Science.gov

Sample records for social network variables

  1. Social Network Variables in Alcoholics Anonymous: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Groh, D.R.; Jason, L.A.; Keys, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA’s impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  2. Social network.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The Better Care Exchange is a social network for health and social care professionals that enables information and knowledge sharing on good practice and better integrated care, and the implementation of Better Care Fund plans. PMID:26419571

  3. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  4. Connectibles : tangible social networking

    E-print Network

    Kalanithi, Jeevan James

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents "Connectibles," an instantiation of a tangible social network, a new type of social network application rooted in physical objects and real world social behavior. This research is inspired by social ...

  5. Recommendation in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Ester, Martin

    : Recommendation in Social Networks, Tutorial at RecSys 2013 4 Introduction Departed Star Wars Matrix Hurt Locker] · The formation and evolution of social networks is affected by many effects, including ­Self-interest, ­Social

  6. Visualization of Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen

    With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.

  7. Professional social networking.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options. PMID:25308391

  8. "I 'Deserve' Success": Academic Entitlement Attitudes and Their Relationships with Course Self-Efficacy, Social Networking, and Demographic Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in university students' academic entitlement (AE) by demographic group (sex, college class, college generational status) as well as AE's relationship with self-efficacy for college coursework and social networking. It also investigated predictors of AE in first-generation (FG) students and continuing-generation…

  9. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  10. Trust Maximization in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Justin; Fang, Xing

    Trust is a human-related phenomenon in social networks. Trust research on social networks has gained much attention on its usefulness, and on modeling propagations. There is little focus on finding maximum trust in social networks which is particularly important when a social network is oriented by certain tasks. In this paper, we propose a trust maximization algorithm based on the task-oriented social networks.

  11. Social Networks and Health.

    PubMed

    Perdiaris, Christos; Chardalias, Konstantinos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the social networks have been developed into an advanced communications tool, which is important for all people to contact each other. These specific networks do offer lots of options as well as plenty of advantages and disadvantages. The social websites are many in number and titles, such as the facebook, the twitter, the bandoo etc. One of the most important function-mechanisms for the social network websites, are the marketing tools. The future goal is suggested to be the evolution of these programs. The development of these applications, which is going to lead into a new era for the social digital communication between the internet users, all around the globe. PMID:26153011

  12. Online social support networks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish

    2015-04-01

    Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care. PMID:25800079

  13. The Social Network Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunus, Peter

    Online social networking is an important part in the everyday life of college students. Despite the increasing popularity of online social networking among students and faculty members, its educational benefits are largely untested. This paper presents our experience in using social networking applications and video content distribution websites as a complement of traditional classroom education. In particular, the solution has been based on effective adaptation, extension and integration of Facebook, Twitter, Blogger YouTube and iTunes services for delivering educational material to students on mobile platforms like iPods and 3 rd generation mobile phones. The goals of the proposed educational platform, described in this paper, are to make the learning experience more engaging, to encourage collaborative work and knowledge sharing among students, and to provide an interactive platform for the educators to reach students and deliver lecture material in a totally new way.

  14. Critical social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turalska, M.; West, B. J.

    2014-02-01

    Critical social ensembles are generated using a decision making model (DMM) consisting of a master equation, with two-state elements at the nodes of a two-dimensional lattice. The dynamics of the DMM undergo phase transitions to either a consensus state or another state composed of apparently statistically independent individuals as shown in an ensemble of calculations. The critical social ensemble is entailed by the network elements nonlinearly interacting through imperfect social imitation on the backbone of a correlation network. An information entropy measure of the difference between coherent and incoherent configurations in the critical social ensemble is constructed. The entropy indicates a greater probability for the formation of either opposing groups or universal consensus above that of random disagreement.

  15. Social networking and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Gilbert L

    2009-04-01

    Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites. PMID:19492691

  16. Social Network Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, Philip

    2008-05-01

    Social networks are websites (or software that distributes media online) where users can distribute content to either a list of friends on that site or to anyone who surfs onto their page, and where those friends can interact and discuss the content. By linking to friends online, the users’ personal content (pictures, songs, favorite movies, diaries, websites, and so on) is dynamically distributed, and can "become viral", that is, get spread rapidly as more people see it and spread it themselves. Social networks are immensely popular around the planet, especially with younger users. The biggest social networks are Facebook and MySpace; an IYA2009 user already exists on Facebook, and one will be created for MySpace (in fact, several NASA satellites such as GLAST and Swift already have successful MySpace pages). Twitter is another network where data distribution is more limited; it is more like a mini-blog, but is very popular. IYA2009 already has a Twitter page, and will be updated more often with relevant information. In this talk I will review the existing social networks, show people how and why they are useful, and give them the tools they need to contribute meaningfully to IYA's online reach.

  17. Social network and addiction.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Daniele; La Paglia, Filippo; Valsavoia, Rosaria

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, the rapid development of innovative Internet-based communication technologies created a new field of academic study among scholars. Particularly, the attention of researchers is focusing on new ways to form relationship-thought social web. Social Network sites constitute a new form of web communities, where people meet and share interests and activities. Due to exponential growth of these sites, an increasing number of scholars are beginning to study the emergent phenomena in order to identify any psychopathological risk related to use of social web, such as addiction. This article examines the recent literature about this issue. PMID:19592725

  18. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  19. Mining Social Networks for Recommendation

    E-print Network

    Ester, Martin

    Mining Social Networks for Recommendation Mohsen Jamali & Martin Ester Simon Fraser University based Model based Link prediction Distrust Summary Introduction Jamali & Ester: Mining Social Networks based Link prediction Distrust Summary Flood of information · Conventional (industrial / mass) media

  20. Tractable Analysis for Large Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists usually are more interested in consumers' dichotomous choice, such as purchase a product or not, adopt a technology or not, etc. However, up to date, there is nearly no model can help us solve the problem of multi-network effects comparison with a dichotomous dependent variable. Furthermore, the study of multi-network

  1. Call for Papers Social Network and Social Media Analysis

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Call for Papers Social Network and Social Media Analysis: Methods, Models an inflection point in the maturation of social network and social media analysis, USA http://snap.stanford.edu/social2012/ Deadline for submissions: Monday

  2. Collaboration in social networks.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Marsili, Matteo; Pin, Paolo

    2012-03-20

    The very notion of social network implies that linked individuals interact repeatedly with each other. This notion allows them not only to learn successful strategies and adapt to them, but also to condition their own behavior on the behavior of others, in a strategic forward looking manner. Game theory of repeated games shows that these circumstances are conducive to the emergence of collaboration in simple games of two players. We investigate the extension of this concept to the case where players are engaged in a local contribution game and show that rationality and credibility of threats identify a class of Nash equilibria--that we call "collaborative equilibria"--that have a precise interpretation in terms of subgraphs of the social network. For large network games, the number of such equilibria is exponentially large in the number of players. When incentives to defect are small, equilibria are supported by local structures whereas when incentives exceed a threshold they acquire a nonlocal nature, which requires a "critical mass" of more than a given fraction of the players to collaborate. Therefore, when incentives are high, an individual deviation typically causes the collapse of collaboration across the whole system. At the same time, higher incentives to defect typically support equilibria with a higher density of collaborators. The resulting picture conforms with several results in sociology and in the experimental literature on game theory, such as the prevalence of collaboration in denser groups and in the structural hubs of sparse networks. PMID:22383559

  3. Evolution of individual versus social learning on social networks.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of 'cultural models' exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak. PMID:25631568

  4. Applications of Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagam, P. Santhi

    A social network [2] is a description of the social structure between actors, mostly persons, groups or organizations. It indicates the ways in which they are connected with each other by some relationship such as friendship, kinship, finance exchange etc. In a nutshell, when the person uses already known/unknown people to create new contacts, it forms social networking. The social network is not a new concept rather it can be formed when similar people interact with each other directly or indirectly to perform particular task. Examples of social networks include a friendship networks, collaboration networks, co-authorship networks, and co-employees networks which depict the direct interaction among the people. There are also other forms of social networks, such as entertainment networks, business Networks, citation networks, and hyperlink networks, in which interaction among the people is indirect. Generally, social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations and assists in improving interactive knowledge sharing, interoperability and collaboration.

  5. Characteristics of Small Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Richards, Whitman

    2010-07-27

    Two dozen networks are analyzed using three parameters that attempt to capture important properties of social networks: leadership L, member bonding B, and diversity of expertise D. The first two of these parameters have ...

  6. Detecting Communities in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Tsuyoshi

    There are many practical examples of social networks such as friendship networks or co-authorship networks. Detecting dense subnetworks from such networks are important for finding similar people and understanding the structure of factions. This chapter explains the definitions of communities, criteria for evaluating detected communities, methods for community detection, and actual tools for community detection.

  7. Microbial "social networks"

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well understood that distinct communities of bacteria are present at different sites of the body, and that changes in the structure of these communities have strong implications for human health. Yet, challenges remain in understanding the complex interconnections between the bacterial taxa within these microbial communities and how they change during the progression of diseases. Many recent studies attempt to analyze the human microbiome using traditional ecological measures and cataloging differences in bacterial community membership. In this paper, we show how to push metagenomic analyses beyond mundane questions related to the bacterial taxonomic profiles that differentiate one sample from another. Methods We develop tools and techniques that help us to investigate the nature of social interactions in microbial communities, and demonstrate ways of compactly capturing extensive information about these networks and visually conveying them in an effective manner. We define the concept of bacterial "social clubs", which are groups of taxa that tend to appear together in many samples. More importantly, we define the concept of "rival clubs", entire groups that tend to avoid occurring together in many samples. We show how to efficiently compute social clubs and rival clubs and demonstrate their utility with the help of examples including a smokers' dataset and a dataset from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP). Results The tools developed provide a framework for analyzing relationships between bacterial taxa modeled as bacterial co-occurrence networks. The computational techniques also provide a framework for identifying clubs and rival clubs and for studying differences in the microbiomes (and their interactions) of two or more collections of samples. Conclusions Microbial relationships are similar to those found in social networks. In this work, we assume that strong (positive or negative) tendencies to co-occur or co-infect is likely to have biological, physiological, or ecological significance, possibly as a result of cooperation or competition. As a consequence of the analysis, a variety of biological interpretations are conjectured. In the human microbiome context, the pattern of strength of interactions between bacterial taxa is unique to body site. PMID:26576770

  8. Entropy of dynamical social networks

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Kun; Bianconi, Ginestra; 10.1371/journal.pone.0028116

    2012-01-01

    Human dynamical social networks encode information and are highly adaptive. To characterize the information encoded in the fast dynamics of social interactions, here we introduce the entropy of dynamical social networks. By analysing a large dataset of phone-call interactions we show evidence that the dynamical social network has an entropy that depends on the time of the day in a typical week-day. Moreover we show evidence for adaptability of human social behavior showing data on duration of phone-call interactions that significantly deviates from the statistics of duration of face-to-face interactions. This adaptability of behavior corresponds to a different information content of the dynamics of social human interactions. We quantify this information by the use of the entropy of dynamical networks on realistic models of social interactions.

  9. Sensor networks for social networks

    E-print Network

    Farry, Michael P. (Michael Patrick)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis outlines the development of software that makes use of Bayesian belief networks and signal processing techniques to make meaningful inferences about real-world phenomena using data obtained from sensor networks. ...

  10. Social Network Effects on Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Alvin W.; Dean, Linda Whiteford

    This is a report of a study investigating the effects and characteristics of a social network on employment by exploring all kinds of relationships centering on one person, including kinship, friendship, association, and clientship. The study focuses on comparisons of social networks associated with 100 jobs of 31 people who graduated from a…

  11. Social Networking Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Just a few years ago, social networking meant little more to educators than the headache of determining whether to penalize students for inappropriate activities captured on Facebook or MySpace. Now, teachers and students have an array of social-networking sites and tools--from Ning to VoiceThread and Second Life--to draw on for such serious uses…

  12. Quantum social networks

    E-print Network

    Adan Cabello; Lars Eirik Danielsen; Antonio J. Lopez-Tarrida; Jose R. Portillo

    2012-07-15

    We introduce a physical approach to social networks (SNs) in which each actor is characterized by a yes-no test on a physical system. This allows us to consider SNs beyond those originated by interactions based on pre-existing properties, as in a classical SN (CSN). As an example of SNs beyond CSNs, we introduce quantum SNs (QSNs) in which actor is characterized by a test of whether or not the system is in a quantum state. We show that QSNs outperform CSNs for a certain task and some graphs. We identify the simplest of these graphs and show that graphs in which QSNs outperform CSNs are increasingly frequent as the number of vertices increases. We also discuss more general SNs and identify the simplest graphs in which QSNs cannot be outperformed.

  13. Entropy of dynamical social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Marton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-02-01

    Dynamical social networks are evolving rapidly and are highly adaptive. Characterizing the information encoded in social networks is essential to gain insight into the structure, evolution, adaptability and dynamics. Recently entropy measures have been used to quantify the information in email correspondence, static networks and mobility patterns. Nevertheless, we still lack methods to quantify the information encoded in time-varying dynamical social networks. In this talk we present a model to quantify the entropy of dynamical social networks and use this model to analyze the data of phone-call communication. We show evidence that the entropy of the phone-call interaction network changes according to circadian rhythms. Moreover we show that social networks are extremely adaptive and are modified by the use of technologies such as mobile phone communication. Indeed the statistics of duration of phone-call is described by a Weibull distribution and is significantly different from the distribution of duration of face-to-face interactions in a conference. Finally we investigate how much the entropy of dynamical social networks changes in realistic models of phone-call or face-to face interactions characterizing in this way different type human social behavior.

  14. INTERACTING WITH SOCIAL NETWORKS TO IMPROVE HEALTHCARE BODY SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    ElAarag, Hala

    INTERACTING WITH SOCIAL NETWORKS TO IMPROVE HEALTHCARE BODY SENSOR NETWORKS by DAVID BAUSCHLICHER ................................................. 19 Figure 4: Methods of Social Interaction interaction. In this paper, we propose to integrate social networks and BSNs to establish a community

  15. The Possibilities of Network Sociality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Michele

    Technologically networked social forms are broad, extensive and in demand. The rapid development and growth of web 2.0, or the social web, is evidence of the need and indeed hunger for social connectivity: people are searching for many and varied ways of enacting being-together. However, the ways in which we think of, research and write about network(ed) sociality are relatively recent and arguably restricted, warranting further critique and development. This article attempts to do several things: it raises questions about the types of sociality enacted in contemporary techno-society; critically explores the notion of the networked individual and the focus on the individual evident in much of the technology and sociality literature and asks questions about the place of the social in these discussions. It argues for a more well-balanced and multilevelled approach to questions of sociality in networked societies. The article starts from the position that possibilities enabled/afforded by the technologies we have in place have an effect upon the ways in which we understand being in the world together and our possible actions and futures. These possibilities are more than simply supplementary; in many ways they are transformative. The ways in which we grapple with these questions reveals as much about our understandings of sociality as it does about the technologies themselves.

  16. Introduction to Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Ang, Chee Siang

    Social Network analysis focuses on patterns of relations between and among people, organizations, states, etc. It aims to describe networks of relations as fully as possible, identify prominent patterns in such networks, trace the flow of information through them, and discover what effects these relations and networks have on people and organizations. Social network analysis offers a very promising potential for analyzing human-human interactions in online communities (discussion boards, newsgroups, virtual organizations). This Tutorial provides an overview of this analytic technique and demonstrates how it can be used in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research and practice, focusing especially on Computer Mediated Communication (CMC). This topic acquires particular importance these days, with the increasing popularity of social networking websites (e.g., youtube, myspace, MMORPGs etc.) and the research interest in studying them.

  17. Centrality measures in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Michele

    Complex networks represent an extensive variety of systems in nature and human interactions. Networks are graphs that describe the structures of interacting systems and give substantial information about the patterns of connections between the nodes in a particular system. In turn, knowing about the structure of networks and their arrangements enables one to make certain types of predictions about their behavior. With that larger motivation, this thesis research emphasizes different measurement metrics such as degree distribution, assortativity and clustering coefficients, transitivity, modularity, network diameter, and the average path length to associate the configurations of the different networks to determine certain types of behavior. The main focus of this thesis is on social networks, where the assortative patterns of social networks were identified. The various parameters used in the study of the networks were calculated and defined using the software packages Networkx and Gephi. The different types of networks are from the Stanford Network Analysis Project (SNAP) website. In particular, the focus is on using the numerical values of the coefficients to infer differences in the forms of contact in different social networks. The ability to do so has implications for detecting preferences when it comes to the relations between groups of people in social networks. As a result of social networks displaying assortative behaviors, the data indicates that these networks could also project some traits of 'narrow-mindedness' due to the formation of different clusters. Another significant repercussion of this research is the ability of a community to thrive successfully based on the interactions of the people with one another.

  18. A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, James E.; Stradley, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between first-to-second-year retention and social network variables for a cohort of first-year students at a small liberal arts college. The social network is reconstructed using not survey data as is most common, but rather using archival data from a student information system. Each…

  19. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator. PMID:25419259

  20. Online Identities and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  1. Social networking in vehicles

    E-print Network

    Liang, Philip Angus

    2006-01-01

    In-vehicle, location-aware, socially aware telematic systems, known as Flossers, stand to revolutionize vehicles, and how their drivers interact with their physical and social worlds. With Flossers, users can broadcast and ...

  2. An algorithmic approach to social networks

    E-print Network

    Liben-Nowell, David

    2005-01-01

    Social networks consist of a set of individuals and some form of social relationship that ties the individuals together. In this thesis, we use algorithmic techniques to study three aspects of social networks: (1) we analyze ...

  3. Measurement of Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjoka, Mina

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of online social networks (OSN) has risen to unprecedented levels, with the most popular ones having hundreds of millions of users. This success has generated interest within the networking community and has given rise to a number of measurement and characterization studies, which provide a first step towards their…

  4. Topological effects of network structure on long-term social network dynamics in a wild mammal

    PubMed Central

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Booms, Andrew S.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2015-01-01

    Social structure influences ecological processes such as dispersal and invasion, and affects survival and reproductive success. Recent studies have used static snapshots of social networks, thus neglecting their temporal dynamics, and focused primarily on a limited number of variables that might be affecting social structure. Here, instead we modelled effects of multiple predictors of social network dynamics in the spotted hyena, using observational data collected during 20 years of continuous field research in Kenya. We tested the hypothesis that the current state of the social network affects its long-term dynamics. We employed stochastic agent-based models that allowed us to estimate the contribution of multiple factors to network changes. After controlling for environmental and individual effects, we found that network density and individual centrality affected network dynamics, but that social bond transitivity consistently had the strongest effects. Our results emphasise the significance of structural properties of networks in shaping social dynamics. PMID:25975663

  5. Vaccines, Contagion, and Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Ogburn, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Consider the causal effect that one individual's treatment may have on another individual's outcome when the outcome is contagious, with specific application to the effect of vaccination on an infectious disease outcome. The effect of one individual's vaccination on another's outcome can be decomposed into two different causal effects, called the "infectiousness" and "contagion" effects. We present identifying assumptions and estimation or testing procedures for infectiousness and contagion effects in two different settings: (1) using data sampled from independent groups of observations, and (2) using data collected from a single interdependent social network. The methods that we propose for social network data require fitting generalized linear models (GLMs). GLMs and other statistical models that require independence across subjects have been used widely to estimate causal effects in social network data, but, because the subjects in networks are presumably not independent, the use of such models is generall...

  6. Interactive Sensing in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthy, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents models and algorithms for interactive sensing in social networks where individuals act as sensors and the information exchange between individuals is exploited to optimize sensing. Social learning is used to model the interaction between individuals that aim to estimate an underlying state of nature. In this context the following questions are addressed: How can self-interested agents that interact via social learning achieve a tradeoff between individual privacy and reputation of the social group? How can protocols be designed to prevent data incest in online reputation blogs where individuals make recommendations? How can sensing by individuals that interact with each other be used by a global decision maker to detect changes in the underlying state of nature? When individual agents possess limited sensing, computation and communication capabilities, can a network of agents achieve sophisticated global behavior? Social and game theoretic learning are natural settings for addressing these...

  7. Social capital, self-esteem, and use of online social network sites: A longitudinal analysis

    E-print Network

    Steinfield, Charles

    Social capital, self-esteem, and use of online social network sites: A longitudinal analysis controlling for measures of self-esteem and satisfaction with life. These latter psychological variables were also strongly associated with social capital outcomes. Self- esteem served to moderate the relationship

  8. Rumor evolution in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Zhou, Shi; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2013-03-01

    The social network is a main tunnel of rumor spreading. Previous studies concentrated on a static rumor spreading. The content of the rumor is invariable during the whole spreading process. Indeed, the rumor evolves constantly in its spreading process, which grows shorter, more concise, more easily grasped, and told. In an early psychological experiment, researchers found about 70% of details in a rumor were lost in the first six mouth-to-mouth transmissions. Based on these observations, we investigate rumor spreading on social networks, where the content of the rumor is modified by the individuals with a certain probability. In the scenario, they have two choices, to forward or to modify. As a forwarder, an individual disseminates the rumor directly to their neighbors. As a modifier, conversely, an individual revises the rumor before spreading it out. When the rumor spreads on the social networks, for instance, scale-free networks and small-world networks, the majority of individuals actually are infected by the multirevised version of the rumor, if the modifiers dominate the networks. The individuals with more social connections have a higher probability to receive the original rumor. Our observation indicates that the original rumor may lose its influence in the spreading process. Similarly, a true information may turn out to be a rumor as well. Our result suggests the rumor evolution should not be a negligible question, which may provide a better understanding of the generation and destruction of a rumor.

  9. Social networks and the Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo

    Social networks and the Semantic Web Peter Mika Business Informatics group Dept. of Computer technology for the social sciences Social network mining from the Web Semantics-based data management Browsing and visualization Case study Network Analysis of Semantic Web research 2. Network Analysis

  10. Role Identification of Social Networkers

    E-print Network

    Zygmunt, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A social network consists of a set of actors and a set of relationships between them which describe certain patterns of communication. Most current networks are huge and difficult to analyze and visualize. One of the methods frequently used is to extract the most important features, namely to create a certain abstraction, that is the transformation of a large network to a much smaller one, so the latter is a useful summary of the original one, still keeping the most important characteristics. In the case of a social network it can be achieved in two ways. One is to find groups of actors and present only them and relationships between them. The other is to find actors who play similar roles and to construct a smaller network in which the connection between the actors would be replaced with connections between the roles. Classifying actors by the roles they are playing in the network can help to understand 'who is who' in a social network. This classification can be very useful, because it gives us a comprehens...

  11. Interests Diffusion in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Understanding cultural phenomena on Social Networks (SNs) and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a p...

  12. Emotional intelligence, personality, social networks, and social perception 

    E-print Network

    DeBusk, Kendra Portia Adrienne Howard

    -being, such as social network quality. In order to examine how EI related to social networks, both trait and ability EI were measured along with the Big Five factors of personality and social network quality and size. A study of 268 participants investigated...

  13. Masculinity, Educational Achievement and Social Status: A Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusher, Dean

    2011-01-01

    This study utilises a quantitative case study social network approach to explore the connection between masculinity and scholastic achievement in two secondary, all-boys schools in Australia. In both schools two social networks representing social status are explored: the "friendship" network as a measure of status that includes emotional…

  14. Skeleton of weighted social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhu, J.

    2013-03-01

    In the literature of social networks, understanding topological structure is an important scientific issue. In this paper, we construct a network from mobile phone call records and use the cumulative number of calls as a measure of the weight of a social tie. We extract skeletons from the weighted social network on the basis of the weights of ties, and we study their properties. We find that strong ties can support the skeleton in the network by studying the percolation characters. We explore the centrality of w-skeletons based on the correlation between some centrality measures and the skeleton index w of a vertex, and we find that the average centrality of a w-skeleton increases as w increases. We also study the cumulative degree distribution of the successive w-skeletons and find that as w increases, the w-skeleton tends to become more self-similar. Furthermore, fractal characteristics appear in higher w-skeletons. We also explore the global information diffusion efficiency of w-skeletons using simulations, from which we can see that the ties in the high w-skeletons play important roles in information diffusion. Identifying such a simple structure of a w-skeleton is a step forward toward understanding and representing the topological structure of weighted social networks.

  15. Online Social Network Sites and the Concept of Social Capital

    E-print Network

    Steinfield, Charles

    Online Social Network Sites and the Concept of Social Capital Charles Steinfield, Nicole of online social network sites has grown dramatically, now rivaling search engines as the most visited boasts more than 400 million active users around the world (Facebook Press Room, 2010), online social

  16. Topological evolution of virtual social networks by modeling social activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin; Dong, Junyu; Tang, Ruichun; Xu, Mantao; Qi, Lin; Cai, Yang

    2015-09-01

    With the development of Internet and wireless communication, virtual social networks are becoming increasingly important in the formation of nowadays' social communities. Topological evolution model is foundational and critical for social network related researches. Up to present most of the related research experiments are carried out on artificial networks, however, a study of incorporating the actual social activities into the network topology model is ignored. This paper first formalizes two mathematical abstract concepts of hobbies search and friend recommendation to model the social actions people exhibit. Then a social activities based topology evolution simulation model is developed to satisfy some well-known properties that have been discovered in real-world social networks. Empirical results show that the proposed topology evolution model has embraced several key network topological properties of concern, which can be envisioned as signatures of real social networks.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF A VARIABLE STRUCTURE NEURAL NETWORK

    E-print Network

    1 IMPLEMENTATION OF A VARIABLE STRUCTURE NEURAL NETWORK Billie Yevonne Pearce Certificate IMPLEMENTATION OF A VARIABLE STRUCTURE NEURAL NETWORK Billie Yevonne Pearce A Project Submitted to the Computer STRUCTURE NEURAL NETWORK Billie Yevonne Pearce Master of Software Engineering, May 12, 2001 (B.S. Computer

  18. Social networking profile correlates of schizotypy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Bailey, Drew H.; Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites, such as Facebook, are extremely popular and have become a primary method for socialization and communication. Despite a report of increased use among those on the schizophrenia-spectrum, few details are known about their actual practices. In the current research, undergraduate participants completed measures of schizotypy and personality, and provided access to their Facebook profiles. Information from the profiles were then systematically coded and compared to the questionnaire data. As predicted, social anhedonia (SocAnh) was associated with a decrease in social participation variables, including a decrease in number of friends and number of photos, and an increase in length of time since communication with a friend, but SocAnh was also associated with an increase in profile length. Also, SocAnh was highly correlated with extraversion. Relatedly, extraversion uniquely predicted the number of friends and photos and length of time since communication with a friend. In addition, perceptual aberration/magical ideation (PerMag) was associated with an increased number of “black outs” on Facebook profile print-outs, a measure of paranoia. Overall, results from this naturalistic-like study show that SocAnh and extraversion are associated with decreased social participation and PerMag with increased paranoia related to information on social networking sites. PMID:22796101

  19. Social networking profile correlates of schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth A; Bailey, Drew H; Cicero, David C; Kerns, John G

    2012-12-30

    Social networking sites, such as Facebook, are extremely popular and have become a primary method for socialization and communication. Despite a report of increased use among those on the schizophrenia-spectrum, few details are known about their actual practices. In the current research, undergraduate participants completed measures of schizotypy and personality, and provided access to their Facebook profiles. Information from the profiles were then systematically coded and compared to the questionnaire data. As predicted, social anhedonia (SocAnh) was associated with a decrease in social participation variables, including a decrease in number of friends and number of photos, and an increase in length of time since communication with a friend, but SocAnh was also associated with an increase in profile length. Also, SocAnh was highly correlated with extraversion. Relatedly, extraversion uniquely predicted the number of friends and photos and length of time since communication with a friend. In addition, perceptual aberration/magical ideation (PerMag) was associated with an increased number of "black outs" on Facebook profile print-outs, a measure of paranoia. Overall, results from this naturalistic-like study show that SocAnh and extraversion are associated with decreased social participation and PerMag with increased paranoia related to information on social networking sites. PMID:22796101

  20. Navigating Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, DeAnna; Bartlett, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors note that when it comes to balancing free speech and schools' responsibilities, the online world is largely uncharted waters. Questions remain about the rights of both students and teachers in the world of social media. Although the lower courts have ruled that students' freedom of speech rights offer them some protection for…

  1. Social Network, Social Support, and Risk of Incident Stroke: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Lutsey, Pamela L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease, however epidemiologic evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke, and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. Methods The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study measured social network and social support in 13,686 men and women (mean, 57±5.7 years, 56% female, 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale, and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form (ISEL-SF). Results Over a median follow-up of 18.6-years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke [HR (95% CI): 1.44 (1.02–2.04)] after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables and marital status, behavioral risk factors and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. Conclusions In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. PMID:25139878

  2. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers' efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users' locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  3. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers’ efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users’ locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  4. Mining Social Networks for Personalized Email Prioritization

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Robert F.

    Mining Social Networks for Personalized Email Prioritization Shinjae Yoo§ , Yiming Yang§ , Frank]: Pattern Recognition--Applications General Terms Algorithms, Experimentation, Security, Human Factors, and Languages. Keywords Email Prioritization, Social Network, and Text Mining. 1. INTRODUCTION Email is one

  5. Activity based interfaces in online social networks

    E-print Network

    Laraqui, Jawad

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the project is to explore how activity-based interfaces can create more meaningful experiences for the users and builders of online social networking sites. Medina, a social-networking site based on the idea ...

  6. Social Networking: It's Not What You Think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the current uses of the social networking sites available on the internet. It list some of the skills that are now considered obsolete and reviews the major social networking sites.

  7. Social Networking: Keeping It Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

  8. Privacy and Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Dianne M.; Duven, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    College students are relying on the Internet to make connections with other people every day. As the Internet has developed and grown, so have the capabilities for interaction. Social networking sites, a group of Web sites that provide people with the opportunity to create an online profile and to share that profile with others, are a part of…

  9. Social structure of Facebook networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traud, Amanda L.; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason A.

    2012-08-01

    We study the social structure of Facebook “friendship” networks at one hundred American colleges and universities at a single point in time, and we examine the roles of user attributes-gender, class year, major, high school, and residence-at these institutions. We investigate the influence of common attributes at the dyad level in terms of assortativity coefficients and regression models. We then examine larger-scale groupings by detecting communities algorithmically and comparing them to network partitions based on user characteristics. We thereby examine the relative importance of different characteristics at different institutions, finding for example that common high school is more important to the social organization of large institutions and that the importance of common major varies significantly between institutions. Our calculations illustrate how microscopic and macroscopic perspectives give complementary insights on the social organization at universities and suggest future studies to investigate such phenomena further.

  10. Collaboration in the School Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz-Jones, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Social networks are fundamental to all people. Their social network describes how they are connected to others: close relationships, peripheral relationships, and those relationships that help connect them to other people, events, or things. As information specialists, school librarians develop a multidimensional social network that enables them…

  11. Organizational Application of Social Networking Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppert, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative research study using the Delphi method is to provide a framework for leaders to develop their own social networks. By exploring concerns in four areas, leaders may be able to better plan, implement, and manage social networking systems in organizations. The areas addressed are: (a) social networking using…

  12. Social networks and research output

    E-print Network

    Ductor, Lorenzo; Fafchamps, Marcel; Goyal, Sanjeev; van der Leij, Marco J.

    2013-11-12

    variables predict their future productivity. We find that the predictive value of network variables is non-monotonic with respect to past productivity. Net- work variables do not predict the future productivity of individuals with below average initial... 50 ,y75, log of log, Poisson, Non-negative Binomial, Zero inflated Non-Negative Binomial and Tobit. In terms of out-of-sample RMSE, the specification that provides the best forecast is ln(x+ 1), which is the one we report here. See the online appendix...

  13. Graph pattern matching on social network analysis 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xin

    2013-11-28

    Graph pattern matching is fundamental to social network analysis. Its effectiveness for identifying social communities and social positions, making recommendations and so on has been repeatedly demonstrated. However, the ...

  14. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-02-21

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations. PMID:24561513

  15. Interests diffusion in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  16. Social Butterfly: Social Caches for Distributed Social Networks Lu Han, Badri Nath, Liviu Iftode, S. Muthukrishnan

    E-print Network

    Iftode, Liviu

    Social Butterfly: Social Caches for Distributed Social Networks Lu Han, Badri Nath, Liviu Iftode, S, muthu}@cs.rutgers.edu Abstract--A distributed architecture for implementing online social networks (OSNs) can overcome several disadvantages of the now popular centralized online social networks

  17. Social Software: Participants' Experience Using Social Networking for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, Cecil W.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking tools used in learning provides instructional design with tools for transformative change in education. This study focused on defining the meanings and essences of social networking through the lived common experiences of 7 college students. The problem of the study was a lack of learner voice in understanding the value of social

  18. Statistical Properties of Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlohon, Mary; Akoglu, Leman; Faloutsos, Christos

    In this chapter we describe patterns that occur in the structure of social networks, represented as graphs. We describe two main classes of properties, static properties, or properties describing the structure of snapshots of graphs; and dynamic properties, properties describing how the structure evolves over time. These properties may be for unweighted or weighted graphs, where weights may represent multi-edges (e.g. multiple phone calls from one person to another), or edge weights (e.g. monetary amounts between a donor and a recipient in a political donation network).

  19. An Anonymous Social Network of Opinions

    E-print Network

    Haralabopoulos, Giannis

    2015-01-01

    Research interest on Online Social Networks, has increased dramatically over the last decade, mainly because online networks provide a vast source of social information. Graph structure, user connections, growth, information exposure and diffusion of online social networks, are some of the most frequently researched subjects. However, some areas of these networks are overlooked or even unconsidered, such as anonymity, equality and bias. In the limited bibliography available, such features seem to be influential to social interactions. Based on an extensive thinking of these studies, we aim to determine how universal anonymity affects: bias, user equality, information propagation, sharing and exposure, connection establishment and network structure. Thus we propose a new Anonymous Online Social Network, which will facilitate every type of monitoring and data analysis. A network that will provide an insight to our scientific pursues, which would be impossible to research in traditional Online Social Networks.

  20. Will Learning Social Inclusion Assist Rural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Current research on social networks in some rural communities reports continuing demise despite efforts to build resilient communities. Several factors are identified as contributing to social decline including globalisation and rural social characteristics. Particular rural social characteristics, such as strong social bonds among members of…

  1. Contact networks in a wild Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) population: using social network analysis to reveal seasonal variability in social behaviour and its implications for transmission of devil facial tumour disease.

    PubMed

    Hamede, Rodrigo K; Bashford, Jim; McCallum, Hamish; Jones, Menna

    2009-11-01

    The structure of the contact network between individuals has a profound effect on the transmission of infectious disease. Using a novel technology--proximity sensing radio collars--we described the contact network in a population of Tasmanian devils. This largest surviving marsupial carnivore is threatened by a novel infectious cancer. All devils were connected in a single giant component, which would permit disease to spread throughout the network from any single infected individual. Unlike the contact networks for many human diseases, the degree distribution was not highly aggregated. Nevertheless, the empirically derived networks differed from random networks. Contact networks differed between the mating and non-mating seasons, with more extended male-female associations in the mating season and a greater frequency of female-female associations outside the mating season. Our results suggest that there is limited potential to control the disease by targeting highly connected age or sex classes. PMID:19694783

  2. Social Insects: A Model System for Network Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Daniel; Blonder, Benjamin; Dornhaus, Anna

    Social insect colonies (ants, bees, wasps, and termites) show sophisticated collective problem-solving in the face of variable constraints. Individuals exchange information and materials such as food. The resulting network structure and dynamics can inform us about the mechanisms by which the insects achieve particular collective behaviors and these can be transposed to man-made and social networks. We discuss how network analysis can answer important questions about social insects, such as how effective task allocation or information flow is realized. We put forward the idea that network analysis methods are under-utilized in social insect research, and that they can provide novel ways to view the complexity of collective behavior, particularly if network dynamics are taken into account. To illustrate this, we present an example of network tasks performed by ant workers, linked by instances of workers switching from one task to another. We show how temporal network analysis can propose and test new hypotheses on mechanisms of task allocation, and how adding temporal elements to static networks can drastically change results. We discuss the benefits of using social insects as models for complex systems in general. There are multiple opportunities emergent technologies and analysis methods in facilitating research on social insect network. The potential for interdisciplinary work could significantly advance diverse fields such as behavioral ecology, computer sciences, and engineering.

  3. Improved community model for social networks based on social mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Zhen; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an improved community model for social networks based on social mobility. The relationship between the group distribution and the community size is investigated in terms of communication rate and turnover rate. The degree distributions, clustering coefficients, average distances and diameters of networks are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses the small-world property and can reproduce social networks effectively and efficiently.

  4. Social Network Theory and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Alan J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Social Network Theory and Educational Change" offers a provocative and fascinating exploration of how social networks in schools can impede or facilitate the work of education reform. Drawing on the work of leading scholars, the book comprises a series of studies examining networks among teachers and school leaders, contrasting formal and…

  5. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  6. THE COHESIVENESS OF BLOCKS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    7 THE COHESIVENESS OF BLOCKS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS: NODE CONNECTIVITY AND CONDITIONAL DENSITY Douglas patterns of network ties into substantive hypotheses about social cohesion. If network cohesion is enhanced cohesion. The cohesiveness of a group is also measured by the extent to which it is not disconnected

  7. Bayesian Networks for Social Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Paul; White, Amanda; Walsh, Stephen; Dalton, Angela; Brothers, Alan

    This paper describes a body of work developed over the past five years. The work addresses the use of Bayesian network (BN) models for representing and predicting social/organizational behaviors. The topics covered include model construction, validation, and use. These topics show the bulk of the lifetime of such model, beginning with construction, moving to validation and other aspects of model "critiquing", and finally demonstrating how the modeling approach might be used to inform policy analysis. The primary benefits of using a well-developed computational, mathematical, and statistical modeling structure, such as BN, are 1) there are significant computational, theoretical and capability bases on which to build 2) the ability to empirically critique the model, and potentially evaluate competing models for a social/behavioral phenomenon.

  8. Detecting social transmission in networks.

    PubMed

    Hoppitt, William; Boogert, Neeltje J; Laland, Kevin N

    2010-04-21

    In recent years researchers have drawn attention to a need for new methods with which to identify the spread of behavioural innovations through social transmission in animal populations. Network-based analyses seek to recognise diffusions mediated by social learning by detecting a correspondence between patterns of association and the flow of information through groups. Here we introduce a new order of acquisition diffusion analysis (OADA) and develop established time of acquisition diffusion analysis (TADA) methods further. Through simulation we compare the merits of these and other approaches, demonstrating that OADA and TADA have greater power and lower Type I error rates than available alternatives, and specifying when each approach should be deployed. We illustrate the new methods by applying them to reanalyse an established dataset corresponding to the diffusion of foraging innovations in starlings, where OADA and TADA detect social transmission that hitherto had been missed. The methods are potentially widely applicable by researchers wishing to detect social learning in natural and captive populations of animals, and to facilitate this we provide code to implement OADA and TADA in the statistical package R. PMID:20064530

  9. Opinion Dynamics and Learning in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2012-08-30

    We provide an overview of recent research on belief and opinion dynamics in social networks. We discuss both Bayesian and non-Bayesian models of social learning and focus on the implications of the form of learning (e.g., ...

  10. The Social Side of Information Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the social issues, including manners, security, crime (fraud), and social control associated with information networking, with emphasis on the Internet. Also addresses the influence of cellular phones, the Internet and other information technologies on society. (GR)

  11. Discovering Mobile Social Networks by Semantic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jason J.; Choi, Kwang Sun; Park, Sung Hyuk

    It has been important for telecommunication companies to discover social networks from mobile subscribers. They have attempted to provide a number of recommendation services, but they realized that the services were not successful. In this chapter, we present semantic technologies for discovering social networks. The process is mainly composed of two steps; (1) profile identification and (2) context understanding. Through developing a Next generation Contents dElivery (NICE) platform, we were able to generate various services based on the discovered social networks.

  12. NetworkingOpportunitiesthroughSocial Media Judy James,

    E-print Network

    Privacy Vunerability · Its for kids · Identity theft · distracton ProfessionalNetworkingthrough SocialMediaNetworkingOpportunitiesthroughSocial Media Judy James, Employee Career Services jjames@uga.edu, 706 presence on social media · What social media do you use? · What would you like to do professionally

  13. Going Social: The Impact of Social Networking in Promoting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Neelesh Kumar; Verma, Ashish; Verma, Rama Shankar; Tiwari, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    The growth and the popularity of the Social networks has a high impact on the development of the students in the field of Personality, Attitudes, Knowledge and on its whole academic performance in classroom and society. This paper envisage on the impact of Social Network on Education and Training of the students.

  14. Essays on social networks in development economics

    E-print Network

    Chandrasekhar, Arun Gautham

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the role that social networks play in developing economies. The first two chapters analyze econometric issues that arise when researchers work with sampled network data. The final two chapters study ...

  15. First-Year Students' Use of Social Network Sites to Reduce the Uncertainty of Anticipatory Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Isolde K.; Lerstrom, Alan; Tintle, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This study surveyed 399 incoming first-year students at two colleges in the Midwest on their use of social network sites before college entry and its impact on various dimensions of the first-year experience. Significant correlations were found for two pairs of variables: (a) students who used social network sites before arriving on campus…

  16. One Health in social networks and social media

    PubMed Central

    Mekaru, S.R.; Brownstein, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media’s strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting, the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message. PMID:25707189

  17. Neighbor Query Friendly Compression of Social Networks Hossein Maserrat

    E-print Network

    Pei, Jian

    substantially facilitate mining and advanced analysis of large social networks. Preferably, social networks, facilitated by World Wide Web, more and more online social networks have been formed on the Web and analyzing large social networks. Compressing social networks can substantially facilitate mining

  18. Estimating the size of online social networks 1 Estimating the Size of Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Estimating the size of online social networks 1 Estimating the Size of Online Social Networks Davis, CA 95616, USA Email: wu@cs.ucdavis.edu Abstract: The huge size of online social networks (OSNs the estimator. In our experiments it is 70 times faster than the naive linear probing algorithm. The second

  19. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na

    2014-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs. PMID:24102569

  20. Evolving spiking networks with variable resistive memories.

    PubMed

    Howard, Gerard; Bull, Larry; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Gale, Ella; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Neuromorphic computing is a brainlike information processing paradigm that requires adaptive learning mechanisms. A spiking neuro-evolutionary system is used for this purpose; plastic resistive memories are implemented as synapses in spiking neural networks. The evolutionary design process exploits parameter self-adaptation and allows the topology and synaptic weights to be evolved for each network in an autonomous manner. Variable resistive memories are the focus of this research; each synapse has its own conductance profile which modifies the plastic behaviour of the device and may be altered during evolution. These variable resistive networks are evaluated on a noisy robotic dynamic-reward scenario against two static resistive memories and a system containing standard connections only. The results indicate that the extra behavioural degrees of freedom available to the networks incorporating variable resistive memories enable them to outperform the comparative synapse types. PMID:23614774

  1. Online Games, Virtual Worlds, and Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    JOUR 447: Online Games, Virtual Worlds, and Social Networks Virtual Island Making #12;One element how to use the game engine, Unity3D. Following the same instructions, each student creatively designed in the look and design of the virtual islands. JOUR 447: Online Games, Virtual Worlds, and Social Networks

  2. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  3. Entrepreneurial Idea Identification through Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of social network websites may signal a change in the way the next generation of entrepreneurs identify entrepreneurial ideas. An important part of the entrepreneurship literature emphasizes how vital the use of social networks is to entrepreneurial idea identification, opportunity recognition, and ultimately new venture…

  4. The complex structure of huntergatherer social networks

    E-print Network

    Brown, James H.

    The complex structure of hunter­gatherer social networks Marcus J. Hamilton1,*, Bruce T. Milne2 hunter-gatherer societies show similar structural properties. We use fractal network theory to analyse the statistical structure of 1189 social groups in 339 hunter-gatherer societies from a published compilation

  5. Vizster: Visualizing Online Social Networks Jeffrey Heer

    E-print Network

    Agrawala, Maneesh

    , and online dating services. In 2003, another form of online community acquired stunning popularity: onlineVizster: Visualizing Online Social Networks Jeffrey Heer Computer Science Division University, Berkeley ABSTRACT Recent years have witnessed the dramatic popularity of online social networking services

  6. Changes in Social Networks Following Marital Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rands, Marylyn

    Divorce changes not only the spousal relationship, but other associations as well. To study the changes in the social networks of recently divorced individuals, 40 adults (20 males, 20 females) participated in structured interviews. During the interview, data were collected on respondents' social networks and on their psychological well-being…

  7. Enhancing Classroom Effectiveness through Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurthakoti, Raghu; Boostrom, Robert E., Jr.; Summey, John H.; Campbell, David A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of social networking Web sites such as Ning.com as a communication tool in marketing courses, a study was designed with special concern for social network use in comparison to Blackboard. Students from multiple marketing courses were surveyed. Assessments of Ning.com and Blackboard were performed both to understand how…

  8. Models of social networks based on social distance attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguñá, Marián; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Arenas, Alex

    2004-11-01

    We propose a class of models of social network formation based on a mathematical abstraction of the concept of social distance. Social distance attachment is represented by the tendency of peers to establish acquaintances via a decreasing function of the relative distance in a representative social space. We derive analytical results (corroborated by extensive numerical simulations), showing that the model reproduces the main statistical characteristics of real social networks: large clustering coefficient, positive degree correlations, and the emergence of a hierarchy of communities. The model is confronted with the social network formed by people that shares confidential information using the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption algorithm, the so-called web of trust of PGP.

  9. Dynamics of deceptive interactions in social networks

    E-print Network

    Barrio, Rafael A; Dunbar, Robin; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kaski, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of lies in human social relations by implementing some salient characteristics of deceptive interactions into an opinion formation model, so as to describe the dynamical behaviour of a social network more realistically. In this model we take into account such basic properties of social networks as the dynamics of the intensity of interactions, the influence of public opinion, and the fact that in every human interaction it might be convenient to deceive or withhold information depending on the instantaneous situation of each individual in the network. We find that lies shape the topology of social networks, especially the formation of tightly linked, small communities with loose connections between them. We also find that agents with a larger proportion of deceptive interactions are the ones that connect communities of different opinion, and in this sense they have substantial centrality in the network. We then discuss the consequences of these results for the social behaviou...

  10. Happiness is assortative in online social networks

    E-print Network

    Bollen, Johan; Ruan, Guangchen; Mao, Huina

    2011-01-01

    Social networks tend to disproportionally favor connections between individuals with either similar or dissimilar characteristics. This propensity, referred to as assortative mixing or homophily, is expressed as the correlation between attribute values of nearest neighbour vertices in a graph. Recent results indicate that beyond demographic features such as age, sex and race, even psychological states such as "loneliness" can be assortative in a social network. In spite of the increasing societal importance of online social networks it is unknown whether assortative mixing of psychological states takes place in situations where social ties are mediated solely by online networking services in the absence of physical contact. Here, we show that general happiness or Subjective Well-Being (SWB) of Twitter users, as measured from a 6 month record of their individual tweets, is indeed assortative across the Twitter social network. To our knowledge this is the first result that shows assortative mixing in online net...

  11. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  12. Narcissism and social networking Web sites.

    PubMed

    Buffardi, Laura E; Campbell, W Keith

    2008-10-01

    The present research examined how narcissism is manifested on a social networking Web site (i.e., Facebook.com). Narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from social networking Web page owners. Then their Web pages were coded for both objective and subjective content features. Finally, strangers viewed the Web pages and rated their impression of the owner on agentic traits, communal traits, and narcissism. Narcissism predicted (a) higher levels of social activity in the online community and (b) more self-promoting content in several aspects of the social networking Web pages. Strangers who viewed the Web pages judged more narcissistic Web page owners to be more narcissistic. Finally, mediational analyses revealed several Web page content features that were influential in raters' narcissistic impressions of the owners, including quantity of social interaction, main photo self-promotion, and main photo attractiveness. Implications of the expression of narcissism in social networking communities are discussed. PMID:18599659

  13. Information filtering on coupled social networks.

    PubMed

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks. PMID:25003525

  14. Information Filtering on Coupled Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks. PMID:25003525

  15. Multilayer weighted social network model.

    PubMed

    Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved. PMID:25493837

  16. Multilayer weighted social network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved.

  17. Internet-Based Community Networks: Finding the Social in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K. Faith

    In this chapter we explore the concept of community within social networks and the effect that this primarily social construct can have on the way in which we understand trust within an online network. To do this we analyse and compare a number of the definitions that are both traditionally used to identify online communities and which have developed with the advent of semantically described social networks. Taking these definitions we apply them to a number of groups within a visualisation of a social network and, using this case study, consider the differences that are apparent between the types of groups. Finally, we discuss how the social implications inherent within the definition of community interact with the trust and reputation systems that exist in such networks. In doing so, we focus on the social aspect of the social network and the ways in which the social and technical worlds entwine.

  18. Social networks and the risk of gunshot injury.

    PubMed

    Papachristos, Andrew V; Braga, Anthony A; Hureau, David M

    2012-12-01

    Direct and indirect exposure to gun violence have considerable consequences on individual health and well-being. However, no study has considered the effects of one's social network on gunshot injury. This study investigates the relationship between an individual's position in a high-risk social network and the probability of being a victim of a fatal or non-fatal gunshot wound by combining observational data from the police with records of fatal and non-fatal gunshot injuries among 763 individuals in Boston's Cape Verdean community. A logistic regression approach is used to analyze the probability of being the victim of a fatal or non-fatal gunshot wound and whether such injury is related to age, gender, race, prior criminal activity, exposure to street gangs and other gunshot victims, density of one's peer network, and the social distance to other gunshot victims. The findings demonstrate that 85 % all of the gunshot injuries in the sample occur within a single social network. Probability of gunshot victimization is related to one's network distance to other gunshot victims: each network association removed from another gunshot victim reduces the odds of gunshot victimization by 25 % (odds ratio = 0.75; 95 % confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.87). This indirect exposure to gunshot victimization exerts an effect above and beyond the saturation of gunshot victimization in one's peer network, age, prior criminal activity, and other individual and network variables. PMID:22714704

  19. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  20. An Introduction to Social Network Data Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.

    The advent of online social networks has been one of the most exciting events in this decade. Many popular online social networks such as Twitter, LinkedIn, and Facebook have become increasingly popular. In addition, a number of multimedia networks such as Flickr have also seen an increasing level of popularity in recent years. Many such social networks are extremely rich in content, and they typically contain a tremendous amount of content and linkage data which can be leveraged for analysis. The linkage data is essentially the graph structure of the social network and the communications between entities; whereas the content data contains the text, images and other multimedia data in the network. The richness of this network provides unprecedented opportunities for data analytics in the context of social networks. This book provides a data-centric view of online social networks; a topic which has been missing from much of the literature. This chapter provides an overview of the key topics in this field, and their coverage in this book.

  1. Social Support and Social Networks in COPD: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul

    2015-12-01

    A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness. PMID:26263036

  2. Gemstone: Empowering Decentralized Social Networking with High Data Availability

    E-print Network

    Fu, Xiaoming

    Gemstone: Empowering Decentralized Social Networking with High Data Availability Florian Tegeler data availability even when some users are offline. In this paper we present Gemstone, a social network

  3. Benford's Law Applies To Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Benford's Law states that the frequency of first digits of numbers in naturally occurring systems is not evenly distributed. Numbers beginning with a 1 occur roughly 30\\% of the time, and are six times more common than numbers beginning with a 9. We show that Benford's Law applies to social and behavioral features of users in online social networks. We consider social data from five major social networks: Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, Pinterest, and Live Journal. We show that the distribution of first significant digits of friend and follower counts for users in these systems follow Benford's Law. The same holds for the number of posts users make. We extend this to egocentric networks, showing that friend counts among the people in an individual's social network also follow the expected distribution. We discuss how this can be used to detect suspicious or fraudulent activity online and to validate datasets.

  4. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, David I; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (? = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  5. Analysis of Social Networks by Tensor Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, Sergej; Staab, Steffen; Franz, Thomas

    The Social Web fosters novel applications targeting a more efficient and satisfying user guidance in modern social networks, e.g., for identifying thematically focused communities, or finding users with similar interests. Large scale and high diversity of users in social networks poses the challenging question of appropriate relevance/authority ranking, for producing fine-grained and rich descriptions of available partners, e.g., to guide the user along most promising groups of interest. Existing methods for graph-based authority ranking lack support for fine-grained latent coherence between user relations and content (i.e., support for edge semantics in graph-based social network models). We present TweetRank, a novel approach for faceted authority ranking in the context of social networks. TweetRank captures the additional latent semantics of social networks by means of statistical methods in order to produce richer descriptions of user relations. We model the social network by a 3-dimensional tensor that enables the seamless representation of arbitrary semantic relations. For the analysis of that model, we apply the PARAFAC decomposition, which can be seen as a multi-modal counterpart to common Web authority ranking with HITS. The result are groupings of users and terms, characterized by authority and navigational (hub) scores with respect to the identified latent topics. Sample experiments with life data of the Twitter community demonstrate the ability of TweetRank to produce richer and more comprehensive contact recommendations than other existing methods for social authority ranking.

  6. Social Network Analysis for Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Thomas W.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Czaja, Sara; Chu, Kar-Hai; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. The social network perspective is useful for understanding, monitoring, influencing, or evaluating the implementation process when programs, policies, practices, or principles are designed and scaled up or adapted to different settings. We briefly describe common barriers to implementation success and relate them to the social networks of implementation stakeholders. We introduce a few simple measures commonly used in social network analysis and discuss how these measures can be used in program implementation. Using the four stage model of program implementation (exploration, adoption, implementation, and sustainment) proposed by Aarons and colleagues [1] and our experience in developing multi-sector partnerships involving community leaders, organizations, practitioners, and researchers, we show how network measures can be used at each stage to monitor, intervene, and improve the implementation process. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. We conclude with expected benefits and challenges associated with this approach. PMID:26110842

  7. Temporal fidelity in dynamic social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Pentland, Alex `Sandy'; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-10-01

    It has recently become possible to record detailed social interactions in large social systems with high resolution. As we study these datasets, human social interactions display patterns that emerge at multiple time scales, from minutes to months. On a fundamental level, understanding of the network dynamics can be used to inform the process of measuring social networks. The details of measurement are of particular importance when considering dynamic processes where minute-to-minute details are important, because collection of physical proximity interactions with high temporal resolution is difficult and expensive. Here, we consider the dynamic network of proximity-interactions between approximately 500 individuals participating in the Copenhagen Networks Study. We show that in order to accurately model spreading processes in the network, the dynamic processes that occur on the order of minutes are essential and must be included in the analysis.

  8. Temporal Fidelity in Dynamic Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Pentland, Alex 'Sandy'; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    It has recently become possible to record detailed social interactions in large social systems with high resolution. As we study these datasets, human social interactions display patterns that emerge at multiple time scales, from minutes to months. On a fundamental level, an understanding of the network dynamics can be used to inform the process of measuring social networks. The details of measurement are of particular importance when considering dynamic processes where minute-to-minute details are important, because collection of physical proximity interactions with high temporal resolution is difficult and expensive. Here, we consider the dynamic network of proximity-interactions between approximately 500 individuals participating in the Copenhagen Networks Study. We show that in order to accurately model spreading processes on the network, the dynamic processes that occur on the order of minutes are essential and must be included in the analysis.

  9. Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Leting

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

  10. Data Leak Aware Crowdsourcing in Social Network

    E-print Network

    Amor, Iheb Ben; Ouziri, Mourad; Benbernou, Salima; Nadif, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing human computation for solving complex problems call spawns the issue of finding the unknown competitive group of solvers. In this paper, we propose an approach called Friendlysourcing to build up teams from social network answering a business call, all the while avoiding partial solution disclosure to competitive groups. The contributions of this paper include (i) a clustering based approach for discovering collaborative and competitive team in social network (ii) a Markov-chain based algorithm for discovering implicit interactions in the social network.

  11. Women’s Social Networks and Birth Attendant Decisions: Application of the Network-Episode Model

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Bernard, H. Russell; Sibley, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the association of women's social networks with the use of skilled birth attendants in uncomplicated pregnancy and childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh. The Network-Episode Model was applied to determine if network structure variables (density / kinship homogeneity / strength of ties) together with network content (endorsement for or against a particular type of birth attendant) explain the type of birth attendant used by women above and beyond the variance explained by women's individual attributes. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 246 women, 18–45 years of age, using survey and social network methods between October and December 2008. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Results suggest that the structural properties of networks did not add to explanatory value but instead network content or the perceived advice of network members add significantly to the explanation of variation in service use. Testing aggregate network variables at the individual level extends the ability of the individual profile matrix to explain outcomes. Community health education and mobilization interventions attempting to increase demand for skilled attendants need to reflect the centrality of kinship networks to women in Bangladesh and the likelihood of women to heed the advice of their network of advisors with regard to place of birth. PMID:22196965

  12. Testing the Variability Selection Hypothesis: The Adoption of Social Learning in Increasingly Variable Environments

    E-print Network

    Channon, Alastair

    Testing the Variability Selection Hypothesis: The Adoption of Social Learning in Increasingly.borg,a.d.channon}@epsam.keele.ac.uk Abstract The variability selection hypothesis predicts the adoption of versatile behaviors and survival adaptation for versatility is the adoption of social learning. The hypothesis that social learning

  13. A Participatory Evaluation of the Use of Social Networking Tools in a High School Math Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormald, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    As we move into the 21st century, the needs of our students are more variable than ever. There has been a proliferation of social networking usage in society yet there has been little use of those emerging tools in schools as a means to enhance student learning. It is a common practice in school districts to block social networking sites and…

  14. Searching social networks for subgraph patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaard, Kirk; Kase, Sue; Roy, Heather; Nagi, Rakesh; Sambhoos, Kedar; Sudit, Moises

    2013-06-01

    Software tools for Social Network Analysis (SNA) are being developed which support various types of analysis of social networks extracted from social media websites (e.g., Twitter). Once extracted and stored in a database such social networks are amenable to analysis by SNA software. This data analysis often involves searching for occurrences of various subgraph patterns (i.e., graphical representations of entities and relationships). The authors have developed the Graph Matching Toolkit (GMT) which provides an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI) for a heuristic graph matching algorithm called the Truncated Search Tree (TruST) algorithm. GMT is a visual interface for graph matching algorithms processing large social networks. GMT enables an analyst to draw a subgraph pattern by using a mouse to select categories and labels for nodes and links from drop-down menus. GMT then executes the TruST algorithm to find the top five occurrences of the subgraph pattern within the social network stored in the database. GMT was tested using a simulated counter-insurgency dataset consisting of cellular phone communications within a populated area of operations in Iraq. The results indicated GMT (when executing the TruST graph matching algorithm) is a time-efficient approach to searching large social networks. GMT's visual interface to a graph matching algorithm enables intelligence analysts to quickly analyze and summarize the large amounts of data necessary to produce actionable intelligence.

  15. Geographies of an Online Social Network.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Balázs; Varga, Attila; Ságvári, Bence; Jakobi, Ákos; Kertész, János

    2015-01-01

    How is online social media activity structured in the geographical space? Recent studies have shown that in spite of earlier visions about the "death of distance", physical proximity is still a major factor in social tie formation and maintenance in virtual social networks. Yet, it is unclear, what are the characteristics of the distance dependence in online social networks. In order to explore this issue the complete network of the former major Hungarian online social network is analyzed. We find that the distance dependence is weaker for the online social network ties than what was found earlier for phone communication networks. For a further analysis we introduced a coarser granularity: We identified the settlements with the nodes of a network and assigned two kinds of weights to the links between them. When the weights are proportional to the number of contacts we observed weakly formed, but spatially based modules resemble to the borders of macro-regions, the highest level of regional administration in the country. If the weights are defined relative to an uncorrelated null model, the next level of administrative regions, counties are reflected. PMID:26359668

  16. Geographies of an Online Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Balázs; Varga, Attila; Ságvári, Bence; Jakobi, Ákos; Kertész, János

    2015-01-01

    How is online social media activity structured in the geographical space? Recent studies have shown that in spite of earlier visions about the “death of distance”, physical proximity is still a major factor in social tie formation and maintenance in virtual social networks. Yet, it is unclear, what are the characteristics of the distance dependence in online social networks. In order to explore this issue the complete network of the former major Hungarian online social network is analyzed. We find that the distance dependence is weaker for the online social network ties than what was found earlier for phone communication networks. For a further analysis we introduced a coarser granularity: We identified the settlements with the nodes of a network and assigned two kinds of weights to the links between them. When the weights are proportional to the number of contacts we observed weakly formed, but spatially based modules resemble to the borders of macro-regions, the highest level of regional administration in the country. If the weights are defined relative to an uncorrelated null model, the next level of administrative regions, counties are reflected. PMID:26359668

  17. How women organize social networks different from men

    E-print Network

    Szell, Michael

    Superpositions of social networks, such as communication, friendship, or trade networks, are called multiplex networks, forming the structural backbone of human societies. Novel datasets now allow quantification and ...

  18. Online social network sensors for influenza outbreaks

    E-print Network

    Everett, Katie Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown strong correlations between postings on the online social network Twitter where users complain of influenza-like symptoms, and clinical data on actual influenza rates. In addition, previous ...

  19. Delivery properties of human social networks

    E-print Network

    Sollins, Karen R.

    The recently proposed packet switched network paradigm takes advantage of human social contacts to opportunistically create data paths over time. Our goal is to examine the effect of the human contact process on data ...

  20. Social Networks, Personalized Advertising, and Privacy Controls

    E-print Network

    Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth

    This article investigates how Internet users' perceptions of control over their personal information affect how likely they are to click on online advertising on a social networking website. The analysis uses data from a ...

  1. Social network analysis and dual rover communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) refers to the collection of techniques, tools, and methods used in sociometry aiming at the analysis of social networks to investigate decision making, group communication, and the distribution of information. Human factors engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a social network analysis on communication data collected during a 14-day field study operating a dual rover exploration mission to better understand the relationships between certain network groups such as ground control, flight teams, and planetary science. The analysis identified two communication network structures for the continuous communication and Twice-a-Day Communication scenarios as a split network and negotiated network respectfully. The major nodes or groups for the networks' architecture, transmittal status, and information were identified using graphical network mapping, quantitative analysis of subjective impressions, and quantified statistical analysis using Sociometric Statue and Centrality. Post-questionnaire analysis along with interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages of each network structure with team members identifying the need for a more stable continuous communication network, improved robustness of voice loops, and better systems training/capabilities for scientific imagery data and operational data during Twice-a-Day Communications.

  2. Brand communities embedded in social networks?

    PubMed Central

    Zaglia, Melanie E.

    2013-01-01

    Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social networks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of social networks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers’ interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes. PMID:23564989

  3. Brand communities embedded in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zaglia, Melanie E

    2013-02-01

    Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social networks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of social networks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers' interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes. PMID:23564989

  4. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  5. Unravelling the Social Network: Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) amongst children and young people in compulsory education, relatively little scholarly work has explored the fundamental issues at stake. This paper makes an original contribution to the field by locating the study of this online activity within the broader terrain of social

  6. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  7. Facebook, Social Networking, and Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven A.; Mulligan, Jamie R.; Ishida, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    Brown (2012) asserts that faculty perceptions of Web 2.0 for teaching will influence its adoption. For example, social media's influence on educational delivery is growing (Hrastinski and Dennon 2012). Zulu et al. (2011) note that business educators are only beginning to understand social networking related to education. We report an exploratory…

  8. Creating Socially Networked Knowledge through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuk, Eric; Hoetzlein, Rama; Kim, David; Panko, Julia

    2012-01-01

    We report on the experience of creating a socially networked system, the Research-oriented Social Environment (RoSE), for representing knowledge in the form of relationships between people, documents, and groups. Developed as an intercampus, interdisciplinary project of the University of California, this work reflects on a collaboration between…

  9. Spatial and Social Networks in Organizational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineman, Jean D.; Kabo, Felichism W.; Davis, Gerald F.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the enabling factors of innovation has focused on either the social component of organizations or on the spatial dimensions involved in the innovation process. But no one has examined the aggregate consequences of the link from spatial layout, to social networks, to innovation. This project enriches our understanding of how innovation…

  10. Enterprise social networks : engaging employees and sustaining participation

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Payal

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships pervade every aspect of human life and development of social networks at work is inevitable. Enterprise social networking solutions provide a platform for employees to formally foster these professional ...

  11. Urban Boys' Social Networks and School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minden, Joel; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Examines the extent to which network unconventionality relates to school violence in an inner-city sample of adolescents. Results suggest that school violence is related to unconventional social network characteristics, independent of the effects of individual deviance. Suggests that attempts to reduce school violence might focus on increasing…

  12. Dynamics of Social Networks HOLGER EBEL,1

    E-print Network

    Bornholdt, Stefan

    of interacting proteins or genes, ecological graphs, communication networks, and social networks [1­4]. For most A is linked to node B and B is linked to node C, there is an enhanced probability that A will also be linked

  13. Modeling Relationship Strength in Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    relationship strength from interaction activity (e.g., communication, tagging) and user similarity. MoreModeling Relationship Strength in Online Social Networks Rongjing Xiang, Jennifer Neville Computer of link formation can lead to networks with heterogeneous relationship strengths (e.g., acquaintances

  14. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  15. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  16. Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: a tool for research in social media.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided. PMID:24061930

  17. Visual Matrix Clustering of Social Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; May, Richard A.

    2013-07-01

    The prevailing choices to graphically represent a social network in today’s literature are a node-link graph layout and an adjacency matrix. Both visualization techniques have unique strengths and weaknesses when applied to different domain applications. In this article, we focus our discussion on adjacency matrix and how to turn the matrix-based visualization technique from merely showing pairwise associations among network actors (or graph nodes) to depicting clusters of a social network. We also use node-link layouts to supplement the discussion.

  18. Developmental stress predicts social network position

    PubMed Central

    Boogert, Neeltje J.; Farine, Damien R.; Spencer, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The quantity and quality of social relationships, as captured by social network analysis, can have major fitness consequences. Various studies have shown that individual differences in social behaviour can be due to variation in exposure to developmental stress. However, whether these developmental differences translate to consistent differences in social network position is not known. We experimentally increased levels of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in nestling zebra finches in a fully balanced design. Upon reaching nutritional independence, we released chicks and their families into two free-flying rooms, where we measured daily social networks over five weeks using passive integrated transponder tags. Developmental stress had a significant effect on social behaviour: despite having similar foraging patterns, CORT chicks had weaker associations to their parents than control chicks. Instead, CORT chicks foraged with a greater number of flock mates and were less choosy with whom they foraged, resulting in more central network positions. These findings highlight the importance of taking developmental history into account to understand the drivers of social organization in gregarious species. PMID:25354917

  19. Information asymmetry, social networking site word of mouth, and mobility effects on social commerce in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Jeong; Lee, Bong Gyou; Kim, Ki Youn

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the issues that affect customers' behavioral character and purchasing behavior. The study proposes a research hypothesis with independent variables that include social presence, trust, and information asymmetry, and the dependent variable purchase decision making, to explain differentiated customer decision making processes in social commerce (S-commerce). To prove the hypothesis, positive verification was performed by focusing on mediating effects through a customer uncertainty variable and moderating effects through mobility and social networking site word of mouth (SNS WOM) variables. The number of studies on customer trends has rapidly increased together with the market size of S-commerce. However, few studies have examined the negative variables that make customers hesitant to make decisions in S-commerce. This study investigates the causes of customer uncertainty and focuses on deducing the control variables that offset this negative relationship. The study finds that in customers' S-commerce purchasing actions, the SNS WOM and mobility variables show control effects between information asymmetry and uncertainty and between trust and uncertainty. Additionally, this research defines the variables related to customer uncertainty that are hidden in S-commerce, and statistically verifies their relationship. The research results can be used in Internet marketing practices to establish marketing mix strategies for customer demand or as research data to predict customer behavior. The results are scientifically meaningful as a precedent for research on customers in S-commerce. PMID:24355038

  20. From Local to Global Dilemmas in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Santos, Francisco C.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks affect in such a fundamental way the dynamics of the population they support that the global, population-wide behavior that one observes often bears no relation to the individual processes it stems from. Up to now, linking the global networked dynamics to such individual mechanisms has remained elusive. Here we study the evolution of cooperation in networked populations and let individuals interact via a 2-person Prisoner's Dilemma – a characteristic defection dominant social dilemma of cooperation. We show how homogeneous networks transform a Prisoner's Dilemma into a population-wide evolutionary dynamics that promotes the coexistence between cooperators and defectors, while heterogeneous networks promote their coordination. To this end, we define a dynamic variable that allows us to track the self-organization of cooperators when co-evolving with defectors in networked populations. Using the same variable, we show how the global dynamics — and effective dilemma — co-evolves with the motifs of cooperators in the population, the overall emergence of cooperation depending sensitively on this co-evolution. PMID:22363804

  1. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  2. Towards Robust Trust Establishment in Web-Based Social Networks with SocialTrust

    E-print Network

    Caverlee, James

    Towards Robust Trust Establishment in Web-Based Social Networks with SocialTrust James Caverlee Dep, Experimentation 1. INTRODUCTION Web-based social networking services like the ones offered by MySpace and Facebook

  3. Community Structure in Online Collegiate Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traud, Amanda; Kelsic, Eric; Mucha, Peter; Porter, Mason

    2009-03-01

    Online social networking sites have become increasingly popular with college students. The networks we studied are defined through ``friendships'' indicated by Facebook users from UNC, Oklahoma, Caltech, Georgetown, and Princeton. We apply the tools of network science to study the Facebook networks from these five different universities at a single point in time. We investigate each single-institution network's community structure, which we obtain through partitioning the graph using an eigenvector method. We use both graphical and quantitative tools, including pair-counting methods, which we interpret through statistical analysis and permutation tests to measure the correlations between the network communities and a set of characteristics given by each user (residence, class year, major, and high school). We also analyze the single gender subsets of these networks, and the impact of missing demographical data. Our study allows us to compare the online social networks for the five schools as well as infer differences in offline social interactions. At the schools studied, we were able to define which characteristics of the Facebook users correlate best with friendships.

  4. Teachers, Networks and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Kaleen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that school leaders and policymakers should attend to the social conditions within schools that promote instructional improvement and student achievement gains. This dissertation uses theoretical and empirical work on social capital to frame three aspects of the relationships among teachers. The three studies…

  5. Dynamics of deceptive interactions in social networks.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Rafael A; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kaski, Kimmo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we examine the role of lies in human social relations by implementing some salient characteristics of deceptive interactions into an opinion formation model, so as to describe the dynamical behaviour of a social network more realistically. In this model, we take into account such basic properties of social networks as the dynamics of the intensity of interactions, the influence of public opinion and the fact that in every human interaction it might be convenient to deceive or withhold information depending on the instantaneous situation of each individual in the network. We find that lies shape the topology of social networks, especially the formation of tightly linked, small communities with loose connections between them. We also find that agents with a larger proportion of deceptive interactions are the ones that connect communities of different opinion, and, in this sense, they have substantial centrality in the network. We then discuss the consequences of these results for the social behaviour of humans and predict the changes that could arise due to a varying tolerance for lies in society. PMID:26510829

  6. The fundamental structures of dynamic social networks

    E-print Network

    Sekara, Vedran; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Networks provide a powerful mathematical framework for analyzing the structure and dynamics of complex systems (1-3). The study of group behavior has deep roots in the social science literature (4,5) and community detection is a central part of modern network science. Network communities have been found to be highly overlapping and organized in a hierarchical structure (6-9). Recent technological advances have provided a toolset for measuring the detailed social dynamics at scale (10,11). In spite of great progress, a quantitative description of the complex temporal behavior of social groups-with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns expressed on the timescale of years-is still absent. Here we uncover a class of fundamental structures embedded within highly dynamic social networks. On the shortest time-scale, we find that social gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. We show that cores represent social contexts (9), with recur...

  7. Conformity biased transmission in social networks.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Andrew; Laland, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we explore how the structure of a population can differentially influence the spread of novel behaviors, depending on the learning strategy of each individual. We use a series of simulations to analyze how frequency dependent learning rules might affect how easily novel behaviors can spread through a population on four artificial social networks, and three real social networks. We measured the likelihood that a novel behavior could spread through the population, and the likelihood that there were multiple behavioral variants in the population, a measure of cultural diversity. Surprisingly, we find few differences between networks on either measure. However, we do find that where a behavior originated on a network can have a substantial impact on the likelihood that it spreads, and that this location effect depends on the learning strategy of an individual. These results suggest that for first-order analysis of how behaviors spread through a population, social network structure can be ignored, but that the social network structure may be useful for more fine-tuned analyses and predictions. PMID:26135406

  8. Social Features of Online Networks: The Strength of Intermediary Ties in Online Social Media

    E-print Network

    Moro, Esteban

    Social Features of Online Networks: The Strength of Intermediary Ties in Online Social Media Abstract An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media) Social Features of Online Networks: The Strength of Intermediary Ties in Online Social Media. PLoS ONE 7

  9. The Application of Social Network Analysis to Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusher, Dean; Robins, Garry; Kremer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews how current social network analysis might be used to investigate individual and group behavior in sporting teams. Social network analysis methods permit researchers to explore social relations between team members and their individual-level qualities simultaneously. As such, social network analysis can be seen as augmenting…

  10. Health and the Structure of Adolescent Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Steven A.; Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions.We first develop…

  11. Agents of Influence in Social Networks Amer G. Ghanem

    E-print Network

    Minai, Ali A.

    In recent years, social networking sites and social media have become a very important part of peoples, advertising, gam- ing, etc., have embraced social networks and have sought to exploit their potential to reachAgents of Influence in Social Networks Amer G. Ghanem University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio

  12. Social Scholarship: Applying Social Networking Technologies to Research Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Participatory web-based technologies have the potential to change the way scholars engage in scholarship. One reason Web 2.0 technologies, such as online social networking, are not widely integrated in PreK-12 and postsecondary education is the lack of modeling by educators. Their lack of research-based best practices limits the ability to…

  13. Fluctuations and Slow Variables in Genetic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bundschuh, R.; Hayot, F.; Jayaprakash, C.

    2003-01-01

    Computer simulations of large genetic networks are often extremely time consuming because, in addition to the biologically interesting translation and transcription reactions, many less interesting reactions like DNA binding and dimerizations have to be simulated. It is desirable to use the fact that the latter occur on much faster timescales than the former to eliminate the fast and uninteresting reactions and to obtain effective models of the slow reactions only. We use three examples of self-regulatory networks to show that the usual reduction methods where one obtains a system of equations of the Hill type fail to capture the fluctuations that these networks exhibit due to the small number of molecules; moreover, they may even miss describing the behavior of the average number of proteins. We identify the inclusion of fast-varying variables in the effective description as the cause for the failure of the traditional schemes. We suggest a different effective description, which entails the introduction of an additional species, not present in the original networks, that is slowly varying. We show that this description allows for a very efficient simulation of the reduced system while retaining the correct fluctuations and behavior of the full system. This approach ought to be applicable to a wide range of genetic networks. PMID:12609864

  14. Online and Offline Social Networks: Use of Social Networking Sites by Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…

  15. Social networks and cultural transmission 

    E-print Network

    Quillinan, Justin

    2006-01-01

    Language is a complex dynamical system that is shaped not just through biological evolution but by the way it is used in a social context. Sociolinguists have long understood that the structure of a society strongly ...

  16. Origin of Peer Influence in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Marta D.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2014-03-01

    Social networks pervade our everyday lives: we interact, influence, and are influenced by our friends and acquaintances. With the advent of the World Wide Web, large amounts of data on social networks have become available, allowing the quantitative analysis of the distribution of information on them, including behavioral traits and fads. Recent studies of correlations among members of a social network, who exhibit the same trait, have shown that individuals influence not only their direct contacts but also friends' friends, up to a network distance extending beyond their closest peers. Here, we show how such patterns of correlations between peers emerge in networked populations. We use standard models (yet reflecting intrinsically different mechanisms) of information spreading to argue that empirically observed patterns of correlation among peers emerge naturally from a wide range of dynamics, being essentially independent of the type of information, on how it spreads, and even on the class of underlying network that interconnects individuals. Finally, we show that the sparser and clustered the network, the more far reaching the influence of each individual will be.

  17. A Social Network Comparison of Low-Income Black and White Newlywed Couples

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Grace L.; Kennedy, David; Bradbury, Thomas N.; Karney, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to White families, Black families have been described as relying on extended social networks to compensate for other social and economic disadvantages. The presence or absence of supportive social networks should be especially relevant to young couples entering marriage, but to date there has been little effort to describe the social networks of comparable Black and White newlyweds. The current study addressed this gap by drawing on interviews with 57 first-married newlyweds from low-income communities to compare the composition and structure of Black and White couples’ duocentric social networks. The results indicated that low-income Black couples entered marriage at a social disadvantage relative to White couples, with more family relationships but fewer positive relationships and fewer sources of emotional support (for wives), fewer connections to married individuals, and fewer shared relationships between spouses. Black couples’ relative social disadvantages persisted even when various economic and demographic variables were controlled. PMID:25214673

  18. Online social networking and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  19. Online Social Networking and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  20. Group Colocation Behavior in Technological Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chloë; Lathia, Neal; Mascolo, Cecilia; Noulas, Anastasios; Blondel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We analyze two large datasets from technological networks with location and social data: user location records from an online location-based social networking service, and anonymized telecommunications data from a European cellphone operator, in order to investigate the differences between individual and group behavior with respect to physical location. We discover agreements between the two datasets: firstly, that individuals are more likely to meet with one friend at a place they have not visited before, but tend to meet at familiar locations when with a larger group. We also find that groups of individuals are more likely to meet at places that their other friends have visited, and that the type of a place strongly affects the propensity for groups to meet there. These differences between group and solo mobility has potential technological applications, for example, in venue recommendation in location-based social networks. PMID:25148037

  1. Massive Social Network Analysis: Mining Twitter for Social Good

    SciTech Connect

    Ediger, David; Jiang, Karl; Riedy, Edward J.; Bader, David A.; Corley, Courtney D.; Farber, Robert M.; Reynolds, William

    2010-10-11

    Social networks produce an enormous quantity of data. Facebook consists of over 400 million active users sharing over 5 billion pieces of information each month. Analyzing this vast quantity of unstructured data presents challenges for software and hardware. We present GraphCT, a Graph Characterization Tooklit for massive graphs representing social network data. On a 128-processor Cray XMT, GraphCT estimates the betweenness centrality of an artificially generated (R-MAT) 537 million vertex, 8.6 billion edge graph in 55 minutes. We use GraphCT to analyze public data from Twitter, a microblogging network. Twitter's message connections appear primarily tree-structured as a news dissemination system. Within the public data, however, are clusters of conversations. Using GraphCT, we can rank actors within these conversations and help analysts focus attention on a much smaller data subset.

  2. The Majority Illusion in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Lerman, Kristina; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Social behaviors are often contagious, spreading through a population as individuals imitate the decisions and choices of others. A variety of global phenomena, from innovation adoption to the emergence of social norms and political movements, arise as a result of people following a simple local rule, such as copy what others are doing. However, individuals often lack global knowledge of the behaviors of others and must estimate them from the observations of their friends' behaviors. In some cases, the structure of the underlying social network can dramatically skew an individual's local observations, making a behavior appear far more common locally than it is globally. We trace the origins of this phenomenon, which we call "the majority illusion," to the friendship paradox in social networks. As a result of this paradox, a behavior that is globally rare may be systematically overrepresented in the local neighborhoods of many people, i.e., among their friends. Thus, the "majority illusion" may facilitate the ...

  3. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, JIN; NIE, FEIPING; HUANG, HENG; TU, YI-CHENG; LEI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:24729776

  4. Social networks for lonely objects

    E-print Network

    Kestner, John Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Visions of ubiquitous computing describe a network of devices that quietly supports human goals, but this may also add complexity to an already frustrating relationship between humans and their electronic objects. As we ...

  5. Adoption of Social Networking in Education: A Study of the Use of Social Networks by Higher Education Students in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mukhaini, Elham M.; Al-Qayoudhi, Wafa S.; Al-Badi, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of social networks is a growing phenomenon, being increasingly important in both private and academic life. Social networks are used as tools to enable users to have social interaction. The use of social networks (SNs) complements and enhances the teaching in traditional classrooms. For example, YouTube, Facebook, wikis, and blogs provide…

  6. Structure-Preserving Sparsification of Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Lindner, Gerd; Hamann, Michael; Meyerhenke, Henning; Wagner, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Sparsification reduces the size of networks while preserving structural and statistical properties of interest. Various sparsifying algorithms have been proposed in different contexts. We contribute the first systematic conceptual and experimental comparison of \\textit{edge sparsification} methods on a diverse set of network properties. It is shown that they can be understood as methods for rating edges by importance and then filtering globally by these scores. In addition, we propose a new sparsification method (\\textit{Local Degree}) which preserves edges leading to local hub nodes. All methods are evaluated on a set of 100 Facebook social networks with respect to network properties including diameter, connected components, community structure, and multiple node centrality measures. Experiments with our implementations of the sparsification methods (using the open-source network analysis tool suite NetworKit) show that many network properties can be preserved down to about 20\\% of the original set of edges....

  7. Influence of Reciprocal links in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Sun, Gui-Quan; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, we empirically study the influence of reciprocal links, in order to understand its role in affecting the structure and function of directed social networks. Experimental results on two representative datesets, Sina Weibo and Douban, demonstrate that the reciprocal links indeed play a more important role than non-reciprocal ones in both spreading information and maintaining the network robustness. In particular, the information spreading process can be significantly enhanced by considering the reciprocal effect. In addition, reciprocal links are largely responsible for the connectivity and efficiency of directed networks. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding and application of the reciprocal effect in directed online social networks.

  8. Sentiment analysis on smoking in social networks.

    PubMed

    Sofean, Mustafa; Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks play a vital role in daily life to share the opinions or behaviors on different topics. The data of social networks can be used to understand health-related behaviors. In this work, we used Twitter status updates to survey of smoking behaviors among the users. We introduce approach to classify the sentiment of smoke-related tweets into positive and negative tweets. The classifier is based on the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and can achieve high accuracy up to 86%. PMID:23920892

  9. Detecting Emotional Contagion in Massive Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Coviello, Lorenzo; Sohn, Yunkyu; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Franceschetti, Massimo; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony. PMID:24621792

  10. Social network analysis: foundations and frontiers on advantage.

    PubMed

    Burt, Ronald S; Kilduff, Martin; Tasselli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We provide an overview of social network analysis focusing on network advantage as a lens that touches on much of the area. For reasons of good data and abundant research, we draw heavily on studies of people in organizations. Advantage is traced to network structure as a proxy for the distribution of variably sticky information in a population. The network around a person indicates the person's access and control in the distribution. Advantage is a function of information breadth, timing, and arbitrage. Advantage is manifest in higher odds of proposing good ideas, more positive evaluations and recognition, higher compensation, and faster promotions. We discuss frontiers of advantage contingent on personality, cognition, embeddedness, and dynamics. PMID:23282056

  11. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ‘three degrees of influence’ property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. PMID:22711416

  12. Beyond Social Graphs: User Interactions in Online Social Networks and their Implications

    E-print Network

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    17 Beyond Social Graphs: User Interactions in Online Social Networks and their Implications CHRISTO Barbara Social networks are popular platforms for interaction, communication, and collaboration between through a detailed study of user interactions in the Facebook social network. We propose the use

  13. Distance Matters: Geo-social Metrics for Online Social Networks Salvatore Scellato

    E-print Network

    Hand, Steven

    Catania and INFN Abstract Online Social Networks (OSNs) are increasingly be- coming one of the key media for it. For instance, there are social networking services grounded on the idea of advertising your exactDistance Matters: Geo-social Metrics for Online Social Networks Salvatore Scellato Computer

  14. Googling social interactions: web search engine based social network construction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Pan-Jun; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-01-01

    Social network analysis has long been an untiring topic of sociology. However, until the era of information technology, the availability of data, mainly collected by the traditional method of personal survey, was highly limited and prevented large-scale analysis. Recently, the exploding amount of automatically generated data has completely changed the pattern of research. For instance, the enormous amount of data from so-called high-throughput biological experiments has introduced a systematic or network viewpoint to traditional biology. Then, is "high-throughput" sociological data generation possible? Google, which has become one of the most influential symbols of the new Internet paradigm within the last ten years, might provide torrents of data sources for such study in this (now and forthcoming) digital era. We investigate social networks between people by extracting information on the Web and introduce new tools of analysis of such networks in the context of statistical physics of complex systems or socio-physics. As a concrete and illustrative example, the members of the 109th United States Senate are analyzed and it is demonstrated that the methods of construction and analysis are applicable to various other weighted networks. PMID:20657762

  15. Googling Social Interactions: Web Search Engine Based Social Network Construction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Pan-Jun; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-01-01

    Social network analysis has long been an untiring topic of sociology. However, until the era of information technology, the availability of data, mainly collected by the traditional method of personal survey, was highly limited and prevented large-scale analysis. Recently, the exploding amount of automatically generated data has completely changed the pattern of research. For instance, the enormous amount of data from so-called high-throughput biological experiments has introduced a systematic or network viewpoint to traditional biology. Then, is “high-throughput” sociological data generation possible? Google, which has become one of the most influential symbols of the new Internet paradigm within the last ten years, might provide torrents of data sources for such study in this (now and forthcoming) digital era. We investigate social networks between people by extracting information on the Web and introduce new tools of analysis of such networks in the context of statistical physics of complex systems or socio-physics. As a concrete and illustrative example, the members of the 109th United States Senate are analyzed and it is demonstrated that the methods of construction and analysis are applicable to various other weighted networks. PMID:20657762

  16. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  17. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A

    2014-09-16

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  18. Using Social Networking in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Elizabeth Blakesley

    2009-01-01

    With celebrities discussing Twitter on television talk shows, Facebook being used by people to share pictures of their grandchildren, and academic seminars being delivered in Second Life, it is hard to get through a day without being faced with some sort of social networking tool. Librarians often talk about the importance of outreach and of…

  19. Protecting Personal Information on Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Almost everyone uses social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn. Since Facebook is the most popular site in the history of the Internet, this article will focus on how one can protect his/her personal information and how that extends to protecting the private information of others.

  20. "Cloudworks": Social Networking for Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conole, Grainne; Culver, Juliette

    2009-01-01

    Can we apply the best of Web 2.0 principles to an educational context? More specifically can we use this as a means of shifting teaching practice to a culture of sharing learning ideas and designs? This paper describes a new social networking site, "Cloudworks", which aims to provide a mechanism for sharing, discussing and finding learning and…

  1. Social Networking Services in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Peter; Rothe, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on the use of the social networking service NING in a cross-location e-learning setting named "Net Economy." We describe how we implemented NING as a fundamental part of the setting through a special phase concept and team building approach. With the help of user statistics, we examine…

  2. Social Networking: A Collaborative Open Educational Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toetenel, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    Studies undertaken since the introduction of Web 2.0 have focussed mainly on open educational resources (OERs) such as email, blogging and virtual learning environments. No consistent efforts have been undertaken to study the use of social networking sites as a tool for learning in the second language classroom. This study examined the use of…

  3. Exploring Social Networking: Developing Critical Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While schools have been using computers within their classrooms for years now, there has been a purposeful ignoring of the growing power of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Many schools ban students from accessing and using sites such as Facebook at school and many English and literacy teachers ignore or deny their value as a teaching…

  4. The Benefits and Limitations of Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Center for the Digital Future at the University of Southern California surveys 2,000 households each year to find out how online technology affects Internet users. Findings in the latest report show social networks are increasing and a majority of users report feeling as strongly about their communities online as their real-world communities.…

  5. The Social Network Classroom Peter Bunus

    E-print Network

    Burns, Peter

    , blogging, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube. 1 Introduction Teens and college students, ages 12 to 28 years, have%), reading blogs (43%) or use social networking sites (67%). The survey from Table 1 shows that teens in online activities according to Jones and Fox 2009 [4] Online Teens (1217) Gen Y (1832) Gen X

  6. SNIF: Social Networking In Fur Jonathan Gips

    E-print Network

    to the benefit of both owners and their pets. 3. BACKGROUND REVIEW In the United States, pets outnumber people, a system that allows pet owners to interact through their pets' social networks. SNIF comprises inexpensive hardware that can be unobtrusively and transparently affixed to pet collars and paraphernalia in order

  7. Social Networking Postings: Views from School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marlynn M.; Lake, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous recent media accounts indicate that teachers are being fired, put on probation, or otherwise censured because of information found on their social networking sites (SNS). While the literature in business, psychology, and pharmacy shows initial investigations of the impact of SNS information on hiring decisions, this area has not been…

  8. Social Networking Tools for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Du, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory study investigating the use of social networking tools in academic libraries, examining the extent of their use, library staff's perceptions of their usefulness and challenges, and factors influencing decisions to use or not to use such tools. Invitations to participate in a web-based survey were sent to 140 university…

  9. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  10. Social Networks, Teacher Beliefs, and Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aston, Michelle; Hyle, Adrienne E.

    This study examined the social networks of teachers' strong and weak ties and the impact of those associations upon their beliefs about the realities of elementary education in terms of the knowledge and skills that influenced those realities: school context, general pedagogy, specific subject matter pedagogy, nature of the learner, and self as…

  11. Electronic Social Networks, Teaching, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidduck, Anne Banks

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between electronic social networks, teaching, and learning. Previous studies have shown a strong positive correlation between student engagement and learning. By extending this work to engage instructors and add an electronic component, our study shows possible teaching improvement as well. In particular,…

  12. Social Dynamics within Electronic Networks of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Thomas A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic networks of practice (eNoP) are special types of electronic social structures focused on discussing domain-specific problems related to a skill-based craft or profession in question and answer style forums. eNoP have implemented peer-to-peer feedback systems in order to motivate future contributions and to distinguish contribution…

  13. Innovation flow through social networks: Productivity distribution

    E-print Network

    T. Di Matteo; T. Aste; M. Gallegati

    2004-06-19

    A detailed empirical analysis of the productivity of non financial firms across several countries and years shows that productivity follows a non-Gaussian distribution with power law tails. We demonstrate that these empirical findings can be interpreted as consequence of a mechanism of exchanges in a social network where firms improve their productivity by direct innovation or/and by imitation of other firm's technological and organizational solutions. The type of network-connectivity determines how fast and how efficiently information can diffuse and how quickly innovation will permeate or behaviors will be imitated. From a model for innovation flow through a complex network we obtain that the expectation values of the productivity level are proportional to the connectivity of the network of links between firms. The comparison with the empirical distributions reveals that such a network must be of a scale-free type with a power-law degree distribution in the large connectivity range.

  14. Evolution of a large online social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haibo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2009-03-01

    Although recently there are extensive research on the collaborative networks and online communities, there is very limited knowledge about the actual evolution of the online social networks (OSN). In the Letter, we study the structural evolution of a large online virtual community. We find that the scale growth of the OSN shows non-trivial S shape which may provide a proper exemplification for Bass diffusion model. We reveal that the evolutions of many network properties, such as density, clustering, heterogeneity and modularity, show non-monotone feature, and shrink phenomenon occurs for the path length and diameter of the network. Furthermore, the OSN underwent a transition from degree assortativity characteristic of collaborative networks to degree disassortativity characteristic of many OSNs. Our study has revealed the evolutionary pattern of interpersonal interactions in a specific population and provided a valuable platform for theoretical modeling and further analysis.

  15. Social networking has completely transformed social life in the online world. It has become

    E-print Network

    Enbody, Richard

    Social networking has completely transformed social life in the online world. It has become the most acceptable pattern of forging social connections on the web. Every new development has pros and cons in its own sphere, though, and social networking web sites are no different. Online social

  16. Effects of deception in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies (‘white’ lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes social networks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of social networks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. PMID:25056625

  17. Social Networks of Educated Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Denis S.; Alborn, Hans T.; Duncan, Larry W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound specific manner, increasing preference for volatiles they previously were exposed to and decreasing attraction to other volatiles. In addition, persistence of volatile exposure influences this response. Longer exposure not only increases preference, but also results in longer retention of that preference. These entomopathogenic nematodes display interspecific social behavioral plasticity; experienced nematodes influence the behavior of different species. This interspecific social behavioral plasticity suggests a mechanism for rapid adaptation of belowground communities to dynamic environments. PMID:26404058

  18. Social Networks of Educated Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Willett, Denis S; Alborn, Hans T; Duncan, Larry W; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound specific manner, increasing preference for volatiles they previously were exposed to and decreasing attraction to other volatiles. In addition, persistence of volatile exposure influences this response. Longer exposure not only increases preference, but also results in longer retention of that preference. These entomopathogenic nematodes display interspecific social behavioral plasticity; experienced nematodes influence the behavior of different species. This interspecific social behavioral plasticity suggests a mechanism for rapid adaptation of belowground communities to dynamic environments. PMID:26404058

  19. Representing Excuses in Social Dependence Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boella, Guido; Broersen, Jan; van der Torre, Leendert; Villata, Serena

    In this paper, we propose a representation of excuses in the context of multiagent systems. We distinguish five classes of excuses, taking as starting point both jurisprudential and philosophical studies about this topic, and we discuss their acceptance criteria. We highlight the following classes of excuses: epistemic excuses, power-based excuses, norm-based excuses, counts as-based excuses and social-based excuses and we represent them using social dependence networks. The acceptance criteria individuate those excuses which success in maintaining the trust of the other agents, e.g. in the context of social networks, excuses based on norms seem better than counts as-based ones in achieving this aim.

  20. Influence of reciprocal links in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Sun, Gui-Quan; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2014-01-01

    How does reciprocal links affect the function of real social network? Does reciprocal link and non-reciprocal link play the same role? Previous researches haven't displayed a clear picture to us until now according to the best of our knowledge. Motivated by this, in this paper, we empirically study the influence of reciprocal links in two representative real datasets, Sina Weibo and Douban. Our results demonstrate that the reciprocal links play a more important role than non-reciprocal ones in information diffusion process. In particular, not only coverage but also the speed of the information diffusion can be significantly enhanced by considering the reciprocal effect. We give some possible explanations from the perspectives of network connectivity and efficiency. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding and application of the reciprocal effect in directed online social networks. PMID:25072242

  1. Social Networks among Residents in Recovery Homes

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard; Stevens, Ed; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Thompson, Erin; Legler, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence exists that substance abuse abstinence is enhanced when individuals in recovery are embedded in social networks that are cohesive, few studies examined the network structures underlying recovery home support systems. In two studies, we investigated the mechanisms through which social environments affect health outcomes among two samples of adult residents of recovery homes. Findings from Study 1 (n = 150) indicated that network size and the presence of relationships with other Oxford House (OH) residents both predicted future abstinence. Study 2 (n = 490) included individuals who lived in an OH residence for up to 6 months, and their personal relationship with other house residents predicted future abstinence. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23956954

  2. Social contagion of risk perceptions in environmental management networks.

    PubMed

    Muter, Bret A; Gore, Meredith L; Riley, Shawn J

    2013-08-01

    An important requisite for improving risk communication practice related to contentious environmental issues is having a better theoretical understanding of how risk perceptions function in real-world social systems. Our study applied Scherer and Cho's social network contagion theory of risk perception (SNCTRP) to cormorant management (a contentious environmental management issue) in the Great Lakes Basin to: (1) assess contagion effects on cormorant-related risk perceptions and individual factors believed to influence those perceptions and (2) explore the extent of social contagion in a full network (consisting of interactions between and among experts and laypeople) and three "isolated" models separating different types of interactions from the full network (i.e., expert-to-expert, layperson-to-layperson, and expert-to-layperson). We conducted interviews and administered questionnaires with experts (e.g., natural resource professionals) and laypeople (e.g., recreational and commercial anglers, business owners, bird enthusiasts) engaged in cormorant management in northern Lake Huron (n = 115). Our findings generally support the SNCTRP; however, the scope and scale of social contagion varied considerably based on the variables (e.g., individual risk perception factors), actors (i.e., experts or laypeople), and interactions of interest. Contagion effects were identified more frequently, and were stronger, in the models containing interactions between experts and laypeople than in those models containing only interactions among experts or laypeople. PMID:23231537

  3. Managing Trust in Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Touhid; Josang, Audun; Xu, Yue

    In recent years, there is a dramatic growth in number and popularity of online social networks. There are many networks available with more than 100 million registered users such as Facebook, MySpace, QZone, Windows Live Spaces etc. People may connect, discover and share by using these online social networks. The exponential growth of online communities in the area of social networks attracts the attention of the researchers about the importance of managing trust in online environment. Users of the online social networks may share their experiences and opinions within the networks about an item which may be a product or service. The user faces the problem of evaluating trust in a service or service provider before making a choice. Recommendations may be received through a chain of friends network, so the problem for the user is to be able to evaluate various types of trust opinions and recommendations. This opinion or recommendation has a great influence to choose to use or enjoy the item by the other user of the community. Collaborative filtering system is the most popular method in recommender system. The task in collaborative filtering is to predict the utility of items to a particular user based on a database of user rates from a sample or population of other users. Because of the different taste of different people, they rate differently according to their subjective taste. If two people rate a set of items similarly, they share similar tastes. In the recommender system, this information is used to recommend items that one participant likes, to other persons in the same cluster. But the collaborative filtering system performs poor when there is insufficient previous common rating available between users; commonly known as cost start problem. To overcome the cold start problem and with the dramatic growth of online social networks, trust based approach to recommendation has emerged. This approach assumes a trust network among users and makes recommendations based on the ratings of the users that are directly or indirectly trusted by the target user.

  4. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  5. The role of the social network and the usage of communication in travel behavior

    E-print Network

    Bierlaire, Michel

    as explanatory variables sociodemographics, spatial relationship between home and work, communication use (numberThe role of the social network and the usage of communication in travel behavior measured available from the smartphone to study the influence of communication and social contacts (collected via

  6. Social Networking: Boundaries and Limits Part 1: Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Antonette; AlDoubi, Suzan; Kaminski, Karen; Anderson, Sharon K.; Isaacs, Nelda

    2014-01-01

    The number of educators, administrators, and institutions that utilize social networking has increased dramatically. Many have adopted social networking in order to be up-to-date and connected with their students' learning beyond the boundaries of the classroom. However, this increase in the use of social networking in academia presents many…

  7. Exploring Educational and Cultural Adaptation through Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sherry D.; Magro, Michael J.; Sharp, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Social networking sites have seen tremendous growth and are widely used around the world. Nevertheless, the use of social networking sites in educational contexts is an under explored area. This paper uses a qualitative methodology, autoethnography, to investigate how social networking sites, specifically Facebook[TM], can help first semester…

  8. Using Social Networks to Create Powerful Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenox, Marianne; Coleman, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Regular readers of "Computers in Libraries" are aware that social networks are forming increasingly important linkages to professional and personal development in all libraries. Live and virtual social networks have become the new learning playground for librarians and library staff. Social networks have the ability to connect those who are…

  9. Measurement and Analysis of Online Social Networks Alan Mislove

    E-print Network

    Gummadi, Krishna P.

    Measurement and Analysis of Online Social Networks Alan Mislove MPI for Software Systems Campus E1 systems and to design new applications of online social networks. This paper presents a large- nally, we discuss the implications of these structural prop- erties for the design of social network

  10. Hybrid Social Media Network Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Chang, Shih-Fu

    Hybrid Social Media Network Dong Liu Dept. of Electrical Engineering Columbia University New York can be easily observed from the social media networks. However, there are many heterogeneous entities/her information needs, a propagation over the hybrid social media network is employed to infer the utility scores

  11. Notes for Offline Optimal Ads Allocation in Social Network Advertising

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Aravind

    Notes for Offline Optimal Ads Allocation in Social Network Advertising Hui Miao, Peixin Gao May 12, 2014 1 Social Network Advertising Social network sites (SNS) such as Facebook, Google+ and Twitter have (SNS), users expose many personal behaviors and connect to each other based on real world relationships

  12. Combining Topic Models and Social Networks for Chat Data Mining

    E-print Network

    Myllymäki, Petri

    Combining Topic Models and Social Networks for Chat Data Mining Ville Tuulos and Henry Tirri July 4, 2004 HIIT TECHNICAL REPORT 2004­13 #12;Combining Topic Models and Social Networks for Chat Data Mining;Combining Topic Models and Social Networks for Chat Data Mining Ville H. Tuulos and Henry Tirri Complex

  13. Network Ecology and Adolescent Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Daniel A.; Moody, James; Diehl, David; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Thomas, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent societies—whether arising from weak, short-term classroom friendships or from close, long-term friendships—exhibit various levels of network clustering, segregation, and hierarchy. Some are rank-ordered caste systems and others are flat, cliquish worlds. Explaining the source of such structural variation remains a challenge, however, because global network features are generally treated as the agglomeration of micro-level tie-formation mechanisms, namely balance, homophily, and dominance. How do the same micro-mechanisms generate significant variation in global network structures? To answer this question we propose and test a network ecological theory that specifies the ways features of organizational environments moderate the expression of tie-formation processes, thereby generating variability in global network structures across settings. We develop this argument using longitudinal friendship data on schools (Add Health study) and classrooms (Classroom Engagement study), and by extending exponential random graph models to the study of multiple societies over time. PMID:25535409

  14. Social selection and peer influence in an online social network

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin; Gonzalez, Marco; Kaufman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Disentangling the effects of selection and influence is one of social science's greatest unsolved puzzles: Do people befriend others who are similar to them, or do they become more similar to their friends over time? Recent advances in stochastic actor-based modeling, combined with self-reported data on a popular online social network site, allow us to address this question with a greater degree of precision than has heretofore been possible. Using data on the Facebook activity of a cohort of college students over 4 years, we find that students who share certain tastes in music and in movies, but not in books, are significantly likely to befriend one another. Meanwhile, we find little evidence for the diffusion of tastes among Facebook friends—except for tastes in classical/jazz music. These findings shed light on the mechanisms responsible for observed network homogeneity; provide a statistically rigorous assessment of the coevolution of cultural tastes and social relationships; and suggest important qualifications to our understanding of both homophily and contagion as generic social processes. PMID:22184242

  15. Trust Evaluation in Online Social Networks Using Generalized Network Flow

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    -hand), such as a directed link from s to u, or through a recommendation (second-hand), such as a trusted path (s, u, d target d (it can be a person, or a product/service he provides) in online social networks (OSNs). Some

  16. Informal Learning in Social Networks: A Study of the Orkut Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisboa, Eliana Santana; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical study which characterises the virtual communities of the Orkut social network, focusing in particular on education, training and technology, in order to understand whether this and other social websites allow the development of informal learning. This empirical study, which is descriptive and exploratory, began…

  17. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…

  18. [applications CORNER]Ulrik Brandes Social Network Analysis and Visualization

    E-print Network

    Brandes, Ulrik

    theories of social interaction with corresponding methods for its analysis [5]. A social network may represent any form of relation (affection, dependency, power, support, etc.) between any type of social[applications CORNER]Ulrik Brandes Social Network Analysis and Visualization 1053

  19. Message from the Workshop on the Future of Social Networking

    E-print Network

    Hand, Steven

    Factors Keywords Social networks, Privacy, Recommendation 1. INTRODUCTION Electronic social networks, social media are increasingly underpinning and being exploited for new appli- cations. The purpose. The event was timely and preceded major political events in which social media were important. What role did

  20. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-01-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks. PMID:26648549

  1. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-01-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks. PMID:26648549

  2. Exploratory community sensing in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrabrov, Alexy; Stocco, Gabriel; Cybenko, George

    2010-04-01

    Social networks generally provide an implementation of some kind of groups or communities which users can voluntarily join. Twitter does not have this functionality, and there is no notion of a formal group or community. We propose a method for identification of communities and assignment of semantic meaning to the discussion topics of the resulting communities. Using this analysis method and a sample of roughly a month's worth of Tweets from Twitter's "gardenhose" feed, we demonstrate the discovery of meaningful user communities on Twitter. We examine Twitter data streaming in real time and treat it as a sensor. Twitter is a social network which pioneered microblogging with the messages fitting an SMS, and a variety of clients, browsers, smart phones and PDAs are used for status updates by individuals, businesses, media outlets and even devices all over the world. Often an aggregate trend of such statuses may represent an important development in the world, which has been demonstrated with the Iran and Moldova elections and the anniversary of the Tiananmen in China. We propose using Twitter as a sensor, tracking individuals and communities of interest, and characterizing individual roles and dynamics of their communications. We developed a novel algorithm of community identification in social networks based on direct communication, as opposed to linking. We show ways to find communities of interest and then browse their neighborhoods by either similarity or diversity of individuals and groups adjacent to the one of interest. We use frequent collocations and statistically improbable phrases to summarize the focus of the community, giving a quick overview of its main topics. Our methods provide insight into the largest social sensor network in the world and constitute a platform for social sensing.

  3. Degree correlations in signed social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, Valerio; Bianconi, Ginestra; Capocci, Andrea; Colaiori, Francesca; Panzarasa, Pietro

    2015-03-01

    We investigate degree correlations in two online social networks where users are connected through different types of links. We find that, while subnetworks in which links have a positive connotation, such as endorsement and trust, are characterized by assortative mixing by degree, networks in which links have a negative connotation, such as disapproval and distrust, are characterized by disassortative patterns. We introduce a class of simple theoretical models to analyze the interplay between network topology and the superimposed structure based on the sign of links. Results uncover the conditions that underpin the emergence of the patterns observed in the data, namely the assortativity of positive subnetworks and the disassortativity of negative ones. We discuss the implications of our study for the analysis of signed complex networks.

  4. From biological and social network metaphors to coupled bio-social wireless networks

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Anil Kumar, V.S.; Marathe, Madhav V.

    2010-01-01

    Biological and social analogies have been long applied to complex systems. Inspiration has been drawn from biological solutions to solve problems in engineering products and systems, ranging from Velcro to camouflage to robotics to adaptive and learning computing methods. In this paper, we present an overview of recent advances in understanding biological systems as networks and use this understanding to design and analyse wireless communication networks. We expand on two applications, namely cognitive sensing and control and wireless epidemiology. We discuss how our work in these two applications is motivated by biological metaphors. We believe that recent advances in computing and communications coupled with advances in health and social sciences raise the possibility of studying coupled bio-social communication networks. We argue that we can better utilise the advances in our understanding of one class of networks to better our understanding of the other. PMID:21643462

  5. Networks, Norms, and Trust: The Social Psychology of Social Capital. 2004 Cooley Mead Award Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Karen Schweers

    2005-01-01

    Networks of trust relations often emerge under conditions of uncertainty or risk to facilitate social exchange. Under some conditions, such networks represent a form of social capital that can be mobilized in support of general social cooperation in the society. Under other conditions, however, such networks may have negative effects on the degree…

  6. Privacy policies for health social networking sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data. PMID:23599228

  7. Resolving social dilemmas on evolving random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2009-05-01

    We show that strategy-independent adaptations of random interaction networks can induce powerful mechanisms, ranging from the Red Queen to group selection, which promote cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas. These two mechanisms emerge spontaneously as dynamical processes due to deletions and additions of links, which are performed whenever players adopt new strategies and after a certain number of game iterations, respectively. The potency of cooperation promotion, as well as the mechanism responsible for it, can thereby be tuned via a single parameter determining the frequency of link additions. We thus demonstrate that coevolving random networks may evoke an appropriate mechanism for each social dilemma, such that cooperation prevails even in highly unfavorable conditions.

  8. Privacy policies for health social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data. PMID:23599228

  9. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: Results of an Online Survey.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Stickel, Anna; Schneider, Michael; Müller, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Current research on Internet addiction (IA) reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS) and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterize adult users of an Internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). All participants were listed gamers of "Combat Zone" in the SNS "Facebook." In this sample, 16.2% of the participants were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5% fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of Internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies. PMID:26217238

  10. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: Results of an Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Stickel, Anna; Schneider, Michael; Müller, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    Current research on Internet addiction (IA) reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS) and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterize adult users of an Internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). All participants were listed gamers of “Combat Zone” in the SNS “Facebook.” In this sample, 16.2% of the participants were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5% fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of Internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies. PMID:26217238

  11. Help from My "Friends": Social Capital in the Social Network Sites of Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The development of social capital in young people is positively associated with educational attainment, achievement, and psychosocial factors. Prior research has explored factors that contribute to social capital, such as offline social networks. To a lesser extent, studies have analyzed the relationship between online social networks and…

  12. A Social Compute Cloud: Allocating and Sharing Infrastructure Resources via Social Networks

    E-print Network

    to facilitate resource sharing. A social cloud is "a resource and service sharing framework utilizingA Social Compute Cloud: Allocating and Sharing Infrastructure Resources via Social Networks Simon, IEEE, and Omer F. Rana, Member, IEEE Abstract--Social network platforms have rapidly changed the way

  13. Social Networking and the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of Adolescents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Amanda; Bower, Julie; Carroll, Annemaree

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social networking tools and sites are changing the way young people build and maintain their social connections with others (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). This study utilised a new measure, The Self in a Social Context, Virtual Connectedness subscale (SSC-VC subscale), to examine the effects of social networking tools and sites on…

  14. The Influence of Social Networking Sites on High School Students' Social and Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, June

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of social network sites on youth social and academic development. First, I provide a critical analysis of the extant research literature surrounding social network sites and youth. I merge scholarly thought in the areas of Internet studies, digital divides, social capital theory, psychological well-being,…

  15. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  16. Message framing in social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. PMID:23786169

  17. Rumor diffusion in an interests-based dynamic social network.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia; Zhou, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    To research rumor diffusion in social friend network, based on interests, a dynamic friend network is proposed, which has the characteristics of clustering and community, and a diffusion model is also proposed. With this friend network and rumor diffusion model, based on the zombie-city model, some simulation experiments to analyze the characteristics of rumor diffusion in social friend networks have been conducted. The results show some interesting observations: (1) positive information may evolve to become a rumor through the diffusion process that people may modify the information by word of mouth; (2) with the same average degree, a random social network has a smaller clustering coefficient and is more beneficial for rumor diffusion than the dynamic friend network; (3) a rumor is spread more widely in a social network with a smaller global clustering coefficient than in a social network with a larger global clustering coefficient; and (4) a network with a smaller clustering coefficient has a larger efficiency. PMID:24453911

  18. Modelling opinion formation driven communities in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Barrio, Rafael A.; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo K.

    2011-09-01

    In a previous paper we proposed a model to study the dynamics of opinion formation in human societies by a co-evolution process involving two distinct time scales of fast transaction and slower network evolution dynamics. In the transaction dynamics we take into account short range interactions as discussions between individuals and long range interactions to describe the attitude to the overall mood of society. The latter is handled by a uniformly distributed parameter ?, assigned randomly to each individual, as quenched personal bias. The network evolution dynamics is realised by rewiring the societal network due to state variable changes as a result of transaction dynamics. The main consequence of this complex dynamics is that communities emerge in the social network for a range of values in the ratio between time scales. In this paper we focus our attention on the attitude parameter ? and its influence on the conformation of opinion and the size of the resulting communities. We present numerical studies and extract interesting features of the model that can be interpreted in terms of social behaviour.

  19. Communication Dynamics in Finite Capacity Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerter, Jan O.; Jamtveit, Bjørn; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2012-10-01

    In communication networks, structure and dynamics are tightly coupled. The structure controls the flow of information and is itself shaped by the dynamical process of information exchanged between nodes. In order to reconcile structure and dynamics, a generic model, based on the local interaction between nodes, is considered for the communication in large social networks. In agreement with data from a large human organization, we show that the flow is non-Markovian and controlled by the temporal limitations of individuals. We confirm the versatility of our model by predicting simultaneously the degree-dependent node activity, the balance between information input and output of nodes, and the degree distribution. Finally, we quantify the limitations to network analysis when it is based on data sampled over a finite period of time.

  20. On-light: optical social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionísio, Rogério P.

    2014-07-01

    Social networks are a recent phenomenon of communication, with a high prevalence of young users. This concept serves as a motto for a multidisciplinary project, which aims to create a simple communication network, using light as the transmission medium. Mixed team, composed by students from secondary and higher education schools, are partners on the development of an optical transceiver. A LED lamp array and a small photodiode are the optical transmitter and receiver, respectively. Using several transceivers aligned with each other, this configuration creates a ring communication network, enabling the exchange of messages between users. Through this project, some concepts addressed in physics classes from secondary schools (e.g. photoelectric phenomena and the properties of light) are experimentally verified and used to communicate, in a classroom or a laboratory.

  1. Social Networks in the Virtual Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Myers, James D.; Hoyt, David W.

    2002-08-01

    Located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the High Field Magnetic Resonance Facility (HFMRF) houses 11 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers. Additionally, the Virtual Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Facility (VNMRF) provides on-line Internet access to these HFMRF spectrometers. Through the VNMRF and its suite of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) tools, researchers may collaboratively set the controls of an NMR spectrometer, execute an NMR experiment, acquire data, analyze results, and communicate with other researchers all from the comforts of their home institutions and their own offices. Virtual science laboratories like the VNMRF promote a compelling vision. Consistent with Wulf's notion of a "collaboratory," a virtual science laboratory is a "'center without walls', in which the nation's researchers can perform their research without regard to geographical location." Such a laboratory strives to provide an open research environment in which scientists from different disciplines may collaborate on advanced research using leading-edge instruments and tools, while reducing the physical, organizational, and political boundaries that confront researchers as they amass their collective skills, capabilities, and brainpower to solve the world's most challenging scientific problems. In this article, we describe the social networks that have emerged from the VNMRF and the impacts and influences that CSCW technologies have had upon those networks. The development of social networks depends on various factors including personal and professional objectives, work functions, organizational roles, and afforded collaborative capabilities. As such, our results serve as a useful point of comparison and contrast in the analysis of social networks and CSCW impacts that evolve from scientific contexts as well as from other collaborative settings such as in business and education.

  2. Probabilistic User-level Opinion Detection on Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Petzold, Linda R.

    , 21]. More recently, social media has been instrumental in facilitating the protests in Ukraine [27Probabilistic User-level Opinion Detection on Online Social Networks Kasturi Bhattacharjee popularity of online social networks such as Face- book and Twitter makes them an interesting and important

  3. Legal Risks for Students Using Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael; de Zwart, Melissa; Lindsay, David; Phillips, Michael

    2010-01-01

    There are significant privacy, intellectual property, copyright and disclosure risks associated with the ill-considered use of social networking sites, however, the implementation of regulatory actions may also undermine the social and emerging educational utility of social networking sites for young people. Inevitably the burden of dealing with…

  4. Improving Student Engagement Using Course-Based Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imlawi, Jehad Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes an engagement model that supports use of course-based online social networks for engaging student, and hence, improving their educational outcomes. This research demonstrates that instructors who create course-based online social networks to communicate with students can increase the student engagement in these online social

  5. ASCI, 2010 Analysis of BBO Fans Social Networks Analysis of

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    · Friends and enemies, filtering by skill and nationality · No advanced social networking features, e1 ASCI, 2010 ­ Analysis of BBO Fans Social Networks Analysis of BBO Fans, an Online Social Gaming Community Alexandru Iosup Parallel and Distributed Systems Group Delft University of Technology Vlad Posea

  6. Improving Family Forest Knowledge Transfer through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorczyca, Erika L.; Lyons, Patrick W.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Johnson, Teresa R.; Straub, Crista L.

    2012-01-01

    To better engage Maine's family forest landowners our study used social network analysis: a computational social science method for identifying stakeholders, evaluating models of engagement, and targeting areas for enhanced partnerships. Interviews with researchers associated with a research center were conducted to identify how social network

  7. The YouTube Social Network Mirjam Wattenhofer

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    The YouTube Social Network Mirjam Wattenhofer Google Zurich mirjam@google.com Roger Wattenhofer ETH information. A ma- jor contribution to its success comes from the user-to- user social experience with major online social networks (OSNs) such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ to facilitate off-site diffu

  8. PROXIMITY, INTERACTIONS, AND COMMUNITIES IN SOCIAL NETWORKS: PROPERTIES AND

    E-print Network

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    PROXIMITY, INTERACTIONS, AND COMMUNITIES IN SOCIAL NETWORKS: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS. By Tommy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.4.3 Face-to-Face Interactions Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.5 Application: Social . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Ranking Information in Social Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Small Worlds

  9. Transfer of Training: Adding Insight through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews studies which apply a social network perspective to examine transfer of training. The theory behind social networks focuses on the interpersonal mechanisms and social structures that exist among interacting units such as people within an organization. A premise of this perspective is that individual's behaviors and outcomes…

  10. Social Networking Technologies: A "Poke" for Campus Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Joanne; Berquam, Lori; Christoph, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Handwritten notes, meeting for coffee, eye contact, a handshake, a smile--are these social practices of yesteryear, soon to be replaced by the "wall posts" and "pokes" of today's social networking technologies? Although advances in social networking technologies allow for new and perhaps more efficient means of learning and communicating, they…

  11. The Need for a Social Network 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Bernd W.

    2011-01-01

    At the 2011 ALA conference, social media was still a topic of many discussions. For the past few years, librarians have shared their efforts to incorporate social networking applications like Facebook and Twitter as part of library services. Some librarians have taken on the challenge of establishing a social network for their library, while…

  12. Constructing, conducting and interpreting animal social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Farine, Damien R; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-09-01

    1. Animal social networks are descriptions of social structure which, aside from their intrinsic interest for understanding sociality, can have significant bearing across many fields of biology. 2. Network analysis provides a flexible toolbox for testing a broad range of hypotheses, and for describing the social system of species or populations in a quantitative and comparable manner. However, it requires careful consideration of underlying assumptions, in particular differentiating real from observed networks and controlling for inherent biases that are common in social data. 3. We provide a practical guide for using this framework to analyse animal social systems and test hypotheses. First, we discuss key considerations when defining nodes and edges, and when designing methods for collecting data. We discuss different approaches for inferring social networks from these data and displaying them. We then provide an overview of methods for quantifying properties of nodes and networks, as well as for testing hypotheses concerning network structure and network processes. Finally, we provide information about assessing the power and accuracy of an observed network. 4. Alongside this manuscript, we provide appendices containing background information on common programming routines and worked examples of how to perform network analysis using the r programming language. 5. We conclude by discussing some of the major current challenges in social network analysis and interesting future directions. In particular, we highlight the under-exploited potential of experimental manipulations on social networks to address research questions. PMID:26172345

  13. Assessing group interaction with social language network analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Pennebaker, James; Scholand, Andrew Joseph; Tausczik, Yla R.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.

  14. Assessing Group Interaction with Social Language Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholand, Andrew J.; Tausczik, Yla R.; Pennebaker, James W.

    In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.

  15. Understanding Spreading Patterns on Social Networks Based on Network Topology

    E-print Network

    Saxena, Akrati; Gupta, Yayati

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the proposal of first epidemic model, scientists have been attempting to estimate the growth of a disease/contagion while in its premature stage. Despite being the focus of researchers for a long time, understanding epidemiology remains as error prone as a weather forecast, mainly because of the unavailability of large amount of data. An epidemic spread is analogous to the diffusion of memes in social networking sites. Diffusion of memes can be easily studied provided large datasets and computational powers to extract information from online networks. So, studying a meme spreading pattern can help us in understanding epidemiology. In this paper, we analyse the impact of the topology of a social network, specifically its meso scale properties- community structure and core-periphery structure, on a meme traversing over it. We propose a meme propagation model for synthetic scale free graphs which resemble real world graphs and observe the process of a meme going viral on such a network. We also valida...

  16. The Changing Nature of Suicide Attacks: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedahzur, Ami; Perliger, Arie

    2006-01-01

    To comprehend the developments underlying the suicide attacks of recent years, we suggest that the organizational approach, which until recently was used to explain this phenomenon, should be complemented with a social network perspective. By employing a social network analysis of Palestinian suicide networks, the authors found that, in contrast…

  17. Comparing Maternal and Child Reports of Children's Social Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    A set of instruments was developed to study children's social networks. Mothers and their preschool-age children were interviewed with regard to (1) the composition of each child's social network and (2) the performance of support functions by network members. To determine the reliability of measures, a pilot sample of mothers and children was…

  18. Social networking and information diffusion in automated markets

    E-print Network

    McBurney, Peter

    Social networking and information diffusion in automated markets Martin Chapman1 , Gareth Tyson1, a simulation plat- form for agent-based trading in competing markets3 , to allow for social networking between of Computer Science, University of Liverpool, UK katie@liverpool.ac.uk Abstract. To what extent do networks

  19. Chic or Social: Visual Popularity Analysis in Online Fashion Networks

    E-print Network

    Berg, Tamara L.

    Chic or Social: Visual Popularity Analysis in Online Fashion Networks Kota Yamaguchi Tohoku in a large real-world network focused on fashion. We make use of state of the art computer vision techniques Terms Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement Keywords Social multimedia, Online fashion networks 1

  20. Social Network Theory in Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Peter A.

    Collaborative groups are important both in the learning environment of engineering education and, in the real world, the business of engineering design. Selecting appropriate individuals to form an effective group and monitoring a group's progress are important aspects of successful task performance. This exploratory study looked at using the concepts of cognitive social structures, structural balance, and centrality from social network analysis as well as the measures of emotional intelligence. The concepts were used to analyze potential team members to examine if an individual's ability to perceive emotion in others and the self and to use, understand, and manage those emotions are a factor in a group's performance. The students from a capstone design course in computer engineering were used as volunteer subjects. They were formed into groups and assigned a design exercise to determine whether and which of the above-mentioned tools would be effective in both selecting teams and predicting the quality of the resultant design. The results were inconclusive with the exception of an individual's ability to accurately perceive emotions. The instruments that were successful were the Self-Monitoring scale and the accuracy scores derived from cognitive social structures and Level IV of network levels of analysis.

  1. Trust and compactness in social network groups.

    PubMed

    De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Rosaci, Domenico; Sarné, Giuseppe M L

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind group formation and evolution in social networks is considered an instrumental milestone to better describe how individuals gather and form communities, how they enjoy and share the platform contents, how they are driven by their preferences/tastes, and how their behaviors are influenced by peers. In this context, the notion of compactness of a social group is particularly relevant. While the literature usually refers to compactness as a measure to merely determine how much members of a group are similar among each other, we argue that the mutual trustworthiness between the members should be considered as an important factor in defining such a term. In fact, trust has profound effects on the dynamics of group formation and their evolution: individuals are more likely to join with and stay in a group if they can trust other group members. In this paper, we propose a quantitative measure of group compactness that takes into account both the similarity and the trustworthiness among users, and we present an algorithm to optimize such a measure. We provide empirical results, obtained from the real social networks EPINIONS and CIAO, that compare our notion of compactness versus the traditional notion of user similarity, clearly proving the advantages of our approach. PMID:25099965

  2. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  3. Social Networking Adapted for Distributed Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    Share is a social networking site with novel, specially designed feature sets to enable simultaneous remote collaboration and sharing of large data sets among scientists. The site will include not only the standard features found on popular consumer-oriented social networking sites such as Facebook and Myspace, but also a number of powerful tools to extend its functionality to a science collaboration site. A Virtual Observatory is a promising technology for making data accessible from various missions and instruments through a Web browser. Sci-Share augments services provided by Virtual Observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase science returns from NASA missions. Sci-Share also enables better utilization of NASA s high-performance computing resources by providing an easy and central mechanism to access and share large files on users space or those saved on mass storage. The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today remains the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. Each of these tools has well-known limitations. Sci-Share transforms the social networking paradigm into a scientific collaboration environment by offering powerful tools for cooperative discourse and digital content sharing. Sci-Share differentiates itself by serving as an online repository for users digital content with the following unique features: a) Sharing of any file type, any size, from anywhere; b) Creation of projects and groups for controlled sharing; c) Module for sharing files on HPC (High Performance Computing) sites; d) Universal accessibility of staged files as embedded links on other sites (e.g. Facebook) and tools (e.g. e-mail); e) Drag-and-drop transfer of large files, replacing awkward e-mail attachments (and file size limitations); f) Enterprise-level data and messaging encryption; and g) Easy-to-use intuitive workflow.

  4. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples. PMID:24001298

  5. Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks

    E-print Network

    Hill, Alison Lynn

    Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, ...

  6. Identity and Social Networks Among First Generation College Students 

    E-print Network

    Le, Huong Thi

    2012-10-19

    This thesis focuses on first generation college students and their unique social positions in social and institutional networks. First generation students are less likely to attend college than non-first generation ...

  7. Protecting attributes and contents in online social networks

    E-print Network

    Yang, Yuhao

    2014-12-31

    With the extreme popularity of online social networks, security and privacy issues become critical. In particular, it is important to protect user privacy without preventing them from normal socialization. User privacy in the context of data...

  8. Disentangling Social Networks inferred from Call Logs

    E-print Network

    Cebrian, Manuel; Kirkpatrick, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of an unusually detailed telephone call data set --- a month of nearly all mobile and landline phone calls placed during August 2005 the United Kingdom --- allows us to identify several different types of social networks that are formed, and relate them to different activities that generate them. We distinguish, among others, work-related and personal or leisure-focused activities and show that the networks they form have very different characteristics. Our principal tool for the analysis, k-core decomposition, shows that distinct distributions of connectivity are present in the two spheres, and that this differentiation affects dramatically the dynamics of information diffusion. Both differ from the simpler and more globally connected structure evident in communications data such as the Internet AS graph.

  9. Social network analysis realization and exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Jack H.; Nolan, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Intelligence analysts demand rapid information fusion capabilities to develop and maintain accurate situational awareness and understanding of dynamic enemy threats in asymmetric military operations. The ability to extract meaning in relationships between people, objects, and locations from a variety of unstructured text datasets is critical to proactive decision making. Additionally, the ability to automatically cluster text documents about entities and discover connections between those documents allows the analyst to navigate an extremely large collection of documents. Analysts also demand a temporal understanding of the extracted relationships between entities and connections between documents. We describe approaches to automatically realize the social networks via concept extraction, relationship extraction, and document connection algorithms; we also describe approaches to exploit the network by visualizing the results to the analyst such that changes over time are evident.

  10. Social network support for data delivery infrastructures

    E-print Network

    Sastry, Nishanth Ramakrishna

    2011-10-11

    to be connected with a single destination node or consumer over time. Note that even though multiple paths may form between a 12 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION given pair of nodes, only one path needs to be completed for unicast data to be delivered between them. Thus... applications, including at the systems level, it may be relevant 22 CHAPTER 2. SOCIAL NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW or useful to capture multiple modes of relationships or interaction. For example, email and instant messaging, when combined with phone call logs, could...

  11. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks

    E-print Network

    Ochsner, Kevin

    in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we in popularity reflect status inequalities that shape social interaction within virtually all human groups across Humans are a fundamentally social species, and the social networks in which we are embedded significantly

  12. The NFL Coaching Network: Analysis of the Social Network Among Professional Football Coaches

    E-print Network

    Jensen, David

    The NFL Coaching Network: Analysis of the Social Network Among Professional Football Coaches Andrew afast@cs.umass.edu, jensen@cs.umass.edu Abstract The interactions of professional football coaches and teams in the National Football League (NFL) form a complex social network. This network provides a great

  13. Navigating Social Networking and Social Media in School Psychology: Ethical and Professional Considerations in Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Andy V.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking and social media have undoubtedly proliferated within the past decade, allowing widespread communication and dissemination of user-generated content and information. Some psychology graduate programs, including school psychology, have started to embrace social networking and media for instructional and training purposes; however,…

  14. The Effect of Social Interaction on Learning Engagement in a Social Networking Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social interactions among a class of undergraduate students on their learning engagement in a social networking environment. Thirteen undergraduate students enrolled in a course in a university in Hong Kong used an Elgg-based social networking platform throughout a semester to develop their digital portfolios…

  15. NSF Proposal #00--Longitudinal Social Network Studies and Predictive Social Cohesion Theory

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    NSF Proposal #00-- Longitudinal Social Network Studies and Predictive Social Cohesion Theory years, Starting Date: July 1, 1999 ABSTRACT A new theory of social cohesion is developed for analysis of algorithms for large- network analysis. These sets are hypothesized to have greater cohesiveness related

  16. Novel Visualizations and Interactions for Social Networks Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riche, Nathalie Henry; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    In the last decade, the popularity of social networking applications has dramatically increased. Social networks are collection of persons or organizations connected by relations. Members of Facebook listed as friends or persons connected by family ties in genealogical trees are examples of social networks. Today's web surfers are often part of many online social networks: they communicate in groups or forums on topics of interests, exchange emails with their friends and colleagues, express their ideas on public blogs, share videos on YouTube, exchange and comment photos on Flickr, participate to the edition of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia or contribute to daily news by collaborating to Wikinews or Agoravox.

  17. Social Networking—Another Breach In The Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamnote, Gajendra; Patil, Gajendra; Shejole, Amol

    2010-11-01

    With the increasing popularity of social networks like Facebook and MySpace, such sites have lately become the favourite destinations for spammers and attackers. Social networks have experienced complex social engineering attacks, massive spam and aggressive malware distribution in the recent past. This paper presents a practical case study of social engineering, malware distribution and phishing attacks against social networking sites that are identified over last few months. It is explained how private data of the users are exposed to attackers and how easily their privacy is compromised as a result of these attacks and their own careless behaviour.

  18. The Social Fabric of Elementary Schools: A Network Typology of Social Interaction among Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.; Karsten, Sjoerd; Daly, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    While researchers are currently studying various forms of social network interaction among teachers for their impact on educational policy implementation and practice, knowledge on how various types of networks are interrelated is limited. The goal of this study is to understand the dimensionality that may underlie various types of social networks

  19. Community Discovery in Social Networks: Applications, Methods and Emerging Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Ruan, Y.; Satuluri, V.

    Data sets originating from many different real world domains can be represented in the form of interaction networks in a very natural, concise and meaningful fashion. This is particularly true in the social context, especially given recent advances in Internet technologies and Web 2.0 applications leading to a diverse range of evolving social networks. Analysis of such networks can result in the discovery of important patterns and potentially shed light on important properties governing the growth of such networks.

  20. Internet gaming disorder, social network disorder and laterality: handedness relates to pathological use of social networks.

    PubMed

    Bouna-Pyrrou, Polyxeni; Mühle, Christiane; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lenz, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The internet age bears new challenges that include health risks. It is agreed that excessive internet use may reach pathological levels. However, the concept of internet addiction lacks specificity and, therefore, warrants studies on its diagnostic and etiologic classification. This study was conducted to characterize the novel DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and the adapted criteria for the "social network disorder". Based on the established association of handedness and substance use disorders, we also explored whether internet use related to laterality. For this study, 3,287 volunteers participated in the online survey and gave particulars concerning their internet use in general, internet gaming and use of social networks, laterality markers (hand, foot, eye, ear, rotational preference in gymnastics, and head turning asymmetry) and health status. Of the participants, 1.1 % fulfilled the criteria for internet gaming disorder, and 1.8 % fulfilled the criteria for social network disorder. The applied criteria were highly correlated with the time spent on the respective internet activities (p < 4 × 10(-56)). The analyses of comorbidity and working hours support the thresholds of 5/9 criteria and ?30 h/week spent on the internet for the classification as pathological (p < 5 × 10(-2)). Moreover, we found that left-handedness related to more affirmed criteria and longer times spent on social networks (p ? 4 × 10(-2)). The provided criteria proved to be user-friendly, comprehensible and well accepted. The results contribute to a better understanding of pathological internet gaming and social network use and provide evidence that biological markers of substance use disorders are involved in internet addiction. PMID:25576300

  1. Local Nash equilibrium in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures. PMID:25169150

  2. Local Nash Equilibrium in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M. A.; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-08-01

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures.

  3. Local Nash Equilibrium in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M. A.; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures. PMID:25169150

  4. A Sensemaking Approach to Visual Analytics of Attribute-Rich Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gou, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Social networks have become more complex, in particular considering the fact that elements in social networks are not only abstract topological nodes and links, but contain rich social attributes and reflecting diverse social relationships. For example, in a co-authorship social network in a scientific community, nodes in the social network, which…

  5. Are the users of social networking sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Del-Amo, María-Del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals' behaviors within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain), a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-demographic variables, and experience in social networking and interaction patterns. The findings show new insights regarding international segmentation in order to analyse SNS user behaviors in both countries. These results are relevant for marketing strategists eager to use the communication potential of networked individuals and for marketers willing to explore the potential of online networking as a low cost and a highly efficient alternative to traditional networking approaches. For most businesses, expert users could be valuable opinion leaders and potential brand influencers. PMID:26321971

  6. Are the users of social networking sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals' behaviors within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain), a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-demographic variables, and experience in social networking and interaction patterns. The findings show new insights regarding international segmentation in order to analyse SNS user behaviors in both countries. These results are relevant for marketing strategists eager to use the communication potential of networked individuals and for marketers willing to explore the potential of online networking as a low cost and a highly efficient alternative to traditional networking approaches. For most businesses, expert users could be valuable opinion leaders and potential brand influencers. PMID:26321971

  7. Social Networks, Cognition and Culture Douglas R. White Social_Nets_Cog-June2010a.doc

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    1 Social Networks, Cognition and Culture Douglas R. White Social_Nets_Cog-June2010a.doc Blackwell of social network interactions and contexts. Elements of network structure may thus be perceived of the relation between social networks, cognition and culture. Approaches and findings are explored in a series

  8. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Robert J; Acevedo, Miguel A; Reichert, Brian E; Pias, Kyle E; Kitchens, Wiley M

    2011-11-29

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data. PMID:22084081

  9. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Robert J.; Acevedo, Miguel A.; Reichert, Brian E.; Pias, Kyle E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2011-01-01

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data. PMID:22084081

  10. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Robert J., Jr.; Acevedo, M.A.; Reichert, Brian E.; Pias, Kyle E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2011-01-01

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data.

  11. Social networks, social support mechanisms, and quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Ergas, Isaac J.; Wright, Jaime D.; Caan, Bette J.; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. Methods This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006-2011 and provided data on social networks (presence of spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible, emotional/informational, affection, positive social interaction), and quality of life (QOL), measured by the FACT-B, approximately two months post-diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower vs. higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. Results In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR=2.18, 95%CI:1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR=1.61, 95%CI:1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR=2.08, 95%CI:1.65-2.63), social WB (OR=3.46, 95%CI:2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR=1.67, 95%CI:1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR=1.48, 95%CI:1.18-1.87), compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was “positive social interaction”. However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Conclusions Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status. PMID:23657404

  12. A last updating evolution model for online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Zhan; Xia, Zhengyou; Wang, Jiandong; Zhang, Chengcui

    2013-05-01

    As information technology has advanced, people are turning to electronic media more frequently for communication, and social relationships are increasingly found on online channels. However, there is very limited knowledge about the actual evolution of the online social networks. In this paper, we propose and study a novel evolution network model with the new concept of “last updating time”, which exists in many real-life online social networks. The last updating evolution network model can maintain the robustness of scale-free networks and can improve the network reliance against intentional attacks. What is more, we also found that it has the “small-world effect”, which is the inherent property of most social networks. Simulation experiment based on this model show that the results and the real-life data are consistent, which means that our model is valid.

  13. STor: Social Network based Anonymous Communication in Tor

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Peng; Chen, Ang; Chang, Rocky K C

    2011-01-01

    Anonymity networks hide user identities with the help of relayed anonymity routers. However, the state-of-the-art anonymity networks do not provide an effective trust model. As a result, users cannot circumvent malicious or vulnerable routers, thus making them susceptible to malicious router based attacks (e.g., correlation attacks). In this paper, we propose a novel social network based trust model to help anonymity networks circumvent malicious routers and obtain secure anonymity. In particular, we design an input independent fuzzy model to determine trust relationships between friends based on qualitative and quantitative social attributes, both of which can be readily obtained from existing social networks. Moreover, we design an algorithm for propagating trust over an anonymity network. We integrate these two components in STor, a novel social network based Tor. We have implemented STor by modifying the Tor's source code and conducted experiments on PlanetLab to evaluate the effectiveness of STor. Both s...

  14. Assembly effect of groups in online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.; Wong, K. Y.

    2013-03-01

    Due to the popularity and growth of online social networks, security in these networks becomes a critical problem. Previous works have proved that a virus can spread effectively in social networks. In this paper, groups in social networks are studied. We notice that groups on social network services sites can assemble people with similar characteristics, which may promote virus propagation in these networks. After our analysis, it is found that the use of groups can shorten the distance among users, and hence it would cause faster virus spread. We propose a virus propagation model and simulate it in a group network to show the assembly effect of groups. Our result shows that even with only one random attack, a virus can still spread rapidly, and the direct contact among group members is the reason for fast spreading.

  15. SM: Enabling Efficient Offline Access to Online Social Media and Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    O2 SM: Enabling Efficient Offline Access to Online Social Media and Social Networks Ye Zhao1 , Ngoc media access on mobile devices, and propose an Offline Online Social Media (O2 SM) Middle- ware to: (i) rank the social media streams based the probability that a given user views a given content item

  16. Massive Social Network Analysis: Mining Twitter for Social Good

    E-print Network

    Bader, David A.

    , such as commercial proclivities, political leanings, and propensity for violence. Social media provide tremendous problem is the sheer amount of data available in social media. For example, the social media aggregation the growing corpus of social media. Social media provides staggering amounts of data. Extracting knowledge

  17. Close Communities in Social Networks: Boroughs and 2-Clubs

    E-print Network

    Laan, Steven; Mokken, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The structure of close communication, contacts and association in social networks is studied in the form of maximal subgraphs of diameter 2 (2-clubs), corresponding to three types of close communities: hamlets, social circles and coteries. The concept of borough of a graph is defined and introduced. Each borough is a chained union of 2-clubs of the network and any 2-club of the network belongs to one borough. Thus the set of boroughs of a network, together with the 2-clubs held by them, are shown to contain the structure of close communication in a network. Applications are given with examples from real world network data.

  18. Differences in Beliefs about Psychological Services in the Relationship between Sociorace and One's Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Jeffrey P.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The roles of previous psychological service use and social network variables in beliefs about psychological services were examined with 184 college students. Having friends and family members who used psychological services, being female, and having used psychological services positively related with beliefs about psychological services.…

  19. Internet Use and Social Networking among Middle Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogeboom, David L.; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; Osman, Hana; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the associations between Internet use and the social networks of adults over 50 years of age were examined. A sample (n = 2284) from the 2004 wave of the "Health and Retirement Survey" was used. In regression models considering a number of control variables, frequency of contact with friends, frequency of contact with family, and…

  20. Emergence, Evolution and Scaling of Online Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le-Zhi; Huang, Zi-Gang; Rong, Zhi-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Online social networks have become increasingly ubiquitous and understanding their structural, dynamical, and scaling properties not only is of fundamental interest but also has a broad range of applications. Such networks can be extremely dynamic, generated almost instantaneously by, for example, breaking-news items. We investigate a common class of online social networks, the user-user retweeting networks, by analyzing the empirical data collected from Sina Weibo (a massive twitter-like microblogging social network in China) with respect to the topic of the 2011 Japan earthquake. We uncover a number of algebraic scaling relations governing the growth and structure of the network and develop a probabilistic model that captures the basic dynamical features of the system. The model is capable of reproducing all the empirical results. Our analysis not only reveals the basic mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the retweeting networks, but also provides general insights into the control of information spreading on such networks. PMID:25380140

  1. Unveiling Facebook: A Measurement Study of Social Network Based Applications

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    Unveiling Facebook: A Measurement Study of Social Network Based Applications Atif Nazir, Saqib Raza social networking sites such as Facebook and MyS- pace have become increasingly popular, with close to 500 million users as of August 2008. The introduction of the Facebook Developer Platform and Open

  2. Towards a Social Networks Model for Online Learning & Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kon Shing Kenneth; Paredes, Walter Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we develop a theoretical model to investigate the association between social network properties, "content richness" (CR) in academic learning discourse, and performance. CR is the extent to which one contributes content that is meaningful, insightful and constructive to aid learning and by social network properties we…

  3. Dynamic social networks promote cooperation in experiments with humans

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Dynamic social networks promote cooperation in experiments with humans David G. Randa,b,1 , Samuel October 18, 2011 (received for review May 23, 2011) Human populations are both highly cooperative and highly organized. Human interactions are not random but rather are structured in social networks

  4. Trend Mining in Social Networks: From Trend Identification to Visualisation

    E-print Network

    Coenen, Frans

    Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK (2) Graduate School of Information Sciences, HiroshimaTrend Mining in Social Networks: From Trend Identification to Visualisation Puteri N.E. Nohuddin1 and National Centre for Zoonosis Research, Leahurst, Neston, UK Abstract: A four stage social network trend

  5. A New Addiction for Teacher Candidates: Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cam, Emre; Isbulan, Onur

    2012-01-01

    With the transition to being a knowledge-based society, the internet usage has become an irreplaceable part of life. As socials networks have come into our lives, the internet usage has taken a different dimension. People can affiliate to social networks in order to make friends, exchange information, find partners, and to play games. The process…

  6. Social Network Analysis to Evaluate an Interdisciplinary Research Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboelela, Sally W.; Merrill, Jacqueline A.; Carley, Kathleen M.; Larson, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    We sought to examine the growth of an interdisciplinary center using social network analysis techniques. Specific aims were to examine the patterns of growth and interdisciplinary connectedness of the Center and to identify the social network characteristics of its productive members. The setting for this study was The Center for Interdisciplinary…

  7. Unethical Behaviours Preservice Teachers Encounter on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveci Topal, Arzu; Kolburan Gecer, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    The development of web 2.0 technology has resulted in an increase in internet sharing. The scope of this study is social networking, which is one of the web 2.0 tools most heavily used by internet users. In this paper, the unethical behaviours that preservice teachers encounter on social networks and the ways to deal with these problems are…

  8. Scholars and Faculty Members' Lived Experiences in Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2013-01-01

    Research into faculty members' use of technology and social networking sites has largely focused upon pedagogical practice, at the expense of understanding user experiences with these technologies. Through phenomenological interviews with three faculty members, we investigate their lived experiences with social networking sites. Results point to a…

  9. The Buzz on Campus: Social Networking Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about the latest trend in education, which is social networking. As this phenomenon continues to grow, community colleges are getting into the act, launching online initiatives and harnessing the technology to communicate, promote, and conduct important school business. School administrators believe that social networking can…

  10. The Social Networking Arena: Battle of the Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clipson, Timothy W.; Wilson, S. Ann; DuFrene, Debbie D.

    2012-01-01

    Social networking via texting, Facebook, Twitter, and similar media is enormously popular with students, though it often leads to communication challenges along gender lines. Research supports the fact that men and women have divergent expectations for social networking and use it differently. Students can benefit from classroom experiences that…

  11. Social Networks and Aggressive Behaviour in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated Mainland Chinese children's social networks and peer group affiliations with a particular emphasis on their aggressive behaviour. The participants were 294 elementary school students in Tianjin, P. R. China (mean age 11.5 years; 161 boys). Social network analysis identified relatively large and gender-specific…

  12. Identity Practices of Multilingual Writers in Social Networking Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-I

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the literacy practices of two multilingual writers in social networking communities. The findings show that the multilingual writers explored and reappropriated symbolic resources afforded by the social networking site as they aligned themselves with particular collective and personal identities at local and global levels.…

  13. Pharmaceutical Drugs Chatter on Online Social Networks Matthew T. Wileya

    E-print Network

    Hristidis, Vagelis

    Pharmaceutical Drugs Chatter on Online Social Networks Matthew T. Wileya , Canghong Jinb* , Vagelis Drugs, Frequent Itemsets. 1. Introduction #12;Numerous Online Social Networks (OSNs)1 host Medicine 2 andconfirmedthat online drug reviews serve their purpose ­ i.e. users discuss medications and their effecton

  14. An Organizational Framework of Personal Health Records for Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Syed Omair

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes an organizational framework for creating a community to share personal health record (PHR) information in the form of a Health Records Social Network (HRSN). The work builds upon existing social network community concepts as well as the existing Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) model used by the medical community and…

  15. Competition for Content Spread over Multiple Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Anurag

    Competition for Content Spread over Multiple Social Networks Srinivasan Venkatramanan and Anurag Kumar Abstract--We consider the competition between two competing content creators who can reach out games [6], [7], [8] to study competition between content creators on a social network. One aspect

  16. Potential of Social Networking Sites for Distance Education Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Perini, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential of social networking sites for increasing student engagement for distance education learners. The authors present a modified student engagement model with a focus on the integration of technology, specifically social networking sites for community college distance education learners. The chapter concludes with…

  17. Are Social Networking Websites Educational? Information Capsule. Volume 0909

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…

  18. Teachers Beware! The Dark Side of Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belch, Harry Ess

    2012-01-01

    Think teachers can post what they want on their own time? Think again. Many have lost their jobs over social networking gaffes in recent years. In this article, the author shares what he has learned about how school districts cope with teachers and online social networking sites, and offers recommendations to teachers who want to have an online…

  19. Physical Proximity and Spreading in Dynamic Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Most infectious diseases spread on a dynamic network of human interactions. Recent studies of social dynamics have provided evidence that spreading patterns may depend strongly on detailed micro-dynamics of the social system. We have recorded every single interaction within a large population, mapping out---for the first time at scale---the complete proximity network for a densely-connected system. Here we show the striking impact of interaction-distance on the network structure and dynamics of spreading processes. We create networks supporting close (intimate network, up to ~1m) and longer distance (ambient network, up to ~10m) modes of transmission. The intimate network is fragmented, with weak ties bridging densely-connected neighborhoods, whereas the ambient network supports spread driven by random contacts between strangers. While there is no trivial mapping from the micro-dynamics of proximity networks to empirical epidemics, these networks provide a telling approximation of droplet and airborne modes o...

  20. Acquaintance role for decision making and exchanges in social networks

    E-print Network

    Agliari, Elena; Burioni, Raffaella; Contucci, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We model a social network by a random graph whose nodes represent agents and links between two of them stand for a reciprocal interaction; each agent is also associated to a binary variable which represents a dichotomic opinion or attribute. We consider both the case of pair-wise (p=2) and multiple (p>2) interactions among agents and we study the behavior of the resulting system by means of the energy-entropy scheme, typical of statistical mechanics methods. We show, analytically and numerically, that the connectivity of the social network plays a non-trivial role: while for pair-wise interactions (p=2) the connectivity weights linearly, when interactions involve contemporary a number of agents larger than two (p>2), its weight gets more and more important. As a result, when p is large, a full consensus within the system, can be reached at relatively small critical couplings with respect to the p=2 case usually analyzed, or, otherwise stated, relatively small coupling strengths among agents are sufficient to ...

  1. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Paul; Ipema, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Living in a stable social environment is important to animals. Animal species have developed social behaviors and rules of approach and avoidance of conspecifics in order to co-exist. Animal species are kept or domesticated without explicit regard for their inherent social behavior and rules. Examples of social structures are provided for four species kept and managed by humans. This information is important for the welfare management of these species. In the near future, automatic measurement of social structures will provide a tool for daily welfare management together with nearest neighbor information. Abstract It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future. PMID:26479886

  2. Evolution of social networks: the example of obesity.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, Jacques; Taramasco, Carla

    2014-12-01

    The present paper deals with the effect of the social transmission of nutrition habits in a social and biological age-dependent context on obesity, and accordingly on type II diabetes and among its complications, the neurodegenerative diseases. The evolution of social networks and inside a network the healthy weight of a person are depending on the context in which this person has contacts and exchanges concerning his alimentation, physical activity and sedentary habits, inside the dominant social network in which the person lives (e.g., scholar for young, professional for adult, home or institution for elderly people). Three successive steps of evolution will be considered for social networks (like for neural one's): initial random connectivity, destruction and consolidation of links following a new transition rule called homophilic until an asymptotic architectural organization and configuration of states. The application of such a network dynamics concerns the sequence overweight/obesity/type II diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25466389

  3. Latino social network dynamics and the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

    PubMed

    Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Barrington, Clare; Lacy, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to examine the dynamics of existing and emerging social networks among Latino survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Data were generated through individual, in-depth interviews conducted with 65 Latinos within six months of the storm striking the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005. The findings illustrated both the role of social networks in gathering information, making decisions and accessing resources, and how these existing social networks were disrupted and strained by overwhelming needs. Broader structural issues, including poverty and a lack of transportation, combined with marginalised status as immigrants, further constrained access to essential information and resources. In response, new, if temporary, social networks emerged, based primarily on shared nationality, language, and a sense of collective commitment. Practice implications include the need to consider the social network dynamics of marginalised groups in developing innovative strategies to overcome structural barriers to accessing resources essential for disaster preparedness and survival. PMID:21623889

  4. Personal Social Network Factors Associated with Overdose Prevention Training Participation

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Ellen; Wong, Carolyn F.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer; McNeeley, Miles; Davidson, Peter J.; McCarty, Christopher; Kral, Alex H.; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated social network factors associated with participation in overdose prevention training among injection drug users (IDUs). From 2008-2010, 106 IDUs who had witnessed an overdose in the past year from two syringe exchange programs in Los Angeles provided data on: overdose prevention training status (trained vs. untrained), social networks, history of overdose, and demographics. In multivariate logistic regression, naming at least one network member who had been trained in overdose prevention was significantly associated with being trained (Adjusted Odds Ratio 3.25, 95% Confidence Interval 1.09, 9.68). Using social network approaches may help increase training participation. Limitations are noted. PMID:22988840

  5. Why social network analysis is important to Air Force applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, Paul R.; McIntire, John P.; Geiselman, Eric; Mohd-Zaid, Fairul

    2012-06-01

    Social network analysis is a powerful tool used to help analysts discover relationships amongst groups of people as well as individuals. It is the mathematics behind such social networks as Facebook and MySpace. These networks alone cause a huge amount of data to be generated and the issue is only compounded once one adds in other electronic media such as e-mails and twitter. In this paper we outline the basics of social network analysis and how it may be used in current and future Air Force applications.

  6. Social Network Extraction and Analysis Based on Multimodal Dyadic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Escalera, Sergio; Baró, Xavier; Vitrià, Jordi; Radeva, Petia; Raducanu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions are a very important component in people’s lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times’ Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links’ weights are a measure of the “influence” a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network. PMID:22438733

  7. Epidemic spreading in a hierarchical social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosi?ski, R. A.

    2004-09-01

    A model of epidemic spreading in a population with a hierarchical structure of interpersonal interactions is described and investigated numerically. The structure of interpersonal connections is based on a scale-free network. Spatial localization of individuals belonging to different social groups, and the mobility of a contemporary community, as well as the effectiveness of different interpersonal interactions, are taken into account. Typical relations characterizing the spreading process, like a range of epidemic and epidemic curves, are discussed. The influence of preventive vaccinations on the spreading process is investigated. The critical value of preventively vaccinated individuals that is sufficient for the suppression of an epidemic is calculated. Our results are compared with solutions of the master equation for the spreading process and good agreement of the character of this process is found.

  8. Walk-based measure of balance in signed networks: Detecting lack of balance in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Benzi, Michele

    2014-10-01

    There is a longstanding belief that in social networks with simultaneous friendly and hostile interactions (signed networks) there is a general tendency to a global balance. Balance represents a state of the network with a lack of contentious situations. Here we introduce a method to quantify the degree of balance of any signed (social) network. It accounts for the contribution of all signed cycles in the network and gives, in agreement with empirical evidence, more weight to the shorter cycles than to the longer ones. We found that, contrary to what is generally believed, many signed social networks, in particular very large directed online social networks, are in general very poorly balanced. We also show that unbalanced states can be changed by tuning the weights of the social interactions among the agents in the network.

  9. A Micro-foundation of Social Capital in Evolving Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Alaa, Ahmed M; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    A social network confers benefits and advantages on individuals (and on groups), the literature refers to these advantages as social capital. This paper presents a micro-founded mathematical model of the evolution of a social network and of the social capital of individuals within the network. The evolution of the network is influenced by the extent to which individuals are homophilic, structurally opportunistic, socially gregarious and by the distribution of types in the society. In the analysis, we identify different kinds of social capital: bonding capital, popularity capital, and bridging capital. Bonding capital is created by forming a circle of connections, homophily increases bonding capital because it makes this circle of connections more homogeneous. Popularity capital leads to preferential attachment: individuals who become popular tend to become more popular because others are more likely to link to them. Homophily creates asymmetries in the levels of popularity attained by different social groups,...

  10. Financial Engineering of the Integration of Global Supply Chain Networks and Social Networks with Risk Management

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    (see, e.g., [41]). Frameworks for risk management in a global supply chain context, but with a focusFinancial Engineering of the Integration of Global Supply Chain Networks and Social Networks: In this paper, we focus on the financial engineering of integrated global supply chain networks and social

  11. Reading, Writing, Relationships: The Impact of Social Network Sites on Relationships and Well-Being

    E-print Network

    Reading, Writing, Relationships: The Impact of Social Network Sites on Relationships and Well, Facebook, social support, bridging social capital, happiness, satisfaction with life, loneliness, relationships, network composition, social communication skill, unemployment, job loss, computer

  12. Professionalism in Student Online Social Networking: The Role of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, A.; Kienhuis, M.; Pisani, H.; Shahwan-Akl, L.; White, K.

    2013-01-01

    Social media now form a common part of university students' experience. Both at university and after graduation, in their personal and professional lives, social media offer opportunities for connection previously unavailable. The ubiquitous nature of social networking has brought with it professional and ethical issues that need to be…

  13. Odyssey of the Mind: Social Networking in Cyberschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Michael K.; Plough, Cory

    2012-01-01

    K-12 online learning and cyber charter schools have grown at a tremendous rate over the past decade. At the same time, these online programs have struggled to provide the social spaces where students can interact that K-12 schools are traditionally able to provide. Social networking presents a unique opportunity to provide these kinds of social

  14. Predictive Coding of Dynamical Variables in Balanced Spiking Networks

    PubMed Central

    Boerlin, Martin; Machens, Christian K.; Denève, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Two observations about the cortex have puzzled neuroscientists for a long time. First, neural responses are highly variable. Second, the level of excitation and inhibition received by each neuron is tightly balanced at all times. Here, we demonstrate that both properties are necessary consequences of neural networks that represent information efficiently in their spikes. We illustrate this insight with spiking networks that represent dynamical variables. Our approach is based on two assumptions: We assume that information about dynamical variables can be read out linearly from neural spike trains, and we assume that neurons only fire a spike if that improves the representation of the dynamical variables. Based on these assumptions, we derive a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons that is able to implement arbitrary linear dynamical systems. We show that the membrane voltage of the neurons is equivalent to a prediction error about a common population-level signal. Among other things, our approach allows us to construct an integrator network of spiking neurons that is robust against many perturbations. Most importantly, neural variability in our networks cannot be equated to noise. Despite exhibiting the same single unit properties as widely used population code models (e.g. tuning curves, Poisson distributed spike trains), balanced networks are orders of magnitudes more reliable. Our approach suggests that spikes do matter when considering how the brain computes, and that the reliability of cortical representations could have been strongly underestimated. PMID:24244113

  15. Social networks uncovered: 10 tips every plastic surgeon should know.

    PubMed

    Dauwe, Phillip; Heller, Justin B; Unger, Jacob G; Graham, Darrell; Rohrich, Rod J

    2012-11-01

    Understanding online social networks is of critical importance to the plastic surgeon. With knowledge, it becomes apparent that the numerous networks available are similar in their structure, usage, and function. The key is communication between Internet media such that one maximizes exposure to patients. This article focuses on 2 social networking platforms that we feel provide the most utility to plastic surgeons. Ten tips are provided for incorporation of Facebook and Twitter into your practice. PMID:23042902

  16. Pinning impulsive synchronization of complex-variable dynamical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaoyan; Liu, Danfeng; Ye, Qingling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, pinning combining with impulsive control scheme is adopted to investigate the synchronization of complex-variable dynamical network. Based on the Lyapunov function method and mathematical analysis technique, sufficient conditions for achieving synchronization is first analytically derived. This result extends the condition derived for real-variable dynamical network to complex-variable network. Further, adaptive strategy is adopted to relax the restrictions on the impulsive intervals and reduce the control cost. Noticeably, the proposed adaptive pinning impulsive control scheme is universal for different dynamical networks to some extent. The impulsive instants are chosen by solving a series of maximum problems subject to the derived conditions. Several numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness and correctness of the derived theoretical results.

  17. Social Network Analysis: A case study of the Islamist terrorist network

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Social Network Analysis is a compilation of methods used to identify and analyze patterns in social network systems. This article serves as a primer on foundational social network concepts and analyses and builds a case study on the global Islamist terrorist network to illustrate the use and usefulness of these methods. The Islamist terrorist network is a system composed of multiple terrorist organizations that are socially connected and work toward the same goals. This research utilizes traditional social network, as well as small-world, and scale-free analyses to characterize this system on individual, network and systemic levels. Leaders in the network are identified based on their positions in the social network and the network structure is categorized. Finally, two vital nodes in the network are removed and this version of the network is compared with the previous version to make implications of strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities. The Islamist terrorist network structure is found to be a resilient and efficient structure, even with important social nodes removed. Implications for counterterrorism are given from the results of each analysis.

  18. Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Gupta, Anika; Sycara, Katia; Li, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust) between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust) between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM) problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC) model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P) diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25061986

  19. Information Coverage Maximization in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhefeng; Liu, Qi; Yang, Yu; Ge, Yong; Chang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Social networks, due to their popularity, have been studied extensively these years. A rich body of these studies is related to influence maximization, which aims to select a set of seed nodes for maximizing the expected number of active nodes at the end of the process. However, the set of active nodes can not fully represent the true coverage of information propagation. A node may be informed of the information when any of its neighbours become active and try to activate it, though this node (namely informed node) is still inactive. Therefore, we need to consider both active nodes and informed nodes that are aware of the information when we study the coverage of information propagation in a network. Along this line, in this paper we propose a new problem called Information Coverage Maximization that aims to maximize the expected number of both active nodes and informed ones. After we prove that this problem is NP-hard and submodular in the independent cascade model and the linear threshold model, we design t...

  20. Privacy Preserving in Social Networks Against Sensitive Edge Disclosure

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jun

    likelihood, web links, sexual relationships, disease transmission (epidemi- ology), etc. Although studying social networks has wide appli- cations and attracted more and more attentions in recent years, we still ones), network topology (isomorphism), growth models (network temporal attraction to new members

  1. A systematic review protocol: social network analysis of tobacco use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world. Evidence indicates that behaviours such as tobacco use can influence social networks, and that social network structures can influence behaviours. Social network analysis provides a set of analytic tools to undertake methodical analysis of social networks. We will undertake a systematic review to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature regarding social network analysis and tobacco use. The review will answer the following research questions: among participants who use tobacco, does social network structure/position influence tobacco use? Does tobacco use influence peer selection? Does peer selection influence tobacco use? Methods We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and search the following databases for relevant articles: CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Informit Health Collection; PsycINFO; PubMed/MEDLINE; Scopus/Embase; Web of Science; and the Wiley Online Library. Keywords include tobacco; smoking; smokeless; cigarettes; cigar and ‘social network’ and reference lists of included articles will be hand searched. Studies will be included that provide descriptions of social network analysis of tobacco use. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method data that meets the inclusion criteria for the review, including methodological rigour, credibility and quality standards, will be synthesized using narrative synthesis. Results will be presented using outcome statistics that address each of the research questions. Discussion This systematic review will provide a timely evidence base on the role of social network analysis of tobacco use, forming a basis for future research, policy and practice in this area. This systematic review will synthesise the evidence, supporting the hypothesis that social network structures can influence tobacco use. This will also include exploring the relationship between social network structure, social network position, peer selection, peer influence and tobacco use across all age groups, and across different demographics. The research will increase our understanding of social networks and their impact on tobacco use, informing policy and practice while highlighting gaps in the literature and areas for further research. PMID:25108616

  2. Near consensus complex linear and nonlinear social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bingo Wing-Kuen; Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Wang, Lidong; Teo, Kok-Lay; Tse, Chi K.; Dai, Qingyun

    2014-05-01

    Some of the nodes of complex social networks may support for a given proposal, while the rest of the nodes may be against the given proposal. Even though all the nodes support for or are against the given proposal, the decision certitudes of individual nodes may be different. In this case, the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the majority of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value. Deriving the near consensus property is a key to the analysis of the behaviors of complex social networks. So far, no result on the behaviors of the complex social networks satisfying the near consensus property has been reported. Hence, it is useful to extend the definition of the exact consensus property to that of a near consensus property and investigate the behaviors of the complex social networks satisfying the near consensus property. This paper extends the definition of exact consensus complex social networks to that of near consensus complex social networks. For complex linear social networks, this paper investigates the relationships among the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes, the influence weight matrix and the set of vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes under a given near consensus specification. The above analysis is based on the Eigen theory. For complex nonlinear social networks with certain types of nonlinearities, the relationship between the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes is studied. When a complex nonlinear social network does not achieve the exact consensus property, the optimal near consensus condition that the complex social network can achieve is derived. This problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The total number of nodes that the decision certitudes of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value is maximized subject to the corresponding near consensus specification. The optimization problem is a nonsmooth optimization problem. The nonsmooth constraints are first approximated by smooth constraints. Then, the approximated optimization problem is solved via a conventional smooth optimization approach. Computer numerical simulation results as well as the comparisons of the behaviors of complex nonlinear social networks to those of the complex linear social networks are presented. The obtained results demonstrate that some complex social networks can satisfy the near consensus property but not the exact consensus property. Also, the conditions for the near consensus property are dependent on the types of nonlinearities, the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes.

  3. A Social Network–Informed Latent Class Analysis of Patterns of Substance Use, Sexual Behavior, and Mental Health: Social Network Study III, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Suellen; Tan, Xianming; Wylie, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether a meaningful set of latent risk profiles could be identified in an inner-city population through individual and network characteristics of substance use, sexual behaviors, and mental health status. Methods. Data came from 600 participants in Social Network Study III, conducted in 2009 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify risk profiles and, with covariates, to identify predictors of class. Results. A 4-class model of risk profiles fit the data best: (1) solitary users reported polydrug use at the individual level, but low probabilities of substance use or concurrent sexual partners with network members; (2) social–all-substance users reported polydrug use at the individual and network levels; (3) social–noninjection drug users reported less likelihood of injection drug and solvent use; (4) low-risk users reported low probabilities across substances. Unstable housing, preadolescent substance use, age, and hepatitis C status predicted risk profiles. Conclusions. Incorporation of social network variables into LCA can distinguish important subgroups with varying patterns of risk behaviors that can lead to sexually transmitted and bloodborne infections. PMID:24625178

  4. A Generational Comparison of Social Networking Site Use: The Influence of Age and Social Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N = 256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer…

  5. LingoBee and Social Media: Mobile Language Learners as Social Networkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter-Legg, Emma; Cacchione, Annamaria; Petersen, Sobah Abbas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents language learners as social networkers and describes and discusses the types of users that can be identified by analysing the content created by them using a situated mobile language learning app, LingoBee, based on the idea of crowd sourcing. Borrowing ideas from other studies conducted on social network users, we can identify…

  6. Fluid Centrality: A Social Network Analysis of Social-Technical Relations in Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Judith Guevarra

    2010-01-01

    In this article, centrality is explored as a measure of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in networked learning. Centrality measure is quite common in performing social network analysis (SNA) and in analysing social cohesion, strength of ties and influence in CMC, and computer-supported collaborative learning research. It argues that measuring…

  7. The Role of Social Support and Social Networks in Health Information Seeking Behavior among Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Wonsun

    2013-01-01

    Access to health information appears to be a crucial piece of the racial and ethnic health disparities puzzle among immigrants. There are a growing number of scholars who are investigating the role of social networks that have shown that the number and even types of social networks among minorities and lower income groups differ (Chatman, 1991;…

  8. Social isolation and perceived barriers to establishing social networks among Latina immigrants.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Kaltman, Stacey

    2014-03-01

    Research has identified numerous mechanisms through which perceived social isolation and lack of social support negatively impact health. Little research attention has been dedicated to factors that influence the development of social networks, which have the potential to decrease perceptions of social isolation and provide social support. There is mixed evidence concerning the availability of supportive social networks for Latinos in the US. This study explores trauma-exposed Latina immigrants' experiences of social isolation in the US and its perceived causes. Twenty-eight Latina immigrant women participated in an interview about traumatic experiences. Informal help seeking and the availability of friendships in the US were also queried. Frequent comparisons between experiences in their home countries and in the US shaped the emerging themes of social isolation and lack of social support. Women reported feeling lonely, isolated, closed-in, and less free in the US due to family separation and various obstacles to developing and maintaining relationships. Socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial barriers were offered as explanations for their limited social networks in the US. Understanding experiences of social isolation as well as barriers to forging social networks can help inform the development of social support interventions that can contribute to improved health among Latinos. PMID:24402726

  9. Multiple QoT Constrained Social Trust Path Selection in Complex Social Networks Guanfeng Liu and Yan Wang

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yan

    experiments conducted on a real dataset of online social networks illustrate that the proposed methodMultiple QoT Constrained Social Trust Path Selection in Complex Social Networks Guanfeng Liu@cityu.edu.hk Abstract--In recent years, online social networks with numerous participants have been used as the means

  10. Social networks and their role in preventing dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Jagan A.; Verghese, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the role of social networks as a protective factor in the development of dementia over the last decade has increased with a number of longitudinal studies being published on the possible association of different lifestyles with dementia. This review examines and provides a summary of the published longitudinal studies exploring the effect of social network on dementia, with particular focus on their relevance to the Indian society. Potential cognitive and biological mechanisms mediating the effects of social networks on dementia are discussed. Results from observational studies suggest that degree of social engagement, marriage, living with someone and avoiding loneliness may have a protective effect on developing dementia that could be applicable to both Indian and western societies. A deeper analysis of the nature of social networks and dementia pertinent to Indian society is awaited. PMID:21416012

  11. Dynamics of Social Complex Networks: Some Insights into Recent Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Sergi

    Social networks analysis (that is, the study of interactions among social actors from a structural viewpoint) has a long tradition covering several decades [1, 2, 3]. This sort of study has usually been performed over small social networks, and the limitation of size has conditioned the visibility of complexity [4, 5]. However, the situation has changed significantly in recent times due to basically two reasons. First, there is an increasing availability of larger social datasets (obtained in most cases from information and communication technologies). Secondly, a large number of physicists and other scholars from complexity science have started to take active interest in the field. New perspectives and tools have been provided by these ‘newcomers’, which in combination with the expertise and knowledge accumulated by ‘classical’ social network analysts, has formed the basis of a multidisciplinary field suitably termed the science of networks [6, 7].

  12. Benford’s Law Applies to Online Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Benford’s Law states that, in naturally occurring systems, the frequency of numbers’ first digits is not evenly distributed. Numbers beginning with a 1 occur roughly 30% of the time, and are six times more common than numbers beginning with a 9. We show that Benford’s Law applies to social and behavioral features of users in online social networks. Using social data from five major social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, Pinterest, and LiveJournal), we show that the distribution of first significant digits of friend and follower counts for users in these systems follow Benford’s Law. The same is true for the number of posts users make. We extend this to egocentric networks, showing that friend counts among the people in an individual’s social network also follows the expected distribution. We discuss how this can be used to detect suspicious or fraudulent activity online and to validate datasets. PMID:26308716

  13. Social Network, Activity Participation, and Cognition: A Complex Relationship.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Howard; Stoeckel, Kimberly J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how two domains of engagement-social network and activity participation-associate with objective and subjective cognitive function in later life. Specific consideration was given as to how these two spheres intersect in regard to recall and memory. The analytic sample included Europeans aged 60 and older drawn from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe in which a new name-generated social network inventory was implemented. Multivariate analyses revealed that activity participation yielded stronger positive associations with word recall and self-rated memory than social network alone. However, the interactions indicate that this association lessened in strength for both the objective and subjective cognitive outcome measures as social network resources increased. The findings suggest that the social component of activity participation may be partially contributing to the positive role that such engagement has on cognitive well-being in later life. PMID:25878191

  14. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Gao, Hui; Chen, Lian; Mensah, Dennis N. A.; Fu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition) towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods. PMID:26075404

  15. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  16. Resolving Structural Variability in Network Models and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Klimm, Florian; Bassett, Danielle S.; Carlson, Jean M.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale white matter pathways crisscrossing the cortex create a complex pattern of connectivity that underlies human cognitive function. Generative mechanisms for this architecture have been difficult to identify in part because little is known in general about mechanistic drivers of structured networks. Here we contrast network properties derived from diffusion spectrum imaging data of the human brain with 13 synthetic network models chosen to probe the roles of physical network embedding and temporal network growth. We characterize both the empirical and synthetic networks using familiar graph metrics, but presented here in a more complete statistical form, as scatter plots and distributions, to reveal the full range of variability of each measure across scales in the network. We focus specifically on the degree distribution, degree assortativity, hierarchy, topological Rentian scaling, and topological fractal scaling—in addition to several summary statistics, including the mean clustering coefficient, the shortest path-length, and the network diameter. The models are investigated in a progressive, branching sequence, aimed at capturing different elements thought to be important in the brain, and range from simple random and regular networks, to models that incorporate specific growth rules and constraints. We find that synthetic models that constrain the network nodes to be physically embedded in anatomical brain regions tend to produce distributions that are most similar to the corresponding measurements for the brain. We also find that network models hardcoded to display one network property (e.g., assortativity) do not in general simultaneously display a second (e.g., hierarchy). This relative independence of network properties suggests that multiple neurobiological mechanisms might be at play in the development of human brain network architecture. Together, the network models that we develop and employ provide a potentially useful starting point for the statistical inference of brain network structure from neuroimaging data. PMID:24675546

  17. Resolving structural variability in network models and the brain.

    PubMed

    Klimm, Florian; Bassett, Danielle S; Carlson, Jean M; Mucha, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    Large-scale white matter pathways crisscrossing the cortex create a complex pattern of connectivity that underlies human cognitive function. Generative mechanisms for this architecture have been difficult to identify in part because little is known in general about mechanistic drivers of structured networks. Here we contrast network properties derived from diffusion spectrum imaging data of the human brain with 13 synthetic network models chosen to probe the roles of physical network embedding and temporal network growth. We characterize both the empirical and synthetic networks using familiar graph metrics, but presented here in a more complete statistical form, as scatter plots and distributions, to reveal the full range of variability of each measure across scales in the network. We focus specifically on the degree distribution, degree assortativity, hierarchy, topological Rentian scaling, and topological fractal scaling--in addition to several summary statistics, including the mean clustering coefficient, the shortest path-length, and the network diameter. The models are investigated in a progressive, branching sequence, aimed at capturing different elements thought to be important in the brain, and range from simple random and regular networks, to models that incorporate specific growth rules and constraints. We find that synthetic models that constrain the network nodes to be physically embedded in anatomical brain regions tend to produce distributions that are most similar to the corresponding measurements for the brain. We also find that network models hardcoded to display one network property (e.g., assortativity) do not in general simultaneously display a second (e.g., hierarchy). This relative independence of network properties suggests that multiple neurobiological mechanisms might be at play in the development of human brain network architecture. Together, the network models that we develop and employ provide a potentially useful starting point for the statistical inference of brain network structure from neuroimaging data. PMID:24675546

  18. A Survey of Signed Network Mining in Social Media

    E-print Network

    Tang, Jiliang; Aggarwal, Charu; Liu, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Many real-world relations can be represented by signed networks with positive and negative links, and signed network analysis has attracted increasing attention from multiple disciplines. With the evolution of data from offline to social media networks, signed network analysis has evolved from developing and measuring theories to mining tasks. In this article, we present a review of mining signed networks in social media and discuss some promising research directions and new frontiers. We begin by giving basic concepts and unique properties and principles of signed networks. Then we classify and review tasks of signed network mining with representative algorithms. We also delineate some tasks that have not been extensively studied with formal definitions and research directions to expand the boundaries of signed network mining.

  19. How social networks influence female students' choices to major in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinland, Kathryn Ann

    Scope and Method of Study: This study examined how social influence plays a part in female students' choices of college major, specifically engineering instead of science, technology, and math. Social influence may show itself through peers, family members, and teachers and may encompass resources under the umbrella of social capital. The purpose of this study was to examine how female students' social networks, through the lens of social capital, influence her major choice of whether or not to study engineering. The variables of peer influence, parental influence, teacher/counselor influence, perception of engineering, and academic background were addressed in a 52 question, Likert scale survey. This survey has been modified from an instrument previously used by Reyer (2007) at Bradley University. Data collection was completed using the Dillman (2009) tailored design model. Responses were grouped into four main scales of the dependent variables of social influence, encouragement, perceptions of engineering and career motivation. A factor analysis was completed on the four factors as a whole, and individual questions were not be analyzed. Findings and Conclusions: This study addressed the differences in social network support for female freshmen majoring in engineering versus female freshmen majoring in science, technology, or math. Social network support, when working together from all angles of peers, teachers, parents, and teachers/counselors, transforms itself into a new force that is more powerful than the summation of the individual parts. Math and science preparation also contributed to female freshmen choosing to major in engineering instead of choosing to major in science, technology, or math. The STEM pipeline is still weak and ways in which to reinforce it should be examined. Social network support is crucial for female freshmen who are majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  20. An accurate comparison of methods for quantifying variable importance in artificial neural networks using simulated data

    E-print Network

    Joy, Mike

    An accurate comparison of methods for quantifying variable importance in artificial neural networks, Joy and Death: Assessing variable contributions in neural networks 2 Abstract Artificial neural elements called artificial neural networks (ANNs). Although ANNs were initially developed to better

  1. Informal Networks Social Capital of Fathers: What Does the Social Engagement Survey Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanera, Zenaida

    2007-01-01

    Using the General Social Survey on Social Engagement conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003, this paper examines social capital derived from informal networks and its variation among men categorized as: (1) men with no children, and (2) men living with children in (a) intact, (b) step, and (c) lone parent families. The focus on men stems from a…

  2. SocialNetSense: Supporting Sensemaking of Social and Structural Features in Networks with Interactive Visualization

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xiaolong "Luke"

    interacting with other individuals, and as part of a social group connecting with other groups. To make senseSocialNetSense: Supporting Sensemaking of Social and Structural Features in Networks with Interactive Visualization Liang Gou*, Xiaolong (Luke) Zhang** Airong Luo , Patricia F. Anderson

  3. Competition Between Homophily and Information Entropy Maximization in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Jichang; Xu, Ke

    2014-01-01

    In social networks, it is conventionally thought that two individuals with more overlapped friends tend to establish a new friendship, which could be stated as homophily breeding new connections. While the recent hypothesis of maximum information entropy is presented as the possible origin of effective navigation in small-world networks. We find there exists a competition between information entropy maximization and homophily in local structure through both theoretical and experimental analysis. This competition means that a newly built relationship between two individuals with more common friends would lead to less information entropy gain for them. We conjecture that in the evolution of the social network, both of the two assumptions coexist. The rule of maximum information entropy produces weak ties in the network, while the law of homophily makes the network highly clustered locally and the individuals would obtain strong and trust ties. Our findings shed light on the social network modeling from a new pe...

  4. Online social networks—Paradise of computer viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    Online social network services have attracted more and more users in recent years. So the security of social networks becomes a critical problem. In this paper, we propose a virus propagation model based on the application network of Facebook, which is the most popular among these social network service providers. We also study the virus propagation with an email virus model and compare the behaviors of a virus spreading on Facebook with the original email network. It is found that Facebook provides the same chance for a virus spreading while it gives a platform for application developers. And a virus will spread faster in the Facebook network if users of Facebook spend more time on it.

  5. [Doctors and the benefits and dangers of social networks].

    PubMed

    Tisseron, Serge

    2015-05-13

    Social networks have many different uses. Most young people use them for experimentation and innovation. Social networks help young people get familiar with the digital world, and develop themselves in interrelation with their peers. But social networks can also be used to avoid relationships in the real world, or to practice different forms of harassment. A specific danger lies in forgetting that a great number of people can have access to personal information posted online. Doctors should be particularly aware of this issue. PMID:26118232

  6. Location-based mobile information sharing service for social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinlong; Liao, Bin; Qin, You

    2011-12-01

    With the popularity of mobile devices and social network services, more and more people tend to use their mobile phones to share information with others by social network service. This paper proposes a new location-based mobile information sharing service system, which allows geo-tagged information to share between users through social network. The sharing service works in a personalized push mode, and sends the only location-based information of genuine interest for users. The implementation of a demonstration system including the mobile information sharing service server and the mobile client is presented in this paper.

  7. Sampling promotes community structure in social and information networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagus, Neli; Šubelj, Lovro; Weiss, Gregor; Bajec, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Any network studied in the literature is inevitably just a sampled representative of its real-world analogue. Additionally, network sampling is lately often applied to large networks to allow for their faster and more efficient analysis. Nevertheless, the changes in network structure introduced by sampling are still far from understood. In this paper, we study the presence of characteristic groups of nodes in sampled social and information networks. We consider different network sampling techniques including random node and link selection, network exploration and expansion. We first observe that the structure of social networks reveals densely linked groups like communities, while the structure of information networks is better described by modules of structurally equivalent nodes. However, despite these notable differences, the structure of sampled networks exhibits stronger characterization by community-like groups than the original networks, irrespective of their type and consistently across various sampling techniques. Hence, rich community structure commonly observed in social and information networks is to some extent merely an artifact of sampling.

  8. Multi-Relational Characterization of Dynamic Social Network Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Sundaram, Hari; Kelliher, Aisling

    The emergence of the mediated social web - a distributed network of participants creating rich media content and engaging in interactive conversations through Internet-based communication technologies - has contributed to the evolution of powerful social, economic and cultural change. Online social network sites and blogs, such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and LiveJournal, thrive due to their fundamental sense of "community". The growth of online communities offers both opportunities and challenges for researchers and practitioners. Participation in online communities has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways ranging from financial decision-making to political choices, suggesting the rich potential for diverse applications. However, although studies on the social web have been extensive, discovering communities from online social media remains challenging, due to the interdisciplinary nature of this subject. In this article, we present our recent work on characterization of communities in online social media using computational approaches grounded on the observations from social science.

  9. Similar Others in Same-Sex Couples' Social Networks.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Bauermeister, Jose; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory R; de Vries, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Same-sex couples experience unique minority stressors. It is known that strong social networks facilitate access to psychosocial resources that help people reduce and manage stress. However, little is known about the social networks of same-sex couples, in particular their connections to other same-sex couples, which is important to understand given that the presence of similar others in social networks can ameliorate social stress for stigmatized populations. In this brief report, we present data from a diverse sample of 120 same-sex couples in Atlanta and San Francisco. The median number of other same-sex couples known was 12; couples where one partner was non-Hispanic White and the other a person of color knew relatively few other same-sex couples; and there was a high degree of homophily within the social networks of same-sex couples. These data establish a useful starting point for future investigations of couples' social networks, especially couples whose relationships are stigmatized or marginalized in some way. Better understandings of the size, composition, and functions of same-sex couples' social networks are critically needed. PMID:26192404

  10. Social Balance on Networks: The Dynamics of Friendship and Enmity

    E-print Network

    T. Antal; P. L. Krapivsky; S. Redner

    2006-05-21

    How do social networks evolve when both friendly and unfriendly relations exist? Here we propose a simple dynamics for social networks in which the sense of a relationship can change so as to eliminate imbalanced triads--relationship triangles that contains 1 or 3 unfriendly links. In this dynamics, a friendly link changes to unfriendly or vice versa in an imbalanced triad to make the triad balanced. Such networks undergo a dynamic phase transition from a steady state to "utopia"--all friendly links--as the amount of network friendliness is changed. Basic features of the long-time dynamics and the phase transition are discussed.

  11. Social networking patterns/hazards among teenagers.

    PubMed

    Machold, C; Judge, G; Mavrinac, A; Elliott, J; Murphy, A M; Roche, E

    2012-05-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed. PMID:22803496

  12. Efficient Access Control in Multimedia Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachan, Amit; Emmanuel, Sabu

    Multimedia social networks (MMSNs) have provided a convenient way to share multimedia contents such as images, videos, blogs, etc. Contents shared by a person can be easily accessed by anybody else over the Internet. However, due to various privacy, security, and legal concerns people often want to selectively share the contents only with their friends, family, colleagues, etc. Access control mechanisms play an important role in this situation. With access control mechanisms one can decide the persons who can access a shared content and who cannot. But continuously growing content uploads and accesses, fine grained access control requirements (e.g. different access control parameters for different parts in a picture), and specific access control requirements for multimedia contents can make the time complexity of access control to be very large. So, it is important to study an efficient access control mechanism suitable for MMSNs. In this chapter we present an efficient bit-vector transform based access control mechanism for MMSNs. The proposed approach is also compatible with other requirements of MMSNs, such as access rights modification, content deletion, etc. Mathematical analysis and experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

  13. Classification of Message Spreading in a Heterogeneous Social Network

    E-print Network

    Jendoubi, Siwar; Liétard, Ludovic; Yaghlane, Boutheina Ben

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, social networks such as Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn become increasingly popular. In fact, they introduced new habits, new ways of communication and they collect every day several information that have different sources. Most existing research works fo-cus on the analysis of homogeneous social networks, i.e. we have a single type of node and link in the network. However, in the real world, social networks offer several types of nodes and links. Hence, with a view to preserve as much information as possible, it is important to consider so-cial networks as heterogeneous and uncertain. The goal of our paper is to classify the social message based on its spreading in the network and the theory of belief functions. The proposed classifier interprets the spread of messages on the network, crossed paths and types of links. We tested our classifier on a real word network that we collected from Twitter, and our experiments show the performance of our belief classifier.

  14. Network-based social capital and capacity-building programs: an example from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Capacity-building programs are vital for healthcare workforce development in low- and middle-income countries. In addition to increasing human capital, participation in such programs may lead to new professional networks and access to social capital. Although network development and social capital generation were not explicit program goals, we took advantage of a natural experiment and studied the social networks that developed in the first year of an executive-education Master of Hospital and Healthcare Administration (MHA) program in Jimma, Ethiopia. Case description We conducted a sociometric network analysis, which included all program participants and supporters (formally affiliated educators and mentors). We studied two networks: the Trainee Network (all 25 trainees) and the Trainee-Supporter Network (25 trainees and 38 supporters). The independent variable of interest was out-degree, the number of program-related connections reported by each respondent. We assessed social capital exchange in terms of resource exchange, both informational and functional. Contingency table analysis for relational data was used to evaluate the relationship between out-degree and informational and functional exchange. Discussion and evaluation Both networks demonstrated growth and inclusion of most or all network members. In the Trainee Network, those with the highest level of out-degree had the highest reports of informational exchange, ?2 (1, N = 23) = 123.61, p < 0.01. We did not find a statistically significant relationship between out-degree and functional exchange in this network, ?2(1, N = 23) = 26.11, p > 0.05. In the Trainee-Supporter Network, trainees with the highest level of out-degree had the highest reports of informational exchange, ?2 (1, N = 23) = 74.93, p < 0.05. The same pattern held for functional exchange, ?2 (1, N = 23) = 81.31, p < 0.01. Conclusions We found substantial and productive development of social networks in the first year of a healthcare management capacity-building program. Environmental constraints, such as limited access to information and communication technologies, or challenges with transportation and logistics, may limit the ability of some participants to engage in the networks fully. This work suggests that intentional social network development may be an important opportunity for capacity-building programs as healthcare systems improve their ability to manage resources and tackle emerging problems. PMID:20594321

  15. The Social Strategy Game Resource Competition within Female Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    favoritism toward enemies as resulting from fear of retribution. Our results suggest that social relations relationship history in addition to typical features of resource ecology. Keywords Experimental economics

  16. Online Social Networking Issues Within Academia and Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online social networking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online social networking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an “e-professionalism” concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online social networking. PMID:18322572

  17. Use of social network sites for question and answer behavior

    E-print Network

    Panovich, Katrina (Katrina Marie)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we look at the behavior of posting questions as status updates on popular social network sites like Twitter and Facebook. This question asking behavior is similar to the use of search engines, question and ...

  18. Strategic delay and information exchange in endogenous social networks

    E-print Network

    Bimpikis, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis studies optimal stopping problems for strategic agents in the context of two economic applications: experimentation in a competitive market and information exchange in social networks. The economic agents (firms ...

  19. Mining Heterogeneous Social Networks for Egocentric Information Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Te; Lin, Shou-De

    Social network is a powerful data structure that allows the depiction of relationship information between entities. However, real-world social networks are sometimes too complex for human to pursue further analysis. In this work, an unsupervised mechanism is proposed for egocentric information abstraction in heterogeneous social networks. To achieve this goal, we propose a vector space representation for heterogeneous social networks to identify combination of relations as features and compute statistical dependencies as feature values. These features, either linear or eyelie, intend to capture the semantic information in the surrounding environment of the ego. Then we design three abstraction measures to distill representative and important information to construct the abstracted graphs for visual presentation. The evaluations conducted on a real world movie datasct and an artificial crime dataset demonstrate that the abstractions can indeed retain significant information and facilitate more accurate and efficient human analysis.

  20. Inferring Trust Using Relation Extraction in Heterogeneous Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghpanah, Nima; Akhoondi, Masoud; Abolhassani, Hassan

    People use trust to cope with uncertainty which is a result of the free will of others. Previous approaches for inferring trust have focused on homogeneous relationships and attempted to infer missing information based on existing information in a single relationship. In this paper we propose using methods of social network analysis to infer trust in a heterogeneous social network. We have extended the problem of relation extraction and allowed using any type of binary operator on matrixes, whereas previous work have focused on linear combination of base matrixes (the only allowed operator was summation of two matrixes). We present two genetic algorithms which use ordinary numerical and fuzzy logic operators and compare them on a real world dataset. We have verified our claim - ability to infer trust in a heterogeneous social network- using proposed methods on a web-based social network.

  1. Building a Social Network One Choice at a Time.

    PubMed

    Suchow, Jordan W

    2015-01-01

    Newcomers to a social network show preferential attachment, a tendency to befriend those with many friends. Here, we show that preferential attachment is equivalent to a form of 'probability matching' commonly found in studies of decision-making. This equivalence, whereby newcomers probability match to a social signal akin to popularity, marries network science to the study of decision-making and raises new questions about how individual psychology impacts the social structure of groups. We asked people to view a visualization of a social network and to select group members whom they would like to meet and befriend. People varied in how strongly they weighed popularity and this was mildly correlated with aspects of their personality. Individual differences in preferential attachment affect the structure and connectivity of the network that emerges. PMID:26186607

  2. Building a Social Network One Choice at a Time

    PubMed Central

    Suchow, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    Newcomers to a social network show preferential attachment, a tendency to befriend those with many friends. Here, we show that preferential attachment is equivalent to a form of ‘probability matching’ commonly found in studies of decision-making. This equivalence, whereby newcomers probability match to a social signal akin to popularity, marries network science to the study of decision-making and raises new questions about how individual psychology impacts the social structure of groups. We asked people to view a visualization of a social network and to select group members whom they would like to meet and befriend. People varied in how strongly they weighed popularity and this was mildly correlated with aspects of their personality. Individual differences in preferential attachment affect the structure and connectivity of the network that emerges. PMID:26186607

  3. Online social networking issues within academia and pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jeff

    2008-02-15

    Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online social networking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online social networking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an "e-professionalism" concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online social networking. PMID:18322572

  4. Cheaters in the Steam Community Gaming Social Network

    E-print Network

    Blackburn, Jeremy; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Zuo, Xiang; Long, Clayton; Ripeanu, Matei; Skvoretz, John; Iamnitchi, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Online gaming is a multi-billion dollar industry that entertains a large, global population. One unfortunate phenomenon, however, poisons the competition and the fun: cheating. The costs of cheating span from industry-supported expenditures to detect and limit cheating, to victims' monetary losses due to cyber crime. This paper studies cheaters in the Steam Community, an online social network built on top of the world's dominant digital game delivery platform. We collected information about more than 12 million gamers connected in a global social network, of which more than 700 thousand have their profiles flagged as cheaters. We also collected in-game interaction data of over 10 thousand players from a popular multiplayer gaming server. We show that cheaters are well embedded in the social and interaction networks: their network position is largely undistinguishable from that of fair players. We observe that the cheating behavior appears to spread through a social mechanism: the presence and the number of ch...

  5. That's the Thing with Community: Social Networks and Asset Development

    E-print Network

    Wheeler-Brooks, Jennifer

    2009-12-08

    This study explores the role of social networks in the lives of participants in an asset building program. Focus groups were conducted with parents whose children hold accounts in a multi-site demonstration project of ...

  6. Bridge building : afterschool activities, youth social networks, and community development

    E-print Network

    Forman, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. cities have dramatically increased funding for afterschool activities. These afterschool programs may contribute to community development by expanding social networks, providing new channels for the ...

  7. Social networking for nurse education: Possibilities, perils and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Green, Janet; Wyllie, Aileen; Jackson, Debra

    2014-03-11

    Abstract In this paper, we consider the potential and implications of using social networking sites such as Facebook® in nurse education. The concept of social networking and the use of Facebook will be explored, as will the theoretical constructs specific to the use of online technology and web 2.0 tools. Theories around Communities of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson & Archer 2000), Communities of Practice (Wenger 1998), Activity Theory (Daniels, Cole & Wertsch 2007) and Actor Network Theory (Latour 1997) will be briefly explored, as will the work of Vygotsky (1978), as applies to the social aspects of learning. Boundary issues, such as if and how faculty and students should or could be connected via social networking sites will also be explored. PMID:24611647

  8. Social networking for nurse education: Possibilities, perils and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Green, Janet; Wyllie, Aileen; Jackson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we consider the potential and implications of using social networking sites such as Facebook® in nurse education. The concept of social networking and the use of Facebook will be explored, as will the theoretical constructs specific to the use of online technology and Web 2.0 tools. Theories around Communities of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000), Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998), Activity Theory (Daniels, Cole, & Wertsch, 2007) and Actor-Network theory (Latour, 1997) will be briefly explored, as will the work of Vygotsky (1978), as applies to the social aspects of learning. Boundary issues, such as if and how faculty and students should or could be connected via social networking sites will also be explored. PMID:25267140

  9. Explorative Visualization of Citation Patterns in Social Network Research

    E-print Network

    Brandes, Ulrik

    and Christian Pich Department of Computer & Information Science University of Konstanz Abstract We propose, Florida, USA, 22-27 January 2008. 1 #12;Brandes, Pich: Citation Patterns in Social Network Research Jo

  10. Communication Appliances: Shared Awareness for Intimate Social Networks

    E-print Network

    technology metaphor is that of a toaster, which performs a single function simply and well. An aesthetically) calls intimate social networks. This paper describes our work with distributed families in home settings

  11. The New Normal: Social Networking and Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores both the potential and challenges associated with the widespread use of social networking among college students and the implications for civic engagement, equity and inclusion, and student success.

  12. Is There a Role for Social Networking Sites in Education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ieda M.; Hammond, Michael; Durli, Zenilde; Chou, Shiao-Yuh

    Social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace have become popular among millions of users including students of all ages. There are ongoing discussions over the potential of these sites to support teaching and learning, particularly to complement traditional or online classroom activities. This paper explores whether social networking have a place in teaching and learning by investigating how students use these sites and whether they find opportunities to discuss study related activities with their peers. Two small scale studies were carried out in a face-to-face undergraduate course in Singapore and students enrolled in a face-to-face Master’s programme in Brazil. Data were collected using surveys and interviews; findings were mixed. Many of the Brazilian students used social networking sites to both socialize and discuss their studies while the Singaporean students used such sites for social interactions only. The paper discusses these differences and offers suggestions for further research.

  13. A real-time disease surveillance architecture using social networks.

    PubMed

    Sofean, Mustafa; Smith, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we proposed surveillance architecture to track diseases-related postings in social networks using Twitter. In each part of the second, the real-time architecture tracks status updates of people as they are posted as soon as possible. Data mining techniques will be used synchronically to crawl, index, extract and classify postings. This work is a part of constructing a global real-time framework for early monitoring diseases outbreaks in social networks. PMID:22874307

  14. Topology Analysis of Social Networks Extracted from Literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a world where complex networks are an increasingly important part of science, it is interesting to question how the new reading of social realities they provide applies to our cultural background and in particular, popular culture. Are authors of successful novels able to reproduce social networks faithful to the ones found in reality? Is there any common trend connecting an author’s oeuvre, or a genre of fiction? Such an analysis could provide new insight on how we, as a culture, perceive human interactions and consume media. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to define the signature of a novel’s story based on the topological analysis of its social network of characters. For this purpose, an automated tool was built that analyses the dialogs in novels, identifies characters and computes their relationships in a time-dependent manner in order to assess the network’s evolution over the course of the story. PMID:26039072

  15. Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W.; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; Dos Reis, Sérgio F.

    2007-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks.

  16. Modelling Animal Group Fission Using Social Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sueur, Cédric; Maire, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Group life involves both advantages and disadvantages, meaning that individuals have to compromise between their nutritional needs and their social links. When a compromise is impossible, the group splits in order to reduce conflict of interests and favour positive social interactions between its members. In this study we built a dynamic model of social networks to represent a succession of temporary fissions involving a change in social relations that could potentially lead to irreversible group fission (i.e. no more group fusion). This is the first study that assesses how a social network changes according to group fission-fusion dynamics. We built a model that was based on different parameters: the group size, the influence of nutritional needs compared to social needs, and the changes in the social network after a temporary fission. The results obtained from this theoretical data indicate how the percentage of social relation transfer, the number of individuals and the relative importance of nutritional requirements and social links influence the average number of days before irreversible fission occurs. The greater the nutritional needs and the higher the transfer of social relations during temporary fission, the fewer days will be observed before an irreversible fission. It is crucial to bridge the gap between the individual and the population level if we hope to understand how simple, local interactions may drive ecological systems. PMID:24831471

  17. Analysis of Clustering Coefficients of Online Social Networks by Duplication Models

    E-print Network

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    . For instances, products or concepts are conventionally promoted by celebrities such as movie or sports stars marketing over online social networks can be a power tool for business. Social networks have been widely, such as viral marketing, on social networks. Long time ago social network analysts have observed a behavior

  18. Visual-VM: A Social Network Visualization Tool for Viral Marketing

    E-print Network

    Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing

    Visual-VM: A Social Network Visualization Tool for Viral Marketing Cheng Long, Raymond Chi for social network exploration. Keywords-Social network visualization, viral marketing I. INTRODUCTION Viral users. The propagation process of viral marketing within a social network can be described as follows

  19. A Query Approach for Influence Maximization on Specific Users in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Chung, Chin-Wan

    in online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. To use online social networks as a marketing from all the users in a social network through viral marketing. However, influence maximizationA Query Approach for Influence Maximization on Specific Users in Social Networks Jong-Ryul Lee

  20. Social Networking Sites as Virtual Communities of Practice: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lorretta J.

    2010-01-01

    Membership in social networking sites is increasing rapidly. Social networking sites serve many purposes including networking, communication, recruitment, and sharing knowledge. Social networking sites, public or private, may be hosted on applications such as Facebook and LinkedIn. As individuals begin to follow and participate in social

  1. Stories in Networks and Networks in Stories: A Tri-Modal Model for Mixed-Methods Social Network Research on Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2015-01-01

    Social network research on teachers and schools has risen exponentially in recent years as an innovative method to reveal the role of social networks in education. However, scholars are still exploring ways to incorporate traditional quantitative methods of Social Network Analysis (SNA) with qualitative approaches to social network research. This…

  2. Predicting Emerging Social Conventions in Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Gummadi, Krishna P.

    the topic of a multitude of studies in anthropology [5], sociology [24], and psychology [17,41]. Social]. The factors influencing an individual's decision to conform to a social norm have been studied extensively in psychology [17]. In some cases, the individual is adopting a norm because they believe doing so leads to more

  3. The Networked Teacher: How New Teachers Build Social Networks for Professional Support. Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2011-01-01

    New teachers need support from their peers and mentors to locate resources, information, new ideas, emotional support, and inspiration. This timely book explains the research and theory behind social networks (face-to-face and online), describes what effective social networking for educators looks like, reveals common obstacles that new teachers…

  4. The Effect of Social Network Diagrams on a Virtual Network of Practice: A Korean Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the presentation of social network diagrams on virtual team members' interaction behavior via e-mail. E-mail transaction data from 22 software developers in a Korean IT company was analyzed and depicted as diagrams by social network analysis (SNA), and presented to the members as an intervention. Results…

  5. The vocabularies we use derive from anthropology (kinship, social roles), sociology (social networks, norms), graph theory (graphs, net-

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    (social networks, norms), graph theory (graphs, net- works), complexity theory (fractals, power laws group, rule, role, process. See Network- Defined Concepts in Social Organization Norm Statistical Norm Ideal Norm Prescription Marriage Behaviors Marital relinking Affinal relinking Consanguineal relinking

  6. Geographic Constraints on Social Network Groups

    E-print Network

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    Social groups are fundamental building blocks of human societies. While our social interactions have always been constrained by geography, it has been impossible, due to practical difficulties, to evaluate the nature of ...

  7. Cosmic Deuterium and Social Networking Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Suer, T.-A.; Lubowich, D. A.; Glaisyer, T.

    2006-08-01

    For the education of newcomers to a scientific field and for the convenience of students and workers in the field, it is helpful to have all the basic scientific papers gathered. For the study of deuterium in the Universe, in 2004-5 we set up http://www.cosmicdeuterium.info with clickable links to all the historic and basic papers in the field and to many of the current papers. Cosmic deuterium is especially important because all deuterium in the Universe was formed in the epoch of nucleosynthesis in the first 1000 seconds after the Big Bang, so study of its relative abundance (D:H~1:100,000) gives us information about those first minutes of the Universe's life. Thus the understanding of cosmic deuterium is one of the pillars of modern cosmology, joining the cosmic expansion, the 3 degree cosmic background radiation, and the ripples in that background radiation. Studies of deuterium are also important for understanding Galactic chemical evolution, astrochemistry, interstellar processes, and planetary formation. Some papers had to be scanned while others are available at the Astrophysical Data System, adswww.harvard.edu, or to publishers' Websites. By 2006, social networking software (http:tinyurl.com/ zx5hk) had advanced with popular sites like facebook.com and MySpace.com; the Astrophysical Data System had even set up MyADS. Social tagging software sites like http://del.icio.us have made it easy to share sets of links to papers already available online. We have set up http://del.icio.us/deuterium to provide links to many of the papers on cosmicdeuterium.info, furthering previous del.icio.us work on /eclipses and /plutocharon. It is easy for the site owner to add links to a del.icio.us site; it takes merely clicking on a button on the browser screen once the site is opened and the desired link is viewed in a browser. Categorizing different topics by keywords allows subsets to be easily displayed. The opportunity to expose knowledge and build an ecosystem of web pages that use the functionality of a facebook-type application to capture knowledge collaboratively is considerable. Setting up such a system would marry one of the youngest isotopes with the latest software technologies.

  8. The effects of online social networks on tacit knowledge transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hong-Miao; Zhang, Sheng-Tai; Jin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Due to the popular use of online social networks in today's world, how to propagate employees' tacit knowledge via online social networks has attracted managers' attention, which is critical to enhance the competitiveness of firms. In this paper, we propose a tacit knowledge transmission model on networks with even mixing based on the propagation property of tacit knowledge and the application of online social networks. We consider two routes of transmission, which are contact through online social networks and face-to-face physical contact, and derive the threshold that governs whether or not a kind of tacit knowledge can be shared in an organization with few initial employees who have acquired it. The impact of the degree distribution of the users' contact network on the transmission is investigated analytically. Some numerical simulations are presented to support the theoretical results. We perform the sensitivity analysis of the threshold in terms of the propagation parameters and confirm that online social networks contribute significantly to enhancing the transmission of tacit knowledge among employees.

  9. Early social networks predict survival in wild bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Margaret A; Mann, Janet

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental question concerning group-living species is what factors influence the evolution of sociality. Although several studies link adult social bonds to fitness, social patterns and relationships are often formed early in life and are also likely to have fitness consequences, particularly in species with lengthy developmental periods, extensive social learning, and early social bond-formation. In a longitudinal study of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.), calf social network structure, specifically the metric eigenvector centrality, predicted juvenile survival in males. Additionally, male calves that died post-weaning had stronger ties to juvenile males than surviving male calves, suggesting that juvenile males impose fitness costs on their younger counterparts. Our study indicates that selection is acting on social traits early in life and highlights the need to examine the costs and benefits of social bonds during formative life history stages. PMID:23077627

  10. Social Networks, Substance Use, and Mental Health in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Zaharakis, Nikola; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The relationship between social network risk (alcohol-using close friends), perceived peer closeness, substance use, and psychiatric symptoms was examined to identify risk and protective features of college students' social context. Participants: Six hundred and seventy undergraduate students enrolled in a large southeastern…

  11. Community Discovery in Dynamic, Rich-Context Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ru

    2010-01-01

    My research interest has been in understanding the human communities formed through interpersonal social activities. Participation in online communities on social network sites such as Twitter has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways including financial decision-making and political choices, suggesting the rich potential…

  12. #SocialNetworks: Making Nonfiction Trend in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta; Scott, Kelly; Simone, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Students must be proficient readers of nonfiction texts to be successful in school and life. Since engaging students in this genre can be challenging, this article focuses on how students can respond digitally and socially to nonfiction through the use of free, secure social networks. Not only can students become more engaged in learning when…

  13. Academic English Socialization through Individual Networks of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappa-Hollman, Sandra; Duff, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of individual network of practice (INoP) as a viable construct for analyzing academic (discourse) socialization in second language (L2) contexts. The authors provide an overview of social practice theories that have informed the development of INoP--community of practice (CoP; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger,…

  14. BUBBLE Rap: Social-based Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

    E-print Network

    Hand, Steven

    BUBBLE Rap: Social-based Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks Pan Hui, Jon Crowcroft, and Eiko@net.t-labs.tu-berlin.de, jon.crowcroft@cl.cam.ac.uk, eiko.yoneki@cl.cam.ac.uk November 2010 #12;1 BUBBLE Rap: Social

  15. Stegobot: a covert social network botnet Shishir Nagaraja1

    E-print Network

    Borisov, Nikita

    Stegobot: a covert social network botnet Shishir Nagaraja1 , Amir Houmansadr2 , Pratch botnet that com- municates over probabilistically unobservable communication channels. It is designed to spread via social malware attacks and steal informa- tion from its victims. Unlike conventional botnets

  16. The Use of Social Networking Sites among Malaysian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamat, Afendi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Hassan, Haslinda Abu

    2012-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have increasingly become an important tool for young adults to interact and socialize with their peers. As most of these young adults are also learners, educators have been looking for ways to understand the phenomena in order to harness its potential for use in education. This is especially relevant in Malaysia…

  17. Towards Integrating Real-World Spatiotemporal Data with Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    such as target advertising, sale promotions, and marketing campaigns. Although most social interactionsTowards Integrating Real-World Spatiotemporal Data with Social Networks Huy Pham Ling Hu Cyrus Shahabi Integrated Media Systems Center University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles, California

  18. Seed and Grow: An Attack Against Anonymized Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    Seed and Grow: An Attack Against Anonymized Social Networks Wei Peng, Feng Li, Xukai Zou and Jie Wu an algorithm, Seed and Grow, to identify users from an anonymized social graph based solely on graph structure. The algorithm first identifies a seed sub-graph, either planted by an attacker or divulged by collusion

  19. Social Networks and Depression among Older Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Puerto Rican population has excess risk of many health problems like diabetes, cognitive impairment, physical frailty, and disability. They also exhibit high rates of depression symptoms. Research suggests that support from social networks may mediate the effects of social and environmental stre...

  20. Ring Cohesion in Marriage and Social Networks Douglas R. White

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    Ring Cohesion in Marriage and Social Networks Douglas R. White July, 2004 (third draft 3 of elementary marriage cycles created by cousin marriage in terms of their implications for social cohesion patterns of cohesion, espe- cially those involving cycles. Noting Goldenweiser's (1913) complaint

  1. What Determines Social Capital in a Social-Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  2. First Comes Social Networking, Then Comes Marriage? Characteristics of Americans Married 2005–2012 Who Met Through Social Networking Sites

    E-print Network

    Hall, Jeffrey A.

    2014-05-10

    Although social networking sites (SNS) have become increasingly prevalent and integrated into the lives of users, the role of SNS in courtship is relatively unknown. The present manuscript reports on the characteristics ...

  3. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  4. Model Criticism of Bayesian Networks with Latent Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This study investigated statistical methods for identifying errors in Bayesian networks (BN) with latent variables, as found in intelligent cognitive assessments. BN, commonly used in artificial intelligence systems, are promising mechanisms for scoring constructed-response examinations. The success of an intelligent assessment or tutoring system…

  5. Composite Variable Formulations for Express Shipment Service Network Design

    E-print Network

    Gendron, Bernard

    ), which is the world's largest pack- age delivery company; Federal Express; and the U.S. Postal ServiceComposite Variable Formulations for Express Shipment Service Network Design Andrew P. Armacost, Kentucky 40223 In this paper we describe a new approach to solving the express shipment service net- work

  6. Bayesian Network Models for Local Dependence among Observable Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mulder, Joris; Hemat, Lisa A.; Yan, Duanli

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian network models offer a large degree of flexibility for modeling dependence among observables (item outcome variables) from the same task, which may be dependent. This article explores four design patterns for modeling locally dependent observations: (a) no context--ignores dependence among observables; (b) compensatory context--introduces…

  7. Effects of Group Categories on the Structure of Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Stanley Laine, Michael Steve

    2010-08-24

    Over the past few years there has been increasing research interests spent on online social networks. While some social networking sites such as Orkut, Facebook and Friendster are purely social, others such as YouTube, Flickr, and Live...

  8. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  9. Semantic Social Network Portal for Collaborative Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Marco; O'Murchu, Ina; Breslin, John; Decker, Stefan; Hogan, Deirdre; MacDonaill, Ciaran

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The motivation for this investigation is to apply social networking features to a semantic network portal, which supports the efforts in enterprise training units to up-skill the employee in the company, and facilitates the creation and reuse of knowledge in online communities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides an overview…

  10. Modular and hierarchical structure of social contact networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yuanzheng; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang; Song, Hongbin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Social contact networks exhibit overlapping qualities of communities, hierarchical structure and spatial-correlated nature. We propose a mixing pattern of modular and growing hierarchical structures to reconstruct social contact networks by using an individual’s geospatial distribution information in the real world. The hierarchical structure of social contact networks is defined based on the spatial distance between individuals, and edges among individuals are added in turn from the modular layer to the highest layer. It is a gradual process to construct the hierarchical structure: from the basic modular model up to the global network. The proposed model not only shows hierarchically increasing degree distribution and large clustering coefficients in communities, but also exhibits spatial clustering features of individual distributions. As an evaluation of the method, we reconstruct a hierarchical contact network based on the investigation data of a university. Transmission experiments of influenza H1N1 are carried out on the generated social contact networks, and results show that the constructed network is efficient to reproduce the dynamic process of an outbreak and evaluate interventions. The reproduced spread process exhibits that the spatial clustering of infection is accordant with the clustering of network topology. Moreover, the effect of individual topological character on the spread of influenza is analyzed, and the experiment results indicate that the spread is limited by individual daily contact patterns and local clustering topology rather than individual degree.

  11. Social Networks and Career Advancement of People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Mukta

    2012-01-01

    Although organizational social networks are known to influence career mobility, the specific direction of this influence is different for diverse employee groups. Diversity in organizational network research has been operationalized on various dimensions such as race and ethnicity, age, religion, education, occupation, and gender. Missing in this…

  12. Mother's Social Network and Family Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of a social network analysis (SNA) performed on the mother's primary network of interaction in 15 Mexican American families in the city of El Paso, Texas, the neighbourhood of La Villita, in Chicago, and the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The goal of this study was to examine potential opportunities for Spanish…

  13. Research questions should drive edge definitions in social network studies

    E-print Network

    Carter, Alecia J.; Lee, Alexander E. G.; Marshall, Harry H.

    2015-04-17

    Press. 307 Madden, J., Drewe, J., Pearce, G., & Clutton-Brock, T. (2011). The social network structure of a wild meerkat 308 population: 3. Position of individuals within networks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65(10), 309 1857-1871. doi: 10...

  14. IEMS 341 / COMM ST 395 Social Network Analysis

    E-print Network

    Hazen, Gordon

    networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), recommender systems (e.g., Amazon, NetFlix, Pandora), trust the course. They are freely available or will be made available to you for free. Unless noted, they will only). NodeXL: a free and open network overview, discovery and exploration add-in for Excel 2007/2010. Social

  15. Good Communication: The Other Social Network for Successful IT Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trubitt, Lisa; Overholtzer, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Social networks of the electronic variety have become thoroughly embedded in contemporary culture. People have woven these networks into their daily routines, using Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, online gaming environments, and other tools to build and maintain complex webs of professional and personal relationships. Chief Information Officers…

  16. PedConnect: An Intelligent Assistant for Teacher Social Networking

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jihie

    PedConnect: An Intelligent Assistant for Teacher Social Networking Jihie Kim, Yu-Han Chang, Sen Cai immense traction in many areas, including teaching and learning. Networking sites for teachers aim to facilitate teacher communication and information sharing, but fall short of their potential. In order

  17. Finding Overlapping Communities in Social Networks: Toward a Rigorous Approach

    E-print Network

    Fiat, Amos

    · What is a community in a social network? ­ a group of nodes more densely connected with each other than or generative model approach egg & chicken problem · Instead: Assumptions are based on ego-centric networks;Communities are Dense Subgraphs · Setup 1: ­ Find each community · With high probability over G randomness

  18. Magic from Social Networks that Talk to Management: Four Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how social networks can help to produce the "magic" of extraordinary results for organizations. Design/methodology/approach: In this exploratory study four cases (from published reports) are compared in order to illustrate different management approaches to utilizing the power of networks.…

  19. Trusses: Cohesive Subgraphs for Social Network Jonathan Cohen

    E-print Network

    Shafran, Izhak

    1 Trusses: Cohesive Subgraphs for Social Network Analysis Jonathan Cohen National Security Agency methods of identifying cohesive subgraphs as a means of focusing their attention on areas of the network that are likely to be fruitful. A variety of standard cohesive subgraphs have been defined in the literature

  20. Transparency effect in the emergence of monopolies in social networks

    E-print Network

    Shirazi, A H; Roohi, A A; Jafari, G R

    2013-01-01

    Power law degree distribution was shown in many complex networks. However, in most real systems, deviation from power-law behavior is observed in social and economical networks and emergence of giant hubs is obvious in real network structures far from the tail of power law. We propose a model based on the information transparency (transparency means how much the information is obvious to others). This model can explain power structure in societies with non-transparency in information delivery. The emergence of ultra powerful nodes is explained as a direct result of censorship. Based on these assumptions, we define four distinct transparency regions: perfect non-transparent, low transparent, perfect transparent and exaggerated regions. We observe the emergence of some ultra powerful (very high degree) nodes in low transparent networks, in accordance with the economical and social systems. We show that the low transparent networks are more vulnerable to attacks and the controllability of low transparent network...

  1. Introduction Uncertain social networks Merging candidate communities Examples Concluding remarks Detecting community structures

    E-print Network

    Schön, Thomas

    Introduction Uncertain social networks Merging candidate communities Examples Concluding remarks networks Merging candidate communities Examples Concluding remarks Outline 1. Introduction 2. Uncertain social networks 3. Merging candidate communities 4. Examples 5. Concluding remarks #12;Introduction

  2. Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks.

    PubMed

    Pasquaretta, Cristian; Levé, Marine; Claidière, Nicolas; van de Waal, Erica; Whiten, Andrew; MacIntosh, Andrew J J; Pelé, Marie; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L; Borgeaud, Christèle; Brosnan, Sarah F; Crofoot, Margaret C; Fedigan, Linda M; Fichtel, Claudia; Hopper, Lydia M; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Petit, Odile; Schnoell, Anna Viktoria; di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Thierry, Bernard; Tiddi, Barbara; Sueur, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Network optimality has been described in genes, proteins and human communicative networks. In the latter, optimality leads to the efficient transmission of information with a minimum number of connections. Whilst studies show that differences in centrality exist in animal networks with central individuals having higher fitness, network efficiency has never been studied in animal groups. Here we studied 78 groups of primates (24 species). We found that group size and neocortex ratio were correlated with network efficiency. Centralisation (whether several individuals are central in the group) and modularity (how a group is clustered) had opposing effects on network efficiency, showing that tolerant species have more efficient networks. Such network properties affecting individual fitness could be shaped by natural selection. Our results are in accordance with the social brain and cultural intelligence hypotheses, which suggest that the importance of network efficiency and information flow through social learning relates to cognitive abilities. PMID:25534964

  3. Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks

    PubMed Central

    Pasquaretta, Cristian; Levé, Marine; Claidière, Nicolas; van de Waal, Erica; Whiten, Andrew; MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Pelé, Marie; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L.; Borgeaud, Christèle; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Fichtel, Claudia; Hopper, Lydia M.; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Petit, Odile; Schnoell, Anna Viktoria; di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Thierry, Bernard; Tiddi, Barbara; Sueur, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Network optimality has been described in genes, proteins and human communicative networks. In the latter, optimality leads to the efficient transmission of information with a minimum number of connections. Whilst studies show that differences in centrality exist in animal networks with central individuals having higher fitness, network efficiency has never been studied in animal groups. Here we studied 78 groups of primates (24 species). We found that group size and neocortex ratio were correlated with network efficiency. Centralisation (whether several individuals are central in the group) and modularity (how a group is clustered) had opposing effects on network efficiency, showing that tolerant species have more efficient networks. Such network properties affecting individual fitness could be shaped by natural selection. Our results are in accordance with the social brain and cultural intelligence hypotheses, which suggest that the importance of network efficiency and information flow through social learning relates to cognitive abilities. PMID:25534964

  4. Social network diagnostics: a tool for monitoring group interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many behavioral interventions designed to improve health outcomes are delivered in group settings. To date, however, group interventions have not been evaluated to determine if the groups generate interaction among members and how changes in group interaction may affect program outcomes at the individual or group level. Methods This article presents a model and practical tool for monitoring how social ties and social structure are changing within the group during program implementation. The approach is based on social network analysis and has two phases: collecting network measurements at strategic intervention points to determine if group dynamics are evolving in ways anticipated by the intervention, and providing the results back to the group leader to guide implementation next steps. This process aims to initially increase network connectivity and ultimately accelerate the diffusion of desirable behaviors through the new network. This article presents the Social Network Diagnostic Tool and, as proof of concept, pilot data collected during the formative phase of a childhood obesity intervention. Results The number of reported advice partners and discussion partners increased during program implementation. Density, the number of ties among people in the network expressed as a percentage of all possible ties, increased from 0.082 to 0.182 (p?network, and from 0.027 to 0.055 (p?>?0.05) in the discussion network. Conclusions The observed two-fold increase in network density represents a significant shift in advice partners over the intervention period. Using the Social Network Tool to empirically guide program activities of an obesity intervention was feasible. PMID:24083343

  5. Model of community emergence in weighted social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumpula, J. M.; Onnela, J.-P.; Saramäki, J.; Kertész, J.; Kaski, K.

    2009-04-01

    Over the years network theory has proven to be rapidly expanding methodology to investigate various complex systems and it has turned out to give quite unparalleled insight to their structure, function, and response through data analysis, modeling, and simulation. For social systems in particular the network approach has empirically revealed a modular structure due to interplay between the network topology and link weights between network nodes or individuals. This inspired us to develop a simple network model that could catch some salient features of mesoscopic community and macroscopic topology formation during network evolution. Our model is based on two fundamental mechanisms of network sociology for individuals to find new friends, namely cyclic closure and focal closure, which are mimicked by local search-link-reinforcement and random global attachment mechanisms, respectively. In addition we included to the model a node deletion mechanism by removing all its links simultaneously, which corresponds for an individual to depart from the network. Here we describe in detail the implementation of our model algorithm, which was found to be computationally efficient and produce many empirically observed features of large-scale social networks. Thus this model opens a new perspective for studying such collective social phenomena as spreading, structure formation, and evolutionary processes.

  6. A New Graph Drawing Scheme for Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Eric Ke; Zou, Futai

    2014-01-01

    With the development of social networks, people have started to use social network tools to record their life and work more and more frequently. How to analyze social networks to explore potential characteristics and trend of social events has been a hot research topic. In order to analyze it effectively, a kind of techniques called information visualization is employed to extract the potential information from the large scale of social network data and present the information briefly as visualized graphs. In the process of information visualization, graph drawing is a crucial part. In this paper, we study the graph layout algorithms and propose a new graph drawing scheme combining multilevel and single-level drawing approaches, including the graph division method based on communities and refining approach based on partitioning strategy. Besides, we compare the effectiveness of our scheme and FM3 in experiments. The experiment results show that our scheme can achieve a clearer diagram and effectively extract the community structure of the social network to be applied to drawing schemes. PMID:25157378

  7. Social Networking Sites: An Adjunctive Treatment Modality for Psychological Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Indu S.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S.; Thennarasu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Materials and Methods: Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Results: Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. Conclusions: It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems. PMID:25035548

  8. Suicide ideation of individuals in online social networks

    E-print Network

    Masuda, Naoki; Onari, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death for adolescents in many countries. The impact of social isolation on suicide in the context of explicit social networks of individuals is relatively unexplored. We statistically examined relationships between suicide ideation and user's characteristics using a large data set obtained from a major social networking service in Japan. We found that the number of user-defined communities to which a user belongs to, the intransitivity (i.e., paucity of triangles including the user), and the fraction of suicidal neighbors in the social network, contributed the most to suicide ideation in this order. Age and gender contributed little. We also found similar results for depressive symptoms.

  9. Locating privileged spreaders on an online social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Rivero, Alejandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-06-01

    Social media have provided plentiful evidence of their capacity for information diffusion. Fads and rumors but also social unrest and riots travel fast and affect large fractions of the population participating in online social networks (OSNs). This has spurred much research regarding the mechanisms that underlie social contagion, and also who (if any) can unleash system-wide information dissemination. Access to real data, both regarding topology—the network of friendships—and dynamics—the actual way in which OSNs users interact, is crucial to decipher how the former facilitates the latter's success, understood as efficiency in information spreading. With the quantitative analysis that stems from complex network theory, we discuss who (and why) has privileged spreading capabilities when it comes to information diffusion. This is done considering the evolution of an episode of political protest which took place in Spain, spanning one month in 2011.

  10. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  11. Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks.

    PubMed

    Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a 'Goldilocks' effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079

  12. Enhancing topology adaptation in information-sharing social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, Giulio; Chen, Duanbing; Medo, Matúš; Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2012-04-01

    The advent of the Internet and World Wide Web has led to unprecedent growth of the information available. People usually face the information overload by following a limited number of sources which best fit their interests. It has thus become important to address issues like who gets followed and how to allow people to discover new and better information sources. In this paper we conduct an empirical analysis of different online social networking sites and draw inspiration from its results to present different source selection strategies in an adaptive model for social recommendation. We show that local search rules which enhance the typical topological features of real social communities give rise to network configurations that are globally optimal. These rules create networks which are effective in information diffusion and resemble structures resulting from real social systems.

  13. Enhancing topology adaptation in information-sharing social networks.

    PubMed

    Cimini, Giulio; Chen, Duanbing; Medo, Matúš; Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2012-04-01

    The advent of the Internet and World Wide Web has led to unprecedent growth of the information available. People usually face the information overload by following a limited number of sources which best fit their interests. It has thus become important to address issues like who gets followed and how to allow people to discover new and better information sources. In this paper we conduct an empirical analysis of different online social networking sites and draw inspiration from its results to present different source selection strategies in an adaptive model for social recommendation. We show that local search rules which enhance the typical topological features of real social communities give rise to network configurations that are globally optimal. These rules create networks which are effective in information diffusion and resemble structures resulting from real social systems. PMID:22680539

  14. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  15. Mass Media Influence Spreading in Social Networks with Community Structure

    E-print Network

    Candia, Julián

    2008-01-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across the society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance in order to design successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  16. The Social Strategy Game: Resource Competition within Female Social Networks among Small-scale Forager-Horticulturalists.

    PubMed

    Rucas, Stacey L; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Winking, Jeffrey

    2010-03-10

    This paper examines social determinants of resource competition among Tsimane Amerindian women of Bolivia. We introduce a semi-anonymous experiment (the Social Strategy Game) designed to simulate resource competition among women. Information concerning dyadic social relationships and demographic data were collected to identify variables influencing resource competition intensity, as measured by the number of beads one woman took from another. Relationship variables are used to test how the affiliative or competitive aspects of dyads affect the extent of prosociality in the game. Using a mixed-modeling procedure, we find that women compete with those with whom they are quarreling over accusations of meat theft, mate competition, and rumor spreading. They also compete with members of their social network and with those who were designated as cooperative helpers or as close kin. Women take fewer beads from desired friends, neighbors, and from those viewed as enemies. We interpret favoritism toward enemies as resulting from fear of retribution. Our results suggest that social relations among women are multifaceted and often cannot be simplified by exclusive focus on genetic relatedness, physical proximity, or reciprocity. We argue that a complex understanding of cooperation and competition among women may require important contextual information concerning relationship history in addition to typical features of resource ecology. PMID:20526460

  17. Assessment of Social Network Change in a National Longitudinal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Schumm, L. Philip; Laumann, Edward O.; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This article describes new longitudinal data on older adults’ egocentric social networks collected by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). We describe a novel survey technique that was used to record specific personnel changes that occurred within respondents’ networks during the 5-year study period, and we make recommendations regarding usage of the resulting data. Method. Descriptive statistics are presented for measures of network size, composition, and structure at both waves, respondent-level summary measures of change in these characteristics between waves, as well as measures that distinguish between changes associated with losses of Wave 1 network members, additions of new ones, and changes in relationships with network members who were present at both waves. Results. The NSHAP network change module was successful in providing reliable information about specific changes that occurred within respondents’ confidant networks. Most respondents lost at least one confidant from W1 and added at least one new confidant between waves as well. Network growth was more common than network shrinkage. Both lost and new ties were weaker than ties that persisted throughout the study period. Discussion. These data provide new insight into the dynamic nature of networks in later life, revealing norms of network turnover, expansion, and weakening. Data limitations are discussed. PMID:25360026

  18. Challenges of Social Cognitive Network Science: Network Science Collaborative Technology Alliance Perspective

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    Challenges of Social Cognitive Network Science: Network Science Collaborative Technology Alliance Research Center of the Network Science Collaborative Technology Alliance. The focus is on potential impact that this research may have on unique needs of military, foremost the US Army, to effectively and efficiently operate

  19. Functional Cortical Network in Alpha Band Correlates with Social Bargaining

    PubMed Central

    Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; Chavez, Mario; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Solving demanding tasks requires fast and flexible coordination among different brain areas. Everyday examples of this are the social dilemmas in which goals tend to clash, requiring one to weigh alternative courses of action in limited time. In spite of this fact, there are few studies that directly address the dynamics of flexible brain network integration during social interaction. To study the preceding, we carried out EEG recordings while subjects played a repeated version of the Ultimatum Game in both human (social) and computer (non-social) conditions. We found phase synchrony (inter-site-phase-clustering) modulation in alpha band that was specific to the human condition and independent of power modulation. The strength and patterns of the inter-site-phase-clustering of the cortical networks were also modulated, and these modulations were mainly in frontal and parietal regions. Moreover, changes in the individuals’ alpha network structure correlated with the risk of the offers made only in social conditions. This correlation was independent of changes in power and inter-site-phase-clustering strength. Our results indicate that, when subjects believe they are participating in a social interaction, a specific modulation of functional cortical networks in alpha band takes place, suggesting that phase synchrony of alpha oscillations could serve as a mechanism by which different brain areas flexibly interact in order to adapt ongoing behavior in socially demanding contexts. PMID:25286240

  20. Topology analysis of social networks extracted from literature.

    PubMed

    Waumans, Michaël C; Nicodème, Thibaut; Bersini, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    In a world where complex networks are an increasingly important part of science, it is interesting to question how the new reading of social realities they provide applies to our cultural background and in particular, popular culture. Are authors of successful novels able to reproduce social networks faithful to the ones found in reality? Is there any common trend connecting an author's oeuvre, or a genre of fiction? Such an analysis could provide new insight on how we, as a culture, perceive human interactions and consume media. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to define the signature of a novel's story based on the topological analysis of its social network of characters. For this purpose, an automated tool was built that analyses the dialogs in novels, identifies characters and computes their relationships in a time-dependent manner in order to assess the network's evolution over the course of the story. PMID:26039072

  1. Models, Entropy and Information of Temporal Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Márton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    Temporal social networks are characterized by heterogeneous duration of contacts, which can either follow a power-law distribution, such as in face-to-face interactions, or a Weibull distribution, such as in mobile-phone communication. Here we model the dynamics of face-to-face interaction and mobile phone communication by a reinforcement dynamics, which explains the data observed in these different types of social interactions. We quantify the information encoded in the dynamics of these networks by the entropy of temporal networks. Finally, we show evidence that human dynamics is able to modulate the information present in social network dynamics when it follows circadian rhythms and when it is interfacing with a new technology such as the mobile-phone communication technology.

  2. Models, Entropy and Information of Temporal Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Kun; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Temporal social networks are characterized by {heterogeneous} duration of contacts, which can either follow a power-law distribution, such as in face-to-face interactions, or a Weibull distribution, such as in mobile-phone communication. Here we model the dynamics of face-to-face interaction and mobile phone communication by a reinforcement dynamics, which explains the data observed in these different types of social interactions. We quantify the information encoded in the dynamics of these networks by the entropy of temporal networks. Finally, we show evidence that human dynamics is able to modulate the information present in social network dynamics when it follows circadian rhythms and when it is interfacing with a new technology such as the mobile-phone communication technology.

  3. Two classes of bipartite networks: Nested biological and social systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Enrique; Ceva, Horacio; Hernández, Laura; Perazzo, R. P. J.; Devoto, Mariano; Medan, Diego

    2008-10-01

    Bipartite graphs have received some attention in the study of social networks and of biological mutualistic systems. A generalization of a previous model is presented, that evolves the topology of the graph in order to optimally account for a given contact preference rule between the two guilds of the network. As a result, social and biological graphs are classified as belonging to two clearly different classes. Projected graphs, linking the agents of only one guild, are obtained from the original bipartite graph. The corresponding evolution of its statistical properties is also studied. An example of a biological mutualistic network is analyzed in detail, and it is found that the model provides a very good fitting of all the main statistical features. The model also provides a proper qualitative description of the same features observed in social webs, suggesting the possible reasons underlying the difference in the organization of these two kinds of bipartite networks.

  4. Social Network Data Validity: The Example of the Social Network of Caregivers of Older Persons with Alzheimer-Type Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Normand

    2007-01-01

    This article offers reflection on the validity of relational data such as used in social network analysis. Ongoing research on the transformation of the support network of caregivers of persons with an Alzheimer-type disease provides the data to fuel the debate on the validity of participant report. More specifically, we sought to understand the…

  5. Increased network efficiency for variable rate video streams in an Integrated Services Packet Network environment 

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Charles Grant

    1996-01-01

    with a way to reserve a fixed quantity of network resources for their exclusive use. Most video encoders, however, are variable rate. This research describes a mechanism by which variable bit-rate, real-time video streams can be sent over a fixed rate...

  6. Empirical Analysis of Attention Behaviors in Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fang; Xuan, Qi; Wu, Tie-Jun

    Studying attention behavior has its social significance because such behavior is considered to lead the evolution of the friendship network. However, this type of behavior in social networks has attracted relatively little attention before, which is mainly because, in reality, such behaviors are always transitory and rarely recorded. In this paper, we collected the attention behaviors as well as the friendship network from Douban database and then carefully studied the attention behaviors in the friendship network as a latent metric space. The revealed similar patterns of attention behavior and friendship suggest that attention behavior may be the pre-stage of friendship to a certain extent, which can be further validated by the fact that pairwise nodes in Douban network connected by attention links beforehand are indeed far more likely to be connected by friendship links in the near future. This phenomenon can also be used to explain the high clustering of many social networks. More interestingly, it seems that attention behaviors are more likely to take place between individuals who have more mutual friends as well as more different friends, which seems a little different from the principles of many link prediction algorithms. Moreover, it is also found that forward attention is preferred to inverse attention, which is quite natural because, usually, an individual must be more interested in others that he is paying attention to than those paying attention to him. All of these findings can be used to guide the design of more appropriate social network models in the future.

  7. Social networks predict gut microbiome composition in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Barreiro, Luis B; Burns, Michael B; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Lynch, Josh; Grieneisen, Laura E; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C; Blekhman, Ran; Archie, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Social relationships have profound effects on health in humans and other primates, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic data from wild baboons, we found that social group membership and social network relationships predicted both the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiome and the structure of genes encoded by gut microbial species. Rates of interaction directly explained variation in the gut microbiome, even after controlling for diet, kinship, and shared environments. They therefore strongly implicate direct physical contact among social partners in the transmission of gut microbial species. We identified 51 socially structured taxa, which were significantly enriched for anaerobic and non-spore-forming lifestyles. Our results argue that social interactions are an important determinant of gut microbiome composition in natural animal populations-a relationship with important ramifications for understanding how social relationships influence health, as well as the evolution of group living. PMID:25774601

  8. Visual analytics for multimodal social network analysis: a design study with social scientists.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Sohaib; Kwon, Bum Chul; Lee, Seungyoon; Yi, Ji Soo; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2013-12-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is becoming increasingly concerned not only with actors and their relations, but also with distinguishing between different types of such entities. For example, social scientists may want to investigate asymmetric relations in organizations with strict chains of command, or incorporate non-actors such as conferences and projects when analyzing coauthorship patterns. Multimodal social networks are those where actors and relations belong to different types, or modes, and multimodal social network analysis (mSNA) is accordingly SNA for such networks. In this paper, we present a design study that we conducted with several social scientist collaborators on how to support mSNA using visual analytics tools. Based on an openended, formative design process, we devised a visual representation called parallel node-link bands (PNLBs) that splits modes into separate bands and renders connections between adjacent ones, similar to the list view in Jigsaw. We then used the tool in a qualitative evaluation involving five social scientists whose feedback informed a second design phase that incorporated additional network metrics. Finally, we conducted a second qualitative evaluation with our social scientist collaborators that provided further insights on the utility of the PNLBs representation and the potential of visual analytics for mSNA. PMID:24051769

  9. The Social Network Map as an Instrument for Identifying Social Relations in Deaf Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintermair, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Social support has shown itself to be an important factor in many areas in regard to mental health development and conservation. Numerous empirical findings also document its significance in various areas of research into deafness. Questionnaires are only one means of gathering information when we are trying to gain access to the social networks

  10. Characterizing Social Interaction in Tobacco-Oriented Social Networks: An Empirical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-01

    Social media is becoming a new battlefield for tobacco "wars". Evaluating the current situation is very crucial for the advocacy of tobacco control in the age of social media. To reveal the impact of tobacco-related user-generated content, this paper characterizes user interaction and social influence utilizing social network analysis and information theoretic approaches. Our empirical studies demonstrate that the exploding pro-tobacco content has long-lasting effects with more active users and broader influence, and reveal the shortage of social media resources in global tobacco control. It is found that the user interaction in the pro-tobacco group is more active, and user-generated content for tobacco promotion is more successful in obtaining user attention. Furthermore, we construct three tobacco-related social networks and investigate the topological patterns of these tobacco-related social networks. We find that the size of the pro-tobacco network overwhelms the others, which suggests a huge number of users are exposed to the pro-tobacco content. These results indicate that the gap between tobacco promotion and tobacco control is widening and tobacco control may be losing ground to tobacco promotion in social media. PMID:26091553

  11. The Homestay in Intensive Language Study Abroad: Social Networks, Language Socialization, and Developing Intercultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the composition of the social network that the homestay offers learners in an intensive summer Arabic language program in diglossic and multilingual Tunisia and examined the types of language socialization as well as the overall linguistic and intercultural competence such opportunities present. The study specifically…

  12. Characterizing Social Interaction in Tobacco-Oriented Social Networks: An Empirical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-01

    Social media is becoming a new battlefield for tobacco “wars”. Evaluating the current situation is very crucial for the advocacy of tobacco control in the age of social media. To reveal the impact of tobacco-related user-generated content, this paper characterizes user interaction and social influence utilizing social network analysis and information theoretic approaches. Our empirical studies demonstrate that the exploding pro-tobacco content has long-lasting effects with more active users and broader influence, and reveal the shortage of social media resources in global tobacco control. It is found that the user interaction in the pro-tobacco group is more active, and user-generated content for tobacco promotion is more successful in obtaining user attention. Furthermore, we construct three tobacco-related social networks and investigate the topological patterns of these tobacco-related social networks. We find that the size of the pro-tobacco network overwhelms the others, which suggests a huge number of users are exposed to the pro-tobacco content. These results indicate that the gap between tobacco promotion and tobacco control is widening and tobacco control may be losing ground to tobacco promotion in social media. PMID:26091553

  13. Students' Participation in Social Networking Sites: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Dhrubodhi; Clark, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Social work students have few guidelines to help them evaluate the implication of their posted information on Internet-based social networking sites (SNSs). There is a national trend among employers of human services to cross-check publicly available online information on applicants. Based on data from a survey of 105 baccalaureate and master's…

  14. Social Networking in an Intensive English Program Classroom: A Language Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Jonathon; Zander, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This ongoing project seeks to investigate the impact, inside and outside of class, of instruction focused on developing learner awareness of social-networking site (SNS) use in an American Intensive English Program (IEP). With language socialization as an interpretative framework (Duff, in press; Ochs, 1988; Watson-Gegeo, 2004), the project uses a…

  15. Social Capital, Self-Esteem, and Use of Online Social Network Sites: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfield, Charles; Ellison, Nicole B.; Lampe, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis of panel data from users of a popular online social network site, Facebook, investigated the relationship between intensity of Facebook use, measures of psychological well-being, and bridging social capital. Two surveys conducted a year apart at a large U.S. university, complemented with in-depth interviews with 18 Facebook…

  16. MMDS 08 Edward Chang, Google 1 Mining LargeMining Largescale Social Networksscale Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Chang, Edward Y.

    MMDS 08 Edward Chang, Google 1 Mining LargeMining Largescale Social Networksscale Social Networks Challenges & Scalable SolutionsChallenges & Scalable Solutions Edward Chang Google Research #12;MMDS 08 Edward Chang, Google 2 Collaborators · Prof. Chih-Jen Lin (NTU) · Hongjie Bai (Google) · Wen-Yen Chen

  17. Incorporating profile information in community detection for online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.

    2014-07-01

    Community structure is an important feature in the study of complex networks. It is because nodes of the same community may have similar properties. In this paper we extend two popular community detection methods to partition online social networks. In our extended methods, the profile information of users is used for partitioning. We apply the extended methods in several sample networks of Facebook. Compared with the original methods, the community structures we obtain have higher modularity. Our results indicate that users' profile information is consistent with the community structure of their friendship network to some extent. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to discuss how profile information can be used to improve community detection in online social networks.

  18. Constructing and Analyzing Uncertain Social Networks from Unstructured Textual Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Fredrik; Svenson, Pontus

    Social network analysis and link diagrams are popular tools among intelligence analysts for analyzing and understanding criminal and terrorist organizations. A bottleneck in the use of such techniques is the manual effort needed to create the network to analyze from available source information. We describe how text mining techniques can be used for extraction of named entities and the relations among them, in order to enable automatic construction of networks from unstructured text. Since the text mining techniques used, viz. algorithms for named entity recognition and relation extraction, are not perfect, we also describe a method for incorporating information about uncertainty when constructing the networks and when doing the social network analysis. The presented approach is applied on text documents describing terrorist activities in Indonesia.

  19. Dynamic Evolution Model Based on Social Network Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xi; Gou, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Zhao, Wen

    2013-11-01

    Based on the analysis of evolutionary characteristics of public opinion in social networking services (SNS), in the paper we propose a dynamic evolution model, in which opinions are coupled with topology. This model shows the clustering phenomenon of opinions in dynamic network evolution. The simulation results show that the model can fit the data from a social network site. The dynamic evolution of networks accelerates the opinion, separation and aggregation. The scale and the number of clusters are influenced by confidence limit and rewiring probability. Dynamic changes of the topology reduce the number of isolated nodes, while the increased confidence limit allows nodes to communicate more sufficiently. The two effects make the distribution of opinion more neutral. The dynamic evolution of networks generates central clusters with high connectivity and high betweenness, which make it difficult to control public opinions in SNS.

  20. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…