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Sample records for social network variables

  1. Social network variables in alcoholics anonymous: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Groh, D R; Jason, L A; Keys, C B

    2008-03-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA's impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  2. Social Network Variables in Alcoholics Anonymous: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Groh, D.R.; Jason, L.A.; Keys, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA’s impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  3. Investigation of Social Studies Teachers' Intended Uses of Social Networks in Terms of Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine Social Studies teacher candidates' intended uses of social networks in terms of various variables. The research was carried out by using screening model of quantitative research methods. In the study, "The Social Network Intended Use Scale" was used as a data collection tool. As a result of the…

  4. Self-reports of Substance Abusers: The Relation between Social Desirability and Social Network Variables

    PubMed Central

    Groh, David R.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to examine social desirability when interpreting self-report data from substance abusers. Social desirability is the tendency to respond on surveys that make people appear more favorable to others; thus, a strong desire for social approval is related to minimized reports of substance use. In the present study, the relationship between social desirability and different types of social support was examined within 582 residents of communal-living recovery homes (i.e., Oxford Houses). Although effect sizes were small, results may suggest that participants reported social network variables in a socially desirable manner; this tendency towards self-deception even predicted misrepresentations of these constructs eight months later. In addition, self-reports of the substance use habits of friends and family were more prone to social desirability than the reporting of other social network characteristics. Overall, it is suggested that social desirability might be taken into account when examining substance abusers’ self-reports of social support variables. PMID:20721306

  5. Social network.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The Better Care Exchange is a social network for health and social care professionals that enables information and knowledge sharing on good practice and better integrated care, and the implementation of Better Care Fund plans. PMID:26419571

  6. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  7. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  8. The Analysis of Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, A. James; Marsden, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    Many questions about the social organization of medicine and health services involve interdependencies among social actors that may be depicted by networks of relationships. Social network studies have been pursued for some time in social science disciplines, where numerous descriptive methods for analyzing them have been proposed. More recently, interest in the analysis of social network data has grown among statisticians, who have developed more elaborate models and methods for fitting them to network data. This article reviews fundamentals of, and recent innovations in, social network analysis using a physician influence network as an example. After introducing forms of network data, basic network statistics, and common descriptive measures, it describes two distinct types of statistical models for network data: individual-outcome models in which networks enter the construction of explanatory variables, and relational models in which the network itself is a multivariate dependent variable. Complexities in estimating both types of models arise due to the complex correlation structures among outcome measures. PMID:20046802

  9. Adolescent Social Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rodolfo G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes some of the more current research in the area of social networks of the early adolescent (ages 10 to 15), and discusses the direction of research in adolescent social networks. (KC)

  10. Wayfinding in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liben-Nowell, David

    With the recent explosion of popularity of commercial social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace, the size of social networks that can be studied scientifically has passed from the scale traditionally studied by sociologists and anthropologists to the scale of networks more typically studied by computer scientists. In this chapter, I will highlight a recent line of computational research into the modeling and analysis of the small-world phenomenon - the observation that typical pairs of people in a social network are connected by very short chains of intermediate friends - and the ability of members of a large social network to collectively find efficient routes to reach individuals in the network. I will survey several recent mathematical models of social networks that account for these phenomena, with an emphasis on both the provable properties of these social-network models and the empirical validation of the models against real large-scale social-network data.

  11. Visualization of Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen

    With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.

  12. Professional social networking.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options. PMID:25308391

  13. "I 'Deserve' Success": Academic Entitlement Attitudes and Their Relationships with Course Self-Efficacy, Social Networking, and Demographic Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in university students' academic entitlement (AE) by demographic group (sex, college class, college generational status) as well as AE's relationship with self-efficacy for college coursework and social networking. It also investigated predictors of AE in first-generation (FG) students and continuing-generation…

  14. "I 'Deserve' Success": Academic Entitlement Attitudes and Their Relationships with Course Self-Efficacy, Social Networking, and Demographic Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in university students' academic entitlement (AE) by demographic group (sex, college class, college generational status) as well as AE's relationship with self-efficacy for college coursework and social networking. It also investigated predictors of AE in first-generation (FG) students and continuing-generation…

  15. [Social networks and medicine].

    PubMed

    Bastardot, F; Vollenweider, P; Marques-Vidal, P

    2015-11-01

    Social networks (social media or #SoMe) have entered medical practice within the last few years. These new media--like Twitter or Skype--enrich interactions among physicians (telemedicine), among physicians and patients (virtual consultations) and change the way of teaching medicine. They also entail new ethical, deontological and legal issues: the extension of the consultation area beyond the medical office and the access of information by third parties were recently debated. We develop here a review of some social networks with their characteristics, applications for medicine and limitations, and we offer some recommendations of good practice. PMID:26685647

  16. Social Networks and Health.

    PubMed

    Perdiaris, Christos; Chardalias, Konstantinos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the social networks have been developed into an advanced communications tool, which is important for all people to contact each other. These specific networks do offer lots of options as well as plenty of advantages and disadvantages. The social websites are many in number and titles, such as the facebook, the twitter, the bandoo etc. One of the most important function-mechanisms for the social network websites, are the marketing tools. The future goal is suggested to be the evolution of these programs. The development of these applications, which is going to lead into a new era for the social digital communication between the internet users, all around the globe. PMID:26153011

  17. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  18. Online social support networks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish

    2015-04-01

    Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care. PMID:25800079

  19. The Social Network Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunus, Peter

    Online social networking is an important part in the everyday life of college students. Despite the increasing popularity of online social networking among students and faculty members, its educational benefits are largely untested. This paper presents our experience in using social networking applications and video content distribution websites as a complement of traditional classroom education. In particular, the solution has been based on effective adaptation, extension and integration of Facebook, Twitter, Blogger YouTube and iTunes services for delivering educational material to students on mobile platforms like iPods and 3 rd generation mobile phones. The goals of the proposed educational platform, described in this paper, are to make the learning experience more engaging, to encourage collaborative work and knowledge sharing among students, and to provide an interactive platform for the educators to reach students and deliver lecture material in a totally new way.

  20. Social networking and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Gilbert L

    2009-04-01

    Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites. PMID:19492691

  1. Social Network Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, Philip

    2008-05-01

    Social networks are websites (or software that distributes media online) where users can distribute content to either a list of friends on that site or to anyone who surfs onto their page, and where those friends can interact and discuss the content. By linking to friends online, the users’ personal content (pictures, songs, favorite movies, diaries, websites, and so on) is dynamically distributed, and can "become viral", that is, get spread rapidly as more people see it and spread it themselves. Social networks are immensely popular around the planet, especially with younger users. The biggest social networks are Facebook and MySpace; an IYA2009 user already exists on Facebook, and one will be created for MySpace (in fact, several NASA satellites such as GLAST and Swift already have successful MySpace pages). Twitter is another network where data distribution is more limited; it is more like a mini-blog, but is very popular. IYA2009 already has a Twitter page, and will be updated more often with relevant information. In this talk I will review the existing social networks, show people how and why they are useful, and give them the tools they need to contribute meaningfully to IYA's online reach.

  2. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  3. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  4. The malignant social network

    PubMed Central

    Hale, James S.; Li, Meizhang; Lathia, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    Tumors contain a vastly complicated cellular network that relies on local communication to execute malignant programs. The molecular cues that are involved in cell-cell adhesion orchestrate large-scale tumor behaviors such as proliferation and invasion. We have recently begun to appreciate that many tumors contain a high degree of cellular heterogeneity and are organized in a cellular hierarchy, with a cancer stem cell (CSC) population identified at the apex in multiple cancer types. CSCs reside in unique microenvironments or niches that are responsible for directing their behavior through cellular interactions between CSCs and stromal cells, generating a malignant social network. Identifying cell-cell adhesion mechanisms in this network has implications for the basic understanding of tumorigenesis and the development of more effective therapies. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of cell-cell adhesion mechanisms used by CSCs and how these local interactions have global consequences for tumor biology. PMID:22796941

  5. Tractable Analysis for Large Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists usually are more interested in consumers' dichotomous choice, such as purchase a product or not, adopt a technology or not, etc. However, up to date, there is nearly no model can help us solve the problem of multi-network effects comparison with a dichotomous dependent variable. Furthermore, the study of multi-network…

  6. Applications of Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagam, P. Santhi

    A social network [2] is a description of the social structure between actors, mostly persons, groups or organizations. It indicates the ways in which they are connected with each other by some relationship such as friendship, kinship, finance exchange etc. In a nutshell, when the person uses already known/unknown people to create new contacts, it forms social networking. The social network is not a new concept rather it can be formed when similar people interact with each other directly or indirectly to perform particular task. Examples of social networks include a friendship networks, collaboration networks, co-authorship networks, and co-employees networks which depict the direct interaction among the people. There are also other forms of social networks, such as entertainment networks, business Networks, citation networks, and hyperlink networks, in which interaction among the people is indirect. Generally, social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations and assists in improving interactive knowledge sharing, interoperability and collaboration.

  7. Underage Children and Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Shalynn; Cooke, Bethany; McVey, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum age requirements for joining popular social networking services such as Facebook, many students misrepresent their real ages and join as active participants in the networks. This descriptive study examines the use of social networking services (SNSs) by children under the age of 13. The researchers surveyed a sample of 199…

  8. Underage Children and Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Shalynn; Cooke, Bethany; McVey, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum age requirements for joining popular social networking services such as Facebook, many students misrepresent their real ages and join as active participants in the networks. This descriptive study examines the use of social networking services (SNSs) by children under the age of 13. The researchers surveyed a sample of 199…

  9. Social Network Visualization in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks is a key to both research and interventions. Network images supplement statistical analyses and allow the identification of groups of people for targeting, the identification of central and peripheral individuals, and the clarification of the macro-structure of the network in a way that should affect public health interventions. People are inter-connected and so their health is inter-connected. Inter-personal health effects in social networks provide a new foundation for public health. PMID:22544996

  10. Microbial "social networks"

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well understood that distinct communities of bacteria are present at different sites of the body, and that changes in the structure of these communities have strong implications for human health. Yet, challenges remain in understanding the complex interconnections between the bacterial taxa within these microbial communities and how they change during the progression of diseases. Many recent studies attempt to analyze the human microbiome using traditional ecological measures and cataloging differences in bacterial community membership. In this paper, we show how to push metagenomic analyses beyond mundane questions related to the bacterial taxonomic profiles that differentiate one sample from another. Methods We develop tools and techniques that help us to investigate the nature of social interactions in microbial communities, and demonstrate ways of compactly capturing extensive information about these networks and visually conveying them in an effective manner. We define the concept of bacterial "social clubs", which are groups of taxa that tend to appear together in many samples. More importantly, we define the concept of "rival clubs", entire groups that tend to avoid occurring together in many samples. We show how to efficiently compute social clubs and rival clubs and demonstrate their utility with the help of examples including a smokers' dataset and a dataset from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP). Results The tools developed provide a framework for analyzing relationships between bacterial taxa modeled as bacterial co-occurrence networks. The computational techniques also provide a framework for identifying clubs and rival clubs and for studying differences in the microbiomes (and their interactions) of two or more collections of samples. Conclusions Microbial relationships are similar to those found in social networks. In this work, we assume that strong (positive or negative) tendencies to co-occur or co-infect is likely to have biological, physiological, or ecological significance, possibly as a result of cooperation or competition. As a consequence of the analysis, a variety of biological interpretations are conjectured. In the human microbiome context, the pattern of strength of interactions between bacterial taxa is unique to body site. PMID:26576770

  11. Detecting Communities in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Tsuyoshi

    There are many practical examples of social networks such as friendship networks or co-authorship networks. Detecting dense subnetworks from such networks are important for finding similar people and understanding the structure of factions. This chapter explains the definitions of communities, criteria for evaluating detected communities, methods for community detection, and actual tools for community detection.

  12. Evolution of individual versus social learning on social networks.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of 'cultural models' exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak. PMID:25631568

  13. Churn in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnstedt, Marcel; Hennessy, Tara; Chan, Jeffrey; Basuchowdhuri, Partha; Hayes, Conor; Strufe, Thorsten

    In the past, churn has been identified as an issue across most industry sectors. In its most general sense it refers to the rate of loss of customers from a company's customer base. There is a simple reason for the attention churn attracts: churning customers mean a loss of revenue. Emerging from business spaces like telecommunications (telcom) and broadcast providers, where churn is a major issue, it is also regarded as a crucial problem in many other businesses, such as online games creators, but also online social networks and discussion sites. Companies aim at identifying the risk of churn in its early stages, as it is usually much cheaper to retain a customer than to try to win him or her back. If this risk can be accurately predicted, marketing departments can target customers efficiently with tailored incentives to prevent them from leaving.

  14. A Social Networks in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimova, Blanka; Poulova, Petra

    2015-01-01

    At present social networks are becoming important in all areas of human activities. They are simply part and parcel of everyday life. They are mostly used for advertising, but they have already found their way into education. The future potential of social networks is high as it can be seen from their statistics on a daily, monthly or yearly…

  15. Social Networking Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Just a few years ago, social networking meant little more to educators than the headache of determining whether to penalize students for inappropriate activities captured on Facebook or MySpace. Now, teachers and students have an array of social-networking sites and tools--from Ning to VoiceThread and Second Life--to draw on for such serious uses…

  16. Social Networking Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Just a few years ago, social networking meant little more to educators than the headache of determining whether to penalize students for inappropriate activities captured on Facebook or MySpace. Now, teachers and students have an array of social-networking sites and tools--from Ning to VoiceThread and Second Life--to draw on for such serious uses…

  17. Entropy of dynamical social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Marton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-02-01

    Dynamical social networks are evolving rapidly and are highly adaptive. Characterizing the information encoded in social networks is essential to gain insight into the structure, evolution, adaptability and dynamics. Recently entropy measures have been used to quantify the information in email correspondence, static networks and mobility patterns. Nevertheless, we still lack methods to quantify the information encoded in time-varying dynamical social networks. In this talk we present a model to quantify the entropy of dynamical social networks and use this model to analyze the data of phone-call communication. We show evidence that the entropy of the phone-call interaction network changes according to circadian rhythms. Moreover we show that social networks are extremely adaptive and are modified by the use of technologies such as mobile phone communication. Indeed the statistics of duration of phone-call is described by a Weibull distribution and is significantly different from the distribution of duration of face-to-face interactions in a conference. Finally we investigate how much the entropy of dynamical social networks changes in realistic models of phone-call or face-to face interactions characterizing in this way different type human social behavior.

  18. Methodological issues in social support and social network research.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, P

    1988-01-01

    With the plethora of articles describing a relationship between social support and/or social network and health status, it was considered useful to take stock of the current status of research in this area, focusing on two critical methodological issues: clarity of definition, and validity and reliability of the measurement instruments. Of the 33 instruments reviewed only modest agreement was found in conceptual definition, and frequently the concepts were not defined or ill-defined. Of particular concern is the definitional confusion between social support and social network. Variables used to operationalize these concepts confirm this lack of specificity and ambiguity in definition. As for validity and reliability, many of the investigators reported no data on these issues; others provided information that only modestly supported the validity or reliability of their instrument. The conclusion of this assessment suggests the need to clarify the essential elements of social support and social networks in order to better distinguish between the behavioral (support) and structural (network) variables that may be affecting health status. A question is also raised as to the likelihood of a single questionnaire being designed that would accurately measure the perceptions of support or supportive behaviors in the variety of supportive research that will continue to be studied. Finally, more rigorous standards need to be used by investigators in establishing the validity and reliability of the instruments in order to improve their predictive utility. PMID:3287636

  19. Social Network Predictors of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouttapa, Michele; Valente, Tom; Gallaher, Peggy; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether bullies, victims, and aggressive victims (those who are both bullies and victims) differed on classroom social network variables, gender, and ethnicity. Survey data were collected from a primarily Latino and Asian sample of 1,368 Southern California 6th graders (mean age = 11.3 years). Logistic regression analyses were…

  20. Social Network Predictors of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouttapa, Michele; Valente, Tom; Gallaher, Peggy; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether bullies, victims, and aggressive victims (those who are both bullies and victims) differed on classroom social network variables, gender, and ethnicity. Survey data were collected from a primarily Latino and Asian sample of 1,368 Southern California 6th graders (mean age = 11.3 years). Logistic regression analyses were…

  1. Tractable Analysis for Large Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists usually are more interested in consumers' dichotomous choice, such as purchase a product or not, adopt a technology or not, etc. However, up to date, there is nearly no model can help us solve the problem of multi-network effects comparison with a dichotomous dependent variable. Furthermore, the study of multi-network…

  2. Online Identities and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  3. Measurement of Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjoka, Mina

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of online social networks (OSN) has risen to unprecedented levels, with the most popular ones having hundreds of millions of users. This success has generated interest within the networking community and has given rise to a number of measurement and characterization studies, which provide a first step towards their…

  4. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator. PMID:25419259

  5. A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, James E.; Stradley, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between first-to-second-year retention and social network variables for a cohort of first-year students at a small liberal arts college. The social network is reconstructed using not survey data as is most common, but rather using archival data from a student information system. Each…

  6. A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, James E.; Stradley, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between first-to-second-year retention and social network variables for a cohort of first-year students at a small liberal arts college. The social network is reconstructed using not survey data as is most common, but rather using archival data from a student information system. Each…

  7. Social networks and the development of social skills in cowbirds.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Gersick, Andrew S; Snyder-Mackler, Noah

    2012-07-01

    The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing with the challenges posed in within-group interactions. We examined how social skills develop in captive, adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that were exposed to differing levels of 'social complexity' across a 2-year experiment. After each year, subjects housed in groups with dynamic social structure (where many individuals entered and exited the groups during the year) outcompeted birds who had been housed in static groups. Exposure to dynamic structure subsequently led to substantial changes to the social networks of the home conditions during the breeding season. Static groups were characterized by a predictable relationship between singing and reproductive success that was stable across years. In dynamic conditions, however, males showed significant variability in their dominance status, their courting and even in their mating success. Reproductive success of males varied dramatically across years and was responsive to social learning in adulthood, and socially dynamic environments 'trained' individuals to be better competitors, even at an age when the development of many traits important for breeding (like song quality) had ended. PMID:22641827

  8. Rumor evolution in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Zhou, Shi; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2013-03-01

    The social network is a main tunnel of rumor spreading. Previous studies concentrated on a static rumor spreading. The content of the rumor is invariable during the whole spreading process. Indeed, the rumor evolves constantly in its spreading process, which grows shorter, more concise, more easily grasped, and told. In an early psychological experiment, researchers found about 70% of details in a rumor were lost in the first six mouth-to-mouth transmissions. Based on these observations, we investigate rumor spreading on social networks, where the content of the rumor is modified by the individuals with a certain probability. In the scenario, they have two choices, to forward or to modify. As a forwarder, an individual disseminates the rumor directly to their neighbors. As a modifier, conversely, an individual revises the rumor before spreading it out. When the rumor spreads on the social networks, for instance, scale-free networks and small-world networks, the majority of individuals actually are infected by the multirevised version of the rumor, if the modifiers dominate the networks. The individuals with more social connections have a higher probability to receive the original rumor. Our observation indicates that the original rumor may lose its influence in the spreading process. Similarly, a true information may turn out to be a rumor as well. Our result suggests the rumor evolution should not be a negligible question, which may provide a better understanding of the generation and destruction of a rumor.

  9. Topological effects of network structure on long-term social network dynamics in a wild mammal.

    PubMed

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Booms, Andrew S; Holekamp, Kay E

    2015-07-01

    Social structure influences ecological processes such as dispersal and invasion, and affects survival and reproductive success. Recent studies have used static snapshots of social networks, thus neglecting their temporal dynamics, and focused primarily on a limited number of variables that might be affecting social structure. Here, instead we modelled effects of multiple predictors of social network dynamics in the spotted hyena, using observational data collected during 20 years of continuous field research in Kenya. We tested the hypothesis that the current state of the social network affects its long-term dynamics. We employed stochastic agent-based models that allowed us to estimate the contribution of multiple factors to network changes. After controlling for environmental and individual effects, we found that network density and individual centrality affected network dynamics, but that social bond transitivity consistently had the strongest effects. Our results emphasise the significance of structural properties of networks in shaping social dynamics. PMID:25975663

  10. Topological effects of network structure on long-term social network dynamics in a wild mammal

    PubMed Central

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Booms, Andrew S.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2015-01-01

    Social structure influences ecological processes such as dispersal and invasion, and affects survival and reproductive success. Recent studies have used static snapshots of social networks, thus neglecting their temporal dynamics, and focused primarily on a limited number of variables that might be affecting social structure. Here, instead we modelled effects of multiple predictors of social network dynamics in the spotted hyena, using observational data collected during 20 years of continuous field research in Kenya. We tested the hypothesis that the current state of the social network affects its long-term dynamics. We employed stochastic agent-based models that allowed us to estimate the contribution of multiple factors to network changes. After controlling for environmental and individual effects, we found that network density and individual centrality affected network dynamics, but that social bond transitivity consistently had the strongest effects. Our results emphasise the significance of structural properties of networks in shaping social dynamics. PMID:25975663

  11. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  12. Navigating Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, DeAnna; Bartlett, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors note that when it comes to balancing free speech and schools' responsibilities, the online world is largely uncharted waters. Questions remain about the rights of both students and teachers in the world of social media. Although the lower courts have ruled that students' freedom of speech rights offer them some protection for…

  13. Navigating Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, DeAnna; Bartlett, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors note that when it comes to balancing free speech and schools' responsibilities, the online world is largely uncharted waters. Questions remain about the rights of both students and teachers in the world of social media. Although the lower courts have ruled that students' freedom of speech rights offer them some protection for…

  14. Skeleton of weighted social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhu, J.

    2013-03-01

    In the literature of social networks, understanding topological structure is an important scientific issue. In this paper, we construct a network from mobile phone call records and use the cumulative number of calls as a measure of the weight of a social tie. We extract skeletons from the weighted social network on the basis of the weights of ties, and we study their properties. We find that strong ties can support the skeleton in the network by studying the percolation characters. We explore the centrality of w-skeletons based on the correlation between some centrality measures and the skeleton index w of a vertex, and we find that the average centrality of a w-skeleton increases as w increases. We also study the cumulative degree distribution of the successive w-skeletons and find that as w increases, the w-skeleton tends to become more self-similar. Furthermore, fractal characteristics appear in higher w-skeletons. We also explore the global information diffusion efficiency of w-skeletons using simulations, from which we can see that the ties in the high w-skeletons play important roles in information diffusion. Identifying such a simple structure of a w-skeleton is a step forward toward understanding and representing the topological structure of weighted social networks.

  15. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers' efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users' locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  16. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers’ efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users’ locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  17. Purity homophily in social networks.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Morteza; Johnson, Kate; Hoover, Joe; Sagi, Eyal; Garten, Justin; Parmar, Niki Jitendra; Vaisey, Stephen; Iliev, Rumen; Graham, Jesse

    2016-03-01

    Does sharing moral values encourage people to connect and form communities? The importance of moral homophily (love of same) has been recognized by social scientists, but the types of moral similarities that drive this phenomenon are still unknown. Using both large-scale, observational social-media analyses and behavioral lab experiments, the authors investigated which types of moral similarities influence tie formations. Analysis of a corpus of over 700,000 tweets revealed that the distance between 2 people in a social-network can be predicted based on differences in the moral purity content-but not other moral content-of their messages. The authors replicated this finding by experimentally manipulating perceived moral difference (Study 2) and similarity (Study 3) in the lab and demonstrating that purity differences play a significant role in social distancing. These results indicate that social network processes reflect moral selection, and both online and offline differences in moral purity concerns are particularly predictive of social distance. This research is an attempt to study morality indirectly using an observational big-data study complemented with 2 confirmatory behavioral experiments carried out using traditional social-psychology methodology. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26726910

  18. Social Networking: Keeping It Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

  19. Privacy and Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Dianne M.; Duven, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    College students are relying on the Internet to make connections with other people every day. As the Internet has developed and grown, so have the capabilities for interaction. Social networking sites, a group of Web sites that provide people with the opportunity to create an online profile and to share that profile with others, are a part of…

  20. Social Networking: Keeping It Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

  1. Social structure of Facebook networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traud, Amanda L.; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason A.

    2012-08-01

    We study the social structure of Facebook “friendship” networks at one hundred American colleges and universities at a single point in time, and we examine the roles of user attributes-gender, class year, major, high school, and residence-at these institutions. We investigate the influence of common attributes at the dyad level in terms of assortativity coefficients and regression models. We then examine larger-scale groupings by detecting communities algorithmically and comparing them to network partitions based on user characteristics. We thereby examine the relative importance of different characteristics at different institutions, finding for example that common high school is more important to the social organization of large institutions and that the importance of common major varies significantly between institutions. Our calculations illustrate how microscopic and macroscopic perspectives give complementary insights on the social organization at universities and suggest future studies to investigate such phenomena further.

  2. Masculinity, Educational Achievement and Social Status: A Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusher, Dean

    2011-01-01

    This study utilises a quantitative case study social network approach to explore the connection between masculinity and scholastic achievement in two secondary, all-boys schools in Australia. In both schools two social networks representing social status are explored: the "friendship" network as a measure of status that includes emotional…

  3. Masculinity, Educational Achievement and Social Status: A Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusher, Dean

    2011-01-01

    This study utilises a quantitative case study social network approach to explore the connection between masculinity and scholastic achievement in two secondary, all-boys schools in Australia. In both schools two social networks representing social status are explored: the "friendship" network as a measure of status that includes emotional…

  4. The Interpersonal Network Questionnaire: A Tool for Social Network Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith E.

    1987-01-01

    Introduces the Interpersonal Network Questionnaire (INQ), an instrument designed to measure constructs of social networks such as social participation, confidant size, and frequency of contact. Discusses item generation, reliability, administration, and applications of the INQ. (Author/NB)

  5. Social networking profile correlates of schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth A; Bailey, Drew H; Cicero, David C; Kerns, John G

    2012-12-30

    Social networking sites, such as Facebook, are extremely popular and have become a primary method for socialization and communication. Despite a report of increased use among those on the schizophrenia-spectrum, few details are known about their actual practices. In the current research, undergraduate participants completed measures of schizotypy and personality, and provided access to their Facebook profiles. Information from the profiles were then systematically coded and compared to the questionnaire data. As predicted, social anhedonia (SocAnh) was associated with a decrease in social participation variables, including a decrease in number of friends and number of photos, and an increase in length of time since communication with a friend, but SocAnh was also associated with an increase in profile length. Also, SocAnh was highly correlated with extraversion. Relatedly, extraversion uniquely predicted the number of friends and photos and length of time since communication with a friend. In addition, perceptual aberration/magical ideation (PerMag) was associated with an increased number of "black outs" on Facebook profile print-outs, a measure of paranoia. Overall, results from this naturalistic-like study show that SocAnh and extraversion are associated with decreased social participation and PerMag with increased paranoia related to information on social networking sites. PMID:22796101

  6. Social Networking: It's Not What You Think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the current uses of the social networking sites available on the internet. It list some of the skills that are now considered obsolete and reviews the major social networking sites.

  7. Topological evolution of virtual social networks by modeling social activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin; Dong, Junyu; Tang, Ruichun; Xu, Mantao; Qi, Lin; Cai, Yang

    2015-09-01

    With the development of Internet and wireless communication, virtual social networks are becoming increasingly important in the formation of nowadays' social communities. Topological evolution model is foundational and critical for social network related researches. Up to present most of the related research experiments are carried out on artificial networks, however, a study of incorporating the actual social activities into the network topology model is ignored. This paper first formalizes two mathematical abstract concepts of hobbies search and friend recommendation to model the social actions people exhibit. Then a social activities based topology evolution simulation model is developed to satisfy some well-known properties that have been discovered in real-world social networks. Empirical results show that the proposed topology evolution model has embraced several key network topological properties of concern, which can be envisioned as signatures of real social networks.

  8. Bridging the gap between different social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jian; Huang, Hong-Qiao; Li, Guo-Ying; Fan, Ying

    2014-09-01

    The available social network models that exist today were designed primarily on the basis of the analysis of statistical properties and structural features, as well as the physical or social distances between individuals of social systems, which sometimes is not sufficient because the structure of some social networks is closely tied to individuals' social identities. In addition, the difference in growth speed between different social networks is also neglected in these models. We propose a synthetic model that involves social identity and adjustable growth speed factors to compensate for these limitations. The model features four types of node connection mechanisms: random attachment, transitive attachment, preferential attachment and anti-preferential attachment. Experimental results indicate that the model can not only produce rich topological structures but can also match real social networks well in both their macro properties and their micro foundations. Thus, the model is helpful in understanding both the evolution of social networks and the differences and similarities among different social networks.

  9. Partition signed social networks via clustering dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianshe; Zhang, Long; Li, Yong; Jiao, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the dynamics phenomenon occurred in social networks, the WJJLGS model is modified to imitate the clustering dynamics of signed social networks. Analyses show that the clustering dynamics of the model can be applied to partition signed social networks. Traditionally, blockmodel is applied to partition signed networks. In this paper, a detailed dynamics-based algorithm for signed social networks (DBAS) is presented. Simulations on several typical real-world and illustrative networks that have been analyzed by the blockmodel verify the correctness of the proposed algorithm. The efficiency of the algorithm is verified on large scale synthetic networks.

  10. Interests diffusion in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  11. Organizational Application of Social Networking Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppert, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative research study using the Delphi method is to provide a framework for leaders to develop their own social networks. By exploring concerns in four areas, leaders may be able to better plan, implement, and manage social networking systems in organizations. The areas addressed are: (a) social networking using…

  12. Organizational Application of Social Networking Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppert, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative research study using the Delphi method is to provide a framework for leaders to develop their own social networks. By exploring concerns in four areas, leaders may be able to better plan, implement, and manage social networking systems in organizations. The areas addressed are: (a) social networking using…

  13. Statistical Properties of Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlohon, Mary; Akoglu, Leman; Faloutsos, Christos

    In this chapter we describe patterns that occur in the structure of social networks, represented as graphs. We describe two main classes of properties, static properties, or properties describing the structure of snapshots of graphs; and dynamic properties, properties describing how the structure evolves over time. These properties may be for unweighted or weighted graphs, where weights may represent multi-edges (e.g. multiple phone calls from one person to another), or edge weights (e.g. monetary amounts between a donor and a recipient in a political donation network).

  14. Early Adolescent Social Networks and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David B.; Kobus, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between social network position and the use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and inhalants in a sample of 1,119 sixth-grade youth. Social network analyses of peer nominations were used to categorize youth as "members" of social groups, "liaisons" between groups, or social "isolates." The results revealed that…

  15. Reconfiguration and Search of Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lianming; Peng, Aoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Social networks tend to exhibit some topological characteristics different from regular networks and random networks, such as shorter average path length and higher clustering coefficient, and the node degree of the majority of social networks obeys exponential distribution. Based on the topological characteristics of the real social networks, a new network model which suits to portray the structure of social networks was proposed, and the characteristic parameters of the model were calculated. To find out the relationship between two people in the social network, and using the local information of the social network and the parallel mechanism, a hybrid search strategy based on k-walker random and a high degree was proposed. Simulation results show that the strategy can significantly reduce the average number of search steps, so as to effectively improve the search speed and efficiency. PMID:24574861

  16. Community dynamics in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Gergely; Barabási, Albert-László; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of community dynamics in large social networks, where the evolving communities are obtained from subsequent snapshots of the modular structure. Such cohesive groups of people can grow by recruiting new members, or contract by loosing members; two (or more) groups may merge into a single community, while a large enough social group can split into several smaller ones; new communities are born and old ones may disappear. We find significant difference between the behaviour of smaller collaborative or friendship circles and larger communities, eg. institutions. Social groups containing only a few members persist longer on average when the fluctuations of the members is small. In contrast, we find that the condition for stability for large communities is continuous changes in their membership, allowing for the possibility that after some time practically all members are exchanged.

  17. The Social Classroom: Integrating Social Network Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallia, Gorg, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    As technology is being integrated into educational processes, teachers are searching for new ways to enhance student motivation and learning. Through shared experiences and the results of empirical research, educators can ease social networking sites into instructional usage. "The Social Classroom: Integrating Social Network Use in…

  18. Social Software: Participants' Experience Using Social Networking for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, Cecil W.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking tools used in learning provides instructional design with tools for transformative change in education. This study focused on defining the meanings and essences of social networking through the lived common experiences of 7 college students. The problem of the study was a lack of learner voice in understanding the value of social…

  19. The Social Classroom: Integrating Social Network Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallia, Gorg, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    As technology is being integrated into educational processes, teachers are searching for new ways to enhance student motivation and learning. Through shared experiences and the results of empirical research, educators can ease social networking sites into instructional usage. "The Social Classroom: Integrating Social Network Use in…

  20. Will Learning Social Inclusion Assist Rural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Current research on social networks in some rural communities reports continuing demise despite efforts to build resilient communities. Several factors are identified as contributing to social decline including globalisation and rural social characteristics. Particular rural social characteristics, such as strong social bonds among members of…

  1. Will Learning Social Inclusion Assist Rural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Current research on social networks in some rural communities reports continuing demise despite efforts to build resilient communities. Several factors are identified as contributing to social decline including globalisation and rural social characteristics. Particular rural social characteristics, such as strong social bonds among members of…

  2. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  3. Social Network Theory and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Alan J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Social Network Theory and Educational Change" offers a provocative and fascinating exploration of how social networks in schools can impede or facilitate the work of education reform. Drawing on the work of leading scholars, the book comprises a series of studies examining networks among teachers and school leaders, contrasting formal and…

  4. Social Network Theory and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Alan J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Social Network Theory and Educational Change" offers a provocative and fascinating exploration of how social networks in schools can impede or facilitate the work of education reform. Drawing on the work of leading scholars, the book comprises a series of studies examining networks among teachers and school leaders, contrasting formal and…

  5. Social Networks and Mourning: A Comparative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Nissan

    1990-01-01

    Suggests using social network theory to explain varieties of mourning behavior in different societies. Compares participation in funeral ceremonies of members of different social circles in American society and Israeli kibbutz. Concludes that results demonstrated validity of concepts deriving from social network analysis in study of bereavement,…

  6. Evolving spiking networks with variable resistive memories.

    PubMed

    Howard, Gerard; Bull, Larry; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Gale, Ella; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Neuromorphic computing is a brainlike information processing paradigm that requires adaptive learning mechanisms. A spiking neuro-evolutionary system is used for this purpose; plastic resistive memories are implemented as synapses in spiking neural networks. The evolutionary design process exploits parameter self-adaptation and allows the topology and synaptic weights to be evolved for each network in an autonomous manner. Variable resistive memories are the focus of this research; each synapse has its own conductance profile which modifies the plastic behaviour of the device and may be altered during evolution. These variable resistive networks are evaluated on a noisy robotic dynamic-reward scenario against two static resistive memories and a system containing standard connections only. The results indicate that the extra behavioural degrees of freedom available to the networks incorporating variable resistive memories enable them to outperform the comparative synapse types. PMID:23614774

  7. Bayesian Networks for Social Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Paul; White, Amanda; Walsh, Stephen; Dalton, Angela; Brothers, Alan

    This paper describes a body of work developed over the past five years. The work addresses the use of Bayesian network (BN) models for representing and predicting social/organizational behaviors. The topics covered include model construction, validation, and use. These topics show the bulk of the lifetime of such model, beginning with construction, moving to validation and other aspects of model "critiquing", and finally demonstrating how the modeling approach might be used to inform policy analysis. The primary benefits of using a well-developed computational, mathematical, and statistical modeling structure, such as BN, are 1) there are significant computational, theoretical and capability bases on which to build 2) the ability to empirically critique the model, and potentially evaluate competing models for a social/behavioral phenomenon.

  8. Bayesian Networks for Social Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; White, Amanda M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.

    2011-03-28

    This paper describes a body of work developed over the past five years. The work addresses the use of Bayesian network (BN) models for representing and predicting social/organizational behaviors. The topics covered include model construction, validation, and use. These topics show the bulk of the lifetime of such model, beginning with construction, moving to validation and other aspects of model ‘critiquing’, and finally demonstrating how the modeling approach might be used to inform policy analysis. To conclude, we discuss limitations of using BN for this activity and suggest remedies to address those limitations. The primary benefits of using a well-developed computational, mathematical, and statistical modeling structure, such as BN, are 1) there are significant computational, theoretical and capability bases on which to build 2) ability to empirically critique the model, and potentially evaluate competing models for a social/behavioral phenomena.

  9. Improved community model for social networks based on social mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Zhen; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an improved community model for social networks based on social mobility. The relationship between the group distribution and the community size is investigated in terms of communication rate and turnover rate. The degree distributions, clustering coefficients, average distances and diameters of networks are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses the small-world property and can reproduce social networks effectively and efficiently.

  10. Egocentric Social Network Analysis of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Matthew K.; Clifton, Allan D.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family, and co-workers. is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first to our knowledge to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Design Egocentric social network analysis was used to formally characterize the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Setting Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Participants Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. Findings The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks than did nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked, and drank with than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked, and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Conclusions Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. PMID:23072641

  11. Social networks and infant feeding in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wutich, Amber; McCarty, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    The health benefits of delaying the introduction of complementary foods to infants' diets are widely known. Many studies have shown that mothers with the support of close social network members are more compliant with medical recommendations for infant feeding. In our study, we examine the effects of a broader spectrum of network members (40 people) on mothers' infant feeding decisions. The survey was conducted in Oaxaca, Mexico as part of a follow-up to a nationwide Mexican Social Security Institute survey of infant health. Sixty mothers were interviewed from a stratified random sample of the original respondents. Multivariate tests were used to compare the efficacy of network-level variables for predicting the introduction of 36 foods into infants' diets, when compared with respondent-level variables. The study yields four findings. First, network-level variables were better predictors of the timing of food introduction than socio-demographic variables. Second, mothers with more indigenous networks delayed the introduction of some grains (oatmeal, cereal, noodle soup, rice) and processed pork products (sausage and ham) to the infant's diet longer than mothers with less indigenous networks. Third, mothers who had stronger ties to their networks delayed the introduction of rice and processed pork products (sausage and ham) to the infant's diet longer than mothers who had weaker ties to their networks. Fourth, mothers who heeded the advice of distant network members introduced some grains (rice and cereal) earlier than mothers who did not heed the advice of distant network members. PMID:18336645

  12. Social Insects: A Model System for Network Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Daniel; Blonder, Benjamin; Dornhaus, Anna

    Social insect colonies (ants, bees, wasps, and termites) show sophisticated collective problem-solving in the face of variable constraints. Individuals exchange information and materials such as food. The resulting network structure and dynamics can inform us about the mechanisms by which the insects achieve particular collective behaviors and these can be transposed to man-made and social networks. We discuss how network analysis can answer important questions about social insects, such as how effective task allocation or information flow is realized. We put forward the idea that network analysis methods are under-utilized in social insect research, and that they can provide novel ways to view the complexity of collective behavior, particularly if network dynamics are taken into account. To illustrate this, we present an example of network tasks performed by ant workers, linked by instances of workers switching from one task to another. We show how temporal network analysis can propose and test new hypotheses on mechanisms of task allocation, and how adding temporal elements to static networks can drastically change results. We discuss the benefits of using social insects as models for complex systems in general. There are multiple opportunities emergent technologies and analysis methods in facilitating research on social insect network. The potential for interdisciplinary work could significantly advance diverse fields such as behavioral ecology, computer sciences, and engineering.

  13. SOCIAL NETWORKS HELP CONTROL HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Shaya, Fadia T.; Chirikov, Viktor V.; Mullins, C. Daniel; Shematek, Jon; Howard, DeLeonardo; Foster, Clyde; Saunders, Elijah

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular health disparities continue to pose a major public health problem. We evaluated the effect of education administered within social networks on the improvement of hypertension in 248 African Americans compared to historical controls. Patients formed clusters with peers and attended monthly hypertension education sessions. We assessed the likelihood of reaching goal below predefined SBP and DBP thresholds as well as the absolute reduction in SBP and DBP, controlling for diabetes, smoking, baseline hypertension, and demographics. The intervention group was more likely to have ever reached treatment goal at 12 months follow-up (OR=1.72, P=0.11). At 18 months of follow-up, the MVP group had a statistically significant larger drop in SBP (?4.82 mmHg, P<0.0001) and DBP (?3.37 mmHg, P=0.01) than the control. The clustering of patients in social networks around hypertension education has a positive impact on the management of hypertension in minority populations and may help address cardiovascular health disparities. PMID:23282122

  14. Spatially Distributed Social Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasco, Gerald F.; Sun, Jie; Rozenfeld, Hernán D.; ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a bare-bones stochastic model that takes into account both the geographical distribution of people within a country and their complex network of connections. The model, which is designed to give rise to a scale-free network of social connections and to visually resemble the geographical spread seen in satellite pictures of the Earth at night, gives rise to a power-law distribution for the ranking of cities by population size (but for the largest cities) and reflects the notion that highly connected individuals tend to live in highly populated areas. It also yields some interesting insights regarding Gibrat's law for the rates of city growth (by population size), in partial support of the findings in a recent analysis of real data [Rozenfeld et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 18702 (2008).]. The model produces a nontrivial relation between city population and city population density and a superlinear relationship between social connectivity and city population, both of which seem quite in line with real data.

  15. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na

    2014-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs. PMID:24102569

  16. Privacy Breach Analysis in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagle, Frank

    This chapter addresses various aspects of analyzing privacy breaches in social networks. We first review literature that defines three types of privacy breaches in social networks: interactive, active, and passive. We then survey the various network anonymization schemes that have been constructed to address these privacy breaches. After exploring these breaches and anonymization schemes, we evaluate a measure for determining the level of anonymity inherent in a network graph based on its topological structure. Finally, we close by emphasizing the difficulty of anonymizing social network data while maintaining usability for research purposes and offering areas for future work.

  17. Going Social: The Impact of Social Networking in Promoting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Neelesh Kumar; Verma, Ashish; Verma, Rama Shankar; Tiwari, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    The growth and the popularity of the Social networks has a high impact on the development of the students in the field of Personality, Attitudes, Knowledge and on its whole academic performance in classroom and society. This paper envisage on the impact of Social Network on Education and Training of the students.

  18. Multilayer weighted social network model.

    PubMed

    Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved. PMID:25493837

  19. Multilayer weighted social network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved.

  20. Social Networks and Political Participation: How Do Networks Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chaeyoon

    2008-01-01

    Despite great interest in the role of social networks as channels of political mobilization, few studies have examined which types of social networks work more effectively in recruiting political activists. Using the Citizen Participation Study data, this study shows that contrary to the conventional wisdom in the literature, there is little…

  1. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  2. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  3. Enhancing Classroom Effectiveness through Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurthakoti, Raghu; Boostrom, Robert E., Jr.; Summey, John H.; Campbell, David A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of social networking Web sites such as Ning.com as a communication tool in marketing courses, a study was designed with special concern for social network use in comparison to Blackboard. Students from multiple marketing courses were surveyed. Assessments of Ning.com and Blackboard were performed both to understand how…

  4. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  5. Entrepreneurial Idea Identification through Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of social network websites may signal a change in the way the next generation of entrepreneurs identify entrepreneurial ideas. An important part of the entrepreneurship literature emphasizes how vital the use of social networks is to entrepreneurial idea identification, opportunity recognition, and ultimately new venture…

  6. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  7. Enhancing Classroom Effectiveness through Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurthakoti, Raghu; Boostrom, Robert E., Jr.; Summey, John H.; Campbell, David A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of social networking Web sites such as Ning.com as a communication tool in marketing courses, a study was designed with special concern for social network use in comparison to Blackboard. Students from multiple marketing courses were surveyed. Assessments of Ning.com and Blackboard were performed both to understand how…

  8. College Students' Social Networking Experiences on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pempek, Tiffany A.; Yermolayeva, Yevdokiya A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Millions of contemporary young adults use social networking sites. However, little is known about how much, why, and how they use these sites. In this study, 92 undergraduates completed a diary-like measure each day for a week, reporting daily time use and responding to an activities checklist to assess their use of the popular social networking…

  9. Gender Differences in Using Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, S. Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine individuals' usage purposes of social networks with a focus on the possible differences between females and males. Facebook, which is one the most popular and being most widely used social network, is investigated in this study. The study group consisted of 870 Facebook users who responded to an online…

  10. Entrepreneurial Idea Identification through Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of social network websites may signal a change in the way the next generation of entrepreneurs identify entrepreneurial ideas. An important part of the entrepreneurship literature emphasizes how vital the use of social networks is to entrepreneurial idea identification, opportunity recognition, and ultimately new venture…

  11. One Health in social networks and social media

    PubMed Central

    Mekaru, S.R.; Brownstein, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media’s strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting, the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message. PMID:25707189

  12. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, David I; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (? = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  13. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David I.; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (α = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  14. Network analysis in the social sciences.

    PubMed

    Borgatti, Stephen P; Mehra, Ajay; Brass, Daniel J; Labianca, Giuseppe

    2009-02-13

    Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of interest in network research across the physical and social sciences. For social scientists, the theory of networks has been a gold mine, yielding explanations for social phenomena in a wide variety of disciplines from psychology to economics. Here, we review the kinds of things that social scientists have tried to explain using social network analysis and provide a nutshell description of the basic assumptions, goals, and explanatory mechanisms prevalent in the field. We hope to contribute to a dialogue among researchers from across the physical and social sciences who share a common interest in understanding the antecedents and consequences of network phenomena. PMID:19213908

  15. Information Filtering on Coupled Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks. PMID:25003525

  16. Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Leting

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

  17. Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Leting

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

  18. Internet-Based Community Networks: Finding the Social in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K. Faith

    In this chapter we explore the concept of community within social networks and the effect that this primarily social construct can have on the way in which we understand trust within an online network. To do this we analyse and compare a number of the definitions that are both traditionally used to identify online communities and which have developed with the advent of semantically described social networks. Taking these definitions we apply them to a number of groups within a visualisation of a social network and, using this case study, consider the differences that are apparent between the types of groups. Finally, we discuss how the social implications inherent within the definition of community interact with the trust and reputation systems that exist in such networks. In doing so, we focus on the social aspect of the social network and the ways in which the social and technical worlds entwine.

  19. The Social Origins of Networks and Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Centola, Damon

    2015-03-01

    Recent research on social contagion has demonstrated significant effects of network topology on the dynamics of diffusion. However, network topologies are not given a priori. Rather, they are patterns of relations that emerge from individual and structural features of society, such as population composition, group heterogeneity, homophily, and social consolidation. Following Blau and Schwartz, the author develops a model of social network formation that explores how social and structural constraints on tie formation generate emergent social topologies and then explores the effectiveness of these social networks for the dynamics of social diffusion. Results show that, at one extreme, high levels of consolidation can create highly balkanized communities with poor integration of shared norms and practices. As suggested by Blau and Schwartz, reducing consolidation creates more crosscutting circles and significantly improves the dynamics of social diffusion across the population. However, the author finds that further reducing consolidation creates highly intersecting social networks that fail to support the widespread diffusion of norms and practices, indicating that successful social diffusion can depend on moderate to high levels of structural consolidation. PMID:26421341

  20. First-Year Students' Use of Social Network Sites to Reduce the Uncertainty of Anticipatory Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Isolde K.; Lerstrom, Alan; Tintle, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This study surveyed 399 incoming first-year students at two colleges in the Midwest on their use of social network sites before college entry and its impact on various dimensions of the first-year experience. Significant correlations were found for two pairs of variables: (a) students who used social network sites before arriving on campus…

  1. First-Year Students' Use of Social Network Sites to Reduce the Uncertainty of Anticipatory Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Isolde K.; Lerstrom, Alan; Tintle, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This study surveyed 399 incoming first-year students at two colleges in the Midwest on their use of social network sites before college entry and its impact on various dimensions of the first-year experience. Significant correlations were found for two pairs of variables: (a) students who used social network sites before arriving on campus…

  2. Informal Learning and Identity Formation in Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine; Robelia, Beth

    2009-01-01

    All students today are increasingly expected to develop technological fluency, digital citizenship, and other twenty-first century competencies despite wide variability in the quality of learning opportunities schools provide. Social network sites (SNSs) available via the internet may provide promising contexts for learning to supplement…

  3. MODELING SOCIAL NETWORKS FROM SAMPLED DATA1

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Mark S.; Gile, Krista J.

    2015-01-01

    Network models are widely used to represent relational information among interacting units and the structural implications of these relations. Recently, social network studies have focused a great deal of attention on random graph models of networks whose nodes represent individual social actors and whose edges represent a specified relationship between the actors. Most inference for social network models assumes that the presence or absence of all possible links is observed, that the information is completely reliable, and that there are no measurement (e.g., recording) errors. This is clearly not true in practice, as much network data is collected though sample surveys. In addition even if a census of a population is attempted, individuals and links between individuals are missed (i.e., do not appear in the recorded data). In this paper we develop the conceptual and computational theory for inference based on sampled network information. We first review forms of network sampling designs used in practice. We consider inference from the likelihood framework, and develop a typology of network data that reflects their treatment within this frame. We then develop inference for social network models based on information from adaptive network designs. We motivate and illustrate these ideas by analyzing the effect of link-tracing sampling designs on a collaboration network. PMID:26561513

  4. Temporal fidelity in dynamic social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Pentland, Alex `Sandy'; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-10-01

    It has recently become possible to record detailed social interactions in large social systems with high resolution. As we study these datasets, human social interactions display patterns that emerge at multiple time scales, from minutes to months. On a fundamental level, understanding of the network dynamics can be used to inform the process of measuring social networks. The details of measurement are of particular importance when considering dynamic processes where minute-to-minute details are important, because collection of physical proximity interactions with high temporal resolution is difficult and expensive. Here, we consider the dynamic network of proximity-interactions between approximately 500 individuals participating in the Copenhagen Networks Study. We show that in order to accurately model spreading processes in the network, the dynamic processes that occur on the order of minutes are essential and must be included in the analysis.

  5. Social Network Analysis for Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Thomas W.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Czaja, Sara; Chu, Kar-Hai; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. The social network perspective is useful for understanding, monitoring, influencing, or evaluating the implementation process when programs, policies, practices, or principles are designed and scaled up or adapted to different settings. We briefly describe common barriers to implementation success and relate them to the social networks of implementation stakeholders. We introduce a few simple measures commonly used in social network analysis and discuss how these measures can be used in program implementation. Using the four stage model of program implementation (exploration, adoption, implementation, and sustainment) proposed by Aarons and colleagues [1] and our experience in developing multi-sector partnerships involving community leaders, organizations, practitioners, and researchers, we show how network measures can be used at each stage to monitor, intervene, and improve the implementation process. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. We conclude with expected benefits and challenges associated with this approach. PMID:26110842

  6. Benford's Law Applies to Online Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Benford's Law states that, in naturally occurring systems, the frequency of numbers' first digits is not evenly distributed. Numbers beginning with a 1 occur roughly 30% of the time, and are six times more common than numbers beginning with a 9. We show that Benford's Law applies to social and behavioral features of users in online social networks. Using social data from five major social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, Pinterest, and LiveJournal), we show that the distribution of first significant digits of friend and follower counts for users in these systems follow Benford's Law. The same is true for the number of posts users make. We extend this to egocentric networks, showing that friend counts among the people in an individual's social network also follows the expected distribution. We discuss how this can be used to detect suspicious or fraudulent activity online and to validate datasets. PMID:26308716

  7. Modeling Verdict Outcomes Using Social Network Measures: The Watergate and Caviar Network Cases.

    PubMed

    Masías, Víctor Hugo; Valle, Mauricio; Morselli, Carlo; Crespo, Fernando; Vargas, Augusto; Laengle, Sigifredo

    2016-01-01

    Modelling criminal trial verdict outcomes using social network measures is an emerging research area in quantitative criminology. Few studies have yet analyzed which of these measures are the most important for verdict modelling or which data classification techniques perform best for this application. To compare the performance of different techniques in classifying members of a criminal network, this article applies three different machine learning classifiers-Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest-with a range of social network measures and the necessary databases to model the verdicts in two real-world cases: the U.S. Watergate Conspiracy of the 1970's and the now-defunct Canada-based international drug trafficking ring known as the Caviar Network. In both cases it was found that the Random Forest classifier did better than either Logistic Regression or Naïve Bayes, and its superior performance was statistically significant. This being so, Random Forest was used not only for classification but also to assess the importance of the measures. For the Watergate case, the most important one proved to be betweenness centrality while for the Caviar Network, it was the effective size of the network. These results are significant because they show that an approach combining machine learning with social network analysis not only can generate accurate classification models but also helps quantify the importance social network variables in modelling verdict outcomes. We conclude our analysis with a discussion and some suggestions for future work in verdict modelling using social network measures. PMID:26824351

  8. The Vertebrate Social Behavior Network: Evolutionary Themes and Variations

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a wide variety of data, it is now clear that the brains of birds and teleost (bony) fish possess a core “social behavior network” within the basal forebrain and midbrain that is homologous to the social behavior network of mammals. The nodes of this network are reciprocally connected, contain receptors for sex steroid hormones, and are involved in multiple forms of social behavior. Other hodological features and neuropeptide distributions are likewise very similar across taxa. This evolutionary conservation represents a boon for experiments on phenotypic behavioral variation, as the extraordinary social diversity of teleost fish and songbirds can now be used to generate broadly relevant insights into issues of brain function that are not particularly tractable in other vertebrate groups. Two such lines of research are presented here, each of which addresses functional variation within the network as it relates to divergent patterns of social behavior. In the first set of experiments, we have used a sexually polymorphic fish to demonstrate that natural selection can operate independently on hypothalamic neuroendocrine functions that are relevant for 1) gonadal regulation and 2) sex-typical behavioral modulation. In the second set of experiments, we have exploited the diversity of avian social organizations and ecologies to isolate species-typical group size as a quasi-independent variable. These experiments have shown that specific areas and peptidergic components of the social behavior network possess functional properties that evolve in parallel with divergence and convergence in sociality. PMID:15885690

  9. Modeling Social Network Topologies in Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain; Viga-de Alva, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Complex networks are used to describe interactions in many real world systems, including economic, biological and social systems. An analysis was done of inter-student friendship, enmity and kinship relationships at three elementary schools by building social networks of these relationships and studying their properties. Friendship network measurements were similar between schools and produced a Poisson topology with a high clustering index. Enmity network measurements were also similar between schools and produced a power law topology. Spatial confinement and the sense of belonging to a social group played vital roles in shaping these networks. Two models were developed which generate complex friendship and enmity networks that reproduce the properties observed at the three studied elementary schools. PMID:23408976

  10. Social Support and Social Networks in COPD: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul

    2015-12-01

    A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness. PMID:26263036

  11. Disease dynamics in a dynamic social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Claire; Albert, István; Grenfell, Bryan; Albert, Réka

    2010-07-01

    We develop a framework for simulating a realistic, evolving social network (a city) into which a disease is introduced. We compare our results to prevaccine era measles data for England and Wales, and find that they capture the quantitative and qualitative features of epidemics in populations spanning two orders of magnitude. Our results provide unique insight into how and why the social topology of the contact network influences the propagation of the disease through the population. We argue that network simulation is suitable for concurrently probing contact network dynamics and disease dynamics in ways that prior modeling approaches cannot and it can be extended to the study of less well-documented diseases.

  12. Geographies of an Online Social Network.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Balázs; Varga, Attila; Ságvári, Bence; Jakobi, Ákos; Kertész, János

    2015-01-01

    How is online social media activity structured in the geographical space? Recent studies have shown that in spite of earlier visions about the "death of distance", physical proximity is still a major factor in social tie formation and maintenance in virtual social networks. Yet, it is unclear, what are the characteristics of the distance dependence in online social networks. In order to explore this issue the complete network of the former major Hungarian online social network is analyzed. We find that the distance dependence is weaker for the online social network ties than what was found earlier for phone communication networks. For a further analysis we introduced a coarser granularity: We identified the settlements with the nodes of a network and assigned two kinds of weights to the links between them. When the weights are proportional to the number of contacts we observed weakly formed, but spatially based modules resemble to the borders of macro-regions, the highest level of regional administration in the country. If the weights are defined relative to an uncorrelated null model, the next level of administrative regions, counties are reflected. PMID:26359668

  13. Geographies of an Online Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Balázs; Varga, Attila; Ságvári, Bence; Jakobi, Ákos; Kertész, János

    2015-01-01

    How is online social media activity structured in the geographical space? Recent studies have shown that in spite of earlier visions about the “death of distance”, physical proximity is still a major factor in social tie formation and maintenance in virtual social networks. Yet, it is unclear, what are the characteristics of the distance dependence in online social networks. In order to explore this issue the complete network of the former major Hungarian online social network is analyzed. We find that the distance dependence is weaker for the online social network ties than what was found earlier for phone communication networks. For a further analysis we introduced a coarser granularity: We identified the settlements with the nodes of a network and assigned two kinds of weights to the links between them. When the weights are proportional to the number of contacts we observed weakly formed, but spatially based modules resemble to the borders of macro-regions, the highest level of regional administration in the country. If the weights are defined relative to an uncorrelated null model, the next level of administrative regions, counties are reflected. PMID:26359668

  14. Searching social networks for subgraph patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaard, Kirk; Kase, Sue; Roy, Heather; Nagi, Rakesh; Sambhoos, Kedar; Sudit, Moises

    2013-06-01

    Software tools for Social Network Analysis (SNA) are being developed which support various types of analysis of social networks extracted from social media websites (e.g., Twitter). Once extracted and stored in a database such social networks are amenable to analysis by SNA software. This data analysis often involves searching for occurrences of various subgraph patterns (i.e., graphical representations of entities and relationships). The authors have developed the Graph Matching Toolkit (GMT) which provides an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI) for a heuristic graph matching algorithm called the Truncated Search Tree (TruST) algorithm. GMT is a visual interface for graph matching algorithms processing large social networks. GMT enables an analyst to draw a subgraph pattern by using a mouse to select categories and labels for nodes and links from drop-down menus. GMT then executes the TruST algorithm to find the top five occurrences of the subgraph pattern within the social network stored in the database. GMT was tested using a simulated counter-insurgency dataset consisting of cellular phone communications within a populated area of operations in Iraq. The results indicated GMT (when executing the TruST graph matching algorithm) is a time-efficient approach to searching large social networks. GMT's visual interface to a graph matching algorithm enables intelligence analysts to quickly analyze and summarize the large amounts of data necessary to produce actionable intelligence.

  15. Social Networks in Improvement of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the “nodes” of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens’ associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs, procedures, etc., which gives a special emphasis on public health aspects of information, especially in the field of medicine and health care. The authors of this paper discuss the role and practical importance of social networks in improving the health and solving of health problems without the physical entrance into the health care system. Social networks have their advantages and disadvantages, benefits and costs, especially when it comes to information which within the network set unprofessional people from unreliable sources, without an adequate selection. The ethical aspect of the norms in this segment is still not adequately regulated, so any sanctions for the unauthorized and malicious use of social networks in private and other purposes in order to obtain personal gain at the expense of individuals or groups (sick or healthy, owners of certain businesses and companies, health organizations and pharmaceutical manufacturers, etc.), for which there is still no global or European codes and standards of conduct. Cyber crime is now one of the mostly present types of crime in modern times, as evidenced by numerous scandals that are happening both globally and locally. PMID:23922516

  16. Social networks in improvement of health care.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the "nodes" of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens' associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs, procedures, etc., which gives a special emphasis on public health aspects of information, especially in the field of medicine and health care. The authors of this paper discuss the role and practical importance of social networks in improving the health and solving of health problems without the physical entrance into the health care system. Social networks have their advantages and disadvantages, benefits and costs, especially when it comes to information which within the network set unprofessional people from unreliable sources, without an adequate selection. The ethical aspect of the norms in this segment is still not adequately regulated, so any sanctions for the unauthorized and malicious use of social networks in private and other purposes in order to obtain personal gain at the expense of individuals or groups (sick or healthy, owners of certain businesses and companies, health organizations and pharmaceutical manufacturers, etc.), for which there is still no global or European codes and standards of conduct. Cyber crime is now one of the mostly present types of crime in modern times, as evidenced by numerous scandals that are happening both globally and locally. PMID:23922516

  17. Fluctuations and Slow Variables in Genetic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bundschuh, R.; Hayot, F.; Jayaprakash, C.

    2003-01-01

    Computer simulations of large genetic networks are often extremely time consuming because, in addition to the biologically interesting translation and transcription reactions, many less interesting reactions like DNA binding and dimerizations have to be simulated. It is desirable to use the fact that the latter occur on much faster timescales than the former to eliminate the fast and uninteresting reactions and to obtain effective models of the slow reactions only. We use three examples of self-regulatory networks to show that the usual reduction methods where one obtains a system of equations of the Hill type fail to capture the fluctuations that these networks exhibit due to the small number of molecules; moreover, they may even miss describing the behavior of the average number of proteins. We identify the inclusion of fast-varying variables in the effective description as the cause for the failure of the traditional schemes. We suggest a different effective description, which entails the introduction of an additional species, not present in the original networks, that is slowly varying. We show that this description allows for a very efficient simulation of the reduced system while retaining the correct fluctuations and behavior of the full system. This approach ought to be applicable to a wide range of genetic networks. PMID:12609864

  18. Information Processing in Social Insect Networks

    PubMed Central

    Waters, James S.; Fewell, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Investigating local-scale interactions within a network makes it possible to test hypotheses about the mechanisms of global network connectivity and to ask whether there are general rules underlying network function across systems. Here we use motif analysis to determine whether the interactions within social insect colonies resemble the patterns exhibited by other animal associations or if they exhibit characteristics of biological regulatory systems. Colonies exhibit a predominance of feed-forward interaction motifs, in contrast to the densely interconnected clique patterns that characterize human interaction and animal social networks. The regulatory motif signature supports the hypothesis that social insect colonies are shaped by selection for network patterns that integrate colony functionality at the group rather than individual level, and demonstrates the utility of this approach for analysis of selection effects on complex systems across biological levels of organization. PMID:22815740

  19. Social Network Privacy via Evolving Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Crescenzo, Giovanni; Lipton, Richard J.

    We study the problem of limiting privacy loss due to data shared in a social network, where the basic underlying assumptions are that users are interested in sharing data and cannot be assumed to constantly follow appropriate privacy policies. Note that if these two assumptions do not hold, social network privacy is theoretically very easy to achieve; for instance, via some form of access control and confidentiality transformation on the data.

  20. The social brain network and autism.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vivek

    2014-04-01

    Available research data in Autism suggests the role of a network of brain areas, often known as the 'social brain'. Recent studies highlight the role of genetic mutations as underlying patho-mechanism in Autism. This mini review, discusses the basic concepts behind social brain networks, theory of mind and genetic factors associated with Autism. It critically evaluates and explores the relationship between the behavioral outcomes and genetic factors providing a conceptual framework for understanding of autism. PMID:25206065

  1. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  2. Personality in the context of social networks

    PubMed Central

    Krause, J.; James, R.; Croft, D. P.

    2010-01-01

    There is great interest in environmental effects on the development and evolution of animal personality traits. An important component of an individual's environment is its social environment. However, few studies look beyond dyadic relationships and try to place the personality of individuals in the context of a social network. Social network analysis provides us with many new metrics to characterize the social fine-structure of populations and, therefore, with an opportunity to gain an understanding of the role that different personalities play in groups, communities and populations regarding information or disease transmission or in terms of cooperation and policing of social conflicts. The network position of an individual is largely a consequence of its interactive strategies. However, the network position can also shape an individual's experiences (especially in the case of juveniles) and therefore can influence the way in which it interacts with others in future. Finally, over evolutionary time, the social fine-structure of animal populations (as quantified by social network analysis) can have important consequences for the evolution of personalities—an approach that goes beyond the conventional game-theoretic analyses that assumed random mixing of individuals in populations. PMID:21078661

  3. Multimedia Information Networks in Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liangliang; Qi, Guojun; Tsai, Shen-Fu; Tsai, Min-Hsuan; Pozo, Andrey Del; Huang, Thomas S.; Zhang, Xuemei; Lim, Suk Hwan

    The popularity of personal digital cameras and online photo/video sharing community has lead to an explosion of multimedia information. Unlike traditional multimedia data, many new multimedia datasets are organized in a structural way, incorporating rich information such as semantic ontology, social interaction, community media, geographical maps, in addition to the multimedia contents by themselves. Studies of such structured multimedia data have resulted in a new research area, which is referred to as Multimedia Information Networks. Multimedia information networks are closely related to social networks, but especially focus on understanding the topics and semantics of the multimedia files in the context of network structure. This chapter reviews different categories of recent systems related to multimedia information networks, summarizes the popular inference methods used in recent works, and discusses the applications related to multimedia information networks. We also discuss a wide range of topics including public datasets, related industrial systems, and potential future research directions in this field.

  4. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  5. Spatial and Social Networks in Organizational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineman, Jean D.; Kabo, Felichism W.; Davis, Gerald F.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the enabling factors of innovation has focused on either the social component of organizations or on the spatial dimensions involved in the innovation process. But no one has examined the aggregate consequences of the link from spatial layout, to social networks, to innovation. This project enriches our understanding of how innovation…

  6. District Policy and Teachers' Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Russell, Jennifer Lin

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers increasingly include provisions aimed at fostering professional community as part of reform initiatives. Yet little is known about the impact of policy on teachers' professional relations in schools. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and methodologically from qualitative social network analysis, this article explores…

  7. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  8. District Policy and Teachers' Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Russell, Jennifer Lin

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers increasingly include provisions aimed at fostering professional community as part of reform initiatives. Yet little is known about the impact of policy on teachers' professional relations in schools. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and methodologically from qualitative social network analysis, this article explores…

  9. Spatial and Social Networks in Organizational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineman, Jean D.; Kabo, Felichism W.; Davis, Gerald F.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the enabling factors of innovation has focused on either the social component of organizations or on the spatial dimensions involved in the innovation process. But no one has examined the aggregate consequences of the link from spatial layout, to social networks, to innovation. This project enriches our understanding of how innovation…

  10. Creating Socially Networked Knowledge through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuk, Eric; Hoetzlein, Rama; Kim, David; Panko, Julia

    2012-01-01

    We report on the experience of creating a socially networked system, the Research-oriented Social Environment (RoSE), for representing knowledge in the form of relationships between people, documents, and groups. Developed as an intercampus, interdisciplinary project of the University of California, this work reflects on a collaboration between…

  11. Network Analysis in Comparative Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Eugenia Roldan; Schupp, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This essay describes the pertinence of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for the social sciences in general, and discusses its methodological and conceptual implications for comparative research in particular. The authors first present a basic summary of the theoretical and methodological assumptions of SNA, followed by a succinct overview of its…

  12. Unravelling the Social Network: Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) amongst children and young people in compulsory education, relatively little scholarly work has explored the fundamental issues at stake. This paper makes an original contribution to the field by locating the study of this online activity within the broader terrain of social…

  13. Facebook, Social Networking, and Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven A.; Mulligan, Jamie R.; Ishida, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    Brown (2012) asserts that faculty perceptions of Web 2.0 for teaching will influence its adoption. For example, social media's influence on educational delivery is growing (Hrastinski and Dennon 2012). Zulu et al. (2011) note that business educators are only beginning to understand social networking related to education. We report an exploratory…

  14. Online Social Networking: Usage in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nevil Johnson; Valsaraj, Blessy Prabha; Noronha, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Online social networking (OSN) has played a significant role on the relationship among college students. It is becoming a popular medium for socializing online and tools to facilitate friendship. Young adults and adolescents are the most prolific users of OSN sites. The frequent use of OSN sites results in addiction toward these sites and…

  15. College Students' Social Networking Experiences on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pempek, Tiffany A.; Yermolayeva, Yevdokiya A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Millions of contemporary young adults use social networking sites. However, little is known about how much, why, and how they use these sites. In this study, 92 undergraduates completed a diary-like measure each day for a week, reporting daily time use and responding to an activities checklist to assess their use of the popular social networking…

  16. Geographic constraints on social network groups.

    PubMed

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Arbesman, Samuel; González, Marta C; Barabási, Albert-László; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-01-01

    Social groups are fundamental building blocks of human societies. While our social interactions have always been constrained by geography, it has been impossible, due to practical difficulties, to evaluate the nature of this restriction on social group structure. We construct a social network of individuals whose most frequent geographical locations are also known. We also classify the individuals into groups according to a community detection algorithm. We study the variation of geographical span for social groups of varying sizes, and explore the relationship between topological positions and geographic positions of their members. We find that small social groups are geographically very tight, but become much more clumped when the group size exceeds about 30 members. Also, we find no correlation between the topological positions and geographic positions of individuals within network communities. These results suggest that spreading processes face distinct structural and spatial constraints. PMID:21483665

  17. Visual Matrix Clustering of Social Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; May, Richard A.

    2013-07-01

    The prevailing choices to graphically represent a social network in today’s literature are a node-link graph layout and an adjacency matrix. Both visualization techniques have unique strengths and weaknesses when applied to different domain applications. In this article, we focus our discussion on adjacency matrix and how to turn the matrix-based visualization technique from merely showing pairwise associations among network actors (or graph nodes) to depicting clusters of a social network. We also use node-link layouts to supplement the discussion.

  18. Social Network Supported Process Recommender System

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen

    2014-01-01

    Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced. PMID:24672309

  19. Teachers, Networks and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Kaleen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that school leaders and policymakers should attend to the social conditions within schools that promote instructional improvement and student achievement gains. This dissertation uses theoretical and empirical work on social capital to frame three aspects of the relationships among teachers. The three studies…

  20. The regulation of social recognition, social communication and aggression: vasopressin in the social behavior neural network.

    PubMed

    Albers, H Elliott

    2012-03-01

    Neuropeptides in the arginine vasotocin/arginine vasopressin (AVT/AVP) family play a major role in the regulation of social behavior by their actions in the brain. In mammals, AVP is found within a circuit of recriprocally connected limbic structures that form the social behavior neural network. This review examines the role played by AVP within this network in controlling social processes that are critical for the formation and maintenance of social relationships: social recognition, social communication and aggression. Studies in a number of mammalian species indicate that AVP and AVP V1a receptors are ideally suited to regulate the expression of social processes because of their plasticity in response to factors that influence social behavior. The pattern of AVP innervation and V1a receptors across the social behavior neural network may determine the potential range and intensity of social responses that individuals display in different social situations. Although fundamental information on how social behavior is wired in the brain is still lacking, it is clear that different social behaviors can be influenced by the actions of AVP in the same region of the network and that AVP can act within multiple regions of this network to regulate the expression of individual social behaviors. The existing data suggest that AVP can influence social behavior by modulating the interpretation of sensory information, by influencing decision making and by triggering complex motor outputs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22079778

  1. A Participatory Evaluation of the Use of Social Networking Tools in a High School Math Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormald, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    As we move into the 21st century, the needs of our students are more variable than ever. There has been a proliferation of social networking usage in society yet there has been little use of those emerging tools in schools as a means to enhance student learning. It is a common practice in school districts to block social networking sites and…

  2. A Participatory Evaluation of the Use of Social Networking Tools in a High School Math Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormald, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    As we move into the 21st century, the needs of our students are more variable than ever. There has been a proliferation of social networking usage in society yet there has been little use of those emerging tools in schools as a means to enhance student learning. It is a common practice in school districts to block social networking sites and…

  3. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  4. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  5. Dynamics of deceptive interactions in social networks.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Rafael A; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kaski, Kimmo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we examine the role of lies in human social relations by implementing some salient characteristics of deceptive interactions into an opinion formation model, so as to describe the dynamical behaviour of a social network more realistically. In this model, we take into account such basic properties of social networks as the dynamics of the intensity of interactions, the influence of public opinion and the fact that in every human interaction it might be convenient to deceive or withhold information depending on the instantaneous situation of each individual in the network. We find that lies shape the topology of social networks, especially the formation of tightly linked, small communities with loose connections between them. We also find that agents with a larger proportion of deceptive interactions are the ones that connect communities of different opinion, and, in this sense, they have substantial centrality in the network. We then discuss the consequences of these results for the social behaviour of humans and predict the changes that could arise due to a varying tolerance for lies in society. PMID:26510829

  6. Community core evolution in mobile social networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Xiao, Weidong; Tang, Daquan; Tang, Jiuyang; Wang, Zhenwen

    2013-01-01

    Community detection in social networks attracts a lot of attention in the recent years. Existing methods always depict the relationship of two nodes using the temporary connection. However, these temporary connections cannot be fully recognized as the real relationships when the history connections among nodes are considered. For example, a casual visit in Facebook cannot be seen as an establishment of friendship. Hence, our question is the following: how to cluster the real friends in mobile social networks? In this paper, we study the problem of detecting the stable community core in mobile social networks. The cumulative stable contact is proposed to depict the relationship among nodes. The whole process is divided into timestamps. Nodes and their connections can be added or removed at each timestamp, and historical contacts are considered when detecting the community core. Also, community cores can be tracked through the incremental computing, which can help to recognize the evolving of community structure. Empirical studies on real-world social networks demonstrate that our proposed method can effectively detect stable community cores in mobile social networks. PMID:24163629

  7. Persistent ISR: the social network analysis connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Elizabeth K.

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance provides decision makers with unprecedented access to multisource data collected from humans and sensor assets around the globe, yet these data exist in the physical world and provide few overt clues to meaning behind actions. In this paper we explore the recent growth in online social networking and ask the questions: 1) can these sites provide value-added information to compliment physical sensing and 2) what are the mechanisms by which these data could inform situational awareness and decision making? In seeking these answers we consider the range of options provided by Social Network Analysis (SNA), and focus especially on the dynamic nature of these networks. In our discussion we focus on the wave of reform experienced by the North African nations in early 2011 known as the Arab Spring. Demonstrators made widespread use of social networking applications to coordinate, document, and publish material to aid their cause. Unlike members of covert social networks who hide their activity and associations, these demonstrators openly posted multimedia information to coordinate activity and stimulate global support. In this paper we provide a review of SNA approaches and consider how one might track network adaptations by capturing temporal and conceptual trends. We identify opportunities and challenges for merging SNA with physical sensor output, and conclude by addressing future challenges in the persistent ISR domain with respect to SNA.

  8. From Local to Global Dilemmas in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Santos, Francisco C.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks affect in such a fundamental way the dynamics of the population they support that the global, population-wide behavior that one observes often bears no relation to the individual processes it stems from. Up to now, linking the global networked dynamics to such individual mechanisms has remained elusive. Here we study the evolution of cooperation in networked populations and let individuals interact via a 2-person Prisoner's Dilemma – a characteristic defection dominant social dilemma of cooperation. We show how homogeneous networks transform a Prisoner's Dilemma into a population-wide evolutionary dynamics that promotes the coexistence between cooperators and defectors, while heterogeneous networks promote their coordination. To this end, we define a dynamic variable that allows us to track the self-organization of cooperators when co-evolving with defectors in networked populations. Using the same variable, we show how the global dynamics — and effective dilemma — co-evolves with the motifs of cooperators in the population, the overall emergence of cooperation depending sensitively on this co-evolution. PMID:22363804

  9. From local to global dilemmas in social networks.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Flávio L; Pacheco, Jorge M; Santos, Francisco C

    2012-01-01

    Social networks affect in such a fundamental way the dynamics of the population they support that the global, population-wide behavior that one observes often bears no relation to the individual processes it stems from. Up to now, linking the global networked dynamics to such individual mechanisms has remained elusive. Here we study the evolution of cooperation in networked populations and let individuals interact via a 2-person Prisoner's Dilemma--a characteristic defection dominant social dilemma of cooperation. We show how homogeneous networks transform a Prisoner's Dilemma into a population-wide evolutionary dynamics that promotes the coexistence between cooperators and defectors, while heterogeneous networks promote their coordination. To this end, we define a dynamic variable that allows us to track the self-organization of cooperators when co-evolving with defectors in networked populations. Using the same variable, we show how the global dynamics--and effective dilemma--co-evolves with the motifs of cooperators in the population, the overall emergence of cooperation depending sensitively on this co-evolution. PMID:22363804

  10. Origin of Peer Influence in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Marta D.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2014-03-01

    Social networks pervade our everyday lives: we interact, influence, and are influenced by our friends and acquaintances. With the advent of the World Wide Web, large amounts of data on social networks have become available, allowing the quantitative analysis of the distribution of information on them, including behavioral traits and fads. Recent studies of correlations among members of a social network, who exhibit the same trait, have shown that individuals influence not only their direct contacts but also friends' friends, up to a network distance extending beyond their closest peers. Here, we show how such patterns of correlations between peers emerge in networked populations. We use standard models (yet reflecting intrinsically different mechanisms) of information spreading to argue that empirically observed patterns of correlation among peers emerge naturally from a wide range of dynamics, being essentially independent of the type of information, on how it spreads, and even on the class of underlying network that interconnects individuals. Finally, we show that the sparser and clustered the network, the more far reaching the influence of each individual will be.

  11. Social network predictors of latrine ownership.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Holly B; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation, including the lack of clean functioning toilets, is a major factor contributing to morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases in the developing world. We examine correlates of latrine ownership in rural India with a focus on social network predictors. Participants from 75 villages provided the names of their social contacts as well as their own relevant demographic and household characteristics. Using these measures, we test whether the latrine ownership of an individual's social contacts is a significant predictor of individual latrine ownership. We also investigate whether network centrality significantly predicts latrine ownership, and if so, whether it moderates the relationship between the latrine ownership of the individual and that of her social contacts. Our results show that, controlling for the standard predictors of latrine ownership such as caste, education, and income, individuals are more likely to own latrines if their social contacts own latrines. Interaction models suggest that this relationship is stronger among those of the same caste, the same education, and those with stronger social ties. We also find that more central individuals are more likely to own latrines, but the correlation in latrine ownership between social contacts is strongest among individuals on the periphery of the network. Although more data is needed to determine how much the clustering of latrine ownership may be caused by social influence, the results here suggest that interventions designed to promote latrine ownership should consider focusing on those at the periphery of the network. The reason is that they are 1) less likely to own latrines and 2) more likely to exhibit the same behavior as their social contacts, possibly as a result of the spread of latrine adoption from one person to another. PMID:24726688

  12. Online and Offline Social Networks: Use of Social Networking Sites by Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…

  13. Group Colocation Behavior in Technological Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chloë; Lathia, Neal; Mascolo, Cecilia; Noulas, Anastasios; Blondel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We analyze two large datasets from technological networks with location and social data: user location records from an online location-based social networking service, and anonymized telecommunications data from a European cellphone operator, in order to investigate the differences between individual and group behavior with respect to physical location. We discover agreements between the two datasets: firstly, that individuals are more likely to meet with one friend at a place they have not visited before, but tend to meet at familiar locations when with a larger group. We also find that groups of individuals are more likely to meet at places that their other friends have visited, and that the type of a place strongly affects the propensity for groups to meet there. These differences between group and solo mobility has potential technological applications, for example, in venue recommendation in location-based social networks. PMID:25148037

  14. Online Social Networking and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  15. Towards Network Games with Social Preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Schmid, Stefan

    Many distributed systems can be modeled as network games: a collection of selfish players that communicate in order to maximize their individual utilities. The performance of such games can be evaluated through the costs of the system equilibria: the system states in which no player can increase her utility by unilaterally changing her behavior. However, assuming that all players are selfish and in particular that all players have the same utility function may not always be appropriate. Hence, several extensions to incorporate also altruistic and malicious behavior in addition to selfishness have been proposed over the last years. In this paper, we seek to go one step further and study arbitrary relationships between participants. In particular, we introduce the notion of the social range matrix and explore the effects of the social range matrix on the equilibria in a network game. In order to derive concrete results, we propose a simplistic network creation game that captures the effect of social relationships among players.

  16. Online social networking and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  17. Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: a tool for research in social media.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided. PMID:24061930

  18. Burstiness and Aging in Social Temporal Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moinet, Antoine; Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2015-03-01

    The presence of burstiness in temporal social networks, revealed by a power-law form of the waiting time distribution of consecutive interactions, is expected to produce aging effects in the corresponding time-integrated network. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model, in which interactions among the agents are ruled by a renewal process, that is able to reproduce this aging behavior. We develop an analytic solution for the topological properties of the integrated network produced by the model, finding that the time translation invariance of the degree distribution is broken. We validate our predictions against numerical simulations, and we check for the presence of aging effects in a empirical temporal network, ruled by bursty social interactions.

  19. The "Majority Illusion" in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Kristina; Yan, Xiaoran; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Individual’s decisions, from what product to buy to whether to engage in risky behavior, often depend on the choices, behaviors, or states of other people. People, however, rarely have global knowledge of the states of others, but must estimate them from the local observations of their social contacts. Network structure can significantly distort individual’s local observations. Under some conditions, a state that is globally rare in a network may be dramatically over-represented in the local neighborhoods of many individuals. This effect, which we call the “majority illusion,” leads individuals to systematically overestimate the prevalence of that state, which may accelerate the spread of social contagions. We develop a statistical model that quantifies this effect and validate it with measurements in synthetic and real-world networks. We show that the illusion is exacerbated in networks with a heterogeneous degree distribution and disassortative structure. PMID:26886112

  20. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  1. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, JIN; NIE, FEIPING; HUANG, HENG; TU, YI-CHENG; LEI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:24729776

  2. Some Social Considerations of Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinich, Robert

    New technologies of information handling are going to produce fundamental changes in the social structure. If we accept the statement that the book "upset the educational monopoly of the Church," we inevitably wonder what monopolies may tumble in the electronic wake of the computer. We are not dealing with a simple difference of degree but, rather…

  3. Detecting emotional contagion in massive social networks.

    PubMed

    Coviello, Lorenzo; Sohn, Yunkyu; Kramer, Adam D I; Marlow, Cameron; Franceschetti, Massimo; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-01-01

    Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony. PMID:24621792

  4. Sentiment analysis on smoking in social networks.

    PubMed

    Sofean, Mustafa; Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks play a vital role in daily life to share the opinions or behaviors on different topics. The data of social networks can be used to understand health-related behaviors. In this work, we used Twitter status updates to survey of smoking behaviors among the users. We introduce approach to classify the sentiment of smoke-related tweets into positive and negative tweets. The classifier is based on the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and can achieve high accuracy up to 86%. PMID:23920892

  5. Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations. PMID:21200076

  6. Health and the Structure of Adolescent Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Steven A.; Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions.We first develop…

  7. Health and the Structure of Adolescent Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Steven A.; Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions.We first develop…

  8. The Application of Social Network Analysis to Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusher, Dean; Robins, Garry; Kremer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews how current social network analysis might be used to investigate individual and group behavior in sporting teams. Social network analysis methods permit researchers to explore social relations between team members and their individual-level qualities simultaneously. As such, social network analysis can be seen as augmenting…

  9. The Application of Social Network Analysis to Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusher, Dean; Robins, Garry; Kremer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews how current social network analysis might be used to investigate individual and group behavior in sporting teams. Social network analysis methods permit researchers to explore social relations between team members and their individual-level qualities simultaneously. As such, social network analysis can be seen as augmenting…

  10. Social Networks of Educated Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Denis S.; Alborn, Hans T.; Duncan, Larry W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound specific manner, increasing preference for volatiles they previously were exposed to and decreasing attraction to other volatiles. In addition, persistence of volatile exposure influences this response. Longer exposure not only increases preference, but also results in longer retention of that preference. These entomopathogenic nematodes display interspecific social behavioral plasticity; experienced nematodes influence the behavior of different species. This interspecific social behavioral plasticity suggests a mechanism for rapid adaptation of belowground communities to dynamic environments. PMID:26404058

  11. Social Networks of Educated Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Willett, Denis S; Alborn, Hans T; Duncan, Larry W; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound specific manner, increasing preference for volatiles they previously were exposed to and decreasing attraction to other volatiles. In addition, persistence of volatile exposure influences this response. Longer exposure not only increases preference, but also results in longer retention of that preference. These entomopathogenic nematodes display interspecific social behavioral plasticity; experienced nematodes influence the behavior of different species. This interspecific social behavioral plasticity suggests a mechanism for rapid adaptation of belowground communities to dynamic environments. PMID:26404058

  12. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  13. Modeling Verdict Outcomes Using Social Network Measures: The Watergate and Caviar Network Cases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Modelling criminal trial verdict outcomes using social network measures is an emerging research area in quantitative criminology. Few studies have yet analyzed which of these measures are the most important for verdict modelling or which data classification techniques perform best for this application. To compare the performance of different techniques in classifying members of a criminal network, this article applies three different machine learning classifiers–Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest–with a range of social network measures and the necessary databases to model the verdicts in two real–world cases: the U.S. Watergate Conspiracy of the 1970’s and the now–defunct Canada–based international drug trafficking ring known as the Caviar Network. In both cases it was found that the Random Forest classifier did better than either Logistic Regression or Naïve Bayes, and its superior performance was statistically significant. This being so, Random Forest was used not only for classification but also to assess the importance of the measures. For the Watergate case, the most important one proved to be betweenness centrality while for the Caviar Network, it was the effective size of the network. These results are significant because they show that an approach combining machine learning with social network analysis not only can generate accurate classification models but also helps quantify the importance social network variables in modelling verdict outcomes. We conclude our analysis with a discussion and some suggestions for future work in verdict modelling using social network measures. PMID:26824351

  14. Massive Social Network Analysis: Mining Twitter for Social Good

    SciTech Connect

    Ediger, David; Jiang, Karl; Riedy, Edward J.; Bader, David A.; Corley, Courtney D.; Farber, Robert M.; Reynolds, William

    2010-10-11

    Social networks produce an enormous quantity of data. Facebook consists of over 400 million active users sharing over 5 billion pieces of information each month. Analyzing this vast quantity of unstructured data presents challenges for software and hardware. We present GraphCT, a Graph Characterization Tooklit for massive graphs representing social network data. On a 128-processor Cray XMT, GraphCT estimates the betweenness centrality of an artificially generated (R-MAT) 537 million vertex, 8.6 billion edge graph in 55 minutes. We use GraphCT to analyze public data from Twitter, a microblogging network. Twitter's message connections appear primarily tree-structured as a news dissemination system. Within the public data, however, are clusters of conversations. Using GraphCT, we can rank actors within these conversations and help analysts focus attention on a much smaller data subset.

  15. Hierarchical social networks and information flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Luis; F. F. Mendes, Jose; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2002-12-01

    Using a simple model for the information flow on social networks, we show that the traditional hierarchical topologies frequently used by companies and organizations, are poorly designed in terms of efficiency. Moreover, we prove that this type of structures are the result of the individual aim of monopolizing as much information as possible within the network. As the information is an appropriate measurement of centrality, we conclude that this kind of topology is so attractive for leaders, because the global influence each actor has within the network is completely determined by the hierarchical level occupied.

  16. Evolution of a large online social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haibo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2009-03-01

    Although recently there are extensive research on the collaborative networks and online communities, there is very limited knowledge about the actual evolution of the online social networks (OSN). In the Letter, we study the structural evolution of a large online virtual community. We find that the scale growth of the OSN shows non-trivial S shape which may provide a proper exemplification for Bass diffusion model. We reveal that the evolutions of many network properties, such as density, clustering, heterogeneity and modularity, show non-monotone feature, and shrink phenomenon occurs for the path length and diameter of the network. Furthermore, the OSN underwent a transition from degree assortativity characteristic of collaborative networks to degree disassortativity characteristic of many OSNs. Our study has revealed the evolutionary pattern of interpersonal interactions in a specific population and provided a valuable platform for theoretical modeling and further analysis.

  17. Information asymmetry, social networking site word of mouth, and mobility effects on social commerce in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Jeong; Lee, Bong Gyou; Kim, Ki Youn

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the issues that affect customers' behavioral character and purchasing behavior. The study proposes a research hypothesis with independent variables that include social presence, trust, and information asymmetry, and the dependent variable purchase decision making, to explain differentiated customer decision making processes in social commerce (S-commerce). To prove the hypothesis, positive verification was performed by focusing on mediating effects through a customer uncertainty variable and moderating effects through mobility and social networking site word of mouth (SNS WOM) variables. The number of studies on customer trends has rapidly increased together with the market size of S-commerce. However, few studies have examined the negative variables that make customers hesitant to make decisions in S-commerce. This study investigates the causes of customer uncertainty and focuses on deducing the control variables that offset this negative relationship. The study finds that in customers' S-commerce purchasing actions, the SNS WOM and mobility variables show control effects between information asymmetry and uncertainty and between trust and uncertainty. Additionally, this research defines the variables related to customer uncertainty that are hidden in S-commerce, and statistically verifies their relationship. The research results can be used in Internet marketing practices to establish marketing mix strategies for customer demand or as research data to predict customer behavior. The results are scientifically meaningful as a precedent for research on customers in S-commerce. PMID:24355038

  18. Adoption of Social Networking in Education: A Study of the Use of Social Networks by Higher Education Students in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mukhaini, Elham M.; Al-Qayoudhi, Wafa S.; Al-Badi, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of social networks is a growing phenomenon, being increasingly important in both private and academic life. Social networks are used as tools to enable users to have social interaction. The use of social networks (SNs) complements and enhances the teaching in traditional classrooms. For example, YouTube, Facebook, wikis, and blogs provide…

  19. Adoption of Social Networking in Education: A Study of the Use of Social Networks by Higher Education Students in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mukhaini, Elham M.; Al-Qayoudhi, Wafa S.; Al-Badi, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of social networks is a growing phenomenon, being increasingly important in both private and academic life. Social networks are used as tools to enable users to have social interaction. The use of social networks (SNs) complements and enhances the teaching in traditional classrooms. For example, YouTube, Facebook, wikis, and blogs provide…

  20. Social network analysis: foundations and frontiers on advantage.

    PubMed

    Burt, Ronald S; Kilduff, Martin; Tasselli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We provide an overview of social network analysis focusing on network advantage as a lens that touches on much of the area. For reasons of good data and abundant research, we draw heavily on studies of people in organizations. Advantage is traced to network structure as a proxy for the distribution of variably sticky information in a population. The network around a person indicates the person's access and control in the distribution. Advantage is a function of information breadth, timing, and arbitrage. Advantage is manifest in higher odds of proposing good ideas, more positive evaluations and recognition, higher compensation, and faster promotions. We discuss frontiers of advantage contingent on personality, cognition, embeddedness, and dynamics. PMID:23282056

  1. Early Adolescent Social Networks and Computer Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orleans, Myron; Laney, Margaret C.

    A research project was conducted to examine the interactions between the social networks of young adolescents and their computer usage. Particular attention was focused upon whether computers tend to isolate youthful users. Adult anxiety regarding the damaging effects of computers on children was assessed. Parental involvement, orientation to…

  2. Ethical Considerations of Social Networking for Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, William Edgar Vernon

    2010-01-01

    The use of online social networking websites has increased among Canadians in recent years. There are many professional and ethical implications for counsellors who use these sites (Boyd, 2007). Although they offer advantages to counsellors, their use can also raise issues around ethical conduct. Because the counselling literature has not yet…

  3. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  4. Social Networking: A Collaborative Open Educational Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toetenel, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    Studies undertaken since the introduction of Web 2.0 have focussed mainly on open educational resources (OERs) such as email, blogging and virtual learning environments. No consistent efforts have been undertaken to study the use of social networking sites as a tool for learning in the second language classroom. This study examined the use of…

  5. Social Networking Sites as a Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Casado, Noelia; Cegarra Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Wensley, Anthony; Tomaseti-Solano, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past few years, social networking sites (SNSs) have become very useful for firms, allowing companies to manage the customer-brand relationships. In this context, SNSs can be considered as a learning tool because of the brand knowledge that customers develop from these relationships. Because of the fact that knowledge in…

  6. Social Networking Services in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Peter; Rothe, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on the use of the social networking service NING in a cross-location e-learning setting named "Net Economy." We describe how we implemented NING as a fundamental part of the setting through a special phase concept and team building approach. With the help of user statistics, we examine…

  7. Electronic Social Networks, Teaching, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidduck, Anne Banks

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between electronic social networks, teaching, and learning. Previous studies have shown a strong positive correlation between student engagement and learning. By extending this work to engage instructors and add an electronic component, our study shows possible teaching improvement as well. In particular,…

  8. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  9. "Cloudworks": Social Networking for Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conole, Grainne; Culver, Juliette

    2009-01-01

    Can we apply the best of Web 2.0 principles to an educational context? More specifically can we use this as a means of shifting teaching practice to a culture of sharing learning ideas and designs? This paper describes a new social networking site, "Cloudworks", which aims to provide a mechanism for sharing, discussing and finding learning and…

  10. Social Networking Postings: Views from School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marlynn M.; Lake, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous recent media accounts indicate that teachers are being fired, put on probation, or otherwise censured because of information found on their social networking sites (SNS). While the literature in business, psychology, and pharmacy shows initial investigations of the impact of SNS information on hiring decisions, this area has not been…

  11. Social Networking Tools for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Du, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory study investigating the use of social networking tools in academic libraries, examining the extent of their use, library staff's perceptions of their usefulness and challenges, and factors influencing decisions to use or not to use such tools. Invitations to participate in a web-based survey were sent to 140 university…

  12. Using Social Networking in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Elizabeth Blakesley

    2009-01-01

    With celebrities discussing Twitter on television talk shows, Facebook being used by people to share pictures of their grandchildren, and academic seminars being delivered in Second Life, it is hard to get through a day without being faced with some sort of social networking tool. Librarians often talk about the importance of outreach and of…

  13. The Benefits and Limitations of Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Center for the Digital Future at the University of Southern California surveys 2,000 households each year to find out how online technology affects Internet users. Findings in the latest report show social networks are increasing and a majority of users report feeling as strongly about their communities online as their real-world communities.…

  14. Social Networking Tools for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Du, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory study investigating the use of social networking tools in academic libraries, examining the extent of their use, library staff's perceptions of their usefulness and challenges, and factors influencing decisions to use or not to use such tools. Invitations to participate in a web-based survey were sent to 140 university…

  15. Social Networking: A Collaborative Open Educational Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toetenel, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    Studies undertaken since the introduction of Web 2.0 have focussed mainly on open educational resources (OERs) such as email, blogging and virtual learning environments. No consistent efforts have been undertaken to study the use of social networking sites as a tool for learning in the second language classroom. This study examined the use of…

  16. Libraries' Place in Virtual Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Brian S.

    2007-01-01

    Do libraries belong in the virtual world of social networking? With more than 100 million users, this environment is impossible to ignore. A rising philosophy for libraries, particularly in blog-land, involves the concept of being where the users are. Simply using new media to deliver an old message is not progress. Instead, librarians should…

  17. Protecting Personal Information on Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Almost everyone uses social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn. Since Facebook is the most popular site in the history of the Internet, this article will focus on how one can protect his/her personal information and how that extends to protecting the private information of others.

  18. The Benefits and Limitations of Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Center for the Digital Future at the University of Southern California surveys 2,000 households each year to find out how online technology affects Internet users. Findings in the latest report show social networks are increasing and a majority of users report feeling as strongly about their communities online as their real-world communities.…

  19. Libraries' Place in Virtual Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Brian S.

    2007-01-01

    Do libraries belong in the virtual world of social networking? With more than 100 million users, this environment is impossible to ignore. A rising philosophy for libraries, particularly in blog-land, involves the concept of being where the users are. Simply using new media to deliver an old message is not progress. Instead, librarians should…

  20. Social Dynamics within Electronic Networks of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Thomas A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic networks of practice (eNoP) are special types of electronic social structures focused on discussing domain-specific problems related to a skill-based craft or profession in question and answer style forums. eNoP have implemented peer-to-peer feedback systems in order to motivate future contributions and to distinguish contribution…

  1. Social Networking Services in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Peter; Rothe, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on the use of the social networking service NING in a cross-location e-learning setting named "Net Economy." We describe how we implemented NING as a fundamental part of the setting through a special phase concept and team building approach. With the help of user statistics, we examine…

  2. Using Social Networking in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Elizabeth Blakesley

    2009-01-01

    With celebrities discussing Twitter on television talk shows, Facebook being used by people to share pictures of their grandchildren, and academic seminars being delivered in Second Life, it is hard to get through a day without being faced with some sort of social networking tool. Librarians often talk about the importance of outreach and of…

  3. Unravelling the Social Network: Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) amongst children and young people in compulsory education, relatively little scholarly work has explored the fundamental issues at stake. This paper makes an original contribution to the field by locating the study of this online activity within the broader terrain of social…

  4. Exploring Social Networking: Developing Critical Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While schools have been using computers within their classrooms for years now, there has been a purposeful ignoring of the growing power of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Many schools ban students from accessing and using sites such as Facebook at school and many English and literacy teachers ignore or deny their value as a teaching…

  5. Social Networking Sites as a Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Casado, Noelia; Cegarra Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Wensley, Anthony; Tomaseti-Solano, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past few years, social networking sites (SNSs) have become very useful for firms, allowing companies to manage the customer-brand relationships. In this context, SNSs can be considered as a learning tool because of the brand knowledge that customers develop from these relationships. Because of the fact that knowledge in…

  6. Effects of deception in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies (‘white’ lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes social networks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of social networks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. PMID:25056625

  7. Influence of Reciprocal Links in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Sun, Gui-Quan; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2014-01-01

    How does reciprocal links affect the function of real social network? Does reciprocal link and non-reciprocal link play the same role? Previous researches haven't displayed a clear picture to us until now according to the best of our knowledge. Motivated by this, in this paper, we empirically study the influence of reciprocal links in two representative real datasets, Sina Weibo and Douban. Our results demonstrate that the reciprocal links play a more important role than non-reciprocal ones in information diffusion process. In particular, not only coverage but also the speed of the information diffusion can be significantly enhanced by considering the reciprocal effect. We give some possible explanations from the perspectives of network connectivity and efficiency. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding and application of the reciprocal effect in directed online social networks. PMID:25072242

  8. Social Networks among Residents in Recovery Homes

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard; Stevens, Ed; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Thompson, Erin; Legler, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence exists that substance abuse abstinence is enhanced when individuals in recovery are embedded in social networks that are cohesive, few studies examined the network structures underlying recovery home support systems. In two studies, we investigated the mechanisms through which social environments affect health outcomes among two samples of adult residents of recovery homes. Findings from Study 1 (n = 150) indicated that network size and the presence of relationships with other Oxford House (OH) residents both predicted future abstinence. Study 2 (n = 490) included individuals who lived in an OH residence for up to 6 months, and their personal relationship with other house residents predicted future abstinence. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23956954

  9. Managing Trust in Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Touhid; Josang, Audun; Xu, Yue

    In recent years, there is a dramatic growth in number and popularity of online social networks. There are many networks available with more than 100 million registered users such as Facebook, MySpace, QZone, Windows Live Spaces etc. People may connect, discover and share by using these online social networks. The exponential growth of online communities in the area of social networks attracts the attention of the researchers about the importance of managing trust in online environment. Users of the online social networks may share their experiences and opinions within the networks about an item which may be a product or service. The user faces the problem of evaluating trust in a service or service provider before making a choice. Recommendations may be received through a chain of friends network, so the problem for the user is to be able to evaluate various types of trust opinions and recommendations. This opinion or recommendation has a great influence to choose to use or enjoy the item by the other user of the community. Collaborative filtering system is the most popular method in recommender system. The task in collaborative filtering is to predict the utility of items to a particular user based on a database of user rates from a sample or population of other users. Because of the different taste of different people, they rate differently according to their subjective taste. If two people rate a set of items similarly, they share similar tastes. In the recommender system, this information is used to recommend items that one participant likes, to other persons in the same cluster. But the collaborative filtering system performs poor when there is insufficient previous common rating available between users; commonly known as cost start problem. To overcome the cold start problem and with the dramatic growth of online social networks, trust based approach to recommendation has emerged. This approach assumes a trust network among users and makes recommendations based on the ratings of the users that are directly or indirectly trusted by the target user.

  10. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ‘three degrees of influence’ property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. PMID:22711416

  11. Network Ecology and Adolescent Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Daniel A.; Moody, James; Diehl, David; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Thomas, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent societies—whether arising from weak, short-term classroom friendships or from close, long-term friendships—exhibit various levels of network clustering, segregation, and hierarchy. Some are rank-ordered caste systems and others are flat, cliquish worlds. Explaining the source of such structural variation remains a challenge, however, because global network features are generally treated as the agglomeration of micro-level tie-formation mechanisms, namely balance, homophily, and dominance. How do the same micro-mechanisms generate significant variation in global network structures? To answer this question we propose and test a network ecological theory that specifies the ways features of organizational environments moderate the expression of tie-formation processes, thereby generating variability in global network structures across settings. We develop this argument using longitudinal friendship data on schools (Add Health study) and classrooms (Classroom Engagement study), and by extending exponential random graph models to the study of multiple societies over time. PMID:25535409

  12. Social encounter networks: characterizing Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Danon, Leon; Read, Jonathan M.; House, Thomas A.; Vernon, Matthew C.; Keeling, Matt J.

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of infectious disease epidemiology is to understand and predict the spread of infections within human populations, with the intention of better informing decisions regarding control and intervention. However, the development of fully mechanistic models of transmission requires a quantitative understanding of social interactions and collective properties of social networks. We performed a cross-sectional study of the social contacts on given days for more than 5000 respondents in England, Scotland and Wales, through postal and online survey methods. The survey was designed to elicit detailed and previously unreported measures of the immediate social network of participants relevant to infection spread. Here, we describe individual-level contact patterns, focusing on the range of heterogeneity observed and discuss the correlations between contact patterns and other socio-demographic factors. We find that the distribution of the number of contacts approximates a power-law distribution, but postulate that total contact time (which has a shorter-tailed distribution) is more epidemiologically relevant. We observe that children, public-sector and healthcare workers have the highest number of total contact hours and are therefore most likely to catch and transmit infectious disease. Our study also quantifies the transitive connections made between an individual's contacts (or clustering); this is a key structural characteristic of social networks with important implications for disease transmission and control efficacy. Respondents' networks exhibit high levels of clustering, which varies across social settings and increases with duration, frequency of contact and distance from home. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the transmission and control of pathogens spread through close contact. PMID:23804621

  13. Googling Social Interactions: Web Search Engine Based Social Network Construction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Pan-Jun; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-01-01

    Social network analysis has long been an untiring topic of sociology. However, until the era of information technology, the availability of data, mainly collected by the traditional method of personal survey, was highly limited and prevented large-scale analysis. Recently, the exploding amount of automatically generated data has completely changed the pattern of research. For instance, the enormous amount of data from so-called high-throughput biological experiments has introduced a systematic or network viewpoint to traditional biology. Then, is “high-throughput” sociological data generation possible? Google, which has become one of the most influential symbols of the new Internet paradigm within the last ten years, might provide torrents of data sources for such study in this (now and forthcoming) digital era. We investigate social networks between people by extracting information on the Web and introduce new tools of analysis of such networks in the context of statistical physics of complex systems or socio-physics. As a concrete and illustrative example, the members of the 109th United States Senate are analyzed and it is demonstrated that the methods of construction and analysis are applicable to various other weighted networks. PMID:20657762

  14. Simulating market dynamics: interactions between consumer psychology and social networks.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Marco A; Jager, Wander

    2003-01-01

    Markets can show different types of dynamics, from quiet markets dominated by one or a few products, to markets with continual penetration of new and reintroduced products. In a previous article we explored the dynamics of markets from a psychological perspective using a multi-agent simulation model. The main results indicated that the behavioral rules dominating the artificial consumer's decision making determine the resulting market dynamics, such as fashions, lock-in, and unstable renewal. Results also show the importance of psychological variables like social networks, preferences, and the need for identity to explain the dynamics of markets. In this article we extend this work in two directions. First, we will focus on a more systematic investigation of the effects of different network structures. The previous article was based on Watts and Strogatz's approach, which describes the small-world and clustering characteristics in networks. More recent research demonstrated that many large networks display a scale-free power-law distribution for node connectivity. In terms of market dynamics this may imply that a small proportion of consumers may have an exceptional influence on the consumptive behavior of others (hubs, or early adapters). We show that market dynamics is a self-organized property depending on the interaction between the agents' decision-making process (heuristics), the product characteristics (degree of satisfaction of unit of consumption, visibility), and the structure of interactions between agents (size of network and hubs in a social network). PMID:14761255

  15. A Social Network Comparison of Low-Income Black and White Newlywed Couples

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Grace L.; Kennedy, David; Bradbury, Thomas N.; Karney, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to White families, Black families have been described as relying on extended social networks to compensate for other social and economic disadvantages. The presence or absence of supportive social networks should be especially relevant to young couples entering marriage, but to date there has been little effort to describe the social networks of comparable Black and White newlyweds. The current study addressed this gap by drawing on interviews with 57 first-married newlyweds from low-income communities to compare the composition and structure of Black and White couples’ duocentric social networks. The results indicated that low-income Black couples entered marriage at a social disadvantage relative to White couples, with more family relationships but fewer positive relationships and fewer sources of emotional support (for wives), fewer connections to married individuals, and fewer shared relationships between spouses. Black couples’ relative social disadvantages persisted even when various economic and demographic variables were controlled. PMID:25214673

  16. Degree correlations in signed social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, Valerio; Bianconi, Ginestra; Capocci, Andrea; Colaiori, Francesca; Panzarasa, Pietro

    2015-03-01

    We investigate degree correlations in two online social networks where users are connected through different types of links. We find that, while subnetworks in which links have a positive connotation, such as endorsement and trust, are characterized by assortative mixing by degree, networks in which links have a negative connotation, such as disapproval and distrust, are characterized by disassortative patterns. We introduce a class of simple theoretical models to analyze the interplay between network topology and the superimposed structure based on the sign of links. Results uncover the conditions that underpin the emergence of the patterns observed in the data, namely the assortativity of positive subnetworks and the disassortativity of negative ones. We discuss the implications of our study for the analysis of signed complex networks.

  17. Discovery of Information Diffusion Process in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanho; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jonghun

    Information diffusion analysis in social networks is of significance since it enables us to deeply understand dynamic social interactions among users. In this paper, we introduce approaches to discovering information diffusion process in social networks based on process mining. Process mining techniques are applied from three perspectives: social network analysis, process discovery and community recognition. We then present experimental results by using a real-life social network data. The proposed techniques are expected to employ as new analytical tools in online social networks such as blog and wikis for company marketers, politicians, news reporters and online writers.

  18. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-01-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks. PMID:26648549

  19. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-12-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks.

  20. Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks.

    PubMed

    Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2010-03-23

    Theoretical models suggest that social networks influence the evolution of cooperation, but to date there have been few experimental studies. Observational data suggest that a wide variety of behaviors may spread in human social networks, but subjects in such studies can choose to befriend people with similar behaviors, posing difficulty for causal inference. Here, we exploit a seminal set of laboratory experiments that originally showed that voluntary costly punishment can help sustain cooperation. In these experiments, subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of different groups to play a series of single-shot public goods games with strangers; this feature allowed us to draw networks of interactions to explore how cooperative and uncooperative behaviors spread from person to person to person. We show that, in both an ordinary public goods game and in a public goods game with punishment, focal individuals are influenced by fellow group members' contribution behavior in future interactions with other individuals who were not a party to the initial interaction. Furthermore, this influence persists for multiple periods and spreads up to three degrees of separation (from person to person to person to person). The results suggest that each additional contribution a subject makes to the public good in the first period is tripled over the course of the experiment by other subjects who are directly or indirectly influenced to contribute more as a consequence. These results show experimentally that cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks. PMID:20212120

  1. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-01-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks. PMID:26648549

  2. Information spreading on dynamic social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, information spreading on social networks has triggered an explosive attention in various disciplines. Most of previous works in this area mainly focus on discussing the effects of spreading probability or immunization strategy on static networks. However, in real systems, the peer-to-peer network structure changes constantly according to frequently social activities of users. In order to capture this dynamical property and study its impact on information spreading, in this paper, a link rewiring strategy based on the Fermi function is introduced. In the present model, the informed individuals tend to break old links and reconnect to their second-order friends with more uninformed neighbors. Simulation results on the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model with fixed recovery time T=1 indicate that the information would spread more faster and broader with the proposed rewiring strategy. Extensive analyses of the information cascade size distribution show that the spreading process of the initial steps plays a very important role, that is to say, the information will spread out if it is still survival at the beginning time. The proposed model may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of information spreading on dynamical social networks.

  3. Dynamic Social Networks in Recovery Homes

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Light, John M.; Stevens, Edward B.; Beers, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Acute treatment aftercare in the form of sober living environments—i.e., recovery houses—provide an inexpensive and effective medium-term treatment alternative for many with substance use disorders. Limited evidence suggests that house-situated social relationships and associated social support are critical determinants of how successful these residential experiences are for their members, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying these relationships. This study explored the feasibility of using dynamic social network modeling to understand house-situated longitudinal associations among individual Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) related recovery behaviors, length of residence, dyadic interpersonal trust, and dyadic confidant relationship formation processes. Trust and confidant relationships were measured 3 months apart in U.S. urban-area recovery houses, all of which were part of a network of substance use recovery homes. A stochastic actor-based model was successfully estimated from this data set. Results suggest that confidant relationships are predicted by trust, while trust is affected by recovery behaviors and length of residence. Conceptualizing recovery houses as a set of independent, evolving social networks that can be modeled jointly appears to be a promising direction for research. PMID:24217855

  4. A practical guide to social networks.

    PubMed

    Cross, Rob; Liedtka, Jeanne; Weiss, Leigh

    2005-03-01

    Saying that networks are important is stating the obvious. But harnessing the power of these seemingly invisible groups to achieve organizational goals is an elusive undertaking. Most efforts to promote collaboration are haphazard and built on the implicit philosophy that more connectivity is better. In truth, networks create relational demands that sap people's time and energy and can bog down entire organizations. It's crucial for executives to learn how to promote connectivity only where it benefits an organization or individual and to decrease unnecessary connections. In this article, the authors introduce three types of social networks, each of which delivers unique value. The customized response network excels at framing the ambiguous problems involved in innovation. Strategy consulting firms and new-product development groups rely on this format. By contrast, surgical teams and law firms rely mostly on the modular response network, which works best when components of the problem are known but the sequence of those components in the solution is unknown. And the routine response network is best suited for organizations like call centers, where the problems and solutions are fairly predictable but collaboration is still needed. Executives shouldn't simply hope that collaboration will spontaneously occur in the right places atthe right times in their organization. They need to develop a strategic, nuanced view of collaboration, and they must take steps to ensure that their companies support the types of social networks that best fit their goals. Drawing on examples from Novartis, the FAA, and Sallie Mae, the authors offer managers the tools they need to determine which network will deliver the best results for their organizations and which strategic investments will nurture the right degree of connectivity. PMID:15768681

  5. Exploratory community sensing in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrabrov, Alexy; Stocco, Gabriel; Cybenko, George

    2010-04-01

    Social networks generally provide an implementation of some kind of groups or communities which users can voluntarily join. Twitter does not have this functionality, and there is no notion of a formal group or community. We propose a method for identification of communities and assignment of semantic meaning to the discussion topics of the resulting communities. Using this analysis method and a sample of roughly a month's worth of Tweets from Twitter's "gardenhose" feed, we demonstrate the discovery of meaningful user communities on Twitter. We examine Twitter data streaming in real time and treat it as a sensor. Twitter is a social network which pioneered microblogging with the messages fitting an SMS, and a variety of clients, browsers, smart phones and PDAs are used for status updates by individuals, businesses, media outlets and even devices all over the world. Often an aggregate trend of such statuses may represent an important development in the world, which has been demonstrated with the Iran and Moldova elections and the anniversary of the Tiananmen in China. We propose using Twitter as a sensor, tracking individuals and communities of interest, and characterizing individual roles and dynamics of their communications. We developed a novel algorithm of community identification in social networks based on direct communication, as opposed to linking. We show ways to find communities of interest and then browse their neighborhoods by either similarity or diversity of individuals and groups adjacent to the one of interest. We use frequent collocations and statistically improbable phrases to summarize the focus of the community, giving a quick overview of its main topics. Our methods provide insight into the largest social sensor network in the world and constitute a platform for social sensing.

  6. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…

  7. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…

  8. Informal Learning in Social Networks: A Study of the Orkut Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisboa, Eliana Santana; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical study which characterises the virtual communities of the Orkut social network, focusing in particular on education, training and technology, in order to understand whether this and other social websites allow the development of informal learning. This empirical study, which is descriptive and exploratory, began…

  9. Informal Learning in Social Networks: A Study of the Orkut Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisboa, Eliana Santana; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical study which characterises the virtual communities of the Orkut social network, focusing in particular on education, training and technology, in order to understand whether this and other social websites allow the development of informal learning. This empirical study, which is descriptive and exploratory, began…

  10. Exploring Educational and Cultural Adaptation through Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sherry D.; Magro, Michael J.; Sharp, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Social networking sites have seen tremendous growth and are widely used around the world. Nevertheless, the use of social networking sites in educational contexts is an under explored area. This paper uses a qualitative methodology, autoethnography, to investigate how social networking sites, specifically Facebook[TM], can help first semester…

  11. Using Social Networks to Create Powerful Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenox, Marianne; Coleman, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Regular readers of "Computers in Libraries" are aware that social networks are forming increasingly important linkages to professional and personal development in all libraries. Live and virtual social networks have become the new learning playground for librarians and library staff. Social networks have the ability to connect those who are…

  12. Using Social Networks to Create Powerful Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenox, Marianne; Coleman, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Regular readers of "Computers in Libraries" are aware that social networks are forming increasingly important linkages to professional and personal development in all libraries. Live and virtual social networks have become the new learning playground for librarians and library staff. Social networks have the ability to connect those who are…

  13. Ethnic Variations in Personal Social Networks and Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, David; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Low-income parents completed a social map and measures of self-esteem and child-rearing practices. Results indicated that American Indians had an interconnected web of kin; Hispanics, close-knit social networks; and Anglos, diffuse but supportive networks. Affective dimensions of social networks were related to parenting. Parental self-efficacy…

  14. Social Networking: Boundaries and Limits Part 1: Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Antonette; AlDoubi, Suzan; Kaminski, Karen; Anderson, Sharon K.; Isaacs, Nelda

    2014-01-01

    The number of educators, administrators, and institutions that utilize social networking has increased dramatically. Many have adopted social networking in order to be up-to-date and connected with their students' learning beyond the boundaries of the classroom. However, this increase in the use of social networking in academia presents many…

  15. Social Networking: Boundaries and Limits Part 1: Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Antonette; AlDoubi, Suzan; Kaminski, Karen; Anderson, Sharon K.; Isaacs, Nelda

    2014-01-01

    The number of educators, administrators, and institutions that utilize social networking has increased dramatically. Many have adopted social networking in order to be up-to-date and connected with their students' learning beyond the boundaries of the classroom. However, this increase in the use of social networking in academia presents many…

  16. Exploring Educational and Cultural Adaptation through Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sherry D.; Magro, Michael J.; Sharp, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Social networking sites have seen tremendous growth and are widely used around the world. Nevertheless, the use of social networking sites in educational contexts is an under explored area. This paper uses a qualitative methodology, autoethnography, to investigate how social networking sites, specifically Facebook[TM], can help first semester…

  17. Rapid innovation diffusion in social networks.

    PubMed

    Kreindler, Gabriel E; Young, H Peyton

    2014-07-22

    Social and technological innovations often spread through social networks as people respond to what their neighbors are doing. Previous research has identified specific network structures, such as local clustering, that promote rapid diffusion. Here we derive bounds that are independent of network structure and size, such that diffusion is fast whenever the payoff gain from the innovation is sufficiently high and the agents' responses are sufficiently noisy. We also provide a simple method for computing an upper bound on the expected time it takes for the innovation to become established in any finite network. For example, if agents choose log-linear responses to what their neighbors are doing, it takes on average less than 80 revision periods for the innovation to diffuse widely in any network, provided that the error rate is at least 5% and the payoff gain (relative to the status quo) is at least 150%. Qualitatively similar results hold for other smoothed best-response functions and populations that experience heterogeneous payoff shocks. PMID:25024191

  18. Rapid innovation diffusion in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, Gabriel E.; Young, H. Peyton

    2014-01-01

    Social and technological innovations often spread through social networks as people respond to what their neighbors are doing. Previous research has identified specific network structures, such as local clustering, that promote rapid diffusion. Here we derive bounds that are independent of network structure and size, such that diffusion is fast whenever the payoff gain from the innovation is sufficiently high and the agents’ responses are sufficiently noisy. We also provide a simple method for computing an upper bound on the expected time it takes for the innovation to become established in any finite network. For example, if agents choose log-linear responses to what their neighbors are doing, it takes on average less than 80 revision periods for the innovation to diffuse widely in any network, provided that the error rate is at least 5% and the payoff gain (relative to the status quo) is at least 150%. Qualitatively similar results hold for other smoothed best-response functions and populations that experience heterogeneous payoff shocks. PMID:25024191

  19. Social contagion of risk perceptions in environmental management networks.

    PubMed

    Muter, Bret A; Gore, Meredith L; Riley, Shawn J

    2013-08-01

    An important requisite for improving risk communication practice related to contentious environmental issues is having a better theoretical understanding of how risk perceptions function in real-world social systems. Our study applied Scherer and Cho's social network contagion theory of risk perception (SNCTRP) to cormorant management (a contentious environmental management issue) in the Great Lakes Basin to: (1) assess contagion effects on cormorant-related risk perceptions and individual factors believed to influence those perceptions and (2) explore the extent of social contagion in a full network (consisting of interactions between and among experts and laypeople) and three "isolated" models separating different types of interactions from the full network (i.e., expert-to-expert, layperson-to-layperson, and expert-to-layperson). We conducted interviews and administered questionnaires with experts (e.g., natural resource professionals) and laypeople (e.g., recreational and commercial anglers, business owners, bird enthusiasts) engaged in cormorant management in northern Lake Huron (n = 115). Our findings generally support the SNCTRP; however, the scope and scale of social contagion varied considerably based on the variables (e.g., individual risk perception factors), actors (i.e., experts or laypeople), and interactions of interest. Contagion effects were identified more frequently, and were stronger, in the models containing interactions between experts and laypeople than in those models containing only interactions among experts or laypeople. PMID:23231537

  20. Social selection and peer influence in an online social network.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevin; Gonzalez, Marco; Kaufman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Disentangling the effects of selection and influence is one of social science's greatest unsolved puzzles: Do people befriend others who are similar to them, or do they become more similar to their friends over time? Recent advances in stochastic actor-based modeling, combined with self-reported data on a popular online social network site, allow us to address this question with a greater degree of precision than has heretofore been possible. Using data on the Facebook activity of a cohort of college students over 4 years, we find that students who share certain tastes in music and in movies, but not in books, are significantly likely to befriend one another. Meanwhile, we find little evidence for the diffusion of tastes among Facebook friends-except for tastes in classical/jazz music. These findings shed light on the mechanisms responsible for observed network homogeneity; provide a statistically rigorous assessment of the coevolution of cultural tastes and social relationships; and suggest important qualifications to our understanding of both homophily and contagion as generic social processes. PMID:22184242

  1. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A

    2014-09-16

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  2. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  3. From biological and social network metaphors to coupled bio-social wireless networks

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Anil Kumar, V.S.; Marathe, Madhav V.

    2010-01-01

    Biological and social analogies have been long applied to complex systems. Inspiration has been drawn from biological solutions to solve problems in engineering products and systems, ranging from Velcro to camouflage to robotics to adaptive and learning computing methods. In this paper, we present an overview of recent advances in understanding biological systems as networks and use this understanding to design and analyse wireless communication networks. We expand on two applications, namely cognitive sensing and control and wireless epidemiology. We discuss how our work in these two applications is motivated by biological metaphors. We believe that recent advances in computing and communications coupled with advances in health and social sciences raise the possibility of studying coupled bio-social communication networks. We argue that we can better utilise the advances in our understanding of one class of networks to better our understanding of the other. PMID:21643462

  4. Social network based microblog user behavior analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiang; Wu, Lianren; Zheng, Lan

    2013-04-01

    The influence of microblog on information transmission is becoming more and more obvious. By characterizing the behavior of following and being followed as out-degree and in-degree respectively, a microblog social network was built in this paper. It was found to have short diameter of connected graph, short average path length and high average clustering coefficient. The distributions of out-degree, in-degree and total number of microblogs posted present power-law characters. The exponent of total number distribution of microblogs is negatively correlated with the degree of each user. With the increase of degree, the exponent decreases much slower. Based on empirical analysis, we proposed a social network based human dynamics model in this paper, and pointed out that inducing drive and spontaneous drive lead to the behavior of posting microblogs. The simulation results of our model match well with practical situation.

  5. Privacy policies for health social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data. PMID:23599228

  6. Privacy policies for health social networking sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data. PMID:23599228

  7. Message framing in social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. PMID:23786169

  8. Cooperative networks overcoming defectors by social influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    We address the cooperation problem in structured populations by considering the prisoner’s dilemma game as a metaphor of the social interactions between individuals with imitation capacity. We present a new strategy update rule called democratic weighted update where the individual’s behavior is socially influenced by each one of their neighbors. In particular, the capacity of an individual to socially influence other ones is proportional to its accumulated payoff. When in a neighborhood there are cooperators and defectors, the focal player is contradictorily influenced by them and, therefore, the effective social influence is given by the difference of the accumulated payoff of each strategy in its neighborhood. First, by considering the growing process of the network and neglecting mutations, we show the evolution of highly cooperative systems. Then, we broadly show that the social influence allows to overcome the emergence of defectors into highly cooperative systems. In this way, we conclude that in a structured system formed by a growing process, the cooperation evolves if the individuals have an imitation capacity socially influenced by each one of their neighbors. Therefore, here we present a theoretical solution of the cooperation problem among genetically unrelated individuals.

  9. Communication Dynamics in Finite Capacity Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerter, Jan O.; Jamtveit, Bjørn; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2012-10-01

    In communication networks, structure and dynamics are tightly coupled. The structure controls the flow of information and is itself shaped by the dynamical process of information exchanged between nodes. In order to reconcile structure and dynamics, a generic model, based on the local interaction between nodes, is considered for the communication in large social networks. In agreement with data from a large human organization, we show that the flow is non-Markovian and controlled by the temporal limitations of individuals. We confirm the versatility of our model by predicting simultaneously the degree-dependent node activity, the balance between information input and output of nodes, and the degree distribution. Finally, we quantify the limitations to network analysis when it is based on data sampled over a finite period of time.

  10. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    PubMed Central

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-01-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime). PMID:25395989

  11. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-06-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime).

  12. On-light: optical social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionísio, Rogério P.

    2014-07-01

    Social networks are a recent phenomenon of communication, with a high prevalence of young users. This concept serves as a motto for a multidisciplinary project, which aims to create a simple communication network, using light as the transmission medium. Mixed team, composed by students from secondary and higher education schools, are partners on the development of an optical transceiver. A LED lamp array and a small photodiode are the optical transmitter and receiver, respectively. Using several transceivers aligned with each other, this configuration creates a ring communication network, enabling the exchange of messages between users. Through this project, some concepts addressed in physics classes from secondary schools (e.g. photoelectric phenomena and the properties of light) are experimentally verified and used to communicate, in a classroom or a laboratory.

  13. Targeted Cooperative Actions Shape Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wardil, Lucas; Hauert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Individual acts of cooperation give rise to dynamic social networks. Traditionally, models for cooperation in structured populations are based on a separation of individual strategies and of population structure. Individuals adopt a strategy—typically cooperation or defection, which determines their behaviour toward their neighbours as defined by an interaction network. Here, we report a behavioural experiment that amalgamates strategies and structure to empirically investigate the dynamics of social networks. The action of paying a cost c to provide a benefit b is represented as a directed link point from the donor to the recipient. Participants can add and/or remove links to up to two recipients in each round. First, we show that dense networks emerge, where individuals are characterized by fairness: they receive to the same extent they provide. More specifically, we investigate how participants use information about the generosity and payoff of others to update their links. It turns out that aversion to payoff inequity was the most consistent update rule: adding links to individuals that are worse off and removing links to individuals that are better off. We then investigate the effect of direct reciprocation, showing that the possibility of direct reciprocation does not increase cooperation as compared to the treatment where participants are totally unaware of who is providing benefits to them. PMID:26824240

  14. Place-Based Social Network Quality and Correlates of Substance Use among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Valente, Thomas W.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Mennis, Jeremy; Lawrence, Frank; Zelenak, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 301 Philadelphia adolescents were assessed for substance use and place-based social network quality, a weighted variable based upon risky and protective behaviors of alters. The network measure was anchored in routine locations identified as safe, risky, important, or favorite. Results show young females' (13-16) substance use was…

  15. Rumor diffusion in an interests-based dynamic social network.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia; Zhou, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    To research rumor diffusion in social friend network, based on interests, a dynamic friend network is proposed, which has the characteristics of clustering and community, and a diffusion model is also proposed. With this friend network and rumor diffusion model, based on the zombie-city model, some simulation experiments to analyze the characteristics of rumor diffusion in social friend networks have been conducted. The results show some interesting observations: (1) positive information may evolve to become a rumor through the diffusion process that people may modify the information by word of mouth; (2) with the same average degree, a random social network has a smaller clustering coefficient and is more beneficial for rumor diffusion than the dynamic friend network; (3) a rumor is spread more widely in a social network with a smaller global clustering coefficient than in a social network with a larger global clustering coefficient; and (4) a network with a smaller clustering coefficient has a larger efficiency. PMID:24453911

  16. Rumor Diffusion in an Interests-Based Dynamic Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia; Zhou, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    To research rumor diffusion in social friend network, based on interests, a dynamic friend network is proposed, which has the characteristics of clustering and community, and a diffusion model is also proposed. With this friend network and rumor diffusion model, based on the zombie-city model, some simulation experiments to analyze the characteristics of rumor diffusion in social friend networks have been conducted. The results show some interesting observations: (1) positive information may evolve to become a rumor through the diffusion process that people may modify the information by word of mouth; (2) with the same average degree, a random social network has a smaller clustering coefficient and is more beneficial for rumor diffusion than the dynamic friend network; (3) a rumor is spread more widely in a social network with a smaller global clustering coefficient than in a social network with a larger global clustering coefficient; and (4) a network with a smaller clustering coefficient has a larger efficiency. PMID:24453911

  17. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: Results of an Online Survey.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Stickel, Anna; Schneider, Michael; Müller, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Current research on Internet addiction (IA) reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS) and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterize adult users of an Internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). All participants were listed gamers of "Combat Zone" in the SNS "Facebook." In this sample, 16.2% of the participants were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5% fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of Internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies. PMID:26217238

  18. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: Results of an Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Stickel, Anna; Schneider, Michael; Müller, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    Current research on Internet addiction (IA) reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS) and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterize adult users of an Internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). All participants were listed gamers of “Combat Zone” in the SNS “Facebook.” In this sample, 16.2% of the participants were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5% fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of Internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies. PMID:26217238

  19. Threshold learning dynamics in social networks.

    PubMed

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguíluz, Victor M; Marsili, Matteo; Vega-Redondo, Fernado; San Miguel, Maxi

    2011-01-01

    Social learning is defined as the ability of a population to aggregate information, a process which must crucially depend on the mechanisms of social interaction. Consumers choosing which product to buy, or voters deciding which option to take with respect to an important issue, typically confront external signals to the information gathered from their contacts. Economic models typically predict that correct social learning occurs in large populations unless some individuals display unbounded influence. We challenge this conclusion by showing that an intuitive threshold process of individual adjustment does not always lead to such social learning. We find, specifically, that three generic regimes exist separated by sharp discontinuous transitions. And only in one of them, where the threshold is within a suitable intermediate range, the population learns the correct information. In the other two, where the threshold is either too high or too low, the system either freezes or enters into persistent flux, respectively. These regimes are generally observed in different social networks (both complex or regular), but limited interaction is found to promote correct learning by enlarging the parameter region where it occurs. PMID:21637714

  20. Threshold Learning Dynamics in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguíluz, Victor M.; Marsili, Matteo; Vega-Redondo, Fernado; San Miguel, Maxi

    2011-01-01

    Social learning is defined as the ability of a population to aggregate information, a process which must crucially depend on the mechanisms of social interaction. Consumers choosing which product to buy, or voters deciding which option to take with respect to an important issue, typically confront external signals to the information gathered from their contacts. Economic models typically predict that correct social learning occurs in large populations unless some individuals display unbounded influence. We challenge this conclusion by showing that an intuitive threshold process of individual adjustment does not always lead to such social learning. We find, specifically, that three generic regimes exist separated by sharp discontinuous transitions. And only in one of them, where the threshold is within a suitable intermediate range, the population learns the correct information. In the other two, where the threshold is either too high or too low, the system either freezes or enters into persistent flux, respectively. These regimes are generally observed in different social networks (both complex or regular), but limited interaction is found to promote correct learning by enlarging the parameter region where it occurs. PMID:21637714

  1. Practicing what they preach: health behaviors of those who provide health advice to extensive social networks.

    PubMed

    Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan; Atienza, Audie A; Weber, Deanne; Taylor, Melissa; Uy, Christina; Yaroch, Amy

    2009-03-01

    As a way of identifying a conduit to disseminate health information, this study aims to explore health behaviors and attitudes of a unique group of extensively socially-networked individuals who regularly are asked for their health advice. Respondents from a population-based consumer opinion panel (n = 2,639) were categorized as "extensively socially-networked" (75+ friends and acquaintances, and almost daily giving friends advice on general issues) vs. "non-networked." The networked respondents were further divided into "health-networked" (regularly asked for health advice) versus "only-socially-networked" groups (asked for general advice, not health). Chi-square analyses, ANOVA tests, and multivariate regressions controlling for sociodemographic variables compared health behaviors and attitudes between groups. Results indicated that health-networked individuals reported more positive health behaviors (e.g., fruit and vegetable consumption) and attitudes than only-socially-networked and non-networked individuals. Future research is warranted to elucidate how providing health advice to a large network contributes to the positive health of health-networked individuals. Exploratory analyses revealed that doctors and health/fitness magazines were main sources of health and nutrition information for health-networked respondents. Through their advice and word-of-mouth, health-networked individuals have the potential to influence the health information of large groups of people and, therefore, may serve as valuable change agents to disseminate health and nutrition information. PMID:19283537

  2. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  3. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  4. Modelling opinion formation driven communities in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Barrio, Rafael A.; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo K.

    2011-09-01

    In a previous paper we proposed a model to study the dynamics of opinion formation in human societies by a co-evolution process involving two distinct time scales of fast transaction and slower network evolution dynamics. In the transaction dynamics we take into account short range interactions as discussions between individuals and long range interactions to describe the attitude to the overall mood of society. The latter is handled by a uniformly distributed parameter ?, assigned randomly to each individual, as quenched personal bias. The network evolution dynamics is realised by rewiring the societal network due to state variable changes as a result of transaction dynamics. The main consequence of this complex dynamics is that communities emerge in the social network for a range of values in the ratio between time scales. In this paper we focus our attention on the attitude parameter ? and its influence on the conformation of opinion and the size of the resulting communities. We present numerical studies and extract interesting features of the model that can be interpreted in terms of social behaviour.

  5. Trust and compactness in social network groups.

    PubMed

    De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Rosaci, Domenico; Sarné, Giuseppe M L

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind group formation and evolution in social networks is considered an instrumental milestone to better describe how individuals gather and form communities, how they enjoy and share the platform contents, how they are driven by their preferences/tastes, and how their behaviors are influenced by peers. In this context, the notion of compactness of a social group is particularly relevant. While the literature usually refers to compactness as a measure to merely determine how much members of a group are similar among each other, we argue that the mutual trustworthiness between the members should be considered as an important factor in defining such a term. In fact, trust has profound effects on the dynamics of group formation and their evolution: individuals are more likely to join with and stay in a group if they can trust other group members. In this paper, we propose a quantitative measure of group compactness that takes into account both the similarity and the trustworthiness among users, and we present an algorithm to optimize such a measure. We provide empirical results, obtained from the real social networks EPINIONS and CIAO, that compare our notion of compactness versus the traditional notion of user similarity, clearly proving the advantages of our approach. PMID:25099965

  6. Social Network Theory in Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Peter A.

    Collaborative groups are important both in the learning environment of engineering education and, in the real world, the business of engineering design. Selecting appropriate individuals to form an effective group and monitoring a group's progress are important aspects of successful task performance. This exploratory study looked at using the concepts of cognitive social structures, structural balance, and centrality from social network analysis as well as the measures of emotional intelligence. The concepts were used to analyze potential team members to examine if an individual's ability to perceive emotion in others and the self and to use, understand, and manage those emotions are a factor in a group's performance. The students from a capstone design course in computer engineering were used as volunteer subjects. They were formed into groups and assigned a design exercise to determine whether and which of the above-mentioned tools would be effective in both selecting teams and predicting the quality of the resultant design. The results were inconclusive with the exception of an individual's ability to accurately perceive emotions. The instruments that were successful were the Self-Monitoring scale and the accuracy scores derived from cognitive social structures and Level IV of network levels of analysis.

  7. Social Networking and the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of Adolescents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Amanda; Bower, Julie; Carroll, Annemaree

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social networking tools and sites are changing the way young people build and maintain their social connections with others (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). This study utilised a new measure, The Self in a Social Context, Virtual Connectedness subscale (SSC-VC subscale), to examine the effects of social networking tools and sites on…

  8. The Influence of Social Networking Sites on High School Students' Social and Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, June

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of social network sites on youth social and academic development. First, I provide a critical analysis of the extant research literature surrounding social network sites and youth. I merge scholarly thought in the areas of Internet studies, digital divides, social capital theory, psychological well-being,…

  9. Help from My "Friends": Social Capital in the Social Network Sites of Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The development of social capital in young people is positively associated with educational attainment, achievement, and psychosocial factors. Prior research has explored factors that contribute to social capital, such as offline social networks. To a lesser extent, studies have analyzed the relationship between online social networks and…

  10. Help from My "Friends": Social Capital in the Social Network Sites of Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The development of social capital in young people is positively associated with educational attainment, achievement, and psychosocial factors. Prior research has explored factors that contribute to social capital, such as offline social networks. To a lesser extent, studies have analyzed the relationship between online social networks and…

  11. Social Networking and the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of Adolescents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Amanda; Bower, Julie; Carroll, Annemaree

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social networking tools and sites are changing the way young people build and maintain their social connections with others (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). This study utilised a new measure, The Self in a Social Context, Virtual Connectedness subscale (SSC-VC subscale), to examine the effects of social networking tools and sites on…

  12. The Influence of Social Networking Sites on High School Students' Social and Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, June

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of social network sites on youth social and academic development. First, I provide a critical analysis of the extant research literature surrounding social network sites and youth. I merge scholarly thought in the areas of Internet studies, digital divides, social capital theory, psychological well-being,…

  13. Constructing, conducting and interpreting animal social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Farine, Damien R; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-09-01

    1. Animal social networks are descriptions of social structure which, aside from their intrinsic interest for understanding sociality, can have significant bearing across many fields of biology. 2. Network analysis provides a flexible toolbox for testing a broad range of hypotheses, and for describing the social system of species or populations in a quantitative and comparable manner. However, it requires careful consideration of underlying assumptions, in particular differentiating real from observed networks and controlling for inherent biases that are common in social data. 3. We provide a practical guide for using this framework to analyse animal social systems and test hypotheses. First, we discuss key considerations when defining nodes and edges, and when designing methods for collecting data. We discuss different approaches for inferring social networks from these data and displaying them. We then provide an overview of methods for quantifying properties of nodes and networks, as well as for testing hypotheses concerning network structure and network processes. Finally, we provide information about assessing the power and accuracy of an observed network. 4. Alongside this manuscript, we provide appendices containing background information on common programming routines and worked examples of how to perform network analysis using the r programming language. 5. We conclude by discussing some of the major current challenges in social network analysis and interesting future directions. In particular, we highlight the under-exploited potential of experimental manipulations on social networks to address research questions. PMID:26172345

  14. Social Networking Adapted for Distributed Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    Share is a social networking site with novel, specially designed feature sets to enable simultaneous remote collaboration and sharing of large data sets among scientists. The site will include not only the standard features found on popular consumer-oriented social networking sites such as Facebook and Myspace, but also a number of powerful tools to extend its functionality to a science collaboration site. A Virtual Observatory is a promising technology for making data accessible from various missions and instruments through a Web browser. Sci-Share augments services provided by Virtual Observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase science returns from NASA missions. Sci-Share also enables better utilization of NASA s high-performance computing resources by providing an easy and central mechanism to access and share large files on users space or those saved on mass storage. The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today remains the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. Each of these tools has well-known limitations. Sci-Share transforms the social networking paradigm into a scientific collaboration environment by offering powerful tools for cooperative discourse and digital content sharing. Sci-Share differentiates itself by serving as an online repository for users digital content with the following unique features: a) Sharing of any file type, any size, from anywhere; b) Creation of projects and groups for controlled sharing; c) Module for sharing files on HPC (High Performance Computing) sites; d) Universal accessibility of staged files as embedded links on other sites (e.g. Facebook) and tools (e.g. e-mail); e) Drag-and-drop transfer of large files, replacing awkward e-mail attachments (and file size limitations); f) Enterprise-level data and messaging encryption; and g) Easy-to-use intuitive workflow.

  15. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples. PMID:24001298

  16. The Changing Nature of Suicide Attacks: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedahzur, Ami; Perliger, Arie

    2006-01-01

    To comprehend the developments underlying the suicide attacks of recent years, we suggest that the organizational approach, which until recently was used to explain this phenomenon, should be complemented with a social network perspective. By employing a social network analysis of Palestinian suicide networks, the authors found that, in contrast…

  17. Social network analysis realization and exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Jack H.; Nolan, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Intelligence analysts demand rapid information fusion capabilities to develop and maintain accurate situational awareness and understanding of dynamic enemy threats in asymmetric military operations. The ability to extract meaning in relationships between people, objects, and locations from a variety of unstructured text datasets is critical to proactive decision making. Additionally, the ability to automatically cluster text documents about entities and discover connections between those documents allows the analyst to navigate an extremely large collection of documents. Analysts also demand a temporal understanding of the extracted relationships between entities and connections between documents. We describe approaches to automatically realize the social networks via concept extraction, relationship extraction, and document connection algorithms; we also describe approaches to exploit the network by visualizing the results to the analyst such that changes over time are evident.

  18. Transfer of Training: Adding Insight through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews studies which apply a social network perspective to examine transfer of training. The theory behind social networks focuses on the interpersonal mechanisms and social structures that exist among interacting units such as people within an organization. A premise of this perspective is that individual's behaviors and outcomes…

  19. Transfer of Training: Adding Insight through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews studies which apply a social network perspective to examine transfer of training. The theory behind social networks focuses on the interpersonal mechanisms and social structures that exist among interacting units such as people within an organization. A premise of this perspective is that individual's behaviors and outcomes…

  20. Social Networking Technologies: A "Poke" for Campus Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Joanne; Berquam, Lori; Christoph, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Handwritten notes, meeting for coffee, eye contact, a handshake, a smile--are these social practices of yesteryear, soon to be replaced by the "wall posts" and "pokes" of today's social networking technologies? Although advances in social networking technologies allow for new and perhaps more efficient means of learning and communicating, they…

  1. The Need for a Social Network 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Bernd W.

    2011-01-01

    At the 2011 ALA conference, social media was still a topic of many discussions. For the past few years, librarians have shared their efforts to incorporate social networking applications like Facebook and Twitter as part of library services. Some librarians have taken on the challenge of establishing a social network for their library, while…

  2. The Need for a Social Network 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Bernd W.

    2011-01-01

    At the 2011 ALA conference, social media was still a topic of many discussions. For the past few years, librarians have shared their efforts to incorporate social networking applications like Facebook and Twitter as part of library services. Some librarians have taken on the challenge of establishing a social network for their library, while…

  3. Social Networking Technologies: A "Poke" for Campus Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Joanne; Berquam, Lori; Christoph, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Handwritten notes, meeting for coffee, eye contact, a handshake, a smile--are these social practices of yesteryear, soon to be replaced by the "wall posts" and "pokes" of today's social networking technologies? Although advances in social networking technologies allow for new and perhaps more efficient means of learning and communicating, they…

  4. Legal Risks for Students Using Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael; de Zwart, Melissa; Lindsay, David; Phillips, Michael

    2010-01-01

    There are significant privacy, intellectual property, copyright and disclosure risks associated with the ill-considered use of social networking sites, however, the implementation of regulatory actions may also undermine the social and emerging educational utility of social networking sites for young people. Inevitably the burden of dealing with…

  5. Improving Family Forest Knowledge Transfer through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorczyca, Erika L.; Lyons, Patrick W.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Johnson, Teresa R.; Straub, Crista L.

    2012-01-01

    To better engage Maine's family forest landowners our study used social network analysis: a computational social science method for identifying stakeholders, evaluating models of engagement, and targeting areas for enhanced partnerships. Interviews with researchers associated with a research center were conducted to identify how social network…

  6. Do Social Network Characteristics Predict Mammography Screening Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many breast cancer outreach programs assume that dissemination of information through social networks and provision of social support will promote screening. The authors prospectively examined the relationship between social network characteristics and adherence to screening guidelines. Method: Employed women age 40 years and older…

  7. Improving Student Engagement Using Course-Based Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imlawi, Jehad Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes an engagement model that supports use of course-based online social networks for engaging student, and hence, improving their educational outcomes. This research demonstrates that instructors who create course-based online social networks to communicate with students can increase the student engagement in these online social…

  8. Social networking: applications for health care recruitment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Judith

    2007-01-01

    In today's competitive landscape for health care talent, nursing executives and human resource professionals need to assess and evaluate new avenues for recruitment. The strategy of filling positions by means of print advertising is becoming outmoded quickly. As an industry, health care typically lags behind other industries when it relates to technology. This is especially true in implementing any interactive strategies to target hard-to-fill positions. Social networking sites have appeared on the Internet landscape quickly and continue to flourish. Nurse leaders need to capitalize on this phenomenon. PMID:18080628

  9. Assessing group interaction with social language network analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Pennebaker, James; Scholand, Andrew Joseph; Tausczik, Yla R.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.

  10. Assessing Group Interaction with Social Language Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholand, Andrew J.; Tausczik, Yla R.; Pennebaker, James W.

    In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.

  11. Optimizing online social networks for information propagation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan-Bing; Wang, Guan-Nan; Zeng, An; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Online users nowadays are facing serious information overload problem. In recent years, recommender systems have been widely studied to help people find relevant information. Adaptive social recommendation is one of these systems in which the connections in the online social networks are optimized for the information propagation so that users can receive interesting news or stories from their leaders. Validation of such adaptive social recommendation methods in the literature assumes uniform distribution of users' activity frequency. In this paper, our empirical analysis shows that the distribution of online users' activity is actually heterogenous. Accordingly, we propose a more realistic multi-agent model in which users' activity frequency are drawn from a power-law distribution. We find that previous social recommendation methods lead to serious delay of information propagation since many users are connected to inactive leaders. To solve this problem, we design a new similarity measure which takes into account users' activity frequencies. With this similarity measure, the average delay is significantly shortened and the recommendation accuracy is largely improved. PMID:24816894

  12. Optimizing Online Social Networks for Information Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duan-Bing; Wang, Guan-Nan; Zeng, An; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Online users nowadays are facing serious information overload problem. In recent years, recommender systems have been widely studied to help people find relevant information. Adaptive social recommendation is one of these systems in which the connections in the online social networks are optimized for the information propagation so that users can receive interesting news or stories from their leaders. Validation of such adaptive social recommendation methods in the literature assumes uniform distribution of users' activity frequency. In this paper, our empirical analysis shows that the distribution of online users' activity is actually heterogenous. Accordingly, we propose a more realistic multi-agent model in which users' activity frequency are drawn from a power-law distribution. We find that previous social recommendation methods lead to serious delay of information propagation since many users are connected to inactive leaders. To solve this problem, we design a new similarity measure which takes into account users' activity frequencies. With this similarity measure, the average delay is significantly shortened and the recommendation accuracy is largely improved. PMID:24816894

  13. Order-disorder phase transition in a cliquey social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wołoszyn, M.; Stauffer, D.; Kułakowski, K.

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the network model of community by Watts, Dodds and Newman (D.J. Watts et al., Science 296, 1302 (2002)) as a hierarchy of groups, each of 5 individuals. A homophily parameter α controls the probability proportional to exp (-αx) of selection of neighbours against distance x. The network nodes are endowed with spin-like variables si = ± 1, with Ising interaction J > 0. The Glauber dynamics is used to investigate the order-disorder transition. The transition temperature Tc is close to 3.8 for α < 0.0 and it falls down to zero above this value. The result provides a mathematical illustration of the social ability to a collective action via weak ties, as discussed by Granovetter in 1973.

  14. Social Networks of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Erosheva, Elena A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines global social networks—including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks—of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Design and Methods Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Results Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. Implications According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. PMID:25882129

  15. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  16. Local Nash Equilibrium in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M. A.; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures. PMID:25169150

  17. Local Nash equilibrium in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures. PMID:25169150

  18. Social networks--the future for health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Frances; Cave, Jonathan; Boardman, Felicity; Ren, Justin; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Ball, Robin; Clarke, Aileen; Cohen, Alan

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid growth of online social networking for health, health care systems are experiencing an inescapable increase in complexity. This is not necessarily a drawback; self-organising, adaptive networks could become central to future health care delivery. This paper considers whether social networks composed of patients and their social circles can compete with, or complement, professional networks in assembling health-related information of value for improving health and health care. Using the framework of analysis of a two-sided network--patients and providers--with multiple platforms for interaction, we argue that the structure and dynamics of such a network has implications for future health care. Patients are using social networking to access and contribute health information. Among those living with chronic illness and disability and engaging with social networks, there is considerable expertise in assessing, combining and exploiting information. Social networking is providing a new landscape for patients to assemble health information, relatively free from the constraints of traditional health care. However, health information from social networks currently complements traditional sources rather than substituting for them. Networking among health care provider organisations is enabling greater exploitation of health information for health care planning. The platforms of interaction are also changing. Patient-doctor encounters are now more permeable to influence from social networks and professional networks. Diffuse and temporary platforms of interaction enable discourse between patients and professionals, and include platforms controlled by patients. We argue that social networking has the potential to change patterns of health inequalities and access to health care, alter the stability of health care provision and lead to a reformulation of the role of health professionals. Further research is needed to understand how network structure combined with its dynamics will affect the flow of information and potentially the allocation of health care resources. PMID:22985490

  19. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  20. Novel Visualizations and Interactions for Social Networks Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riche, Nathalie Henry; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    In the last decade, the popularity of social networking applications has dramatically increased. Social networks are collection of persons or organizations connected by relations. Members of Facebook listed as friends or persons connected by family ties in genealogical trees are examples of social networks. Today's web surfers are often part of many online social networks: they communicate in groups or forums on topics of interests, exchange emails with their friends and colleagues, express their ideas on public blogs, share videos on YouTube, exchange and comment photos on Flickr, participate to the edition of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia or contribute to daily news by collaborating to Wikinews or Agoravox.

  1. The Educational Effects of Rural Adolescents' Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Kusum; Dika, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    This study explored the social networks and sources of social support for rural high-school adolescents and how these are related to educational and psychological outcomes. We examined quality, frequency. and nature of social relationships of high school students to understand how size, density, heterogeneity, compositional quality of social…

  2. Predictive Coding of Dynamical Variables in Balanced Spiking Networks

    PubMed Central

    Boerlin, Martin; Machens, Christian K.; Denève, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Two observations about the cortex have puzzled neuroscientists for a long time. First, neural responses are highly variable. Second, the level of excitation and inhibition received by each neuron is tightly balanced at all times. Here, we demonstrate that both properties are necessary consequences of neural networks that represent information efficiently in their spikes. We illustrate this insight with spiking networks that represent dynamical variables. Our approach is based on two assumptions: We assume that information about dynamical variables can be read out linearly from neural spike trains, and we assume that neurons only fire a spike if that improves the representation of the dynamical variables. Based on these assumptions, we derive a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons that is able to implement arbitrary linear dynamical systems. We show that the membrane voltage of the neurons is equivalent to a prediction error about a common population-level signal. Among other things, our approach allows us to construct an integrator network of spiking neurons that is robust against many perturbations. Most importantly, neural variability in our networks cannot be equated to noise. Despite exhibiting the same single unit properties as widely used population code models (e.g. tuning curves, Poisson distributed spike trains), balanced networks are orders of magnitudes more reliable. Our approach suggests that spikes do matter when considering how the brain computes, and that the reliability of cortical representations could have been strongly underestimated. PMID:24244113

  3. Pinning impulsive synchronization of complex-variable dynamical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaoyan; Liu, Danfeng; Ye, Qingling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, pinning combining with impulsive control scheme is adopted to investigate the synchronization of complex-variable dynamical network. Based on the Lyapunov function method and mathematical analysis technique, sufficient conditions for achieving synchronization is first analytically derived. This result extends the condition derived for real-variable dynamical network to complex-variable network. Further, adaptive strategy is adopted to relax the restrictions on the impulsive intervals and reduce the control cost. Noticeably, the proposed adaptive pinning impulsive control scheme is universal for different dynamical networks to some extent. The impulsive instants are chosen by solving a series of maximum problems subject to the derived conditions. Several numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness and correctness of the derived theoretical results.

  4. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, R.J., Jr.; Acevedo, M.A.; Reichert, Brian E.; Pias, Kyle E.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data.

  5. Social networking in online support groups for health: how online social networking benefits patients.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of online support groups (OSGs) have embraced the features of social networking. So far, little is known about how patients use and benefit from these features. By implementing the uses-and-gratifications framework, the author conducted an online survey with current users of OSGs to examine associations among motivation, use of specific features of OSG, and support outcomes. Findings suggest that OSG users make selective use of varied features depending on their needs, and that perceptions of receiving emotional and informational support are associated more with the use of some features than others. For example, those with strong motivation for social interaction use diverse features of OSG and make one-to-one connections with other users by friending. In contrast, those with strong motivation for information seeking limit their use primarily to discussion boards. Results also show that online social networking features, such as friending and sharing of personal stories on blogs, are helpful in satisfying the need for emotional support. The present study sheds light on online social networking features in the context of health-related OSGs and provides practical lessons on how to improve the capacity of OSGs to serve the needs of their users. PMID:23557148

  6. Resolving Structural Variability in Network Models and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Klimm, Florian; Bassett, Danielle S.; Carlson, Jean M.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale white matter pathways crisscrossing the cortex create a complex pattern of connectivity that underlies human cognitive function. Generative mechanisms for this architecture have been difficult to identify in part because little is known in general about mechanistic drivers of structured networks. Here we contrast network properties derived from diffusion spectrum imaging data of the human brain with 13 synthetic network models chosen to probe the roles of physical network embedding and temporal network growth. We characterize both the empirical and synthetic networks using familiar graph metrics, but presented here in a more complete statistical form, as scatter plots and distributions, to reveal the full range of variability of each measure across scales in the network. We focus specifically on the degree distribution, degree assortativity, hierarchy, topological Rentian scaling, and topological fractal scaling—in addition to several summary statistics, including the mean clustering coefficient, the shortest path-length, and the network diameter. The models are investigated in a progressive, branching sequence, aimed at capturing different elements thought to be important in the brain, and range from simple random and regular networks, to models that incorporate specific growth rules and constraints. We find that synthetic models that constrain the network nodes to be physically embedded in anatomical brain regions tend to produce distributions that are most similar to the corresponding measurements for the brain. We also find that network models hardcoded to display one network property (e.g., assortativity) do not in general simultaneously display a second (e.g., hierarchy). This relative independence of network properties suggests that multiple neurobiological mechanisms might be at play in the development of human brain network architecture. Together, the network models that we develop and employ provide a potentially useful starting point for the statistical inference of brain network structure from neuroimaging data. PMID:24675546

  7. Social network assessment: a critical component in case management for functionally impaired older persons.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A V

    1990-01-01

    Case managers who develop long-term care service plans for functionally impaired elderly persons must integrate the supportive efforts of the client's social network into the overall service approach. The ultimate goal is to develop a plan whereby the formal service providers supplement rather than supplant the care and assistance available from the older person's network. This article presents a framework that identifies those variables associated with the relationship dynamics that exist between older persons and their social network members. The framework can be used by case managers to help them assess the characteristics and functioning of their clients' social network relations and develop service strategies that maximize the helping efforts of those networks. PMID:2106498

  8. A last updating evolution model for online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Zhan; Xia, Zhengyou; Wang, Jiandong; Zhang, Chengcui

    2013-05-01

    As information technology has advanced, people are turning to electronic media more frequently for communication, and social relationships are increasingly found on online channels. However, there is very limited knowledge about the actual evolution of the online social networks. In this paper, we propose and study a novel evolution network model with the new concept of “last updating time”, which exists in many real-life online social networks. The last updating evolution network model can maintain the robustness of scale-free networks and can improve the network reliance against intentional attacks. What is more, we also found that it has the “small-world effect”, which is the inherent property of most social networks. Simulation experiment based on this model show that the results and the real-life data are consistent, which means that our model is valid.

  9. A Social Network Profile and HIV Risk Among Men on Methadone: Do Social Networks Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Louisa; Wu, Elwin; Chang, Mingway

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes structural and HIV-related network characteristics and examines associations between these various social network domains and HIV risk behaviors among a sample of 356 men randomly selected from a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) in New York City. Multiple logistic regression analyses suggest that (1) a higher level of perceived sexual risk among network members, referred to as “alters” in this study, was associated with an increased likelihood of the participant engaging in sexual risk behaviors; (2) participants who indicated that they exchanged encouragement with a higher number of network alters about using condoms were less likely to report engaging in unprotected sex; and (3) participants who indicated that they talked about HIV risks with a higher number of network alters were less likely to engage in unprotected sex in the past 6 months. Collectively, these findings support the notion that networks may influence the adoption of risk reduction strategies in this population. Implications of the findings for HIV prevention network interventions for men in MMTPs are discussed. PMID:16755389

  10. The Social Fabric of Elementary Schools: A Network Typology of Social Interaction among Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.; Karsten, Sjoerd; Daly, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    While researchers are currently studying various forms of social network interaction among teachers for their impact on educational policy implementation and practice, knowledge on how various types of networks are interrelated is limited. The goal of this study is to understand the dimensionality that may underlie various types of social networks…

  11. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA) provides the necessary tool kit for investigating questions involving relational data. We introduce basic concepts in SNA, along with methods for data collection, data processing, and data analysis, using a previously collected example study on an undergraduate biology classroom as a tutorial. We conduct descriptive analyses of the structure of the network of costudying relationships. We explore generative processes that create observed study networks between students and also test for an association between network position and success on exams. We also cover practical issues, such as the unique aspects of human subjects review for network studies. Our aims are to convince readers that using SNA in classroom environments allows rich and informative analyses to take place and to provide some initial tools for doing so, in the process inspiring future educational studies incorporating relational data. PMID:26086650

  12. The Effect of Social Interaction on Learning Engagement in a Social Networking Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social interactions among a class of undergraduate students on their learning engagement in a social networking environment. Thirteen undergraduate students enrolled in a course in a university in Hong Kong used an Elgg-based social networking platform throughout a semester to develop their digital portfolios…

  13. The Effect of Social Interaction on Learning Engagement in a Social Networking Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social interactions among a class of undergraduate students on their learning engagement in a social networking environment. Thirteen undergraduate students enrolled in a course in a university in Hong Kong used an Elgg-based social networking platform throughout a semester to develop their digital portfolios…

  14. Navigating Social Networking and Social Media in School Psychology: Ethical and Professional Considerations in Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Andy V.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking and social media have undoubtedly proliferated within the past decade, allowing widespread communication and dissemination of user-generated content and information. Some psychology graduate programs, including school psychology, have started to embrace social networking and media for instructional and training purposes; however,…

  15. Navigating Social Networking and Social Media in School Psychology: Ethical and Professional Considerations in Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Andy V.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking and social media have undoubtedly proliferated within the past decade, allowing widespread communication and dissemination of user-generated content and information. Some psychology graduate programs, including school psychology, have started to embrace social networking and media for instructional and training purposes; however,…

  16. Epidemic spreading in a hierarchical social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosi?ski, R. A.

    2004-09-01

    A model of epidemic spreading in a population with a hierarchical structure of interpersonal interactions is described and investigated numerically. The structure of interpersonal connections is based on a scale-free network. Spatial localization of individuals belonging to different social groups, and the mobility of a contemporary community, as well as the effectiveness of different interpersonal interactions, are taken into account. Typical relations characterizing the spreading process, like a range of epidemic and epidemic curves, are discussed. The influence of preventive vaccinations on the spreading process is investigated. The critical value of preventively vaccinated individuals that is sufficient for the suppression of an epidemic is calculated. Our results are compared with solutions of the master equation for the spreading process and good agreement of the character of this process is found.

  17. Social networking sites: a clinical dilemma?

    PubMed

    Maughan, Daniel Lawrence; Economou, Alexis

    2015-02-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are having an increasing influence on patients' lives and doctors are far from certain about how to deal with this new challenge. In our literature search, we could find no research on how doctors could engage positively with SNS to improve patient outcomes or create more patient-led care. We need to acknowledge the fact that a review of a patient's SNS page has the potential to enhance assessment and management, particularly where a corroborant history is hard to attain. As doctors, we need to think clearly about how to adapt our practice in light of this new form of communication; in particular, whether there is a case for engaging with SNS to improve patient care. PMID:24293635

  18. Using Social Network Analysis for Spam Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debarr, Dave; Wechsler, Harry

    Content filtering is a popular approach to spam detection. It focuses on analysis of the message content to identify spam. In this paper, we evaluate the use of social network analysis measures to improve the performance of a content filtering model. By measuring the degree centrality of message transfer agents, we observed performance improvements for spam detection in repeated experiments; e.g. a 70% increase in the proportion of spam detected with a false positive rate of 0.1%. We were also able to use anomaly detection to identify mislabeled messages in a publicly available spam data set. Messages claiming unusually long paths between the sender's message transfer agent and the recipient's message transfer agent turned out to be spam.

  19. A generational comparison of social networking site use: the influence of age and social identity.

    PubMed

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N=256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer communication, and social compensation. Regardless of age, participants reporting high collective self-esteem and group identity were more likely to use social networking sites for peer communication and social identity gratifications, while those reporting negative collective self-esteem were more likely to use social networking sites for social compensation. The theoretical implications of the strong relationship between social identity gratifications and social compensation are discussed. PMID:22808625

  20. Emergence, Evolution and Scaling of Online Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le-Zhi; Huang, Zi-Gang; Rong, Zhi-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Online social networks have become increasingly ubiquitous and understanding their structural, dynamical, and scaling properties not only is of fundamental interest but also has a broad range of applications. Such networks can be extremely dynamic, generated almost instantaneously by, for example, breaking-news items. We investigate a common class of online social networks, the user-user retweeting networks, by analyzing the empirical data collected from Sina Weibo (a massive twitter-like microblogging social network in China) with respect to the topic of the 2011 Japan earthquake. We uncover a number of algebraic scaling relations governing the growth and structure of the network and develop a probabilistic model that captures the basic dynamical features of the system. The model is capable of reproducing all the empirical results. Our analysis not only reveals the basic mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the retweeting networks, but also provides general insights into the control of information spreading on such networks. PMID:25380140

  1. Walk-based measure of balance in signed networks: Detecting lack of balance in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Benzi, Michele

    2014-10-01

    There is a longstanding belief that in social networks with simultaneous friendly and hostile interactions (signed networks) there is a general tendency to a global balance. Balance represents a state of the network with a lack of contentious situations. Here we introduce a method to quantify the degree of balance of any signed (social) network. It accounts for the contribution of all signed cycles in the network and gives, in agreement with empirical evidence, more weight to the shorter cycles than to the longer ones. We found that, contrary to what is generally believed, many signed social networks, in particular very large directed online social networks, are in general very poorly balanced. We also show that unbalanced states can be changed by tuning the weights of the social interactions among the agents in the network.

  2. Social Process Variables Affecting Reading Performance in Delayed Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Cristopher

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between fourteen social process variables (relating to perinatal events, early language patterns, parental/home environment, and child behavior patterns) and the reading performance of retarded readers. The subjects were 180 children, aged seven through fifteen, randomly selected from among…

  3. Leaders in Social Networks, the Delicious Case

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhou, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Finding pertinent information is not limited to search engines. Online communities can amplify the influence of a small number of power users for the benefit of all other users. Users' information foraging in depth and breadth can be greatly enhanced by choosing suitable leaders. For instance in delicious.com, users subscribe to leaders' collection which lead to a deeper and wider reach not achievable with search engines. To consolidate such collective search, it is essential to utilize the leadership topology and identify influential users. Google's PageRank, as a successful search algorithm in the World Wide Web, turns out to be less effective in networks of people. We thus devise an adaptive and parameter-free algorithm, the LeaderRank, to quantify user influence. We show that LeaderRank outperforms PageRank in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against manipulations and noisy data. These results suggest that leaders who are aware of their clout may reinforce the development of social networks, and thus the power of collective search. PMID:21738620

  4. Scholars and Faculty Members' Lived Experiences in Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2013-01-01

    Research into faculty members' use of technology and social networking sites has largely focused upon pedagogical practice, at the expense of understanding user experiences with these technologies. Through phenomenological interviews with three faculty members, we investigate their lived experiences with social networking sites. Results point to a…

  5. Potential of Social Networking Sites for Distance Education Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Perini, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential of social networking sites for increasing student engagement for distance education learners. The authors present a modified student engagement model with a focus on the integration of technology, specifically social networking sites for community college distance education learners. The chapter concludes with…

  6. The Social Networking Arena: Battle of the Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clipson, Timothy W.; Wilson, S. Ann; DuFrene, Debbie D.

    2012-01-01

    Social networking via texting, Facebook, Twitter, and similar media is enormously popular with students, though it often leads to communication challenges along gender lines. Research supports the fact that men and women have divergent expectations for social networking and use it differently. Students can benefit from classroom experiences that…

  7. Are Social Networking Websites Educational? Information Capsule. Volume 0909

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…

  8. The Buzz on Campus: Social Networking Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about the latest trend in education, which is social networking. As this phenomenon continues to grow, community colleges are getting into the act, launching online initiatives and harnessing the technology to communicate, promote, and conduct important school business. School administrators believe that social networking can…

  9. Social Network Analysis to Evaluate an Interdisciplinary Research Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboelela, Sally W.; Merrill, Jacqueline A.; Carley, Kathleen M.; Larson, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    We sought to examine the growth of an interdisciplinary center using social network analysis techniques. Specific aims were to examine the patterns of growth and interdisciplinary connectedness of the Center and to identify the social network characteristics of its productive members. The setting for this study was The Center for Interdisciplinary…

  10. The Influence of Academic Tracking on Adolescent Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kim W.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' social capital, through social network analyses (i.e., ego network analyses), in two high schools where students were placed into academic tracks adopted by the schools and shaped by disability status (i.e., general education, co-taught, segregated special education classrooms). The impact of academic tracks, as…

  11. The Social Networking Arena: Battle of the Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clipson, Timothy W.; Wilson, S. Ann; DuFrene, Debbie D.

    2012-01-01

    Social networking via texting, Facebook, Twitter, and similar media is enormously popular with students, though it often leads to communication challenges along gender lines. Research supports the fact that men and women have divergent expectations for social networking and use it differently. Students can benefit from classroom experiences that…

  12. Improving Student Engagement Using Course-Based Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imlawi, Jehad Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes an engagement model that supports use of course-based online social networks for engaging student, and hence, improving their educational outcomes. This research demonstrates that instructors who create course-based online social networks to communicate with students can increase the student engagement in these online social…

  13. Towards a Social Networks Model for Online Learning & Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kon Shing Kenneth; Paredes, Walter Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we develop a theoretical model to investigate the association between social network properties, "content richness" (CR) in academic learning discourse, and performance. CR is the extent to which one contributes content that is meaningful, insightful and constructive to aid learning and by social network properties we…

  14. A New Addiction for Teacher Candidates: Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cam, Emre; Isbulan, Onur

    2012-01-01

    With the transition to being a knowledge-based society, the internet usage has become an irreplaceable part of life. As socials networks have come into our lives, the internet usage has taken a different dimension. People can affiliate to social networks in order to make friends, exchange information, find partners, and to play games. The process…

  15. The Influence of Academic Tracking on Adolescent Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kim W.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' social capital, through social network analyses (i.e., ego network analyses), in two high schools where students were placed into academic tracks adopted by the schools and shaped by disability status (i.e., general education, co-taught, segregated special education classrooms). The impact of academic tracks, as…

  16. Unethical Behaviours Preservice Teachers Encounter on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveci Topal, Arzu; Kolburan Gecer, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    The development of web 2.0 technology has resulted in an increase in internet sharing. The scope of this study is social networking, which is one of the web 2.0 tools most heavily used by internet users. In this paper, the unethical behaviours that preservice teachers encounter on social networks and the ways to deal with these problems are…

  17. Potential of Social Networking Sites for Distance Education Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Perini, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential of social networking sites for increasing student engagement for distance education learners. The authors present a modified student engagement model with a focus on the integration of technology, specifically social networking sites for community college distance education learners. The chapter concludes with…

  18. Towards a Social Networks Model for Online Learning & Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kon Shing Kenneth; Paredes, Walter Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we develop a theoretical model to investigate the association between social network properties, "content richness" (CR) in academic learning discourse, and performance. CR is the extent to which one contributes content that is meaningful, insightful and constructive to aid learning and by social network properties we…

  19. Unethical Behaviours Preservice Teachers Encounter on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveci Topal, Arzu; Kolburan Gecer, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    The development of web 2.0 technology has resulted in an increase in internet sharing. The scope of this study is social networking, which is one of the web 2.0 tools most heavily used by internet users. In this paper, the unethical behaviours that preservice teachers encounter on social networks and the ways to deal with these problems are…

  20. Teachers Beware! The Dark Side of Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belch, Harry Ess

    2012-01-01

    Think teachers can post what they want on their own time? Think again. Many have lost their jobs over social networking gaffes in recent years. In this article, the author shares what he has learned about how school districts cope with teachers and online social networking sites, and offers recommendations to teachers who want to have an online…

  1. Are the users of social networking sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals' behaviors within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain), a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-demographic variables, and experience in social networking and interaction patterns. The findings show new insights regarding international segmentation in order to analyse SNS user behaviors in both countries. These results are relevant for marketing strategists eager to use the communication potential of networked individuals and for marketers willing to explore the potential of online networking as a low cost and a highly efficient alternative to traditional networking approaches. For most businesses, expert users could be valuable opinion leaders and potential brand influencers. PMID:26321971

  2. Are the users of social networking sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Del-Amo, María-Del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals' behaviors within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain), a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-demographic variables, and experience in social networking and interaction patterns. The findings show new insights regarding international segmentation in order to analyse SNS user behaviors in both countries. These results are relevant for marketing strategists eager to use the communication potential of networked individuals and for marketers willing to explore the potential of online networking as a low cost and a highly efficient alternative to traditional networking approaches. For most businesses, expert users could be valuable opinion leaders and potential brand influencers. PMID:26321971

  3. Social Network Analysis: A case study of the Islamist terrorist network

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Social Network Analysis is a compilation of methods used to identify and analyze patterns in social network systems. This article serves as a primer on foundational social network concepts and analyses and builds a case study on the global Islamist terrorist network to illustrate the use and usefulness of these methods. The Islamist terrorist network is a system composed of multiple terrorist organizations that are socially connected and work toward the same goals. This research utilizes traditional social network, as well as small-world, and scale-free analyses to characterize this system on individual, network and systemic levels. Leaders in the network are identified based on their positions in the social network and the network structure is categorized. Finally, two vital nodes in the network are removed and this version of the network is compared with the previous version to make implications of strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities. The Islamist terrorist network structure is found to be a resilient and efficient structure, even with important social nodes removed. Implications for counterterrorism are given from the results of each analysis.

  4. A Sensemaking Approach to Visual Analytics of Attribute-Rich Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gou, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Social networks have become more complex, in particular considering the fact that elements in social networks are not only abstract topological nodes and links, but contain rich social attributes and reflecting diverse social relationships. For example, in a co-authorship social network in a scientific community, nodes in the social network, which…

  5. A Sensemaking Approach to Visual Analytics of Attribute-Rich Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gou, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Social networks have become more complex, in particular considering the fact that elements in social networks are not only abstract topological nodes and links, but contain rich social attributes and reflecting diverse social relationships. For example, in a co-authorship social network in a scientific community, nodes in the social network, which…

  6. Non-resident Fathers’ Social Networks: The Relationship between Social Support and Father Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Jason T.; Sarver, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Literature and research examining non-resident fathers’ involvement with their chidren has focused primarily on the fathers’ relationship with their child’s mother. Receiving limited attention in the literature has been the inclusion of examining non-resident fathers’ social support networks, the function of these social networks—perceived and received social support, and how these social support networks affect non-resident fathers’ involvement with their children. Using data from Wave One of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study, this study examined the social support networks non-resident fathers (n = 895) utilized in their involvement with their children. Results of the regression analyses indicate that non-resident fathers’ relationship with their child’s mother and perceived social support from their social networks contributed positively to their involvement with their children. Policy and practice implications are discussed. PMID:23288998

  7. Why social network analysis is important to Air Force applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, Paul R.; McIntire, John P.; Geiselman, Eric; Mohd-Zaid, Fairul

    2012-06-01

    Social network analysis is a powerful tool used to help analysts discover relationships amongst groups of people as well as individuals. It is the mathematics behind such social networks as Facebook and MySpace. These networks alone cause a huge amount of data to be generated and the issue is only compounded once one adds in other electronic media such as e-mails and twitter. In this paper we outline the basics of social network analysis and how it may be used in current and future Air Force applications.

  8. Latino social network dynamics and the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

    PubMed

    Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Barrington, Clare; Lacy, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to examine the dynamics of existing and emerging social networks among Latino survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Data were generated through individual, in-depth interviews conducted with 65 Latinos within six months of the storm striking the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005. The findings illustrated both the role of social networks in gathering information, making decisions and accessing resources, and how these existing social networks were disrupted and strained by overwhelming needs. Broader structural issues, including poverty and a lack of transportation, combined with marginalised status as immigrants, further constrained access to essential information and resources. In response, new, if temporary, social networks emerged, based primarily on shared nationality, language, and a sense of collective commitment. Practice implications include the need to consider the social network dynamics of marginalised groups in developing innovative strategies to overcome structural barriers to accessing resources essential for disaster preparedness and survival. PMID:21623889

  9. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Paul; Ipema, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Living in a stable social environment is important to animals. Animal species have developed social behaviors and rules of approach and avoidance of conspecifics in order to co-exist. Animal species are kept or domesticated without explicit regard for their inherent social behavior and rules. Examples of social structures are provided for four species kept and managed by humans. This information is important for the welfare management of these species. In the near future, automatic measurement of social structures will provide a tool for daily welfare management together with nearest neighbor information. Abstract It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future. PMID:26479886

  10. Social networks of PLHAs in Uganda: Implications for mobilizing PLHA as Agents for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Green, Harold D.; Atuyambe, Lynn; Ssali, Sarah; Ryan, Gery; Sseguja, Eric; Nekesa, Nicolate; Wagner, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the social networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and explore the implications social network characteristics might have for mobilizing PLHA as prevention agents. Thirty-nine PLHA attending an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda provided information on themselves and on 20 network members. Based on these data, descriptive statistics for social network composition and structure were calculated. Research questions relating these network characteristics to treatment-related variables such as time since diagnosis, ART status, and time on ART were investigated. Analyses reveal that, in general, network members know the PLHA's status, are trusted, provide advice and support, and are well-connected to each other. Network features (e.g., proportion of individuals who know the PLHA's status) are related to the previously mentioned treatment variables. Findings suggest that PLHA surround themselves with a social context that enables PLHA to feel fairly protected and supported if they choose to discuss HIV and prevention. With respect to treatment, those on ART may be better prepared to act as prevention advocates. PMID:20499149

  11. Social Network Extraction and Analysis Based on Multimodal Dyadic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Escalera, Sergio; Baró, Xavier; Vitrià, Jordi; Radeva, Petia; Raducanu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions are a very important component in people’s lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times’ Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links’ weights are a measure of the “influence” a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network. PMID:22438733

  12. Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital.

    PubMed

    Cattell, V

    2001-05-01

    This paper explores the dynamics between poverty and exclusion; neighbourhood, and health and well being by considering the role of social networks and social capital in the social processes involved. It is based on qualitative research taking two deprived areas as exemplary case studies, and involving depth interviews with residents. Neighbourhood influences on networks and social capital were explored, network typologies developed reflecting structural and cultural aspects of individual's networks, and pathways implicated in health effects considered. The complexity of social capital is addressed. The role of three factors in influencing social networks and social capital are demonstrated: neighbourhood characteristics and perceptions; poverty and social exclusion, and social consciousness. Perceptions of inequality could be a source of social capital as well as demoralisation. Different network structures-dense and weak, homogeneous and heterogeneous- were involved in the creation of social capital and had implications for well being. Coping, enjoyment of life and hope are identified as benefits. Although participation in organisations was confirmed as beneficial, it is suggested that today's heterogeneous neighbourhoods also require regenerated local work opportunities to develop bridging ties necessary for the genesis of inclusive social capital and better health. Despite the capacity of social capital to buffer its harsher effects, the concept is not wholly adequate for explaining the deleterious effects of poverty on health and well being. PMID:11314847

  13. Social networks uncovered: 10 tips every plastic surgeon should know.

    PubMed

    Dauwe, Phillip; Heller, Justin B; Unger, Jacob G; Graham, Darrell; Rohrich, Rod J

    2012-11-01

    Understanding online social networks is of critical importance to the plastic surgeon. With knowledge, it becomes apparent that the numerous networks available are similar in their structure, usage, and function. The key is communication between Internet media such that one maximizes exposure to patients. This article focuses on 2 social networking platforms that we feel provide the most utility to plastic surgeons. Ten tips are provided for incorporation of Facebook and Twitter into your practice. PMID:23042902

  14. Social network of an internationally connected nurse leader.

    PubMed

    Benton, David

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a proliferation of social media sites offering the opportunity for colleagues to connect with each other locally, nationally and internationally. Meanwhile, nurses have been increasingly using social network analytical techniques to look at team functioning and communication pathways. This article uses the author's LinkedIn social network to illustrate how analysis can offer insights into the connections, and how the results can be used to professional advantage. PMID:26927791

  15. Thresholds in layered neural networks with variable activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollé, D.; Massolo, G.

    2000-04-01

    The inclusion of a threshold in the dynamics of layered neural networks with variable activity is studied at arbitrary temperature. In particular, the effects on the retrieval quality of a self-controlled threshold obtained by forcing the neural activity to stay equal to the activity of the stored patterns during the whole retrieval process, are compared with those of a threshold chosen externally for every loading and every temperature through optimization of the mutual information content of the network. Numerical results, mostly concerning low-activity networks are discussed.

  16. Individual Choices in Dynamic Networks: An Experiment on Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    van Dolder, Dennie; Buskens, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Game-theoretic models of network formation typically assume that people create relations so as to maximize their own outcome in the network. Recent experiments on network formation suggest that the assumption of self-interest might be unwarranted and that social preferences, such as altruism and inequality aversion, play a role in the formation of social networks. We developed an experiment to systematically investigate whether people show preferences for outcomes of others during network formation. We find that such preferences play a role when network decisions degenerate to simple two-person decision tasks. In more complex environments, however, we find little evidence for social preferences as a significant decision criterion. Furthermore, we find some evidence for farsighted behavior in network formation. PMID:24732665

  17. Individual choices in dynamic networks: an experiment on social preferences.

    PubMed

    van Dolder, Dennie; Buskens, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Game-theoretic models of network formation typically assume that people create relations so as to maximize their own outcome in the network. Recent experiments on network formation suggest that the assumption of self-interest might be unwarranted and that social preferences, such as altruism and inequality aversion, play a role in the formation of social networks. We developed an experiment to systematically investigate whether people show preferences for outcomes of others during network formation. We find that such preferences play a role when network decisions degenerate to simple two-person decision tasks. In more complex environments, however, we find little evidence for social preferences as a significant decision criterion. Furthermore, we find some evidence for farsighted behavior in network formation. PMID:24732665

  18. Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Gupta, Anika; Sycara, Katia; Li, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust) between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust) between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM) problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC) model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P) diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25061986

  19. Polarity Related Influence Maximization in Signed Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Gupta, Anika; Sycara, Katia; Li, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust) between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust) between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM) problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC) model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P) diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25061986

  20. Social Support Providers: A Multidimensional Analysis of Network Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srebnik, Debra S.; Cauce, Ana Mari

    The social support literature lacks empirical studies addressing structural distinctions between social network ties. It often divides social support into functional categories such as material, emotional, or advice support, with little regard to specific support providers or how the support from these providers can be delineated by individuals…

  1. Professionalism in Student Online Social Networking: The Role of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, A.; Kienhuis, M.; Pisani, H.; Shahwan-Akl, L.; White, K.

    2013-01-01

    Social media now form a common part of university students' experience. Both at university and after graduation, in their personal and professional lives, social media offer opportunities for connection previously unavailable. The ubiquitous nature of social networking has brought with it professional and ethical issues that need to be…

  2. Relationships in Reform: The Role of Teachers' Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Alan J.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Bolivar, Jose M.; Burke, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Scholars have focused their attention on systemic reform as a way to support instructional coherence. These efforts are often layered on to existing social relationships between school staff that are rarely taken into account when enacting reform. Social network theory posits that the structure of social relationships may influence the…

  3. Improving Family Forest Knowledge Transfer through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorczyca, Erika L.; Lyons, Patrick W.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Johnson, Teresa R.; Straub, Crista L.

    2012-01-01

    To better engage Maine's family forest landowners our study used social network analysis: a computational social science method for identifying stakeholders, evaluating models of engagement, and targeting areas for enhanced partnerships. Interviews with researchers associated with a research center were conducted to identify how social network…

  4. Odyssey of the Mind: Social Networking in Cyberschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Michael K.; Plough, Cory

    2012-01-01

    K-12 online learning and cyber charter schools have grown at a tremendous rate over the past decade. At the same time, these online programs have struggled to provide the social spaces where students can interact that K-12 schools are traditionally able to provide. Social networking presents a unique opportunity to provide these kinds of social…

  5. Social Network Analysis: A New Methodology for Counseling Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehly, Laura M.; Shivy, Victoria A.

    1998-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) uses indices of relatedness among individuals to produce representations of social structures and positions inherent in dyads or groups. SNA methods provide quantitative representations of ongoing transactional patterns in a given social environment. Methodological issues, applications and resources are discussed…

  6. Professionalism in Student Online Social Networking: The Role of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, A.; Kienhuis, M.; Pisani, H.; Shahwan-Akl, L.; White, K.

    2013-01-01

    Social media now form a common part of university students' experience. Both at university and after graduation, in their personal and professional lives, social media offer opportunities for connection previously unavailable. The ubiquitous nature of social networking has brought with it professional and ethical issues that need to be…

  7. Near consensus complex linear and nonlinear social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bingo Wing-Kuen; Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Wang, Lidong; Teo, Kok-Lay; Tse, Chi K.; Dai, Qingyun

    2014-05-01

    Some of the nodes of complex social networks may support for a given proposal, while the rest of the nodes may be against the given proposal. Even though all the nodes support for or are against the given proposal, the decision certitudes of individual nodes may be different. In this case, the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the majority of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value. Deriving the near consensus property is a key to the analysis of the behaviors of complex social networks. So far, no result on the behaviors of the complex social networks satisfying the near consensus property has been reported. Hence, it is useful to extend the definition of the exact consensus property to that of a near consensus property and investigate the behaviors of the complex social networks satisfying the near consensus property. This paper extends the definition of exact consensus complex social networks to that of near consensus complex social networks. For complex linear social networks, this paper investigates the relationships among the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes, the influence weight matrix and the set of vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes under a given near consensus specification. The above analysis is based on the Eigen theory. For complex nonlinear social networks with certain types of nonlinearities, the relationship between the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes is studied. When a complex nonlinear social network does not achieve the exact consensus property, the optimal near consensus condition that the complex social network can achieve is derived. This problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The total number of nodes that the decision certitudes of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value is maximized subject to the corresponding near consensus specification. The optimization problem is a nonsmooth optimization problem. The nonsmooth constraints are first approximated by smooth constraints. Then, the approximated optimization problem is solved via a conventional smooth optimization approach. Computer numerical simulation results as well as the comparisons of the behaviors of complex nonlinear social networks to those of the complex linear social networks are presented. The obtained results demonstrate that some complex social networks can satisfy the near consensus property but not the exact consensus property. Also, the conditions for the near consensus property are dependent on the types of nonlinearities, the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes.

  8. A systematic review protocol: social network analysis of tobacco use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world. Evidence indicates that behaviours such as tobacco use can influence social networks, and that social network structures can influence behaviours. Social network analysis provides a set of analytic tools to undertake methodical analysis of social networks. We will undertake a systematic review to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature regarding social network analysis and tobacco use. The review will answer the following research questions: among participants who use tobacco, does social network structure/position influence tobacco use? Does tobacco use influence peer selection? Does peer selection influence tobacco use? Methods We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and search the following databases for relevant articles: CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Informit Health Collection; PsycINFO; PubMed/MEDLINE; Scopus/Embase; Web of Science; and the Wiley Online Library. Keywords include tobacco; smoking; smokeless; cigarettes; cigar and ‘social network’ and reference lists of included articles will be hand searched. Studies will be included that provide descriptions of social network analysis of tobacco use. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method data that meets the inclusion criteria for the review, including methodological rigour, credibility and quality standards, will be synthesized using narrative synthesis. Results will be presented using outcome statistics that address each of the research questions. Discussion This systematic review will provide a timely evidence base on the role of social network analysis of tobacco use, forming a basis for future research, policy and practice in this area. This systematic review will synthesise the evidence, supporting the hypothesis that social network structures can influence tobacco use. This will also include exploring the relationship between social network structure, social network position, peer selection, peer influence and tobacco use across all age groups, and across different demographics. The research will increase our understanding of social networks and their impact on tobacco use, informing policy and practice while highlighting gaps in the literature and areas for further research. PMID:25108616

  9. Internet Use and Social Networking among Middle Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogeboom, David L.; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; Osman, Hana; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the associations between Internet use and the social networks of adults over 50 years of age were examined. A sample (n = 2284) from the 2004 wave of the "Health and Retirement Survey" was used. In regression models considering a number of control variables, frequency of contact with friends, frequency of contact with family, and…

  10. Differences in Beliefs about Psychological Services in the Relationship between Sociorace and One's Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Jeffrey P.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The roles of previous psychological service use and social network variables in beliefs about psychological services were examined with 184 college students. Having friends and family members who used psychological services, being female, and having used psychological services positively related with beliefs about psychological services.…

  11. Differences in Beliefs about Psychological Services in the Relationship between Sociorace and One's Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Jeffrey P.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The roles of previous psychological service use and social network variables in beliefs about psychological services were examined with 184 college students. Having friends and family members who used psychological services, being female, and having used psychological services positively related with beliefs about psychological services.…

  12. Internet Use and Social Networking among Middle Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogeboom, David L.; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; Osman, Hana; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the associations between Internet use and the social networks of adults over 50 years of age were examined. A sample (n = 2284) from the 2004 wave of the "Health and Retirement Survey" was used. In regression models considering a number of control variables, frequency of contact with friends, frequency of contact with family, and…

  13. Depicting network structures from variable data produced by unknown colored-noise driven dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Wang, Shihong; Zheng, Zhigang; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Hu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the topic of depicting network structures from output variable data, i.e., the inverse problem, turns to be a key issue in wide interdisciplinary areas, in particular, in biological and social fields. Noise inevitably exists in practical dynamic networks, and the output data are often generated via interplay between noise and network structures. The essential difficulty to solve the inverse problem is how to extract information of node links in networks under unknown and possibly strong noise. In this paper, based on the idea that the output variable data contain information not only for network topology but also for noise, we propose a method to deal with this problem, incorporating three crucial ingredients: Computing multiple matrices to extract as much as possible information on network topology and noise statistics; making a systematical matrix algebraic computation to obtain equations closed for network inference; using an effective iteration algorithm to solve the resulting nonlinear matrix equations. The above theory is established in an accurate and closed form, numerical computations convincingly verify the validity of theoretical analysis, and the possible applications in practical inverse problems are emphasized.

  14. Bayesian Network Models for Local Dependence among Observable Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mulder, Joris; Hemat, Lisa A.; Yan, Duanli

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian network models offer a large degree of flexibility for modeling dependence among observables (item outcome variables) from the same task, which may be dependent. This article explores four design patterns for modeling locally dependent observations: (a) no context--ignores dependence among observables; (b) compensatory context--introduces…

  15. Bayesian Network Models for Local Dependence among Observable Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mulder, Joris; Hemat, Lisa A.; Yan, Duanli

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian network models offer a large degree of flexibility for modeling dependence among observables (item outcome variables) from the same task, which may be dependent. This article explores four design patterns for modeling locally dependent observations: (a) no context--ignores dependence among observables; (b) compensatory context--introduces…

  16. Model Criticism of Bayesian Networks with Latent Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This study investigated statistical methods for identifying errors in Bayesian networks (BN) with latent variables, as found in intelligent cognitive assessments. BN, commonly used in artificial intelligence systems, are promising mechanisms for scoring constructed-response examinations. The success of an intelligent assessment or tutoring system…

  17. How women organize social networks different from men

    PubMed Central

    Szell, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Superpositions of social networks, such as communication, friendship, or trade networks, are called multiplex networks, forming the structural backbone of human societies. Novel datasets now allow quantification and exploration of multiplex networks. Here we study gender-specific differences of a multiplex network from a complete behavioral dataset of an online-game society of about 300,000?players. On the individual level females perform better economically and are less risk-taking than males. Males reciprocate friendship requests from females faster than vice versa and hesitate to reciprocate hostile actions of females. On the network level females have more communication partners, who are less connected than partners of males. We find a strong homophily effect for females and higher clustering coefficients of females in trade and attack networks. Cooperative links between males are under-represented, reflecting competition for resources among males. These results confirm quantitatively that females and males manage their social networks in substantially different ways. PMID:23393616

  18. Social networks and their role in preventing dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Jagan A.; Verghese, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the role of social networks as a protective factor in the development of dementia over the last decade has increased with a number of longitudinal studies being published on the possible association of different lifestyles with dementia. This review examines and provides a summary of the published longitudinal studies exploring the effect of social network on dementia, with particular focus on their relevance to the Indian society. Potential cognitive and biological mechanisms mediating the effects of social networks on dementia are discussed. Results from observational studies suggest that degree of social engagement, marriage, living with someone and avoiding loneliness may have a protective effect on developing dementia that could be applicable to both Indian and western societies. A deeper analysis of the nature of social networks and dementia pertinent to Indian society is awaited. PMID:21416012

  19. Benford’s Law Applies to Online Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Benford’s Law states that, in naturally occurring systems, the frequency of numbers’ first digits is not evenly distributed. Numbers beginning with a 1 occur roughly 30% of the time, and are six times more common than numbers beginning with a 9. We show that Benford’s Law applies to social and behavioral features of users in online social networks. Using social data from five major social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, Pinterest, and LiveJournal), we show that the distribution of first significant digits of friend and follower counts for users in these systems follow Benford’s Law. The same is true for the number of posts users make. We extend this to egocentric networks, showing that friend counts among the people in an individual’s social network also follows the expected distribution. We discuss how this can be used to detect suspicious or fraudulent activity online and to validate datasets. PMID:26308716

  20. Dynamics of Social Complex Networks: Some Insights into Recent Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Sergi

    Social networks analysis (that is, the study of interactions among social actors from a structural viewpoint) has a long tradition covering several decades [1, 2, 3]. This sort of study has usually been performed over small social networks, and the limitation of size has conditioned the visibility of complexity [4, 5]. However, the situation has changed significantly in recent times due to basically two reasons. First, there is an increasing availability of larger social datasets (obtained in most cases from information and communication technologies). Secondly, a large number of physicists and other scholars from complexity science have started to take active interest in the field. New perspectives and tools have been provided by these ‘newcomers’, which in combination with the expertise and knowledge accumulated by ‘classical’ social network analysts, has formed the basis of a multidisciplinary field suitably termed the science of networks [6, 7].

  1. Social Network, Activity Participation, and Cognition: A Complex Relationship.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Howard; Stoeckel, Kimberly J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how two domains of engagement-social network and activity participation-associate with objective and subjective cognitive function in later life. Specific consideration was given as to how these two spheres intersect in regard to recall and memory. The analytic sample included Europeans aged 60 and older drawn from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe in which a new name-generated social network inventory was implemented. Multivariate analyses revealed that activity participation yielded stronger positive associations with word recall and self-rated memory than social network alone. However, the interactions indicate that this association lessened in strength for both the objective and subjective cognitive outcome measures as social network resources increased. The findings suggest that the social component of activity participation may be partially contributing to the positive role that such engagement has on cognitive well-being in later life. PMID:25878191

  2. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  3. Pharmaceutical drugs chatter on Online Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Matthew T; Jin, Canghong; Hristidis, Vagelis; Esterling, Kevin M

    2014-06-01

    The ubiquity of Online Social Networks (OSNs) is creating new sources for healthcare information, particularly in the context of pharmaceutical drugs. We aimed to examine the impact of a given OSN's characteristics on the content of pharmaceutical drug discussions from that OSN. We compared the effect of four distinguishing characteristics from ten different OSNs on the content of their pharmaceutical drug discussions: (1) General versus Health OSN; (2) OSN moderation; (3) OSN registration requirements; and (4) OSNs with a question and answer format. The effects of these characteristics were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show that an OSN's characteristics indeed affect the content of its discussions. Based on their information needs, healthcare providers may use our findings to pick the right OSNs or to advise patients regarding their needs. Our results may also guide the creation of new and more effective domain-specific health OSNs. Further, future researchers of online healthcare content in OSNs may find our results informative while choosing OSNs as data sources. We reported several findings about the impact of OSN characteristics on the content of pharmaceutical drug discussion, and synthesized these findings into actionable items for both healthcare providers and future researchers of healthcare discussions on OSNs. Future research on the impact of OSN characteristics could include user demographics, quality and safety of information, and efficacy of OSN usage. PMID:24637141

  4. Efficient Access Control in Multimedia Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachan, Amit; Emmanuel, Sabu

    Multimedia social networks (MMSNs) have provided a convenient way to share multimedia contents such as images, videos, blogs, etc. Contents shared by a person can be easily accessed by anybody else over the Internet. However, due to various privacy, security, and legal concerns people often want to selectively share the contents only with their friends, family, colleagues, etc. Access control mechanisms play an important role in this situation. With access control mechanisms one can decide the persons who can access a shared content and who cannot. But continuously growing content uploads and accesses, fine grained access control requirements (e.g. different access control parameters for different parts in a picture), and specific access control requirements for multimedia contents can make the time complexity of access control to be very large. So, it is important to study an efficient access control mechanism suitable for MMSNs. In this chapter we present an efficient bit-vector transform based access control mechanism for MMSNs. The proposed approach is also compatible with other requirements of MMSNs, such as access rights modification, content deletion, etc. Mathematical analysis and experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

  5. Social networking patterns/hazards among teenagers.

    PubMed

    Machold, C; Judge, G; Mavrinac, A; Elliott, J; Murphy, A M; Roche, E

    2012-05-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed. PMID:22803496

  6. Online social networks—Paradise of computer viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    Online social network services have attracted more and more users in recent years. So the security of social networks becomes a critical problem. In this paper, we propose a virus propagation model based on the application network of Facebook, which is the most popular among these social network service providers. We also study the virus propagation with an email virus model and compare the behaviors of a virus spreading on Facebook with the original email network. It is found that Facebook provides the same chance for a virus spreading while it gives a platform for application developers. And a virus will spread faster in the Facebook network if users of Facebook spend more time on it.

  7. On investigating social dynamics in tactical opportunistic mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Li, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of military mobile network operations at the tactical edge is challenging due to the practical Disconnected, Intermittent, and Limited (DIL) environments at the tactical edge which make it hard to maintain persistent end-to-end wireless network connectivity. Opportunistic mobile networks are hence devised to depict such tactical networking scenarios. Social relations among warfighters in tactical opportunistic mobile networks are implicitly represented by their opportunistic contacts via short-range radios, but were inappropriately considered as stationary over time by the conventional wisdom. In this paper, we develop analytical models to probabilistically investigate the temporal dynamics of this social relationship, which is critical to efficient mobile communication in the battlespace. We propose to formulate such dynamics by developing various sociological metrics, including centrality and community, with respect to the opportunistic mobile network contexts. These metrics investigate social dynamics based on the experimentally validated skewness of users' transient contact distributions over time.

  8. Binge drinking at University: a social network study in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Lorant, Vincent; Nicaise, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Many university students engage in risky alcohol consumption behaviour during their stay at university. So far, however, most studies have relied on cross-sectional surveys and paid little attention to the role of social ties. University students, however, are socially connected, so it is likely that their alcohol consumption behaviour is also connected. We hypothesized that university students' social positions within their networks are related to their drinking behaviour. We carried out a social network analysis within a whole network approach with undergraduates in two faculties (n = 487), those of Engineering and Psychology, in a Belgian university. All students filled out a questionnaire recording their drinking behaviour and their social ties (friendship, working with, partying with and room-mate). For each individual, indicators of centrality, social capital, and cross-gender relationships were computed. We found that being socially close to binge drinkers was associated with a higher frequency of binge drinking. The risk of binge drinking increased with centrality but decreased with social capital. Having cross-gender relationships decreased the risk of binge drinking. We found indications that the effect of centrality and gender on binge drinking depends on the composition of the network. We conclude that social position has important effects on risky drinking behaviour and that the composition of the network may affect these factors. Those developing health promotion strategies could investigate the benefits of targeting central individuals in order to prevent binge drinking among university students. PMID:24622535

  9. Sampling promotes community structure in social and information networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagus, Neli; Šubelj, Lovro; Weiss, Gregor; Bajec, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Any network studied in the literature is inevitably just a sampled representative of its real-world analogue. Additionally, network sampling is lately often applied to large networks to allow for their faster and more efficient analysis. Nevertheless, the changes in network structure introduced by sampling are still far from understood. In this paper, we study the presence of characteristic groups of nodes in sampled social and information networks. We consider different network sampling techniques including random node and link selection, network exploration and expansion. We first observe that the structure of social networks reveals densely linked groups like communities, while the structure of information networks is better described by modules of structurally equivalent nodes. However, despite these notable differences, the structure of sampled networks exhibits stronger characterization by community-like groups than the original networks, irrespective of their type and consistently across various sampling techniques. Hence, rich community structure commonly observed in social and information networks is to some extent merely an artifact of sampling.

  10. A Social Network–Informed Latent Class Analysis of Patterns of Substance Use, Sexual Behavior, and Mental Health: Social Network Study III, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Suellen; Tan, Xianming; Wylie, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether a meaningful set of latent risk profiles could be identified in an inner-city population through individual and network characteristics of substance use, sexual behaviors, and mental health status. Methods. Data came from 600 participants in Social Network Study III, conducted in 2009 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify risk profiles and, with covariates, to identify predictors of class. Results. A 4-class model of risk profiles fit the data best: (1) solitary users reported polydrug use at the individual level, but low probabilities of substance use or concurrent sexual partners with network members; (2) social–all-substance users reported polydrug use at the individual and network levels; (3) social–noninjection drug users reported less likelihood of injection drug and solvent use; (4) low-risk users reported low probabilities across substances. Unstable housing, preadolescent substance use, age, and hepatitis C status predicted risk profiles. Conclusions. Incorporation of social network variables into LCA can distinguish important subgroups with varying patterns of risk behaviors that can lead to sexually transmitted and bloodborne infections. PMID:24625178

  11. [Doctors and the benefits and dangers of social networks].

    PubMed

    Tisseron, Serge

    2015-05-13

    Social networks have many different uses. Most young people use them for experimentation and innovation. Social networks help young people get familiar with the digital world, and develop themselves in interrelation with their peers. But social networks can also be used to avoid relationships in the real world, or to practice different forms of harassment. A specific danger lies in forgetting that a great number of people can have access to personal information posted online. Doctors should be particularly aware of this issue. PMID:26118232

  12. A Generational Comparison of Social Networking Site Use: The Influence of Age and Social Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N = 256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer…

  13. The Social Fabric of Elementary Schools: A Network Typology of Social Interaction among Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.; Karsten, Sjoerd; Daly, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    While researchers are currently studying various forms of social network interaction among teachers for their impact on educational policy implementation and practice, knowledge on how various types of networks are interrelated is limited. The goal of this study is to understand the dimensionality that may underlie various types of social networks…

  14. Fluid Centrality: A Social Network Analysis of Social-Technical Relations in Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Judith Guevarra

    2010-01-01

    In this article, centrality is explored as a measure of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in networked learning. Centrality measure is quite common in performing social network analysis (SNA) and in analysing social cohesion, strength of ties and influence in CMC, and computer-supported collaborative learning research. It argues that measuring…

  15. The Role of Social Support and Social Networks in Health Information Seeking Behavior among Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Wonsun

    2013-01-01

    Access to health information appears to be a crucial piece of the racial and ethnic health disparities puzzle among immigrants. There are a growing number of scholars who are investigating the role of social networks that have shown that the number and even types of social networks among minorities and lower income groups differ (Chatman, 1991;…

  16. A Generational Comparison of Social Networking Site Use: The Influence of Age and Social Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N = 256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer…

  17. Fluid Centrality: A Social Network Analysis of Social-Technical Relations in Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Judith Guevarra

    2010-01-01

    In this article, centrality is explored as a measure of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in networked learning. Centrality measure is quite common in performing social network analysis (SNA) and in analysing social cohesion, strength of ties and influence in CMC, and computer-supported collaborative learning research. It argues that measuring…

  18. LingoBee and Social Media: Mobile Language Learners as Social Networkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter-Legg, Emma; Cacchione, Annamaria; Petersen, Sobah Abbas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents language learners as social networkers and describes and discusses the types of users that can be identified by analysing the content created by them using a situated mobile language learning app, LingoBee, based on the idea of crowd sourcing. Borrowing ideas from other studies conducted on social network users, we can identify…

  19. The Role of Social Support and Social Networks in Health Information Seeking Behavior among Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Wonsun

    2013-01-01

    Access to health information appears to be a crucial piece of the racial and ethnic health disparities puzzle among immigrants. There are a growing number of scholars who are investigating the role of social networks that have shown that the number and even types of social networks among minorities and lower income groups differ (Chatman, 1991;…

  20. Social Network Data Validity: The Example of the Social Network of Caregivers of Older Persons with Alzheimer-Type Dementia*

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Normand; Ducharme, Francine

    2010-01-01

    This article offers reflection on the validity of relational data such as used in social network analysis. Ongoing research on the transformation of the support network of caregivers of persons with an Alzheimer-type disease provides the data to fuel the debate on the validity of participant report. More specifically, we sought to understand the factors that might influence the description of the support network by persons involved in caregiving. The issue warrants special attention, given that social relations – in their form and their content – constitute the raw material of network analysis. We propose that how persons describe their social network corresponds to a subjective process that rests, in part, on their representation of their cultural and social universe. PMID:20737030

  1. Inaugural Article: A dynamic model of social network formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyrms, Brian; Pemantle, Robin

    2000-08-01

    We consider a dynamic social network model in which agents play repeated games in pairings determined by a stochastically evolving social network. Individual agents begin to interact at random, with the interactions modeled as games. The game payoffs determine which interactions are reinforced, and the network structure emerges as a consequence of the dynamics of the agents' learning behavior. We study this in a variety of game-theoretic conditions and show that the behavior is complex and sometimes dissimilar to behavior in the absence of structural dynamics. We argue that modeling network structure as dynamic increases realism without rendering the problem of analysis intractable.

  2. Similar Others in Same-Sex Couples’ Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Allen J.; Frost, David M.; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Bauermeister, Jose; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory; de Vries, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Same-sex couples experience unique minority stressors. It is known that strong social networks facilitate access to psychosocial resources that help people reduce and manage stress. However, little is known about the social networks of same-sex couples, in particular their connections to other same-sex couples, which is important to understand given that the presence of similar others in social networks can ameliorate social stress for stigmatized populations. In this brief report we present data from a diverse sample of 120 same-sex couples in Atlanta and San Francisco. The median number of other same-sex couples known was 12; couples where one partner was non-Hispanic White and the other a person of color knew relatively few other same-sex couples; and there was a high degree of homophily within the social networks of same-sex couples. These data establish a useful starting point for future investigations of couples’ social networks, especially couples whose relationships are stigmatized or marginalized in some way. Better understandings of the size, composition, and functions of same-sex couples’ social networks are critically needed. PMID:26192404

  3. Similar Others in Same-Sex Couples' Social Networks.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Bauermeister, Jose; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory R; de Vries, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Same-sex couples experience unique minority stressors. It is known that strong social networks facilitate access to psychosocial resources that help people reduce and manage stress. However, little is known about the social networks of same-sex couples, in particular their connections to other same-sex couples, which is important to understand given that the presence of similar others in social networks can ameliorate social stress for stigmatized populations. In this brief report, we present data from a diverse sample of 120 same-sex couples in Atlanta and San Francisco. The median number of other same-sex couples known was 12; couples where one partner was non-Hispanic White and the other a person of color knew relatively few other same-sex couples; and there was a high degree of homophily within the social networks of same-sex couples. These data establish a useful starting point for future investigations of couples' social networks, especially couples whose relationships are stigmatized or marginalized in some way. Better understandings of the size, composition, and functions of same-sex couples' social networks are critically needed. PMID:26192404

  4. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  5. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair M.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  6. Bidirectional selection between two classes in complex social networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; He, Zhe; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Nian-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The bidirectional selection between two classes widely emerges in various social lives, such as commercial trading and mate choosing. Until now, the discussions on bidirectional selection in structured human society are quite limited. We demonstrated theoretically that the rate of successfully matching is affected greatly by individuals' neighborhoods in social networks, regardless of the type of networks. Furthermore, it is found that the high average degree of networks contributes to increasing rates of successful matches. The matching performance in different types of networks has been quantitatively investigated, revealing that the small-world networks reinforces the matching rate more than scale-free networks at given average degree. In addition, our analysis is consistent with the modeling result, which provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of matching in complex networks. PMID:25524835

  7. Bidirectional selection between two classes in complex social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; He, Zhe; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Nian-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-12-01

    The bidirectional selection between two classes widely emerges in various social lives, such as commercial trading and mate choosing. Until now, the discussions on bidirectional selection in structured human society are quite limited. We demonstrated theoretically that the rate of successfully matching is affected greatly by individuals' neighborhoods in social networks, regardless of the type of networks. Furthermore, it is found that the high average degree of networks contributes to increasing rates of successful matches. The matching performance in different types of networks has been quantitatively investigated, revealing that the small-world networks reinforces the matching rate more than scale-free networks at given average degree. In addition, our analysis is consistent with the modeling result, which provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of matching in complex networks.

  8. Cosmic Deuterium and Social Networking Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Suer, T.-A.; Lubowich, D. A.; Glaisyer, T.

    2006-08-01

    For the education of newcomers to a scientific field and for the convenience of students and workers in the field, it is helpful to have all the basic scientific papers gathered. For the study of deuterium in the Universe, in 2004-5 we set up http://www.cosmicdeuterium.info with clickable links to all the historic and basic papers in the field and to many of the current papers. Cosmic deuterium is especially important because all deuterium in the Universe was formed in the epoch of nucleosynthesis in the first 1000 seconds after the Big Bang, so study of its relative abundance (D:H~1:100,000) gives us information about those first minutes of the Universe's life. Thus the understanding of cosmic deuterium is one of the pillars of modern cosmology, joining the cosmic expansion, the 3 degree cosmic background radiation, and the ripples in that background radiation. Studies of deuterium are also important for understanding Galactic chemical evolution, astrochemistry, interstellar processes, and planetary formation. Some papers had to be scanned while others are available at the Astrophysical Data System, adswww.harvard.edu, or to publishers' Websites. By 2006, social networking software (http:tinyurl.com/ zx5hk) had advanced with popular sites like facebook.com and MySpace.com; the Astrophysical Data System had even set up MyADS. Social tagging software sites like http://del.icio.us have made it easy to share sets of links to papers already available online. We have set up http://del.icio.us/deuterium to provide links to many of the papers on cosmicdeuterium.info, furthering previous del.icio.us work on /eclipses and /plutocharon. It is easy for the site owner to add links to a del.icio.us site; it takes merely clicking on a button on the browser screen once the site is opened and the desired link is viewed in a browser. Categorizing different topics by keywords allows subsets to be easily displayed. The opportunity to expose knowledge and build an ecosystem of web pages that use the functionality of a facebook-type application to capture knowledge collaboratively is considerable. Setting up such a system would marry one of the youngest isotopes with the latest software technologies.

  9. Loneliness, Social Networks, and Health: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Uribe, Laura Alejandra; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is widely recognized that social networks and loneliness have effects on health. The present study assesses the differential association that the components of the social network and the subjective perception of loneliness have with health, and analyzes whether this association is different across different countries. Methods A total of 10 800 adults were interviewed in Finland, Poland and Spain. Loneliness was assessed by means of the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. Individuals’ social networks were measured by asking about the number of members in the network, how often they had contacts with these members, and whether they had a close relationship. The differential association of loneliness and the components of the social network with health was assessed by means of hierarchical linear regression models, controlling for relevant covariates. Results In all three countries, loneliness was the variable most strongly correlated with health after controlling for depression, age, and other covariates. Loneliness contributed more strongly to health than any component of the social network. The relationship between loneliness and health was stronger in Finland (|β| = 0.25) than in Poland (|β| = 0.16) and Spain (|β| = 0.18). Frequency of contact was the only component of the social network that was moderately correlated with health. Conclusions Loneliness has a stronger association with health than the components of the social network. This association is similar in three different European countries with different socio-economic and health characteristics and welfare systems. The importance of evaluating and screening feelings of loneliness in individuals with health problems should be taken into account. Further studies are needed in order to be able to confirm the associations found in the present study and infer causality. PMID:26761205

  10. Similarity facilitates relationships on social networks: a field experiment on facebook.

    PubMed

    Martin, Angélique; Jacob, Céline; Guéguen, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    People interact more readily with someone with whom they think they have something in common, but the effect of an incidental similarity has never been examined on social networks. Facebook users were contacted by a stranger who also possessed a Facebook page and who asked them to become his friend. The request message contained one item of similarity, two items of similarity, or none. Compliance to the request was the dependent variable. Increased compliance to the request was found when comparing the two similarity conditions with the control no-similarity condition. However, no difference was found between the two similarity conditions. Similarity appears to foster relationships on social networks. PMID:24340812

  11. Multi-Relational Characterization of Dynamic Social Network Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Sundaram, Hari; Kelliher, Aisling

    The emergence of the mediated social web - a distributed network of participants creating rich media content and engaging in interactive conversations through Internet-based communication technologies - has contributed to the evolution of powerful social, economic and cultural change. Online social network sites and blogs, such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and LiveJournal, thrive due to their fundamental sense of "community". The growth of online communities offers both opportunities and challenges for researchers and practitioners. Participation in online communities has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways ranging from financial decision-making to political choices, suggesting the rich potential for diverse applications. However, although studies on the social web have been extensive, discovering communities from online social media remains challenging, due to the interdisciplinary nature of this subject. In this article, we present our recent work on characterization of communities in online social media using computational approaches grounded on the observations from social science.

  12. Adaptive bridge control strategy for opinion evolution on social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Cheng; Cao, Jinde; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient opinion control strategy for complex networks, in particular, for social networks. The proposed adaptive bridge control (ABC) strategy calls for controlling a special kind of nodes named bridge and requires no knowledge of the node degrees or any other global or local knowledge, which are necessary for some other immunization strategies including targeted immunization and acquaintance immunization. We study the efficiency of the proposed ABC strategy on random networks, small-world networks, scale-free networks, and the random networks adjusted by the edge exchanging method. Our results show that the proposed ABC strategy is efficient for all of these four kinds of networks. Through an adjusting clustering coefficient by the edge exchanging method, it is found out that the efficiency of our ABC strategy is closely related with the clustering coefficient. The main contributions of this paper can be listed as follows: (1) A new high-order social network is proposed to describe opinion dynamic. (2) An algorithm, which does not require the knowledge of the nodes' degree and other global/local network structure information, is proposed to control the "bridges" more accurately and further control the opinion dynamics of the social networks. The efficiency of our ABC strategy is illustrated by numerical examples. (3) The numerical results indicate that our ABC strategy is more efficient for networks with higher clustering coefficient.

  13. The Networked Teacher: How New Teachers Build Social Networks for Professional Support. Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2011-01-01

    New teachers need support from their peers and mentors to locate resources, information, new ideas, emotional support, and inspiration. This timely book explains the research and theory behind social networks (face-to-face and online), describes what effective social networking for educators looks like, reveals common obstacles that new teachers…

  14. The Effect of Social Network Diagrams on a Virtual Network of Practice: A Korean Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the presentation of social network diagrams on virtual team members' interaction behavior via e-mail. E-mail transaction data from 22 software developers in a Korean IT company was analyzed and depicted as diagrams by social network analysis (SNA), and presented to the members as an intervention. Results…

  15. The Effect of Social Network Diagrams on a Virtual Network of Practice: A Korean Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the presentation of social network diagrams on virtual team members' interaction behavior via e-mail. E-mail transaction data from 22 software developers in a Korean IT company was analyzed and depicted as diagrams by social network analysis (SNA), and presented to the members as an intervention. Results…

  16. Building a Social Network One Choice at a Time.

    PubMed

    Suchow, Jordan W

    2015-01-01

    Newcomers to a social network show preferential attachment, a tendency to befriend those with many friends. Here, we show that preferential attachment is equivalent to a form of 'probability matching' commonly found in studies of decision-making. This equivalence, whereby newcomers probability match to a social signal akin to popularity, marries network science to the study of decision-making and raises new questions about how individual psychology impacts the social structure of groups. We asked people to view a visualization of a social network and to select group members whom they would like to meet and befriend. People varied in how strongly they weighed popularity and this was mildly correlated with aspects of their personality. Individual differences in preferential attachment affect the structure and connectivity of the network that emerges. PMID:26186607

  17. Building a Social Network One Choice at a Time

    PubMed Central

    Suchow, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    Newcomers to a social network show preferential attachment, a tendency to befriend those with many friends. Here, we show that preferential attachment is equivalent to a form of ‘probability matching’ commonly found in studies of decision-making. This equivalence, whereby newcomers probability match to a social signal akin to popularity, marries network science to the study of decision-making and raises new questions about how individual psychology impacts the social structure of groups. We asked people to view a visualization of a social network and to select group members whom they would like to meet and befriend. People varied in how strongly they weighed popularity and this was mildly correlated with aspects of their personality. Individual differences in preferential attachment affect the structure and connectivity of the network that emerges. PMID:26186607

  18. Online Social Networking Issues Within Academia and Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online social networking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online social networking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an “e-professionalism” concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online social networking. PMID:18322572

  19. Social networking for nurse education: Possibilities, perils and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Green, Janet; Wyllie, Aileen; Jackson, Debra

    2014-03-11

    Abstract In this paper, we consider the potential and implications of using social networking sites such as Facebook® in nurse education. The concept of social networking and the use of Facebook will be explored, as will the theoretical constructs specific to the use of online technology and web 2.0 tools. Theories around Communities of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson & Archer 2000), Communities of Practice (Wenger 1998), Activity Theory (Daniels, Cole & Wertsch 2007) and Actor Network Theory (Latour 1997) will be briefly explored, as will the work of Vygotsky (1978), as applies to the social aspects of learning. Boundary issues, such as if and how faculty and students should or could be connected via social networking sites will also be explored. PMID:24611647

  20. Social networking for nurse education: Possibilities, perils and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Green, Janet; Wyllie, Aileen; Jackson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we consider the potential and implications of using social networking sites such as Facebook® in nurse education. The concept of social networking and the use of Facebook will be explored, as will the theoretical constructs specific to the use of online technology and Web 2.0 tools. Theories around Communities of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000), Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998), Activity Theory (Daniels, Cole, & Wertsch, 2007) and Actor-Network theory (Latour, 1997) will be briefly explored, as will the work of Vygotsky (1978), as applies to the social aspects of learning. Boundary issues, such as if and how faculty and students should or could be connected via social networking sites will also be explored. PMID:25267140

  1. The New Normal: Social Networking and Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores both the potential and challenges associated with the widespread use of social networking among college students and the implications for civic engagement, equity and inclusion, and student success.

  2. Bullying in classrooms: participant roles from a social network perspective.

    PubMed

    Huitsing, Gijs; Veenstra, René

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate if and how the group process of bullying can be examined using a social network perspective. In two studies, bullying was investigated using a social network version of the participant-role questionnaire. Study 1 explored the social network structure of one classroom in detail. The findings provide evidence that ingroup and outgroup effects are important in explaining the group process of bullying, and shed new light on defending, suggesting that not only victims are defended. In line with Study 1, Study 2, using data from 494 children in 25 elementary school classes (M age = 10.5), revealed that victims as well as bullies were defended by their ingroup members. The social network perspective can be integrated in antibullying interventions by using it to inform teachers about the positive and negative relations among students, and the group structure of the classroom. PMID:22833443

  3. Online social networking issues within academia and pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jeff

    2008-02-15

    Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online social networking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online social networking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an "e-professionalism" concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online social networking. PMID:18322572

  4. Information flow through threespine stickleback networks without social transmission

    PubMed Central

    Atton, N.; Hoppitt, W.; Webster, M. M.; Galef, B. G.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks can result in directed social transmission of learned information, thus influencing how innovations spread through populations. Here we presented shoals of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteous aculeatus) with two identical foraging tasks and applied network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) to determine whether the order in which individuals in a social group contacted and solved the tasks was affected by the group's network structure. We found strong evidence for a social effect on discovery of the foraging tasks with individuals tending to discover a task sooner when others in their group had previously done so, and with the spread of discovery of the foraging tasks influenced by groups' social networks. However, the same patterns of association did not reliably predict spread of solution to the tasks, suggesting that social interactions affected the time at which the tasks were discovered, but not the latency to its solution following discovery. The present analysis, one of the first applications of NBDA to a natural animal system, illustrates how NBDA can lead to insight into the mechanisms supporting behaviour acquisition that more conventional statistical approaches might miss. Importantly, we provide the first compelling evidence that the spread of novel behaviours can result from social learning in the absence of social transmission, a phenomenon that we refer to as an untransmitted social effect on learning. PMID:22896644

  5. Do online social media cut through the constraints that limit the size of offline social networks?

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, R. I. M.

    2016-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis has suggested that natural social network sizes may have a characteristic size in humans. This is determined in part by cognitive constraints and in part by the time costs of servicing relationships. Online social networking offers the potential to break through the glass ceiling imposed by at least the second of these, potentially enabling us to maintain much larger social networks. This is tested using two separate UK surveys, each randomly stratified by age, gender and regional population size. The data show that the size and range of online egocentric social networks, indexed as the number of Facebook friends, is similar to that of offline face-to-face networks. For one sample, respondents also specified the number of individuals in the inner layers of their network (formally identified as support clique and sympathy group), and these were also similar in size to those observed in offline networks. This suggests that, as originally proposed by the social brain hypothesis, there is a cognitive constraint on the size of social networks that even the communication advantages of online media are unable to overcome. In practical terms, it may reflect the fact that real (as opposed to casual) relationships require at least occasional face-to-face interaction to maintain them. PMID:26909163

  6. Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W.; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; Dos Reis, Sérgio F.

    2007-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks.

  7. Stories in Networks and Networks in Stories: A Tri-Modal Model for Mixed-Methods Social Network Research on Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2015-01-01

    Social network research on teachers and schools has risen exponentially in recent years as an innovative method to reveal the role of social networks in education. However, scholars are still exploring ways to incorporate traditional quantitative methods of Social Network Analysis (SNA) with qualitative approaches to social network research. This…

  8. Stories in Networks and Networks in Stories: A Tri-Modal Model for Mixed-Methods Social Network Research on Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2015-01-01

    Social network research on teachers and schools has risen exponentially in recent years as an innovative method to reveal the role of social networks in education. However, scholars are still exploring ways to incorporate traditional quantitative methods of Social Network Analysis (SNA) with qualitative approaches to social network research. This…

  9. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  10. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  11. Informal Networks Social Capital of Fathers: What Does the Social Engagement Survey Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanera, Zenaida

    2007-01-01

    Using the General Social Survey on Social Engagement conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003, this paper examines social capital derived from informal networks and its variation among men categorized as: (1) men with no children, and (2) men living with children in (a) intact, (b) step, and (c) lone parent families. The focus on men stems from a…

  12. Is There a Role for Social Networking Sites in Education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ieda M.; Hammond, Michael; Durli, Zenilde; Chou, Shiao-Yuh

    Social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace have become popular among millions of users including students of all ages. There are ongoing discussions over the potential of these sites to support teaching and learning, particularly to complement traditional or online classroom activities. This paper explores whether social networking have a place in teaching and learning by investigating how students use these sites and whether they find opportunities to discuss study related activities with their peers. Two small scale studies were carried out in a face-to-face undergraduate course in Singapore and students enrolled in a face-to-face Master’s programme in Brazil. Data were collected using surveys and interviews; findings were mixed. Many of the Brazilian students used social networking sites to both socialize and discuss their studies while the Singaporean students used such sites for social interactions only. The paper discusses these differences and offers suggestions for further research.

  13. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-10-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems.

  14. A real-time disease surveillance architecture using social networks.

    PubMed

    Sofean, Mustafa; Smith, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we proposed surveillance architecture to track diseases-related postings in social networks using Twitter. In each part of the second, the real-time architecture tracks status updates of people as they are posted as soon as possible. Data mining techniques will be used synchronically to crawl, index, extract and classify postings. This work is a part of constructing a global real-time framework for early monitoring diseases outbreaks in social networks. PMID:22874307

  15. Social Networks in Medical Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Beginning with the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, the Internet was a significant additional tool in the education of teenagers. Later, it takes more and more significant role in educating students and professionals. Goal: The aim of this paper is to investigate, to what extent and how effectively the Internet is used today by students of biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, more specifically, this paper will research the implications of the well-known social networks in education of students and health professionals in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We compared the ratio of using Social networks by students for spreading medical information as basics for health education at medical faculties at 3 universities in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Results and discussion: The results showed that only 11.6% of professors use Facebook type of social network, 49.3% of them have a profile on BiomedExperts scientific social network and 79% have available articles in the largest biomedical literature database MEDLINE. Students are also frequent users of general social networks and educational clips from You Tube, which they prefer to utilize considerably more than the other types of professionals. Students rarely use the facilities of professional social networks, because they contain mainly data and information needed for further, postgraduate professional education. Conclusion: In B&H there are decent conditions for the use of online social networks in the education of health professionals. While students enthusiastically embraced these opportunities, this is not so much a case with health care professionals in practice; while scientific health care workers have not shown greater interest in the use of social networks, both for purposes of scientific research and in terms of self-education and training of students. PMID:23922524

  16. How social networks influence female students' choices to major in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinland, Kathryn Ann

    Scope and Method of Study: This study examined how social influence plays a part in female students' choices of college major, specifically engineering instead of science, technology, and math. Social influence may show itself through peers, family members, and teachers and may encompass resources under the umbrella of social capital. The purpose of this study was to examine how female students' social networks, through the lens of social capital, influence her major choice of whether or not to study engineering. The variables of peer influence, parental influence, teacher/counselor influence, perception of engineering, and academic background were addressed in a 52 question, Likert scale survey. This survey has been modified from an instrument previously used by Reyer (2007) at Bradley University. Data collection was completed using the Dillman (2009) tailored design model. Responses were grouped into four main scales of the dependent variables of social influence, encouragement, perceptions of engineering and career motivation. A factor analysis was completed on the four factors as a whole, and individual questions were not be analyzed. Findings and Conclusions: This study addressed the differences in social network support for female freshmen majoring in engineering versus female freshmen majoring in science, technology, or math. Social network support, when working together from all angles of peers, teachers, parents, and teachers/counselors, transforms itself into a new force that is more powerful than the summation of the individual parts. Math and science preparation also contributed to female freshmen choosing to major in engineering instead of choosing to major in science, technology, or math. The STEM pipeline is still weak and ways in which to reinforce it should be examined. Social network support is crucial for female freshmen who are majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  17. Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks

    PubMed Central

    Pasquaretta, Cristian; Levé, Marine; Claidière, Nicolas; van de Waal, Erica; Whiten, Andrew; MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Pelé, Marie; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L.; Borgeaud, Christèle; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Fichtel, Claudia; Hopper, Lydia M.; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Petit, Odile; Schnoell, Anna Viktoria; di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Thierry, Bernard; Tiddi, Barbara; Sueur, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Network optimality has been described in genes, proteins and human communicative networks. In the latter, optimality leads to the efficient transmission of information with a minimum number of connections. Whilst studies show that differences in centrality exist in animal networks with central individuals having higher fitness, network efficiency has never been studied in animal groups. Here we studied 78 groups of primates (24 species). We found that group size and neocortex ratio were correlated with network efficiency. Centralisation (whether several individuals are central in the group) and modularity (how a group is clustered) had opposing effects on network efficiency, showing that tolerant species have more efficient networks. Such network properties affecting individual fitness could be shaped by natural selection. Our results are in accordance with the social brain and cultural intelligence hypotheses, which suggest that the importance of network efficiency and information flow through social learning relates to cognitive abilities. PMID:25534964

  18. Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks.

    PubMed

    Pasquaretta, Cristian; Levé, Marine; Claidière, Nicolas; van de Waal, Erica; Whiten, Andrew; MacIntosh, Andrew J J; Pelé, Marie; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L; Borgeaud, Christèle; Brosnan, Sarah F; Crofoot, Margaret C; Fedigan, Linda M; Fichtel, Claudia; Hopper, Lydia M; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Petit, Odile; Schnoell, Anna Viktoria; di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Thierry, Bernard; Tiddi, Barbara; Sueur, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Network optimality has been described in genes, proteins and human communicative networks. In the latter, optimality leads to the efficient transmission of information with a minimum number of connections. Whilst studies show that differences in centrality exist in animal networks with central individuals having higher fitness, network efficiency has never been studied in animal groups. Here we studied 78 groups of primates (24 species). We found that group size and neocortex ratio were correlated with network efficiency. Centralisation (whether several individuals are central in the group) and modularity (how a group is clustered) had opposing effects on network efficiency, showing that tolerant species have more efficient networks. Such network properties affecting individual fitness could be shaped by natural selection. Our results are in accordance with the social brain and cultural intelligence hypotheses, which suggest that the importance of network efficiency and information flow through social learning relates to cognitive abilities. PMID:25534964

  19. Social networks and social norms are associated with obesity treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Doyle, Caroline Y.; Xu, Xiaomeng; Bihuniak, Jessica; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether overweight social network members and normative influence for obesity are associated with weight loss outcomes during obesity treatment. Design and Methods Participants (N=214) in a behavioral weight loss trial reported (a) the weight status of various members of their social network and (b) level of obesogenic normative influence within their social network. Weight was objectively assessed before and after treatment. Results At baseline, participants with partners and best friends who were overweight and those with more children and relatives who were overweight had higher BMIs (p’s<.03). However, social norms for obesity were not associated with baseline BMI. During treatment, participants lost an average of 4.4% of initial body weight, and social influence factors were adversely associated with weight loss outcomes. Having more casual friends who were overweight at baseline and being part of a social network with stronger social norms for unhealthy eating predicted poorer weight losses (p’s<.023). Remaining social influence factors and changes in social influence were not associated with treatment outcomes. Conclusions Whereas weight status may “cluster” in social networks, only weight status of casual friends and normative influence for unhealthy eating were associated with obesity treatment outcomes. PMID:26150394

  20. The effects of online social networks on tacit knowledge transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hong-Miao; Zhang, Sheng-Tai; Jin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Due to the popular use of online social networks in today's world, how to propagate employees' tacit knowledge via online social networks has attracted managers' attention, which is critical to enhance the competitiveness of firms. In this paper, we propose a tacit knowledge transmission model on networks with even mixing based on the propagation property of tacit knowledge and the application of online social networks. We consider two routes of transmission, which are contact through online social networks and face-to-face physical contact, and derive the threshold that governs whether or not a kind of tacit knowledge can be shared in an organization with few initial employees who have acquired it. The impact of the degree distribution of the users' contact network on the transmission is investigated analytically. Some numerical simulations are presented to support the theoretical results. We perform the sensitivity analysis of the threshold in terms of the propagation parameters and confirm that online social networks contribute significantly to enhancing the transmission of tacit knowledge among employees.

  1. Modelling Animal Group Fission Using Social Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sueur, Cédric; Maire, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Group life involves both advantages and disadvantages, meaning that individuals have to compromise between their nutritional needs and their social links. When a compromise is impossible, the group splits in order to reduce conflict of interests and favour positive social interactions between its members. In this study we built a dynamic model of social networks to represent a succession of temporary fissions involving a change in social relations that could potentially lead to irreversible group fission (i.e. no more group fusion). This is the first study that assesses how a social network changes according to group fission-fusion dynamics. We built a model that was based on different parameters: the group size, the influence of nutritional needs compared to social needs, and the changes in the social network after a temporary fission. The results obtained from this theoretical data indicate how the percentage of social relation transfer, the number of individuals and the relative importance of nutritional requirements and social links influence the average number of days before irreversible fission occurs. The greater the nutritional needs and the higher the transfer of social relations during temporary fission, the fewer days will be observed before an irreversible fission. It is crucial to bridge the gap between the individual and the population level if we hope to understand how simple, local interactions may drive ecological systems. PMID:24831471

  2. Network-based social capital and capacity-building programs: an example from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Capacity-building programs are vital for healthcare workforce development in low- and middle-income countries. In addition to increasing human capital, participation in such programs may lead to new professional networks and access to social capital. Although network development and social capital generation were not explicit program goals, we took advantage of a natural experiment and studied the social networks that developed in the first year of an executive-education Master of Hospital and Healthcare Administration (MHA) program in Jimma, Ethiopia. Case description We conducted a sociometric network analysis, which included all program participants and supporters (formally affiliated educators and mentors). We studied two networks: the Trainee Network (all 25 trainees) and the Trainee-Supporter Network (25 trainees and 38 supporters). The independent variable of interest was out-degree, the number of program-related connections reported by each respondent. We assessed social capital exchange in terms of resource exchange, both informational and functional. Contingency table analysis for relational data was used to evaluate the relationship between out-degree and informational and functional exchange. Discussion and evaluation Both networks demonstrated growth and inclusion of most or all network members. In the Trainee Network, those with the highest level of out-degree had the highest reports of informational exchange, ?2 (1, N = 23) = 123.61, p < 0.01. We did not find a statistically significant relationship between out-degree and functional exchange in this network, ?2(1, N = 23) = 26.11, p > 0.05. In the Trainee-Supporter Network, trainees with the highest level of out-degree had the highest reports of informational exchange, ?2 (1, N = 23) = 74.93, p < 0.05. The same pattern held for functional exchange, ?2 (1, N = 23) = 81.31, p < 0.01. Conclusions We found substantial and productive development of social networks in the first year of a healthcare management capacity-building program. Environmental constraints, such as limited access to information and communication technologies, or challenges with transportation and logistics, may limit the ability of some participants to engage in the networks fully. This work suggests that intentional social network development may be an important opportunity for capacity-building programs as healthcare systems improve their ability to manage resources and tackle emerging problems. PMID:20594321

  3. Magic from Social Networks that Talk to Management: Four Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how social networks can help to produce the "magic" of extraordinary results for organizations. Design/methodology/approach: In this exploratory study four cases (from published reports) are compared in order to illustrate different management approaches to utilizing the power of networks

  4. Semantic Social Network Portal for Collaborative Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Marco; O'Murchu, Ina; Breslin, John; Decker, Stefan; Hogan, Deirdre; MacDonaill, Ciaran

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The motivation for this investigation is to apply social networking features to a semantic network portal, which supports the efforts in enterprise training units to up-skill the employee in the company, and facilitates the creation and reuse of knowledge in online communities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides an overview…

  5. Social network approaches to leadership: an integrative conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Carter, Dorothy R; DeChurch, Leslie A; Braun, Michael T; Contractor, Noshir S

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary definitions of leadership advance a view of the phenomenon as relational, situated in specific social contexts, involving patterned emergent processes, and encompassing both formal and informal influence. Paralleling these views is a growing interest in leveraging social network approaches to study leadership. Social network approaches provide a set of theories and methods with which to articulate and investigate, with greater precision and rigor, the wide variety of relational perspectives implied by contemporary leadership theories. Our goal is to advance this domain through an integrative conceptual review. We begin by answering the question of why-Why adopt a network approach to study leadership? Then, we offer a framework for organizing prior research. Our review reveals 3 areas of research, which we term: (a) leadership in networks, (b) leadership as networks, and (c) leadership in and as networks. By clarifying the conceptual underpinnings, key findings, and themes within each area, this review serves as a foundation for future inquiry that capitalizes on, and programmatically builds upon, the insights of prior work. Our final contribution is to advance an agenda for future research that harnesses the confluent ideas at the intersection of leadership in and as networks. Leadership in and as networks represents a paradigm shift in leadership research-from an emphasis on the static traits and behaviors of formal leaders whose actions are contingent upon situational constraints, toward an emphasis on the complex and patterned relational processes that interact with the embedding social context to jointly constitute leadership emergence and effectiveness. PMID:25798551

  6. Mother's Social Network and Family Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of a social network analysis (SNA) performed on the mother's primary network of interaction in 15 Mexican American families in the city of El Paso, Texas, the neighbourhood of La Villita, in Chicago, and the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The goal of this study was to examine potential opportunities for Spanish…

  7. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  8. Modular and hierarchical structure of social contact networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yuanzheng; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang; Song, Hongbin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Social contact networks exhibit overlapping qualities of communities, hierarchical structure and spatial-correlated nature. We propose a mixing pattern of modular and growing hierarchical structures to reconstruct social contact networks by using an individual’s geospatial distribution information in the real world. The hierarchical structure of social contact networks is defined based on the spatial distance between individuals, and edges among individuals are added in turn from the modular layer to the highest layer. It is a gradual process to construct the hierarchical structure: from the basic modular model up to the global network. The proposed model not only shows hierarchically increasing degree distribution and large clustering coefficients in communities, but also exhibits spatial clustering features of individual distributions. As an evaluation of the method, we reconstruct a hierarchical contact network based on the investigation data of a university. Transmission experiments of influenza H1N1 are carried out on the generated social contact networks, and results show that the constructed network is efficient to reproduce the dynamic process of an outbreak and evaluate interventions. The reproduced spread process exhibits that the spatial clustering of infection is accordant with the clustering of network topology. Moreover, the effect of individual topological character on the spread of influenza is analyzed, and the experiment results indicate that the spread is limited by individual daily contact patterns and local clustering topology rather than individual degree.

  9. Social Networks and Career Advancement of People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Mukta

    2012-01-01

    Although organizational social networks are known to influence career mobility, the specific direction of this influence is different for diverse employee groups. Diversity in organizational network research has been operationalized on various dimensions such as race and ethnicity, age, religion, education, occupation, and gender. Missing in this…

  10. Social Networks and Career Advancement of People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Mukta

    2012-01-01

    Although organizational social networks are known to influence career mobility, the specific direction of this influence is different for diverse employee groups. Diversity in organizational network research has been operationalized on various dimensions such as race and ethnicity, age, religion, education, occupation, and gender. Missing in this…

  11. Good Communication: The Other Social Network for Successful IT Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trubitt, Lisa; Overholtzer, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Social networks of the electronic variety have become thoroughly embedded in contemporary culture. People have woven these networks into their daily routines, using Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, online gaming environments, and other tools to build and maintain complex webs of professional and personal relationships. Chief Information Officers…

  12. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  13. Magic from Social Networks that Talk to Management: Four Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how social networks can help to produce the "magic" of extraordinary results for organizations. Design/methodology/approach: In this exploratory study four cases (from published reports) are compared in order to illustrate different management approaches to utilizing the power of networks.…

  14. Social Network Sites: A Starting Point for Career Development Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strehlke, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This action research study explores the career influence of social network sites (SNSs) by examining 14 web-based articles that consider the risks and opportunities of SNSs from a job search perspective. Three themes are discussed: user visibility, self-presentation, and network connections. Practical strategies are identified to help career…

  15. Mother's Social Network and Family Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of a social network analysis (SNA) performed on the mother's primary network of interaction in 15 Mexican American families in the city of El Paso, Texas, the neighbourhood of La Villita, in Chicago, and the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The goal of this study was to examine potential opportunities for Spanish…

  16. Good Communication: The Other Social Network for Successful IT Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trubitt, Lisa; Overholtzer, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Social networks of the electronic variety have become thoroughly embedded in contemporary culture. People have woven these networks into their daily routines, using Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, online gaming environments, and other tools to build and maintain complex webs of professional and personal relationships. Chief Information Officers…

  17. A Method for Group Extraction in Complex Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bródka, Piotr; Musial, Katarzyna; Kazienko, Przemys?aw

    The extraction of social groups from social networks existing among employees in the company, its customers or users of various computer systems became one of the research areas of growing importance. Once we have discovered the groups, we can utilise them, in different kinds of recommender systems or in the analysis of the team structure and communication within a given population.

  18. Social Networks, Substance Use, and Mental Health in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Zaharakis, Nikola; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The relationship between social network risk (alcohol-using close friends), perceived peer closeness, substance use, and psychiatric symptoms was examined to identify risk and protective features of college students' social context. Participants: Six hundred and seventy undergraduate students enrolled in a large southeastern…

  19. Community Discovery in Dynamic, Rich-Context Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ru

    2010-01-01

    My research interest has been in understanding the human communities formed through interpersonal social activities. Participation in online communities on social network sites such as Twitter has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways including financial decision-making and political choices, suggesting the rich potential…

  20. Community Discovery in Dynamic, Rich-Context Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ru

    2010-01-01

    My research interest has been in understanding the human communities formed through interpersonal social activities. Participation in online communities on social network sites such as Twitter has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways including financial decision-making and political choices, suggesting the rich potential…

  1. Social Networks and Depression among Older Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Puerto Rican population has excess risk of many health problems like diabetes, cognitive impairment, physical frailty, and disability. They also exhibit high rates of depression symptoms. Research suggests that support from social networks may mediate the effects of social and environmental stre...

  2. #SocialNetworks: Making Nonfiction Trend in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta; Scott, Kelly; Simone, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Students must be proficient readers of nonfiction texts to be successful in school and life. Since engaging students in this genre can be challenging, this article focuses on how students can respond digitally and socially to nonfiction through the use of free, secure social networks. Not only can students become more engaged in learning when…

  3. Academic English Socialization through Individual Networks of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappa-Hollman, Sandra; Duff, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of individual network of practice (INoP) as a viable construct for analyzing academic (discourse) socialization in second language (L2) contexts. The authors provide an overview of social practice theories that have informed the development of INoP--community of practice (CoP; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger,…

  4. Community and Social Network Sites as Technology Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryberg, Thomas; Christiansen, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the affordance of the Danish social networking site Mingler.dk for peer-to-peer learning and development. With inspiration from different theoretical frameworks, the authors argue how learning and development in such social online systems can be conceptualised and analysed. Theoretically the paper defines development in…

  5. The Use of Social Networking Sites among Malaysian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamat, Afendi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Hassan, Haslinda Abu

    2012-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have increasingly become an important tool for young adults to interact and socialize with their peers. As most of these young adults are also learners, educators have been looking for ways to understand the phenomena in order to harness its potential for use in education. This is especially relevant in Malaysia…

  6. Teacher Professionalization in the Age of Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, Royce; Veletsianos, George

    2015-01-01

    As teacher education students become professionals, they face a number of tensions related to identity, social participation, and work-life balance, which may be further complicated by social networking sites (SNS). This qualitative study sought to articulate tensions that arose between professionalization influences and teacher education student…

  7. Teacher Professionalization in the Age of Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, Royce; Veletsianos, George

    2015-01-01

    As teacher education students become professionals, they face a number of tensions related to identity, social participation, and work-life balance, which may be further complicated by social networking sites (SNS). This qualitative study sought to articulate tensions that arose between professionalization influences and teacher education student…

  8. Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…

  9. #SocialNetworks: Making Nonfiction Trend in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta; Scott, Kelly; Simone, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Students must be proficient readers of nonfiction texts to be successful in school and life. Since engaging students in this genre can be challenging, this article focuses on how students can respond digitally and socially to nonfiction through the use of free, secure social networks. Not only can students become more engaged in learning when…

  10. Social Networks, Substance Use, and Mental Health in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Zaharakis, Nikola; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The relationship between social network risk (alcohol-using close friends), perceived peer closeness, substance use, and psychiatric symptoms was examined to identify risk and protective features of college students' social context. Participants: Six hundred and seventy undergraduate students enrolled in a large southeastern…

  11. Academic English Socialization through Individual Networks of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappa-Hollman, Sandra; Duff, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of individual network of practice (INoP) as a viable construct for analyzing academic (discourse) socialization in second language (L2) contexts. The authors provide an overview of social practice theories that have informed the development of INoP--community of practice (CoP; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger,…

  12. Time Allocation in Social Networks: Correlation Between Social Structure and Human Communication Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Moro, Esteban

    Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.

  13. Early social networks predict survival in wild bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Margaret A; Mann, Janet

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental question concerning group-living species is what factors influence the evolution of sociality. Although several studies link adult social bonds to fitness, social patterns and relationships are often formed early in life and are also likely to have fitness consequences, particularly in species with lengthy developmental periods, extensive social learning, and early social bond-formation. In a longitudinal study of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.), calf social network structure, specifically the metric eigenvector centrality, predicted juvenile survival in males. Additionally, male calves that died post-weaning had stronger ties to juvenile males than surviving male calves, suggesting that juvenile males impose fitness costs on their younger counterparts. Our study indicates that selection is acting on social traits early in life and highlights the need to examine the costs and benefits of social bonds during formative life history stages. PMID:23077627

  14. Early Social Networks Predict Survival in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Margaret A.; Mann, Janet

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental question concerning group-living species is what factors influence the evolution of sociality. Although several studies link adult social bonds to fitness, social patterns and relationships are often formed early in life and are also likely to have fitness consequences, particularly in species with lengthy developmental periods, extensive social learning, and early social bond-formation. In a longitudinal study of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.), calf social network structure, specifically the metric eigenvector centrality, predicted juvenile survival in males. Additionally, male calves that died post-weaning had stronger ties to juvenile males than surviving male calves, suggesting that juvenile males impose fitness costs on their younger counterparts. Our study indicates that selection is acting on social traits early in life and highlights the need to examine the costs and benefits of social bonds during formative life history stages. PMID:23077627

  15. Social networks, support and early psychosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gayer-Anderson, C; Morgan, C

    2013-06-01

    Background. There is strong evidence that those with a long-standing psychotic disorder have fewer social contacts and less social support than comparison groups. There is less research on the extent of social contacts and support prior to or at the onset of psychosis. In the light of recent evidence implicating a range of social experiences and contexts at the onset of psychosis, it is relevant to establish whether social networks and support diminished before or at the time of onset and whether the absence of such supports might contribute to risk, either directly or indirectly. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review of this literature to establish what is currently known about the relationship between social networks, support and early psychosis. Methods. We identified all studies investigating social networks and support in first episode psychosis samples and in general population samples with measures of psychotic experiences or schizotype by conducting systematic searches of electronic databases using pre-defined search terms and criteria. Findings were synthesized using non-quantitative approaches. Results. Thirty-eight papers were identified that met inclusion criteria. There was marked methodological heterogeneity, which limits the capacity to draw direct comparisons. Nonetheless, the existing literature suggests social networks (particularly close friends) and support diminished both among first episode samples and among non-clinical samples reporting psychotic experiences or with schizotype traits, compared with varying comparison groups. These differences may be more marked for men and for those from minority ethnic populations. Conclusions. Tentatively, reduced social networks and support appear to pre-date onset of psychotic disorder. However, the substantial methodological heterogeneity among the existing studies makes comparisons difficult and suggests a need for more robust and comparable studies on networks, support and early psychosis. PMID:22831843

  16. Social Networks of Substance Users With HIV Infection: Application of the Norbeck Social Support Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Ramaswamy, Megha; Li, Xuan; Litwin, Alain H.; Berg, Karina M.; Arnsten, Julia H.

    2013-01-01

    The role of social support networks in medication adherence among HIV-infected substance users remains understudied. In this secondary data analysis, the authors sought to determine the relationship between social support networks and antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected substance abusers receiving methadone. They analyzed data collected in a 24-week study of 76 methadone-maintained, HIV-infected substance abusers randomized to directly observed antiretroviral therapy or treatment as usual. The authors used logistic regression to examine the relationship between social support networks and self-reported antiretroviral adherence. Their results showed that study participants had an average of 1.36 social network members (SD = 1.4); 34% of participants had at least one drug user and 25% had at least one HIV-infected person in their network. The presence of network drug users and HIV-infected network members was associated with less antiretroviral medication adherence (p < .05). The authors conclude that both social network density and characteristics of network members have implications for medication adherence. PMID:21890719

  17. Assessment of Social Network Change in a National Longitudinal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Schumm, L. Philip; Laumann, Edward O.; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This article describes new longitudinal data on older adults’ egocentric social networks collected by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). We describe a novel survey technique that was used to record specific personnel changes that occurred within respondents’ networks during the 5-year study period, and we make recommendations regarding usage of the resulting data. Method. Descriptive statistics are presented for measures of network size, composition, and structure at both waves, respondent-level summary measures of change in these characteristics between waves, as well as measures that distinguish between changes associated with losses of Wave 1 network members, additions of new ones, and changes in relationships with network members who were present at both waves. Results. The NSHAP network change module was successful in providing reliable information about specific changes that occurred within respondents’ confidant networks. Most respondents lost at least one confidant from W1 and added at least one new confidant between waves as well. Network growth was more common than network shrinkage. Both lost and new ties were weaker than ties that persisted throughout the study period. Discussion. These data provide new insight into the dynamic nature of networks in later life, revealing norms of network turnover, expansion, and weakening. Data limitations are discussed. PMID:25360026

  18. Model of community emergence in weighted social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumpula, J. M.; Onnela, J.-P.; Saramäki, J.; Kertész, J.; Kaski, K.

    2009-04-01

    Over the years network theory has proven to be rapidly expanding methodology to investigate various complex systems and it has turned out to give quite unparalleled insight to their structure, function, and response through data analysis, modeling, and simulation. For social systems in particular the network approach has empirically revealed a modular structure due to interplay between the network topology and link weights between network nodes or individuals. This inspired us to develop a simple network model that could catch some salient features of mesoscopic community and macroscopic topology formation during network evolution. Our model is based on two fundamental mechanisms of network sociology for individuals to find new friends, namely cyclic closure and focal closure, which are mimicked by local search-link-reinforcement and random global attachment mechanisms, respectively. In addition we included to the model a node deletion mechanism by removing all its links simultaneously, which corresponds for an individual to depart from the network. Here we describe in detail the implementation of our model algorithm, which was found to be computationally efficient and produce many empirically observed features of large-scale social networks. Thus this model opens a new perspective for studying such collective social phenomena as spreading, structure formation, and evolutionary processes.

  19. Social Networking Sites as Virtual Communities of Practice: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lorretta J.

    2010-01-01

    Membership in social networking sites is increasing rapidly. Social networking sites serve many purposes including networking, communication, recruitment, and sharing knowledge. Social networking sites, public or private, may be hosted on applications such as Facebook and LinkedIn. As individuals begin to follow and participate in social…

  20. Social network diagnostics: a tool for monitoring group interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many behavioral interventions designed to improve health outcomes are delivered in group settings. To date, however, group interventions have not been evaluated to determine if the groups generate interaction among members and how changes in group interaction may affect program outcomes at the individual or group level. Methods This article presents a model and practical tool for monitoring how social ties and social structure are changing within the group during program implementation. The approach is based on social network analysis and has two phases: collecting network measurements at strategic intervention points to determine if group dynamics are evolving in ways anticipated by the intervention, and providing the results back to the group leader to guide implementation next steps. This process aims to initially increase network connectivity and ultimately accelerate the diffusion of desirable behaviors through the new network. This article presents the Social Network Diagnostic Tool and, as proof of concept, pilot data collected during the formative phase of a childhood obesity intervention. Results The number of reported advice partners and discussion partners increased during program implementation. Density, the number of ties among people in the network expressed as a percentage of all possible ties, increased from 0.082 to 0.182 (p?network, and from 0.027 to 0.055 (p?>?0.05) in the discussion network. Conclusions The observed two-fold increase in network density represents a significant shift in advice partners over the intervention period. Using the Social Network Tool to empirically guide program activities of an obesity intervention was feasible. PMID:24083343