patterns of Substance Use, Sexual Behavior, and Mental Health: Social Network Study III, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Suellen; Tan, Xianming; Wylie, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether a meaningful set of latent risk profiles could be identified in an inner-city population through individual and network characteristics of substance use, sexual behaviors, and mental health status. Methods. Data came from 600 participants in Social Network Study III, conducted in 2009 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify risk profiles and, with covariates, to identify predictors of class. Results. A 4-class model of risk profiles fit the data best: (1) solitary users reported polydrug use at the individual level, but low probabilities of substance use or concurrent sexual partners with network members; (2) social–all-substance users reported polydrug use at the individual and network levels; (3) social–noninjection drug users reported less likelihood of injection drug and solvent use; (4) low-risk users reported low probabilities across substances. Unstable housing, preadolescent substance use, age, and hepatitis C status predicted risk profiles. Conclusions. Incorporation of social network variables into LCA can distinguish important subgroups with varying patterns of risk behaviors that can lead to sexually transmitted and bloodborne infections. PMID:24625178

  20. Analyzing (social media) networks with NodeXL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc A. Smith; Ben Shneiderman; Natasa Milic-Frayling; Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues; Vladimir Barash; Tony Capone; Adam Perer

    2009-01-01

    We present NodeXL, an extendible toolkit for network overview, discovery and exploration implemented as an add-in to the Microsoft Excel 2007 spreadsheet software. We demonstrate NodeXL data analysis and visualization features with a social media data sample drawn from an enterprise intranet social network. A sequence of NodeXL operations from data import to computation of network statistics and refinement of

  1. Intelligent Social Network Modeling and Analysis for Security Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald R. Yager

    2008-01-01

    Social relational networks are becoming an important technology in studying terrorist and criminal organizations. Our goal\\u000a here is to enrich the domain of social network modeling by introducing ideas from fuzzy sets and related granular computing\\u000a technologies. We approach this extension in a number of ways. One is with the introduction of fuzzy graphs representing the\\u000a networks. This allows a

  2. A Study on Social Network Metrics and Their Application in Trust Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iraklis Varlamis; Magdalini Eirinaki; Malamati D. Louta

    2010-01-01

    Social network analysis has recently gained a lot of interest because of the advent and the increasing popularity of social media, such as blogs, social networks, micro logging, or customer review sites. Such media often serve as platforms for information dissemination and product placement or promotion. In this environment, influence and trust are becoming essential qualities among user interactions. In

  3. Near consensus complex linear and nonlinear social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bingo Wing-Kuen; Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Wang, Lidong; Teo, Kok-Lay; Tse, Chi K.; Dai, Qingyun

    2014-05-01

    Some of the nodes of complex social networks may support for a given proposal, while the rest of the nodes may be against the given proposal. Even though all the nodes support for or are against the given proposal, the decision certitudes of individual nodes may be different. In this case, the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the majority of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value. Deriving the near consensus property is a key to the analysis of the behaviors of complex social networks. So far, no result on the behaviors of the complex social networks satisfying the near consensus property has been reported. Hence, it is useful to extend the definition of the exact consensus property to that of a near consensus property and investigate the behaviors of the complex social networks satisfying the near consensus property. This paper extends the definition of exact consensus complex social networks to that of near consensus complex social networks. For complex linear social networks, this paper investigates the relationships among the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes, the influence weight matrix and the set of vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes under a given near consensus specification. The above analysis is based on the Eigen theory. For complex nonlinear social networks with certain types of nonlinearities, the relationship between the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes is studied. When a complex nonlinear social network does not achieve the exact consensus property, the optimal near consensus condition that the complex social network can achieve is derived. This problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The total number of nodes that the decision certitudes of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value is maximized subject to the corresponding near consensus specification. The optimization problem is a nonsmooth optimization problem. The nonsmooth constraints are first approximated by smooth constraints. Then, the approximated optimization problem is solved via a conventional smooth optimization approach. Computer numerical simulation results as well as the comparisons of the behaviors of complex nonlinear social networks to those of the complex linear social networks are presented. The obtained results demonstrate that some complex social networks can satisfy the near consensus property but not the exact consensus property. Also, the conditions for the near consensus property are dependent on the types of nonlinearities, the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes.

  4. Studying Social Networks at Scale: Macroscopic Anatomy of the Twitter Social Graph

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Studying Social Networks at Scale: Macroscopic Anatomy of the Twitter Social Graph Maksym Gabielkov ashwin.rao@inria.fr Arnaud Legout Inria Sophia Antipolis, France arnaud.legout@inria.fr ABSTRACT Twitter the Twitter so- cial graph much closer to the social graph supporting real life communications than

  5. Learning Influence in Complex Social Networks Henry Franks

    E-print Network

    Sukthankar, Gita Reese

    Learning Influence in Complex Social Networks Henry Franks Department of Computer Science) the extent to which network location imbues influence on an agent, and (iii) the extent to which different network structures affect influence. In this paper, we propose a general methodology for learning

  6. An Anonymous Social Network Site to Share Pictures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Garcia; Sandra Sendra; Jordi Girones; Jaime Lloret

    2009-01-01

    A social network site (SNS) is a Web 2.0 software application used by many Internet users. These types of networks have their advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage is the degree of communication that they can bring among users. This can improve the work environment, the productivity and also the educational environment. The negative point of these networks is communication

  7. The evolution of the CASCON community: a social network analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zack Hayat; Kelly A. Lyons

    2010-01-01

    The networking form of organizations is becoming prevalent and worthy of study in every realm of social structure. In this paper we focus on the way this statement holds in the context of collaborative research networks. In order to do so, we analyze a specific network of researchers by looking at the CASCON conference paper co-authorship structure. CASCON is an

  8. Using social networks analysis for collaboration and team formation identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Studart Monclar; Jonice Oliveira; Fabricio Firmino de Faria; Lucas Ventura; Jano Moreira de Souza; Maria Luiza Machado Campos

    2011-01-01

    Social networks are sets of links that organize people, groups, and institutions in an equal and democratic way, and around a common purpose (4). During the formation of such networks, problems can arise, such as elements that concentrate many relationships, very isolated individuals or peripheral members of a network, people who are the only link between two distinct groups, agglomerations

  9. Understanding co-evolution of social and content networks on Twitter

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    that on Twitter so- cial networks have a strong influence on content networks over time, and that social network of its social network. In recent work we have analyzed how the tagging behav- ior of users influences insights into influence patterns in content networks, social networks and between them. Our observations

  10. Training artificial neural networks using variable precision incremental communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali A. Ghorbani; Virendra C. Bhavsar

    1994-01-01

    We have earlier proposed incremental inter-node communication to reduce the communication cost as well as time of the learning process in artificial neural networks. In the incremental communication, instead of communicating the full magnitude of an input (output) variable of a neuron, only the increment\\/decrement to the previous value of the variable, using reduced precision, is sent on a communication

  11. Social Network Analysis: A case study of the Islamist terrorist network

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Social Network Analysis is a compilation of methods used to identify and analyze patterns in social network systems. This article serves as a primer on foundational social network concepts and analyses and builds a case study on the global Islamist terrorist network to illustrate the use and usefulness of these methods. The Islamist terrorist network is a system composed of multiple terrorist organizations that are socially connected and work toward the same goals. This research utilizes traditional social network, as well as small-world, and scale-free analyses to characterize this system on individual, network and systemic levels. Leaders in the network are identified based on their positions in the social network and the network structure is categorized. Finally, two vital nodes in the network are removed and this version of the network is compared with the previous version to make implications of strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities. The Islamist terrorist network structure is found to be a resilient and efficient structure, even with important social nodes removed. Implications for counterterrorism are given from the results of each analysis.

  12. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Gao, Hui; Chen, Lian; Mensah, Dennis N. A.; Fu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition) towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods. PMID:26075404

  13. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  14. Binge drinking at University: a social network study in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Lorant, Vincent; Nicaise, Pablo

    2014-03-22

    Many university students engage in risky alcohol consumption behaviour during their stay at university. So far, however, most studies have relied on cross-sectional surveys and paid little attention to the role of social ties. University students, however, are socially connected, so it is likely that their alcohol consumption behaviour is also connected. We hypothesized that university students' social positions within their networks are related to their drinking behaviour. We carried out a social network analysis within a whole network approach with undergraduates in two faculties (n = 487), those of Engineering and Psychology, in a Belgian university. All students filled out a questionnaire recording their drinking behaviour and their social ties (friendship, working with, partying with and room-mate). For each individual, indicators of centrality, social capital, and cross-gender relationships were computed. We found that being socially close to binge drinkers was associated with a higher frequency of binge drinking. The risk of binge drinking increased with centrality but decreased with social capital. Having cross-gender relationships decreased the risk of binge drinking. We found indications that the effect of centrality and gender on binge drinking depends on the composition of the network. We conclude that social position has important effects on risky drinking behaviour and that the composition of the network may affect these factors. Those developing health promotion strategies could investigate the benefits of targeting central individuals in order to prevent binge drinking among university students. PMID:24622535

  15. Pinning impulsive synchronization of complex-variable dynamical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaoyan; Liu, Danfeng; Ye, Qingling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, pinning combining with impulsive control scheme is adopted to investigate the synchronization of complex-variable dynamical network. Based on the Lyapunov function method and mathematical analysis technique, sufficient conditions for achieving synchronization is first analytically derived. This result extends the condition derived for real-variable dynamical network to complex-variable network. Further, adaptive strategy is adopted to relax the restrictions on the impulsive intervals and reduce the control cost. Noticeably, the proposed adaptive pinning impulsive control scheme is universal for different dynamical networks to some extent. The impulsive instants are chosen by solving a series of maximum problems subject to the derived conditions. Several numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness and correctness of the derived theoretical results.

  16. Social area networks: data networking of the people, by the people, for the people

    E-print Network

    Aharony, Nadav

    In this position paper we explore a holistic approach for the integration of social and human-level concepts with all layers of the communication network. This integration is bidirectional - the social information can help ...

  17. Actor and partner effects of perceived HIV stigma on social network components among people living with HIV/AIDS and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chun; Liu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the relationship between HIV stigma and social network components at the dyadic level. The objective of this study was to examine the actor and partner effects of perceived HIV stigma by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and their caregivers on social network variables at the dyadic level. Method An egocentric social network study was conducted among 147 dyads consisting of one PLWHA and one caregiver (294 participants) in Nanning, China. The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to analyze the relationships between perceived HIV stigma and social network components (network relations, network structures, and network functions) at the dyadic level. Results We found in this dyadic analysis that: (1) social network components were similar between PLWHAs and their caregivers; (2) HIV stigma perceived by PLWHAs influenced their own social network components, whereas this influence did not exist between caregivers' perceived HIV stigma and their own social network components; (3) a few significant partner effects were observed between HIV stigma and social network components among both PLWHAs and caregivers. Conclusion The interrelationships between HIV stigma and social network components were complex at the dyadic level. Future interventions programs targeting HIV stigma should focus on the interpersonal relationship at the dyadic level, beyond the intrapersonal factors. PMID:25085478

  18. Social Network Size Estimation and Determinants in Tehran Province Residents

    PubMed Central

    SHATI, Mohsen; HAGHDOOST, AliAkbar; MAJDZADEH, Reza; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; MORTAZAVI, SeyedeSalehe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Network scale-up is an indirect method for estimating the size of hidden, hard-to-count or high risk populations. Social network size estimation is the first step in this method. The present study was conducted with the purpose of estimating the social network size of the Tehran Province residents and its determinants. Methods Maximum Likelihood Estimation was applied to estimate people’s network sizes by using populations of known sizes and the scale-up method. Respondents were selected from Tehran province through convenience sampling in 2012. Out of thirteen selected subpopulations with known size, ten had minimum accuracy which used in our analysis. Results Of the 1029 respondents in this study, 46.7% were male. The social network size of Tehran Province residents was estimated to be 259.1 (CI95%: 242.2, 276) based on the ten known populations remained in this study. This size was 291.8 in men and 230.4 in women. Younger people (18–25 years old) had larger network sizes compared to the other age groups (P<0.001). Conclusion Our estimation for social network size of Tehran inhabitants was smaller than that previously estimated size for the whole country (c=380). In addition, we found that the social network of subpopulations was different. This difference means that we need local estimations for sub-populations to improve the accuracy of population size estimation using network scale up method. PMID:25927037

  19. The social network structure of a wild meerkat population: 3. Position of individuals within networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Madden; J. A. Drewe; G. P. Pearce; T. H. Clutton-Brock

    Individuals in social groups interact with numerous other group members in a polyadic network. Interactions can depend on\\u000a the individual's own attributes (age, sex, status etc.), on their partner's attributes, and the group's network of social\\u000a interactions. Previous studies tend to look at a subset of dyadic interactions, focusing on particular classes of individuals.\\u000a We used social network analysis to

  20. Computer Networks as Social Networks: Collaborative Work, Telework, and Virtual Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Wellman; Janet Salaff; Dimitrina Dimitrova; Laura Garton; Milena Gulia; Caroline Haythornthwaite

    1996-01-01

    When computer networks link people as well as machines, they become social networks. Such computer-supported social networks (CSSNs) are becoming im- portant bases of virtual communities, computer-supported cooperative work, and telework. Computer-mediated communication such as electronic mail and com- puterized conferencing is usually text-based and asynchronous. It has limited social presence, and on-line communications are often more uninhibited, cre- ative,

  1. New-age patient communications through social networks.

    PubMed

    Ogburn, Kelin M; Messias, Erick; Buckley, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    Suicide prevention continues to be a significant clinical challenge in the care of psychiatric patients, particularly among youth. New patterns of interactions and communications using online social networks create opportunities for persons to indicate their mood, their opinions, and also to express ideation and plans about suicide. We report a case of a suicide attempt and how communications through online social networks initiated treatment and affected its outcome. We discuss advantages and challenges to clinicians regarding use social networks and electronic communication in patient care. PMID:21596215

  2. Assembling thefacebook: Using heterogeneity to understand online social network assembly

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Abigail Z; Ugander, Johan; Clauset, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Online social networks represent a popular and highly diverse class of social media systems. Despite this variety, each of these systems undergoes a general process of online social network assembly, which represents the complicated and heterogeneous changes that transform newly born systems into mature platforms. However, little is known about this process. For example, how much of a network's assembly is driven by simple growth? How does a network's structure change as it matures? How does network structure vary with adoption rates and user heterogeneity, and do these properties play different roles at different points in the assembly? We investigate these and other questions using a unique dataset of online connections among the roughly one million users at the first 100 colleges admitted to Facebook, captured just 20 months after its launch. We first show that different vintages and adoption rates across this population of networks reveal temporal dynamics of the assembly process, and that assembly is onl...

  3. Assessing the Effects of a Soft Cut-off in the Twitter Social Network

    E-print Network

    Ganguly, Niloy

    two objectives, and find that Twitter's policy well balances both. From a network science perspective, network science 1 Introduction Online Social Networks (OSNs) have experienced an exponential rise

  4. Social Network Influences on Reproductive Health Behavior of Myanmar Migrants in Maha Chai, Samut Sakhon, Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myint Thu; Hmwe Hmwe Kyu

    When people live away from their partners, they develop their own social and cultural networks. Social networks can influence on health. Social network analysis using in-depth interviews showed that the most important social network for the Myanmar migrants in Maha Chai was their peers, friends and relatives. Often young male migrants want to explore their first sexual activity with commercial

  5. Online Social Networks for Personal Informatics to Promote Positive Health Behavior

    E-print Network

    British Columbia, University of

    Online Social Networks for Personal Informatics to Promote Positive Health Behavior Noreen Kamal.ho@ubc.ca ABSTRACT Social network services are becoming increasingly popular, and people are using these networks to obtain and share information. The application of social network and social media to the collection

  6. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Activation of a Social Cognitive Neural Network and Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Pinkham, Amy E.; Hopfinger, Joseph B.; Ruparel, Kosha; Penn, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work examining the neurobiological substrates of social cognition in healthy individuals has reported modulation of a social cognitive network such that increased activation of the amygdala, fusiform gyrus, and superior temporal sulcus are evident when individuals judge a face to be untrustworthy as compared with trustworthy. We examined whether this pattern would be present in individuals with schizophrenia who are known to show reduced activation within these same neural regions when processing faces. Additionally, we sought to determine how modulation of this social cognitive network may relate to social functioning. Neural activation was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging with blood oxygenation level dependent contrast in 3 groups of individuals—nonparanoid individuals with schizophrenia, paranoid individuals with schizophrenia, and healthy controls—while they rated faces as either trustworthy or untrustworthy. Analyses of mean percent signal change extracted from a priori regions of interest demonstrated that both controls and nonparanoid individuals with schizophrenia showed greater activation of this social cognitive network when they rated a face as untrustworthy relative to trustworthy. In contrast, paranoid individuals did not show a significant difference in levels of activation based on how they rated faces. Further, greater activation of this social cognitive network to untrustworthy faces was significantly and positively correlated with social functioning. These findings indicate that impaired modulation of neural activity while processing social stimuli may underlie deficits in social cognition and social dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:18477583

  7. Social Balance on Networks: The Dynamics of Friendship and Enmity

    E-print Network

    T. Antal; P. L. Krapivsky; S. Redner

    2006-05-21

    How do social networks evolve when both friendly and unfriendly relations exist? Here we propose a simple dynamics for social networks in which the sense of a relationship can change so as to eliminate imbalanced triads--relationship triangles that contains 1 or 3 unfriendly links. In this dynamics, a friendly link changes to unfriendly or vice versa in an imbalanced triad to make the triad balanced. Such networks undergo a dynamic phase transition from a steady state to "utopia"--all friendly links--as the amount of network friendliness is changed. Basic features of the long-time dynamics and the phase transition are discussed.

  8. Inaugural Article: A dynamic model of social network formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyrms, Brian; Pemantle, Robin

    2000-08-01

    We consider a dynamic social network model in which agents play repeated games in pairings determined by a stochastically evolving social network. Individual agents begin to interact at random, with the interactions modeled as games. The game payoffs determine which interactions are reinforced, and the network structure emerges as a consequence of the dynamics of the agents' learning behavior. We study this in a variety of game-theoretic conditions and show that the behavior is complex and sometimes dissimilar to behavior in the absence of structural dynamics. We argue that modeling network structure as dynamic increases realism without rendering the problem of analysis intractable.

  9. A MultiLevel Marketing Framework for Advertising in Social Network Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Tai Hsieh; Jay Stu; Chun-Ming Liang; Wenchi Yang; S.-C. T. Chou

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the growth of social network applications has held up very well. Many socializing tools like instant messaging software and blog platform can form a social network via constantly use. This paper proposes an advertising framework on social network. The main idea of this framework is to advertise on the nickname or status space on the social applications.

  10. Towards a concept for inclusion of social network information as context information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarina Stanoevska-Slabeva; Thomas Wozniak; Isabella Hoffend; Jana Ebermann

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a concept for usage of social network information as context information is proposed. Social network information (or information from social network sites) is considered as a specific type of a user's social context. We start with the potentially most widely accepted definition of context and then examine selected categorizations of context types, particularly focusing on social context.

  11. Relation between structure and size in social networks.

    PubMed

    López, Luis; Sanjuán, Miguel A F

    2002-03-01

    In the context of complex network systems, we model social networks with the property that there is certain degradation of the information flowing through the network. We analyze different kinds of networks, from regular lattices to random graphs. We define an average coordination degree for the network, which can be associated with a certain notion of efficiency. Assuming that there is a limit to the information a person may handle, we show that there exists a close relationship between the structure of the network and its maximum size. PMID:11909165

  12. LifeSocial.KOM: A secure and P2P-based solution for online social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalman Graffi; Christian Gross; Dominik Stingl; Daniel Hartung; Aleksandra Kovacevic; Ralf Steinmetz

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of online social networks reaches millions of users in the Internet nowadays. In these, users present themselves, their interests and their social links which they use to interact with other users. We present in this paper LifeSocial.KOM, a p2p-based platform for secure online social networks which provides the functionality of common online social networks in a totally distributed

  13. Accessing Social Networks With High Rates of Undiagnosed HIV Infection: The Social Networks Demonstration Project

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Holly E.; Jones, Kenneth T.; Johnson, Wayne; Thadiparthi, Sekhar; Dooley, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the use of social networks to reach persons with undiagnosed HIV infection in ethnic minority communities and link them to medical care and HIV prevention services. Methods. Nine community-based organizations in 7 cities received funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to enlist HIV-positive persons to refer others from their social, sexual, or drug-using networks for HIV testing; to provide HIV counseling, testing, and referral services; and to link HIV-positive and high-risk HIV-negative persons to appropriate medical care and prevention services. Results. From October 1, 2003, to December 31, 2005, 422 recruiters referred 3172 of their peers for HIV services, of whom 177 were determined to be HIV positive; 63% of those who were HIV-positive were successfully linked to medical care and prevention services. The HIV prevalence of 5.6% among those recruited in this project was significantly higher than the approximately 1% identified in other counseling, testing, and referral sites funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Conclusions. This peer-driven approach is highly effective and can help programs identify persons with undiagnosed HIV infection in high-risk networks. PMID:19372521

  14. 88 APPENDIX D Mapping the Social Network and Expertise of "Network Science" Researchers

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    88 APPENDIX D BOX D-2 Mapping the Social Network and Expertise of "Network Science" Researchers coverage of network science researchers prepared at the committee's request by K. Börner and W. Ke,241 unique names of network science researchers were identified. E-mail addresses were used to ensure

  15. Classification of Message Spreading in a Heterogeneous Social Network

    E-print Network

    Jendoubi, Siwar; Liétard, Ludovic; Yaghlane, Boutheina Ben

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, social networks such as Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn become increasingly popular. In fact, they introduced new habits, new ways of communication and they collect every day several information that have different sources. Most existing research works fo-cus on the analysis of homogeneous social networks, i.e. we have a single type of node and link in the network. However, in the real world, social networks offer several types of nodes and links. Hence, with a view to preserve as much information as possible, it is important to consider so-cial networks as heterogeneous and uncertain. The goal of our paper is to classify the social message based on its spreading in the network and the theory of belief functions. The proposed classifier interprets the spread of messages on the network, crossed paths and types of links. We tested our classifier on a real word network that we collected from Twitter, and our experiments show the performance of our belief classifier.

  16. Resolving Structural Variability in Network Models and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Klimm, Florian; Bassett, Danielle S.; Carlson, Jean M.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale white matter pathways crisscrossing the cortex create a complex pattern of connectivity that underlies human cognitive function. Generative mechanisms for this architecture have been difficult to identify in part because little is known in general about mechanistic drivers of structured networks. Here we contrast network properties derived from diffusion spectrum imaging data of the human brain with 13 synthetic network models chosen to probe the roles of physical network embedding and temporal network growth. We characterize both the empirical and synthetic networks using familiar graph metrics, but presented here in a more complete statistical form, as scatter plots and distributions, to reveal the full range of variability of each measure across scales in the network. We focus specifically on the degree distribution, degree assortativity, hierarchy, topological Rentian scaling, and topological fractal scaling—in addition to several summary statistics, including the mean clustering coefficient, the shortest path-length, and the network diameter. The models are investigated in a progressive, branching sequence, aimed at capturing different elements thought to be important in the brain, and range from simple random and regular networks, to models that incorporate specific growth rules and constraints. We find that synthetic models that constrain the network nodes to be physically embedded in anatomical brain regions tend to produce distributions that are most similar to the corresponding measurements for the brain. We also find that network models hardcoded to display one network property (e.g., assortativity) do not in general simultaneously display a second (e.g., hierarchy). This relative independence of network properties suggests that multiple neurobiological mechanisms might be at play in the development of human brain network architecture. Together, the network models that we develop and employ provide a potentially useful starting point for the statistical inference of brain network structure from neuroimaging data. PMID:24675546

  17. The role of social psychological and social structural variables in environmental activism: an example of the forest sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonita L McFarlane; Peter C Boxall

    2003-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with natural resource management and policy is often manifested by engagement in activist behaviors aimed at influencing management and policy decisions. A study was undertaken to examine the relationship between value orientation, attitudes, knowledge, social structural and socialization variables, and environmental activism within the context of a cognitive hierarchy model. Data were collected from the general population of Alberta,

  18. Bidirectional selection between two classes in complex social networks

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Nian-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional selection between two classes widely emerges in various social lives, such as commercial trading and mate choosing. Until now, the discussions on bidirectional selection in structured human society are quite limited. We demonstrated theoretically that the rate of successfully matching is affected greatly by individuals neighborhoods in social networks, regardless of the type of networks. Furthermore, it is found that the high average degree of networks contributes to increasing rates of successful matches. The matching performance in different types of networks has been quantitatively investigated, revealing that the small-world networks reinforces the matching rate more than scale-free networks at given average degree. In addition, our analysis is consistent with the modeling result, which provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of matching in complex networks.

  19. Bidirectional selection between two classes in complex social networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; He, Zhe; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Nian-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The bidirectional selection between two classes widely emerges in various social lives, such as commercial trading and mate choosing. Until now, the discussions on bidirectional selection in structured human society are quite limited. We demonstrated theoretically that the rate of successfully matching is affected greatly by individuals' neighborhoods in social networks, regardless of the type of networks. Furthermore, it is found that the high average degree of networks contributes to increasing rates of successful matches. The matching performance in different types of networks has been quantitatively investigated, revealing that the small-world networks reinforces the matching rate more than scale-free networks at given average degree. In addition, our analysis is consistent with the modeling result, which provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of matching in complex networks. PMID:25524835

  20. Cheaters in the Steam Community Gaming Social Network

    E-print Network

    Blackburn, Jeremy; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Zuo, Xiang; Long, Clayton; Ripeanu, Matei; Skvoretz, John; Iamnitchi, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Online gaming is a multi-billion dollar industry that entertains a large, global population. One unfortunate phenomenon, however, poisons the competition and the fun: cheating. The costs of cheating span from industry-supported expenditures to detect and limit cheating, to victims' monetary losses due to cyber crime. This paper studies cheaters in the Steam Community, an online social network built on top of the world's dominant digital game delivery platform. We collected information about more than 12 million gamers connected in a global social network, of which more than 700 thousand have their profiles flagged as cheaters. We also collected in-game interaction data of over 10 thousand players from a popular multiplayer gaming server. We show that cheaters are well embedded in the social and interaction networks: their network position is largely undistinguishable from that of fair players. We observe that the cheating behavior appears to spread through a social mechanism: the presence and the number of ch...

  1. Online Social Networking Issues Within Academia and Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online social networking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online social networking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an “e-professionalism” concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online social networking. PMID:18322572

  2. Efficient Social-aware Content Placement in Opportunistic Networks

    E-print Network

    Stavrakakis, Ioannis

    Efficient Social-aware Content Placement in Opportunistic Networks Panagiotis Pantazopoulos Ioannis Stavrakakis Department of Informatics and Telecommunications National & Kapodistrian University of Athens for Informatics and Telematics - CNR via G. Moruzzi, 1 56124 Pisa, Italy Email: {a.passarella, marco

  3. Bridge building : afterschool activities, youth social networks, and community development

    E-print Network

    Forman, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. cities have dramatically increased funding for afterschool activities. These afterschool programs may contribute to community development by expanding social networks, providing new channels for the ...

  4. Survey on Social Networking Site for Engineering Management Program

    E-print Network

    Mokkarala, Rajyalakshmi Sirisha

    2012-07-27

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter have gained much popularity as Web 2.0 technologies and have been widely adopted by different age groups from teenagers to students to working professionals. ...

  5. Use of social network sites for question and answer behavior

    E-print Network

    Panovich, Katrina (Katrina Marie)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we look at the behavior of posting questions as status updates on popular social network sites like Twitter and Facebook. This question asking behavior is similar to the use of search engines, question and ...

  6. Identifying Leaders and Followers in Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Radha, Hayder

    on the general definition of the four roles. Index Terms--Online social networks, leaders, followers I]. For community health campaigns, such as HIV prevention programs [2] and school- level anti-smoking campaigns [22

  7. Building a Social Network One Choice at a Time

    PubMed Central

    Suchow, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    Newcomers to a social network show preferential attachment, a tendency to befriend those with many friends. Here, we show that preferential attachment is equivalent to a form of ‘probability matching’ commonly found in studies of decision-making. This equivalence, whereby newcomers probability match to a social signal akin to popularity, marries network science to the study of decision-making and raises new questions about how individual psychology impacts the social structure of groups. We asked people to view a visualization of a social network and to select group members whom they would like to meet and befriend. People varied in how strongly they weighed popularity and this was mildly correlated with aspects of their personality. Individual differences in preferential attachment affect the structure and connectivity of the network that emerges. PMID:26186607

  8. Modeling the Dynamics of Composite Social Networks Erheng Zhong

    E-print Network

    Yang, Qiang

    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Huawei Noah's Ark Lab, Hong Kong {ezhong,yinz,qyang}@cse.ust.hk, david.fanwei@huawei.com ABSTRACT Modeling the dynamics of online social networks over time not only

  9. Social Network Document Ranking , Xiaolong (Luke) Zhang1

    E-print Network

    Giles, C. Lee

    leopard", search engines often cannot tell whether required information is about an endangered species, family, and colleagues and share documents, images, and videos. We argue that their social networks may

  10. Mining Heterogeneous Social Networks for Egocentric Information Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Te; Lin, Shou-De

    Social network is a powerful data structure that allows the depiction of relationship information between entities. However, real-world social networks are sometimes too complex for human to pursue further analysis. In this work, an unsupervised mechanism is proposed for egocentric information abstraction in heterogeneous social networks. To achieve this goal, we propose a vector space representation for heterogeneous social networks to identify combination of relations as features and compute statistical dependencies as feature values. These features, either linear or eyelie, intend to capture the semantic information in the surrounding environment of the ego. Then we design three abstraction measures to distill representative and important information to construct the abstracted graphs for visual presentation. The evaluations conducted on a real world movie datasct and an artificial crime dataset demonstrate that the abstractions can indeed retain significant information and facilitate more accurate and efficient human analysis.

  11. Online Social Network Measurements and Search Privacy B.S. (Tsinghua University) 2002

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Online Social Network Measurements and Search Privacy Protection By Shaozhi Ye B.S. (Tsinghua 2 Related Work 7 2.1 Crawling and sampling social networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 and social influence . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3.1 Content generation

  12. Social Networking to Support Collaboration in Computational Grids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Ardaiz; Isaac Chao; Ramón Sangüesa

    2007-01-01

    Grids are complex systems that aggregate large amounts of distributed computational resources to perform large scale simulations\\u000a and analysis by multiple research groups. In this paper we unveil its social networks: actors that participate in a Grid and\\u000a relationships among those Grid actors. Social networking information can be used as a means to increase awareness and to facilitate\\u000a collaboration among

  13. Valuation of online social networks taking into account users’ interconnectedness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Gneiser; Julia Heidemann; Mathias Klier; Andrea Landherr; Florian Probst

    Online social networks have been gaining increasing economic importance in light of the rising number of their users. Numerous\\u000a recent acquisitions priced at enormous amounts have illustrated this development and revealed the need for adequate business\\u000a valuation models. The value of an online social network is largely determined by the value of its users, the relationships\\u000a between these users, and

  14. Social Networks of Homeless Youth in Emerging Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Wenzel; Ian Holloway; Daniela Golinelli; Brett Ewing; Richard Bowman; Joan Tucker

    Little is known about the social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information\\u000a for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of social networks, and the risks and supports\\u000a present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African American, 17.7% Hispanic) between\\u000a the ages of

  15. PrivOSN: Practical Privacy in Online Social Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Longzhi Du; Rui Kong; Fengxian Ren; Jianbin Hu; Zhong Chen

    2011-01-01

    Today's online social networks (OSNs) do little to protect users' private information especially relationships between them. This paper presents PrivOSN, an online social network system designed to be more private than existing systems while keeping neutral performance, preserving existing services, and defending against kinds of attacks already known. In PrivOSN, users' relationships are kept locally and can't be seen by

  16. A Practical Attack to De-anonymize Social Network Users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert Wondracek; Thorsten Holz; Engin Kirda; Christopher Kruegel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—Social networking sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Xing have been reporting exponential growth rates. These sites have millions of registered users, and they are interesting from,a security and,privacy point of view because they store large amounts,of sensitive personal,user data. In this paper, we introduce a novel de-anonymization attack that exploits group,membership,information,that is available on social networking sites. More precisely,

  17. A Practical Attack to De-Anonymize Social Network Users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Engin Kirda; Christopher Kruegel

    Social networking sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Xing have been reporting exponential growth rates and have millions of registered users. In this paper, we introduce a novel de-anonymization attack that exploits group membership information that is available on social networking sites. More precisely, we show that information about the group memberships of a user (i.e., the groups of a

  18. Collaborative Filtering for People to People Recommendation in Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiongcai Cai; Michael Bain; Alfred Krzywicki; Wayne Wobcke; Yang Sok Kim; Paul Compton; Ashesh Mahidadia

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Predicting people other people may like has recently become an important task in many online social networks. Traditional\\u000a collaborative filtering approaches are popular in recommender systems to effectively predict user preferences for items. However,\\u000a in online social networks people have a dual role as both “users” and “items”, e.g., both initiating and receiving contacts.\\u000a Here the assumption of active users

  19. Topology Analysis of Social Networks Extracted from Literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a world where complex networks are an increasingly important part of science, it is interesting to question how the new reading of social realities they provide applies to our cultural background and in particular, popular culture. Are authors of successful novels able to reproduce social networks faithful to the ones found in reality? Is there any common trend connecting an author’s oeuvre, or a genre of fiction? Such an analysis could provide new insight on how we, as a culture, perceive human interactions and consume media. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to define the signature of a novel’s story based on the topological analysis of its social network of characters. For this purpose, an automated tool was built that analyses the dialogs in novels, identifies characters and computes their relationships in a time-dependent manner in order to assess the network’s evolution over the course of the story. PMID:26039072

  20. Critical Cliques and Their Application to Influence Maximization in Online Social Networks 

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Nikhil

    2012-07-16

    maximization problem in online social networks. Influence maximization in online social networks is the problem of identifying a small, initial set of influential individuals which can influence the maximum number of individuals in the network...

  1. Critical Cliques and Their Application to Influence Maximization in Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Nikhil

    2012-07-16

    maximization problem in online social networks. Influence maximization in online social networks is the problem of identifying a small, initial set of influential individuals which can influence the maximum number of individuals in the network...

  2. Circle-based Recommendation in Online Social Networks Xiwang Yang

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yong

    serve users' activities across different domains, many online social networks now support a new feature-XXXXX-XX-X/XX/XX ...$10.00. activities across different domains, many online social net- works now support a new feature trust user v in Cars category while not trust v in Kids' TV Show category. Therefore, u should care less

  3. Evolution of a Vertebrate Social Decision-Making Network

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    Evolution of a Vertebrate Social Decision-Making Network Lauren A. O'Connell1 and Hans A. Hofmann1 genes across 12 brain regions important for decision-making in 88 species representing five vertebrate vertebrates. Our analysis suggests that the diversity of social behavior in vertebrates can be explained

  4. Community Discovery in Dynamic, Rich-Context Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ru

    2010-01-01

    My research interest has been in understanding the human communities formed through interpersonal social activities. Participation in online communities on social network sites such as Twitter has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways including financial decision-making and political choices, suggesting the rich potential…

  5. Academic English Socialization through Individual Networks of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappa-Hollman, Sandra; Duff, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of individual network of practice (INoP) as a viable construct for analyzing academic (discourse) socialization in second language (L2) contexts. The authors provide an overview of social practice theories that have informed the development of INoP--community of practice (CoP; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger,…

  6. Women and abortion: attitudes, social networks, decision-making.

    PubMed

    Faria, G; Barrett, E; Goodman, L M

    1985-01-01

    The results of a study of 517 women seeking abortion are presented regarding attitudes about abortion in general, feelings about the specific decision to have an abortion and the social networks utilized in the decision-making process. Areas of potential conflict related to decision-making are identified along with the implications for social work practice. PMID:4081975

  7. HIV Infection in an Urban Social Network: a Progress Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Klovdahl; J. Potterat; D. Woodhouse; J. Muth; S. Muth; W. W. Darrow

    1992-01-01

    The completion of the second year of the Colorado Springs Study provided new insights into the location of HIV infection in a large urban social network. About 250 persons were interviewed by the end of the second year and provided information on over 3500 reported social relationships. Roughly 2000 persons were found to be part of a core connected region

  8. Tracking cohesive subgroups over time in inferred social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin Chin; Mark H. Chignell; Hao Wang

    2010-01-01

    As a first step in the development of community trackers for large-scale online interaction, this paper shows how cohesive subgroup analysis using the Social Cohesion Analysis of Networks (SCAN; Chin and Chignell 2008) and Data-Intensive Socially Similar Evolving Community Tracker (DISSECT; Chin and Chignell 2010) methods can be applied to the problem of identifying cohesive subgroups and tracking them over

  9. First Comes Social Networking, Then Comes Marriage? Characteristics of Americans Married 2005–2012 Who Met Through Social Networking Sites

    E-print Network

    Hall, Jeffrey A.

    2014-05-10

    Although social networking sites (SNS) have become increasingly prevalent and integrated into the lives of users, the role of SNS in courtship is relatively unknown. The present manuscript reports on the characteristics ...

  10. Cycle time variability for a network under two queueing disciplines

    E-print Network

    Vasquez Pariente, Marta Irene

    1996-01-01

    CYCLE TIME V~ILITY FOR A NETWORK. UNDER TWO QUEUEING DISCIPLINES A Thesis by MARTA IRENE VASQUEZ PARIENTE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A@M University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1996 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering CYCLE TIME VARIABILITY FOR A NETWORK UNDER TWO QUEUEING DISCIPLINES A Thesis by MARTA IRENE VASQUEZ PARIENTE Submitted to Texas AdtM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  11. The Effect of Social Network Diagrams on a Virtual Network of Practice: A Korean Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the presentation of social network diagrams on virtual team members' interaction behavior via e-mail. E-mail transaction data from 22 software developers in a Korean IT company was analyzed and depicted as diagrams by social network analysis (SNA), and presented to the members as an intervention. Results…

  12. The Networked Teacher: How New Teachers Build Social Networks for Professional Support. Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2011-01-01

    New teachers need support from their peers and mentors to locate resources, information, new ideas, emotional support, and inspiration. This timely book explains the research and theory behind social networks (face-to-face and online), describes what effective social networking for educators looks like, reveals common obstacles that new teachers…

  13. Controlling nosocomial infection based on structure of hospital social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taro Ueno; Naoki Masuda

    2008-01-01

    Nosocomial infection raises a serious public health problem, as implied by the existence of pathogens characteristic to healthcare and hospital-mediated outbreaks of influenza and SARS. We simulate stochastic SIR dynamics on social networks, which are based on observations in a hospital in Tokyo, to explore effective containment strategies against nosocomial infection. The observed networks have hierarchical and modular structure. We

  14. Social network approaches to leadership: an integrative conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Carter, Dorothy R; DeChurch, Leslie A; Braun, Michael T; Contractor, Noshir S

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary definitions of leadership advance a view of the phenomenon as relational, situated in specific social contexts, involving patterned emergent processes, and encompassing both formal and informal influence. Paralleling these views is a growing interest in leveraging social network approaches to study leadership. Social network approaches provide a set of theories and methods with which to articulate and investigate, with greater precision and rigor, the wide variety of relational perspectives implied by contemporary leadership theories. Our goal is to advance this domain through an integrative conceptual review. We begin by answering the question of why-Why adopt a network approach to study leadership? Then, we offer a framework for organizing prior research. Our review reveals 3 areas of research, which we term: (a) leadership in networks, (b) leadership as networks, and (c) leadership in and as networks. By clarifying the conceptual underpinnings, key findings, and themes within each area, this review serves as a foundation for future inquiry that capitalizes on, and programmatically builds upon, the insights of prior work. Our final contribution is to advance an agenda for future research that harnesses the confluent ideas at the intersection of leadership in and as networks. Leadership in and as networks represents a paradigm shift in leadership research-from an emphasis on the static traits and behaviors of formal leaders whose actions are contingent upon situational constraints, toward an emphasis on the complex and patterned relational processes that interact with the embedding social context to jointly constitute leadership emergence and effectiveness. PMID:25798551

  15. Modular and hierarchical structure of social contact networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yuanzheng; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang; Song, Hongbin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Social contact networks exhibit overlapping qualities of communities, hierarchical structure and spatial-correlated nature. We propose a mixing pattern of modular and growing hierarchical structures to reconstruct social contact networks by using an individual’s geospatial distribution information in the real world. The hierarchical structure of social contact networks is defined based on the spatial distance between individuals, and edges among individuals are added in turn from the modular layer to the highest layer. It is a gradual process to construct the hierarchical structure: from the basic modular model up to the global network. The proposed model not only shows hierarchically increasing degree distribution and large clustering coefficients in communities, but also exhibits spatial clustering features of individual distributions. As an evaluation of the method, we reconstruct a hierarchical contact network based on the investigation data of a university. Transmission experiments of influenza H1N1 are carried out on the generated social contact networks, and results show that the constructed network is efficient to reproduce the dynamic process of an outbreak and evaluate interventions. The reproduced spread process exhibits that the spatial clustering of infection is accordant with the clustering of network topology. Moreover, the effect of individual topological character on the spread of influenza is analyzed, and the experiment results indicate that the spread is limited by individual daily contact patterns and local clustering topology rather than individual degree.

  16. Social Network Sites: A Starting Point for Career Development Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strehlke, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This action research study explores the career influence of social network sites (SNSs) by examining 14 web-based articles that consider the risks and opportunities of SNSs from a job search perspective. Three themes are discussed: user visibility, self-presentation, and network connections. Practical strategies are identified to help career…

  17. Mother's Social Network and Family Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of a social network analysis (SNA) performed on the mother's primary network of interaction in 15 Mexican American families in the city of El Paso, Texas, the neighbourhood of La Villita, in Chicago, and the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The goal of this study was to examine potential opportunities for Spanish…

  18. Social networks and mathematical models: A research commentary on \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Odlyzko

    2010-01-01

    This brief research commentary on Westland's (2010) article in this issue of Electronic Commerce Research and Applications is intended to add two cautionary notes. He attempts to answer two questions: What is critical mass? And how one can manage a network's growth to reach that mass? He proposes a model for social networks, and shows how the model might possibly

  19. The YouTube Social Network Mirjam Wattenhofer

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    The YouTube Social Network Mirjam Wattenhofer Google Zurich mirjam@google.com Roger Wattenhofer ETH Zurich wattenhofer@ethz.ch Zack Zhu ETH Zurich zazhu@ethz.ch Abstract Today, YouTube is the largest user that differentiates it from tradi- tional content broadcasters. This work examines the so- cial network aspect of YouTube

  20. Selfishness, Altruism and Message Spreading in Mobile Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Hui, Pan "Ben"

    Selfishness, Altruism and Message Spreading in Mobile Social Networks Pan Hui, Kuang Xu, Victor O of such a system. In this paper, we study the impact of different distributions of altruism on the throughput networks are very robust to the distributions of altruism due to the nature of multiple paths. We further

  1. Trend Mining in Social Networks: From Trend Identification to Visualisation

    E-print Network

    Coenen, Frans

    stamped data collections (Kohavi et al., 2002; Lent et al., 1997). The work described in this paper is the visualisation of trend migrations (changes) that feature within time stamped network data. The framework of the work described is this paper, is therefore the identification of trends in dynamic social networks. We

  2. Social Balance on Networks: The Dynamics of Friendship and Hatred

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney Redner; P. L. Krapivsky

    2006-01-01

    We study the evolution of social networks that contain both friendly and unfriendly pairwise links between individual nodes. The network is endowed with dynamics in which the sense of a link in an imbalanced triad---a triangular loop with 1 or 3 unfriendly links---is reversed to make the triad balanced. Thus an imbalanced triad is analogous to a frustrated plaquette in

  3. Detecting opinion leaders and trends in online social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freimut Bodendorf; Carolin Kaiser

    2009-01-01

    Today, online social networks in the World Wide Web become increasingly interactive and networked. Web 2.0 technologies provide a multitude of platforms, such as blogs, wikis, and forums where for example consumers can disseminate data about products and manufacturers. This data provides an abundance of information on personal experiences and opinions which are extremely relevant for companies and sales organizations.

  4. The Knowledge Base Evolution in Biotechnology: A Social Network Analysis.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Knowledge Base Evolution in Biotechnology: A Social Network Analysis. Jackie Krafft*, Francesco network analysis (SNA) within an evolutionary framework, to investigate the knowledge base dynamics of the biotechnology sector. Knowledge is here considered a collective good represented as a co

  5. Individual learning dynamics and emergence of cooperation in social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos P. Roc; Angel Sanchez; Jose A. Cuesta

    2009-01-01

    One of the most frequently invoked mechanisms to explain how cooperative behavior can emerge and survive in society is network reciprocity (Nowak, M. A. (2006) Science 314, 1560-1563). This concept refers to the fact that, when interactions among individuals are governed by a (possibly social) network, cooperators can prevail over defectors by forming clusters, where they help each other. In

  6. Community extraction for social networks Yunpeng Zhao, Elizaveta Levina1

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Ji

    , and food webs, among others. A fundamen- tal problem in the study of networks is community detection (see friendship and social networks, marketing and recommender systems, the World Wide Web, disease models is the set of nodes and E is the set of edges, possibly weighted. The community detection problem

  7. An analysis of social network-based Sybil defenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bimal Viswanath; Ansley Post; Krishna P. Gummadi; Alan Mislove

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been much excitement in the research community over using social networks to mitigate multiple identity, or Sybil, attacks. A number of schemes have been proposed, but they differ greatly in the algorithms they use and in the networks upon which they are evaluated. As a result, the research community lacks a clear understanding of how these schemes

  8. Vulnerabilities and Attacks Targeting Social Networks and Industrial Control Systems

    E-print Network

    Singh, Dharmendra; Songara, Pawan; Rathi, Dr Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability is a weakness, shortcoming or flaw in the system or network infrastructure which can be used by an attacker to harm the system, disrupt its normal operation and use it for his financial, competitive or other motives or just for cyber escapades. In this paper, we re-examined the various types of attacks on industrial control systems as well as on social networking users. We have listed which all vulnerabilities were exploited for executing these attacks and their effects on these systems and social networks. The focus will be mainly on the vulnerabilities that are used in OSNs as the convertors which convert the social network into antisocial network and these networks can be further used for the network attacks on the users associated with the victim user whereby creating a consecutive chain of attacks on increasing number of social networking users. Another type of attack, Stuxnet Attack which was originally designed to attack Iran's nuclear facilities is also discussed here which harms the sys...

  9. Automated sensing and social network analysis in virtual worlds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucas A. Overbey; Gregory McKoy; Jesse Gordon; Shannon McKitrick

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, social network analysis (SNA) tools have gained considerable interest in intelligence and security communities, as terrorist networks have become more global, decentralized, and flexible. Additionally, recent concerns have been voiced that virtual worlds provide likely breeding grounds for terrorism recruitment, communication, and coordination activities. This paper outlines research involving a survey of the approaches criminal or

  10. News Posting by Strategic Users in a Social Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mangesh Gupte; Mohammadtaghi Hajiaghayi; Lu Han; Liviu Iftode; Pravin Shankar; Raluca M. Ursu

    2009-01-01

    We argue that users in social networks are strategic in how they post and propagate information. We propose two models | greedy and courteous | and study information propagation both analytically and through simulations. For a suitable random graph model of a so- cial network, we prove that news propagation follows a threshold phe- nomenon, hence, \\\\high-quality\\

  11. Affinity Propagation on Identifying Communities in Social and Biological Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Caiyan; Jiang, Yawen; Yu, Jian

    Community structure is one of the most important features of complex networks, it uncovers the internal organization of the nodes. Affinity propagation (AP) is a recent proposed powerful cluster algorithm as it costs much less time and reaches much lower error. But it was shown that AP displayed severe convergence problems for identifying communities on the majority of unweighted protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. On the contrary, AP was shown to achieve great success for identifying communities in benchmark artificial and social networks. So, in this study, we use AP to identify communities on artificial, social and unweighted PPI networks for finding the problem of the conflict. And we compare AP with Markov cluster (MCL), which was shown to outperform a number of clustering algorithms for PPI networks. The experimental results have shown that AP performs well without oscillations when similarity matrixes are chosen properly, and MCL is more accurate than AP but it runs slower than AP in large scale networks.

  12. Visual analytics for multimodal social network analysis: a design study with social scientists.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Sohaib; Kwon, Bum Chul; Lee, Seungyoon; Yi, Ji Soo; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2013-12-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is becoming increasingly concerned not only with actors and their relations, but also with distinguishing between different types of such entities. For example, social scientists may want to investigate asymmetric relations in organizations with strict chains of command, or incorporate non-actors such as conferences and projects when analyzing coauthorship patterns. Multimodal social networks are those where actors and relations belong to different types, or modes, and multimodal social network analysis (mSNA) is accordingly SNA for such networks. In this paper, we present a design study that we conducted with several social scientist collaborators on how to support mSNA using visual analytics tools. Based on an openended, formative design process, we devised a visual representation called parallel node-link bands (PNLBs) that splits modes into separate bands and renders connections between adjacent ones, similar to the list view in Jigsaw. We then used the tool in a qualitative evaluation involving five social scientists whose feedback informed a second design phase that incorporated additional network metrics. Finally, we conducted a second qualitative evaluation with our social scientist collaborators that provided further insights on the utility of the PNLBs representation and the potential of visual analytics for mSNA. PMID:24051769

  13. Viral information propagation in the Digg online social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Mark; McVittie, James; Sivak, Iryna; Wu, Jianhong

    2014-12-01

    We propose the use of a variant of the epidemiological SIR model to accurately describe the diffusion of online content over the online social network Digg.com. We examine the qualitative properties of our viral information propagation model, demonstrate the model’s applications to social media spread in online social networks with particular focus on accurately predicting user voting behavior over a period of 50 h. The model allows us to characterize the peak time, turning point, viral period and final size (total number of votes), and gives much improved prediction of user voting behaviors than other established models.

  14. Social cognition, brain networks and schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-H. LEE; T. F. D. FARROW; S. A. SPENCE; P. W. R. WOODRUFF

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background. A better understanding,of the neural basis of social cognition including mindreading (or theory of mind) and empathy,might help to explain some,deficits in social functioning in people with schizophrenia. Our aim was to review neuroimaging,and neuropsychological studies on social cognition, as they may shed light on the neural mechanisms of social cognition and its dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Sex and social networking: the influence of male presence on social structure of female shark groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. P. Jacoby; Dheeraj S. Busawon; David W. Sims

    2010-01-01

    Marine predators such as sharks often form single-sex aggregations as part of their diel behavioral cycle. Such aggregations are potentially driven by contrasting reproductive and behavioral strategies between the sexes, leading to distinct sexual segregation. There is, however, no experimental evidence that such predator aggregations are governed by intrinsic social systems, demonstrating long-term temporal stability. Social network structure, temporal stability,

  16. Students' Participation in Social Networking Sites: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Dhrubodhi; Clark, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Social work students have few guidelines to help them evaluate the implication of their posted information on Internet-based social networking sites (SNSs). There is a national trend among employers of human services to cross-check publicly available online information on applicants. Based on data from a survey of 105 baccalaureate and master's…

  17. Characterizing Social Interaction in Tobacco-Oriented Social Networks: An Empirical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-01

    Social media is becoming a new battlefield for tobacco "wars". Evaluating the current situation is very crucial for the advocacy of tobacco control in the age of social media. To reveal the impact of tobacco-related user-generated content, this paper characterizes user interaction and social influence utilizing social network analysis and information theoretic approaches. Our empirical studies demonstrate that the exploding pro-tobacco content has long-lasting effects with more active users and broader influence, and reveal the shortage of social media resources in global tobacco control. It is found that the user interaction in the pro-tobacco group is more active, and user-generated content for tobacco promotion is more successful in obtaining user attention. Furthermore, we construct three tobacco-related social networks and investigate the topological patterns of these tobacco-related social networks. We find that the size of the pro-tobacco network overwhelms the others, which suggests a huge number of users are exposed to the pro-tobacco content. These results indicate that the gap between tobacco promotion and tobacco control is widening and tobacco control may be losing ground to tobacco promotion in social media. PMID:26091553

  18. Characterizing Social Interaction in Tobacco-Oriented Social Networks: An Empirical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-01

    Social media is becoming a new battlefield for tobacco “wars”. Evaluating the current situation is very crucial for the advocacy of tobacco control in the age of social media. To reveal the impact of tobacco-related user-generated content, this paper characterizes user interaction and social influence utilizing social network analysis and information theoretic approaches. Our empirical studies demonstrate that the exploding pro-tobacco content has long-lasting effects with more active users and broader influence, and reveal the shortage of social media resources in global tobacco control. It is found that the user interaction in the pro-tobacco group is more active, and user-generated content for tobacco promotion is more successful in obtaining user attention. Furthermore, we construct three tobacco-related social networks and investigate the topological patterns of these tobacco-related social networks. We find that the size of the pro-tobacco network overwhelms the others, which suggests a huge number of users are exposed to the pro-tobacco content. These results indicate that the gap between tobacco promotion and tobacco control is widening and tobacco control may be losing ground to tobacco promotion in social media. PMID:26091553

  19. Analyzing the social capital value chain in community network interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christa M. Chewar; D. Scott Mccrickard; John M. Carroll

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - This work aims to probe how interface designers concerned with human-computer interaction of community networks might use the theoretical constructs of social capital and activity awareness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - A design model for community network interfaces is introduced that reconciles various computer-mediated communication research contributions with support for typical community network scenarios of use. Using this model, an inspection

  20. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks. PMID:23973180

  1. System of Mobile Agents to Model Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Marta C.; Lind, Pedro G.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2006-03-01

    We propose a model of mobile agents to construct social networks, based on a system of moving particles by keeping track of the collisions during their permanence in the system. We reproduce not only the degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and shortest path length of a large database of empirical friendship networks recently collected, but also some features related with their community structure. The model is completely characterized by the collision rate, and above a critical collision rate we find the emergence of a giant cluster in the universality class of two-dimensional percolation. Moreover, we propose possible schemes to reproduce other networks of particular social contacts, namely, sexual contacts.

  2. A New Graph Drawing Scheme for Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Eric Ke; Zou, Futai

    2014-01-01

    With the development of social networks, people have started to use social network tools to record their life and work more and more frequently. How to analyze social networks to explore potential characteristics and trend of social events has been a hot research topic. In order to analyze it effectively, a kind of techniques called information visualization is employed to extract the potential information from the large scale of social network data and present the information briefly as visualized graphs. In the process of information visualization, graph drawing is a crucial part. In this paper, we study the graph layout algorithms and propose a new graph drawing scheme combining multilevel and single-level drawing approaches, including the graph division method based on communities and refining approach based on partitioning strategy. Besides, we compare the effectiveness of our scheme and FM3 in experiments. The experiment results show that our scheme can achieve a clearer diagram and effectively extract the community structure of the social network to be applied to drawing schemes. PMID:25157378

  3. Social network diagnostics: a tool for monitoring group interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many behavioral interventions designed to improve health outcomes are delivered in group settings. To date, however, group interventions have not been evaluated to determine if the groups generate interaction among members and how changes in group interaction may affect program outcomes at the individual or group level. Methods This article presents a model and practical tool for monitoring how social ties and social structure are changing within the group during program implementation. The approach is based on social network analysis and has two phases: collecting network measurements at strategic intervention points to determine if group dynamics are evolving in ways anticipated by the intervention, and providing the results back to the group leader to guide implementation next steps. This process aims to initially increase network connectivity and ultimately accelerate the diffusion of desirable behaviors through the new network. This article presents the Social Network Diagnostic Tool and, as proof of concept, pilot data collected during the formative phase of a childhood obesity intervention. Results The number of reported advice partners and discussion partners increased during program implementation. Density, the number of ties among people in the network expressed as a percentage of all possible ties, increased from 0.082 to 0.182 (p?network, and from 0.027 to 0.055 (p?>?0.05) in the discussion network. Conclusions The observed two-fold increase in network density represents a significant shift in advice partners over the intervention period. Using the Social Network Tool to empirically guide program activities of an obesity intervention was feasible. PMID:24083343

  4. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  5. Functional Cortical Network in Alpha Band Correlates with Social Bargaining

    PubMed Central

    Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; Chavez, Mario; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Solving demanding tasks requires fast and flexible coordination among different brain areas. Everyday examples of this are the social dilemmas in which goals tend to clash, requiring one to weigh alternative courses of action in limited time. In spite of this fact, there are few studies that directly address the dynamics of flexible brain network integration during social interaction. To study the preceding, we carried out EEG recordings while subjects played a repeated version of the Ultimatum Game in both human (social) and computer (non-social) conditions. We found phase synchrony (inter-site-phase-clustering) modulation in alpha band that was specific to the human condition and independent of power modulation. The strength and patterns of the inter-site-phase-clustering of the cortical networks were also modulated, and these modulations were mainly in frontal and parietal regions. Moreover, changes in the individuals’ alpha network structure correlated with the risk of the offers made only in social conditions. This correlation was independent of changes in power and inter-site-phase-clustering strength. Our results indicate that, when subjects believe they are participating in a social interaction, a specific modulation of functional cortical networks in alpha band takes place, suggesting that phase synchrony of alpha oscillations could serve as a mechanism by which different brain areas flexibly interact in order to adapt ongoing behavior in socially demanding contexts. PMID:25286240

  6. Leveraging social software for social networking and community development at events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelly D. Farnham; Peter T. Brown; Jordan L. K. Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    Professional networking is a primary goal of people attending conferences and events. Over the past year we have developed an online social networking and community tool for events, Pathable, to help attendees meet the right people. Pathable provides an online directory of attendee profiles, communication tools, and a recommendation system optimized to help people find each other based on commonalities.

  7. Topology analysis of social networks extracted from literature.

    PubMed

    Waumans, Michaël C; Nicodème, Thibaut; Bersini, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    In a world where complex networks are an increasingly important part of science, it is interesting to question how the new reading of social realities they provide applies to our cultural background and in particular, popular culture. Are authors of successful novels able to reproduce social networks faithful to the ones found in reality? Is there any common trend connecting an author's oeuvre, or a genre of fiction? Such an analysis could provide new insight on how we, as a culture, perceive human interactions and consume media. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to define the signature of a novel's story based on the topological analysis of its social network of characters. For this purpose, an automated tool was built that analyses the dialogs in novels, identifies characters and computes their relationships in a time-dependent manner in order to assess the network's evolution over the course of the story. PMID:26039072

  8. Social Network Data Validity: The Example of the Social Network of Caregivers of Older Persons with Alzheimer-Type Dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Normand Carpentier; Francine Ducharme

    2007-01-01

    This article offers reflection on the validity of relational data such as used in social network analysis. Ongoing research on the transformation of the support network of caregivers of persons with an Alzheimer-type disease provides the data to fuel the debate on the validity of participant report. More specifically, we sought to understand the factors that might influence the description

  9. Constraints on variable bit-rate video for ATM networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy R. Reibman; Barry G. Haskell

    1992-01-01

    Constraints on the encoded bit rate of a video signal that are imposed by a channel and encoder and decoder buffers are considered. Conditions that ensure that the video encoder and decoder buffers do not overflow or underflow when the channel can transmit a variable bit rate are presented. Using these conditions and a commonly proposed network-user contract, the effect

  10. Bayesian Network Models for Local Dependence among Observable Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mulder, Joris; Hemat, Lisa A.; Yan, Duanli

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian network models offer a large degree of flexibility for modeling dependence among observables (item outcome variables) from the same task, which may be dependent. This article explores four design patterns for modeling locally dependent observations: (a) no context--ignores dependence among observables; (b) compensatory context--introduces…

  11. Social stress of variable intensity: physiological and behavioral consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Zelena; J Haller; J Halász; G. B Makara

    1999-01-01

    Stress effects in humans depend on stress type, intensity, and duration. Animal models of social stress serve as good ways to mimic stress experienced in humans. However, the available stress paradigms pay little attention to the relationship between the intensity and the type of social stressors. The aim of the present work is to study behavioral and endocrinological consequences of

  12. Loss of genetic variability in social spiders: genetic and phylogenetic consequences of population subdivision and inbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Agnarsson, I; Avilés, L; Maddison, W P

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of population subdivision and inbreeding have been studied in many organisms, particularly in plants. However, most studies focus on the short-term consequences, such as inbreeding depression. To investigate the consequences of both population fragmentation and inbreeding for genetic variability in the longer term, we here make use of a natural inbreeding experiment in spiders, where sociality and accompanying population subdivision and inbreeding have evolved repeatedly. We use mitochondrial and nuclear data to infer phylogenetic relationships among 170 individuals of Anelosimus spiders representing 23 species. We then compare relative mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability of the inbred social species and their outbred relatives. We focus on four independently derived social species and four subsocial species, including two outbred–inbred sister species pairs. We find that social species have 50% reduced mitochondrial sequence divergence. As inbreeding is not expected to reduce genetic variability in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome, this suggests the loss of variation due to strong population subdivision, founder effects, small effective population sizes (colonies as individuals) and lineage turnover. Social species have < 10% of the nuclear genetic variability of the outbred species, also suggesting the loss of genetic variability through founder effects and/or inbreeding. Inbred sociality hence may result in reduction in variability through various processes. Sociality in most Anelosimus species probably arose relatively recently (0.1–2 mya), with even the oldest social lineages having failed to diversify. This is consistent with the hypothesis that inbred spider sociality represents an evolutionary dead end. Heterosis underlies a species potential to respond to environmental change and/or disease. Inbreeding and loss of genetic variability may thus limit diversification in social Anelosimus lineages and similarly pose a threat to many wild populations subject to habitat fragmentation or reduced population sizes. PMID:23145542

  13. To Have But One True Friend: Implications for Practice of Research on Alcohol Use Disorders and Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara S. McCrady

    2004-01-01

    Although social networks play an integral role in the recognition and resolution of drinking problems, social network influences may be positive, negative, or mixed. The author reviewed empirical literature on positive and negative aspects of the structure of problem drinkers' social networks, the impact of the social network on problem recognition, social network predictors of treatment outcomes, treatments that involve

  14. Who will be your next friend: the bonding role of linkage influence in social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Zhang; Yunjie Xu; Xu Liu; Heng Xu

    2012-01-01

    To develop a general mathematical model for social networks is one of the fundamental tasks currently on demand within social network research. Ignoring the strength of the relationships, existing social network models simply use a Boolean value to describe the existence of relationships between peers. This shortage can be overcome by importing repeated social interactions into the model and building

  15. Social Network Influences on Strategic Choices Presented for the department of Engineering and Public Policy

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Social Network Influences on Strategic Choices Presented for the department of Engineering and trust formation and social influence - in social network theory, but it decouples these beliefsB.doc (attached) #12;- 3 - Social Network Influences on Strategic Choices 1. Introduction Conflict is

  16. The Social Network: Keeping in Touch with Alumni through Online Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Not all social-networking tools are created equal. Knowing where alumni are and what they're doing online is key when deciding what social networks to use. Knowing how to address and employ social networking can change the way institutions engage alumni. Social media help institutions connect with alumni; these tools help build, sustain, and even…

  17. Invited Review The amygdala as a hub in brain networks that support social life

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    Invited Review The amygdala as a hub in brain networks that support social life Kevin C. Bickart Available online 23 August 2014 Keywords: Amygdala Networks Social life Social brain Social network a b s t r a c t A growing body of evidence suggests that the amygdala is central to handling the demands

  18. Social networks with two sets of actors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn Iacobucci; Stanley Wasserman

    1990-01-01

    Traditional network research analyzes relational ties within a single group of actors: the models presented in this paper involve relational ties exist beteen two distinct sets of actors. Statistical models for traditional networks in which relations are measured within a group simplify when modeling unidirectional relations measured between groups. The traditional paradigm results in a one-mode socionatrix; the network paradigm

  19. Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks.

    PubMed

    Pasquaretta, Cristian; Levé, Marine; Claidière, Nicolas; van de Waal, Erica; Whiten, Andrew; MacIntosh, Andrew J J; Pelé, Marie; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L; Borgeaud, Christèle; Brosnan, Sarah F; Crofoot, Margaret C; Fedigan, Linda M; Fichtel, Claudia; Hopper, Lydia M; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Petit, Odile; Schnoell, Anna Viktoria; di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Thierry, Bernard; Tiddi, Barbara; Sueur, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Network optimality has been described in genes, proteins and human communicative networks. In the latter, optimality leads to the efficient transmission of information with a minimum number of connections. Whilst studies show that differences in centrality exist in animal networks with central individuals having higher fitness, network efficiency has never been studied in animal groups. Here we studied 78 groups of primates (24 species). We found that group size and neocortex ratio were correlated with network efficiency. Centralisation (whether several individuals are central in the group) and modularity (how a group is clustered) had opposing effects on network efficiency, showing that tolerant species have more efficient networks. Such network properties affecting individual fitness could be shaped by natural selection. Our results are in accordance with the social brain and cultural intelligence hypotheses, which suggest that the importance of network efficiency and information flow through social learning relates to cognitive abilities. PMID:25534964

  20. Strength of social tie predicts cooperative investment in a human social network.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Freya; Sciberras, James; James, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Social networks--diagrams which reflect the social structure of animal groups--are increasingly viewed as useful tools in behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology. Network structure may be especially relevant to the study of cooperation, because the action of mechanisms which affect the cost:benefit ratio of cooperating (e.g. reciprocity, punishment, image scoring) is likely to be mediated by the relative position of actor and recipient in the network. Social proximity could thus affect cooperation in a similar manner to biological relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we recruited members of a real-world social group and used a questionnaire to reveal their network. Participants were asked to endure physical discomfort in order to earn money for themselves and other group members, allowing us to explore relationships between willingness to suffer a cost on another's behalf and the relative social position of donor and recipient. Cost endured was positively correlated with the strength of the social tie between donor and recipient. Further, donors suffered greater costs when a relationship was reciprocated. Interestingly, participants regularly suffered greater discomfort for very close peers than for themselves. Our results provide new insight into the effect of social structure on the direct benefits of cooperation. PMID:21479173