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The current research investigated how the contextual expression of personality differs across interpersonal relationships. Two related studies were conducted with college samples (Study 1: N?=?52, 38 female; Study 2: N?=?111, 72 female). Participants in each study completed a five-factor measure of personality and constructed a socialnetwork detailing their 30 most important relationships. Participants used a brief Five-Factor Model scale to rate their personality as they experience it when with each person in their socialnetwork. Multiple informants selected from each socialnetwork then rated the target participant's personality (Study 1: N?=?227, Study 2: N?=?777). Contextual personality ratings demonstrated incremental validity beyond standard global self-report in predicting specific informants' perceptions. Variability in these contextualized personality ratings was predicted by the position of the other individuals within the socialnetwork. Across both studies, participants reported being more extraverted and neurotic, and less conscientious, with more central members of their socialnetworks. Dyadic socialnetwork-based assessments of personality provide incremental validity in understanding personality, revealing dynamic patterns of personality variability unobservable with standard assessment techniques. PMID:23551024
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24
Purpose: To illustrate the need for socialnetwork metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of socialnetworks and the semantic web, suggests that socialnetwork analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if socialnetwork metadata is merged with semantic web…
Computer networks are inherently socialnetworks, linking people, organizations, and knowledge. They are social institutions that should not be studied in isolation but as integrated into everyday lives. The proliferation of computer networks has facilitated a deemphasis on group solidarities at work and in the community and afforded a turn to networked societies that are loosely bounded and sparsely knit.
Social insect colonies have many of the properties of adaptive networks. The simple rules governing how local interactions among individuals translate into group behaviors are found across social groups, giving social insects the potential to have a profound impact on our understanding of the interplay between network dynamics and social evolution.
Jennifer Fewell (Arizona State University;School of Life Sciences)
Personal losses or exit events and deficiencies in personal socialnetworks have both been shown to be associated with episodes of depression. This study found no evidence for an inverse correlation between exit events and primary socialnetworkvariables in depressed psychiatric outpatients and in normal subjects. Socialnetwork deficiencies are probably stable over time and although they may increase
With today‘s ubiquity and popularity of socialnetwork applications, the ability to analyze and understand large networks in an efficient manner becomes critically important. However, as networks become larger and more complex, reasoning about social dynamics via simple statistics is not a feasible option. To overcome these limitations, we can rely on visual metaphors. Visualization nowadays is no longer a passive process that produces images from a set of numbers. Recent years have witnessed a convergence of socialnetwork analytics and visualization, coupled with interaction, that is changing the way analysts understand and characterize socialnetworks. In this chapter, we discuss the main goal of visualization and how different metaphors are aimed towards elucidating different aspects of socialnetworks, such as structure and semantics. We also describe a number of methods where analytics and visualization are interwoven towards providing a better comprehension of social structure and dynamics.
Factors influencing supportive socialnetworks of people with schizophrenia are little understood. Data from 46 outpatients with schizophrenia were analysed using structural equation modelling to test plausible sets of inter-relationships between social skill, socialnetworks, and social support. The data supported a tentative model about the causal relationships between variables. Paths showed that people with greater social skill had larger
E. M. Macdonald; H. J. Jackson; R. L. Hayes; A. J. Baglioni; C. Madden
Two distinct forms of display have been used to construct images of networks, one based on points and lines and the other on matrices. In most point and line displays the points represent social actors and the lines represent connections among the act ors. In matrix displays the rows and columns both represent social actors and numbers or symbols in
Motivated by structural properties of the Web graph that support efficient data structures for in memory adjacency queries, we study the extent to which a large network can be compressed. Boldi and Vigna (WWW 2004), showed that Web graphs can be compressed down to three bits of storage per edge; we study the compressibility of socialnetworks where again adjacency
Flavio Chierichetti; Ravi Kumar; Silvio Lattanzi; Michael Mitzenmacher; Alessandro Panconesi; Prabhakar Raghavan
This study investigated differences in university students' academic entitlement (AE) by demographic group (sex, college class, college generational status) as well as AE's relationship with self-efficacy for college coursework and socialnetworking. It also investigated predictors of AE in first-generation (FG) students and continuing-generation…
With the growth of the Internet comes a growth in a ubiquitous networked society. Common Web 2.0 applications include a rapidly growing trend for socialnetwork sites. Socialnetwork sites typically converged different relationship types into one group of “friends.” However, with such vast interconnectivity, convergence of relationships, and information sharing by individual users comes an increased risk of privacy
To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the socialnetworks that exist within that community. This paper describes a socialnetwork monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their socialnetworks. The system was implemented in a…
Many current socialnetwork analytic methods work by analyzing a static aggregate graph, which provides a limited view of the structure and behavior of real-world socialnetworks. Socialnetworks in reality are dynamic and evolve over time as people join ...
Two exploratory studies are reported which sought to iden@ important psychological dimensions of socialnetworks. Both studies investigated the socialnetworks of college students, using as subfects the same 16 male and 16 female students. The first study employed multiple regression to generate predictor variables to students'ratings of satisfaction with their socialnetwork. The second study assessed how structurally contrasting
The very notion of socialnetwork implies that linked individuals interact repeatedly with each other. This notion allows them not only to learn successful strategies and adapt to them, but also to condition their own behavior on the behavior of others, in a strategic forward looking manner. Game theory of repeated games shows that these circumstances are conducive to the emergence of collaboration in simple games of two players. We investigate the extension of this concept to the case where players are engaged in a local contribution game and show that rationality and credibility of threats identify a class of Nash equilibria—that we call “collaborative equilibria”—that have a precise interpretation in terms of subgraphs of the socialnetwork. For large network games, the number of such equilibria is exponentially large in the number of players. When incentives to defect are small, equilibria are supported by local structures whereas when incentives exceed a threshold they acquire a nonlocal nature, which requires a “critical mass” of more than a given fraction of the players to collaborate. Therefore, when incentives are high, an individual deviation typically causes the collapse of collaboration across the whole system. At the same time, higher incentives to defect typically support equilibria with a higher density of collaborators. The resulting picture conforms with several results in sociology and in the experimental literature on game theory, such as the prevalence of collaboration in denser groups and in the structural hubs of sparse networks.
Tumors contain a vastly complicated cellular network that relies on local communication to execute malignant programs. The molecular cues that are involved in cell-cell adhesion orchestrate large-scale tumor behaviors such as proliferation and invasion. We have recently begun to appreciate that many tumors contain a high degree of cellular heterogeneity and are organized in a cellular hierarchy, with a cancer stem cell (CSC) population identified at the apex in multiple cancer types. CSCs reside in unique microenvironments or niches that are responsible for directing their behavior through cellular interactions between CSCs and stromal cells, generating a malignant socialnetwork. Identifying cell-cell adhesion mechanisms in this network has implications for the basic understanding of tumorigenesis and the development of more effective therapies. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of cell-cell adhesion mechanisms used by CSCs and how these local interactions have global consequences for tumor biology.
A socialnetwork  is a description of the social structure between actors, mostly persons, groups or organizations. It indicates the ways in which they are connected with each other by some relationship such as friendship, kinship, finance exchange etc. In a nutshell, when the person uses already known/unknown people to create new contacts, it forms socialnetworking. The socialnetwork is not a new concept rather it can be formed when similar people interact with each other directly or indirectly to perform particular task. Examples of socialnetworks include a friendship networks, collaboration networks, co-authorship networks, and co-employees networks which depict the direct interaction among the people. There are also other forms of socialnetworks, such as entertainment networks, business Networks, citation networks, and hyperlink networks, in which interaction among the people is indirect. Generally, socialnetworks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations and assists in improving interactive knowledge sharing, interoperability and collaboration.
This essay traces the development of the research enterprise, known as the social resources theory, which formulated and tested a number of proposi- tions concerning the relationships between embedded resources in socialnetworks and socioeconomic attainment. This enterprise, seen in the light of social capital, has accumulated a substantial body of research literature and supported the proposition that social capital,
\\u000a In recent years there has been much recent interest in the use of “online” socialnetworks for maintaining and building relationships\\u000a with others. In this talk we explore some of the key characteristics of socialnetworks and how they can potentially be exploited\\u000a to provide intelligent content sharing in the pervasive and mobile computing domain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Wireless and mobile devices such
The original publication is available from www.springerlink.com.\\u000aSloep, P. (2009). Social Interaction in Learning Networks. In R. Koper (Ed.), Learning Network Services for Professional Development (pp 13-15). Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.
With over 11,000 links contained within its pages, the Social Psychology Network site is arguably the largest social psychology database on the Internet. Maintained by Professor Scout Plous of Wesleyan University, the site has been generously supported by the National Science Foundation. Visitors will appreciate the very clean layout of the siteÃ¢ÂÂs homepage, as they are presented with a search engine, along with a number of electronic forums, and a listing of related topics. To delve into the siteÃ¢ÂÂs contents, visitors may wish to select from any one of the areas on the left-hand side of the homepage, which include listings of doctoral programs in social psychology and teaching resources. There are numerous other options for interested parties, and they lead to such offerings as rankings of doctoral programs in the field and distance learning options in the field. Finally, visitors can also view many of the siteÃ¢ÂÂs documents in a number of languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.
Just a few years ago, socialnetworking meant little more to educators than the headache of determining whether to penalize students for inappropriate activities captured on Facebook or MySpace. Now, teachers and students have an array of social-networking sites and tools--from Ning to VoiceThread and Second Life--to draw on for such serious uses…
Purpose – This viewpoint essay seeks to argue that young people's online socialnetworking can serve as sites for and supports for student learning in ways not currently assessed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The two themes presented are based on a select review of the research literature as well as the author's explorations of young people's online socialnetworking practices within MySpace
In the past, churn has been identified as an issue across most industry sectors. In its most general sense it refers to the rate of loss of customers from a company's customer base. There is a simple reason for the attention churn attracts: churning customers mean a loss of revenue. Emerging from business spaces like telecommunications (telcom) and broadcast providers, where churn is a major issue, it is also regarded as a crucial problem in many other businesses, such as online games creators, but also online socialnetworks and discussion sites. Companies aim at identifying the risk of churn in its early stages, as it is usually much cheaper to retain a customer than to try to win him or her back. If this risk can be accurately predicted, marketing departments can target customers efficiently with tailored incentives to prevent them from leaving.
Provided by Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP), this site allows users to freely access thousands of abstracts and full-text research papers. The core of the site is the SSRN Electronic Library, which contains an Abstract Database with over 15,600 entries and an Electronic Paper Collection, which currently contains over 4,200 full-text papers. Users can search title, abstract, and author fields, or browse the journals, which are grouped under the five respective Research Networks that form the SSRN: Accounting, Economics, Latin American, Financial, and Legal Scholarship. Within each journal entry, users may select from several display options to narrow their results and available full-text documents are indicated by a special symbol. Information on each of the five networks, including conference and job announcements, as well as information on subscribing and a list of site licenses, is accessible via a menu panel on the left side of the main page. According to SSEP, access to the abstracts and full-text papers will remain free of charge to all users until \\"the next revision to the web site this winter.\\"
Provided by Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP), this site allows users to freely access thousands of abstracts and full-text research papers. The core of the site is the SSRN Electronic Library, which contains an Abstract Database with over 15,600 entries and an Electronic Paper Collection, which currently contains over 4,200 full-text papers. Users can search title, abstract, and author fields, or browse the journals, which are grouped under the five respective Research Networks that form the SSRN: Accounting, Economics, Latin American, Financial, and Legal Scholarship. Within each journal entry, users may select from several display options to narrow their results and available full-text documents are indicated by a special symbol. Information on each of the five networks, including conference and job announcements, as well as information on subscribing and a list of site licenses, is accessible via a menu panel on the left side of the main page. According to SSEP, access to the abstracts and full-text papers will remain free of charge to all users until "the next revision to the web site this winter."
This dissertation develops new methods for the modeling and analysis of socialnetworks. Socialnetworks describe the complex relationships of individuals and groups in multiple overlapping contexts. Influence in a socialnetwork impacts behavior and deci...
My primary research question is: can socialnetworks assist analysts fight terrorism. My secondary research questions are as follows. First, how does socialnetworking create linkages. Second, how have socialnetworks been used to solve small problems. Th...
Dynamical socialnetworks are evolving rapidly and are highly adaptive. Characterizing the information encoded in socialnetworks is essential to gain insight into the structure, evolution, adaptability and dynamics. Recently entropy measures have been used to quantify the information in email correspondence, static networks and mobility patterns. Nevertheless, we still lack methods to quantify the information encoded in time-varying dynamical socialnetworks. In this talk we present a model to quantify the entropy of dynamical socialnetworks and use this model to analyze the data of phone-call communication. We show evidence that the entropy of the phone-call interaction network changes according to circadian rhythms. Moreover we show that socialnetworks are extremely adaptive and are modified by the use of technologies such as mobile phone communication. Indeed the statistics of duration of phone-call is described by a Weibull distribution and is significantly different from the distribution of duration of face-to-face interactions in a conference. Finally we investigate how much the entropy of dynamical socialnetworks changes in realistic models of phone-call or face-to face interactions characterizing in this way different type human social behavior.
This study examined whether bullies, victims, and aggressive victims (those who are both bullies and victims) differed on classroom socialnetworkvariables, gender, and ethnicity. Survey data were collected from a primarily Latino and Asian sample of 1,368 Southern California 6th graders (mean age = 11.3 years). Logistic regression analyses were…
Mouttapa, Michele; Valente, Tom; Gallaher, Peggy; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Unger, Jennifer B.
A socialnetwork is a set of people (or organizations or other social entities) connected by a set of social relation- ships, such as friendship, co-working or information exchange. Socialnetwork analysis focuses on the analysis of patterns of relationships among people, organizations, states and such social entities. Socialnetwork analysis provides both a visual and a mathematical analysis of
Technologically networkedsocial forms are broad, extensive and in demand. The rapid development and growth of web 2.0, or the social web, is evidence of the need and indeed hunger for social connectivity: people are searching for many and varied ways of enacting being-together. However, the ways in which we think of, research and write about network(ed) sociality are relatively recent and arguably restricted, warranting further critique and development. This article attempts to do several things: it raises questions about the types of sociality enacted in contemporary techno-society; critically explores the notion of the networked individual and the focus on the individual evident in much of the technology and sociality literature and asks questions about the place of the social in these discussions. It argues for a more well-balanced and multilevelled approach to questions of sociality in networked societies. The article starts from the position that possibilities enabled/afforded by the technologies we have in place have an effect upon the ways in which we understand being in the world together and our possible actions and futures. These possibilities are more than simply supplementary; in many ways they are transformative. The ways in which we grapple with these questions reveals as much about our understandings of sociality as it does about the technologies themselves.
Socialnetworks and the support that network members provide are important resources for family caregivers in sustaining their caregiving role. Caregivers' perceptions of support from family and friends have been linked to their health status (R. Kahn & T. Antonucci, 1980; I. Sandler & M. Barrera, 1984). The purpose of this study was to explore the socialnetworks and types of perceived support described by women who are caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults. Content analysis was used to examine interview data from a longitudinal qualitative study of 20 women caregivers of cognitively impaired older persons. An important finding of this study was the identification of a typology of socialnetworks of the women caregivers. The caregivers' perceptions of satisfaction with support received and experience of conflict with network members varied according to the characteristics of their socialnetwork. Those caregivers who belonged to diverse socialnetworks reported high satisfaction with the support that they received and little or no conflict. Those caregivers with kin-dominated socialnetworks reported little satisfaction with support received and a high degree of conflict. PMID:9078846
One of the key structural components of social systems is the socialnetwork. The representation of this network structure is key to providing a valid representation of the society under study. The social science concept of homophily provides a conceptual...
A tool for verifying that a message received by a socialnetworking service was sent by a bona fide owner of a socialnetworking account who purportedly sent the message. The tool receives a message and it locates in the message a string that was entered into a message text field of the message. The string is compared with a registered authentication string for the bona fide owner of the account. If the string in the message matches the registered authentication string, the string is removed from the message and the message is forwarded to the socialnetworking service. If the string in the message does not match the registered authentication string, the message is blocked from being forwarded to the socialnetworking service.
The Social Science Research Network is a rapidly growing Web site containing full text scholarly working papers and forthcoming papers in the fields of accounting, economics, Latin American studies, and legal research. This column describes and analyzes the site.
\\u000a Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals\\u000a for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online\\u000a identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between\\u000a online identities and socialnetworking.
Muthucumaru Maheswaran; Bader Ali; Hatice Ozguven; Julien Lord
Abstract Social psychology,and socialnetwork,research are both centrally concerned,with human sociality. Despite some historically significant interactions between the two, these areas of investigationhave,not been usefully deployed together in recent research endeavours. This paper attempts tobring out some points of both theoretical and methodological contentions, to characterize the gap between them, to traverse briefly the trajectories of its historical development, and
The increased use of socialnetworking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook,
In recent years, the popularity of online socialnetworks (OSN) has risen to unprecedented levels, with the most popular ones having hundreds of millions of users. This success has generated interest within the networking community and has given rise to a number of measurement and characterization studies, which provide a first step towards their…
Social media network analysis has become very popular in recent years. How do real networks evolve over time? What are the normal evolving behaviors in a social media network? In order to extract behaviors occurring regularly to reveal the microscopic evolving properties in socialnetworks, the evolving process of networks is modeled as stochastic states transition, and the evolving behaviors
We present an empirical study of different socialnetworks obtained from digital repositories. Our analysis reveals the community structure and provides a useful visualising technique. We investigate the scaling properties of the community size distribution, and find that all the networks exhibit power law scaling in the community size distributions with exponent either -0.5 or -1. Finally we find that the networks' community structure is topologically self-similar using the Horton-Strahler index.
Arenas, A.; Danon, L.; Díaz-Guilera, A.; Gleiser, P. M.; Guimerà, R.
This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between first-to-second-year retention and socialnetworkvariables for a cohort of first-year students at a small liberal arts college. The socialnetwork is reconstructed using not survey data as is most common, but rather using archival data from a student information system. Each…
We describe some new exactly solvable models of the structure of socialnetworks, based on random graphs with arbitrary degree distributions. We give models both for simple unipartite networks, such as acquaintance networks, and bipartite networks, such as affiliation networks. We compare the predictions of our models to data for a number of real-world socialnetworks and find that in
Socialnetworks are organized into communities with dense internal connections, giving rise to high values of the clustering coefficient. In addition, these networks have been observed to be assortative, i.e., highly connected vertices tend to connect to other highly connected vertices, and have broad degree distributions. We present a model for an undirected growing network which reproduces these characteristics, with the aim of producing efficiently very large networks to be used as platforms for studying sociodynamic phenomena. The communities arise from a mixture of random attachment and implicit preferential attachment. The structural properties of the model are studied analytically and numerically, using the k-clique method for quantifying the communities.
Toivonen, Riitta; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Saramäki, Jari; Hyvönen, Jörkki; Kaski, Kimmo
In this Brief Report we present a version of a network growth model, generalized in order to describe the behavior of socialnetworks. The case of study considered is the preprint archive at cul.arxiv.org. Each node corresponds to a scientist, and a link is present whenever two authors wrote a paper together. This graph is a nice example of degree-assortative network, that is, to say a network where sites with similar degree are connected to each other. The model presented is one of the few able to reproduce such behavior, giving some insight on the microscopic dynamics at the basis of the graph structure. PMID:15524673
SocialNetwork Analysis (SNA) (Scott 1992) is the analysis of network data gathered in a social context. It has been used to examine social phenomena in such diverse areas as local communities, international organizations and sporting clubs. However, while the data collected by SocialNetwork Analysts is eminently computable it has taken until relatively recently for SNA to make it's
Nowadays we are experiencing the consolidation of socialnetworks (SN). Although there are trends trying to integrate SN platforms. they remain as data silos between each other. Information can't be exchanged between them. In some cases, it would be desirable to connect this scattered information, in order to build a distributed identity. This contribution proposes an architecture for distributed socialnetworking. Based on distributed user-centric identity, our proposal extends it by attaching user information. It also bridges the gap between distributed identity and distributed publishing capabilities.
Cross Site Scripting Worms, are malicious programs that propagates through visitors of a website in attempt to infect other visitors progressively. Cross site scripting vulnerabilities are exploited in many forms; one of the common forms is using worms on popular social websites, such as MySpace and Facebook. In this paper first we suggest a general model based on our discussions.
The authors note that when it comes to balancing free speech and schools' responsibilities, the online world is largely uncharted waters. Questions remain about the rights of both students and teachers in the world of social media. Although the lower courts have ruled that students' freedom of speech rights offer them some protection for…
This study utilises a quantitative case study socialnetwork approach to explore the connection between masculinity and scholastic achievement in two secondary, all-boys schools in Australia. In both schools two socialnetworks representing social status are explored: the "friendship" network as a measure of status that includes emotional…
In this paper we introduce SocialBrowsing, a Firefox extension that adds social context to the web browsing experience. The extension is paired with services provided by socialnetworking websites, analyzes the page's contents, and adds tooltips and highl...
College students are relying on the Internet to make connections with other people every day. As the Internet has developed and grown, so have the capabilities for interaction. Socialnetworking sites, a group of Web sites that provide people with the opportunity to create an online profile and to share that profile with others, are a part of…
Socialnetworking sites, such as Facebook, are extremely popular and have become a primary method for socialization and communication. Despite a report of increased use among those on the schizophrenia-spectrum, few details are known about their actual practices. In the current research, undergraduate participants completed measures of schizotypy and personality, and provided access to their Facebook profiles. Information from the profiles were then systematically coded and compared to the questionnaire data. As predicted, social anhedonia (SocAnh) was associated with a decrease in social participation variables, including a decrease in number of friends and number of photos, and an increase in length of time since communication with a friend, but SocAnh was also associated with an increase in profile length. Also, SocAnh was highly correlated with extraversion. Relatedly, extraversion uniquely predicted the number of friends and photos and length of time since communication with a friend. In addition, perceptual aberration/magical ideation (PerMag) was associated with an increased number of "black outs" on Facebook profile print-outs, a measure of paranoia. Overall, results from this naturalistic-like study show that SocAnh and extraversion are associated with decreased social participation and PerMag with increased paranoia related to information on socialnetworking sites. PMID:22796101
Martin, Elizabeth A; Bailey, Drew H; Cicero, David C; Kerns, John G
This slide presentation reviews some of the current uses of the socialnetworking sites available on the internet. It list some of the skills that are now considered obsolete and reviews the major socialnetworking sites.
This slide presentation reviews some of the current uses of the socialnetworking sites available on the internet. It list some of the skills that are now considered obsolete and reviews the major socialnetworking sites.
We argue that socialnetworks differ from most other types of networks, including technological and biological networks, in two important ways. First, they have nontrivial clustering or network transitivity and second, they show positive correlations, also called assortative mixing, between the degrees of adjacent vertices. Socialnetworks are often divided into groups or communities, and it has recently been suggested
Online socialnetworking sites like MySpace, Orkut, and Flickr are among the most popular sites on the Web and continue to experience dramatic growth in their user population. The popularity of these sites offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of socialnetworks at scale. Having a proper understanding of how online socialnetworks grow can provide insights into
Alan Mislove; Hema Swetha Koppula; Krishna P. Gummadi; Peter Druschel; Bobby Bhattacharjee
Online socialnetworking sites like Orkut, YouTube, and Flickr are among the most popular sites on the Internet. Users of these sites form a socialnetwork, which provides a powerful means of sharing, organizing, and finding con- tent and contacts. The popularity of these sites provides an opportunity to study the characteristics of online socialnetwork graphs at large scale.
Alan Mislove; Massimiliano Marcon; P. Krishna Gummadi; Peter Druschel; Bobby Bhattacharjee
Socialnetworks are fundamental to all people. Their socialnetwork describes how they are connected to others: close relationships, peripheral relationships, and those relationships that help connect them to other people, events, or things. As information specialists, school librarians develop a multidimensional socialnetwork that enables them…
Analysis of email networks reveals properties similar to classic socialnetworks such as homophily (assortativity) and community\\u000a formation. The technology underlying email enables the formation of a network but it does not explain characteristics of the\\u000a network that occur only as a result of patterns in human social behavior. Accordingly, a network formed from email activity\\u000a correlates to the social
\\u000a Scholars have recently started to explore specific characteristics of increasingly popular online socialnetworks. This paper\\u000a presents Fitcolab online socialnetwork (OSN). This real life, modern OSN was created as an experimental research network\\u000a which should allow for examination of various phenomena pertaining to network structure of online socialnetworks. The main\\u000a goal of the paper is to thoroughly describe
SocialNetworking is one of the major technological phe- nomena of the Web 2.0, with hundreds of millions of people participating. Socialnetworks enable a form of self expres- sion for users, and help them to socialize and share content with other users. In spite of the fact that content sharing represents one of the prominent features of existing Social
Anna Cinzia Squicciarini; Mohamed Shehab; Federica Paci
Over the last decade, there has been an explosion of interest in network research across the physical and social sciences. For social scientists, the theory of networks has been a goldmine, yielding explanations for social phenomena in a wide variety of disciplines from psychology to economics. In this essay, we review the kinds of things that social scientists have tried
Stephen P. Borgatti; Ajay Mehra; Daniel J. Brass; Giuseppe Labianca
Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of interest in network research across the physical and social sciences. For social scientists, the theory of networks has been a gold mine, yielding explanations for social phenomena in a wide variety of disciplines from psychology to economics. Here, we review the kinds of things that social scientists have tried to
Stephen P. Borgatti; Ajay Mehra; Daniel J. Brass; Giuseppe Labianca
This study examined the relationships between socialnetwork position and the use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and inhalants in a sample of 1,119 sixth-grade youth. Socialnetwork analyses of peer nominations were used to categorize youth as "members" of social groups, "liaisons" between groups, or social "isolates." The results revealed that…
Socialnetworks tend to exhibit some topological characteristics different from regular networks and random networks, such as shorter average path length and higher clustering coefficient, and the node degree of the majority of socialnetworks obeys exponential distribution. Based on the topological characteristics of the real socialnetworks, a new network model which suits to portray the structure of socialnetworks was proposed, and the characteristic parameters of the model were calculated. To find out the relationship between two people in the socialnetwork, and using the local information of the socialnetwork and the parallel mechanism, a hybrid search strategy based on k-walker random and a high degree was proposed. Simulation results show that the strategy can significantly reduce the average number of search steps, so as to effectively improve the search speed and efficiency. PMID:24574861
Socialnetworking tools used in learning provides instructional design with tools for transformative change in education. This study focused on defining the meanings and essences of socialnetworking through the lived common experiences of 7 college students. The problem of the study was a lack of learner voice in understanding the value of social…
Interest in log-linear modeling for social-network data has grown steadily since Holland and Leinhardt (1981) proposed their p1 model. That model was designed for a single binary relationship (directed graph) representing interactions between individuals. It assumed that interactions between pairs of individuals are mutually independent. Subsequent work has extended the model in various ways, including block-modeling and the case of
Socialnetworks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Socialnetworks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, socialnetworks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.
SocialNetwork Analysis (SNA) has been proposed as a tool to defeat transnational terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda. However, SNA is an descriptive tool that is a product of sociology and not an offensive tool used to attack a socialnetwork. SNA was not ...
A number of recent studies have focused on the statistical properties of networked systems such as socialnetworks and the Worldwide Web. Researchers have concentrated particularly on a few properties that seem to be common to many networks: the small-world property, power-law degree distributions, and network transitivity. In this article, we highlight another property that is found in many networks,
Location information is considered as private in many scenarios. Protecting location information on mobile ad-hoc networks has attracted much research in past years. However, location information protection on socialnetworks has not been paid much attention. In this paper, we present a novel location privacy protection approach on the basis of user messages in socialnetworks. Our approach grants flexibility to users by offering them multiple protecting options. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to protect socialnetwork users' location information via text messages. We propose five algorithms for location privacy protection on socialnetworks.
Discovering communities from documents involved in social discourse is an important topic in socialnetwork analysis, enabling greater understanding of the relation- ships among actors within a socialnetwork as well as top- ical trends in communication. This paper studies the dis- covery of communities from communication documents pro- duced over time, including the discovery of temporal trends in community
Ding Zhou; Isaac G. Councill; Hongyuan Zha; C. Lee Giles
"SocialNetwork Theory and Educational Change" offers a provocative and fascinating exploration of how socialnetworks in schools can impede or facilitate the work of education reform. Drawing on the work of leading scholars, the book comprises a series of studies examining networks among teachers and school leaders, contrasting formal and…
We perform sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of missing data on the structural properties of socialnetworks. The socialnetwork is conceived of as being generated by a bipartite graph, in which actors are linked together via multiple interaction contexts or affiliations. We discuss three principal missing data mechanisms: network boundary specification (non-inclusion of actors or affiliations), survey non-response,
In this paper, we study a novel problem of staring people dis- covery from socialnetworks, which is concerned with finding people who are not only authoritative but also sociable in the socialnetwork. We formalize this problem as an optimiza- tion programming problem. Taking the co-author network as a case study, we define three objective functions and pro- pose
Describes a microcomputer-based network developed at the University of California Los Angeles to support education in the social sciences. Topics discussed include technological, managerial, and academic considerations of university networking; the use of the network in teaching macroeconomics, social demographics, and symbolic logic; and possible…
Social insect colonies (ants, bees, wasps, and termites) show sophisticated collective problem-solving in the face of variable constraints. Individuals exchange information and materials such as food. The resulting network structure and dynamics can inform us about the mechanisms by which the insects achieve particular collective behaviors and these can be transposed to man-made and socialnetworks. We discuss how network analysis can answer important questions about social insects, such as how effective task allocation or information flow is realized. We put forward the idea that network analysis methods are under-utilized in social insect research, and that they can provide novel ways to view the complexity of collective behavior, particularly if network dynamics are taken into account. To illustrate this, we present an example of network tasks performed by ant workers, linked by instances of workers switching from one task to another. We show how temporal network analysis can propose and test new hypotheses on mechanisms of task allocation, and how adding temporal elements to static networks can drastically change results. We discuss the benefits of using social insects as models for complex systems in general. There are multiple opportunities emergent technologies and analysis methods in facilitating research on social insect network. The potential for interdisciplinary work could significantly advance diverse fields such as behavioral ecology, computer sciences, and engineering.
Charbonneau, Daniel; Blonder, Benjamin; Dornhaus, Anna
Aims To apply socialnetwork analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family, and co-workers. is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first to our knowledge to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Design Egocentric socialnetwork analysis was used to formally characterize the relationships between socialnetwork characteristics and gambling pathology. Setting Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Participants Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. Findings The SNA revealed significant socialnetwork compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their socialnetworks than did nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked, and drank with than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked, and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Conclusions Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in socialnetworks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their socialnetworks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention.
Meisel, Matthew K.; Clifton, Allan D.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.
This paper describes a body of work developed over the past five years. The work addresses the use of Bayesian network (BN) models for representing and predicting social/organizational behaviors. The topics covered include model construction, validation, and use. These topics show the bulk of the lifetime of such model, beginning with construction, moving to validation and other aspects of model ‘critiquing’, and finally demonstrating how the modeling approach might be used to inform policy analysis. To conclude, we discuss limitations of using BN for this activity and suggest remedies to address those limitations. The primary benefits of using a well-developed computational, mathematical, and statistical modeling structure, such as BN, are 1) there are significant computational, theoretical and capability bases on which to build 2) ability to empirically critique the model, and potentially evaluate competing models for a social/behavioral phenomena.
Whitney, Paul D.; White, Amanda M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.
We propose a wearable system that uses machine perception to quantify a user's social context and propagate this information to others in the user's socialnetwork. The social context is evaluated for the user's instantaneous, face-to- face interactions by evaluating proximity, collective speech features, head-movements, and galvanic skin responses. This information is then propagated to others within the user's social
Explores the social issues, including manners, security, crime (fraud), and social control associated with information networking, with emphasis on the Internet. Also addresses the influence of cellular phones, the Internet and other information technologies on society. (GR)
\\u000a In recent years, there is a dramatic growth in number and popularity of online socialnetworks. There are many networks available\\u000a with more than 100 million registered users such as Facebook, MySpace, QZone, Windows Live Spaces etc. People may connect,\\u000a discover and share by using these online socialnetworks. The exponential growth of online communities in the area of social
The structure of the contact network between individuals has a profound effect on the transmission of infectious disease. Using a novel technology--proximity sensing radio collars--we described the contact network in a population of Tasmanian devils. This largest surviving marsupial carnivore is threatened by a novel infectious cancer. All devils were connected in a single giant component, which would permit disease to spread throughout the network from any single infected individual. Unlike the contact networks for many human diseases, the degree distribution was not highly aggregated. Nevertheless, the empirically derived networks differed from random networks. Contact networks differed between the mating and non-mating seasons, with more extended male-female associations in the mating season and a greater frequency of female-female associations outside the mating season. Our results suggest that there is limited potential to control the disease by targeting highly connected age or sex classes. PMID:19694783
Socialnetworking applications leverage valuable information from social graphs and integrate communication capabilities to offer new services. However, currently, these applications are limited to communication capabilities such as click-to-call or click-to-conference. Once the communication session is established the social context and the communication context are not integrated in these services. For socialnetwork communication services such integration permits new and
A system and method for secure socialnetworking is disclosed. In one embodiment, a socialnetworking site is accessible on the Internet for use by minors that allows for adult supervision and approval for participation on the site, and provides safeguards against abuses and misuse of many socialnetworking sites available today. In another embodiment, a socialnetworking site on the Internet is available for use by minors that permits users to access the Internet only according to guidelines previously approved by adults for each user. The system further comprises a call screening feature that allows incoming and outgoing calls according to guidelines previously approved by adults for each user.
Research on socialnetworks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing socialnetworks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which socialnetworks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with socialnetwork concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of socialnetwork role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map socialnetworks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of socialnetworking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24750076
Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas
This chapter addresses various aspects of analyzing privacy breaches in socialnetworks. We first review literature that defines three types of privacy breaches in socialnetworks: interactive, active, and passive. We then survey the various network anonymization schemes that have been constructed to address these privacy breaches. After exploring these breaches and anonymization schemes, we evaluate a measure for determining the level of anonymity inherent in a network graph based on its topological structure. Finally, we close by emphasizing the difficulty of anonymizing socialnetwork data while maintaining usability for research purposes and offering areas for future work.
Some epidemic spreading models are usually applied to analyze the propagation of opinions or news. However, the dynamics of epidemic spreading and information or behavior spreading are essentially different in many aspects. Centola's experiments [ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1185231 329, 1194 (2010)] on behavior spreading in online socialnetworks showed that the spreading is faster and broader in regular networks than in random networks. This result contradicts with the former understanding that random networks are preferable for spreading than regular networks. To describe the spreading in online socialnetworks, a unknown-known-approved-exhausted four-status model was proposed, which emphasizes the effect of social reinforcement and assumes that the redundant signals can improve the probability of approval (i.e., the spreading rate). Performing the model on regular and random networks, it is found that our model can well explain the results of Centola's experiments on behavior spreading and some former studies on information spreading in different parameter space. The effects of average degree and network size on behavior spreading process are further analyzed. The results again show the importance of social reinforcement and are accordant with Centola's anticipation that increasing the network size or decreasing the average degree will enlarge the difference of the density of final approved nodes between regular and random networks. Our work complements the former studies on spreading dynamics, especially the spreading in online socialnetworks where the information usually requires individuals' confirmations before being transmitted to others.
Some epidemic spreading models are usually applied to analyze the propagation of opinions or news. However, the dynamics of epidemic spreading and information or behavior spreading are essentially different in many aspects. Centola's experiments [Science 329, 1194 (2010)] on behavior spreading in online socialnetworks showed that the spreading is faster and broader in regular networks than in random networks. This result contradicts with the former understanding that random networks are preferable for spreading than regular networks. To describe the spreading in online socialnetworks, a unknown-known-approved-exhausted four-status model was proposed, which emphasizes the effect of social reinforcement and assumes that the redundant signals can improve the probability of approval (i.e., the spreading rate). Performing the model on regular and random networks, it is found that our model can well explain the results of Centola's experiments on behavior spreading and some former studies on information spreading in different parameter space. The effects of average degree and network size on behavior spreading process are further analyzed. The results again show the importance of social reinforcement and are accordant with Centola's anticipation that increasing the network size or decreasing the average degree will enlarge the difference of the density of final approved nodes between regular and random networks. Our work complements the former studies on spreading dynamics, especially the spreading in online socialnetworks where the information usually requires individuals' confirmations before being transmitted to others. PMID:23944529
We examine the dynamic formation and stochastic evolution of networks connecting individuals. The payoff to an individual from an economic or social activity depends on the network of connections among individuals. Over time individuals form and sever links connecting themselves to other individuals based on the improvement that the resulting network offers them relative to the current network. In addition
Objective: This study examined the relationship between socialnetwork characteristics and health promoting behaviors (having a routine medical check-up, consuming no alcohol, consuming no fast food, and meeting recommendations for leisure-time physical activity and sleep duration) among Latinos to identify potential targets for behavioral interventions. Method: Personal network characteristics and health behavior data were collected from a community sample of 393 adult Latinos (73% women) in San Diego County, California. Network characteristics consisted of size and composition. Network size was calculated by the number of alters listed on a name generator questionnaire eliciting people with whom respondents discussed personal issues. Network composition variables were the proportion of Latinos, Spanish-speakers, females, family, and friends listed in the name generator. Additional network composition variables included marital status and the number of adults or children in the household. Results: Network members were predominately Latinos (95%), Spanish-speakers (80%), females (64%), and family (55%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, gender moderated the relationship between network composition, but not size, and a health behavior. Married women were more likely to have had a routine medical check-up than married men. For both men and women, having a larger network was associated with meeting the recommendation for leisure-time physical activity. Conclusion: Few socialnetwork characteristics were significantly associated with health promoting behaviors, suggesting a need to examine other aspects of social relationships that may influence health behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24884908
Marquez, Becky; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Madanat, Hala; Ji, Ming; Ayala, Guadalupe X
Socialnetworking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through socialnetworks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs. PMID:24102569
Socialnetworking sites are becoming more and more popular and thus there is increased value in attacking and exploiting them. The amount of users on them is attractive in terms of the information they make available. We implement a focused socialnetworking crawler on the popular site, Facebook, in order to exploit user profile information and identify aspects of computer
The introduction of a socialnetworking site inside of a large enterprise enables a new method of communication between colleagues, encouraging both personal and professional sharing inside the protected walls of a company intranet. Our analysis of user behavior and interviews presents the case that professionals use internal socialnetworking to build stronger bonds with their weak ties and to
Joan Morris Dimicco; David R. Millen; Werner Geyer; Casey Dugan; Beth Brownholtz; Michael J. Muller
Examines socialnetworks in three villages in rural Thailand. Demonstrates that Mon (merchant group) villagers, despite their cultural similarity to other Thais, are less strongly linked into the networks of villagers in which they trade. Suggests that ethnicity provides a vehicle for social distance which is beneficial for commerce. (Author/GC)
The purpose of this study is to determine individuals' usage purposes of socialnetworks with a focus on the possible differences between females and males. Facebook, which is one the most popular and being most widely used socialnetwork, is investigated in this study. The study group consisted of 870 Facebook users who responded to an online…
Network organisations emphasise the importance of corporate and product intangible assets. In global competition, the managerial economics of intangibles imposes new network policies of corporate social responsibility, dominated by global social issues such as economic sustainability, eco-responsibility, worker protection and so on.
Abstract Recently, socialnetworks such as Facebook have experienced a huge surge in popularity. The amount,of personal information stored in these sites calls for appropriate security precautions to pro- tect this data. In this paper, we describe how we are able to take advantage of a common weakness, namely the fact that an attacker can query the socialnetwork for
Marco Balduzzi; Christian Platzer; Thorsten Holz; Engin Kirda; Davide Balzarotti; Christopher Kruegel
Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process socialnetwork information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with socialnetwork information that were encoded using the…
In this paper, we propose a data mining framework that utilizes the concept of socialnetwork for the targeted advertising of products. This approach discovers the cohesive subgroups from customer's socialnetwork which is derived from customer's interaction data. Based on the set of cohesive subgroups, we infer the probabilities of customer's liking a product category from transaction records. Utilizing
Wan-shiou Yang; Jia-ben Dia; Hung-chi Cheng; Hsing-tzu Lin
Millions of contemporary young adults use socialnetworking sites. However, little is known about how much, why, and how they use these sites. In this study, 92 undergraduates completed a diary-like measure each day for a week, reporting daily time use and responding to an activities checklist to assess their use of the popular socialnetworking site, Facebook. At the
Tiffany A. Pempek; Yevdokiya A. Yermolayeva; Sandra L. Calvert
The present research examined how narcissism is manifested on a socialnetworking Web site (i.e., Facebook.com). Narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from socialnetworking Web page owners. Then their Web pages were coded for both objective and subjective content features. Finally, strangers viewed the Web pages and rated their impression of the owner on agentic traits, communal traits, and narcissism. Narcissism predicted (a) higher levels of social activity in the online community and (b) more self-promoting content in several aspects of the socialnetworking Web pages. Strangers who viewed the Web pages judged more narcissistic Web page owners to be more narcissistic. Finally, mediational analyses revealed several Web page content features that were influential in raters' narcissistic impressions of the owners, including quantity of social interaction, main photo self-promotion, and main photo attractiveness. Implications of the expression of narcissism in socialnetworking communities are discussed. PMID:18599659
In this paper, based on the coupled socialnetworks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled socialnetworks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled socialnetworks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled socialnetworks.
Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui
The increased use of socialnetworking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.
Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers.
In this chapter we explore the concept of community within socialnetworks and the effect that this primarily social construct can have on the way in which we understand trust within an online network. To do this we analyse and compare a number of the definitions that are both traditionally used to identify online communities and which have developed with the advent of semantically described socialnetworks. Taking these definitions we apply them to a number of groups within a visualisation of a socialnetwork and, using this case study, consider the differences that are apparent between the types of groups. Finally, we discuss how the social implications inherent within the definition of community interact with the trust and reputation systems that exist in such networks. In doing so, we focus on the social aspect of the socialnetwork and the ways in which the social and technical worlds entwine.
This paper describes a visual social browser for exploring the evolution of socialnetworks over time. We consider the exchange of e-mails between actors as an approximation of social ties. Our system analyzes the dynamic progression of communication patterns of e-mail traffic within groups of individuals. It combines a discrete visualization view, a continuous visualization view, and an adjacency matrix
Peter A. Gloor; Rob Laubacher; Yan Zhao; Scott B. C. Dynes
The Social Percolation model recently proposed by Solomon et al. is studied on the Ising correlated inhomogeneous network. The dynamics in this is studied so as to understand the role of correlations in the social structure. Thus, the possible role of the structural social connectivity is examined.
Background: Evidence suggests that socialnetworks mediate social functioning, self-esteem, mental health and quality of life. This paper presents findings concerning changes in the social lives, skills, behaviour and life experiences of a group of people with intellectual disabilities (n = 18), who gained support from an employment agency to find…
The aim of this paper is to understand the interrelations among relations within concrete social groups. Social structure is sought, not ideal types, although the latter are relevant to interrelations among relations. From a detailed socialnetwork, patterns of global relations can be extracted, within which classes of equivalently positioned individuals are delineated. The global patterns are derived algebraically through
Socialnetwork, an interesting theoretical concept, has suffered through difficulties in developing from it any operational devices suitable for use in ordinary social survey research. Here one such device is presented, and its utility is examined in the contrasting urban contexts of Hull and Los Angeles. Also, the role of kinship in the social…
Socialnetworks are popular for online communities. This paper evaluates the risk of sophisticated context-aware spam that could result from information sharing on socialnetworks and discusses potential mitigation strategies. Unlike normal spam, context-aware spam would likely have a high click-through rate due to exploitation of authentic social connections. Context-aware spam could lead to more insidious attacks that try to
Garrett Brown; Travis Howe; Micheal Ihbe; Atul Prakash; Kevin Borders
Socialnetworks evolve over time, driven by the shared activities and affiliations of their members, by similarity of individuals' attributes, and by the closure of short network cycles. We analyzed a dynamic socialnetwork comprising 43,553 students, faculty, and staff at a large university, in which interactions between individuals are inferred from time-stamped e-mail headers recorded over one academic year
The prospects for online socialnetworks as sites of information-gathering and affiliation for persons with AIDS and others concerned about HIV/AIDS not only represent the latest development in a trend toward circumventing traditional media and official information sources, but also may offer hope for a revitalization of HIV/AIDS discourse in the public sphere. This article provides an overview of three decades of information-seeking on the pandemic and its social and personal implications, as well as case studies of three examples of socialnetworking surrounding HIV/AIDS. It finds preliminary evidence of the formation of strong and weak ties as described in SocialNetwork Theory and suggests that the online accumulation of social capital by opinion leaders could facilitate dissemination of messages on HIV/AIDS awareness and testing. PMID:23844886
In this paper, we consider the evolution of structure within large online socialnetworks. We present a series of measurements of two such networks, together comprising in excess of five million people and ten million friendship links, annotated with metadata capturing the time of every event in the life of the network. Our measurements expose a surprising segmentation of these
With the development of emerging socialnetworks, such as Facebook and MySpace, security and privacy threats arising from socialnetwork analysis bring a risk of disclosure of confidential knowledge when the socialnetwork data is shared or made public. In addition to the current socialnetwork anonymity de-identification techniques, we study a situation, such as in a business transaction network,
With the development of emerging socialnetworks, such as Facebook and MySpace, security and privacy threats arising from socialnetwork analysis bring a risk of disclosure of confidential knowledge when the socialnetwork data is shared or made public. In addition to the current socialnetwork anonymity de-identification techniques, we study a situation, such as in business transaction networks or
This article provides an introductory summary to the formulation and application of exponential random graph models for socialnetworks. The possible ties among nodes of a network are regarded as random variables, and assumptions about dependencies among these random tie variables determine the general form of the exponential random graph model for the network. Examples of different dependence assumptions and
Garry Robins; Pip Pattison; Yuval Kalish; Dean Lusher
Direct and indirect exposure to gun violence have considerable consequences on individual health and well-being. However, no study has considered the effects of one's socialnetwork on gunshot injury. This study investigates the relationship between an individual's position in a high-risk socialnetwork and the probability of being a victim of a fatal or non-fatal gunshot wound by combining observational data from the police with records of fatal and non-fatal gunshot injuries among 763 individuals in Boston's Cape Verdean community. A logistic regression approach is used to analyze the probability of being the victim of a fatal or non-fatal gunshot wound and whether such injury is related to age, gender, race, prior criminal activity, exposure to street gangs and other gunshot victims, density of one's peer network, and the social distance to other gunshot victims. The findings demonstrate that 85 % all of the gunshot injuries in the sample occur within a single socialnetwork. Probability of gunshot victimization is related to one's network distance to other gunshot victims: each network association removed from another gunshot victim reduces the odds of gunshot victimization by 25 % (odds ratio = 0.75; 95 % confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.87). This indirect exposure to gunshot victimization exerts an effect above and beyond the saturation of gunshot victimization in one's peer network, age, prior criminal activity, and other individual and networkvariables. PMID:22714704
Papachristos, Andrew V; Braga, Anthony A; Hureau, David M
\\u000a Contact tracing is an important control measure in the fight against infectious disease. Healthcare workers deduce potential\\u000a disease pathways and propose corresponding containment strategies from collecting and reviewing patients’ contact history.\\u000a SocialNetwork Analysis (SNA) provides healthcare workers with a network approach for integrating and analyzing all collected\\u000a contact records via a simple network graph, called a contact network. Through
We develop a framework for simulating a realistic, evolving socialnetwork (a city) into which a disease is introduced. We compare our results to prevaccine era measles data for England and Wales, and find that they capture the quantitative and qualitative features of epidemics in populations spanning two orders of magnitude. Our results provide unique insight into how and why the social topology of the contact network influences the propagation of the disease through the population. We argue that network simulation is suitable for concurrently probing contact network dynamics and disease dynamics in ways that prior modeling approaches cannot and it can be extended to the study of less well-documented diseases.
Christensen, Claire; Albert, Istvan; Grenfell, Bryan; Albert, Reka
Neuropeptides in the arginine vasotocin/arginine vasopressin (AVT/AVP) family play a major role in the regulation of social behavior by their actions in the brain. In mammals, AVP is found within a circuit of recriprocally connected limbic structures that form the social behavior neural network. This review examines the role played by AVP within this network in controlling social processes that are critical for the formation and maintenance of social relationships: social recognition, social communication and aggression. Studies in a number of mammalian species indicate that AVP and AVP V1a receptors are ideally suited to regulate the expression of social processes because of their plasticity in response to factors that influence social behavior. The pattern of AVP innervation and V1a receptors across the social behavior neural network may determine the potential range and intensity of social responses that individuals display in different social situations. Although fundamental information on how social behavior is wired in the brain is still lacking, it is clear that different social behaviors can be influenced by the actions of AVP in the same region of the network and that AVP can act within multiple regions of this network to regulate the expression of individual social behaviors. The existing data suggest that AVP can influence social behavior by modulating the interpretation of sensory information, by influencing decision making and by triggering complex motor outputs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22079778
Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of socialnetwork environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within socialnetworks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of socialnetworks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers' interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes. PMID:23564989
Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of socialnetwork environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within socialnetworks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of socialnetworks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers’ interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes.
Socialnetwork is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the “nodes” of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) SocialNetworks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens’ associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet socialnetwork (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs, procedures, etc., which gives a special emphasis on public health aspects of information, especially in the field of medicine and health care. The authors of this paper discuss the role and practical importance of socialnetworks in improving the health and solving of health problems without the physical entrance into the health care system. Socialnetworks have their advantages and disadvantages, benefits and costs, especially when it comes to information which within the network set unprofessional people from unreliable sources, without an adequate selection. The ethical aspect of the norms in this segment is still not adequately regulated, so any sanctions for the unauthorized and malicious use of socialnetworks in private and other purposes in order to obtain personal gain at the expense of individuals or groups (sick or healthy, owners of certain businesses and companies, health organizations and pharmaceutical manufacturers, etc.), for which there is still no global or European codes and standards of conduct. Cyber crime is now one of the mostly present types of crime in modern times, as evidenced by numerous scandals that are happening both globally and locally.
Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris
Socialnetwork analysis (SNA) refers to the collection of techniques, tools, and methods used in sociometry aiming at the analysis of socialnetworks to investigate decision making, group communication, and the distribution of information. Human factors engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a socialnetwork analysis on communication data collected during a 14-day field study operating a dual rover exploration mission to better understand the relationships between certain network groups such as ground control, flight teams, and planetary science. The analysis identified two communication network structures for the continuous communication and Twice-a-Day Communication scenarios as a split network and negotiated network respectfully. The major nodes or groups for the networks' architecture, transmittal status, and information were identified using graphical network mapping, quantitative analysis of subjective impressions, and quantified statistical analysis using Sociometric Statue and Centrality. Post-questionnaire analysis along with interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages of each network structure with team members identifying the need for a more stable continuous communication network, improved robustness of voice loops, and better systems training/capabilities for scientific imagery data and operational data during Twice-a-Day Communications.
Summary The aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between socialnetwork deficits and the occurrence of suicidal behaviour, and to describe the short-term interpersonal consequences of a suicidal attempt. Two questionnaires, concerned with the extent and self-perceived adequacy of socialnetwork, formed the basis of a structured interview. Fifty-two suicide attempters were interviewed within 48 hours of
Elaine E. Hart; Christopher L. Williams; John A. Davidson
Abstract Network models,are widely used to represent relational information,among,interacting units. In studies of socialnetworks, recent emphasis has been placed on random graph models where the nodes,usually represent individual social actors and the edges represent the presence,of a specified relation between,actors. vVe develop,a class of models,where,the probability,of a relation between,actors depends,on the positions of individuals in an unobserved,\\
Peter D. Hoff; Adrian E. Raftery; Mark S. Handcock
Objective: Previous research has found that a drinking-supportive socialnetwork has a strong influence on heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems over time. The objective of this work was to understand the individual difference and interpersonal factors that predict changes in the socialnetwork relevant to alcohol use. Method: Data are from a large, ongoing prospective sample of 634 newly married couples in the United States. The current study examined the association between individual, relationship, and partner factors as they relate to changes in the number of drinking buddies in the socialnetwork during the first 7 years of marriage. Results: After controlling for the number of drinking buddies before marriage, as well as the frequency of heavy drinking, several individual, relationship, and partner factors were associated with changes in the socialnetwork over time. For both husbands and wives, alcohol expectancies and a partner's socialnetwork related to changes in the number of drinking buddies over time. Additionally, husbands with higher levels of extroversion and agreeableness had a greater number of drinking buddies over time. Among wives, personality factors were not related to changes in the number of drinking buddies over time. Conclusions: This work extends previous research by examining factors that predict changes in the socialnetwork that are most influential in alcohol use. Identifying these factors is important for informing prevention and treatment efforts.
Purpose – The importance of innovations in business management is a widely accepted hypothesis. Lately the research on innovation has widened to include consideration of the impact of socialnetworks on the innovation. This paper aims to contribute to research on this approach by suggesting a framework for studying the social aspects of economic innovations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses
Vesa P. Taatila; Jyrki Suomala; Reijo Siltala; Soili Keskinen
This article applies the anthropological approach of social networktheory to the study of organized crime in its local, domestic and transnational contexts. It argues that a socialnetwork approach transcends existing criminological paradigms like organizational, patron-client and enterprise theories in that it emphasizes a common supposition held by each paradigm – that human relationships form the basis for organized criminal
Research on the enabling factors of innovation has focused on either the social component of organizations or on the spatial dimensions involved in the innovation process. But no one has examined the aggregate consequences of the link from spatial layout, to socialnetworks, to innovation. This project enriches our understanding of how innovation…
Wineman, Jean D.; Kabo, Felichism W.; Davis, Gerald F.
This essay describes the pertinence of SocialNetwork Analysis (SNA) for the social sciences in general, and discusses its methodological and conceptual implications for comparative research in particular. The authors first present a basic summary of the theoretical and methodological assumptions of SNA, followed by a succinct overview of its…
We report on the experience of creating a sociallynetworked system, the Research-oriented Social Environment (RoSE), for representing knowledge in the form of relationships between people, documents, and groups. Developed as an intercampus, interdisciplinary project of the University of California, this work reflects on a collaboration between…
Chuk, Eric; Hoetzlein, Rama; Kim, David; Panko, Julia
Policy makers increasingly include provisions aimed at fostering professional community as part of reform initiatives. Yet little is known about the impact of policy on teachers' professional relations in schools. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and methodologically from qualitative socialnetwork analysis, this article explores…
Socialnetwork awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…
Evidence from the US General Social Surveys (GSS) suggests that during the past 20 years, people have become increasingly socially isolated and their core discussion networks have become smaller and less diverse. One explanation offered for this trend is the use of mobile phones and the Internet. This study reports on the findings of a 2008 survey that replicates and
This paper investigates the relationship between a CEO’s socialnetwork, firm identity, and firm performance. There are two competing theories that predict contradictory outcomes. Following socialnetwork theory, one would expect a positive relation between socialnetworks and firm performance, while agency theory in general and Bebchuk’s managerial power approach in particular predicts a negative relationship between socialnetworks and
Online socialnetworking has become a phenomenon in the last few years. The scalability issues due to the growing usage of on- line socialnetworks could be resolved by distributing the socialnetwork graph among different servers. Also, replications could be useful in pro- cessing the queries efficiently. In socialnetworks like Orkut,most of the queries access the immediate neighbors
Vivek Mahajan; Satyanarayana R Valluri; Kamalakar Karlapalem
This paper examines the association of women's socialnetworks with the use of skilled birth attendants in uncomplicated pregnancy and childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh. The Network-Episode Model was applied to determine if network structure variables (density / kinship homogeneity / strength of ties) together with network content (endorsement for or against a particular type of birth attendant) explain the type of birth attendant used by women above and beyond the variance explained by women's individual attributes. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 246 women, 18–45 years of age, using survey and socialnetwork methods between October and December 2008. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Results suggest that the structural properties of networks did not add to explanatory value but instead network content or the perceived advice of network members add significantly to the explanation of variation in service use. Testing aggregate networkvariables at the individual level extends the ability of the individual profile matrix to explain outcomes. Community health education and mobilization interventions attempting to increase demand for skilled attendants need to reflect the centrality of kinship networks to women in Bangladesh and the likelihood of women to heed the advice of their network of advisors with regard to place of birth.
Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Bernard, H. Russell; Sibley, Lynn
Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of socialnetwork research technologies on process recommendation and builds a socialnetwork system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.
Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of socialnetwork research technologies on process recommendation and builds a socialnetwork system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced. PMID:24672309
Socialnetworking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large socialnetworks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source socialnetwork software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate socialnetworking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate socialnetworking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided. PMID:24061930
Online socialnetworks such as Facebook, Twitter and Gowalla allow people to communicate and interact across borders. In past years online socialnetworks have become increasingly important for studying the behavior of individuals, group formation, and the emergence of online societies. Here we focus on the characterization of the average growth of online socialnetworks and try to understand which are possible processes behind seemingly long-range temporal correlated collective behavior. In agreement with recent findings, but in contrast to Gibrat's law of proportionate growth, we find scaling in the average growth rate and its standard deviation. In contrast, Renren and Twitter deviate, however, in certain important aspects significantly from those found in many social and economic systems. Whereas independent methods suggest no significance for temporally long-range correlated behavior for Renren and Twitter, a scaling analysis of the standard deviation does suggest long-range temporal correlated growth in Gowalla. However, we demonstrate that seemingly long-range temporal correlations in the growth of online socialnetworks, such as in Gowalla, can be explained by a decomposition into temporally and spatially independent growth processes with a large variety of entry rates. Our analysis thus suggests that temporally or spatially correlated behavior does not play a major role in the growth of online socialnetworks.
Zhu, Konglin; Li, Wenzhong; Fu, Xiaoming; Nagler, Jan
The prevailing choices to graphically represent a socialnetwork in today’s literature are a node-link graph layout and an adjacency matrix. Both visualization techniques have unique strengths and weaknesses when applied to different domain applications. In this article, we focus our discussion on adjacency matrix and how to turn the matrix-based visualization technique from merely showing pairwise associations among network actors (or graph nodes) to depicting clusters of a socialnetwork. We also use node-link layouts to supplement the discussion.
Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; May, Richard A.
Despite being used frequently due to the benefits brought to daily life, the use of technology also brings with it certain disadvantages. One of these disadvantages, stress, is referred to as technostress. This study analyzes the technostress levels of socialnetworking website users through different variables. Socialnetworking website users were chosen under the assumption that they utilize technology more
With the increased use of online socialnetworking sites, data retrieval from socialnetworking profiles is becoming a major tool for business. What makes socialnetworking profile data different is its semi-structured format. The structure and the presentation of profile data change all the time. In socialnetworking there is a lack of research into automated data retrieval from semi-structured
Sophia Alim; Ruqayya Abdulrahman; Daniel Neagu; Mick J. Ridley
Neuromorphic computing is a brainlike information processing paradigm that requires adaptive learning mechanisms. A spiking neuro-evolutionary system is used for this purpose; plastic resistive memories are implemented as synapses in spiking neural networks. The evolutionary design process exploits parameter self-adaptation and allows the topology and synaptic weights to be evolved for each network in an autonomous manner. Variable resistive memories are the focus of this research; each synapse has its own conductance profile which modifies the plastic behaviour of the device and may be altered during evolution. These variable resistive networks are evaluated on a noisy robotic dynamic-reward scenario against two static resistive memories and a system containing standard connections only. The results indicate that the extra behavioural degrees of freedom available to the networks incorporating variable resistive memories enable them to outperform the comparative synapse types. PMID:23614774
Howard, Gerard; Bull, Larry; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Gale, Ella; Adamatzky, Andrew
Networks have recently become fashionable in social analysis but most of the new network approaches have paid scant attention to the long history of reflections upon the potential of networks as an analytical device in the social sciences. In this paper we chart the developments in networking thinking in two disciplinary areas – socialnetwork analysis and social anthropology –
Community detection in socialnetworks attracts a lot of attention in the recent years. Existing methods always depict the relationship of two nodes using the temporary connection. However, these temporary connections cannot be fully recognized as the real relationships when the history connections among nodes are considered. For example, a casual visit in Facebook cannot be seen as an establishment of friendship. Hence, our question is the following: how to cluster the real friends in mobile socialnetworks? In this paper, we study the problem of detecting the stable community core in mobile socialnetworks. The cumulative stable contact is proposed to depict the relationship among nodes. The whole process is divided into timestamps. Nodes and their connections can be added or removed at each timestamp, and historical contacts are considered when detecting the community core. Also, community cores can be tracked through the incremental computing, which can help to recognize the evolving of community structure. Empirical studies on real-world socialnetworks demonstrate that our proposed method can effectively detect stable community cores in mobile socialnetworks.
Social integration involves a process through which an individual establishes and maintains meaningful interpersonal relationships characterized by mutual exchange with community members in nonclinical settings. Using self-report data from a probability sample (n=252) of supportive independent housing residents, transactional (i.e., support exchanges) characteristics of socialnetworks, paying particular attention to reciprocation of exchanges between residents and their network members, were analyzed. The study also examined the extent to which transactional characteristics are related to satisfaction with social relations. Findings indicated considerable reciprocity in social relationships. Controlling for sociodemographic variables and network structure characteristics, mutual exchanges of tangible and problem-solving support were positively associated with network satisfaction. Results suggest that supported socialization services aimed at network and resource development with this population could facilitate more frequent exchanges of tangible resources and problem-solving opportunities between consumers and network members, which, in turn, might promote social integration. PMID:20052620
Persistent surveillance provides decision makers with unprecedented access to multisource data collected from humans and sensor assets around the globe, yet these data exist in the physical world and provide few overt clues to meaning behind actions. In this paper we explore the recent growth in online socialnetworking and ask the questions: 1) can these sites provide value-added information to compliment physical sensing and 2) what are the mechanisms by which these data could inform situational awareness and decision making? In seeking these answers we consider the range of options provided by SocialNetwork Analysis (SNA), and focus especially on the dynamic nature of these networks. In our discussion we focus on the wave of reform experienced by the North African nations in early 2011 known as the Arab Spring. Demonstrators made widespread use of socialnetworking applications to coordinate, document, and publish material to aid their cause. Unlike members of covert socialnetworks who hide their activity and associations, these demonstrators openly posted multimedia information to coordinate activity and stimulate global support. In this paper we provide a review of SNA approaches and consider how one might track network adaptations by capturing temporal and conceptual trends. We identify opportunities and challenges for merging SNA with physical sensor output, and conclude by addressing future challenges in the persistent ISR domain with respect to SNA.
We study mixing in a large real socialnetwork consisting of over one million individuals, who form an Internet community and organise themselves in groups of different sizes. We consider mixing according to discrete characteristics such as gender and scalar characteristics such as age. On the basis of the users' list of friends and other data registered in the database we investigate the structure and time development of the network. We found that in the network under investigation assortative mixing is observed, i.e. the tendency for vertices in network to be connected to other vertices that are like them in some way.
This study attempted to systematically explore the range of variation in social response in 17 subjects (ages 5 to 15) with infantile autism. To collect observational data on social initiations, social responses, social monitoring with eye contact, and responses to specific types of social events, subjects were observed during free play in their…
Several efforts have been made for more privacy aware Online SocialNetworks (OSNs) to protect personal data against various privacy threats. However, despite the relevance of these proposals, we believe there is still the lack of a conceptual model on top of which privacy tools have to be designed. Central to this model should be the concept of risk. Therefore,
Cuneyt Gurcan Akcora; Barbara Carminati; Elena Ferrari
With the Internet growing faster than ever, online socialnetworking sites (SNS) such as Facebook are becoming more popular. At last count, there were over 845 million active Facebook users who are interacting online. The continued influx of computer technology allows for newer means of communication in order to foster interpersonal relationships and promote self-disclosure (Ledbetter, Mazer, Degroot et al.,
All online sharing systems gather data that reflects users' collective behavior and their shared activities. This data can be used to extract different kinds of relationships which can be grouped into layers and which are basic components of the multi- dimensional socialnetwork (MSN) proposed in the paper. The layers are created on the basis of two types of relations
Przemys?aw Kazienko; Katarzyna Musial; Tomasz Kajdanowicz
Participatory web-based technologies have the potential to change the way scholars engage in scholarship. One reason Web 2.0 technologies, such as online socialnetworking, are not widely integrated in PreK-12 and postsecondary education is the lack of modeling by educators. Their lack of research-based best practices limits the ability to…
Studied 155 elderly residents of inner-city single-room occupancy hotels. At 3-year follow-up, 28 had died. Ten of 19 networkvariables were relatively strong discriminators between survivors and non-survivors. Networkvariables cut across all categories of social interaction. (Author/KS)
The term of socialnetwork communities refers to groups of individuals within which social interactions are intense and between which they are weak. A socialnetwork community mining problem (SNCMP) can be stated as the problem of finding all such communities from a given socialnetwork. A wide variety of applications can be formulated into SNCMPs, ranging from Web intelligence
This article reviews how current socialnetwork analysis might be used to investigate individual and group behavior in sporting teams. Socialnetwork analysis methods permit researchers to explore social relations between team members and their individual-level qualities simultaneously. As such, socialnetwork analysis can be seen as augmenting…
Much research has explored the role of socialnetworks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how socialnetworks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their socialnetwork positions.We first develop…
Haas, Steven A.; Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga
This article reviews how current socialnetwork analysis might be used to investigate individual and group behavior in sporting teams. Socialnetwork analysis methods permit researchers to explore social relations between team members and their individual-level qualities simultaneously. As such, socialnetwork analysis can be seen as augmenting existing approaches for the examination of intra-group relations among teams and provide
The rapid proliferation of social media, online communities, and collectively produced knowledge resources has accelerated the convergence of technological and socialnetworks, resulting in a dynamic ecosystem of online socialnetworking services, environments, and applications. The proliferation of online socialnetworks (OSNs) has had a profound impact on the Internet, reshaping its structure, design, and utility. Despite this success, however,
Anwitaman Datta; Marios D. Dikaiakos; Seif Haridi; Liviu Iftode
Socialnetworks pervade our everyday lives: we interact, influence, and are influenced by our friends and acquaintances. With the advent of the World Wide Web, large amounts of data on socialnetworks have become available, allowing the quantitative analysis of the distribution of information on them, including behavioral traits and fads. Recent studies of correlations among members of a socialnetwork, who exhibit the same trait, have shown that individuals influence not only their direct contacts but also friends' friends, up to a network distance extending beyond their closest peers. Here, we show how such patterns of correlations between peers emerge in networked populations. We use standard models (yet reflecting intrinsically different mechanisms) of information spreading to argue that empirically observed patterns of correlation among peers emerge naturally from a wide range of dynamics, being essentially independent of the type of information, on how it spreads, and even on the class of underlying network that interconnects individuals. Finally, we show that the sparser and clustered the network, the more far reaching the influence of each individual will be. PMID:24655286
Pinheiro, Flávio L; Santos, Marta D; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M
Socialnetworks produce an enormous quantity of data. Facebook consists of over 400 million active users sharing over 5 billion pieces of information each month. Analyzing this vast quantity of unstructured data presents challenges for software and hardware. We present GraphCT, a Graph Characterization Tooklit for massive graphs representing socialnetwork data. On a 128-processor Cray XMT, GraphCT estimates the betweenness centrality of an artificially generated (R-MAT) 537 million vertex, 8.6 billion edge graph in 55 minutes. We use GraphCT to analyze public data from Twitter, a microblogging network. Twitter's message connections appear primarily tree-structured as a news dissemination system. Within the public data, however, are clusters of conversations. Using GraphCT, we can rank actors within these conversations and help analysts focus attention on a much smaller data subset.
Ediger, David; Jiang, Karl; Riedy, Edward J.; Bader, David A.; Corley, Courtney D.; Farber, Robert M.; Reynolds, William
Analysis of networks and in particular discovering communities within networks has been a focus of recent work in several fields and has diverse applications. Most community detection methods focus on partitioning the entire network into communities, with the expectation of many ties within communities and few ties between. However, many networks contain nodes that do not fit in with any of the communities, and forcing every node into a community can distort results. Here we propose a new framework that extracts one community at a time, allowing for arbitrary structure in the remainder of the network, which can include weakly connected nodes. The main idea is that the strength of a community should depend on ties between its members and ties to the outside world, but not on ties between nonmembers. The proposed extraction criterion has a natural probabilistic interpretation in a wide class of models and performs well on simulated and real networks. For the case of the block model, we establish asymptotic consistency of estimated node labels and propose a hypothesis test for determining the number of communities. PMID:21502538
Socialnetworking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe
Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such socialnetwork data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in socialnetwork research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous socialnetworks and propose a novel joint socialnetworks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple socialnetworks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
HUANG, JIN; NIE, FEIPING; HUANG, HENG; TU, YI-CHENG; LEI, YU
Disagreement surrounds a formal definition of ‘critical mass’ and of the economic willingness to pay for membership in a socialnetwork. Our paper adapts work from percolation theory to analyze the structure of socialnetworks, and draws an analogy for critical mass in socialnetworks to the concept of phase changes in materials. We show how network growth can be
The spread of infectious diseases is highly influenced by the structure of the underlying socialnetwork. The target of this study is not the network of acquaintances, but the social mobility network: the daily movement of people between locations, in regions. It was already shown that this kind of network exhibits small world characteristics. The model developed is agent based (ABM) and comprehends a movement model and a infection model. In the movement model, some assumptions are made about its structure and the daily movement is decomposed into four types: neighborhood, intra region, inter region and random. The model is Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based, and uses real data to define its geometry. Because it is a vector model, some optimization techniques were used to increase its efficiency.
This lesson introduces the concept of node graphs for the purpose of visualizing socialnetworks. The lesson is presented with an introductory physical activity where students create a living graph. Students, building on their existing knowledge regarding common graph types, learn how node graphs can be used to visualize data from socialnetworks. Students will participate in a simulated contagious infection event and will accurately record data about the transmission of the disease. These data will be used to construct a single computer file to be used to create a single node graph for describing the network. Students will then be responsible for understanding how to interpret the resulting network graph in the context of the activity.
The purpose of this research is to examine the issues that affect customers' behavioral character and purchasing behavior. The study proposes a research hypothesis with independent variables that include social presence, trust, and information asymmetry, and the dependent variable purchase decision making, to explain differentiated customer decision making processes in social commerce (S-commerce). To prove the hypothesis, positive verification was performed by focusing on mediating effects through a customer uncertainty variable and moderating effects through mobility and socialnetworking site word of mouth (SNS WOM) variables. The number of studies on customer trends has rapidly increased together with the market size of S-commerce. However, few studies have examined the negative variables that make customers hesitant to make decisions in S-commerce. This study investigates the causes of customer uncertainty and focuses on deducing the control variables that offset this negative relationship. The study finds that in customers' S-commerce purchasing actions, the SNS WOM and mobility variables show control effects between information asymmetry and uncertainty and between trust and uncertainty. Additionally, this research defines the variables related to customer uncertainty that are hidden in S-commerce, and statistically verifies their relationship. The research results can be used in Internet marketing practices to establish marketing mix strategies for customer demand or as research data to predict customer behavior. The results are scientifically meaningful as a precedent for research on customers in S-commerce. PMID:24355038
Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in socialnetworks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using a static, structurally realistic socialnetwork as a platform for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.
An ongoing study of the structure, function, and evolution of individual activity within lab groups is introduced. This study makes extensive use of techniques from socialnetwork analysis. These techniques allow rigorous quantification and hypothesis-testing of the interactions inherent in social groups and the impact of intrinsic characteristics of individuals on their social interactions. As these techniques are novel within the physics education research community, an overview of their meaning and application is given. We then present preliminary results from videotaped laboratory groups involving mixed populations of traditional and non-traditional students in an introductory algebra-based physics course.
The convincing evidence of the relationship between social support, socialnetworks, and health status has influenced the development of program strategies which are relevant to health education. This article focuses on the linkage between social support and socialnetworks and health education programs which involve interventions at the network and community level. Two broad strategies are addressed: programs enhancing entire
This paper explores the dynamics between poverty and exclusion; neighbourhood, and health and well being by considering the role of socialnetworks and social capital in the social processes involved. It is based on qualitative research taking two deprived areas as exemplary case studies, and involving depth interviews with residents. Neighbourhood influences on networks and social capital were explored, network
In the midst of a socialnetworking revolution, social media has become the new vehicle for effective business marketing and transactions. As social aspects to the Internet continue to expand in both quantity and scope, so has the security threat towards enterprise networks and systems. Many socialnetworking users also become main targets of spams, phishing, stalking, and other malware
We examined whether the social convoy model and socioemotional selectivity theory apply in collectivistic cultures by examining the contextual factors which are hypothesized to mediate age-related differences in social support in a collectivist European country. Five hundred Spanish community-dwelling older adults (Mean age = 74.78, SD = 7.76, range = 60-93) were interviewed to examine structural aspects of their socialnetworks. We found that age showed highly complex relationships with network size and frequency of interaction, depending on the network circle and the mediation of cultural factors. Family structure was important for social relations in the inner circle, while pubs and churches were important for peripheral relations. Surprisingly, pub attendance was the most important variable for maintenance of social support of peripheral network members. In general, the results support the applicability of the social convoy and socioemotional selectivity constructs to social support among Spanish older adults. PMID:24669508
Buz, José; Sanchez, Marta; Levenson, Michael R; Aldwin, Carolyn M
Socialnetwork analysis has long been an untiring topic of sociology. However, until the era of information technology, the availability of data, mainly collected by the traditional method of personal survey, was highly limited and prevented large-scale analysis. Recently, the exploding amount of automatically generated data has completely changed the pattern of research. For instance, the enormous amount of data from so-called high-throughput biological experiments has introduced a systematic or network viewpoint to traditional biology. Then, is “high-throughput” sociological data generation possible? Google, which has become one of the most influential symbols of the new Internet paradigm within the last ten years, might provide torrents of data sources for such study in this (now and forthcoming) digital era. We investigate socialnetworks between people by extracting information on the Web and introduce new tools of analysis of such networks in the context of statistical physics of complex systems or socio-physics. As a concrete and illustrative example, the members of the 109th United States Senate are analyzed and it is demonstrated that the methods of construction and analysis are applicable to various other weighted networks.
Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Pan-Jun; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Jeong, Hawoong
\\u000a This paper explores visiting metrics and some of the more important general network properties of Fitcolab online socialnetwork\\u000a (OSN). The wide array of statistics was explored in order to obtain general insight that will not only be useful by itself\\u000a but would also serve as the starting platform for more focused research endeavors that are to be based on
Socialnetworking sites (SNS) have become very popular during the past few years, as they allow users to both express their individuality and meet people with similar interests. Nonetheless, there are also many potential threats to privacy associated with these SNS such as identity theft and disclosure of sensitive information. However, many users still are not aware of these threats
A research project was conducted to examine the interactions between the socialnetworks of young adolescents and their computer usage. Particular attention was focused upon whether computers tend to isolate youthful users. Adult anxiety regarding the damaging effects of computers on children was assessed. Parental involvement, orientation to…
Do libraries belong in the virtual world of socialnetworking? With more than 100 million users, this environment is impossible to ignore. A rising philosophy for libraries, particularly in blog-land, involves the concept of being where the users are. Simply using new media to deliver an old message is not progress. Instead, librarians should…
Studies undertaken since the introduction of Web 2.0 have focussed mainly on open educational resources (OERs) such as email, blogging and virtual learning environments. No consistent efforts have been undertaken to study the use of socialnetworking sites as a tool for learning in the second language classroom. This study examined the use of…
The process of knowledge diffusion is a decision- making process through which information about knowledge move from one adopter to another, and then the adopters assess the value of knowledge to decide that whether accept it or not. Due to the cognitive ambiguity about new knowledge, the social relation network will play a very important role for the potential adopters'
Rheingold and Turkle treated virtual community the same as the community in the traditional sociology counterpart. Facing the huge online community constituted through web2.0 structure, we need to rethink the essential base of a virtual community. Bakhtin's dialogism theory offers us a new interpretation to treat a virtual community as a heteroglossia socialnetwork.
Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how socialnetwork structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…
Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen
Given a snapshot of a socialnetwork, can we infer which new interactions among its members are likely to occur in the near future? We formalize this question as the link prediction problem, and develop approaches to link prediction based on measures the \\
We propose some simple models of the growth of socialnetworks, based on three general principles: (1) meetings take place between pairs of individuals at a rate which is high if a pair has one or more mutual friends and low otherwise; (2) acquaintances between pairs of individuals who rarely meet decay over time; (3) there is an upper limit
We present an analysis of Club Nexus, an online community at Stanford University. Through the Nexus site we were able to study a reflection of the real world community structure within the student body. We observed and measured socialnetwork phenomena such as the small world effect, clustering, and the strength of weak ties. Using the rich profile data provided
This document is a summary of a study of the relationship between social support networks and health. The study was conducted among the age sixty and over population in the Lowell, Massachusetts area. A random sample of 300 names was drawn from a census l...
The use of online socialnetworking websites has increased among Canadians in recent years. There are many professional and ethical implications for counsellors who use these sites (Boyd, 2007). Although they offer advantages to counsellors, their use can also raise issues around ethical conduct. Because the counselling literature has not yet…
Can we apply the best of Web 2.0 principles to an educational context? More specifically can we use this as a means of shifting teaching practice to a culture of sharing learning ideas and designs? This paper describes a new socialnetworking site, "Cloudworks", which aims to provide a mechanism for sharing, discussing and finding learning and…
Purpose – Web sites are typically designed attending to a variety of criteria. However, web site structure determines browsing behavior and way-finding results. The aim of this study is to identify the main profiles of web sites' organizational structure by modeling them as graphs and considering several socialnetwork analysis features. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study based on 80 institutional
M. Rocío Martínez-Torres; Sergio L. Toral Marín; Beatriz Palacios; Federico Barrero
Vidoe blogs (or vlogs) have become increasingly popular in recent years. As the main motivation for vlogging is to interact with other vloggers, it is important to investigate the structure of the videobloggers' community and the interactions among vloggers. This research conducted a quantitative analysis using socialnetwork analysis. A list of personal vloggers was identified from VlogDIR and linking
A BST R A C T Socialnetworks can be used to find people who share similar interests or people who have knowledge in a specific domain. One method to find people is based on search by specific information about people or search by specific keywords they use. This method is limited to the explicit information provided by people. The
This paper looks at the relationship between parents' socialnetworks and aspects of child development. It has often been suggested that parents' links with kin, neighbors, friends, and local and non-local organizations are likely to have many effects on their children's development. These effects, however, have never been systematically…
This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on the use of the socialnetworking service NING in a cross-location e-learning setting named "Net Economy." We describe how we implemented NING as a fundamental part of the setting through a special phase concept and team building approach. With the help of user statistics, we examine…
Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies ('white' lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes socialnetworks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of socialnetworks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. PMID:25056625
Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A
The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.
Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.
As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 15th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, the authors discuss healthcare socialnetworks as a hierarchy of embedded complex adaptive systems. The authors further examine the use of socialnetwork analysis tools as a means to understand complex communication patterns and reduce medical errors. PMID:20798616
Socialnetwork analysis is a tool set whose uses range from measuring the impact of marketing campaigns to disrupting clandestine terrorist organizations. Socialnetwork analysis tools are primarily focused on the structure of relationships between actors...
A major goal of infectious disease epidemiology is to understand and predict the spread of infections within human populations, with the intention of better informing decisions regarding control and intervention. However, the development of fully mechanistic models of transmission requires a quantitative understanding of social interactions and collective properties of socialnetworks. We performed a cross-sectional study of the social contacts on given days for more than 5000 respondents in England, Scotland and Wales, through postal and online survey methods. The survey was designed to elicit detailed and previously unreported measures of the immediate socialnetwork of participants relevant to infection spread. Here, we describe individual-level contact patterns, focusing on the range of heterogeneity observed and discuss the correlations between contact patterns and other socio-demographic factors. We find that the distribution of the number of contacts approximates a power-law distribution, but postulate that total contact time (which has a shorter-tailed distribution) is more epidemiologically relevant. We observe that children, public-sector and healthcare workers have the highest number of total contact hours and are therefore most likely to catch and transmit infectious disease. Our study also quantifies the transitive connections made between an individual's contacts (or clustering); this is a key structural characteristic of socialnetworks with important implications for disease transmission and control efficacy. Respondents' networks exhibit high levels of clustering, which varies across social settings and increases with duration, frequency of contact and distance from home. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the transmission and control of pathogens spread through close contact. PMID:23804621
Danon, Leon; Read, Jonathan M; House, Thomas A; Vernon, Matthew C; Keeling, Matt J
In recent years, there is a dramatic growth in number and popularity of online socialnetworks. There are many networks available with more than 100 million registered users such as Facebook, MySpace, QZone, Windows Live Spaces etc. People may connect, discover and share by using these online socialnetworks. The exponential growth of online communities in the area of socialnetworks attracts the attention of the researchers about the importance of managing trust in online environment. Users of the online socialnetworks may share their experiences and opinions within the networks about an item which may be a product or service. The user faces the problem of evaluating trust in a service or service provider before making a choice. Recommendations may be received through a chain of friends network, so the problem for the user is to be able to evaluate various types of trust opinions and recommendations. This opinion or recommendation has a great influence to choose to use or enjoy the item by the other user of the community. Collaborative filtering system is the most popular method in recommender system. The task in collaborative filtering is to predict the utility of items to a particular user based on a database of user rates from a sample or population of other users. Because of the different taste of different people, they rate differently according to their subjective taste. If two people rate a set of items similarly, they share similar tastes. In the recommender system, this information is used to recommend items that one participant likes, to other persons in the same cluster. But the collaborative filtering system performs poor when there is insufficient previous common rating available between users; commonly known as cost start problem. To overcome the cold start problem and with the dramatic growth of online socialnetworks, trust based approach to recommendation has emerged. This approach assumes a trust network among users and makes recommendations based on the ratings of the users that are directly or indirectly trusted by the target user.
Information diffusion analysis in socialnetworks is of significance since it enables us to deeply understand dynamic social interactions among users. In this paper, we introduce approaches to discovering information diffusion process in socialnetworks based on process mining. Process mining techniques are applied from three perspectives: socialnetwork analysis, process discovery and community recognition. We then present experimental results by using a real-life socialnetwork data. The proposed techniques are expected to employ as new analytical tools in online socialnetworks such as blog and wikis for company marketers, politicians, news reporters and online writers.
Neural activity that persists long after stimulus presentation is a biological correlate of short-term memory. Variability in spiking activity causes persistent states to drift over time, ultimately degrading memory. Models of short-term memory often assume that the input fluctuations to neural populations are independent across cells, a feature that attenuates population-level variability and stabilizes persistent activity. However, this assumption is at odds with experimental recordings from pairs of cortical neurons showing that both the input currents and output spike trains are correlated. It remains unclear how correlated variability affects the stability of persistent activity and the performance of cognitive tasks that it supports. We consider the stochastic long-timescale attractor dynamics of pairs of mutually inhibitory populations of spiking neurons. In these networks, persistent activity was less variable when correlated variability was globally distributed across both populations compared with the case when correlations were locally distributed only within each population. Using a reduced firing rate model with a continuum of persistent states, we show that, when input fluctuations are correlated across both populations, they drive firing rate fluctuations orthogonal to the persistent state attractor, thereby causing minimal stochastic drift. Using these insights, we establish that distributing correlated fluctuations globally as opposed to locally improves network's performance on a two-interval, delayed response discrimination task. Our work shows that the correlation structure of input fluctuations to a network is an important factor when determining long-timescale, persistent population spiking activity.
Disentangling the effects of selection and influence is one of social science's greatest unsolved puzzles: Do people befriend others who are similar to them, or do they become more similar to their friends over time? Recent advances in stochastic actor-based modeling, combined with self-reported data on a popular online socialnetwork site, allow us to address this question with a greater degree of precision than has heretofore been possible. Using data on the Facebook activity of a cohort of college students over 4 years, we find that students who share certain tastes in music and in movies, but not in books, are significantly likely to befriend one another. Meanwhile, we find little evidence for the diffusion of tastes among Facebook friends—except for tastes in classical/jazz music. These findings shed light on the mechanisms responsible for observed network homogeneity; provide a statistically rigorous assessment of the coevolution of cultural tastes and social relationships; and suggest important qualifications to our understanding of both homophily and contagion as generic social processes.
\\u000a In the last decade, the popularity of socialnetworking applications has dramatically increased. Socialnetworks are collection\\u000a of persons or organizations connected by relations. Members of Facebook listed as friends or persons connected by family ties\\u000a in genealogical trees are examples of socialnetworks. Today’s web surfers are often part of many online socialnetworks:\\u000a they communicate in groups or
Summary. An idea of modularization of complex networks (from cortial neural net, Internet computer network, to market and socialnetworks) is explained and some its topic motivations are presented. Then some known modularization algorithms and mod- ular architectures (constructions) of complex networks are discussed in the context of possible applications of spiking neural P systems in order to improve these
Individuals communicate and form relationships through Internet socialnetworking websites such as Facebook and MySpace. We study risk taking, trust, and privacy concerns with regard to socialnetwork- ing websites among 205 college students using both reliable scales and behavior. Individuals with pro- files on socialnetworking websites have greater risk taking attitudes than those who do not; greater risk
Regular readers of "Computers in Libraries" are aware that socialnetworks are forming increasingly important linkages to professional and personal development in all libraries. Live and virtual socialnetworks have become the new learning playground for librarians and library staff. Socialnetworks have the ability to connect those who are…
The goal of this research is to facilitate the design of systems which will mine and use sociocentric socialnetworks without infringing privacy. We describe an extensive experiment we conducted within our organization comparing socialnetwork information gathered from various intranet public sources with socialnetwork information gathered from a private source - the organizational email system. We also report
Ido Guy; Michal Jacovi; Noga Meshulam; Inbal Ronen; Elad Shahar
An alternative scoring method for the Social Support Questionnaire was used to examine relationships among socialnetwork structure, support types and satisfaction determinants. College students' socialnetworks consisted of nuclear, and other, family; friends; and others. Proportion of support network occupied by nuclear family was positively…
Most personal photos that are shared online are embedded in some form of socialnetwork, and these socialnetworks are a potent source of contextual information that can be leveraged for automatic image understanding. In this paper, we investigate the utility of socialnetwork context for the task of automatic face recognition in personal photographs. We combine face recognition scores
Socialnetwork analysis is increasingly used in the study of policy implementation and school leadership. A key question that remains is that of instrument validity – that is, the question of whether these socialnetwork survey instruments measure what they purport to measure. In this paper, we describe our work to examine the validity of the School Staff SocialNetwork
Acute treatment aftercare in the form of sober living environments-i.e., recovery houses-provide an inexpensive and effective medium-term treatment alternative for many with substance use disorders. Limited evidence suggests that house-situated social relationships and associated social support are critical determinants of how successful these residential experiences are for their members, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying these relationships. This study explored the feasibility of using dynamic socialnetwork modeling to understand house-situated longitudinal associations among individual Alcoholics Anonymous related recovery behaviors, length of residence, dyadic interpersonal trust, and dyadic confidant relationship formation processes. Trust and confidant relationships were measured 3 months apart in U.S. urban-area recovery houses, all of which were part of a network of substance use recovery homes. A stochastic actor-based model was successfully estimated from this data set. Results suggest that confidant relationships are predicted by trust, while trust is affected by recovery behaviors and length of residence. Conceptualizing recovery houses as a set of independent, evolving socialnetworks that can be modeled jointly appears to be a promising direction for research. PMID:24217855
Jason, Leonard A; Light, John M; Stevens, Edward B; Beers, Kimberly
Studies of information seeking and workplace collaboration often find that social relationships are a strong factor in determining who collaborates with whom. Socialnetworks provide one means of visualizing existing and potential interaction in organizational settings. Groupware designers are using socialnetworks to make systems more sensitive to social situations and guide users toward effective collaborations. Yet, the implications of
Socialnetworks generally provide an implementation of some kind of groups or communities which users can voluntarily join. Twitter does not have this functionality, and there is no notion of a formal group or community. We propose a method for identification of communities and assignment of semantic meaning to the discussion topics of the resulting communities. Using this analysis method and a sample of roughly a month's worth of Tweets from Twitter's "gardenhose" feed, we demonstrate the discovery of meaningful user communities on Twitter. We examine Twitter data streaming in real time and treat it as a sensor. Twitter is a socialnetwork which pioneered microblogging with the messages fitting an SMS, and a variety of clients, browsers, smart phones and PDAs are used for status updates by individuals, businesses, media outlets and even devices all over the world. Often an aggregate trend of such statuses may represent an important development in the world, which has been demonstrated with the Iran and Moldova elections and the anniversary of the Tiananmen in China. We propose using Twitter as a sensor, tracking individuals and communities of interest, and characterizing individual roles and dynamics of their communications. We developed a novel algorithm of community identification in socialnetworks based on direct communication, as opposed to linking. We show ways to find communities of interest and then browse their neighborhoods by either similarity or diversity of individuals and groups adjacent to the one of interest. We use frequent collocations and statistically improbable phrases to summarize the focus of the community, giving a quick overview of its main topics. Our methods provide insight into the largest social sensor network in the world and constitute a platform for social sensing.
An important requisite for improving risk communication practice related to contentious environmental issues is having a better theoretical understanding of how risk perceptions function in real-world social systems. Our study applied Scherer and Cho's socialnetwork contagion theory of risk perception (SNCTRP) to cormorant management (a contentious environmental management issue) in the Great Lakes Basin to: (1) assess contagion effects on cormorant-related risk perceptions and individual factors believed to influence those perceptions and (2) explore the extent of social contagion in a full network (consisting of interactions between and among experts and laypeople) and three "isolated" models separating different types of interactions from the full network (i.e., expert-to-expert, layperson-to-layperson, and expert-to-layperson). We conducted interviews and administered questionnaires with experts (e.g., natural resource professionals) and laypeople (e.g., recreational and commercial anglers, business owners, bird enthusiasts) engaged in cormorant management in northern Lake Huron (n = 115). Our findings generally support the SNCTRP; however, the scope and scale of social contagion varied considerably based on the variables (e.g., individual risk perception factors), actors (i.e., experts or laypeople), and interactions of interest. Contagion effects were identified more frequently, and were stronger, in the models containing interactions between experts and laypeople than in those models containing only interactions among experts or laypeople. PMID:23231537
Online socialnetworks have become important vehicles for connecting people for work and leisure. As these networks grow, data that are stored over these networks also grow, and management of these data becomes a challenge. Graph data models are a natural fit for representing online socialnetworks but need to support distribution to allow the associated graph databases to scale
Prima Chairunnanda; Simon Forsyth; Khuzaima Daudjee
Social and technological innovations often spread through socialnetworks as people respond to what their neighbors are doing. Previous research has identified specific network structures, such as local clustering, that promote rapid diffusion. Here we derive bounds that are independent of network structure and size, such that diffusion is fast whenever the payoff gain from the innovation is sufficiently high and the agents' responses are sufficiently noisy. We also provide a simple method for computing an upper bound on the expected time it takes for the innovation to become established in any finite network. For example, if agents choose log-linear responses to what their neighbors are doing, it takes on average less than 80 revision periods for the innovation to diffuse widely in any network, provided that the error rate is at least 5% and the payoff gain (relative to the status quo) is at least 150%. Qualitatively similar results hold for other smoothed best-response functions and populations that experience heterogeneous payoff shocks. PMID:25024191
Biological and social analogies have been long applied to complex systems. Inspiration has been drawn from biological solutions to solve problems in engineering products and systems, ranging from Velcro to camouflage to robotics to adaptive and learning computing methods. In this paper, we present an overview of recent advances in understanding biological systems as networks and use this understanding to design and analyse wireless communication networks. We expand on two applications, namely cognitive sensing and control and wireless epidemiology. We discuss how our work in these two applications is motivated by biological metaphors. We believe that recent advances in computing and communications coupled with advances in health and social sciences raise the possibility of studying coupled bio-social communication networks. We argue that we can better utilise the advances in our understanding of one class of networks to better our understanding of the other.
Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Anil Kumar, V.S.; Marathe, Madhav V.
Recent scholarship shows that social capital has a large influence on political behavior. Social capital’s definition includes trust, norms of reciprocity, and socialnetworks. Most studies, however, ignore the networking component. Here, we test the influence of socialnetworks on political participation using new Japanese survey data. We separately test the effects of involvement in formally organized voluntary associations and
This paper defines a theoretical framework based on Markov Decision Processes (MDP) to deal with call control algorithms in links with variable capacity supporting multiple classes of service. The variable capacity problem, which arises in wireless network scenarios, is addressed by incorporating the link model into the MDP formulation and by introducing, beside the standard call admission policy, a call dropping policy. In this way, the proposed approach is capable of controlling class-level quality of service in terms of both blocking and dropping probabilities.
The influence of microblog on information transmission is becoming more and more obvious. By characterizing the behavior of following and being followed as out-degree and in-degree respectively, a microblog socialnetwork was built in this paper. It was found to have short diameter of connected graph, short average path length and high average clustering coefficient. The distributions of out-degree, in-degree and total number of microblogs posted present power-law characters. The exponent of total number distribution of microblogs is negatively correlated with the degree of each user. With the increase of degree, the exponent decreases much slower. Based on empirical analysis, we proposed a socialnetwork based human dynamics model in this paper, and pointed out that inducing drive and spontaneous drive lead to the behavior of posting microblogs. The simulation results of our model match well with practical situation.
Health socialnetworking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by socialnetworking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data.
? Abstract The paper discusses the use of latent variables in psychology and social science research. Local independence, expected value true scores, and nondeterministic functions of observed variables are three types of definitions for latent variables. These definitions are reviewed and an alternative \\
\\u000a The internet has become an effective tool in communication, and SNS (SocialNetworking Service), such as Facebook or Twitter,\\u000a that allows anyone to disclose a variety of specific personal information. The purpose of the present study is to identify\\u000a which profile factors provided SNS users (or viewers) with a positive first impression. Results from study 1, the three factors\\u000a -
We present Redgraph, a generic virtual reality visualization program for Semantic Web data capable of handling large data-sets, which we demonstrate on socialnetwork data from the U.S. Patent Trade Office. We develop a Semantic Web vocabulary of virtual reality terms compatible with GraphXML to map graph visualization into the Seman- tic Web itself. Our approach in visualizing Semantic Web
Harry Halpin; David J. Zielinski; Rachael Brady; Glenda Kelly
Abstract Socialnetwork,sites,(SNSs) are increasingly attracting the attention of academic,and,industry researchers intrigued by their affordances and reach.,This special theme section of the,Journal,of Computer-Mediated,Communicationbrings ,together scholarship on these emergent phenomena.,In this introductory article, we describe features of SNSs and propose a comprehensive definition. We then present one perspective on the history of such sites, discussing key changes and developments. After briefly
Online socialnetworking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward socialnetworking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for socialnetworking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. PMID:23786169
Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei
This dissertation examines the effects of socialnetwork sites on youth social and academic development. First, I provide a critical analysis of the extant research literature surrounding socialnetwork sites and youth. I merge scholarly thought in the areas of Internet studies, digital divides, social capital theory, psychological well-being,…
The development of social capital in young people is positively associated with educational attainment, achievement, and psychosocial factors. Prior research has explored factors that contribute to social capital, such as offline socialnetworks. To a lesser extent, studies have analyzed the relationship between online socialnetworks and…
We model recruitment in adaptive socialnetworks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime).
Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.
A sample of 301 Philadelphia adolescents were assessed for substance use and place-based socialnetwork quality, a weighted variable based upon risky and protective behaviors of alters. The network measure was anchored in routine locations identified as safe, risky, important, or favorite. Results show young females' (13-16) substance use was…
Mason, Michael J.; Valente, Thomas W.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Mennis, Jeremy; Lawrence, Frank; Zelenak, Patricia
To research rumor diffusion in social friend network, based on interests, a dynamic friend network is proposed, which has the characteristics of clustering and community, and a diffusion model is also proposed. With this friend network and rumor diffusion model, based on the zombie-city model, some simulation experiments to analyze the characteristics of rumor diffusion in social friend networks have been conducted. The results show some interesting observations: (1) positive information may evolve to become a rumor through the diffusion process that people may modify the information by word of mouth; (2) with the same average degree, a random socialnetwork has a smaller clustering coefficient and is more beneficial for rumor diffusion than the dynamic friend network; (3) a rumor is spread more widely in a socialnetwork with a smaller global clustering coefficient than in a socialnetwork with a larger global clustering coefficient; and (4) a network with a smaller clustering coefficient has a larger efficiency. PMID:24453911
To research rumor diffusion in social friend network, based on interests, a dynamic friend network is proposed, which has the characteristics of clustering and community, and a diffusion model is also proposed. With this friend network and rumor diffusion model, based on the zombie-city model, some simulation experiments to analyze the characteristics of rumor diffusion in social friend networks have been conducted. The results show some interesting observations: (1) positive information may evolve to become a rumor through the diffusion process that people may modify the information by word of mouth; (2) with the same average degree, a random socialnetwork has a smaller clustering coefficient and is more beneficial for rumor diffusion than the dynamic friend network; (3) a rumor is spread more widely in a socialnetwork with a smaller global clustering coefficient than in a socialnetwork with a larger global clustering coefficient; and (4) a network with a smaller clustering coefficient has a larger efficiency.
This paper is concerned with the adaptive control of continuous-time nonlinear dynamical systems using neural networks. A novel neural network architecture, referred to as a variable neural network, is proposed and shown to be useful in approximating the unknown nonlinearities of dynamical systems. In the variable neural networks, the number of basis functions can be either increased or decreased with
Guoping P. Liu; Visakan Kadirkamanathan; Stephen A. Billings
Life events and supportive socialnetworks are often treated as separate independent variables in their relations with supposed dependent variables such as depressive disorder. It is important therefore to establish that they are independent of one another. One hundred and twenty one men and women attending psychiatric hospitals with depressive disorders were interviewed at the time of their initial contact
T. S. Brugha; P. E. Bebbington; E. Sturt; B. MacCarthy; T. Wykes
In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.
Pennebaker, James (UT Austin); Scholand, Andrew Joseph; Tausczik, Yla R. (UT Austin)
Handwritten notes, meeting for coffee, eye contact, a handshake, a smile--are these social practices of yesteryear, soon to be replaced by the "wall posts" and "pokes" of today's socialnetworking technologies? Although advances in socialnetworking technologies allow for new and perhaps more efficient means of learning and communicating, they…
Significant gaps exist in our knowledge of real world socialnetwork structures, which in turn limit our understanding of how to design social software. One important reason for this has been that researchers have not been able to systematically probe individuals in sufficient detail about 'who' and 'how' they interact with in the socialnetworks they wish to study. To
Stephen T. Ricken; Richard P. Schuler; Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Quentin Jones
Socialnetworking applications' disk access patterns differ from those of traditional applications. However, today's disk layout techniques aren't adapted to socialnetworking workloads, and thus their performance suffers. The authors' disk layout techniques leverage community structure in a social graph to make placement decisions that optimize read latency. Their layout manager, Bondhu, incorporates these techniques and is integrated into the
To better engage Maine's family forest landowners our study used socialnetwork analysis: a computational social science method for identifying stakeholders, evaluating models of engagement, and targeting areas for enhanced partnerships. Interviews with researchers associated with a research center were conducted to identify how socialnetwork…
Gorczyca, Erika L.; Lyons, Patrick W.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Johnson, Teresa R.; Straub, Crista L.
Noting the lack of basic information necessary to begin to make conclusions about a home schooled child's social contacts, a study investigated the socialnetworks of home vs. public schooled children (with a child's "socialnetwork" defined as all of the people who interact on a regular basis with the child at least once a month). The subject…
There are significant privacy, intellectual property, copyright and disclosure risks associated with the ill-considered use of socialnetworking sites, however, the implementation of regulatory actions may also undermine the social and emerging educational utility of socialnetworking sites for young people. Inevitably the burden of dealing with…
Henderson, Michael; de Zwart, Melissa; Lindsay, David; Phillips, Michael
Network motifs – small subgraphs that reflect local topology can be used to discover general profile and properties of the\\u000a network. Analysis of motifs for the large socialnetworks derived from email communication is presented in the paper. The\\u000a distribution of motifs in all analyzed real socialnetworks is very similar one another and can be treated as the network
Krzysztof Juszczyszyn; Przemyslaw Kazienko; Katarzyna Musial
This article investigates, for leadership research, the implications of new directions in socialnetwork theory that emphasize networks as both cognitive structures in the minds of organizational members and opportunity structures that facilitate and constrain action. We introduce the four core ideas at the heart of the network research program: the importance of relations, actors' embeddedness, the social utility of
Studies of the general population indicate that socialnetworks influence a person's employment situation and career, especially in regard to how a person finds and gets a good job. Recent studies suggest that networks may function in similar ways for people with certain disabilities. In order to learn about the role that socialnetworks played in…
Participation in socialnetworking sites has dramatically increased in recent years. Services such as Friendster, Tribe, or the Facebook allow millions of individuals to create online profiles and share personal information with vast networks of friends - and, often, unknown numbers of strangers. In this paper we study patterns of information revelation in online socialnetworks and their privacy implications.
Ralph Gross; Alessandro Acquisti; H. John Heinz III
We investigate the spread of innovations on a socialnetwork. The network consists of agents that are exposed to the introduction of a new product. Consumers decide whether or not to buy the product based on their own preferences and the decisions of their neighbors in the socialnetwork. We use and extend concepts from the literature on epidemics and
Although organizational socialnetworks are known to influence career mobility, the specific direction of this influence is different for diverse employee groups. Diversity in organizational network research has been operationalized on various dimensions such as race and ethnicity, age, religion, education, occupation, and gender. Missing in this stream of research are application and implications of socialnetworks as they influence
In this paper, we introduce socialnetwork analysis for investigating the effect of network position and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on the performance of general practitioners (GPs) residing in rural Australia. Here, we highlight the data collection procedure, its benefits and limitations and standard measures of socialnetwork data. We first suggest that collection and analysis of relational
In this paper, we study two tightly coupled topics in online socialnetworks (OSN): relationship classification and information propagation. The links in a socialnetwork often reflect social relationships among users. In this work, we first investigate identifying the relationships among socialnetwork users based on certain socialnetwork property and limited pre- known information. Socialnetworks have been widely
Online users nowadays are facing serious information overload problem. In recent years, recommender systems have been widely studied to help people find relevant information. Adaptive social recommendation is one of these systems in which the connections in the online socialnetworks are optimized for the information propagation so that users can receive interesting news or stories from their leaders. Validation of such adaptive social recommendation methods in the literature assumes uniform distribution of users' activity frequency. In this paper, our empirical analysis shows that the distribution of online users' activity is actually heterogenous. Accordingly, we propose a more realistic multi-agent model in which users' activity frequency are drawn from a power-law distribution. We find that previous social recommendation methods lead to serious delay of information propagation since many users are connected to inactive leaders. To solve this problem, we design a new similarity measure which takes into account users' activity frequencies. With this similarity measure, the average delay is significantly shortened and the recommendation accuracy is largely improved. PMID:24816894
Online users nowadays are facing serious information overload problem. In recent years, recommender systems have been widely studied to help people find relevant information. Adaptive social recommendation is one of these systems in which the connections in the online socialnetworks are optimized for the information propagation so that users can receive interesting news or stories from their leaders. Validation of such adaptive social recommendation methods in the literature assumes uniform distribution of users' activity frequency. In this paper, our empirical analysis shows that the distribution of online users' activity is actually heterogenous. Accordingly, we propose a more realistic multi-agent model in which users' activity frequency are drawn from a power-law distribution. We find that previous social recommendation methods lead to serious delay of information propagation since many users are connected to inactive leaders. To solve this problem, we design a new similarity measure which takes into account users' activity frequencies. With this similarity measure, the average delay is significantly shortened and the recommendation accuracy is largely improved.
Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive socialnetwork activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "socialnetwork site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of socialnetwork site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNSaddiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples. PMID:24001298
Share is a socialnetworking site with novel, specially designed feature sets to enable simultaneous remote collaboration and sharing of large data sets among scientists. The site will include not only the standard features found on popular consumer-oriented socialnetworking sites such as Facebook and Myspace, but also a number of powerful tools to extend its functionality to a science collaboration site. A Virtual Observatory is a promising technology for making data accessible from various missions and instruments through a Web browser. Sci-Share augments services provided by Virtual Observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase science returns from NASA missions. Sci-Share also enables better utilization of NASA s high-performance computing resources by providing an easy and central mechanism to access and share large files on users space or those saved on mass storage. The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today remains the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. Each of these tools has well-known limitations. Sci-Share transforms the socialnetworking paradigm into a scientific collaboration environment by offering powerful tools for cooperative discourse and digital content sharing. Sci-Share differentiates itself by serving as an online repository for users digital content with the following unique features: a) Sharing of any file type, any size, from anywhere; b) Creation of projects and groups for controlled sharing; c) Module for sharing files on HPC (High Performance Computing) sites; d) Universal accessibility of staged files as embedded links on other sites (e.g. Facebook) and tools (e.g. e-mail); e) Drag-and-drop transfer of large files, replacing awkward e-mail attachments (and file size limitations); f) Enterprise-level data and messaging encryption; and g) Easy-to-use intuitive workflow.
Context dependence is a key feature of cortical-basal ganglia circuit activity, and in songbirds the cortical outflow of a basal ganglia circuit specialized for song, LMAN, shows striking increases in trial-by-trial variability and bursting when birds sing alone rather than to females. To reveal where this variability and its social regulation emerge, we recorded stepwise from corticostriatal (HVC) neurons and their target spiny and pallidal neurons in Area X. We find that corticostriatal and spiny neurons both show precise singing-related firing across both social settings. Pallidal neurons, in contrast, exhibit markedly increased trial-by-trial variation when birds sing alone, created by highly variable pauses in firing. This variability persists even when recurrent inputs from LMAN are ablated. These data indicate that variability and its context sensitivity emerge within the basal ganglia network, suggest a network mechanism for this emergence, and highlight variability generation and regulation as basal ganglia functions. PMID:24698276
Woolley, Sarah C; Rajan, Raghav; Joshua, Mati; Doupe, Allison J
The ability to infer user context based on a mobile device together with a set of external sensors opens up the way to new context-aware services and applications. In this paper, we describe a mobile context provider that makes use of sensors available in a smartphone as well as sensors externally connected via bluetooth. We describe the system architecture from sensor data acquisition to feature extraction, context inference and the publication of context information to well-known socialnetworking services such as Twitter and Hi5. In the current prototype, context inference is based on decision trees, but the middleware allows the integration of other inference engines. Experimental results suggest that the proposed solution is a promising approach to provide user context to both local and network-level services.
Santos, André C.; Cardoso, João M. P.; Ferreira, Diogo R.; Diniz, Pedro C.
Socialnetworking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building socialnetworks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of socialnetworking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between socialnetworking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of socialnetworking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.
van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha, E.
This study was conducted to investigate social integration among, and the availability of social support for, female patients with undefined musculoskeletal disorder compared to women with coronary heart disease. The aim was to elucidate the importance of a clear diagnosis for the socialnetwork relationships of these female patients. For the measurement of social support two instruments were used: an
\\u000a The increasing popularity of socialnetworks, such as online communities and telecommunication systems, has generated interesting\\u000a knowledge discovery and data mining problems. Since socialnetworks usually contain personal information of individuals, preserving\\u000a privacy in the release of socialnetwork data becomes an important concern. An adversary can use many types of background\\u000a knowledge to conduct an attack, such as topological
In this paper, we study the research issues in realizing location recommendation services for large-scale location-based socialnetworks, by exploiting the social and geographical characteristics of users and locations\\/places. Through our analysis on a dataset collected from Foursquare, a popular location-based socialnetworking system, we observe that there exists strong social and geospatial ties among users and their favorite locations\\/places
This exploratory study investigates whether associations between socialnetwork measures and substance use differ according to type of substance and social context. The analyses use data obtained from 13 and 15 year olds (N=3146) in a school-based survey and focus on three socialnetwork measures: sociometric position (e.g. group, dyad, isolate);…
This study investigated the impact of social interactions among a class of undergraduate students on their learning engagement in a socialnetworking environment. Thirteen undergraduate students enrolled in a course in a university in Hong Kong used an Elgg-based socialnetworking platform throughout a semester to develop their digital portfolios and interact with each other. Student online activities were analyzed
The past five years have seen a growth in the interest in systems approaches in epidemiologic research. These approaches may be particularly appropriate for social epidemiology. Socialnetwork analysis and agent-based models (ABMs) are two approaches that have been used in the epidemiologic literature. Socialnetwork analysis involves the characterization of socialnetworks to yield inference about how network structures may influence risk exposures among those in the network. ABMs can promote population-level inference from explicitly programmed, micro-level rules in simulated populations over time and space. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of these models in social epidemiologic research, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Network analysis may be ideal for understanding social contagion, as well as the influences of social interaction on population health. However, network analysis requires network data, which may sacrifice generalizability, and causal inference from current network analytic methods is limited. ABMs are uniquely suited for the assessment of health determinants at multiple levels of influence that may couple with social interaction to produce population health. ABMs allow for the exploration of feedback and reciprocity between exposures and outcomes in the etiology of complex diseases. They may also provide the opportunity for counterfactual simulation. However, appropriate implementation of ABMs requires a balance between mechanistic rigor and model parsimony, and the precision of output from complex models is limited. Socialnetwork and agent-based approaches are promising in social epidemiology, but continued development of each approach is needed.
In the last decade, the popularity of socialnetworking applications has dramatically increased. Socialnetworks are collection of persons or organizations connected by relations. Members of Facebook listed as friends or persons connected by family ties in genealogical trees are examples of socialnetworks. Today's web surfers are often part of many online socialnetworks: they communicate in groups or forums on topics of interests, exchange emails with their friends and colleagues, express their ideas on public blogs, share videos on YouTube, exchange and comment photos on Flickr, participate to the edition of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia or contribute to daily news by collaborating to Wikinews or Agoravox.
The interactions of professional football coaches and teams in the National Football League (NFL) form a complex socialnetwork. This network provides a great opportunity to ana- lyze the influence that coaching mentors have on their pro- teges. In this paper, we use this socialnetwork to identify notable coaches and characterize championship coaches. We also utilize the coaching network
With the increasing popularity of socialnetworks like Facebook and MySpace, such sites have lately become the favourite destinations for spammers and attackers. Socialnetworks have experienced complex social engineering attacks, massive spam and aggressive malware distribution in the recent past. This paper presents a practical case study of social engineering, malware distribution and phishing attacks against socialnetworking sites that are identified over last few months. It is explained how private data of the users are exposed to attackers and how easily their privacy is compromised as a result of these attacks and their own careless behaviour.
While researchers are currently studying various forms of socialnetwork interaction among teachers for their impact on educational policy implementation and practice, knowledge on how various types of networks are interrelated is limited. The goal of this study is to understand the dimensionality that may underlie various types of socialnetworks…
Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.; Karsten, Sjoerd; Daly, Alan J.
: We examine the dynamic formation and stochastic evolution of networks connecting individuals.The payoff to an individual from an economic or social activity depends on the network of connectionsamong individuals. Over time individuals form and sever links connecting themselves to other individualsbased on the improvement that the resulting network offers them relative to the current network. We callsuch sequences of
We study the stability and efficiency of social and economic networks, when self-interested individuals can form or sever links. First, for two stylized models, we characterize the stable and efficient networks. There does not always exist a stable network that is efficient. Next, we show that this tension persists generally: to assure that there exists a stable network that is
Socialnetworks can serve as an effective mechanism for distribution of vulnerability patches and other malware immunization code. We propose a novel approach - SocialSwarm - by which peers exploit distances to their social peers to approximate levels of altruism and to collaborate on flash distribution of large files. SocialSwarm supports heterogeneous BitTorrent swarms of mixed social and non-social peers.
Matthew J. Probst; Jun Cheol Park; Ravin Abraham; Sneha Kumar Kasera
Purpose We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. Methods This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006-2011 and provided data on socialnetworks (presence of spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible, emotional/informational, affection, positive social interaction), and quality of life (QOL), measured by the FACT-B, approximately two months post-diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between socialnetwork size, social support, and lower vs. higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. Results In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR=2.18, 95%CI:1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR=1.61, 95%CI:1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR=2.08, 95%CI:1.65-2.63), social WB (OR=3.46, 95%CI:2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR=1.67, 95%CI:1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR=1.48, 95%CI:1.18-1.87), compared with socially integrated women. Each socialnetwork member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for socialnetworks and social support partially attenuated associations between socialnetworks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was “positive social interaction”. However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Conclusions Larger socialnetworks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status.
Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Ergas, Isaac J.; Wright, Jaime D.; Caan, Bette J.; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H.
We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on socialnetworks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between socialnetwork size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each socialnetwork member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for socialnetworks and social support partially attenuated associations between socialnetworks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger socialnetworks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status. PMID:23657404
Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Ergas, Isaac J; Wright, Jaime D; Caan, Bette J; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H
Despite the recent popularity of online socialnetworks, there are few available studies that explain the differences between real life and internet socialnetworks. Authoritative information about the outcomes of using socialnetworking websites is even more sparse. In an attempt to close this literature gap, this exploratory study found that online socialnetworks and real life socialnetworks are
Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for socialnetworks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to socialnetwork models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, socialnetwork models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Socialnetwork models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data.
Fletcher, Jr. , R. J.; Acevedo, M. A.; Reichert, B. E.; Pias, K. E.; Kitchens, W. M.
Objective To study the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) socialnetworks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same school. Results Younger girls were more active than older girls. Most activity-related peer socialnetwork items were related to PA levels. More PA with friends was significantly related to self-reported PA in multivariate analyses. Conclusions Frequency of PA with friends was an important correlate of PA among the peer networkvariables for adolescent girls.
Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.
In this paper, we study the spread of social norms, such as rules and customs that are components of human cultures. We consider the spread of two social norms, which are linked through individual behaviors. Spreading social norms depend not only on the socialnetwork structure, but also on the learning system. We consider four socialnetwork structures: (1) complete mixing, in which each individual interacts with the others at random, (2) lattice, in which each individual interacts with its neighbors with some probability and with the others at random, (3) power-law network, in which a few influential people have more social contacts than the others, and (4) random graph network, in which the number of contacts follows a Poisson distribution. Using the lattice model, we also investigate the effect of the small-world phenomenon on the dynamics of social norms. In our models, each individual learns a social norm by trial and error (individual learning) and also imitates the other's social norm (social learning). We investigate how socialnetwork structure and learning systems affect the spread of two linked social norms. Our main results are: (1) Social learning does not lead to coexistence of social norms. Individual learning produces coexistence, and the dynamics of coexistence depend on which social norms are learned individually. (2) Social norms spread fastest in the power-law network model, followed by the random graph model, the complete mixing model, the two-dimensional lattice model and the one-dimensional lattice. (3) We see a "small world effect" in the one-dimensional model, but not in two dimensions. PMID:15276000
Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Socialnetwork analysis (SNA) provides the necessary tool kit for investigating questions involving relational data. We introduce basic concepts in SNA, along with methods for data collection, data processing, and data analysis, using a previously collected example study on an undergraduate biology classroom as a tutorial. We conduct descriptive analyses of the structure of the network of costudying relationships. We explore generative processes that create observed study networks between students and also test for an association between network position and success on exams. We also cover practical issues, such as the unique aspects of human subjects review for network studies. Our aims are to convince readers that using SNA in classroom environments allows rich and informative analyses to take place and to provide some initial tools for doing so, in the process inspiring future educational studies incorporating relational data.
Knowing about trust between members of an online socialnetwork (OSN) is essential for many applications. In this paper we propose and discuss methods for deriving information about trust within a socialnetwork by analyzing disclosure of personal information items. A formal model of trust and disclosure is presented and possible trust functions were analysed. We distinguish different types of
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the post-1996 literature of information science and other disciplines for the application of socialnetwork theory and socialnetwork analysis to research that provides an understanding of information environments. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The literature review involved a content analysis of 373 articles retrieved from five electronic journal databases offering broad disciplinary
We sought to examine the growth of an interdisciplinary center using socialnetwork analysis techniques. Specific aims were to examine the patterns of growth and interdisciplinary connectedness of the Center and to identify the socialnetwork characteristics of its productive members. The setting for this study was The Center for Interdisciplinary…
Viral marketing has been one of the favorite strategies for marketers to achieve deeper market penetration. As such, viral marketing like recommendation network based marketing depends on the dynamics of the social influential interaction. The dynamics of the recommendations in socialnetworks and their impact on the desired outcome in the form of purchase decisions can be studied as per
Soumya Banerjee; Hameed Al-Qaheri; Aboul Ella Hassanien
Little is known about the socialnetworks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of socialnetworks, and the risks and supports present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African…
Location-based socialnetworking (LBSN) is a service that utilizes location information to facilitate socialnetworking. LBSN applications allow users to view the locations of their “friends.” They also may allow users to view information about other users of LBSN applications that are located in proximity. Users invite their friends to participate in LBSN. A process of consent follows in which
Sarah Fusco; Roba Abbas; Katina Michael; Anas Aloudat
Examined impact of employment on health of retirees (n=175). Results indicated that employment in retirement years was related to larger socialnetworks and indirectly to better perceived health. Of three socialnetwork factors identified (family, friends, confidants), employment was significantly related only to friendship component. (Author/NB)
Research into faculty members' use of technology and socialnetworking sites has largely focused upon pedagogical practice, at the expense of understanding user experiences with these technologies. Through phenomenological interviews with three faculty members, we investigate their lived experiences with socialnetworking sites. Results point to a…
Socialnetworking via texting, Facebook, Twitter, and similar media is enormously popular with students, though it often leads to communication challenges along gender lines. Research supports the fact that men and women have divergent expectations for socialnetworking and use it differently. Students can benefit from classroom experiences that…
Clipson, Timothy W.; Wilson, S. Ann; DuFrene, Debbie D.
Link prediction for socialnetwork data is a fundamental data mining task in various application domains, including socialnetwork analysis, in- formation retrieval, recommendation systems, record linkage, marketing and bioinformatics. There are a variety of techniques for the link prediction problem, ranging from graph theory, metric learning, statistical relational learning to matrix factorization and probabilistic graphical models. In this survey,
Given the growing popularity of the socialnetwork perspective across diverse organizational subject areas, this review examines the coherence of the research tradition (in terms of leading ideas from which the diversity of new research derives) and appraises current directions and controversies. The leading ideas at the heart of the organizational socialnetwork research program include: an emphasis on relations
This chapter explores the potential of socialnetworking sites for increasing student engagement for distance education learners. The authors present a modified student engagement model with a focus on the integration of technology, specifically socialnetworking sites for community college distance education learners. The chapter concludes with…
Think teachers can post what they want on their own time? Think again. Many have lost their jobs over socialnetworking gaffes in recent years. In this article, the author shares what he has learned about how school districts cope with teachers and online socialnetworking sites, and offers recommendations to teachers who want to have an online…
This article talks about the latest trend in education, which is socialnetworking. As this phenomenon continues to grow, community colleges are getting into the act, launching online initiatives and harnessing the technology to communicate, promote, and conduct important school business. School administrators believe that socialnetworking can…
More and more school districts across the country are joining socialnetworking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using socialnetworking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…
In this study we apply SocialNetwork Analysis and Agent Based Simulation techniques to visualize and explore informal socialnetworks amongst staff at the Akdeniz University Hospital to assess and evaluate properties of the organization in term s of its ability to share knowledge and innovate, which is crucial for healthcare organizations delivering a health service. We first prepared an
Socialnetwork analysis is increasingly used in the study of policy implementation and school leadership. A key question that remains is that of instrument validity--that is, the question of whether these socialnetwork survey instruments measure what they purport to measure. In this paper, we describe our work to examine the validity of the…
Raccoons are an important vector of rabies and other pathogens. The degree to which these pathogens can spread through a raccoon population should be closely linked to association rates between individual raccoons. Most studies of raccoon sociality have found patterns consistent with low levels of social connectivity within populations, thus the likelihood of direct pathogen transmission between raccoons is theoretically low. We used proximity detecting collars and socialnetwork metrics to calculate the degree of social connectivity in an urban raccoon population for purposes of estimating potential pathogen spread. In contrast to previous assumptions, raccoon social association networks were highly connected, and all individuals were connected to one large socialnetwork during 15 out of 18 months of study. However, these metrics may overestimate the potential for a pathogen to spread through a population, as many of the social connections were based on relatively short contact periods. To more closely reflect varying probabilities of pathogen spread, we censored the raccoon socialnetworks based on the total amount of time spent in close proximity between two individuals per month. As this time criteria for censoring the socialnetworks increased from one to thirty minutes, corresponding measures of network connectivity declined. These findings demonstrate that raccoon populations are much more tightly connected than would have been predicted based on previous studies, but also point out that additional research is needed to calculate more precise transmission probabilities by infected individuals, and determine how disease infection changes normal social behaviors. PMID:24130746
Hirsch, Ben T; Prange, Suzanne; Hauver, Stephanie A; Gehrt, Stanley D
Socialnetwork analysis is increasingly used by behavioral ecologists and primatologists to describe the patterns and quality of interactions among individuals. We provide an overview of this methodology, with examples illustrating how it can be used to study social behavior in applied contexts. Like most kinds of social interaction analyses, socialnetwork analysis provides information about direct relationships (e.g. dominant–subordinate relationships). However, it also generates a more global model of social organization that determines how individual patterns of social interaction relate to individual and group characteristics. A particular strength of this approach is that it provides standardized mathematical methods for calculating metrics of sociality across levels of social organization, from the population and group levels to the individual level. At the group level these metrics can be used to track changes in socialnetwork structures over time, evaluate the effect of the environment on socialnetwork structure, or compare social structures across groups, populations or species. At the individual level, the metrics allow quantification of the heterogeneity of social experience within groups and identification of individuals who may play especially important roles in maintaining social stability or information flow throughout the network.
Social interactions are a very important component in people’s lives. Socialnetwork analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a socialnetwork extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times’ Blogging Heads opinion blog. The SocialNetwork is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links’ weights are a measure of the “influence” a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted socialnetwork.
The aim of this qualitative research was to examine the dynamics of existing and emerging socialnetworks among Latino survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Data were generated through individual, in-depth interviews conducted with 65 Latinos within six months of the storm striking the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005. The findings illustrated both the role of socialnetworks in gathering information, making decisions and accessing resources, and how these existing socialnetworks were disrupted and strained by overwhelming needs. Broader structural issues, including poverty and a lack of transportation, combined with marginalised status as immigrants, further constrained access to essential information and resources. In response, new, if temporary, socialnetworks emerged, based primarily on shared nationality, language, and a sense of collective commitment. Practice implications include the need to consider the socialnetwork dynamics of marginalised groups in developing innovative strategies to overcome structural barriers to accessing resources essential for disaster preparedness and survival. PMID:21623889
For healthcare organizations to survive in these increasingly challenging times, leadership and management must face mounting interpersonal concerns. The authors present the boundaries of internal and external socialnetworks with respect to leadership and managerial functions: Socialnetworks within the organization are stretched by reductions in available resources and structural ambiguity, whereas external socialnetworks are stressed by interorganizational competitive pressures. The authors present the development of emotional intelligence skills in employees as a strategic training objective that can strengthen the internal and external socialnetworks of healthcare organizations. The authors delineate the unique functions of leadership and management with respect to the application of emotional intelligence skills and discuss training and future research implications for emotional intelligence skill sets and socialnetworks. PMID:15754856
Many individuals wait until alcohol use becomes severe before treatment is sought. However, socialnetworks, or the number of social groups an individual belongs to, may play a moderating role in this relationship. Logistic regression examined the interaction of alcohol consumption and socialnetworks as a predictor of treatment utilization while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables among 1,433 lifetime alcohol-dependent respondents from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC). Results showed that socialnetworks moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization such that for individuals with few network ties, the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization was diminished, compared to the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for individuals with many network ties. Findings offer insight into how socialnetworks, at times, can influence individuals to pursue treatment, while at other times, influence individuals to stay out of treatment, or seek treatment substitutes. PMID:24462223
We investigated socialnetwork factors associated with participation in overdose prevention training among injection drug users (IDUs). From 2008-2010, 106 IDUs who had witnessed an overdose in the past year from two syringe exchange programs in Los Angeles provided data on: overdose prevention training status (trained vs. untrained), socialnetworks, history of overdose, and demographics. In multivariate logistic regression, naming at least one network member who had been trained in overdose prevention was significantly associated with being trained (Adjusted Odds Ratio 3.25, 95% Confidence Interval 1.09, 9.68). Using socialnetwork approaches may help increase training participation. Limitations are noted.
Iverson, Ellen; Wong, Carolyn F.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer; McNeeley, Miles; Davidson, Peter J.; McCarty, Christopher; Kral, Alex H.; Lankenau, Stephen E.
Online socialnetworking sites such as Facebook and MyS- pace have become increasingly popular, with close to 500 million users as of August 2008. The introduction of the Facebook Developer Platform and OpenSocial allows third- party developers to launch their own applications for the existing massive user base. The viral growth of these social applications can potentially influence how content
Social media now form a common part of university students' experience. Both at university and after graduation, in their personal and professional lives, social media offer opportunities for connection previously unavailable. The ubiquitous nature of socialnetworking has brought with it professional and ethical issues that need to be…
Chester, A.; Kienhuis, M.; Pisani, H.; Shahwan-Akl, L.; White, K.
K-12 online learning and cyber charter schools have grown at a tremendous rate over the past decade. At the same time, these online programs have struggled to provide the social spaces where students can interact that K-12 schools are traditionally able to provide. Socialnetworking presents a unique opportunity to provide these kinds of social…
This paper applies the theory of socialnetworks to P2P systems, creating a social-network-based P2P network topology formation algorithm for file sharing. The algorithm extends the Gnutella P2P file sharing technology, which uses super nodes for searching and for relaying shared files between network leafs that are located behind Firewalls\\/NATs. The topology of the P2P network is based on the
This paper applies the theory of socialnetworks to P2P systems, creating a social-network-based P2P network topology formation algorithm for file sharing. The algorithm extends the Gnutella P2P file sharing technology, which uses super nodes for searching and for relaying shared files between network leafs that are located behind Firewalls\\/NATs. The topology of the P2P network is based on the
Socialnetworking services are a fast-growing business in the Internet. However, it is unknown if online relationships and their growth patterns are the same as in real-life social net- works. In this paper, we compare the structures of three online socialnetworking services: Cyworld, MySpace, and orkut, each with more than 10 million users, respectively. We have access to complete
Yong-yeol Ahn; Seungyeop Han; Haewoon Kwak; Sue Moon; Hawoong Jeong
The objective of this study was to describe the socialnetworks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and explore the implications socialnetwork characteristics might have for mobilizing PLHA as prevention agents. Thirty-nine PLHA attending an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda provided information on themselves and on 20 network members. Based on these data, descriptive statistics for socialnetwork composition and structure were calculated. Research questions relating these network characteristics to treatment-related variables such as time since diagnosis, ART status, and time on ART were investigated. Analyses reveal that, in general, network members know the PLHA's status, are trusted, provide advice and support, and are well-connected to each other. Network features (e.g., proportion of individuals who know the PLHA's status) are related to the previously mentioned treatment variables. Findings suggest that PLHA surround themselves with a social context that enables PLHA to feel fairly protected and supported if they choose to discuss HIV and prevention. With respect to treatment, those on ART may be better prepared to act as prevention advocates.
Socialnetworking websites are the fastest growing entity on the Internet. Users of socialnetworking websites post personal information and pictures on these websites. Privacy and socialnetworking websites has been previously studied, however, since tho...
In the context of increased importance of social applications and convergence between mobile and Web technological domains, this paper investigates potential strategies that MNOs can adopt regarding the offer of mobile socialnetworking services. A case study in an Australian mobile network operator is presented in order to highlight the decision-making process for the launch of mobile networking services. General
Marcelo Nogueira Cortimiglia; Filippo Renga; Antonio Ghezzi
Influence maximization in socialnetworks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned socialnetworks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust) between users. Influence maximization in signed socialnetworks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust) between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM) problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed socialnetworks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC) model to the signed socialnetworks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P) diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed socialnetworks. Experimental results on two signed socialnetwork datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
SocialNetwork Analysis is a compilation of methods used to identify and analyze patterns in socialnetwork systems. This article serves as a primer on foundational socialnetwork concepts and analyses and builds a case study on the global Islamist terrorist network to illustrate the use and usefulness of these methods. The Islamist terrorist network is a system composed of multiple terrorist organizations that are socially connected and work toward the same goals. This research utilizes traditional socialnetwork, as well as small-world, and scale-free analyses to characterize this system on individual, network and systemic levels. Leaders in the network are identified based on their positions in the socialnetwork and the network structure is categorized. Finally, two vital nodes in the network are removed and this version of the network is compared with the previous version to make implications of strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities. The Islamist terrorist network structure is found to be a resilient and efficient structure, even with important social nodes removed. Implications for counterterrorism are given from the results of each analysis.
Network measures that reflect the most salient properties of complex large-scale networks are in high demand in the network research community. In this paper we adapt a combinatorial measure of negative curvature (also called hyperbolicity) to parametrized finite networks, and show that a variety of biological and socialnetworks are hyperbolic. This hyperbolicity property has strong implications on the higher-order connectivity and other topological properties of these networks. Specifically, we derive and prove bounds on the distance among shortest or approximately shortest paths in hyperbolic networks. We describe two implications of these bounds to crosstalk in biological networks, and to the existence of central, influential neighborhoods in both biological and socialnetworks. PMID:24730903
Some of the nodes of complex socialnetworks may support for a given proposal, while the rest of the nodes may be against the given proposal. Even though all the nodes support for or are against the given proposal, the decision certitudes of individual nodes may be different. In this case, the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the majority of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value. Deriving the near consensus property is a key to the analysis of the behaviors of complex socialnetworks. So far, no result on the behaviors of the complex socialnetworks satisfying the near consensus property has been reported. Hence, it is useful to extend the definition of the exact consensus property to that of a near consensus property and investigate the behaviors of the complex socialnetworks satisfying the near consensus property. This paper extends the definition of exact consensus complex socialnetworks to that of near consensus complex socialnetworks. For complex linear socialnetworks, this paper investigates the relationships among the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes, the influence weight matrix and the set of vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes under a given near consensus specification. The above analysis is based on the Eigen theory. For complex nonlinear socialnetworks with certain types of nonlinearities, the relationship between the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes is studied. When a complex nonlinear socialnetwork does not achieve the exact consensus property, the optimal near consensus condition that the complex socialnetwork can achieve is derived. This problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The total number of nodes that the decision certitudes of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value is maximized subject to the corresponding near consensus specification. The optimization problem is a nonsmooth optimization problem. The nonsmooth constraints are first approximated by smooth constraints. Then, the approximated optimization problem is solved via a conventional smooth optimization approach. Computer numerical simulation results as well as the comparisons of the behaviors of complex nonlinear socialnetworks to those of the complex linear socialnetworks are presented. The obtained results demonstrate that some complex socialnetworks can satisfy the near consensus property but not the exact consensus property. Also, the conditions for the near consensus property are dependent on the types of nonlinearities, the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes.
Ling, Bingo Wing-Kuen; Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Wang, Lidong; Teo, Kok-Lay; Tse, Chi K.; Dai, Qingyun
Most U.S. teenagers participate in online socialnetwork sites, devoting hours to these networks, often at the expense of other leisure-time activities. This article describes young people's activities within one topic-focused niche network, outlining its unique features and the role of young people as content producers within and beyond the…
Modern communication networks are vulnerable to attackers who send unsolicited messages to innocent users, wasting network resources and user time. Some examples of such attacks are spam emails, annoying tele-marketing phone calls, viral marketing in socialnetworks, etc. Existing techniques to identify these attacks are tailored to certain specific domains (like email spam filtering), but are not applicable to a
In 2007, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) began blocking socialnetworking sites, such as YouTube and MySpace, from its computer networks based on concerns for bandwidth, network security, and posting of personal and operational information. In Februa...
Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships (MCP) are prevalent in southern Africa and have been identified as a primary cause of high HIV prevalence in this region. Sexual liaisons with multiple partners serve to increase the size and diversity of an individual's sexual—and social—network and therefore to increase their social capital. This maximisation of social capital may minimise the risk to
Socialnetworking sites are a form of collaborative software used by millions of people worldwide. While important descriptive and exploratory studies of these sites have been conducted, there has been little discussion of how to relate information systems theory to the use of socialnetworking sites. This research will combine two theoretical frameworks to assist in understanding the dynamics of
Socialnetwork analysis can enrich school-based research on children's peer relationships. Unfortunately, accurate network analysis requires near-complete data on all students and is underutilized in school-based research because of low rates of parental consent. This article advocates Krackhardt's cognitive social structures (CSS) as a solution…
In this article, centrality is explored as a measure of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in networked learning. Centrality measure is quite common in performing socialnetwork analysis (SNA) and in analysing social cohesion, strength of ties and influence in CMC, and computer-supported collaborative learning research. It argues that measuring…
This paper presents language learners as socialnetworkers and describes and discusses the types of users that can be identified by analysing the content created by them using a situated mobile language learning app, LingoBee, based on the idea of crowd sourcing. Borrowing ideas from other studies conducted on socialnetwork users, we can identify…
Procter-Legg, Emma; Cacchione, Annamaria; Petersen, Sobah Abbas
Researchers have argued that socialnetworks within a community have positive effects on people's behavior in the four stages of disaster. The Japanese government is testing SocialNetworking Service (SNS) at the municipal level with the intention to improve community building, democratic processes and disaster management. This paper presents results from two case studies of local SNS in Yatsushiro city,
This article reviews current issues and advancements in socialnetwork approaches to HIV prevention and care. Socialnetwork analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates and treatment access and outcomes. Socialnetwork analysis is a value tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Socialnetworks provide an avenue for low cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Socialnetworks can be utilized as a viable approach to recruitment for HIV testing and counseling, HIV prevention interventions, and optimizing HIV medical care and medication adherence. Socialnetwork interventions may be face-to-face or through social media. Key issues in designing socialnetwork interventions are contamination due to social diffusion, network stability, density, and the choice and training of network members. There are also ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of socialnetwork interventions. Socialnetwork analyses can also be used to understand HIV transmission dynamics.
The roles of previous psychological service use and socialnetworkvariables in beliefs about psychological services were examined with 184 college students. Having friends and family members who used psychological services, being female, and having used psychological services positively related with beliefs about psychological services.…
Walter, Jeffrey P.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Skovholt, Thomas M.
SUMMARY We describe a new stochastic search algorithm for linear regression models called the bounded mode stochastic search (BMSS). We make use of BMSS to perform variable selection and classification as well as to construct sparse dependency networks. Furthermore, we show how to determine genetic networks from genomewide data that involves any combination of continuous and discrete variables. We illustrate
A structurally balanced socialnetwork is a social community that splits into two antagonistic factions (typical example being a two-party political system). The process of opinion forming on such a community is most often highly predictable, with polarized opinions reflecting the bipartition of the network. The aim of this paper is to suggest a class of dynamical systems, called monotone systems, as natural models for the dynamics of opinion forming on structurally balanced socialnetworks. The high predictability of the outcome of a decision process is explained in terms of the order-preserving character of the solutions of this class of dynamical systems. If we represent a socialnetwork as a signed graph in which individuals are the nodes and the signs of the edges represent friendly or hostile relationships, then the property of structural balance corresponds to the social community being splittable into two antagonistic factions, each containing only friends.
A structurally balanced socialnetwork is a social community that splits into two antagonistic factions (typical example being a two-party political system). The process of opinion forming on such a community is most often highly predictable, with polarized opinions reflecting the bipartition of the network. The aim of this paper is to suggest a class of dynamical systems, called monotone systems, as natural models for the dynamics of opinion forming on structurally balanced socialnetworks. The high predictability of the outcome of a decision process is explained in terms of the order-preserving character of the solutions of this class of dynamical systems. If we represent a socialnetwork as a signed graph in which individuals are the nodes and the signs of the edges represent friendly or hostile relationships, then the property of structural balance corresponds to the social community being splittable into two antagonistic factions, each containing only friends. PMID:22761667
When computer networks link people as well as machines, they become socialnetworks. Such computer-supported socialnetworks (CSSNs) are becoming im- portant bases of virtual communities, computer-supported cooperative work, and telework. Computer-mediated communication such as electronic mail and com- puterized conferencing is usually text-based and asynchronous. It has limited social presence, and on-line communications are often more uninhibited, cre- ative,
Barry Wellman; Janet Salaff; Dimitrina Dimitrova; Laura Garton; Milena Gulia; Caroline Haythornthwaite
This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of socialnetworks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…
Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie
An exploration of the mediation strategies applied to socialnetworking tools for purposes of enhancing social presence for students participating in online course work. The article includes a review of the literature, specific examples from the authors' professional practice and recommendations for creating a positive social experience for online…
Suicide prevention continues to be a significant clinical challenge in the care of psychiatric patients, particularly among youth. New patterns of interactions and communications using online socialnetworks create opportunities for persons to indicate their mood, their opinions, and also to express ideation and plans about suicide. We report a case of a suicide attempt and how communications through online socialnetworks initiated treatment and affected its outcome. We discuss advantages and challenges to clinicians regarding use socialnetworks and electronic communication in patient care. PMID:21596215
The emergence of the mediated social web - a distributed network of participants creating rich media content and engaging in interactive conversations through Internet-based communication technologies - has contributed to the evolution of powerful social, economic and cultural change. Online socialnetwork sites and blogs, such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and LiveJournal, thrive due to their fundamental sense of "community". The growth of online communities offers both opportunities and challenges for researchers and practitioners. Participation in online communities has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways ranging from financial decision-making to political choices, suggesting the rich potential for diverse applications. However, although studies on the social web have been extensive, discovering communities from online social media remains challenging, due to the interdisciplinary nature of this subject. In this article, we present our recent work on characterization of communities in online social media using computational approaches grounded on the observations from social science.
The ubiquity of Online SocialNetworks (OSNs) is creating new sources for healthcare information, particularly in the context of pharmaceutical drugs. We aimed to examine the impact of a given OSN's characteristics on the content of pharmaceutical drug discussions from that OSN. We compared the effect of four distinguishing characteristics from ten different OSNs on the content of their pharmaceutical drug discussions: (1) General versus Health OSN; (2) OSN moderation; (3) OSN registration requirements; and (4) OSNs with a question and answer format. The effects of these characteristics were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show that an OSN's characteristics indeed affect the content of its discussions. Based on their information needs, healthcare providers may use our findings to pick the right OSNs or to advise patients regarding their needs. Our results may also guide the creation of new and more effective domain-specific health OSNs. Further, future researchers of online healthcare content in OSNs may find our results informative while choosing OSNs as data sources. We reported several findings about the impact of OSN characteristics on the content of pharmaceutical drug discussion, and synthesized these findings into actionable items for both healthcare providers and future researchers of healthcare discussions on OSNs. Future research on the impact of OSN characteristics could include user demographics, quality and safety of information, and efficacy of OSN usage. PMID:24637141
Wiley, Matthew T; Jin, Canghong; Hristidis, Vagelis; Esterling, Kevin M
This paper proposes a variable selection algorithm based on neural networks for multivariate time series prediction. Sensitivity\\u000a analysis of the neural network error function with respect to the input is developed to quantify the saliency of each input\\u000a variables. Then the input nodes with low sensitivity are pruned along with their connections, which represents to delete the\\u000a corresponding redundant variables.
This article offers reflection on the validity of relational data such as used in socialnetwork analysis. Ongoing research on the transformation of the support network of caregivers of persons with an Alzheimer-type disease provides the data to fuel the debate on the validity of participant report. More specifically, we sought to understand the factors that might influence the description of the support network by persons involved in caregiving. The issue warrants special attention, given that social relations – in their form and their content – constitute the raw material of network analysis. We propose that how persons describe their socialnetwork corresponds to a subjective process that rests, in part, on their representation of their cultural and social universe.
This article presents the results of new data collection in Mexico about the relationship between child well-being and socialnetworks. Two research questions guide the analysis. First, under what conditions do networks generate greater (lesser) support? Second, what kinds of networks are associated with healthier children? We explore the health…
Kana'iaupuni, Shawn Malia; Donato, Katharine M.; Thompson-Colon, Theresa; Stainback, Melissa
The first two main sections survey the roles of transnational networks in alleviating problems of contract enforcement and providing information about trading opportunities, respectively. The next section covers how domestic networks influence international trade through their impact on domestic market structure. Two overarching questions unify these sections: how do networks affect efficiency, and will networks grow or shrink in importance
Scope and Method of Study: This study examined how social influence plays a part in female students' choices of college major, specifically engineering instead of science, technology, and math. Social influence may show itself through peers, family members, and teachers and may encompass resources under the umbrella of social capital. The purpose of this study was to examine how female students' socialnetworks, through the lens of social capital, influence her major choice of whether or not to study engineering. The variables of peer influence, parental influence, teacher/counselor influence, perception of engineering, and academic background were addressed in a 52 question, Likert scale survey. This survey has been modified from an instrument previously used by Reyer (2007) at Bradley University. Data collection was completed using the Dillman (2009) tailored design model. Responses were grouped into four main scales of the dependent variables of social influence, encouragement, perceptions of engineering and career motivation. A factor analysis was completed on the four factors as a whole, and individual questions were not be analyzed. Findings and Conclusions: This study addressed the differences in socialnetwork support for female freshmen majoring in engineering versus female freshmen majoring in science, technology, or math. Socialnetwork support, when working together from all angles of peers, teachers, parents, and teachers/counselors, transforms itself into a new force that is more powerful than the summation of the individual parts. Math and science preparation also contributed to female freshmen choosing to major in engineering instead of choosing to major in science, technology, or math. The STEM pipeline is still weak and ways in which to reinforce it should be examined. Socialnetwork support is crucial for female freshmen who are majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math.
Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal socialnetworks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the socialnetwork but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on socialnetworks.
Socialnetwork is a powerful data structure that allows the depiction of relationship information between entities. However, real-world socialnetworks are sometimes too complex for human to pursue further analysis. In this work, an unsupervised mechanism is proposed for egocentric information abstraction in heterogeneous socialnetworks. To achieve this goal, we propose a vector space representation for heterogeneous socialnetworks to identify combination of relations as features and compute statistical dependencies as feature values. These features, either linear or eyelie, intend to capture the semantic information in the surrounding environment of the ego. Then we design three abstraction measures to distill representative and important information to construct the abstracted graphs for visual presentation. The evaluations conducted on a real world movie datasct and an artificial crime dataset demonstrate that the abstractions can indeed retain significant information and facilitate more accurate and efficient human analysis.
Online socialnetworking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online socialnetworking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online socialnetworking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an “e-professionalism” concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online socialnetworking.
This article explores both the potential and challenges associated with the widespread use of socialnetworking among college students and the implications for civic engagement, equity and inclusion, and student success.
Online socialnetworking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online socialnetworking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online socialnetworking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an "e-professionalism" concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online socialnetworking. PMID:18322572
This project focused on a multifaceted study of a class of cluster- detection problems arising in biological and socialnetworks. This includes defining new cluster models and their alternative mathematical programming formulations, their theoretical anal...
The hypothesis that variability in natural habitats promotes modular organization is widely accepted for cellular networks. However, results of some data analyses and theoretical studies have begun to cast doubt on the impact of habitat variability on modularity in metabolic networks. Therefore, we re-evaluated this hypothesis using statistical data analysis and current metabolic information. We were unable to conclude that an increase in modularity was the result of habitat variability. Although horizontal gene transfer was also considered because it may contribute for survival in a variety of environments, closely related to habitat variability, and is known to be positively correlated with network modularity, such a positive correlation was not concluded in the latest version of metabolic networks. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the previously observed increase in network modularity due to habitat variability and horizontal gene transfer was probably due to a lack of available data on metabolic reactions. Instead, we determined that modularity in metabolic networks is dependent on species growth conditions. These results may not entirely discount the impact of habitat variability and horizontal gene transfer. Rather, they highlight the need for a more suitable definition of habitat variability and a more careful examination of relationships of the network modularity with horizontal gene transfer, habitats, and environments.
Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems.
Group life involves both advantages and disadvantages, meaning that individuals have to compromise between their nutritional needs and their social links. When a compromise is impossible, the group splits in order to reduce conflict of interests and favour positive social interactions between its members. In this study we built a dynamic model of socialnetworks to represent a succession of temporary fissions involving a change in social relations that could potentially lead to irreversible group fission (i.e. no more group fusion). This is the first study that assesses how a socialnetwork changes according to group fission-fusion dynamics. We built a model that was based on different parameters: the group size, the influence of nutritional needs compared to social needs, and the changes in the socialnetwork after a temporary fission. The results obtained from this theoretical data indicate how the percentage of social relation transfer, the number of individuals and the relative importance of nutritional requirements and social links influence the average number of days before irreversible fission occurs. The greater the nutritional needs and the higher the transfer of social relations during temporary fission, the fewer days will be observed before an irreversible fission. It is crucial to bridge the gap between the individual and the population level if we hope to understand how simple, local interactions may drive ecological systems.
We address the problem of efficiently discovering the influential nodes in a socialnetwork under the susceptible\\/infected\\/susceptible (SIS) model, a diffusion model where nodes are allowed to be activated multiple times. The computational complexity drastically increases\\u000a because of this multiple activation property. We solve this problem by constructing a layered graph from the original social\\u000a network with each layer added
\\u000a With the ubiquity of mobile devices, GPS and WiFi, location-based socialnetworking services are developing rapidly. The rise\\u000a of services such as Foursquare and Google Buzz, enable users to instantaneously in real-time report their activity to online\\u000a socialnetworks around the places they visit. The people that we encounter and connect with around physical resources such\\u000a as meetings, provide opportunities
Lijun Zhu; Alvin Chin; Ke Zhang; Wenchang Xu; Hao Wang; Li Zhang
This paper reports on a small experiment using SocialNetworking in an English class in an English Medium of Instruction tertiary-level institution in Zhuhai, Southern China. The investigation was carried out both in the classroom and online. Firstly, a Web 2.0 SocialNetworking Site (SNS) for English learning purposes, AlexCALL, was set up for a case study, and the experiment
Title: Socialnetworking in the (Law) Library: can you do that?\\u000aAbstract: One can define “socialnetworking” as an opportunity to build relationships with users via the Internet. When online, people want to connect with others, those who may listen, comment and interact because of similar interests. Sites such as: Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn offer users the opportunity to create
A fundamental question concerning group-living species is what factors influence the evolution of sociality. Although several studies link adult social bonds to fitness, social patterns and relationships are often formed early in life and are also likely to have fitness consequences, particularly in species with lengthy developmental periods, extensive social learning, and early social bond-formation. In a longitudinal study of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.), calf socialnetwork structure, specifically the metric eigenvector centrality, predicted juvenile survival in males. Additionally, male calves that died post-weaning had stronger ties to juvenile males than surviving male calves, suggesting that juvenile males impose fitness costs on their younger counterparts. Our study indicates that selection is acting on social traits early in life and highlights the need to examine the costs and benefits of social bonds during formative life history stages.
Suicide explains the largest number of death tolls among Japanese adolescents in their twenties and thirties. Suicide is also a major cause of death for adolescents in many other countries. Although social isolation has been implicated to influence the tendency to suicidal behavior, the impact of social isolation on suicide in the context of explicit socialnetworks of individuals is scarcely explored. To address this question, we examined a large data set obtained from a socialnetworking service dominant in Japan. The socialnetwork is composed of a set of friendship ties between pairs of users created by mutual endorsement. We carried out the logistic regression to identify users’ characteristics, both related and unrelated to socialnetworks, which contribute to suicide ideation. We defined suicide ideation of a user as the membership to at least one active user-defined community related to suicide. We found that the number of communities to which a user belongs to, the intransitivity (i.e., paucity of triangles including the user), and the fraction of suicidal neighbors in the socialnetwork, contributed the most to suicide ideation in this order. Other characteristics including the age and gender contributed little to suicide ideation. We also found qualitatively the same results for depressive symptoms.
Objective To measure and compare the frequency and content of online socialnetworking among 2 cohorts of medical students and residents (2007 and 2009). Methods Using the online socialnetworking application Facebook, we evaluated socialnetworking profiles for 2 cohorts of medical students (n ?=? 528) and residents (n ?=? 712) at the University of Florida in Gainesville. Objective measures included existence of a profile, whether it was made private, and whether any personally identifiable information was included. Subjective outcomes included photographic content, affiliated social groups, and personal information not generally disclosed in a doctor-patient encounter. We compared our results to our previously published and reported data from 2007. Results Socialnetworking continues to be common amongst physicians-in-training, with 39.8% of residents and 69.5% of medical students maintaining Facebook accounts. Residents' participation significantly increased (P < .01) when compared to the 2007 data. Individuals in the 2009 cohort had significantly more “friends” (P < .01), belonged to more “groups” (P < .01), and were more likely to limit public access to their profiles through the use of privacy settings (P < .01) than the individuals in the 2007 cohort. Discussion Online socialnetworking application use by physicians-in-training remains common. While most now limit access to their profiles, personal profiles that still allow public access exhibited a few instances of unprofessional behavior. Concerns remain related to the discovery of content in violation of patient privacy and the expansive and impersonal networks of online “friends” who may view profiles.
Black, Erik W.; Thompson, Lindsay A.; Duff, W. Patrick; Dawson, Kara; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Nicole M. Paradise
This study investigates the effect of the presentation of socialnetwork diagrams on virtual team members' interaction behavior via e-mail. E-mail transaction data from 22 software developers in a Korean IT company was analyzed and depicted as diagrams by socialnetwork analysis (SNA), and presented to the members as an intervention. Results…
Considers race differences in the determinants of social support network characteristics using data from Established Populations for Epidemiological Studies of the Elderly. Focuses on the extent to which race differences in network dimensions are present and whether variations can be attributed to social structural positions held. Results indicate…
New teachers need support from their peers and mentors to locate resources, information, new ideas, emotional support, and inspiration. This timely book explains the research and theory behind socialnetworks (face-to-face and online), describes what effective socialnetworking for educators looks like, reveals common obstacles that new teachers…
Purpose – Socialnetworking sites (SNS) are changing the methods of social connectivity – and what it means to be public. Existing literature hints at competing perspectives on how the public nature of these sites impacts users. The question of how the perceived publicness of SNSs influences users' self-disclosure intentions is debated in the literature, and the aim of this
Patrick J. Bateman; Jacqueline C. Pike; Brian S. Butler
My research interest has been in understanding the human communities formed through interpersonal social activities. Participation in online communities on socialnetwork sites such as Twitter has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways including financial decision-making and political choices, suggesting the rich potential…
The processes by which communities come together, attract new members, and develop over time is a central research issue in the social sciences — political movements, professional organizations, and religious denominations all provide fundamental examples of such communities. In the digital domain, on-line groups are be- coming increasingly prominent due to the growth of community and socialnetworking sites such
Lars Backstrom; Daniel P. Huttenlocher; Jon M. Kleinberg; Xiangyang Lan
Summary. We have analyzed the fully-anonymized headers of 362 million messages exchanged by 4.2 million users of Facebook, an online socialnetwork of college students, during a 26 month interval. The data reveal a number of strong daily and weekly regularities which provide insights into the time use of college students and their social lives, including seasonal variations. We also
Scott A. Golder; Dennis M. Wilkinson; Bernardo A. Huberman
Everyday goals and experiences are often shared with others who may hold different places within our socialnetworks. We investigated whether the experience of sharing a reward differs with respect to socialnetwork. Twenty human participants played a card guessing game for shared monetary outcomes with three partners: a computer, a confederate (out-of-network), and a friend (in-network). Participants subjectively rated the experience of sharing a reward more positively with their friend than the other partners. Neuroimaging results support participants’ subjective reports, as ventral striatal BOLD responses were more robust when sharing monetary gains with a friend, as compared to with the confederate or computer, suggesting a higher value for sharing with an in-network partner. Interestingly, ratings of social closeness co-varied with this activity, resulting in a significant partner × closeness interaction: exploratory analysis showed that only participants reporting higher levels of closeness demonstrated partner-related differences in striatal BOLD response. These results suggest that reward valuation in social contexts is sensitive to distinctions of socialnetwork, such that sharing positive experiences with in-network others may carry higher value.
Fareri, Dominic S.; Niznikiewicz, Michael A.; Lee, Victoria K.; Delgado, Mauricio R.
The role of socialnetworks has become increasingly relevant in recent years. This research focuses on analyzing the affect of socialnetworks (SN) websites usage on students' behaviors and academic performances. This investigation included students gender based usage patterns of socialnetworks websites with respect to our proposed websites scheme. We classified all students with similarity of socialnetworks usage
Membership in socialnetworking sites is increasing rapidly. Socialnetworking sites serve many purposes including networking, communication, recruitment, and sharing knowledge. Socialnetworking sites, public or private, may be hosted on applications such as Facebook and LinkedIn. As individuals begin to follow and participate in social…
Introduction Capacity-building programs are vital for healthcare workforce development in low- and middle-income countries. In addition to increasing human capital, participation in such programs may lead to new professional networks and access to social capital. Although network development and social capital generation were not explicit program goals, we took advantage of a natural experiment and studied the socialnetworks that developed in the first year of an executive-education Master of Hospital and Healthcare Administration (MHA) program in Jimma, Ethiopia. Case description We conducted a sociometric network analysis, which included all program participants and supporters (formally affiliated educators and mentors). We studied two networks: the Trainee Network (all 25 trainees) and the Trainee-Supporter Network (25 trainees and 38 supporters). The independent variable of interest was out-degree, the number of program-related connections reported by each respondent. We assessed social capital exchange in terms of resource exchange, both informational and functional. Contingency table analysis for relational data was used to evaluate the relationship between out-degree and informational and functional exchange. Discussion and evaluation Both networks demonstrated growth and inclusion of most or all network members. In the Trainee Network, those with the highest level of out-degree had the highest reports of informational exchange, ?2 (1, N = 23) = 123.61, p < 0.01. We did not find a statistically significant relationship between out-degree and functional exchange in this network, ?2(1, N = 23) = 26.11, p > 0.05. In the Trainee-Supporter Network, trainees with the highest level of out-degree had the highest reports of informational exchange, ?2 (1, N = 23) = 74.93, p < 0.05. The same pattern held for functional exchange, ?2 (1, N = 23) = 81.31, p < 0.01. Conclusions We found substantial and productive development of socialnetworks in the first year of a healthcare management capacity-building program. Environmental constraints, such as limited access to information and communication technologies, or challenges with transportation and logistics, may limit the ability of some participants to engage in the networks fully. This work suggests that intentional socialnetwork development may be an important opportunity for capacity-building programs as healthcare systems improve their ability to manage resources and tackle emerging problems.
Though larger socialnetworks are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality, there is a need to clarify how both social support and social burden influence this association. We included 4,530 women from the Women's Health Initiative who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1993 and 2009, and provided data on socialnetworks (spouse or intimate partner, religious ties, club ties, and number of first-degree relatives) before diagnosis. Of those, 354 died during follow-up, with 190 from breast cancer. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations of socialnetwork members with risk of post-diagnosis mortality, further evaluating associations by social support and social burden (caregiving, social strain). In multivariate-adjusted analyses, among women with high but not low social support, being married was related to lower all-cause mortality. By contrast, among women with high but not low social burden, those with a higher number of first-degree relatives, including siblings, parents, and children, had higher all-cause and breast cancer mortality (among caregivers: 0-3 relatives (ref), 4-5 relatives, HR = 1.47 (95% CI: 0.62-3.52), 6-9 relatives, HR = 2.08 (95% CI: 0.89-4.86), 10+ relatives, HR = 3.55 (95% CI: 1.35-9.33), P-continuous = 0.02, P-interaction = 0.008). The association by social strain was similar though it was not modified by level of social support. Other socialnetwork members were unrelated to mortality. Social relationships may have both adverse and beneficial influences on breast cancer survival. Clarifying these depends on understanding the context of women's relationships. PMID:22331479
Social contact networks exhibit overlapping qualities of communities, hierarchical structure and spatial-correlated nature. We propose a mixing pattern of modular and growing hierarchical structures to reconstruct social contact networks by using an individual’s geospatial distribution information in the real world. The hierarchical structure of social contact networks is defined based on the spatial distance between individuals, and edges among individuals are added in turn from the modular layer to the highest layer. It is a gradual process to construct the hierarchical structure: from the basic modular model up to the global network. The proposed model not only shows hierarchically increasing degree distribution and large clustering coefficients in communities, but also exhibits spatial clustering features of individual distributions. As an evaluation of the method, we reconstruct a hierarchical contact network based on the investigation data of a university. Transmission experiments of influenza H1N1 are carried out on the generated social contact networks, and results show that the constructed network is efficient to reproduce the dynamic process of an outbreak and evaluate interventions. The reproduced spread process exhibits that the spatial clustering of infection is accordant with the clustering of network topology. Moreover, the effect of individual topological character on the spread of influenza is analyzed, and the experiment results indicate that the spread is limited by individual daily contact patterns and local clustering topology rather than individual degree.
This action research study explores the career influence of socialnetwork sites (SNSs) by examining 14 web-based articles that consider the risks and opportunities of SNSs from a job search perspective. Three themes are discussed: user visibility, self-presentation, and network connections. Practical strategies are identified to help career…
We study the stability and efficiency of social and economic networks, when self-interested individuals have the discretion to form or sever links. First, in the context of two stylized models, we characterize the sets of stable networkds (immune to incentives to form or sever links) and the sets of efficient networks (those which maximize total production or utility). The sets
Reports findings of intensive, semistructured interviews with 11 confidants to persons with AIDS (PWAs). AIDS has a devastating impact on the social support networks of those most closely involved with PWAs. Numerous changes were observed in the confidants' supportive resources, network structure, and functioning. (Author/FC)
The relationship between technology and elements of the formal organization structure has long been of interest to information systems and organization researchers. A less-studied issue is how technology may also influence the informal socialnetwork structure. This research examines how various types of technological expertise relate to an individual's network centrality in the project teams of 99 MBA, MISM, and
This article reports the results of a socialnetwork analysis (SNA) performed on the mother's primary network of interaction in 15 Mexican American families in the city of El Paso, Texas, the neighbourhood of La Villita, in Chicago, and the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The goal of this study was to examine potential opportunities for Spanish…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how socialnetworks can help to produce the "magic" of extraordinary results for organizations. Design/methodology/approach: In this exploratory study four cases (from published reports) are compared in order to illustrate different management approaches to utilizing the power of networks.…
Although organizational socialnetworks are known to influence career mobility, the specific direction of this influence is different for diverse employee groups. Diversity in organizational network research has been operationalized on various dimensions such as race and ethnicity, age, religion, education, occupation, and gender. Missing in this…
Workers can find a job either directly or through personal contacts. From this micro scenario, we derive an aggregate matching function that has the standard properties but fails to be homogeneous of degree one. We show that, when the network size increases, on average, the unemployed workers hear about more vacancies through their socialnetwork. However, above a certain critical
Socialnetworks of the electronic variety have become thoroughly embedded in contemporary culture. People have woven these networks into their daily routines, using Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, online gaming environments, and other tools to build and maintain complex webs of professional and personal relationships. Chief Information Officers…
Recently, there has been much excitement in the research community over using socialnetworks to mitigate multiple identity, or Sybil, attacks. A number of schemes have been proposed, but they differ greatly in the algorithms they use and in the networks upon which they are evaluated. As a result, the research community lacks a clear understanding of how these schemes
Bimal Viswanath; Ansley Post; Krishna P. Gummadi; Alan Mislove
Socialnetworks are growing in number and size, with hundreds of millions of user accounts among them. One added benefit of these networks is that they allow users to encode more information about their relationships than just stating who they know. In th...
Although an increasingly popular form of online communication and social interaction, socialnetwork sites have to be used with caution by district nurses. In common with all health professionals, the scope of a district nurse's accountability extends to their online presence, and inappropriate remarks or pictures posted online can call into question the fitness to practise of the individual. In this article, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah review your accountability, as it applies to your online presence, and discuss the Nursing and Midwifery Council's new advice to nurses and midwives on acceptable use of socialnetworks. PMID:22067956
Online socialnetworks in general and Facebook, as the biggest network, in particular, became a very attractive platform for many companies in the last couple of years. Most companies are using today traditional push strategies in order to distribute their advertisement messages to the socialnetworkers. These approaches are not very successful as the networkers perceive the socialnetwork space
Understanding electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in socialnetworking sites (SNSs) is crucial as consumers have potential to reach global audiences quickly and easily. This article presents the first cross-cultural study on eWOM in SNSs by examining social relationship variables between the United States and China. Specifically, social capital, tie strength, trust, and interpersonal influence were examined as potential predictors of eWOM
We describe a new stochastic search algorithm for linear regression models called the bounded mode stochastic search (BMSS). We make use of BMSS to perform variable selection and classification as well as to construct sparse dependency networks. Furthermore, we show how to determine genetic networks from genomewide data that involve any combination of continuous and discrete variables. We illustrate our methodology with several real-world data sets.
The rapid emergence and exploding usage of online socialnetworking forums, which are frequented by millions, present clinicians with new ethical and professional challenges. Particularly among a younger generation of physicians and patients, the use of online socialnetworking forums has become widespread. In this article, we discuss ethical challenges facing the patient-doctor relationship as a result of the growing use of online socialnetworking forums. We draw upon one heavily used and highly trafficked forum, Facebook, to illustrate the elements of these online environments and the ethical challenges peculiar to their novel form of exchange. Finally, we present guidelines for clinicians to negotiate responsibly and professionally their possible uses of these social forums. PMID:19717700
Social media have provided plentiful evidence of their capacity for information diffusion. Fads and rumors but also social unrest and riots travel fast and affect large fractions of the population participating in online socialnetworks (OSNs). This has spurred much research regarding the mechanisms that underlie social contagion, and also who (if any) can unleash system-wide information dissemination. Access to real data, both regarding topology--the network of friendships--and dynamics--the actual way in which OSNs users interact, is crucial to decipher how the former facilitates the latter's success, understood as efficiency in information spreading. With the quantitative analysis that stems from complex network theory, we discuss who (and why) has privileged spreading capabilities when it comes to information diffusion. This is done considering the evolution of an episode of political protest which took place in Spain, spanning one month in 2011. PMID:23005178
To what extent do popular socialnetworking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between socialnetworking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on socialnetworking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.
Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human socialnetworks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a ‘Goldilocks’ effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties.
Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.
Background: Socialnetworking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of socialnetworking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Materials and Methods: Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Results: Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. Conclusions: It has implications for developing socialnetworking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.
Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human socialnetworks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a 'Goldilocks' effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079
Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A
Recently, inferring or sharing of mobile contexts has been actively investigated as cell phones have become more than a communication device. However, most of them focused on utilizing the contexts on socialnetwork services, while the means in mining or managing the human network itself were barely considered. In this paper, the SmartPhonebook, which mines users' social connections to manage their relationships by reasoning social and personal contexts, is presented. It works like an artificial assistant which recommends the candidate callees whom the users probably would like to contact in a certain situation. Moreover, it visualizes their social contexts like closeness and relationship with others in order to let the users know their social situations. The proposed method infers the social contexts based on the contact patterns, while it extracts the personal contexts such as the users' emotional states and behaviors from the mobile logs. Here, Bayesian networks are exploited to handle the uncertainties in the mobile environment. The proposed system has been implemented with the MS Windows Mobile 2003 SE Platform on Samsung SPH-M4650 smartphone and has been tested on real-world data. The experimental results showed that the system provides an efficient and informative way for mobile socialnetworking. PMID:21172755
This paper presents a statistical analysis of the structure of peer-to-peer (P2P) socialnetworks that captures social associations of distributed peers in resource sharing. Peer socialnetworks appear to be mainly composed of pure resource providers that guarantee high resource availability and reliability of P2P systems. The major peers that both provide and request resources are only a small fraction. The connectivity between peers, including undirected, directed (out and in) and weighted connections, is scale-free and the socialnetworks of all peers and major peers are small world networks. The analysis also confirms that peer socialnetworks show in general disassortative correlations, except that active providers are connected between each other and by active requesters. The study presented in this paper gives a better understanding of peer relationships in resource sharing, which may help a better design of future P2P networks and open the path to the study of transport processes on top of real P2P topologies. PMID:16605614
Mobile ad hoc socialnetworks are self-configuring socialnetworks that connect users using mobile devices, such as laptops,\\u000a PDAs, and cellular phones. These socialnetworks facilitate users to form virtual communities of similar interests or commonalities.\\u000a This paper proposes semantics-based mobile socialnetwork (SMSN), a novel framework of a fully functional mobile ad hoc social\\u000a network that incorporates semantics of
Social media are increasingly popular. Consequently, marketers more and more recognize socialnetwork sites as a platform for commercial campaigns. Socialnetwork users forward these campaigns to their online connections. However, our understanding of the persuasiveness of these campaigns is scarce. This study takes on the perspective that social context plays an important role in explaining campaign effects, and investigates
Guda van Noort; Marjolijn L. Antheunis; Eva A. van Reijmersdal
Some properties of socialnetworks (e.g., the mixing patterns and the community structure) appear deeply influenced by the individual perception of people. In this work we map behaviors by considering similarity and popularity of people, also assuming that each person has his/her proper perception and interpretation of similarity. Although investigated in different ways (depending on the specific scientific framework), from a computational perspective similarity is typically calculated as a distance measure. In accordance with this view, to represent socialnetwork dynamics we developed an agent-based model on top of a hyperbolic space on which individual distance measures are calculated. Simulations, performed in accordance with the proposed model, generate small-world networks that exhibit a community structure. We deem this model to be valuable for analyzing the relevant properties of real socialnetworks.
Probabilistic networks which provide compact descriptions of complex stochastic relationships among several random variables are rapidly be coming the tool of choice for uncertain reason ing in artificial intelligence We show that net works with fixed structure containing hidden vari ables can be learned automatically from data using a gradient-desce nt mechanism similar to that used in neural networks We
Stuart J. Russell; John Binder; Daphne Koller; Keiji Kanazawa
Asian immigrant women have the lowest utilization of mental health services of any ethnic minority (Garland, Lau, Yeh & McCabe 2005). Because help seeking for distress occurs within socialnetworks, we examined how socialnetworks supported or disabled help seeking for Japanese sojourners living in the US. Unfortunately, most of the literature about Japanese social relationships focuses on men in organizational settings. This study used intensive ethnographic interviewing with 49 Japanese expatriate women to examine how social relationships influenced psychosocial distress and help seeking. We found that the women in these samples engaged in complex, highly regulated, complicated and obligatory relationships through their primary affiliation with other “company wives.” Like many immigrant women, increased traditional cultural norms (referred to in Japanese as ryoosai kenbo, or good wives and wise mothers), were expected from these modern women, and the enactment of these roles was enforced through scrutiny, gossip and the possibility of ostracism. Fears of scrutiny was described by the women as a primary barrier to their self-disclosure and ultimate help seeking. Understanding the social organization and support within the Japanese women's community is central to understanding how culturally specific socialnetworks can both give support, as well as create social constraints to help seeking. Health oriented prevention programs must consider these social factors when evaluating the immigration stressors faced by these families.
Counting entropy of socialnetworks is used to study the dynamic of such networks. It depends on counting the number of cycles in the network, which is an NP problem. In this work we used a polynomial time approximation algorithm to count the number of cycles in an undirected graph that is based on regression and on a statistical mechanics
Studying attention behavior has its social significance because such behavior is considered to lead the evolution of the friendship network. However, this type of behavior in socialnetworks has attracted relatively little attention before, which is mainly because, in reality, such behaviors are always transitory and rarely recorded. In this paper, we collected the attention behaviors as well as the friendship network from Douban database and then carefully studied the attention behaviors in the friendship network as a latent metric space. The revealed similar patterns of attention behavior and friendship suggest that attention behavior may be the pre-stage of friendship to a certain extent, which can be further validated by the fact that pairwise nodes in Douban network connected by attention links beforehand are indeed far more likely to be connected by friendship links in the near future. This phenomenon can also be used to explain the high clustering of many socialnetworks. More interestingly, it seems that attention behaviors are more likely to take place between individuals who have more mutual friends as well as more different friends, which seems a little different from the principles of many link prediction algorithms. Moreover, it is also found that forward attention is preferred to inverse attention, which is quite natural because, usually, an individual must be more interested in others that he is paying attention to than those paying attention to him. All of these findings can be used to guide the design of more appropriate socialnetwork models in the future.
This ongoing project seeks to investigate the impact, inside and outside of class, of instruction focused on developing learner awareness of social-networking site (SNS) use in an American Intensive English Program (IEP). With language socialization as an interpretative framework (Duff, in press; Ochs, 1988; Watson-Gegeo, 2004), the project uses a…
This article examines the relationship between online socialnetworking (OSN) and perceptions of academic and social integration for first-year residential students at a rural regional comprehensive university. Students spent an average of 2.5 hours on OSN websites per day, primarily interacting with campus peers, friends and family. There was…
Transmission of variable bit-rate sources, such as video, over channels with quantized rates is discussed. An optimal scheme for transmission, based on the Viterbi algorithm, is described. A sliding window sub-optimal algorithm is introduced which signifi...
The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.
Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.
Based on the analysis of evolutionary characteristics of public opinion in socialnetworking services (SNS), in the paper we propose a dynamic evolution model, in which opinions are coupled with topology. This model shows the clustering phenomenon of opinions in dynamic network evolution. The simulation results show that the model can fit the data from a socialnetwork site. The dynamic evolution of networks accelerates the opinion, separation and aggregation. The scale and the number of clusters are influenced by confidence limit and rewiring probability. Dynamic changes of the topology reduce the number of isolated nodes, while the increased confidence limit allows nodes to communicate more sufficiently. The two effects make the distribution of opinion more neutral. The dynamic evolution of networks generates central clusters with high connectivity and high betweenness, which make it difficult to control public opinions in SNS.
Intelligence analysts are tasked with making sense of enormous amounts of data and gaining an awareness of a situation that can be acted upon. This process can be extremely difficult and time consuming. Trying to differentiate between important pieces of information and extraneous data only complicates the problem. When dealing with data containing entities and relationships, socialnetwork analysis (SNA) techniques can be employed to make this job easier. Applying network measures to socialnetwork graphs can identify the most significant nodes (entities) and edges (relationships) and help the analyst further focus on key areas of concern. Strange developed a model that identifies high value targets such as centers of gravity and critical vulnerabilities. SNA lends itself to the discovery of these high value targets and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has investigated several network measures such as centrality, betweenness, and grouping to identify centers of gravity and critical vulnerabilities. Using these network measures, a process for the intelligence analyst has been developed to aid analysts in identifying points of tactical emphasis. Organizational Risk Analyzer (ORA) and Terrorist Modus Operandi Discovery System (TMODS) are the two applications used to compute the network measures and identify the points to be acted upon. Therefore, the result of leveraging socialnetwork analysis techniques and applications will provide the analyst and the intelligence community with more focused and concentrated analysis results allowing them to more easily exploit key attributes of a network, thus saving time, money, and manpower.
Network models are widely used to represent relations between interacting units or actors. Network data often exhibit transitivity, meaning that two actors that have ties to a third actor are more likely to be tied than actors that do not, homophily by attributes of the actors or dyads, and clustering. Interest often focuses on finding clusters of actors or ties,
Mark S. Handcock; Adrian E. Raftery; Jeremy M. Tantrum
Summary. Network models are widely used to represent relations between interacting units or actors. Network data often exhibit transitivity, meaning that two actors that have ties to a third actor are more likely to be tied than actors that do not, homophily by attributes of the actors or dyads and clustering. Interest often focuses on finding clusters of actors or
Mark S. Handcock; Adrian E. Raftery; Jeremy M. Tantrum
Diversity is one of the important perspectives to characterize behaviors of individuals in socialnetworks. It is intuitively believed that diversity of social ties accounts for competition advantage and idea innovation. However, quantitative evidences in a real large socialnetwork can be rarely found in the previous research. Thanks to the availability of scientific publication records on WWW; now we can construct a large scientific collaboration network, which provides us a chance to gain insight into the diversity of relationships in a real socialnetwork through statistical analysis. In this article, we dedicate our efforts to perform empirical analysis on a scientific collaboration network extracted from DBLP, an online bibliographic database in computer science, in a systematical way, finding the following: distributions of diversity indices tend to decay in an exponential or Gaussian way; diversity indices are not trivially correlated to existing vertex importance measures; authors of diverse social ties tend to connect to each other and these authors are generally more competitive than others.
Two observations about the cortex have puzzled neuroscientists for a long time. First, neural responses are highly variable. Second, the level of excitation and inhibition received by each neuron is tightly balanced at all times. Here, we demonstrate that both properties are necessary consequences of neural networks that represent information efficiently in their spikes. We illustrate this insight with spiking networks that represent dynamical variables. Our approach is based on two assumptions: We assume that information about dynamical variables can be read out linearly from neural spike trains, and we assume that neurons only fire a spike if that improves the representation of the dynamical variables. Based on these assumptions, we derive a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons that is able to implement arbitrary linear dynamical systems. We show that the membrane voltage of the neurons is equivalent to a prediction error about a common population-level signal. Among other things, our approach allows us to construct an integrator network of spiking neurons that is robust against many perturbations. Most importantly, neural variability in our networks cannot be equated to noise. Despite exhibiting the same single unit properties as widely used population code models (e.g. tuning curves, Poisson distributed spike trains), balanced networks are orders of magnitudes more reliable. Our approach suggests that spikes do matter when considering how the brain computes, and that the reliability of cortical representations could have been strongly underestimated.
Boerlin, Martin; Machens, Christian K.; Deneve, Sophie
The article deals with a case report on the technology transfer of the Lifeline community social alarm system to Slovenia. The main reason the project was initiated is the ageing of the Slovenian population (11% of the population is 65 or over). With this system we intend to support the public's wish to allow the elderly to remain in their own homes for as long as possible instead of placing them in institutional care. Between 1992 and 1995 the following results were achieved: the acceptability of the system in the social environment was increased; a pilot control centre in Ljubljana was established and has been operational for two-and-a-half years; a national dissemination plan was prepared; the integration of the programme into other information systems has been started. One of the main conclusions is that for the successful transfer of a technology which also affects social values in society, a social innovation must support the process. PMID:8997529
We study the synchronization transition of Kuramoto oscillators in scale-free networks that are characterized by tunable local properties. Specifically, we perform a deta iled finite size scaling analysis and inspect how the critical properties of the dynamics change when the clustering coefficient and the average shortest path length are varied. The results show that the onset of synchronizati on does
Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship patterns. Socialnetwork analyses were used to measure a comprehensive representation of adolescents' social environment by covering individual, group, class, and school characteristics. Multilevel models revealed that individual characteristics as well as contextual factors predict adolescents' level of empathy. Findings indicate that empathy is mirrored in the social structure of adolescents supporting the hypothesis that social demands, which continuously grow with the amount of embeddedness, shape their social understanding. PMID:22681757
Socialnetworking sites such as Facebook and MySpace offer new ways of encouraging healthy behavior by leveraging existing social relationships, particularly among young adults. However, spreading information through socialnetworks can be sensitive and problematic when the content relates to stigmatized illnesses. This paper proposes a novel strategy, Veiled Viral Marketing, which uses socialnetworking sites to anonymously disseminate information
Not all social-networking tools are created equal. Knowing where alumni are and what they're doing online is key when deciding what socialnetworks to use. Knowing how to address and employ socialnetworking can change the way institutions engage alumni. Social media help institutions connect with alumni; these tools help build, sustain, and even…
Brings together research in the areas of drug treatment and prevention. Researchers offer a theoretical and methodological alternative to traditional behavior epidemiology based on individual drug users by applying network analysis to the problems of drug...
R. H. Needle R. T. Trotter S. G. Genser S. L. Coyle
The study of frontier capital markets provides a unique opportunity to examine the network-based intersection of human behavior and economics. The individual motivations, information availability, transaction systems, and cultural realities in these marke...
A number of social-ecological systems exhibit complex behaviour associated with nonlinearities, bifurcations, and interaction with stochastic drivers. These systems are often prone to abrupt and unexpected instabilities and state shifts that emerge as a discontinuous response to gradual changes in environmental drivers. Predicting such behaviours is crucial to the prevention of or preparation for unwanted regime shifts. Recent research in ecology has investigated early warning signs that anticipate the divergence of univariate ecosystem dynamics from a stable attractor. To date, leading indicators of instability in systems with multiple interacting components have remained poorly investigated. This is a major limitation in the understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological networks. Here, we develop a theoretical framework to demonstrate that rising variance—measured, for example, by the maximum element of the covariance matrix of the network—is an effective leading indicator of network instability. We show that its reliability and robustness depend more on the sign of the interactions within the network than the network structure or noise intensity. Mutualistic, scale free and small world networks are less stable than their antagonistic or random counterparts but their instability is more reliably predicted by this leading indicator. These results provide new advances in multidimensional early warning analysis and offer a framework to evaluate the resilience of social-ecological networks.
Analyzing the contents of online socialnetworks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online socialnetworks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.
New studies of socialnetworks and their relationship to behavior in insects such as ants and bees represents "a paradigm shift" for biology. The new network theory could change the way scientists understand social group interaction in species ranging from insects to humans.Dr. Jennifer Fewell, of Arizona State University, discussed her research findings at a lecture sponsored by the AAAS Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion on January 22, 2004. Dr. Fewell studies behavioral ecology and evolution in social insects. Dr. Martinez Hewlett of the University of Arizona responded to her lecture, emphasizing what he saw as the dramatic paradigm shift in the current understanding of social behavior that Dr. Fewell's research represents. This resource also includes a summary of the lecture by Rebecca Booker.
While socialnetworks on Web platforms have attracted a lot of interests, including more natural and physical inputs into such systems to enhance human interaction is desirable. Using body-area sensor networks (BSNs) to capture human motions opens up an opportunity toward this goal. These motivate us to design a novel virtual-physical socialnetwork platform 1 with typical socialnetwork functions
Socialnetwork communities facilitate the sharing of identity information in a directed network. Compared with traditional methods for identity information disclosure, such as a campus directory, the socialnetwork community fosters a more subjective and holistic disclosure of identity information. In the following paper, the results of a quantitative analysis of identity information disclosure in socialnetwork communities, as well
Online socialnetworks are popular habitats for many Web users. Research on activity patterns of individual features of online socialnetworking systems is ongoing. Our approach on the study of these patterns is more encompassing than previous efforts. We have created a modern experimental educational online socialnetwork for the purpose of the study of network structures and communication phenomena
Background: Socialnetworks are the context for communication and life participation and are associated with adults' health, well-being, and longevity. Compared to other populations, persons with aphasia have not been included in socialnetwork research in the US.Aims: The study aimed to measure and compare 40 participants' socialnetworks and frequency of contact within networks before and after aphasia. It
It is well established that the variability of the neural activity across trials, as measured by the Fano factor, is elevated. This fact poses limits on information encoding by the neural activity. However, a series of recent neurophysiological experiments have changed this traditional view. Single cell recordings across a variety of species, brain areas, brain states and stimulus conditions demonstrate a remarkable reduction of the neural variability when an external stimulation is applied and when attention is allocated towards a stimulus within a neuron's receptive field, suggesting an enhancement of information encoding. Using an heterogeneously connected neural network model whose dynamics exhibits multiple attractors, we demonstrate here how this variability reduction can arise from a network effect. In the spontaneous state, we show that the high degree of neural variability is mainly due to fluctuation-driven excursions from attractor to attractor. This occurs when, in the parameter space, the network working point is around the bifurcation allowing multistable attractors. The application of an external excitatory drive by stimulation or attention stabilizes one specific attractor, eliminating in this way the transitions between the different attractors and resulting in a net decrease in neural variability over trials. Importantly, non-responsive neurons also exhibit a reduction of variability. Finally, this reduced variability is found to arise from an increased regularity of the neural spike trains. In conclusion, these results suggest that the variability reduction under stimulation and attention is a property of neural circuits. PMID:22479168
\\u000a With the rapid development of Internet, cybercrime by means of Internet become serious. Mining their communication can be\\u000a used to discover some latent criminal activities. Socialnetwork analysis is used for understanding their social communication\\u000a status. But promulgating information on Internet is free. Criminals can hide in any corner by anonymity or forging their personal\\u000a information. Authorship identification methods based
Jianbin Ma; Guifa Teng; Shuhui Chang; Xiaoru Zhang; Ke Xiao
The popularity of online socialnetworks (OSNs) have attracted malware creators who would use OSNs as a platform to propagate automated worms from one user's computer to another's. On the other hand, the topic of malware propagation in OSNs has only been investigated recently. In this chapter, we discuss recent advances on the topic of malware propagation by way of online socialnetworking. In particular, we present three malware propagation techniques in OSNs, namely cross site scripting (XSS), Trojan and clickjacking types, and their characteristics via analytical models and simulations.
Most of the privacy research in online socialnetworks has focused on protecting profile information of users from other users of online socialnetworks. Another equaUy important research area is protection of users profde information from social applications. With the introduction of the Google's OpenSocial and Facebook's Developer Platform millions of third party developers are building thousands of social applications
A classical model for social-influence-driven opinion change is the threshold model. Here we study cascades of opinion change driven by threshold model dynamics in the case where multiple initiators trigger the cascade, and where all nodes possess the same adoption threshold ?. Specifically, using empirical and stylized models of socialnetworks, we study cascade size as a function of the initiator fraction p. We find that even for arbitrarily high value of ?, there exists a critical initiator fraction pc(?) beyond which the cascade becomes global. Network structure, in particular clustering, plays a significant role in this scenario. Similarly to the case of single-node or single-clique initiators studied previously, we observe that community structure within the network facilitates opinion spread to a larger extent than a homogeneous random network. Finally, we study the efficacy of different initiator selection strategies on the size of the cascade and the cascade window.
Singh, P.; Sreenivasan, S.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.
Socialnetworks exhibit scaling laws for several structural characteristics, such as degree distribution, scaling of the attachment kernel and clustering coefficients as a function of node degree. A detailed understanding if and how these scaling laws are inter-related is missing so far, let alone whether they can be understood through a common, dynamical principle. We propose a simple model for stationary network formation and show that the three mentioned scaling relations follow as natural consequences of triadic closure. The validity of the model is tested on multiplex data from a well-studied massive multiplayer online game. We find that the three scaling exponents observed in the multiplex data for the friendship, communication and trading networks can simultaneously be explained by the model. These results suggest that triadic closure could be identified as one of the fundamental dynamical principles in social multiplex network formation.
A classical model for social-influence-driven opinion change is the threshold model. Here we study cascades of opinion change driven by threshold model dynamics in the case where multiple initiators trigger the cascade, and where all nodes possess the same adoption threshold ?. Specifically, using empirical and stylized models of socialnetworks, we study cascade size as a function of the initiator fraction p. We find that even for arbitrarily high value of ?, there exists a critical initiator fraction pc(?) beyond which the cascade becomes global. Network structure, in particular clustering, plays a significant role in this scenario. Similarly to the case of single-node or single-clique initiators studied previously, we observe that community structure within the network facilitates opinion spread to a larger extent than a homogeneous random network. Finally, we study the efficacy of different initiator selection strategies on the size of the cascade and the cascade window.
Singh, P.; Sreenivasan, S.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.
The object of the present study was to examine the interaction of working environment factors and the individual social support network with medical variables related to blood pressure elevations in young (mean AGE = 28 years) hypertensives. The results of path analyses reveal that the medical variables which explained a significant amount of the variation in systolic blood pressure were
Sarah S. Knox; Töres Theorell; Jan Ch. Svensson; Dick Waller
A librarian may be comfortable with the idea of using a blog, wiki, or other social application with students, but other stakeholders in his or her community may not be so sure. Any technology maverick looking to sell the use of Web-based applications will, at some point, have to make the case. This article presents some of the most common…
When making decisions, humans can observe many kinds of information about others' activities, but their effects on performance are not well understood. We investigated social learning strategies using a simple problem-solving task in which participants search a complex space, and each can view and imitate others' solutions. Results…
Wisdom, Thomas N.; Song, Xianfeng; Goldstone, Robert L.
The long-term care of dementia sufferers has been conceptualized as a chronic stressor because of the growing evidence that the stress of caring for such an individual has adverse effects on caregivers, including significant decrements in social/recreational activities, emotional and physical fatigue, and depressive symptomatology. Because of…
Thanks to widely available, cheap Internet access and the ubiquity of smartphones, millions of people around the world now use online location-based socialnetworking services. Understanding the structural properties of these systems and their dependence upon users' habits and mobility has many potential applications, including resource recommendation and link prediction. Here, we construct and characterise social and place-focused graphs by using longitudinal information about declared social relationships and about users' visits to physical places collected from a popular online location-based social service. We show that although the social and place-focused graphs are constructed from the same data set, they have quite different structural properties. We find that the social and location-focused graphs have different global and meso-scale structure, and in particular that social and place-focused communities have negligible overlap. Consequently, group inference based on community detection performed on the social graph alone fails to isolate place-focused groups, even though these do exist in the network. By studying the evolution of tie structure within communities, we show that the time period over which location data are aggregated has a substantial impact on the stability of place-focused communities, and that information about place-based groups may be more useful for user-centric applications than that obtained from the analysis of social communities alone.
\\u000a Online SocialNetworks (OSNs), such as Facebook, Twitter, and Myspace, provide new and interesting ways to communicate, share,\\u000a and meet on the Internet. On the one hand, these features have arguably made many of the OSNs quite popular among the general\\u000a population but the growth of these networks has raised issues and concerns related to trust, privacy and security. On
Henric Johnson; Niklas Lavesson; Haifeng Zhao; Shyhtsun Felix Wu
This paper appears in the Communications of the ACM,vol. 40 no. 3, March, 1997.Numerous studies have shown that one of the most the most effective channelsfor dissemination of information and expertise within an organization is itsinformal network of collaborators, colleagues, and friends (Granovetter 1973;Kraut 1990; Wasserman and Galaskiewicz 1994). Indeed, the socialnetwork1is as least as important as the official
Individuals with autism often violate social rules and have lower accuracy in identifying and explaining inappropriate social behavior. Twelve children with autism (AD) and thirteen children with typical development (TD) participated in this fMRI study of the neurofunctional basis of social judgment. Participants indicated in which of two pictures a boy was being bad (Social condition) or which of two pictures was outdoors (Physical condition). In the within-group Social–Physical comparison, TD children used components of mentalizing and language networks [bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)], whereas AD children used a network that was primarily right IFG and bilateral pSTS, suggesting reduced use of social and language networks during this social judgment task. A direct group comparison on the Social–Physical contrast showed that the TD group had greater mPFC, bilateral IFG, and left superior temporal pole activity than the AD group. No regions were more active in the AD group than in the group with TD in this comparison. Both groups successfully performed the task, which required minimal language. The groups also performed similarly on eyetracking measures, indicating that the activation results probably reflect the use of a more basic strategy by the autism group rather than performance disparities. Even though language was unnecessary, the children with TD recruited language areas during the social task, suggesting automatic encoding of their knowledge into language; however, this was not the case for the children with autism. These findings support behavioral research indicating that, whereas children with autism may recognize socially inappropriate behavior, they have difficulty using spoken language to explain why it is inappropriate. The fMRI results indicate that AD children may not automatically use language to encode their social understanding, making expression and generalization of this knowledge more difficult.
Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lehman, Jill F.
An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media as communication channels. Recent worldwide events, such as social movements in Spain or revolts in the Middle East, highlight their capacity to boost people's coordination. Online networks display in general a rich internal structure where users can choose among different types and intensity of interactions. Despite this, there are still open questions regarding the social value of online interactions. For example, the existence of users with millions of online friends sheds doubts on the relevance of these relations. In this work, we focus on Twitter, one of the most popular online socialnetworks, and find that the network formed by the basic type of connections is organized in groups. The activity of the users conforms to the landscape determined by such groups. Furthermore, Twitter's distinction between different types of interactions allows us to establish a parallelism between online and offline socialnetworks: personal interactions are more likely to occur on internal links to the groups (the weakness of strong ties); events transmitting new information go preferentially through links connecting different groups (the strength of weak ties) or even more through links connecting to users belonging to several groups that act as brokers (the strength of intermediary ties).
Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A.; Ramasco, Jose J.; Moro, Esteban; Pujol, Josep M.; Eguiluz, Victor M.
An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media as communication channels. Recent worldwide events, such as social movements in Spain or revolts in the Middle East, highlight their capacity to boost people's coordination. Online networks display in general a rich internal structure where users can choose among different types and intensity of interactions. Despite this, there are still open questions regarding the social value of online interactions. For example, the existence of users with millions of online friends sheds doubts on the relevance of these relations. In this work, we focus on Twitter, one of the most popular online socialnetworks, and find that the network formed by the basic type of connections is organized in groups. The activity of the users conforms to the landscape determined by such groups. Furthermore, Twitter's distinction between different types of interactions allows us to establish a parallelism between online and offline socialnetworks: personal interactions are more likely to occur on internal links to the groups (the weakness of strong ties); events transmitting new information go preferentially through links connecting different groups (the strength of weak ties) or even more through links connecting to users belonging to several groups that act as brokers (the strength of intermediary ties). PMID:22247773
Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A; Ramasco, José J; Moro, Esteban; Pujol, Josep M; Eguiluz, Victor M
Demographers have argued increasingly that social interaction is an important mechanism for understanding fertility behavior. Yet it is still quite uncertain whether social learning or social influence is the dominant mechanism through which socialnetworks affect individuals' contraceptive decisions. In this paper we argue that these mechanisms can be distinguished by analyzing the density of the socialnetwork and its interaction with the proportion of contraceptive users among network partners. Our analyses indicate that social learning is most relevant with high market activity; in regions with only modest market activity, however, social influence is the dominant means by which socialnetworks affect women's contraceptive use. PMID:11227844
Sociality is believed to have evolved as a strategy for animals to cope with their environments. Yet the genetic basis of sociality remains unclear. Here we provide evidence that socialnetwork tendencies are heritable in a gregarious primate. The tendency for rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, to be tied affiliatively to others via connections mediated by their social partners - analogous to friends of friends in people - demonstrated additive genetic variance. Affiliative tendencies were predicted by genetic variation at two loci involved in serotonergic signalling, although this result did not withstand correction for multiple tests. Aggressive tendencies were also heritable and were related to reproductive output, a fitness proxy. Our findings suggest that, like humans, the skills and temperaments that shape the formation of multi-agent relationships have a genetic basis in nonhuman primates, and, as such, begin to fill the gaps in our understanding of the genetic basis of sociality.
Brent, Lauren J. N.; Heilbronner, Sarah R.; Horvath, Julie E.; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Robinson, Athy G.; Skene, J. H. Pate; Platt, Michael L.
In this study, the authors examined age differences in socialnetwork characteristics (SNC) among Hong Kong Chinese. The sample consisted of 596 Chinese adults, ranging from 18 to 91 years old. Age was positively associated with close social partners and negatively associated with peripheral social partners. For individuals who were more likely to define the self as interconnected with others (i.e., interdependent self-construal), increasing age was associated with a greater number of close social partners. The negative association between age and the number of peripheral social partners, well-documented in the Western literature, was found only among Chinese adults with lower interdependence but not among those with higher interdependence. These findings highlight the importance of examining the underlying mechanism rather than a particular pattern of SNC across cultures. PMID:18361670
Social structure emerges from the patterning of interactions between individuals and plays a critical role in shaping some of the main characteristics of animal populations. The topological features of social structure, such as the extent to which individuals interact in clusters, can influence many biologically important factors, including the persistence of cooperation, and the rate of spread of disease. Yet the extent to which social structure topology fluctuates over relatively short periods of time in relation to social, demographic or environmental events remains unclear. Here, we use socialnetwork analysis to examine seasonal changes in the topology of social structures that emerge from socio-positive associations in adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Behavioral data for two different association types (grooming, spatial proximity) were collected for females in two free-ranging groups during two seasons: the mating and birth seasons. Stronger dyadic bonds resulted in social structures that were more tightly connected (i.e. of greater density) in the mating season compared to the birth season. Social structures were also more centralized around a subset of individuals, and were more clustered in the mating season than the birth season, although the latter differences were mostly driven by differences in density alone. Our results suggest a degree of temporal variation in the topological features of social structure in this population. Such variation may feed back on interactions, hence affecting the behaviors of individuals, and may therefore be important to take into account in studies of animal behavior.
Brent, Lauren J.N.; MacLarnon, Ann.; Platt, Michael L.; Semple, Stuart
Objective To examine the relationship between public health system network density and organizational centrality in public health systems and public health governance, community size, and health status in three public health domains. Data Sources/Study Setting During the fall and the winter of 2007–2008, primary data were collected on the organization and composition of eight rural public health systems. Study Design Multivariate analysis and network graphical tools are used in a case comparative design to examine public health system network density and organizational centrality in the domains of adolescent health, senior health, and preparedness. Differences associated with public health governance (centralized, decentralized), urbanization (micropolitan, noncore), health status, public health domain, and collaboration area are described. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Site visit interviews with key informants from local organizations and a web-based survey administered to local stakeholders. Principal Findings Governance, urbanization, public health domain, and health status are associated with public health system network structures. The centrality of local health departments (LHDs) varies across public health domains and urbanization. Collaboration is greater in assessment, assurance, and advocacy than in seeking funding. Conclusions If public health system organization is causally related to improved health status, studying individual system components such as LHDs will prove insufficient for studying the impact of public health systems.
This paper repeats and confirms the results of a 1976 study, concerning informants' ability to report their communication accurately. A variety of self-monitoring, or nearly self-monitoring, networks are used for this study. The conclusion again appears t...
The development of the socialnetwork and social support assessment method designed by Bizo? is concisely outlined. The final version of the measurement method is described and all its components are presented in the appendix. It consists of the Interview Questionnaire, including Social Support Inventory, the Map of SocialNetwork, the List of SocialNetwork, Table of the data coding and Questionnaire of Demographic Data. The main studies with this instrument are reviewed. They indicate that Bizo?'s method is a helpful diagnostic tool and has some advantages in comparison with similar methods applied in the studies of social support. PMID:11760462
Bizo?, Z; Kokoszka, A; Roszczy?ska, J; Bry?a, L; Wojnar, M
This paper explores the impacts of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic on children and families in northern Tanzania using the concept of social resilience.1 The study is based on the findings of child-focused research with street children and children and families from HIV\\/AIDS-affected households. The paper illustrates the coping strategies that children and young people, and parents and caregivers adopt at the
The co-authorship network of scientists represents a prototype of complex evolving networks. In addition, it offers one of the most extensive database to date on socialnetworks. By mapping the electronic database containing all relevant journals in mathematics and neuro-science for an 8-year period (1991-98), we infer the dynamic and the structural mechanisms that govern the evolution and topology of this complex system. Three complementary approaches allow us to obtain a detailed characterization. First, empirical measurements allow us to uncover the topological measures that characterize the network at a given moment, as well as the time evolution of these quantities. The results indicate that the network is scale-free, and that the network evolution is governed by preferential attachment, affecting both internal and external links. However, in contrast with most model predictions the average degree increases in time, and the node separation decreases. Second, we propose a simple model that captures the network's time evolution. In some limits the model can be solved analytically, predicting a two-regime scaling in agreement with the measurements. Third, numerical simulations are used to uncover the behavior of quantities that could not be predicted analytically. The combined numerical and analytical results underline the important role internal links play in determining the observed scaling behavior and network topology. The results and methodologies developed in the context of the co-authorship network could be useful for a systematic study of other complex evolving networks as well, such as the world wide web, Internet, or other socialnetworks.
Barabási, A. L.; Jeong, H.; Néda, Z.; Ravasz, E.; Schubert, A.; Vicsek, T.
It is widely recognized that social relationships and affiliation have powerful effects on physical and mental health. When investigators write about the impact of social relationships on health, many terms are used loosely and interchangeably including socialnetworks, social ties and social integration. The aim of this paper is to clarify these terms using a single framework. We discuss: (1)
Lisa F. Berkman; Thomas Glass; Ian Brissette; Teresa E. Seeman
This study examined how emotional proximity and gender affect people's information requirements when someone that they know is chronically or critically ill. In an online study, participants were asked what information they would want to receive about members of their socialnetwork in three categories: someone who was very close, someone who was not so close, and someone who was not close at all. Our results show that the information that people want can be predicted from their gender and emotional proximity to the network member. The closer the relationship with the patient, the more information people want. Women want more information than men. We propose a model for the socially intelligent communication of health information across the socialnetwork, and discuss areas for its application. PMID:19887326
Moncur, Wendy; Reiter, Ehud; Masthoff, Judith; Carmichael, Alex
We present a model of network formation where entering nodes find other nodes to link to both completely at random and through search of the neighborhoods of these randomly met nodes. We show that this model exhibits the full spectrum of features that have been found to characterize large socially generated networks. Moreover, we derive the distribution of degree (number
Studying networked learning (NL) by applying socialnetwork analysis (SNA) has gained popularity in recent years. However, it appears that in the context of NL the choice of SNA indices is very often dictated by using easily achievable SNA tools. Most studies in this field only involve a single group of students and utilise simple indices, such as…
Purpose – This paper aims to provide insights into the moral values embodied by a popular socialnetworking site (SNS), Facebook. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study is based upon qualitative fieldwork, involving participant observation, conducted over a two-year period. The authors adopt the position that technology as well as humans has a moral character in order to disclose ethical concerns that
It is well known that online socialnetworking sites (OSNs) such as Facebook pose risks to their users' privacy. OSNs store vast amounts of users' private data and activities and therefore subject the user to the risk of undesired disclosure. The regular non tech-savvy Facebook user either has little awareness of his privacy needs or is not willing or capable
Sascha Fahl; Marian Harbach; Thomas Muders; Matthew Smith
The popularity of socialnetworking websites such as Facebook and the subsequent levels and depth of online disclosures have raised several concerns for user privacy. Previous research into these sites has indicated the importance of disclosures between users as well as an under-utilization of extensive privacy options. This study qualitatively examines college students' disclosure and privacy behaviors and attitudes on
We analyse the corpus of user relationships of the Slash- dot technology news site. The data was collected from the Slashdot Zoo feature where users of the website can tag other users as friends and foes, providing positive and negative en- dorsements. We adapt socialnetwork analysis techniques to the problem of negative edge weights. In particular, we con- sider
Jérôme Kunegis; Andreas Lommatzsch; Christian Bauckhage
Trying to emulate the popularity of Web sites like Facebook and MySpace, hundreds of college alumni associations have begun to offer their own online socialnetworks, seeking to stake a claim on the computer screens of current and former students, especially young alumni. Many of the sites have struggled to attract alumni and to keep them…
Online socialnetworks (OSNs) are immensely popular, with some claiming over 200 million users (10). Users share pri- vate content, such as personal information or photographs, using OSN applications. Users must trust the OSN service to protect personal information even as the OSN provider benets from examining and sharing that information. We present Persona, an OSN where users dictate who
Randolph Baden; Adam Bender; Neil Spring; Bobby Bhattacharjee; Daniel Starin
Most state governments in Australia have banned popular online networking sites from public schools after these sites were accused of supporting a broad host of threats to young people. This paper questions the effectiveness of these bans in light of recent empirical research that highlights the social and educational benefits that can accrue from…
Teenagers will freely give up personal information to join socialnetworks on the Internet. However, a 2007 study by the Pew Internet and American Life project found that most of the 55 percent of teens who place their personal profiles online take steps to protect themselves from the most obvious areas of risk. Parents, teachers, and librarians…