Science.gov

Sample records for social provisions scale

  1. Development and Validation of Social Provision Scale on First Year Undergraduate Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatomiwo, Oladunmoye Enoch

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development and validation of socio provision scale on first year undergraduates adjustment among institution in Ibadan metropolis. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A sample of 300 participants was randomly selected across institutions in Ibadan. Data were collected using socio provision scale (a =0.76),…

  2. Sociality as a Natural Mechanism of Public Goods Provision

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Elliot T.; Lukinova, Evgeniya; Menshikov, Ivan; Myagkov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    In the recent literature, several hypotheses have been offered to explain patterns of human behavior in social environments. In particular, these patterns include ‘prosocial’ ones, such as fairness, cooperation, and collective good provision. Psychologists suggest that these prosocial behaviors are driven not by miscalculations, but by salience of social identity, in-group favoritism, emotion, or evolutionary adaptations. This paper imports psychology scholarship into an economic model and results in a sustainable solution to collective action problems without any external enforcement mechanisms. This natural mechanism of public goods provision is created, analyzed, and observed in a controlled laboratory environment using experimental techniques. PMID:25790099

  3. Social provisions of real and imaginary relationships in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Tracy R

    2002-11-01

    Preschool-aged children's perceptions of their social relationships were examined, including those with parents, best friends, siblings, and imaginary companions. Sixty 4-year-old children participated in an interview designed to measure perceptions of the degree of conflict, nurturance, instrumental help, and power available in their relationships. Three groups were compared: children with (a) invisible friends, (b) companions who were personified objects (e.g., dolls), and (c) no imaginary companion. Results indicated that children differentiated the relationships in their social networks according to provisions. Parent-child relationships afforded instrumental help and siblings were associated with conflict. Provisions of real and imaginary friendships were similar, although imaginary friends were preferred as objects of nurturance. Results imply that 4-year-old children have developed differentiated relationship schemas and that those of children with invisible friends may be particularly distinct. PMID:12428709

  4. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision...a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision...of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum...

  5. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision...a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision...of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum...

  6. Social Support Provisions as Differential Predictors of Adaptive Outcomes in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jared S.; Jackson, Yo; Sifers, Sarah K.

    2009-01-01

    Social support provisions were examined in relation to negative life events, adaptive skills, hope, and grade point average in a sample of 103 inner-city youth (ages 11-14). Analyses focused on seven support provisions: social integration, attachment, guidance and information, reliable alliance, reassurance of worth, nurturance, and instrumental…

  7. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? 287.105 Section 287.105 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE....105 What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? NEW Programs are subject...

  8. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? 287.105 Section 287.105 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE....105 What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? NEW Programs are subject...

  9. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? 287.105 Section 287.105 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE....105 What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? NEW Programs are subject...

  10. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under the social security overall minimum provision. 243.5 Section 243.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... § 243.5 Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision. Section 3(f)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum provision,...

  11. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under the social security overall minimum provision. 243.5 Section 243.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... § 243.5 Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision. Section 3(f)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum provision,...

  12. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under the social security overall minimum provision. 243.5 Section 243.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... § 243.5 Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision. Section 3(f)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum provision,...

  13. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under the social security overall minimum provision. 243.5 Section 243.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... § 243.5 Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision. Section 3(f)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum provision,...

  14. A Society without a "State"? Political Organization, Social Conflict, and Welfare Provision in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skocpol, Theda

    The programmatic structure and modes of implementation of U.S. social provisions must be understood in order to gain insight into social programs in the United States. National standards have not been established for public benefits and "social security" has remained firmly separated, both institutionally and symbolically, from "welfare." Many…

  15. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  16. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Program Design and Operations § 287.105 What provisions of the Social Security...amended by PRWORA, titled “Grants for Indian Tribes that Received JOBS...

  17. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Program Design and Operations § 287.105 What provisions of the Social Security...amended by PRWORA, titled “Grants for Indian Tribes that Received JOBS...

  18. Social Work and the Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law: A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Gerald; Davis, King

    2012-01-01

    The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) is a statute existing in 26 states that permits health insurance companies to deny payment for claims made by individuals who have sustained injuries as a result of drug or alcohol use. This law presents a series of complicated clinical and ethical dilemmas for social workers and other…

  19. Supporting a Holistic Adult Literacy Program: The Provision of a Clinical Social Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lex; Jones, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the provision of a clinical social worker (CSW) in an adult literacy agency and focuses upon the impact on the learners, tutors, and organization. We conducted interviews with agency personnel, the CSW, a sample of learners, and a funding representative. Then we undertook inductive thematic analysis of the data. The results…

  20. Ethnicizing Poverty through Social Security Provision in Rural Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarcz, Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Rural poverty has become an increasingly ethnicised category for the majority society in contemporary Hungary. The article aims to explore the process and practice of social exclusion and ethnicisation in relation to mutual effects of post-socialist welfare restructuring and changing discourse on poverty in the post-socialist rural reality. The…

  1. South Africa: Distance Higher Education Policies for Access, Social Equity, Quality, and Social and Economic Responsiveness in a Context of the Diversity of Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badat, Saleem

    2005-01-01

    The principal concern of this paper is the implication of the increasing diversity of higher education provision in South Africa for equity of access and opportunity for historically disadvantaged social groups, high-quality provision, and social and economic responsiveness in distance higher education. This diversity is signalled by a variety of…

  2. Social Welfare Functions for Different Subgroup Utility Scales

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Social Welfare Functions for Different Subgroup Utility Scales Anna B. Khmelnitskaya SPb Institute Abstract. This paper characterizes social welfare functions for different scales of individual utility or independent. We show that for combinations of independent subgroup utility scales every corresponding social

  3. Strong and nonlinear effects of fragmentation on ecosystem service provision at multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Matthew G. E.; Bennett, Elena M.; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Human actions, such as converting natural land cover to agricultural or urban land, result in the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, with important consequences for the provision of ecosystem services. Such habitat loss is especially important for services that are supplied by fragments of natural land cover and that depend on flows of organisms, matter, or people across the landscape to produce benefits, such as pollination, pest regulation, recreation and cultural services. However, our quantitative knowledge about precisely how different patterns of landscape fragmentation might affect the provision of these types of services is limited. We used a simple, spatially explicit model to evaluate the potential impact of natural land cover loss and fragmentation on the provision of hypothetical ecosystem services. Based on current literature, we assumed that fragments of natural land cover provide ecosystem services to the area surrounding them in a distance-dependent manner such that ecosystem service flow depended on proximity to fragments. We modeled seven different patterns of natural land cover loss across landscapes that varied in the overall level of landscape fragmentation. Our model predicts that natural land cover loss will have strong and unimodal effects on ecosystem service provision, with clear thresholds indicating rapid loss of service provision beyond critical levels of natural land cover loss. It also predicts the presence of a tradeoff between maximizing ecosystem service provision and conserving natural land cover, and a mismatch between ecosystem service provision at landscape versus finer spatial scales. Importantly, the pattern of landscape fragmentation mitigated or intensified these tradeoffs and mismatches. Our model suggests that managing patterns of natural land cover loss and fragmentation could help influence the provision of multiple ecosystem services and manage tradeoffs and synergies between services across different human-dominated landscapes.

  4. Communities and Hospitals: Social Capital, Community Accountability, and Service Provision in U.S. Community Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Chen, Wendy L; Weiner, Bryan J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives The study related community social capital to the level of community accountability and provision of community-oriented services in U.S. community hospitals. Study Setting The sample included 1,383 community hospitals that participated in the 1997 American Hospital Association's (AHA) Hospital Annual and Governance Surveys. Data Sources (1) The 1997 AHA Annual Hospital Survey, (2) the 1997 AHA Hospital Governance Survey, (3) the DDB Needham Market Facts Survey, (4) the 1996 County Election Data File, and (5) the 1998 Area Resource File. Research Design The study used a mix of longitudinal and cross-sectional data. Key Findings We identified two distinct indicators of social capital—community participation and voting participation. Community accountability in hospitals was unrelated to either indicator. Hospitals' provision of community-oriented health services was negatively associated with community participation but unrelated with voting participation. The interaction between voting participation and community representation on hospital governance was positively associated with community accountability and provision of community-oriented health services. Conclusion Neither community participation nor voting participation was sufficient to influence hospital behavior. The positive finding associated with the interaction between voting participation and community representation on hospital governance underscored the importance of an active political culture in influencing hospital behavior, without which the installation of community representatives on hospital governance might be more symbolic than actually serving the health concerns of community residents. PMID:15333119

  5. Development and Assessment of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Linnemeyer, Rachel M.; Bahner, Angela D.; Misialek, Leah Hanson

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and the initial psychometric evaluation of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale in two studies. In the first study, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 278) revealed a four-factor scale, accounting for 71.4% of the variance, measuring different aspects of social issue advocacy: Political and Social Advocacy,…

  6. A Turkish Version of the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukay-Yuksel, Muge

    2009-01-01

    Intended to enhance social skills instruction in Turkey, the present study highlights the process and outcome of creating a Turkish-language version of the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS), originally developed by Merrell (1993). The social skills of the Turkish pre-and elementary school students were based on the Likert scale. The analyses of…

  7. Social Welfare Orderings for Different Subgroup Utility Scales

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Social Welfare Orderings for Different Subgroup Utility Scales Anna B. Khmelnitskaya SPb Institute-mail: anna@math.huji.ac.il, anna@AK3141.spb.edu) Abstract. This paper characterizes social welfare orderings subgroups scales, every corre- sponding social ordering is fully determined by the opinions of only one

  8. The Impact of Support Received and Support Provision on Changes in Perceived Social Support among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    The current study uses longitudinal data from the 1993 U.S. Midwest floods to examine the influence of support received and support provision on changes in perceived social support among older adults exposed to an acute stressor. Results indicated that flood exposure and higher levels of social support at Time 1 were positively associated with…

  9. Validation of the Peer Social Maturity Scale for Assessing Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Elian; de Rosnay, Marc; Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of a brief, seven-item, teacher-rated Peer Social Maturity Scale (PSMAT). In Study 1, teachers of 138 Australian children (ranging from 5 to 8?years and 5?months old) in kindergarten and Grades 1 and 2 rated their pupils' social maturity using the PSMAT and their classroom social skills via the Social Skills Rating…

  10. Time Horizon and Social Scale in Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009 our center (CRED) published a first version of The Psychology of Climate Change Communication. In it, we attempted to summarize facts and concepts from psychological research that could help guide communication. While this work focused on climate change, most of the ideas are at least partly applicable for communication about a variety of natural hazards. Of the many examples in this guide, I mention three. Single-action bias is the human tendency to stop considering further actions that might be needed to deal with a given hazard, once a single action has been taken. Another example is the importance of group affiliation in motivating voluntary contributions to joint action. A third concerns the finding that group participation enhances understanding of probabilistic concepts and promotes action in the face of uncertainty. One current research direction, which goes beyond those included in the above publication, focuses on how time horizons arise in the thinking of individuals and groups, and how these time horizons might influence hazard preparedness. On the one hand, individuals sometimes appear impatient, organizations look for immediate results, and officials fail to look beyond the next election cycle. Yet under some laboratory conditions and in some subcultures, a longer time horizon is adopted. We are interested in how time horizon is influenced by group identity and by the very architecture of planning and decision making. Institutional changes, involving long-term contractual relationships among communities, developers, insurers, and governments, could greatly increase resilience in the face of natural hazards. Communication about hazards, in the context of such long-term contractual relationships might look very different from communication that is first initiated by immediate threat. Another new direction concerns the social scale of institutions and of communication about hazards. Traditionally, insurance contracts share risk among a large number of insurees: each contributes a small premium toward a fund that is adequate to cover the large losses that occasionally occur. Participatory processes are needed that extend risk sharing to larger social scales and that reduce adversarial relationships between insurers, insurees, insurance regulators, and governments that intervene or fail to intervene on an ad hoc rather than a contractual basis.

  11. Natural Resource Management at Four Social Scales: Psychological Type Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Helen; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales—local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed.

  12. Developing a "Social Presence Scale" for E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic Cakmak, Ebru; Cebi, Ayça; Kan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to develop a "social presence scale" for e-learning environments. A systematic approach was followed for developing the scale. The scale was applied to 461 students registered in seven different programs at Gazi University. The sample was split into two subsamples on a random basis (n1 = 261; n2 =…

  13. The Cultural Socialization Scale: Assessing family and peer socialization toward heritage and mainstream cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D; Kim, Su Yeong

    2015-12-01

    In a culturally diverse society, youth learn about multiple cultures from a variety of sources, yet the existing assessment of cultural socialization has been limited to parents' efforts to teach youth about their heritage culture. The current study adapted and extended an existing cultural socialization measure (Umaña-Taylor & Fine, 2004) to assess 4 types of socialization practices encountered specifically during adolescence: cultural socialization by families and peers toward both one's heritage culture and the mainstream culture. In a pilot study, we developed the Cultural Socialization Scale based on retrospective reports from 208 young adults, maximizing young adults' ability to reason and reflect their adolescent experiences with various socialization practices. In the primary study, we examined the psychometric properties of the scale using reports from 252 adolescents. Cultural socialization occurred from both socialization agents toward both cultures. Our Cultural Socialization Scale demonstrated stable factor structures and high reliabilities. We observed strong factorial invariance across the 4 subscales (6 items). Multiple indicators multiple causes models also demonstrated invariance for each subscale across adolescents' demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, socioeconomic status, language of assessment). The implications of the Cultural Socialization Scale are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25961139

  14. Using Likert-Type Scales in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croasmun, James T.; Ostrom, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Likert scales are useful in social science and attitude research projects. The General Self-Efficacy Exam is a test used to determine whether factors in educational settings affect participant's learning self-efficacy. The original instrument had 10 efficacy items and used a 4-point Likert scale. The Cronbach's alphas for the original test ranged…

  15. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Nageswara S.; Carter, Steven M.; Wu, Qishi; Wing, William R.; Zhu, Mengxia; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Blondin, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts.

  16. Provisioning a Multi-Tiered Data Staging Area for Extreme-Scale Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakar, Ramya A; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Kim, Youngjae; Butt, Ali R; Li, Min; Kandemir, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Massively parallel scientific applications, running on extreme-scale supercomputers, produce hundreds of terabytes of data per run, driving the need for storage solutions to improve their I/O performance. Traditional parallel file systems (PFS) in high performance computing (HPC) systems are unable to keep up with such high data rates, creating a storage wall. In this work, we present a novel multi-tiered storage architecture comprising hybrid node-local resources to construct a dynamic data staging area for extreme-scale machines. Such a staging ground serves as an impedance matching device between applications and the PFS. Our solution combines diverse resources (e.g., DRAM, SSD) in such a way as to approach the performance of the fastest component technology and the cost of the least expensive one. We have developed an automated provisioning algorithm that aids in meeting the checkpointing performance requirement of HPC applications, by using a least-cost storage configuration. We evaluate our approach using both an implementation on a large scale cluster and a simulation driven by six-years worth of Jaguar supercomputer job-logs, and show that our approach, by choosing an appropriate storage configuration, achieves 41.5% cost savings with only negligible impact on performance.

  17. Brief Report: Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS) Detects Individual Variation in Social Responsiveness for Captive Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Faughn, Carley; Marrus, Natasha; Shuman, Jeremy; Ross, Stephen R; Constantino, John N; Pruett, John R; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2015-05-01

    Comparative studies of social responsiveness, a core impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), will enhance our understanding of typical and atypical social behavior. We previously reported a quantitative, cross-species (human-chimpanzee) social responsiveness measure, which included the development of the Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS). Here, we augment our prior CSRS sample with 25 zoo chimpanzees at three sites: combined N = 54. The CSRS demonstrated strong interrater reliability, and low-ranked chimpanzees, on average, displayed higher CSRS scores. The CSRS continues to discriminate variation in chimpanzee social responsiveness, and the association of higher scores with lower chimpanzee social standing has implications for the relationship between autistic traits and human social status. Continued comparative investigations of social responsiveness will enhance our understanding of underlying impairments in ASD, improve early diagnosis, and inform future therapies. PMID:25312279

  18. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  19. SociAL Sensor Analytics: Measuring Phenomenology at Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Rose, Stuart J.; McKenzie, Taylor K.

    2013-06-04

    The objective of this paper is to present a system for interrogating immense social media streams through analytical methodologies that characterize topics and events critical to tactical and strategic planning. First, we propose a conceptual framework for interpreting social media as a sensor network. Time-series models and topic clustering algorithms are used to implement this concept into a functioning analytical system. Next, we address two scientific challenges: 1) to understand, quantify, and baseline phenomenology of social media at scale, and 2) to develop analytical methodologies to detect and investigate events of interest. This paper then documents computational methods and reports experimental findings that address these challenges. Ultimately, the ability to process billions of social media posts per week over a period of years enables the identification of patterns and predictors of tactical and strategic concerns at an unprecedented rate through SociAL Sensor Analytics (SALSA).

  20. The 12 Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS)

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Jim A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism) and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS) is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology. PMID:24349200

  1. Direct and Indirect Effects of Religiosity on Valuation of Life through Forgiveness and Social Provisions among Older Incarcerated Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. K.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Few studies have investigated the influence of religiosity (REL), forgiveness, and social resources on incarcerated individuals' attachment to their lives, or valuation of life (VOL). We tested a model linking REL to VOL through 3 subscales of the Heartland Forgiveness Scale (Self, Others, and Situations) and social

  2. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  3. Development and Examination of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Trevor A.; Flora, David B.; Palyo, Sarah A.; Fresco, David M.; Holle, Christian; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to measure anxiety about being negatively evaluated by others because of one's overall appearance, including body shape. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SAAS in three large samples of undergraduate students (respective ns = 512, 853, and 541). The SAAS demonstrated a…

  4. Ecosystem services in coupled social-ecological systems: Closing the cycle of service provision and societal feedback.

    PubMed

    Nassl, Michael; Löffler, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Both the 'cascade model' of ecosystem service provision and the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response framework individually contribute to the understanding of human-nature interactions in social-ecological systems (SES). Yet, as several points of criticism show, they are limited analytical tools when it comes to reproducing complex cause-effect relationships in such systems. However, in this paper, we point out that by merging the two models, they can mutually enhance their comprehensiveness and overcome their individual conceptual deficits. Therefore we closed a cycle of ecosystem service provision and societal feedback by rethinking and reassembling the core elements of both models. That way, we established a causal sequence apt to describe the causes of change to SES, their effects and their consequences. Finally, to illustrate its functioning we exemplified and discussed our approach based on a case study conducted in the Alpujarra de la Sierra in southern Spain. PMID:25964160

  5. Emergence, Evolution and Scaling of Online Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le-Zhi; Huang, Zi-Gang; Rong, Zhi-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Online social networks have become increasingly ubiquitous and understanding their structural, dynamical, and scaling properties not only is of fundamental interest but also has a broad range of applications. Such networks can be extremely dynamic, generated almost instantaneously by, for example, breaking-news items. We investigate a common class of online social networks, the user-user retweeting networks, by analyzing the empirical data collected from Sina Weibo (a massive twitter-like microblogging social network in China) with respect to the topic of the 2011 Japan earthquake. We uncover a number of algebraic scaling relations governing the growth and structure of the network and develop a probabilistic model that captures the basic dynamical features of the system. The model is capable of reproducing all the empirical results. Our analysis not only reveals the basic mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the retweeting networks, but also provides general insights into the control of information spreading on such networks. PMID:25380140

  6. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  7. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A

    2014-09-16

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  8. Psychometric properties of the Social Comparison Motives Scale.

    PubMed

    Tigges, Beth Baldwin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the 19-item Social Comparison Motive Scale [SCMS], a measure of adolescents' motives for social comparison related to pregnancy. Dimensions and items were developed based on adolescent focus groups. The instrument was reviewed for content validity, pilot tested, and administered to 431 adolescents aged 14-18 years. Principal axis factor analysis with oblique rotation supported five dimensions. Convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated by moderate correlations (r = .50) between the SCMS and the Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure and low correlations (r = .15) between the SCMS and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Cronbach's alphas were .91 overall and .71 to .85 for the subscales. The SCMS demonstrated reliability and validity as a measure of adolescents' motives for comparing themselves with others about pregnancy. PMID:19902658

  9. Social Exclusion in the Information Profession, and How LIS Journals Can Encourage Information Provision in a Wider Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcroft, Linda

    Recent government initiatives to combat social exclusion within the United Kingdom have served to place librarians and libraries as prominent players in the movement to providing information over a wider social context. For example, The Peoples Network is a government initiative to connect all public libraries to the information superhighway by…

  10. Exploring Undergraduate Student Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities: Application of the Disability Social Relationship Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth; Rhodes, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The Disability Social Relations Generalized Disability (DSRGD) Scale was used to explore the influence of the social context on attitudes toward persons with disabilities. The DSRGD Scale was based on the Disability Social Relationship (DSR) Scale (Grand, Bernier, & Strohmer, 1982; Strohmer, Grand, & Purcell, 1984). A sample of 1,013 undergraduate…

  11. Measuring Social Relationships in Different Social Systems: The Construction and Validation of the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS) Scale

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537), a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558) confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317), an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons. PMID:26200357

  12. Provisioning of large scale systems: The interplay between network effects and

    E-print Network

    Nair, Jayakrishnan U.

    is to maximize profit, taking into account the revenue from advertising as well as the cost of managing its provisioning for an online service supported by advertising. We analyse the strategic interaction between are offered for free to the end user, the firm (or service provider) is deriving its revenue via advertising

  13. The development of the Multidimensional Social Competence Scale: a standardized measure of social competence in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Yager, Jodi; Iarocci, Grace

    2013-12-01

    Autism and its related disorders are commonly described as lying along a continuum that ranges in severity and are collectively referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although all individuals with ASD meet the social impairment diagnostic criteria outlined in the DSM-IV-TR, they do not present with the same social difficulties. The variability in the expression and severity of social competence is particularly evident among the group of individuals with "high-functioning" ASD who appear to have difficulty applying their average to above average intelligence in a social context. There is a striking paucity of empirical research investigating individual differences in social functioning among individuals with high-functioning ASD. It is possible that more detailed investigations of social competence have been impeded by the lack of standardized measures available to assess the nature and severity of social impairment. The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a parent rating scale capable of assessing individual differences in social competence (i.e. strengths and challenges) among adolescents with ASD: the Multidimensional Social Competence Scale (MSCS). Results from confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesized multidimensional factor structure of the MSCS. Seven relatively distinct domains of social competence were identified including social motivation, social inferencing, demonstrating empathic concern, social knowledge, verbal conversation skills, nonverbal sending skills, and emotion regulation. Psychometric evidence provided preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the scale. Possible applications of this promising new parent rating scale in both research and clinical settings are discussed. PMID:24108618

  14. Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Cuttone, Andrea; Madsen, Mette My; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years—the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection. PMID:24770359

  15. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution.

    PubMed

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Cuttone, Andrea; Madsen, Mette My; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection. PMID:24770359

  16. Assessing social support among South Asians: the multidimensional scale of perceived social support.

    PubMed

    Tonsing, Kareen; Zimet, Gregory D; Tse, Samson

    2012-06-01

    The psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) of the Urdu (MSPSS-U) and Nepali (MSPSS-N) versions were investigated among Pakistani (n=148) and Nepalese (n=153) respondents living in Hong Kong. The factor analysis of the MSPSS-N conducted in this study confirmed the three factors of the original MSPSS, namely, Family, Friend, and Significant Others, while only two factors were extracted from the MSPSS-U (i.e., the Family and Friends subscales). With regard to construct validity, both the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were inversely correlated with depression, anxiety and stress as assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). The internal reliability and construct validity of the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were also established and provided support for the validity of both versions as tools for measuring perceived social support among South Asian migrants. PMID:22813661

  17. Can Autism Spectrum Disorders and Social Anxiety Disorders Be Differentiated by the Social Responsiveness Scale in Children and Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholemkery, Hannah; Mojica, Laura; Rohrmann, Sonja; Gensthaler, Angelika; Freitag, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as social phobia (SP), and selective mutism (SM) are characterised by impaired social interaction. We assessed the validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) to differentiate between ASD, and SP/SM. Raw scores were compared in 6-18 year old individuals with ASD (N = 60), SP (N = 38), SM (N = 43), and…

  18. [Psychometric properties of a Multidimensional Scale of Social Expression to assess social skills in the Internet context].

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Pérez-Jover, Ma Virtudes; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José Antonio

    2012-02-01

    The increase in the use of New Technologies in social relationships could be generating a new paradigm in social skills. Valid and reliable instruments to assess these changes are needed. The aim of this study is to analyze the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Social Expression (EMES) in the assessment of social skills on the Internet and Social Networks. A total of 413 college students from the province of Alicante participated on this study. The scale was applied according to two contexts: Real and Internet/Virtual. High internal consistency was shown. The 12-factor structure found for the Virtual Context scale is similar to that of the original study. The scale had shown to be a good predictor of hours of Internet use. In conclusion, EMES-C is useful for assessing real context and Internet context social skills. PMID:22269374

  19. Social Skills Assessment: A Comparative Evaluation of Six Published Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle K.; Ruffalo, Stacey L.; Carlson, John; Busse, R. T.; Olson, Amy E.; McManus, Susan M.; Leventhal, Amy

    1995-01-01

    Reviews four norm-referenced instruments used to assess preschool and school-aged children. The Social Skills Rating System was found to be the most comprehensive; the School Social Behavior Scales and the Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence are useful for more limited school scope. (Author/JDM)

  20. Enhancing Social Integration of Immigrant Pupils at Risk for Social, Emotional and/or Behavioural Difficulties: The Outcomes of a Small-Scale Social-Emotional Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doikou-Avlidou, Maro; Dadatsi, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the outcomes of a small-scale social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention programme regarding the social behaviour and the social position of pupils from culturally diverse backgrounds. Seven primary and secondary education teachers participated in the study along with the pupils attending their classes;…

  1. Sustainability at the regional scale can be assessed by examining environmental, social, economic and

    E-print Network

    Sustainability at the regional scale can be assessed by examining environmental, social, economic and governance indicators. Monitoring sustainability indicators on the Sunshine Coast annually provides valuable insights into sustainability trends at spatial and temporal scales of relevance to community, industry

  2. Development of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS) on Children's Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Cheung, Jasmine; Lau, Vanessa; Lam, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed to describe the design and development of the social domain of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS), which would be used for assessment of preschool children with different developmental disabilities. The original version of the social domain consisted of 30 items. Children were asked questions about their social

  3. Human Rights Engagement and Exposure: New Scales to Challenge Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane; Abell, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Advancing human rights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, human rights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, Human Rights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and Human Rights Exposure in…

  4. Brief Report: Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS) Detects Individual Variation in Social Responsiveness for Captive Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faughn, Carley; Marrus, Natasha; Shuman, Jeremy; Ross, Stephen R.; Constantino, John N.; Pruett, John R., Jr.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative studies of social responsiveness, a core impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), will enhance our understanding of typical and atypical social behavior. We previously reported a quantitative, cross-species (human-chimpanzee) social responsiveness measure, which included the development of the Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness…

  5. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  6. Performance of an Abbreviated Version of the Lubben Social Network Scale among Three European Community-Dwelling Older Adult Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubben, James; Blozik, Eva; Gillmann, Gerhard; Iliffe, Steve; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Beck, John C.; Stuck, Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: There is a need for valid and reliable short scales that can be used to assess social networks and social supports and to screen for social isolation in older persons. Design and Methods: The present study is a cross-national and cross-cultural evaluation of the performance of an abbreviated version of the Lubben Social Network Scale

  7. Village-Scale Practices and Water Sources in Indigenous Mexico after the Neoliberalizing of Social Property

    E-print Network

    Kelly, John K.

    2013-05-31

    To establish whether social property villages ("núcleos agrarios") in indigenous, well-watered parts of Mexico are maintaining the same degree of village-scale control of water sources that they practiced before the neoliberal land tenure reforms...

  8. Tie Strength, Embeddedness, and Social Influence: A Large-Scale Networked Experiment

    E-print Network

    Walker, Dylan

    We leverage the newly emerging business analytical capability to rapidly deploy and iterate large-scale, microlevel, in vivo randomized experiments to understand how social influence in networks impacts consumer demand. ...

  9. Development of the Ethnic and Racial Socialization of Transracial Adoptee Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study describes the development and initial validation of the 15-item Ethnic and Racial Socialization of Transracial Adoptee Scale (ERSTAS). Method: Using the model of Boykin and Tom on Black family socialization, the items were developed and validated using two different Asian adoptee samples. Results: Two subscales, ethnic…

  10. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social

  11. Measuring Student Learning in Social Justice Courses: The Diversity and Oppression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Shorkey, Clay; Battle, DuWayne

    2015-01-01

    The Diversity and Oppression Scale (DOS) is a standardized instrument measuring self-reported student learning about diversity and oppression based on requirements of the Council on Social Work Education. DOS was tested with social work students in 2 major North American universities. Factor structure was examined using exploratory factor analysis…

  12. Construct Validation of the Social Competence Scale in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the utility of the social competence scale (SCS)-parent version, a measure of social competence developed for children of elementary school age, for use with preschool-age children. Data were derived from two samples of preschoolers: a community sample assessed at enrollment to pre-kindergarten programs and a high-risk sample…

  13. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF A SOCIAL SKILLS SCALE FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-Y; Lin, C-K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a social skills scale for high school students in Taiwan. This study adopted stratified random sampling. A total of 1,729 high school students were included. The students ranged in age from 16 to 18 years. A Social Skills Scale was developed for this study and was designed for classroom teachers to fill out. The test-retest reliability of this scale was tested by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine construct validity. The Social Skills Scale had good overall test-retest reliability of .92, and the internal consistency of the five subscales was above .90. The results of the factor analysis showed that the Social Skills Scale covered the five domains of classroom learning skills, communication skills, individual initiative skills, interaction skills, and job-related social skills, and the five factors explained 68.34% of the variance. Thus, the Social Skills Scale had good reliability and validity and would be applicable to and could be promoted for use in schools. PMID:26340050

  14. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  15. Open Large-Scale Online Social Network Dyn 

    E-print Network

    Corlette, Daniel James

    2012-07-16

    humans interface with these systems. This dissertation examines an event driven sampling approach to acquire both dynamics link event data and blog content from the site known as LiveJournal. LiveJournal is one of the oldest online social networking sites...

  16. Development and Evaluation of the Social-Emotional Learning Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryn, Chris L. S.; Spybrook, Jessaca K.; Evergreen, Stephanie D. H.; Blinkiewicz, Meg

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the development and evaluation of a measurement device designed to assess elementary-aged students' social-emotional learning needs. A sample of 633 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade elementary students from 11 public schools in a midsized Midwestern U.S. city was used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the 20-item…

  17. The Social Media Affinity Scale: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlich, R. Nicholas; Browning, Leigh; Westermann, Lori

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, males and females have demonstrated fairly equal amounts of internet usage, but females have demonstrated higher usage of social media sites. These observed differences served as the impetus for the current study. A survey was conducted in early 2010 among college students to assess whether differences still occur between males…

  18. Development of an unsupportive social interaction scale for patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Heymann, Anthony David; Friedman, Nurit; Kaplan, Giora

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The positive aspects of social support and its impact on health have been studied extensively. However, there may also be negative effects of social environments on the diabetic patient. This study developed and validated a new diabetic unsupportive social interaction scale (USIS), including two subscales: interference and insensitivity. Methods A list of 22 items depicting unsupportive interactions associated with management of diabetes was developed. A telephone survey was administered to 764 Israelis with diabetes. The questionnaire included the USIS and questions about social networks, social support, health behaviors, and health. The characteristics, validity, and reliability of the scale were tested. Results A principal component analysis was performed for extraction of two factors describing unsupportive social interaction concepts: interference and insensitivity. Cronbach’s alpha for the full 15-item scale was 0.84, indicating internal consistency. The two subscales were calculated to have Cronbach’s alphas of 0.85 and 0.73, respectively. The USIS showed construct validity as it was associated with social support, some measures of social networks, subjective measures of health, and health behaviors. Arabs, older respondents, those defining themselves as more religious, and the less educated reported higher rates of unsupportive interactions. Conclusion This study suggests a new concept of unsupportive interactions including interference and insensitivity. These unsupportive interactions may adversely affect patients’ ability to adhere to treatment and may undermine their health in various ways. Identifying these problems may enable clinicians to help patients cope with their unsupportive environments. PMID:26229450

  19. The co-evolution of social institutions, demography, and large-scale human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Powers, Simon T; Lehmann, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Human cooperation is typically coordinated by institutions, which determine the outcome structure of the social interactions individuals engage in. Explaining the Neolithic transition from small- to large-scale societies involves understanding how these institutions co-evolve with demography. We study this using a demographically explicit model of institution formation in a patch-structured population. Each patch supports both social and asocial niches. Social individuals create an institution, at a cost to themselves, by negotiating how much of the costly public good provided by cooperators is invested into sanctioning defectors. The remainder of their public good is invested in technology that increases carrying capacity, such as irrigation systems. We show that social individuals can invade a population of asocials, and form institutions that support high levels of cooperation. We then demonstrate conditions where the co-evolution of cooperation, institutions, and demographic carrying capacity creates a transition from small- to large-scale social groups. PMID:24015852

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in Patients With Social Anxiety Disorder

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Psychometric Evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in Patients With Social Anxiety Washington University Philippe R. Goldin and James J. Gross Stanford University The Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES; J. W. Weeks, R. G. Heimberg, & T. L. Rodebaugh, 2008) was designed to assess fear

  1. Multidimensional, Threshold Effects of Social Support in Firefighters: Is More Support Invariably Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varvel, Shiloh Jordan; He, Yuhong; Shannon, Jennifer K.; Tager, David; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Chaichanasakul, Adipat; Mendoza, Monique M.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between social support (Social Provisions Scale) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale) in a sample of male firefighters in a midwestern community (N=53). The authors assessed 5 types of perceived support from 2 sources: peer firefighters and supervisors. Results indicate that reassurance of worth and social

  2. Multi-Scale Compositionality: Identifying the Compositional Structures of Social Dynamics Using Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Huan-Kai; Marculescu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social media exhibit rich yet distinct temporal dynamics which cover a wide range of different scales. In order to study this complex dynamics, two fundamental questions revolve around (1) the signatures of social dynamics at different time scales, and (2) the way in which these signatures interact and form higher-level meanings. Method In this paper, we propose the Recursive Convolutional Bayesian Model (RCBM) to address both of these fundamental questions. The key idea behind our approach consists of constructing a deep-learning framework using specialized convolution operators that are designed to exploit the inherent heterogeneity of social dynamics. RCBM’s runtime and convergence properties are guaranteed by formal analyses. Results Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches both in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Indeed, by applying the proposed method on two social network datasets, Twitter and Yelp, we are able to identify the compositional structures that can accurately characterize the complex social dynamics from these two social media. We further show that identifying these patterns can enable new applications such as anomaly detection and improved social dynamics forecasting. Finally, our analysis offers new insights on understanding and engineering social media dynamics, with direct applications to opinion spreading and online content promotion. PMID:25830775

  3. Identifying overlapping communities in social networks using multi-scale local information expansion

    E-print Network

    Li, Hui-Jia; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Most existing approaches for community detection require complete information of the graph in a specific scale, which is impractical for many social networks. We propose a novel algorithm that does not embrace the universal approach but instead of trying to focus on local social ties and modeling multi-scales of social interactions occurring in those networks. Our method for the first time optimizes the topological entropy of a network and uncovers communities through a novel dynamic system converging to a local minimum by simply updating the membership vector with very low computational complexity. It naturally supports overlapping communities through associating each node with a membership vector which describes node's involvement in each community. This way, in addition to uncover overlapping communities, we can also describe different multi-scale partitions by tuning the characteristic size of modules from the optimal partition. Because of the high efficiency and accuracy of the algorithm, it is feasible ...

  4. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity.

    PubMed

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2014-07-01

    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory. PMID:24708267

  5. Optimal administrative scale for planning public services: a social cost model applied to Flemish hospital care.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; van Hulst, Bart

    2015-10-01

    In choosing the scale of public services, such as hospitals, both economic and public administrative considerations play important roles. The scale and the corresponding spatial distribution of public institutions have consequences for social costs, defined as the institutions' operating costs and the users' travel costs (which include the money and time costs). Insight into the relationship between scale and spatial distribution and social costs provides a practical guide for the best possible administrative planning level. This article presents a purely economic model that is suitable for deriving the optimal scale for public services. The model also reveals the corresponding optimal administrative planning level from an economic perspective. We applied this model to hospital care in Flanders for three different types of care. For its application, we examined the social costs of hospital services at different levels of administrative planning. The outcomes show that the social costs of rehabilitation in Flanders with planning at the urban level (38 areas) are 11% higher than those at the provincial level (five provinces). At the regional level (18 areas), the social costs of rehabilitation are virtually equal to those at the provincial level. For radiotherapy, there is a difference of 88% in the social costs between the urban and the provincial level. For general care, there are hardly any cost differences between the three administrative levels. Thus, purely from the perspective of social costs, rehabilitation should preferably be planned at the regional level, general services at the urban level and radiotherapy at the provincial level. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24723375

  6. Etoile Project : Social Intelligent ICT-System for very large scale education in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgine, P.; Johnson, J.

    2009-04-01

    The project will devise new theory and implement new ICT-based methods of delivering high-quality low-cost postgraduate education to many thousands of people in a scalable way, with the cost of each extra student being negligible (< a few Euros). The research will create an in vivo laboratory of one to ten thousand postgraduate students studying courses in complex systems. This community is chosen because it is large and interdisciplinary and there is a known requirement for courses for thousand of students across Europe. The project involves every aspect of course production and delivery. Within this the research focused on the creation of a Socially Intelligent Resource Mining system to gather large volumes of high quality educational resources from the internet; new methods to deconstruct these to produce a semantically tagged Learning Object Database; a Living Course Ecology to support the creation and maintenance of evolving course materials; systems to deliver courses; and a ‘socially intelligent assessment system'. The system will be tested on one to ten thousand postgraduate students in Europe working towards the Complex System Society's title of European PhD in Complex Systems. Étoile will have a very high impact both scientifically and socially by (i) the provision of new scalable ICT-based methods for providing very low cost scientific education, (ii) the creation of new mathematical and statistical theory for the multiscale dynamics of complex systems, (iii) the provision of a working example of adaptation and emergence in complex socio-technical systems, and (iv) making a major educational contribution to European complex systems science and its applications.

  7. Development and preliminary validation of the First Episode Social Functioning Scale for early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc; Ehmann, Tom; Addington, Jean; Abdel-Baki, Amal; Macewan, Bill

    2014-05-30

    The current study aimed at developing and conducting a preliminary validation a novel social functioning measure for people with early psychosis. The First Episode Social Functioning Scale (FESFS) was developed to cover many domains specific to this population in their contemporary reality. The self-report version of the FESFS was administered to 203 individuals receiving services in first episode clinics. Scores of the GAF, SOFAS, Social Functioning Scale and BPRS were also obtained for parts of the sample to calculate convergent and discriminant validity. A subgroup also answered the FESFS at several time points during treatment in order to determine sensibility to change. Principal component factor analyses and internal consistency analyses revealed the following nine factors with alphas ranging from 0.63 to 0.80: Friendships and social activities, Independent living skills, Interacting with people, Family, Intimacy, Relationships and social activities at work, Work abilities, Relationships and social activities at school, Educational abilities. Convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated, as well as sensitivity to change. Clinical and research utility of the FESFS are discussed. PMID:24613006

  8. People Search within an Online Social Network: Large Scale Analysis of Facebook Graph Search Query Logs

    E-print Network

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    People Search within an Online Social Network: Large Scale Analysis of Facebook Graph Search Query and Facebook2 , Menlo Park, CA 94025 {spirin2,kkarahal}@illinois.edu and {jfh,miked,maxime}@fb.com ABSTRACT Facebook in- troduced its innovative Graph Search product with the goal to take the OSN search experience

  9. Fruit and vegetable shopping practices and social support scales: a validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric characteristics of new scales of shopping practices and social support for purchasing fruits and vegetables. DESIGN: Participants were recruited in front of diverse grocery stores. Telephone data collection was done on 2 occasions, separated by 6 weeks. PARTICIP...

  10. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: Factor, Convergent, and Divergent Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to assess fear of overall appearance evaluation. Initial psychometric work indicated that the measure had a single-factor structure and exhibited excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. In the current study, the authors further examined the factor,…

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES; J. W. Weeks, R. G. Heimberg, & T. L. Rodebaugh, 2008) was designed to assess fear of positive evaluation, a proposed cognitive component of social anxiety. Although previous findings on the psychometric properties of the FPES have been highly encouraging, only 1 previous study has examined the…

  12. The Validity, Reliability and Factorial Structure of the Turkish Version of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Tayfun; Cetin, Bayram

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS) developed by Silvera, Martinussen, and Dahl (2001). 719 students from Sakarya University participated in the study. Construct validity and criterion related validity and reliability were assessed.…

  13. The Use of Online Social Networks by Polish Former Erasmus Students: A Large-Scale Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing role of online social networks in the life of young Poles. We conducted a large-scale survey among Polish former Erasmus students. We have received 2450 completed questionnaires from alumni of 115 higher education institutions all over Poland. 85.4% of our respondents reported they kept in touch with their former Erasmus…

  14. A Polytomous Item Response Theory Analysis of Social Physique Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard B.; Crocker, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the social physique anxiety scale's factor structure and item properties using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. An additional aim was to identify differences in response patterns between groups (gender). A large sample of high school students aged 11-15 years (N = 1,529) consisting of n =…

  15. Factor Structure of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Turkish Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    Although the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) is most often validated with the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on undergraduate students, exploratory factor analysis and multiple factor retention decision criteria necessitate the analysis of underlying factor structure to prevent over and under factoring as well as to reveal…

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Social Responsiveness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Liu, Li-Ting; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (Chinese SRS). We assessed 1419 grade 1 to grade 8 students from northern Taiwan and 401 clinic-based participants (aged 3-20, male 90.3%). All clinic-based participants were clinically diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs),…

  17. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  18. Equality in the Provision of Social, Personal and Health Education in the Republic of Ireland: The Case of Homophobic Bullying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Higgins-Norman, James

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, the Government of the Republic of Ireland introduced a syllabus for second-level schools (12-15 years) in Social Personal and Health Education (SPHE). Within this SPHE syllabus there is a significant component on Relationships and Sexuality Education (RSE). In terms of diversity and equality it is questionable to what extent this newly…

  19. Emergence of Scale-Free Leadership Structure in Social Recommender Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Medo, Matúš; Cimini, Giulio; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The study of the organization of social networks is important for the understanding of opinion formation, rumor spreading, and the emergence of trends and fashion. This paper reports empirical analysis of networks extracted from four leading sites with social functionality (Delicious, Flickr, Twitter and YouTube) and shows that they all display a scale-free leadership structure. To reproduce this feature, we propose an adaptive network model driven by social recommending. Artificial agent-based simulations of this model highlight a “good get richer” mechanism where users with broad interests and good judgments are likely to become popular leaders for the others. Simulations also indicate that the studied social recommendation mechanism can gradually improve the user experience by adapting to tastes of its users. Finally we outline implications for real online resource-sharing systems. PMID:21857891

  20. Prising open the 'black box': An epistemological critique of discursive constructions of scaling up the provision of mental health care in Africa.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Global mental health research is increasingly highlighting the high levels of untreated mental illness in Africa and calling for the scaling-up of services in order to redress this situation. A particular model of care is being strongly advocated for such scale-up, and a recent explosion of research is providing guidelines for its implementation. This article seeks to open up the 'black box' of international research on scaling up the provision of mental health care in Africa, unearthing the hidden assumptions and power dynamics underpinning the knowledge produced. It insists that gaining a better understanding of care provision demands that we not only fill the gaps in knowledge but also problematize the assumptions upon which existing knowledge is based. This article demonstrates how two interrelated paradigms are strongly mediating research in this area - those of 'scientific evidence' and 'human rights'. Drawing on recent research within the sociology of scientific knowledge, and strands of postcolonial thought, it demonstrates how these paradigms are both underpinned by several contentious epistemological assumptions, assumptions which are deeply inserted within the epistemological order of Western modernity. The main argument is that through their shared ideological undertones of 'objectivity', 'universalism' and 'rationalism', these paradigms are potentially marginalizing other possibly important ways of thinking about care in Africa, ways which might not originate from modernist forms of consciousness. This article makes a plea for a more inclusive and plural archive of knowledge on scaling up mental health care in Africa, one which is more hospitable to diverse epistemological politics and moral landscapes. PMID:25406137

  1. Scaling up Corporate Social Investments in Education: Five Strategies That Work. Global Views. Policy Paper 2012-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Fleet, Justin W.

    2012-01-01

    Scaling up good corporate social investment practices in developing countries is crucial to realizing the "Education for All" and "Millennium Development Goals". Yet very few corporate social investments have the right mix of vision, financing, cross-sector engagement and leadership to come to scale. Globally, 67 million children are not enrolled…

  2. Social Scaling: From scale-free to stretched exponential models for scalar stress, hierarchy, levels and units in human and technological networks and evolution1

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    an empirically based scaling of human performance stress as a function of network linkages that are rescalable1 Social Scaling: From scale-free to stretched exponential models for scalar stress, hierarchy, levels and units in human and technological networks and evolution1 Douglas R. White © 2003 ISCOM working

  3. Clinical validation of a non-heteronormative version of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite welcomed changes in societal attitudes and practices towards sexual minorities, instances of heteronormativity can still be found within healthcare and research. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) is a valid and reliable self-rating scale of social anxiety, which includes one item (number 14) with an explicit heteronormative assumption about the respondent´s sexual orientation. This heteronormative phrasing may confuse, insult or alienate sexual minority respondents. A clinically validated version of the SIAS featuring a non-heteronormative phrasing of item 14 is thus needed. Methods 129 participants with diagnosed social anxiety disorder, enrolled in an Internet-based intervention trial, were randomly assigned to responding to the SIAS featuring either the original or a novel non-heteronormative phrasing of item 14, and then answered the other item version. Within-subject, correlation between item versions was calculated and the two scores were statistically compared. The two items’ correlations with the other SIAS items and other psychiatric rating scales were also statistically compared. Results Item versions were highly correlated and scores did not differ statistically. The two items’ correlations with other measures did not differ statistically either. Conclusions The SIAS can be revised with a non-heteronormative formulation of item 14 with psychometric equivalence on item and scale level. Implications for other psychiatric instruments with heteronormative phrasings are discussed. PMID:24354964

  4. Validation of the German Version of the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Iffland, Jona R.; Lockhofen, Denise; Gruppe, Harald; Gallhofer, Bernd; Sammer, Gebhard; Hanewald, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in social functioning are a core symptom of schizophrenia and an important criterion for evaluating the success of treatment. However, there is little agreement regarding its measurement. A common, often cited instrument for assessing self-reported social functioning is the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). The study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the German translation. 101 patients suffering from schizophrenia (SZ) and 101 matched controls (C) (60 male / 41 female, 35.8 years in both groups) completed the German version. In addition, demographic, clinical, and functional data were collected. Internal consistency was investigated calculating Cronbach’s alpha for SFS full scale (?: .81) and all subscales (?: .59-.88). Significant bivariate correlation coefficients were found between all subscales as well as between all subscales and full scale (p <.01). For the total sample, principal component analysis gave evidence to prefer a single-factor solution (eigenvalue ? 1) accounting for 48.5 % of the variance. For the subsamples, a two-component solution (SZ; 57.0 %) and a three-component solution (C; 65.6 %) fitted best, respectively. For SZ and C, significant associations were found between SFS and external criteria. The main factor “group” emerged as being significant. C showed higher values on both subscales and full scale. The sensitivity of the SFS was examined using discriminant analysis. 86.5% of the participants could be categorized correctly to their actual group. The German translation of the SFS turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire comparable to the original English version. This is in line with Spanish and Norwegian translations of the SFS. Concluding, the German version of the SFS is well suited to become a useful and practicable instrument for the assessment of social functioning in both clinical practice and research. It accomplishes commonly used external assessment scales. PMID:25837711

  5. The Alliance of Adaptive Behavior and Social Competence: An Examination of Relationships between the Scales of Independent Behavior and the Social Skills Rating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Popinga, Monique R.

    1994-01-01

    This study used the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) and the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) to examine the relationship between ratings of adaptive behavior and social competence with 208 students in kindergarten through third grade with a variety of disabilities. The study provided evidence for the concurrent criterion-related validity of…

  6. Cross-Informant Agreement for Ratings for Social Skill and Problem Behavior Ratings: An Investigation of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Cook, Clayton R.; Vance, Michael J.; Kettler, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in rating scale research with children and adolescents is the modest agreement among different informants' ratings. The present study systematically explored patterns of agreement among teachers, parents/caregivers, and students in domains of social skills and problem behaviors using the Social Skills…

  7. Geo-Social Interaction: Context-Aware Help in Large Scale Public Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Nasim; Aksenov, Petr; Yasar, Ansar-Ul-Haque; Preuveneers, Davy; Luyten, Kris; Coninx, Karin; Berbers, Yolande

    We present an approach to exploit social and spatio-temporal context in order to improve information dissemination in dynamic large-scale public spaces. We illustrate it by applying a proposed measure of geo-social relevance of each individual in a simulated vehicular network and by comparing the performance of different network message passing techniques in an inter-vehicle 'help-me-best-and-do-it-fast' communication scenario. We conclude that the use of social networking capabilities of an individual combined with knowledge about their spatio-temporal context information significantly improves purposeful interaction between individuals in terms of both the efficiency of the network data dissemination and the quality of the delivered information.

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xinyue; Xu, Qian; Ingles, Candido J.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in a sample of 296 adolescents (49% boys) in Grades 7, 8, 9, 10, and 12 with a mean age of 15.52 years. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the three-factor structure of the SAS-A in the Chinese sample: Fear of Negative…

  9. The provision of and need for social support among adult and pediatric patients with tuberculosis in Lima, Peru: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem in Peru, causing an estimated 35,000 new cases each year, 6.7% of whom are co-infected with HIV. Social support mechanisms are key in influencing health-seeking behavior, adherence, and overall patient wellbeing in clinical settings. We examine the types of social support received by TB patients and parents of pediatric patients in peri-urban Lima, Peru, to understand its role in patients’ psychosocial wellbeing during treatment. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted between August 2004 and May 2005 among 43 individuals: 19 adults with TB, 8 adults with TB/HIV, 13 parents of pediatric TB patients, and 3 parents of pediatric TB/HIV patients. Results Patients described the need for psychosocial support to mitigate the difficulty of continually going to the clinic to take medications, tending to other family or professional responsibilities while on treatment, and confronting stigma and social isolation within their community. Family members most often contributed to meeting these psychosocial needs, and were also crucial in providing economic support to patients faced with burdensome medical expenses or who were forced to leave their jobs due to being on treatment. Most healthcare personnel were described as key providers of emotional support and encouragement for patients to successfully adhere to treatment, however there were a select few doctors whose “scare tactics” seemingly discouraged patient adherence. During the treatment process, patients described being more socially withdrawn as a result of feeling fatigued from their medications, however most participants also described forming new mutually supportive friendships among their fellow patients. Conclusions Despite the general reluctance of patients to disclose their disease status, patients received a significant amount of psychosocial support from both family members to whom they disclosed, and from positive interactions with healthcare providers. High levels of depression were reported, with many patients voicing need for improved and more frequent psychological interventions. To improve the Peru TB program, participants suggested extending educational opportunities to patients’ families and the wider community, increasing the existing amount of nutritional support, and programmatic provision of vocational activities to increase economic opportunities. PMID:23899353

  10. At which geographic scale does ethnic diversity affect intra-neighborhood social capital?

    PubMed

    Sluiter, Roderick; Tolsma, Jochem; Scheepers, Peer

    2015-11-01

    The claim that ethnic diversity within the living environment would hamper bonding and bridging social capital has been studied extensively, producing highly inconsistent findings. We studied whether ethnic diversity effects depend on the geographic scale at which ethnic diversity is measured. We examined ethnic diversity effects on intra- and inter-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood, respectively on opposition to ethnic in- and out-group neighbors. Hypotheses were derived from Blau's meeting opportunities thesis and contact theory, ethnic competition theory, and constrict theory. Using information about 2545 Dutch respondents with their locality defined as egohoods and administrative units, we found that ethnic diversity effects vary with the geographic scale. Ethnic diversity of smaller localities is positively associated with bridging social capital. At larger scales, the findings are mixed: ethnic diversity is positively related to inter-ethnic contacts and opposition to out-group neighbors. Ethnic diversity of smaller localities is negatively related to bonding social capital. In contrast to often-made claims that diversity within the local context would matter most, estimates of diversity effects are not always stronger when diversity measures are aggregated to smaller geographic areas. PMID:26463536

  11. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: factorial invariance across gender and age in Hispanic American adolescents.

    PubMed

    La Greca, Annette M; Ingles, Candido J; Lai, Betty S; Marzo, Juan C

    2015-04-01

    Social anxiety is a common psychological disorder that often emerges during adolescence and is associated with significant impairment. Efforts to prevent social anxiety disorder require sound assessment measures for identifying anxious youth, especially those from minority backgrounds. We examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in Hispanic American adolescents (N = 1,191; 56% girls; 15-18 years) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicated that the factorial configuration of the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was invariant across gender and age. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that boys exhibited higher structured means than girls on the Social Avoidance and Distress-General (SAD-General) subscale. On all SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Avoidance and Distress-New, and SAD-General, estimates of the structured means decreased with adolescent age. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25059683

  12. [Evaluation of theoretical accuracy, reliability, discriminative power and difficulty for physical, mental and social well-being scales in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, P

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the questionnaire used to measure adolescents' wellbeing and its physical, mental and social dimensions. The questionnaire was composed of two parts: the first part contained wellbeing indicators and the second part contained criterion indicators (health disorders and harmful behaviours). Physical wellbeing scale contained the most common complaints due to psychosocial and life style factors, and was measured by three indicators: headache, abdominal pain and backache. Mental wellbeing scale contained emotional and moral dimensions that were recognised as closely connected with the physical disorders from one hands and the process of socialisation from the other hands. There were eight indicators: fatigue, stress, fear, depression, loneliness, helplessness, feeling of guilt, and low self-complacency. Five indicators: perceived social support, relationship with mother, father, friends and teacher measured social wellbeing scale. Each indicator of wellbeing is scored in three scales: dichotomise scale, five-point Likert scale and visual analogue scale. The cluster sample of 445 schoolchildren aged 14-15 years, randomly selected from the last grade of elementary schools of Warsaw was surveyed in October-November 1999. The physical, mental, social and total wellbeing scales were found to be reliable, but differing in internal consistency. The total and mental scales of wellbeing demonstrated high reliability, while the physical and social scales demonstrated moderate reliability. Analysis of correlation between criterion and tested variables showed acceptable discriminative power of the physical, mental, social and total wellbeing scales. Respondents assessed the five-point Likert scale as easier in comparison to dichotomise and visual analogue scales. PMID:11452745

  13. Brief Report: The Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)-- Initial Results in a German Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Longitudinal Study of Latinos with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…

  15. Empirical Validation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Fresco, David M.; Hart, Trevor A.; Turk, Cynthia L.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE; M. R. Leary, 1983a) is often used to assess fear of negative evaluation, the core feature of social anxiety disorder. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties in large samples of socially anxious patients. Although the BFNE yields a single total score, confirmatory factor…

  16. Rasch Calibration of Physical Activity Self-Efficacy and Social Support Scale for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Miyoung; Peterson, Jana J.; Dixon, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID) scales developed by Peterson, Peterson, Lowe, & Nothwehr (2009). A total of 146 participants with intellectual disabilities completed 6 self-efficacy (SE) items and 18 social

  17. Managing large-scale workflow execution from resource provisioning to provenance tracking: The CyberShake example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deelman, E.; Callaghan, S.; Field, E.; Francoeur, H.; Graves, R.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Kesselman, C.; Maechling, P.; Mehringer, J.; Mehta, G.; Okaya, D.; Vahi, K.; Zhao, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of building an environment where large-scale, complex, scientific analysis can be scheduled onto a heterogeneous collection of computational and storage resources. The example application is the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) CyberShake project, an analysis designed to compute probabilistic seismic hazard curves for sites in the Los Angeles area. We explain which software tools were used to build to the system, describe their functionality and interactions. We show the results of running the CyberShake analysis that included over 250,000 jobs using resources available through SCEC and the TeraGrid. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  18. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Feczko, Eric J; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Walum, Hasse; Pruett, John R; Parr, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS). Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological mechanisms underlying social impairments. PMID:26731103

  19. Examining the Stability of the 7-Item Social Physique Anxiety Scale Using a Test-Retest Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lisa A.; Burke, Kevin L.; Joyner, A. Barry; Brand, Jennifer S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the stability of the 7-item Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS-7) using a test-retest method. Collegiate, undergraduate (N = 201) students completed two administrations of the SPAS-7, with a 14-day separation between the administrations. The scale was administered either at the beginning or end of the physical activity class.…

  20. Across Space and Time: Social Responses to Large-Scale Biophysical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macmynowski, Dena P.

    2007-06-01

    The conceptual rubric of ecosystem management has been widely discussed and deliberated in conservation biology, environmental policy, and land/resource management. In this paper, I argue that two critical aspects of the ecosystem management concept require greater attention in policy and practice. First, although emphasis has been placed on the “space” of systems, the “time”—or rates of change—associated with biophysical and social systems has received much less consideration. Second, discussions of ecosystem management have often neglected the temporal disconnects between changes in biophysical systems and the response of social systems to management issues and challenges. The empirical basis of these points is a case study of the “Crown of the Continent Ecosystem,” an international transboundary area of the Rocky Mountains that surrounds Glacier National Park (USA) and Waterton Lakes National Park (Canada). This project assessed the experiences and perspectives of 1) middle- and upper-level government managers responsible for interjurisdictional cooperation, and 2) environmental nongovernment organizations with an international focus. I identify and describe 10 key challenges to increasing the extent and intensity of transboundary cooperation in land/resource management policy and practice. These issues are discussed in terms of their political, institutional, cultural, information-based, and perceptual elements. Analytic techniques include a combination of environmental history, semistructured interviews with 48 actors, and text analysis in a systematic qualitative framework. The central conclusion of this work is that the rates of response of human social systems must be better integrated with the rates of ecological change. This challenge is equal to or greater than the well-recognized need to adapt the spatial scale of human institutions to large-scale ecosystem processes and transboundary wildlife.

  1. Base rates of social skills acquisition/performance deficits, strengths, and problem behaviors: an analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Gresham, Frank M; Elliott, Stephen N; Kettler, Ryan J

    2010-12-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally representative sample of children and adolescent ages 3-18 years. Using the national standardization sample of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales (N = 4,550) across 3 informants (teacher, parent, and student) and across 3 broad age groupings (3-5 years, 5-12 years, and 13-18 years), these base rates were computed. Results showed that the base rates for social skills acquisition deficits and problem behaviors are extremely low in the general population. Base rates for social skills performance deficits and social skills strengths were considerably higher, with students in the 5- to 12-year-old age group reporting fewer performance deficits and more social skills strengths than older children (13-18 years). Teachers and parents reported more performance deficits and fewer social skills strengths across all age groups than students in the 5- to 12-year-old age group. These results are discussed in terms of the utility of base rate information in clinical decision making. PMID:20804259

  2. The alliance of adaptive behavior and social competence: an examination of relationship between the scales of Independent Behavior and the Social Skills Rating System.

    PubMed

    Merrell, K W; Popinga, M R

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between ratings of adaptive behavior and social competence in a population of 208 students in kindergarten through third grade with a variety of disabilities using the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB; Bruininks, Woodcock, Weatherman, & Hill, 1984) and the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; Gresham & Elliott, 1990). Moderate yet statistically significant relationships between the SIB adaptive behavior scores and the SSRS social competence scores were found, with strongest correlations occurring between the SSRS and the Social and Communication subscale (r = .51) and Work Skills subscale (r = .60) on the SIB. Weak to near zero correlations were found between the SIB adaptive behavior scores and SSRS Problem Behaviors scores. This investigation provides new evidence for the concurrent criterion-related validity of both the SIB and the SSRS. PMID:8190971

  3. Validation of the social appearance anxiety scale in female eating disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurence; Hart, Trevor A; Smits, Dirk; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) in a sample of 60 female eating disorder patients (M(age) = 27.82, SD = 9.76). The SAAS was developed to assess anxiety about being negatively evaluated for one's appearance. All patients completed the SAAS, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Physical Health Questionnaire-9 Depression and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Psychopathology. The SAAS demonstrated a one-factor structure and a high internal consistency. The SAAS was significantly positive in relation to body mass index, drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction. Concerning personality dimensions, the SAAS was positively related to emotional problems (e.g. depression, anxiety) and interpersonal problems (e.g. suspiciousness, submissiveness). Findings suggest that the SAAS is a psychometrically sound instrument to assess anxiety about being negatively evaluated about one's appearance in a sample of eating disorder patients. PMID:21805536

  4. Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Adam D I; Guillory, Jamie E; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-17

    Emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. Emotional contagion is well established in laboratory experiments, with people transferring positive and negative emotions to others. Data from a large real-world social network, collected over a 20-y period suggests that longer-lasting moods (e.g., depression, happiness) can be transferred through networks [Fowler JH, Christakis NA (2008) BMJ 337:a2338], although the results are controversial. In an experiment with people who use Facebook, we test whether emotional contagion occurs outside of in-person interaction between individuals by reducing the amount of emotional content in the News Feed. When positive expressions were reduced, people produced fewer positive posts and more negative posts; when negative expressions were reduced, the opposite pattern occurred. These results indicate that emotions expressed by others on Facebook influence our own emotions, constituting experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion via social networks. This work also suggests that, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, in-person interaction and nonverbal cues are not strictly necessary for emotional contagion, and that the observation of others' positive experiences constitutes a positive experience for people. PMID:24889601

  5. Observable Social Cognition: A Rating Scale (OSCARS): An Interview-Based Assessment for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Kristin M.; Combs, Dennis R.; Gibson, Clare M.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Roberts, David L.; Penn, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with schizophrenia consistently show impairments in social cognition (SC). SC has become a potential treatment target due to its association with functional outcomes. An alternative method of assessment is to administer an observer-based scale incorporating an informant’s “first hand” impressions in ratings. Methods The present study used the Observable Social Cognition: A Rating Scale (OSCARS) in 62 outpatients and 50 non-psychiatric controls (NPCs) to assess performance in domains of SC (e.g. emotion perception, theory of mind). Results The OSCARS demonstrated sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed through an exploratory factor analysis. Patient OSCARS indices were not significantly correlated with measures of SC with the exception of aggressive attributional style. Individuals with less impairment in SC reacted more aggressively to ambiguous situations. NPC OSCARS were significantly correlated with measures of theory of mind and attributional style. In a combined sample of patients and controls, six of eight items were significantly correlated with the SC task assessing the same domain, providing modest evidence of convergent validity. In patients, the OSCARS was significantly correlated with measures of functional outcome and neurocognition. Lastly, the OSCARS was found to be significantly associated with functional outcome after the influence of objective measures of SC was statistically removed. Conclusions The present study provides preliminary evidence that the OSCARS may be useful for clinicians in collecting data about patients’ potential real-world SC deficits, in turn increasing the degree to which these impairments may be targeted in treatment. PMID:25675960

  6. 20 CFR 435.48 - Contract provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...provisions. 435.48 Section 435.48 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  7. 20 CFR 435.48 - Contract provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...provisions. 435.48 Section 435.48 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  8. 20 CFR 435.48 - Contract provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...provisions. 435.48 Section 435.48 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  9. 20 CFR 435.48 - Contract provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...provisions. 435.48 Section 435.48 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  10. 20 CFR 435.48 - Contract provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...provisions. 435.48 Section 435.48 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  11. Schools, Space and Social Policy: Educational Provision for the Children of Migrant Workers in Munich. International Monographs in Community and Educational Policy Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geipel, Robert

    Three aspects of the problem of school provision for the children of migrant workers in a major European city (Munich), which hitherto have usually been viewed in isolation, are linked together in this paper. These aspects are problems of the infrastructure of education, viewed in the context patterns of urban development and shifts of population…

  12. The Social Physique Anxiety Scale: An Example of the Potential Consequence of Negatively Worded Items in Factorial Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Conroy, David E.; Horan, Patrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Used confirmatory factor analysis to examine whether the two-factor solution to the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (E. Hart, M. Leary, and W. Rejeski, 1989) was meaningful. Results for 4 samples of data for college students, high school students, and athletes (n=1,053) from previous studies support the existence of a single substantive factor…

  13. The Social Strategy Game: Resource Competition within Female Social Networks among Small-scale Forager-Horticulturalists.

    PubMed

    Rucas, Stacey L; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Winking, Jeffrey

    2010-03-10

    This paper examines social determinants of resource competition among Tsimane Amerindian women of Bolivia. We introduce a semi-anonymous experiment (the Social Strategy Game) designed to simulate resource competition among women. Information concerning dyadic social relationships and demographic data were collected to identify variables influencing resource competition intensity, as measured by the number of beads one woman took from another. Relationship variables are used to test how the affiliative or competitive aspects of dyads affect the extent of prosociality in the game. Using a mixed-modeling procedure, we find that women compete with those with whom they are quarreling over accusations of meat theft, mate competition, and rumor spreading. They also compete with members of their social network and with those who were designated as cooperative helpers or as close kin. Women take fewer beads from desired friends, neighbors, and from those viewed as enemies. We interpret favoritism toward enemies as resulting from fear of retribution. Our results suggest that social relations among women are multifaceted and often cannot be simplified by exclusive focus on genetic relatedness, physical proximity, or reciprocity. We argue that a complex understanding of cooperation and competition among women may require important contextual information concerning relationship history in addition to typical features of resource ecology. PMID:20526460

  14. Cross-informant agreement for ratings for social skill and problem behavior ratings: an investigation of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Gresham, Frank M; Elliott, Stephen N; Cook, Clayton R; Vance, Michael J; Kettler, Ryan

    2010-03-01

    One of the most consistent findings in rating scale research with children and adolescents is the modest agreement among different informants' ratings. The present study systematically explored patterns of agreement among teachers, parents/caregivers, and students in domains of social skills and problem behaviors using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS; F. M. Gresham & S. N. Elliott, 2008). Two subsamples from the normative sample of the SSIS-RS were used. The first sample of participants consisted of 168 students who had all 3 informants (parent, teacher, and self) complete the SSIS-RS scales, which was necessary to assess agreement across different raters. The second sample consisted of 164 students who had raters in a similar or same role (father-mother, teacher-teacher). The results replicated an extensive literature showing that cross-informant agreements for social skills and problem behaviors are weak to moderate. The current study invoked multitrait-multimethod logic to interpret the correlations among raters derived from different informants and showed that the convergent validity coefficients were consistently stronger than the discriminant validity correlations. Implications for assessment practices and future research are discussed. PMID:20230162

  15. Evaluation of the French version of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Denis, A; Callahan, S; Bouvard, M

    2015-06-01

    In the presence of physical and psychological disturbances in the postpartum period, perceived social support is often regarded as a protective factor in women's mental health. This work evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of a questionnaire widely used internationally to measure perceived social support, which has not been yet validated in French: the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). This study collected data from 148 women (30.5 ± 5.12 years) who agreed to complete the MSPSS and a scale assessing symptoms of postpartum depression (Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale, EPDS) 1 and 4 months after childbirth. The results confirm the original three-factor structure of the scale. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients are excellent. The total scale score is correlated with all three dimensions and a significantly negative correlation is found between MSPSS and EPDS. The results suggest that the French tool has generally good internal reliability. The MSPSS can provide useful data helping to identify French-speaking people at risk for negative feelings (e.g., mood disorders of perinatal period). PMID:25366102

  16. Test Review: Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). "Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition" ("SRS-2"). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruni, Teryn P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition (SRS-2), a 65-item rating scale measuring deficits in social behavior associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), as outlined by the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association,…

  17. Community-based social marketing at the neighborhood scale : sustainable behavior or neighborhood sustainability?

    E-print Network

    Lightman, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Social marketing has long been used in the field of public health, but its application in the environmental world is only a decade old. Although McKenzie-Mohr and Smith's (1999) guide to "community-based social marketing" ...

  18. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Toby A.; Ferreira, Joice; Barlow, Jos; Lees, Alexander C.; Parry, Luke; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Berenguer, Erika; Abramovay, Ricardo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Andretti, Christian; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Araújo, Ivanei; de Ávila, Williams Souza; Bardgett, Richard D.; Batistella, Mateus; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Beldini, Troy; de Blas, Driss Ezzine; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Braga, Danielle de Lima; de Brito, Janaína Gomes; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Campos dos Santos, Fabiane; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Cordeiro, Amanda Cardoso Nunes; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Carvalho, Déborah Reis; Castelani, Sergio André; Chaul, Júlio Cézar Mário; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Costa, Francisco de Assis; da Costa, Carla Daniele Furtado; Coudel, Emilie; Coutinho, Alexandre Camargo; Cunha, Dênis; D'Antona, Álvaro; Dezincourt, Joelma; Dias-Silva, Karina; Durigan, Mariana; Esquerdo, Júlio César Dalla Mora; Feres, José; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Ferreira, Amanda Estefânia de Melo; Fiorini, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Lenise Vargas Flores; Frazão, Fábio Soares; Garrett, Rachel; Gomes, Alessandra dos Santos; Gonçalves, Karoline da Silva; Guerrero, José Benito; Hamada, Neusa; Hughes, Robert M.; Igliori, Danilo Carmago; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Juen, Leandro; Junior, Miércio; Junior, José Max Barbosa de Oliveira; Junior, Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Junior, Carlos Souza; Kaufmann, Phil; Korasaki, Vanesca; Leal, Cecília Gontijo; Leitão, Rafael; Lima, Natália; Almeida, Maria de Fátima Lopes; Lourival, Reinaldo; Louzada, Júlio; Nally, Ralph Mac; Marchand, Sébastien; Maués, Márcia Motta; Moreira, Fátima M. S.; Morsello, Carla; Moura, Nárgila; Nessimian, Jorge; Nunes, Sâmia; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Pardini, Renata; Pereira, Heloisa Correia; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Rossetti, Felipe; Schmidt, Fernando Augusto; da Silva, Rodrigo; da Silva, Regina Célia Viana Martins; da Silva, Thiago Fonseca Morello Ramalho; Silveira, Juliana; Siqueira, João Victor; de Carvalho, Teotônio Soares; Solar, Ricardo R. C.; Tancredi, Nicola Savério Holanda; Thomson, James R.; Torres, Patrícia Carignano; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Viana, Cecília; Weinhold, Diana; Zanetti, Ronald; Zuanon, Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here, we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multidisciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organizations working to assess both social and ecological dimensions of land-use sustainability in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The research approach adopted by RAS offers three advantages for addressing land-use sustainability problems: (i) the collection of synchronized and co-located ecological and socioeconomic data across broad gradients of past and present human use; (ii) a nested sampling design to aid comparison of ecological and socioeconomic conditions associated with different land uses across local, landscape and regional scales; and (iii) a strong engagement with a wide variety of actors and non-research institutions. Here, we elaborate on these key features, and identify the ways in which RAS can help in highlighting those problems in most urgent need of attention, and in guiding improvements in land-use sustainability in Amazonia and elsewhere in the tropics. We also discuss some of the practical lessons, limitations and realities faced during the development of the RAS initiative so far. PMID:23610172

  19. An LDA-based Community Structure Discovery Approach for Large-Scale Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Allocation)-based hierarchical Bayesian algorithm, namely SSN-LDA(Simple Social Network LDA). In SSN the social actor space. The advantage of SSN-LDA is that it only requires topological information as input Bayesian network based approach, namely SSN-LDA(Simple Social Network-LDA) to discover proba- bilistic

  20. Development and Validation of the Social Worker's Attitudes toward Disability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Leah P.; Abell, Neil; Kim, Hyejin

    2015-01-01

    Disability scholars have recently highlighted social work professional organizations' lagging pace in adopting disability advocacy within diversity agendas and have questioned the adequacy of disability content within accredited social work curricula. Amid growing concerns, measures to assess attitudes of social workers toward disability and…

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the Concerns of Social Reprisal Scale: Further explicating the roots of fear of positive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Justin W; Menatti, Andrew R; Howell, Ashley N

    2015-12-01

    Fear of positive evaluation (FPE) has been proposed to be an important feature of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to be rooted, at least partly, in concerns of social reprisal due to positive impressions. In order to formally test this hypothesis, the Concerns of Social Reprisal Scale (CSRS) was developed. The purpose of the present series of studies was to examine the psychometric profile of the CSRS across several independent samples including: a large (n=981) undergraduate sample; a clinical sample of individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (n=27), and a demographically-matched subsample of healthy control participants (n=24). The factorial validity, internal consistency, and construct validity of the CSRS were examined. Results across both studies provided support for the psychometric profile of the CSRS. The implications of concerns of social reprisal for the assessment of social anxiety symptoms, theoretical models of fear of evaluation and SAD, and their potential clinical utility with regard to treating SAD are discussed. PMID:26414155

  2. An analysis of more than 1,400 articles, 900 scales, and 17 years of research: the state of scales in cyberpsychology, behavior, and social networking.

    PubMed

    Howard, Matt C; Jayne, Bradley S

    2015-03-01

    Cyberpsychology is a recently emergent field that examines the impact of technology upon human cognition and behavior. Given its infancy, authors have rapidly created new measures to gauge their constructs of interest. Unfortunately, few of these authors have had the opportunity to test their scales' psychometric properties and validity. This is concerning, as many theoretical assumptions may be founded upon scales with inadequate attributes. If this were found to be true, then previous findings in cyberpsychology studies would need to be retested, and future research would need to shift its focus to creating psychometrically sound and valid measures. To provide inferences on this concern, the current study examines the article reporting, scale creation, and scale reliabilities of every article published in Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking from its inception to July 2014. The final data set encompassed the coding of 1,478 individual articles, including 921 scales, and spanning 17 years. The results demonstrate that the simple survey methodology has become more popular over time. Authors are gradually applying empirically tested scales. However, self-created measures are still the most popular, leading to concerns about the measures' validity. Also, the use of multi-item measures has increased over time, but many articles still fail to report adequate information to assess the reliability of the applied scales. Lastly, the average scale reliability is 0.81, which barely meets standard cutoffs. Overall, these results are not overly concerning, but suggestions are given on methods to improve the reporting of measures, the creation of scales, and the state of cyberpsychology. PMID:25751050

  3. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a transboundary aquifer that extends far beyond the study area, over about 150 000 km2. It is also heterogeneous. Like surface flows, but at a different scale, groundwater flows are marked by a strong endorheism. For example the Dantiandou closed piezometric depression extends over about approximately 5000 km2. These natural closed depressions are explained only by evapotranspiration uptake, weak in absolute terms (a few mm.a-1) but with a very high impact on hydrodynamics because of poor permeability and porosity. Both density of observations and hydraulic continuity of the CT3 aquifer give a fine idea of groundwater changes in the whole area. Human activities, continuously adapting in this poor rural area, add another complexity to the hydrological diversity in surface and ground water. The replacement of the natural vegetation with millet fields and fallow increased the surface runoff, and consequently water accumulation in temporary pools and then CT3 recharge. In the SE part of the study area, the water table has risen up to outcropping in the lowest valley bottoms. These new permanent ponds reflect groundwater while temporary ponds still reflect surface dynamics. This new component of the hydrological landscape induces several consequences, in physical and human dimensions. Evaporation strongly affects the permanent water and increases its salinity while the natural mineralization of groundwater is very low. The easier access to water resources allows a significant development of local gardening, which modifies the social functioning of villages (e.g. land rights between villages and within a village, diversification of crops and sources of income, new sales channels). Different physically based models (for surface and ground water) were built, with a significant discrepancy between their respective quantification of water flows at the region scale. Extrapolation of surface fluxes from the few instrumented catchments to a much larger mosaic of non-instrumented catchments is only partially compatible with the geochemical and hydrodynamic calculations for the CT3 aquife

  4. Usability engineering and social presence for interaction, collaboration and learning in Second Life for the provision of real-world financial services 

    E-print Network

    McCafferty, Laurene

    2010-06-28

    Virtual environments offer an exciting platform for social science research. The persistent nature of online virtual worlds such as Second Life however has increased the potential for both companies and institutions ...

  5. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014—up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI’s 17 and PSI’s 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations’ operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the potential to contribute to universal health coverage. PMID:26085017

  6. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014-up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI's 17 and PSI's 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations' operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the potential to contribute to universal health coverage. PMID:26085017

  7. Development and Validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of African American parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and…

  8. Assessing Individual Social Capital Capacity: The Development and Validation of a Network Accessibility Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, John-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Any organization that is able to promote the importance of increased levels of social capital and individuals who can leverage and use the resources that exist within the network may experience higher levels of performance. This study sought to add to our knowledge about individuals' accessing social resources for the purpose of accomplishing…

  9. A Large Scale Test of the Effect of Social Class on Prosocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Korndörfer, Martin; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C.

    2015-01-01

    Does being from a higher social class lead a person to engage in more or less prosocial behavior? Psychological research has recently provided support for a negative effect of social class on prosocial behavior. However, research outside the field of psychology has mainly found evidence for positive or u-shaped relations. In the present research, we therefore thoroughly examined the effect of social class on prosocial behavior. Moreover, we analyzed whether this effect was moderated by the kind of observed prosocial behavior, the observed country, and the measure of social class. Across eight studies with large and representative international samples, we predominantly found positive effects of social class on prosociality: Higher class individuals were more likely to make a charitable donation and contribute a higher percentage of their family income to charity (32,090 ? N ? 3,957; Studies 1–3), were more likely to volunteer (37,136 ?N ? 3,964; Studies 4–6), were more helpful (N = 3,902; Study 7), and were more trusting and trustworthy in an economic game when interacting with a stranger (N = 1,421; Study 8) than lower social class individuals. Although the effects of social class varied somewhat across the kinds of prosocial behavior, countries, and measures of social class, under no condition did we find the negative effect that would have been expected on the basis of previous results reported in the psychological literature. Possible explanations for this divergence and implications are discussed. PMID:26193099

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Professional Suitability Scale for Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Dora M. Y.; Twigg, Robert C.; Boey, Kam-Wing; Kwok, Siu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a validation study to examine the factor structure of an instrument designed to measure professional suitability for social work practice. Method: Data were collected from registered social workers in a provincial mailed survey. The response rate was 23.2%. After eliminating five cases with multivariate outliers,…

  11. Measuring Social Capital: The Development of the Social Capital and Cohesion Scale and the Associations between Social Capital and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, social capital has received increasing attention in the international literature. Despite the popularity of the construct, problems concerning definition, theoretical conceptualisation, and measurement continue to plague research and policy in this area. This investigation aimed to address this gap by developing a new…

  12. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution. WORKING PAPER

    E-print Network

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Cuttone, Andrea; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a large study designed to collect data about human interactions with unprecedented temporal resolution and depth, both in terms of duration and number of distinct channels. To collect this data, we use state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. We collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, geolocation, and background information for a densely connected and coherent population of 1,000 individuals. From a basic science perspective, our motivation is to advance the understanding of highly connected social systems. Building from our densely sampled system, we are interested understanding what working on subsamples implies for results on social network analysis; we explore this topic by comparing single-channel information with our layered picture of interactions. In terms of network science, we aim to expand our understanding of the dynamics of the social network, how it changes over time, and the causes and implications of the proce...

  13. The Solaar HIV Prevention Program for Gay and Bisexual Latino Men: Using Social Marketing to Build Capacity for Service Provision and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Ross F.; Takahashi, Lois; Ortiz, Eloy; Archuleta, Eduardo; Muniz, Juan; Rodriguez, Julio

    2005-01-01

    Community-researcher partnerships can be powerful mechanisms to understand and effectively address health and social problems such as HIV/AIDS prevention. When the partnership is a positive, productive one, the combined expertise and energy of both parties result in a more effective program and a better evaluation of its effects. This article…

  14. Striving for Inclusion: Evaluation of Provision for Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD) in Secondary Schools in a Scottish Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Paul; Boyd, Brian

    2001-01-01

    A study examined a Scottish council's initiative to mainstream secondary pupils with social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties. Classroom observations and teacher interviews at 12 schools indicated that not all departments shared the underlying philosophy, and consultation with community agencies was lacking. Some schools showed progress, but…

  15. Scaling of city attractiveness for foreign visitors through big data of human economical and social media activity

    E-print Network

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Belyi, Alexander; Sitko, Izabela; Hawelka, Bartosz; Arias, Juan Murillo; Ratti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Scientific studies investigating laws and regularities of human behavior are nowadays increasingly relying on the wealth of widely available digital information produced by human social activity. In this paper we leverage big data created by three different aspects of human activity (i.e., bank card transactions, geotagged photographs and tweets) in Spain for quantifying city attractiveness for the foreign visitors. An important finding of this papers is a strong superlinear scaling of city attractiveness with its population size. The observed scaling exponent stays nearly the same for different ways of defining cities and for different data sources, emphasizing the robustness of our finding. Temporal variation of the scaling exponent is also considered in order to reveal seasonal patterns in the attractiveness

  16. EarthScope's Education, Outreach, and Communications: Using Social Media from Continental to Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, W.; Frus, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Social media has emerged as a popular and effective form of communication among all age groups, with nearly half of Internet users belonging to a social network or using another form of social media on a regular basis. This phenomenon creates an excellent opportunity for earth science organizations to use the wide reach, functionality and informal environment of social media platforms to disseminate important scientific information, create brand recognition, and establish trust with users. Further, social media systems can be utilized for missions of education, outreach, and communicating important timely information (e.g., news agencies are common users). They are eminently scaleable (thus serving from a few to millions of users with no cost and no performance problem), searchable (people are turning to them more frequently as conduits for information), and user friendly (thanks to the massive resources poured into the underlying technology and design, these systems are easy to use and have been widely adopted). They can be used, therefore, to engage the public interactively with the EarthScope facilities, experiments, and discoveries, and continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify scientific advancement. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) is launching an effort to utilize social media to broaden its impact as a conduit between scientists, facilities, educators, and the public. The ESNO will use the opportunities that social media affords to offer high quality science content in a variety of formats that appeal to social media users of various age groups, including blogs (popular with users 18-29), Facebook and Twitter updates (popular with users ages 18-50), email updates (popular with older adults), and video clips (popular with all age groups). We will monitor the number of "fans" and "friends" on social media and networking pages in order to gauge the increase in the percentage of the user population visiting the site. We will also use existing tools available on social media sites to track the relationships between users who visit or "friend" the site to determine how knowledge of the site is transferred amongst various social, educational or geographic groups. Finally, we will use this information to iteratively improve the variety of content and media on the site to increase our user pool, improve EarthScope recognition, and provide appropriate and user-specific Earth science information, especially for time sensitive events of wide interest such as natural disasters.

  17. Social Skills Intervention Planning for Preschoolers: Using the SSiS-Rating Scales to Identify Target Behaviors Valued by Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jennifer R.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' and parents' importance ratings of social behaviors for 95 preschoolers were examined using the "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales" (Gresham & Elliott, 2008). Multivariate analyses were used to examine parents' and teachers' importance ratings at the item and subscale levels. Overall,…

  18. Data gathering to build and validate small-scale social models for simulation. Two ways: strict control and stake-holders involvement

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Data gathering to build and validate small-scale social models for simulation. Two ways: strict.rouchier@univmed.fr Kyoto, 2005 - 10 - 13 Modelling and the search for realism Social simulation using multi-agent paradigm (sometimes called "agent-based simulation" or "simulation with agents") has developed quickly in the last

  19. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    SciTech Connect

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D'Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  20. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  1. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark L.; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Yamoah Tenkorang, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  2. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Arabic Social Media Addiction Scale

    PubMed Central

    Al-Menayes, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the SMAS. SMAS is a variant of IAT customized to measure addiction to social media instead of the Internet as a whole. Using a self-report instrument on a cross-sectional sample of undergraduate students, the results revealed the following. First, the exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well. Second, concurrent validity analysis showed the SMAS to be a valid measure of social media addiction. However, further studies and data should verify the hypothesized model. Finally, this study showed that the Arabic version of the SMAS is a valid and reliable instrument for use in measuring social media addiction in the Arab world. PMID:26347848

  3. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Arabic Social Media Addiction Scale.

    PubMed

    Al-Menayes, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the SMAS. SMAS is a variant of IAT customized to measure addiction to social media instead of the Internet as a whole. Using a self-report instrument on a cross-sectional sample of undergraduate students, the results revealed the following. First, the exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well. Second, concurrent validity analysis showed the SMAS to be a valid measure of social media addiction. However, further studies and data should verify the hypothesized model. Finally, this study showed that the Arabic version of the SMAS is a valid and reliable instrument for use in measuring social media addiction in the Arab world. PMID:26347848

  4. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure and Cryptic Associations Reveal Evidence of Kin-Based Sociality in the African Forest Elephant

    PubMed Central

    Schuttler, Stephanie G.; Philbrick, Jessica A.; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Eggert, Lori S.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geographic distance, as we expect kin to be in closer proximity, using spatial autocorrelation analyses and Tau Kr tests. Associations between individuals were investigated through a non-invasive genetic capture-recapture approach using network models, and were predicted to be more extensive than the small groups found in observational studies, similar to fission-fusion sociality found in African savanna (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) species. Dung samples were collected in Lopé National Park, Gabon in 2008 and 2010 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, genetically sexed, and sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. We conducted analyses on samples collected at three different temporal scales: a day, within six-day sampling sessions, and within each year. Spatial autocorrelation and Tau Kr tests revealed genetic structure, but results were weak and inconsistent between sampling sessions. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in distance classes of 0–5 km, and was strongest for the single day session. Despite weak genetic structure, individuals within groups were significantly more related to each other than to individuals between groups. Social networks revealed some components to have large, extensive groups of up to 22 individuals, and most groups were composed of individuals of the same matriline. Although fine-scale population genetic structure was weak, forest elephants are typically found in groups consisting of kin and based on matrilines, with some individuals having more associates than observed from group sizes alone. PMID:24505381

  5. Fine-scale genetic structure and cryptic associations reveal evidence of kin-based sociality in the African forest elephant.

    PubMed

    Schuttler, Stephanie G; Philbrick, Jessica A; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geographic distance, as we expect kin to be in closer proximity, using spatial autocorrelation analyses and Tau K(r) tests. Associations between individuals were investigated through a non-invasive genetic capture-recapture approach using network models, and were predicted to be more extensive than the small groups found in observational studies, similar to fission-fusion sociality found in African savanna (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) species. Dung samples were collected in Lopé National Park, Gabon in 2008 and 2010 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, genetically sexed, and sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. We conducted analyses on samples collected at three different temporal scales: a day, within six-day sampling sessions, and within each year. Spatial autocorrelation and Tau K(r) tests revealed genetic structure, but results were weak and inconsistent between sampling sessions. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in distance classes of 0-5 km, and was strongest for the single day session. Despite weak genetic structure, individuals within groups were significantly more related to each other than to individuals between groups. Social networks revealed some components to have large, extensive groups of up to 22 individuals, and most groups were composed of individuals of the same matriline. Although fine-scale population genetic structure was weak, forest elephants are typically found in groups consisting of kin and based on matrilines, with some individuals having more associates than observed from group sizes alone. PMID:24505381

  6. Scaling up global social health protection: prerequisite reforms to the International Monetary Fund.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    People living in low-income countries require protection from the economic and social impacts of global economic competition, yet, historically, the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) fiscal austerity programs have weakened the potential for redistribution both within poor countries and between rich and poor countries. The current development paradigm's focus on "sustainability" is an obstacle to developing systems of global social protection and an impediment to future progress. Reforming IMF policy conditionality and democratizing the IMF's decision-making processes will be necessary for offsetting growing inequalities in health financing among poor nations. PMID:19927417

  7. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  8. The Solaar HIV prevention program for gay and bisexual Latino men: using social marketing to build capacity for service provision and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Conner, Ross F; Takahashi, Lois; Ortiz, Eloy; Archuleta, Eduardo; Muniz, Juan; Rodriguez, Julio

    2005-08-01

    Community-researcher partnerships can be powerful mechanisms to understand and effectively address health and social problems such as HIV/AIDS prevention. When the partnership is a positive, productive one, the combined expertise and energy of both parties result in a more effective program and a better evaluation of its effects. This article describes one such partnership and how a program challenge provided the opportunity for both partners to develop new capacities and strengthen others. The program is Proyecto SOLAAR, a community-based and culturally-sensitive HIV prevention program for gay and bisexual Latino men. The program is an experiential, daylong retreat focused on personal aspects of the men (e.g., self-concept), ideas about and aspects of their relationship behavior (e.g., cultural misunderstandings, dating behavior), and HIV prevention; there is a follow-up reunion a month later to share experiences with other participants about new dating and HIV prevention behaviors. The article focuses in particular on how the partners built new capacity in the area of social marketing to address the challenge of participant recruitment and describes the components of the new campaign. These components included distinctive images in ads in publications read by the target population, a toll-free telephone number and Web site for easy initial contact with the program, phone cards and postcards featuring the specially created program image to reinforce a connection to the program, and other aspects. The article describes the partnership between the HIV service providers and the researchers and how the collaborative effort was key to understanding and addressing the recruitment problem, identifying potential solutions, and implementing the new social marketing strategy. This process resulted in four kinds of capacities that were built or strengthened, including program recruitment, program content and implementation, program evaluation, and the partnership itself. The article concludes with a discussion of the unexpected benefits of the capacity-building experience and of the antecedent conditions that fostered the positive partnership outcomes. PMID:16178705

  9. Women's Literacy and Numeracy Practices Oriented toward Small-Scale Social Action in Northern Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mein, Erika

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at literacy from social and critical perspectives in order to understand the literacy and numeracy practices of women in small savings groups in northern Mexico. In this case, women's literacy and numeracy practices were not only situated in a rural desert context but also oriented toward concrete action to address their…

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A system for ranking organizations using social scale analysis

    E-print Network

    Davulcu, Hasan

    Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia e-mail: rochmaniyah@yahoo.com A. Amin State College of Islamic and model-fitting techniques to process the rhetoric found in the web sites of 23 Indonesian Islamic of their radical ide- ology into social, political and religious movements. Crelinste (2002), in his work, states

  11. Social Context of Smoking Hookah among College Students: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Eva; Beck, Kenneth H.; Clark, Pamela I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop an instrument that measures the social context of hookah use among college students. Participants: A pool of 50 potential items, based on 44 in-depth interviews with regular college hookah smokers, was administered to a sample of 274 hookah users between October and December 2011. Methods: Participants were approached in…

  12. Evaluation of the Learning to Teach for Social Justice-Beliefs Scale in an Australian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginns, Paul; Loughland, Anthony; Tierney, Robert J.; Fryer, Luke; Amazan, Rose; McCormick, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    A concern for social justice pervades the espoused curriculum of many pre-service teaching programmes, but the extent to which that curriculum influences the beliefs students hold is an open question. With the goal of developing an instrument suitable for evaluating such beliefs at the degree programme level, the present study analysed responses…

  13. Do Social Networks Influence Small-Scale Fishermen’s Enforcement of Sea Tenure?

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kara; Frank, Kenneth A.; Kramer, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Resource systems with enforced rules and strong monitoring systems typically have more predictable resource abundance, which can confer economic and social benefits to local communities. Co-management regimes demonstrate better social and ecological outcomes, but require an active role by community members in management activities, such as monitoring and enforcement. Previous work has emphasized understanding what makes fishermen comply with rules. This research takes a different approach to understand what influences an individual to enforce rules, particularly sea tenure. We conducted interviews and used multiple regression and Akaike’s Information Criteria model selection to evaluate the effect of social networks, food security, recent catch success, fisherman’s age and personal gear investment on individual’s enforcement of sea tenure. We found that fishermen’s enforcement of sea tenure declined between the two time periods measured and that social networks, age, food security, and changes in gear investment explained enforcement behavior across three different communities on Nicaragua’s Atlantic Coast, an area undergoing rapid globalization. PMID:25822364

  14. Commentary: The Observed Association between Autistic Severity Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and General Psychopathology-- A Response to Hus et al.()

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, John N.; Frazier, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    In their analysis of the accumulated data from the clinically ascertained Simons Simplex Collection (SSC), Hus et al. (2013) provide a large-scale clinical replication of previously reported associations (see Constantino, Hudziak & Todd, 2003) between quantitative autistic traits [as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)] and…

  15. Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for Persons with Intellectual Disability Scale (SE/SS-AID) in a Spanish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Lee, Miyoung; Peterson-Besse, Jana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to develop a Spanish version of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support Scales for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID). Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 117 individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The SE/SS-AID scales were translated into Spanish and their…

  16. 20 CFR 404.505 - Relationship to provisions requiring deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Relationship to provisions requiring deductions. 404.505 Section 404.505 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Overpayments, and Liability of a Certifying Officer § 404.505 Relationship to provisions requiring...

  17. A U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) for Multiple Scales: Linking Services Provisioning to Human Well-being Endpoints (2000-2010)

    EPA Science Inventory

    objective of this report is to characterize well-being at multiple scales in order to evaluate the relationship of service flows in terms of sustainable well-being. The HWBI results presented represent snapshot assessments for the 2000-2010 time period. Based on the spatial and t...

  18. 20 CFR 340.1 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 1937, or insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act, or unemployment, maternity, or... Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.1 Statutory provisions. (a) Section 2(d) of the Railroad Unemployment...

  19. 20 CFR 340.1 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1937, or insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act, or unemployment, maternity, or... Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.1 Statutory provisions. (a) Section 2(d) of the Railroad Unemployment...

  20. 20 CFR 340.1 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1937, or insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act, or unemployment, maternity, or... Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.1 Statutory provisions. (a) Section 2(d) of the Railroad Unemployment...

  1. 20 CFR 340.1 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 1937, or insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act, or unemployment, maternity, or... Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.1 Statutory provisions. (a) Section 2(d) of the Railroad Unemployment...

  2. 32 CFR 505.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Social Security Numbers. (1) Only those records covered by a Privacy Act system of records notice may be... RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.2 General provisions. (a) Individual privacy rights policy. Army policy concerning the privacy rights of individuals and the Army's responsibilities for compliance...

  3. 32 CFR 505.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Social Security Numbers. (1) Only those records covered by a Privacy Act system of records notice may be... RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.2 General provisions. (a) Individual privacy rights policy. Army policy concerning the privacy rights of individuals and the Army's responsibilities for compliance...

  4. 32 CFR 505.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Social Security Numbers. (1) Only those records covered by a Privacy Act system of records notice may be... RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.2 General provisions. (a) Individual privacy rights policy. Army policy concerning the privacy rights of individuals and the Army's responsibilities for compliance...

  5. 45 CFR 73a.735-401 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENT Outside Employment § 73a.735-401 General provisions. (a) Employees of the Food and Drug Administration shall obtain advance approval for all outside employment... charitable, religious, social, fraternal, recreational, public service, civic, or similar...

  6. 45 CFR 73a.735-401 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENT Outside Employment § 73a.735-401 General provisions. (a) Employees of the Food and Drug Administration shall obtain advance approval for all outside employment... charitable, religious, social, fraternal, recreational, public service, civic, or similar...

  7. 45 CFR 73a.735-401 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENT Outside Employment § 73a.735-401 General provisions. (a) Employees of the Food and Drug Administration shall obtain advance approval for all outside employment... charitable, religious, social, fraternal, recreational, public service, civic, or similar...

  8. Tipping points in rangelands: The scales of social-biophysical interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecological and socio-economic processes are driving many of the world’s rangelands beyond “tipping points” to degraded states, but we have a poor understanding of the mechanisms by which these processes are linked to each other. We argue that this is due largely to the lack of data on region-scale p...

  9. A Validation and Reliability Study of Community Service Activities Scale in Turkey: A Social Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özden; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim; Tasdan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of Community Service Activities Scale (CSAS) developed by Demir, Kaya and Tasdan (2012) with a view to identify perceptions of Faculty of Education students regarding community service activities. The participants of the study are 313 randomly chosen students who attend six…

  10. The Swedish version of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) - a psychometric evaluation study in women with hirsutism and nursing students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) is a short instrument, developed to assess perceived social support. The original English version has been widely used. The original scale has demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties in different settings, but no validated Swedish version has been available. The aim was therefore to translate, adapt and psychometrically evaluate the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support for use in a Swedish context. Method In total 281 participants accepted to join the study, a main sample of 127 women with hirsutism and a reference sample of 154 nursing students. The MSPSS was translated and culturally adapted according to the rigorous official process approved by WHO. The psychometric evaluation included item analysis, evaluation of factor structure, known-group validity, internal consistency and reproducibility. Results The original three-factor structure was reproduced in the main sample of women with hirsutism. An equivalent factor structure was demonstrated in a cross-validation, based on the reference sample of nursing students. Known-group validity was supported and internal consistency was good for all scales (??=?0.91-0.95). The test-retest showed acceptable to very good reproducibility for the items (?w?=?0.58-0.85) and the scales (ICC?=?0.89-0.92; CCC?=?0.89-0.92). Conclusion The Swedish version of the MSPSS is a multidimensional scale with sound psychometric properties in the present study sample. The simple and short format makes it a useful tool for measuring perceived social support. PMID:24112950

  11. Insights into a spatially embedded social network from a large-scale snowball sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illenberger, J.; Kowald, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Nagel, K.

    2011-12-01

    Much research has been conducted to obtain insights into the basic laws governing human travel behaviour. While the traditional travel survey has been for a long time the main source of travel data, recent approaches to use GPS data, mobile phone data, or the circulation of bank notes as a proxy for human travel behaviour are promising. The present study proposes a further source of such proxy-data: the social network. We collect data using an innovative snowball sampling technique to obtain details on the structure of a leisure-contacts network. We analyse the network with respect to its topology, the individuals' characteristics, and its spatial structure. We further show that a multiplication of the functions describing the spatial distribution of leisure contacts and the frequency of physical contacts results in a trip distribution that is consistent with data from the Swiss travel survey.

  12. Human Social Behavior and Demography Drive Patterns of Fine-Scale Dengue Transmission in Endemic Areas of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabha, Harish; Correa, Fabio; Rubio, Camilo; Baeza, Andres; Osorio, Salua; Mendez, Jairo; Jones, James Holland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is known to transmit between humans and A. aegypti mosquitoes living in neighboring houses. Although transmission is thought to be highly heterogeneous in both space and time, little is known about the patterns and drivers of transmission in groups of houses in endemic settings. We carried out surveys of PCR positivity in children residing in 2-block patches of highly endemic cities of Colombia. We found high levels of heterogeneity in PCR positivity, varying from less than 30% in 8 of the 10 patches to 56 and 96%, with the latter patch containing 22 children simultaneously PCR positive (PCR22) for DEN2. We then used an agent-based model to assess the likely eco-epidemiological context of this observation. Our model, simulating daily dengue dynamics over a 20 year period in a single two block patch, suggests that the observed heterogeneity most likely derived from variation in the density of susceptible people. Two aspects of human adaptive behavior were critical to determining this density: external social relationships favoring viral introduction (by susceptible residents or infectious visitors) and immigration of households from non-endemic areas. External social relationships generating frequent viral introduction constituted a particularly strong constraint on susceptible densities, thereby limiting the potential for explosive outbreaks and dampening the impact of heightened vectorial capacity. Dengue transmission can be highly explosive locally, even in neighborhoods with significant immunity in the human population. Variation among neighborhoods in the density of local social networks and rural-to-urban migration is likely to produce significant fine-scale heterogeneity in dengue dynamics, constraining or amplifying the impacts of changes in mosquito populations and cross immunity between serotypes. PMID:26656072

  13. Digital Archiving of People Flow by Recycling Large-Scale Social Survey Data of Developing Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Y.; Watanabe, A.; Nakamura, T.; Horanont, T.

    2012-07-01

    Data on people flow has become increasingly important in the field of business, including the areas of marketing and public services. Although mobile phones enable a person's position to be located to a certain degree, it is a challenge to acquire sufficient data from people with mobile phones. In order to grasp people flow in its entirety, it is important to establish a practical method of reconstructing people flow from various kinds of existing fragmentary spatio-temporal data such as social survey data. For example, despite typical Person Trip Survey Data collected by the public sector showing the fragmentary spatio-temporal positions accessed, the data are attractive given the sufficiently large sample size to estimate the entire flow of people. In this study, we apply our proposed basic method to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) PT data pertaining to developing cities around the world, and we propose some correction methods to resolve the difficulties in applying it to many cities and stably to infrastructure data.

  14. Just-in-Time Provisioning for Cyber Foraging Kiryong Ha, Padmanabhan Pillai, Wolfgang Richter,

    E-print Network

    Just-in-Time Provisioning for Cyber Foraging Kiryong Ha, Padmanabhan Pillai, Wolfgang Richter-end software. Since precise pre-provisioning of cloudlets across multiple domains is difficult at global scale

  15. From Parasite Encounter to Infection: Multiple-Scale Drivers of Parasite Richness in a Wild Social Primate Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides J. A.; Huchard, E.; Pettorelli, N.; King, A. J.; Brown, M. E.; Archer, C. E.; Appleton, C. C.; Raymond, M.; Cowlishaw, G.

    2011-01-01

    Host parasite diversity plays a fundamental role in ecological and evolutionary processes, yet the factors that drive it are still poorly understood. A variety of processes, operating across a range of spatial scales, are likely to influence both the probability of parasite encounter and subsequent infection. Here, we explored eight possible determinants of parasite richness, comprising rainfall and temperature at the population level, ranging behavior and home range productivity at the group level, and age, sex, body condition, and social rank at the individual level. We used a unique dataset describing gastrointestinal parasites in a terrestrial subtropical vertebrate (chacma baboons, Papio ursinus), comprising 662 faecal samples from 86 individuals representing all age-sex classes across two groups over two dry seasons in a desert population. Three mixed models were used to identify the most important factor at each of the three spatial scales (population, group, individual); these were then standardised and combined in a single, global, mixed model. Individual age had the strongest influence on parasite richness, in a convex relationship. Parasite richness was also higher in females and animals in poor condition, albeit at a lower order of magnitude than age. Finally, with a further halving of effect size, parasite richness was positively correlated to day range and temperature. These findings indicate that a range of factors influence host parasite richness through both encounter and infection probabilities, but that individual-level processes may be more important than those at the group or population level.

  16. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  17. Physical appearance as a measure of social ranking: the role of a new scale to understand the relationship between weight and dieting.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Cristiana

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the development of a new self-report instrument to assess how an individual perceives himself as social agent within his group having physical appearance as a reference, the Social Comparison through Physical Appearance Scale (SCPAS). This scale adds to the existent measures by assessing the social ranking based on one's physical appearance, and not the tendency to make comparisons of the general physical appearance or specific body parts. Its psychometric characteristics are investigated in a sample of 828 female participants from normal population. Principal components analysis was conducted for each part of the instrument: the Part A: peers shows a 2-factor structure (Attractiveness/Rank and Group Fit) explaining 72.142% of the variance; the Part B: models presents a one-dimensional structure that explains 69.191% of the variance. Findings show very good internal consistency coefficients and test-retest reliability. The two parts of the SCPAS are significantly associated to social comparison and shame measures, to anxiety, depression and stress indicators, and to eating disorders symptomatology. The scale discriminates between a clinical sample of 91 patients with an eating disorder and a non-clinical sample of 102 participants. Regression analyses pointed out that social comparison through physical appearance with peers and models partially mediates the effect of the dissatisfaction with current weight on disordered eating, namely drive for thinness. PMID:21796733

  18. A Factor Analytic Study of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Scale in a Sample of African-American and Hispanic-American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Storch, Eric A.; Roberti, Jonathan W.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Scale (LSDS) in a sample of African-American and Hispanic-American children. Participants were a non-clinical sample (N = 186) of children ages 11 to 13 in the fifth and sixth grades in a school in the Metropolitan New York area. Confirmatory factor…

  19. Assessing Understanding of Social Awareness Concepts in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klubnik, Cynthia; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Reed, Colby B.; Warner-Metzger, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Authors contrasted Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Receptive, Third Edition (BBCS: R-3) test performance between 57 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 76 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ID. BBCS: R-3 School Readiness Composite (SRC) and Self-/Social Awareness subtests were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of covariance…

  20. Climate change will bring economic, social and environmental costs at scales beyond any other human experience (IARU, 2009). Studies imply that humanity

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Climate change will bring economic, social and environmental costs at scales beyond any other human dangerous climate change. On the other hand, it lacks ambition. Its instruments mostly rely on complicated Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with former Vice President Al

  1. Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

  2. Developing a Change-Sensitive Brief Behavior Rating Scale as a Progress Monitoring Tool for Social Behavior: An Example Using the Social Skills Rating System--Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Cook, Clayton R.; Collins, Tai; Dart, Evan; Rasetshwane, Kutlo; Truelson, Erica; Grant, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Research has been unsuccessful at revealing an analogue to curriculum-based measurement in the area of progress monitoring for social behavior. As a result, there is a need to develop change-sensitive, technically adequate, feasible progress monitoring tools for social behavior that represent general outcome measures of performance. The purpose of…

  3. The Hispanic Women's Social Stressor Scale: Understanding the Multiple Social Stressors of U.S.- and Mexico-Born Hispanic Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Gonzales, Melissa; Malcoe, Lorraine H.; Espinosa, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of social stressors among Hispanic women is a growing and important area of study, particularly in terms of understanding explanatory mechanisms for health disparities. This study involved adaptation of the Hispanic Stress Inventory and the Latin American Stress Inventory to create a measure of social stressors specifically for both…

  4. Efficacy and well-being in rural north India: The role of social identification with a large-scale community identity

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sammyh S; Hopkins, Nick; Tewari, Shruti; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen David; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2014-01-01

    Identifying with a group can contribute to a sense of well-being. The mechanisms involved are diverse: social identification with a group can impact individuals' beliefs about issues such as their connections with others, the availability of social support, the meaningfulness of existence, and the continuity of their identity. Yet, there seems to be a common theme to these mechanisms: identification with a group encourages the belief that one can cope with the stressors one faces (which is associated with better well-being). Our research investigated the relationship between identification, beliefs about coping, and well-being in a survey (N = 792) administered in rural North India. Using structural equation modelling, we found that social identification as a Hindu had positive and indirect associations with three measures of well-being through the belief that one can cope with everyday stressors. We also found residual associations between participants' social identification as a Hindu and two measures of well-being in which higher identification was associated with poorer well-being. We discuss these findings and their implication for understanding the relationship between social identification (especially with large-scale group memberships) and well-being. We also discuss the application of social psychological theory developed in the urban West to rural north India. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26160989

  5. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  6. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  7. Test Review: F. M. Gresham & S. N. Elliott "Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales." Minneapolis, Minnesota--NCS Pearson, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The "Social Skills Improvement System" (SSIS; Gresham & Elliot, 2008) is designed to assist in the screening and classification of students (ages 8 to 18) who are suspected of having significant social skills deficits, and to offer support in the development of interventions for those found to display significant social skills impairments.…

  8. Promoting universal financial protection: constraints and enabling factors in scaling-up coverage with social health insurance in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria was launched in 2005 as part of efforts by the federal government to achieve universal coverage using financial risk protection mechanisms. However, only 4% of the population, and mainly federal government employees, are currently covered by health insurance and this is primarily through the Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme (FSSHIP) of the NHIS. This study aimed to understand why different state (sub-national) governments decided whether or not to adopt the FSSHIP for their employees. Methods This study used a comparative case study approach. Data were collected through document reviews and 48 in-depth interviews with policy makers, programme managers, health providers, and civil servant leaders. Results Although the programme’s benefits seemed acceptable to state policy makers and the intended beneficiaries (employees), the feasibility of employer contributions, concerns about transparency in the NHIS and the role of states in the FSSHIP, the roles of policy champions such as state governors and resistance by employees to making contributions, all influenced the decision of state governments on adoption. Overall, the power of state governments over state-level health reforms, attributed to the prevailing system of government that allows states to deliberate on certain national-level policies, enhanced by the NHIS legislation that made adoption voluntary, enabled states to adopt or not to adopt the program. Conclusions The study demonstrates and supports observations that even when the content of a programme is generally acceptable, context, actor roles, and the wider implications of programme design on actor interests can explain decision on policy adoption. Policy implementers involved in scaling-up the NHIS programme need to consider the prevailing contextual factors, and effectively engage policy champions to overcome known challenges in order to encourage adoption by sub-national governments. Policy makers and implementers in countries scaling-up health insurance coverage should, early enough, develop strategies to overcome political challenges inherent in the path to scaling-up, to avoid delay or stunting of the process. They should also consider the potential pitfalls of reforms that first focus on civil servants, especially when the use of public funds potentially compromises coverage for other citizens. PMID:23764306

  9. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk - Universal Scaling Laws from Cells to Cities; A Physicist's Search for Quantitative, Unified Theories of Biological and Social Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Geoffrey

    2013-04-01

    Many of the most challenging, exciting and profound questions facing science and society, from the origins of life to global sustainability, fall under the banner of ``complex adaptive systems.'' This talk explores how scaling can be used to begin to develop physics-inspired quantitative, predictive, coarse-grained theories for understanding their structure, dynamics and organization based on underlying mathematisable principles. Remarkably, most physiological, organisational and life history phenomena in biology and socio-economic systems scale in a simple and ``universal'' fashion: metabolic rate scales approximately as the 3/4-power of mass over 27 orders of magnitude from complex molecules to the largest organisms. Time-scales (such as lifespans and growth-rates) and sizes (such as genome lengths and RNA densities) scale with exponents which are typically simple multiples of 1/4, suggesting that fundamental constraints underlie much of the generic structure and dynamics of living systems. These scaling laws follow from dynamical and geometrical properties of space-filling, fractal-like, hierarchical branching networks, presumed optimised by natural selection. This leads to a general framework that potentially captures essential features of diverse systems including vasculature, ontogenetic growth, cancer, aging and mortality, sleep, cell size, and DNA nucleotide substitution rates. Cities and companies also scale: wages, profits, patents, crime, disease, pollution, road lengths scale similarly across the globe, reflecting underlying universal social network dynamics which point to general principles of organization transcending their individuality. These have dramatic implications for global sustainability: innovation and wealth creation that fuel social systems, left unchecked, potentially sow the seeds for their inevitable collapse.

  10. Validation of a Brief Quantitative Measure of Autistic Traits: Comparison of the Social Responsiveness Scale with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, John N.; Davis, Sandra A.; Todd, Richard D.; Schindler, Matthew K.; Gross, Maggie M.; Brophy, Susan L.; Metzger, Lisa M.; Shoushtari, Christiana S.; Splinter, Reagan; Reich, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in 61 children (ages 4-16) with autism. Correlations between the test scores for DSM-IV criterion sets were on the order of 0.7. SRS scores were unrelated to I.Q. and exhibited inter-rater reliability on the order of 0.8. (Contains references.)…

  11. Mapping social values for urban green spaces using Public Participation GIS: the influence of spatial scale and implications for landscape planning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Measuring social values for landscapes is an emerging field of research and is critical to the successful management of urban ecosystems. Green open space planning has traditionally relied on rigid standards and metrics without considering the physical requirements of green spaces that are valued for different reasons and by different people. Relating social landscape values to key environmental variables provides a much stronger evidence base for planning landscapes that are both socially desirable and environmentally sustainable. This study spatially quantified residents' values for green space in the Lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia by enabling participants to mark their values for specific open spaces on interactive paper maps. The survey instrument was designed to evaluate the effect of spatial scale by providing maps of residents' local area at both suburb and municipality scales. The importance of open space values differed depending on whether they were indicated via marker dots or reported on in a general aspatial sense. This suggests that certain open space functions were inadequately provided for in the local area (specifically, cultural significance and health/therapeutic value). Additionally, all value types recorded a greater abundance of marker dots at the finer (suburb) scale compared to the coarser (municipality) scale, but this pattern was more pronounced for some values than others (e.g. physical exercise value). Finally, significant relationships were observed between the abundance of value marker dots in parks and their environmental characteristics (e.g. percentage of vegetation). These results have interesting implications when considering the compatibility between different functions of green spaces and how planners can incorporate information about social values with more traditional approaches to green space planning.

  12. Carcass provisioning to support scavengers: evaluating a controversial nature conservation practice.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Debbie; Newey, Scott; van der Wal, René; Irvine, R Justin

    2014-10-01

    A number of scavenger species have suffered population declines across Europe. In attempts to reverse their decline, some land and wildlife managers have adopted the practice of leaving or placing out carcasses of wild or domestic herbivores to provide a source of carrion. However, this can be a controversial practice, with as yet unclear outcomes for many target species and the ecosystems they are part of. Here we bring out the key aspects of this increasingly common conservation practice illustrated using three contrasting cases studies. We show that the provision of carcasses is often motivated by a desire to benefit charismatic species or to facilitate nutrient cycling throughout an ecosystem. Evidence for the effectiveness of this practice in achieving these objectives, however, is mostly lacking, with ecologists studying "easier" species groups such as beetles and therefore not providing relevant insights. Moreover, conflicts between environmental policies that carcass provisioning is aimed at and other social and economic objectives do occur but these projects are often designed without taking into account this broader context. We conclude that expecting carcasses to simply be "good for biodiversity" may be too naïve a view. A greater knowledge of the impact of carcass provisioning and placement on ecosystems and society at large is required before it can become a more effective conservation tool at a wider scale. PMID:24366570

  13. Violations of Personal Space in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: Insights from the Social Responsiveness Scale.

    PubMed

    Lough, Emma; Hanley, Mary; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; Kirk, Hannah; Kennedy, Daniel P; Riby, Deborah M

    2015-12-01

    Interpersonal distance regulation is crucial for successful social interactions. We investigated personal space awareness in Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typical development. Parents reported that individuals with WS and ASD were significantly more likely than those developing typically to invade the personal space of others. WS individuals were reported to have the least awareness of the personal space boundaries of others. Despite the suggested opposing social profiles of WS and ASD, some similarities are present in the ability, or indeed inability, to regulate interpersonal distance during social interactions. Findings are discussed in relation to implications of atypical amygdala function, inhibitory control and anxiety on real-world behaviour for such socially vulnerable groups. PMID:26206231

  14. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience. PMID:25790464

  15. Managing Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries for Adaptive Capacity: Insights from Dynamic Social-Ecological Drivers of Change in Monterey Bay

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Stacy E.; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C.; Carr, Mark H.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Crowder, Larry B.; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C.; Kittinger, John N.; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M.; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience. PMID:25790464

  16. 10/01/2011 16:44Vertebrate Social Behavior: Human Cooperation: Competition Has Scales Page 1 of 2http://vertebratesocialbehavior.blogspot.com/2011/01/human-cooperation-competition-has.html

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    10/01/2011 16:44Vertebrate Social Behavior: Human Cooperation: Competition Has Scales Page 1 of 2 in vertebrates, including humans. Vertebrate Social Behavior WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 5, 2011 Posted by Clara B. Joneshttp://vertebratesocialbehavior.blogspot.com/2011/01/human-cooperation-competition-has.html Discussion

  17. Autonomy and Governance in Local Authority Provision for Children and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth; Donkin, Arnet; Waite, Sue; Lawson, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    The role of local government in addressing issues of social equity is undergoing significant reconstruction in current educational policy reforms in England. The current conceptualisation of social provision places individual rights at the centre of policy, and social responsibility is represented as the work of individuals. Drawing upon a…

  18. Social Networks Analysis and Participation in Learning Environments to Digital Inclusion Based on Large-Scale Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; de Brito, Silvana Rossy; Martins, Dalton Lopes; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Rocha, Cláudio Alex Jorge; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and monitoring large-scale distance learning programs require different techniques, systems, and analysis methods. This work presents challenges in evaluating and monitoring digital inclusion training programs, considering the aspects inherent in large-scale distance training, and reports an approach based on network and distance…

  19. 20 CFR 410.580 - Relation to provisions for reductions or increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relation to provisions for reductions or increases. 410.580 Section 410.580 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE... Relation to provisions for reductions or increases. The amount of an overpayment or underpayment is...

  20. 20 CFR 404.504 - Relation to provisions for reductions and increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relation to provisions for reductions and increases. 404.504 Section 404.504 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Overpayments, and Liability of a Certifying Officer § 404.504 Relation to provisions for reductions...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1260 - Special resource provision for recipients under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under a State plan. 416.1260 Section 416.1260 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... plan as approved under the provisions of 45 CFR Ch. II as in effect in October 1972. ... resource provision for recipients under a State plan. (a) General. In the case of any individual...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1260 - Special resource provision for recipients under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under a State plan. 416.1260 Section 416.1260 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... plan as approved under the provisions of 45 CFR Ch. II as in effect in October 1972. ... resource provision for recipients under a State plan. (a) General. In the case of any individual...

  3. 16 CFR 3.31 - General discovery provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practice, 16 CFR 4.11(e), to discovery requests in another proceeding that are directed to the Commission... documents shall be governed by the provisions of Rule 4.12 of the Rules of Practice, 16 CFR 4.12. 13. The... personal information” shall refer to, but shall not be limited to, an individual's Social Security...

  4. 16 CFR 3.31 - General discovery provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practice, 16 CFR 4.11(e), to discovery requests in another proceeding that are directed to the Commission... documents shall be governed by the provisions of Rule 4.12 of the Rules of Practice, 16 CFR 4.12. 13. The... personal information” shall refer to, but shall not be limited to, an individual's Social Security...

  5. 16 CFR 3.31 - General discovery provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practice, 16 CFR 4.11(e), to discovery requests in another proceeding that are directed to the Commission... documents shall be governed by the provisions of Rule 4.12 of the Rules of Practice, 16 CFR 4.12. 13. The... personal information” shall refer to, but shall not be limited to, an individual's Social Security...

  6. 45 CFR 400.147 - Priority in provision of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 400.147 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Social Services Funding and Service Priorities § 400.147 Priority in provision of services....

  7. 20 CFR 416.1260 - Special resource provision for recipients under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 416.1260 Section 416.1260 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1260 Special resource provision for...

  8. Identifying the effects of social media on health behavior: Data from a large-scale online experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwen; Brackbill, Devon; Yang, Sijia; Centola, Damon

    2015-12-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is an escalating epidemic. Little is known about whether or how social media can be used to design a cost-effective solution for sedentary lifestyle. In this article we describe the data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that evaluated two prominent strategies for conducting exercise interventions using elements of social media: motivational media campaigns and online peer networks. The data file includes 217 participants' basic demographic information, number of exercise class enrollments over 13 weeks, and self-reported number of days for exercise activities in the previous 7 days at baseline. Among the 217, 164 also have data on self-reported number of days for exercise activities at the post-program. Data are supplied with this article. The interpretation of these data can be found in the research article published by the authors in Preventive Medicine Reports in 2015 [1]. PMID:26594655

  9. Identifying the effects of social media on health behavior: Data from a large-scale online experiment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Brackbill, Devon; Yang, Sijia; Centola, Damon

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is an escalating epidemic. Little is known about whether or how social media can be used to design a cost-effective solution for sedentary lifestyle. In this article we describe the data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that evaluated two prominent strategies for conducting exercise interventions using elements of social media: motivational media campaigns and online peer networks. The data file includes 217 participants’ basic demographic information, number of exercise class enrollments over 13 weeks, and self-reported number of days for exercise activities in the previous 7 days at baseline. Among the 217, 164 also have data on self-reported number of days for exercise activities at the post-program. Data are supplied with this article. The interpretation of these data can be found in the research article published by the authors in Preventive Medicine Reports in 2015 [1]. PMID:26594655

  10. The nature of social dominance orientation: Theorizing and measuring preferences for intergroup inequality using the new SDO? scale.

    PubMed

    Ho, Arnold K; Sidanius, Jim; Kteily, Nour; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Pratto, Felicia; Henkel, Kristin E; Foels, Rob; Stewart, Andrew L

    2015-12-01

    A new conceptualization and measurement of social dominance orientation-individual differences in the preference for group based hierarchy and inequality-is introduced. In contrast to previous measures of social dominance orientation that were designed to be unidimensional, the new measure (SDO7) embeds theoretically grounded subdimensions of SDO-SDO-Dominance (SDO-D) and SDO-Egalitarianism (SDO-E). SDO-D constitutes a preference for systems of group-based dominance in which high status groups forcefully oppress lower status groups. SDO-E constitutes a preference for systems of group-based inequality that are maintained by an interrelated network of subtle hierarchy-enhancing ideologies and social policies. Confirmatory factor and criterion validity analyses confirmed that SDO-D and SDO-E are theoretically distinct and dissociate in terms of the intergroup outcomes they best predict. For the first time, distinct personality and individual difference bases of SDO-D and SDO-E are outlined. We clarify the construct validity of SDO by strictly assessing a preference for dominance hierarchies in general, removing a possible confound relating to support for hierarchy benefitting the ingroup. Consistent with this, results show that among members of a disadvantaged ethnic minority group (African Americans), endorsement of SDO7 is inversely related to ingroup identity. We further demonstrate these effects using nationally representative samples of U.S. Blacks and Whites, documenting the generalizability of these findings. Finally, we introduce and validate a brief 4-item measure of each dimension. This article importantly extends our theoretical understanding of one of the most generative constructs in social psychology, and introduces powerful new tools for its measurement. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479362

  11. Integrating participatory community mobilization processes to improve dengue prevention: an eco-bio-social scaling up of local success in Machala, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell-Foster, Kendra; Ayala, Efraín Beltrán; Breilh, Jaime; Spiegel, Jerry; Wilches, Ana Arichabala; Leon, Tania Ordóñez; Delgado, Jefferson Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background This project investigates the effectiveness and feasibility of scaling-up an eco-bio-social approach for implementing an integrated community-based approach for dengue prevention in comparison with existing insecticide-based and emerging biolarvicide-based programs in an endemic setting in Machala, Ecuador. Methods An integrated intervention strategy (IIS) for dengue prevention (an elementary school-based dengue education program, and clean patio and safe container program) was implemented in 10 intervention clusters from November 2012 to November 2013 using a randomized controlled cluster trial design (20 clusters: 10 intervention, 10 control; 100 households per cluster with 1986 total households). Current existing dengue prevention programs served as the control treatment in comparison clusters. Pupa per person index (PPI) is used as the main outcome measure. Particular attention was paid to social mobilization and empowerment with IIS. Results Overall, IIS was successful in reducing PPI levels in intervention communities versus control clusters, with intervention clusters in the six paired clusters that followed the study design experiencing a greater reduction of PPI compared to controls (2.2 OR, 95% CI: 1.2 to 4.7). Analysis of individual cases demonstrates that consideration for contexualizing programs and strategies to local neighborhoods can be very effective in reducing PPI for dengue transmission risk reduction. Conclusions In the rapidly evolving political climate for dengue control in Ecuador, integration of successful social mobilization and empowerment strategies with existing and emerging biolarvicide-based government dengue prevention and control programs is promising in reducing PPI and dengue transmission risk in southern coastal communities like Machala. However, more profound analysis of social determination of health is called for to assess sustainability prospects. PMID:25604763

  12. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological shocks, as well as for the participatory use of the models as decision support tools for the participatory design of sustainable solutions to the identified vulnerabilities in each system.

  13. The Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form: Psychometric Properties and Association with Social Anxiety in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric characteristics and correlates of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form (PSPS-JR). The PSPS-JR was designed for use with children and adolescents, but its psychometric properties and applications among early adolescents have not been investigated. The PSPS-JR has three subscales assessing the…

  14. Rare disease diagnosis: A review of web search, social media and large-scale data-mining approaches.

    PubMed

    Svenstrup, Dan; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Physicians and the general public are increasingly using web-based tools to find answers to medical questions. The field of rare diseases is especially challenging and important as shown by the long delay and many mistakes associated with diagnoses. In this paper we review recent initiatives on the use of web search, social media and data mining in data repositories for medical diagnosis. We compare the retrieval accuracy on 56 rare disease cases with known diagnosis for the web search tools google.com, pubmed.gov, omim.org and our own search tool findzebra.com. We give a detailed description of IBM's Watson system and make a rough comparison between findzebra.com and Watson on subsets of the Doctor's dilemma dataset. The recall@10 and recall@20 (fraction of cases where the correct result appears in top 10 and top 20) for the 56 cases are found to be be 29%, 16%, 27% and 59% and 32%, 18%, 34% and 64%, respectively. Thus, FindZebra has a significantly (p < 0.01) higher recall than the other 3 search engines. When tested under the same conditions, Watson and FindZebra showed similar recall@10 accuracy. However, the tests were performed on different subsets of Doctors dilemma questions. Advances in technology and access to high quality data have opened new possibilities for aiding the diagnostic process. Specialized search engines, data mining tools and social media are some of the areas that hold promise. PMID:26442199

  15. 73 FR 55890 - Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Denmark; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-09-26

    ...its provisions may write to the Social Security Administration, Office...Baltimore, MD 21235-7741 or visit the Social Security Web site at http://www.socialsecurity...Michael J. Astrue, Commissioner of Social Security. [FR Doc....

  16. 67 FR 67435 - Agreement on Social Security between the United States and Australia; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-11-05

    ...its provisions may write to the Social Security Administration, Office...Baltimore, MD 21235-7741 or visit the Social Security Web site at www.ssa.gov/international...Anne B. Barnhart, Commissioner of Social Security. [FR Doc....

  17. 79 FR 46499 - Supplementary Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and the Swiss Confederation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-08-08

    ...its provisions may write to the Social Security Administration, Office...Baltimore, Maryland 21235-7741. The Social Security Web site at http://www.socialsecurity...wants information about the Swiss Social Security programs may write to...

  18. 66 FR 59518 - Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Chile; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-11-28

    ...its provisions may write to the Social Security Administration, Office...Baltimore, MD 21235-7741 or visit the Social Security Web site at www.ssa.gov/international...JoAnne B. Barnhart, Commissioner of Social Security. [FR Doc....

  19. Hybrid resource provisioning for clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mahfuzur; Graham, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Flexible resource provisioning, the assignment of virtual machines (VMs) to physical machine, is a key requirement for cloud computing. To achieve "provisioning elasticity", the cloud needs to manage its available resources on demand. A-priori, static, VM provisioning introduces no runtime overhead but fails to deal with unanticipated changes in resource demands. Dynamic provisioning addresses this problem but introduces runtime overhead. To reduce VM management overhead so more useful work can be done and to also avoid sub-optimal provisioning we propose a hybrid approach that combines static and dynamic provisioning. The idea is to adapt a good initial static placement of VMs in response to evolving load characteristics, using live migration, as long as the overhead of doing so is low and the effectiveness is high. When this is no longer so, we trigger a revised static placement. (Thus, we are essentially applying local multi-objective optimization to tune a global optimization with reduced overhead.) This approach requires a complicated migration decision algorithm based on current and predicted:future workloads, power consumptions and memory usage in the host machines as well as network burst characteristics for the various possible VM multiplexings (combinations of VMs on a host). A further challenge is to identify those characteristics of the dynamic provisioning that should trigger static re-provisioning.

  20. Social Support and Treatment Outcome in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Azad, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social factors play vital role in unfolding of alcohol use disorders in any given population. Several factors beyond the confines of treatment settings influence treatment outcome in alcohol dependence syndrome. Social support has positive effect in treatment outcome of alcohol dependence syndrome. This has not been much studied in India in past. Therefore we decided to study the perception of social support in cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted in a busy hospital in armed forces. Aim The aim was to study the perception of social support across relapsed and abstinent group and see if it reached any statistical proportion and also to see if any socio-demographic variables also affected perception of social support. Materials and Methods Fifty five consecutive male patients of alcohol dependent syndrome without a co-morbid neurological/psychiatric diagnosis were assessed for their perception of social support after taking informed consent. They were explained the procedure and their alcoholic milestones were recorded in specially designed pro-forma. Subjects were then divided in abstinent and relapsed group. Subsequently they were assessed for their perception of social support by administering Social provision scale and Social support questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated and statistically analysed by using chi square test, Mann Whitney U-Test and Rank ANOVA test where applicable p-value <.05 was taken as significant. Results Results indicated that perception of social support across abstinent (n=18) and relapsed (n= 37) group reached significant statistical proportion as measured by social provision scale and social support questionnaire. Duration of use, dependence and family history of alcoholism did not influence perception of social support across patient population. There was inverse relationship between patients with alcohol related problem and their perception of social support. Professional and qualified soldiers perceived higher social support than soldiers and lesser qualified individuals. Conclusion Abstinent group perceived better social support than relapsed group and soldiers in upper socio-occupational status and less alcohol related problems perceived more social support than soldiers with lower socioeconomic status and more alcohol related problems. Psychosocial therapy must be incorporated in management of Alcohol dependence syndrome. PMID:26676246

  1. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    PubMed

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable. PMID:16104403

  2. On Social Interactions through the Reported Dreams of Japanese Students by the Hall and van de Castle Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Toyohiko

    This paper presents research on dreams of college male and female students during a 10-year interval. In Japan, there have been a number of studies on dreams, but there has been no study of dreams using the Hall-Van de Castle Scales. For this reason, a comparable study was conducted between dreams collected in 1986/7 and 1996/7. It questioned…

  3. Bilateral Social Security Instruments Concluded between European Socialist Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Andrei

    1982-01-01

    Presents a review of existing bilateral treaties, conventions, and agreements in the field of social policy concluded between European socialist countries. It summarizes their basic principles, their social security provisions (old-age benefit, employment injury benefits, cash benefits for sickness and maternity), and the provisions concerning…

  4. 25 CFR 531.1 - Required provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MANAGEMENT CONTRACT PROVISIONS CONTENT OF MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS § 531.1 Required provisions. Management contracts shall conform...services; (10) Setting advertising budget and placing...

  5. 25 CFR 531.1 - Required provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MANAGEMENT CONTRACT PROVISIONS CONTENT OF MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS § 531.1 Required provisions. Management contracts shall conform...services; (10) Setting advertising budget and placing...

  6. 25 CFR 531.1 - Required provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MANAGEMENT CONTRACT PROVISIONS CONTENT OF MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS § 531.1 Required provisions. Management contracts shall conform...services; (10) Setting advertising budget and placing...

  7. 25 CFR 531.1 - Required provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MANAGEMENT CONTRACT PROVISIONS CONTENT OF MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS § 531.1 Required provisions. Management contracts shall conform...services; (10) Setting advertising budget and placing...

  8. 25 CFR 531.1 - Required provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MANAGEMENT CONTRACT PROVISIONS CONTENT OF MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS § 531.1 Required provisions. Management contracts shall conform...services; (10) Setting advertising budget and placing...

  9. 48 CFR 26.304 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions 26.304 Solicitation provision. Insert the provision at 52.226-2, Historically Black College...

  10. 48 CFR 26.304 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions 26.304 Solicitation provision. Insert the provision at 52.226-2, Historically Black College...

  11. 48 CFR 26.304 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions 26.304 Solicitation provision. Insert the provision at 52.226-2, Historically Black College...

  12. 48 CFR 26.304 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions 26.304 Solicitation provision. Insert the provision at 52.226-2, Historically Black College...

  13. 7 CFR 4288.131 - Payment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions Payment... Payment provisions. Payments to advanced biofuel producers for eligible advanced biofuel production will be determined in...

  14. Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social learning is the main mode of human adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Perreault, Charles

    2015-07-01

    The behavioural variation among human societies is vast and unmatched in the animal world. It is unclear whether this variation is due to variation in the ecological environment or to differences in cultural traditions. Underlying this debate is a more fundamental question: is the richness of humans' behavioural repertoire due to non-cultural mechanisms, such as causal reasoning, inventiveness, reaction norms, trial-and-error learning and evoked culture, or is it due to the population-level dynamics of cultural transmission? Here, we measure the relative contribution of environment and cultural history in explaining the behavioural variation of 172 Native American tribes at the time of European contact. We find that the effect of cultural history is typically larger than that of environment. Behaviours also persist over millennia within cultural lineages. This indicates that human behaviour is not predominantly determined by single-generation adaptive responses, contra theories that emphasize non-cultural mechanisms as determinants of human behaviour. Rather, the main mode of human adaptation is social learning mechanisms that operate over multiple generations. PMID:26085589

  15. Outcome Measures of Functionality, Social Interaction, and Pain in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Validation Study for the Iranian Version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale

    PubMed Central

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Alizadeh, Pooyan; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose To translate and validate the Iranian version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). Overview of Literature Instruments measuring patient-reported outcomes should satisfy certain psychometric properties. Methods Ninety-three cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy were entered into the study and completed the CNFDS pre and postoperatively at the 6 month follow-up. The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association Score was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, construct validity (item scale correlation), and responsiveness to change were assessed. Results Mean age of the patients was 54.3 years (standard deviation, 8.9). The Cronbach ? coefficient was satisfactory (?=0.84). Test-retest reliability as assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.98). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score correlated strongly with the CNFDS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=-0.80; p<0.001). Additionally, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized domain on the CNFDS was acceptable, suggesting that the items had a substantial relationship with their own domains. These results also indicate that the instrument was responsive to change (p<0.0001). Conclusions The findings suggest that the Iranian version of the CNFDS is a valid measure to assess functionality, social interaction, and pain among patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:26713123

  16. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  17. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  18. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  19. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  20. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  1. Health and the Structure of Adolescent Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Steven A.; Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions.We first develop…

  2. 48 CFR 19.1008 - Solicitation provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Solicitation provisions. (a) Insert in full text the provision at 52.219-19, Small Business Concern... designated industry groups. (b) Insert in full text the provision at 52.219-20, Notice of Emerging Small...) Insert in full text the provision at 52.219-21, Small Business Size Representation for Targeted...

  3. 1 CFR 304.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General provisions. 304.1 Section 304.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.1 General provisions. (a) This...

  4. 1 CFR 304.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true General provisions. 304.1 Section 304.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.1 General provisions. (a) This...

  5. 1 CFR 304.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true General provisions. 304.1 Section 304.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.1 General provisions. (a) This...

  6. 74 FR 8833 - Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and the Republic of Poland; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-02-26

    ...its provisions may write to the Social Security Administration, Office...Baltimore, MD 21235-7741 or visit the Social Security Web site at http://www.socialsecurity...Michael J. Astrue, Commissioner of Social Security. [FR Doc....

  7. 68 FR 62863 - New Agreement To Replace the Agreement Between the United States and Norway on Social Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-11-06

    ...its provisions may write to the Social Security Administration, Office...Baltimore, Maryland 21235-7741. The Social Security Web site at http://www.socialsecurity...information about the Norwegian Social Security programs may write to...

  8. 72 FR 62292 - Supplementary Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Sweden; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-11-02

    ...additional cost to the U.S. Social Security system. In addition...its provisions may visit the Social Security Administration's Web site at http:// www.socialsecurity...international or may write to the Social Security Administration,...

  9. 79 FR 34826 - Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and the Slovak Republic; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-06-18

    ...provisions, you may write to the Social Security Administration, Office...Baltimore, MD 21235-7741 or visit the Social Security Web site at www.socialsecurity.gov...Colvin, Acting Commissioner of Social Security. [FR Doc....

  10. 66 FR 17742 - Agreement on Social Security between the United States and the Republic of Korea; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-04-03

    ...its provisions may write to the Social Security Administration, Office...Baltimore, MD 21235-7741 or visit the Social Security web site at www.ssa.gov/international...Halter, Acting Commissioner of Social Security. [FR Doc....

  11. 68 FR 43413 - Protocol to the Agreement Between the United States and the Netherlands on Social Security; Entry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-07-22

    ...protocol's provisions may write to the Social Security Administration, Office...Baltimore, Maryland 21235-7741. The Social Security Web site at http:// www.socialsecurity...Anne B. Barnhart, Commissioner of Social Security. [FR Doc....

  12. 73 FR 80505 - Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and the Czech Republic; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-12-31

    ...provisions you may write to the Social Security Administration, Office...Baltimore, MD 21235-7741 or visit the Social Security Web site at http:// www.socialsecurity...Michael J. Astrue, Commissioner of Social Security. [FR Doc....

  13. 20 CFR 404.1407 - When railroad retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits. 404.1407 Section 404.1407 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits. The provisions...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1407 - When railroad retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits. 404.1407 Section 404.1407 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits. The provisions...

  15. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  16. POLITICAL ECONOMY & SOCIAL MOVEMENTS http://academic.evergreen.edu/curricular/PESM

    E-print Network

    provisions on freedom, civility, rights, prohibition against discrimination, intellectual honesty, and otherPOLITICAL ECONOMY & SOCIAL MOVEMENTS http://academic.evergreen.edu/curricular/PESM Fall 2006 ...the

  17. Literacy as a Social Process; Literacy as a Social Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy is a social process. Each person constructs his or her own "literate identity" and each community constructs its own "literate culture." At times, this local and individual process is at odds with literacy development on a large scale, undertaken through social intervention. Such social intervention is counter-social in that by trying to…

  18. Exploiting Social Links for Event Identification in Social Media

    E-print Network

    Gravano, Luis

    Exploiting Social Links for Event Identification in Social Media Hila Becker , Bai Xiao Columbia documents (e.g., photos, videos) in social media sites. To un- derstand the potential benefits of using in a large-scale Flickr data set. Our pre- liminary experiments, building on baselines that use social media

  19. Cross-scale feedbacks and scale mismatches as influences on cultural services and the resilience of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Kristine; De Vos, Alta; Cumming, Graeme S; Moore, Christine; Biggs, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a central strategy for achieving global conservation goals, but their continued existence depends heavily on maintaining sufficient social and political support to outweigh economic interests or other motives for land conversion. Thus, the resilience of protected areas can be considered a function of their perceived benefits to society. Nature-based tourism (NBT), a cultural ecosystem service, provides a key source of income to protected areas, facilitating a sustainable solution to conservation. The ability of tourism to generate income depends, however, on both the scales at which this cultural service is provided and the scales at which tourists respond to services on offer. This observation raises a set of location-, context-, and scale-related questions that need to be confronted before we can understand and value cultural service provision appropriately. We combine elements of resilience analysis with a systems ecology framework and apply this to NBT in protected areas to investigate cross-scale interactions and scale mismatches. We postulate that cross-scale effects can either have a positive effect on protected area resilience or lead to scale mismatches, depending on their interactions with cross-scale feedbacks. To demonstrate this, we compare spatial scales and nested levels of institutions to develop a typology of scale mismatches for common scenarios in NBT. In our new typology, the severity of a scale mismatch is expressed as the ratio of spatial scale to institutional level, producing 25 possible outcomes with differing consequences for system resilience. We predict that greater differences between interacting scales and levels, and greater magnitudes of cross-scale interactions, will lead to greater magnitudes of scale mismatch. Achieving a better understanding of feedbacks and mismatches, and finding ways of aligning spatial and institutional scales, will be critical for strengthening the resilience of protected areas that depend on NBT. PMID:26255354

  20. Social Norms Social Preferences?

    E-print Network

    Strien, Sebastian van

    Social Norms or Social Preferences? Ken Binmore Economics Department University College London economists argue that the hon- oring of social norms can be adequately modeled as the op- timization of social utility functions in which the welfare of others appears as an explicit argument. This paper

  1. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  2. Study diluvium: general provisions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudoy, A.

    2012-04-01

    Diluvium is a term in geology for superficial deposits formed by flood-like operations of water, and so contrasted with alluvium or alluvial deposits formed by slow and steady aqueous agencies. The term was formerly given to the boulder clay deposits, supposed to have been caused by the Noachian deluge. In the late 20th century Russian geologist Alexei Rudoy proposed the term "diluvium" for description of deposits created as a result of catastrophic outbursts of Pleistocene giant glacier-dammed lakes in intermontane basins of the Altai.[1] The largest of these lakes - Chuya and Kuray, had a volume of water in hundreds of cubic kilometers, and their discharge in peak hydrograph flow rate exceeded the maximum rates of the well-known Pleistocene Lake Missoula in North America. The term "diluvium" in the meaning of A. N. Rudoy has become accepted, and the process of diluvial morpholithogenesis can be found in modern textbooks. Flood deposits of the Altai region Nearly all intermountain depressions in southern Siberia and northern Mongolia hosted glacier-dammed lakes during the Pleistocene ice ages. Climatic changes and hydrostatic alterations of the ice dams were followed by repeated fillings and releases of the basin lakes. The lake outbursts had a cataclysmic character. In accordance with climatic conditions, the glaciers would protrude again into the main drainage valleys immediately after dam deformations and lake outbursts and would again dam the basins. The greatest of the lakes (Lakes Chuya, Kuray, Uymon, Darkhat and others) achieved volumes up to hundreds of cubic kilometres, while the discharges of the outburst floods reached millions of cubic metres per second. These floods transformed the drainage valleys, repeatedly building new sediment deposits. The dating of the latter proves the occurrence of large-scale floods in the Chuya and the Katun River valleys in the interval between 23 and 7 thousand years ago. During that period there were at least five large-scale flooding events. Enormous water masses were drained simultaneously and repeatedly towards the south of West Siberia. The total water volume out of the Altai basins only used to reach 10 thousand cubic kilometres. With some periodicity, all of the basins of South Siberia were able to deliver northwards about 60 thousand cubic kilometres of flood waters[1].

  3. SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    156 SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) Social Anthropology MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Social Anthropology and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art History Anthropology Geography with Social Anthropology Social Anthropology with Geography Entrance Requirements (see

  4. SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    146 SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) Social Anthropology MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Social Anthropology and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art History Anthropology Geography with Social Anthropology Social Anthropology with Geography Entrance Requirements (see

  5. Progressive Provisioning by the Females of the Earwig, Anisolabis maritima, Increases the Survival Rate of the Young

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Seizi

    2010-01-01

    Provisioning the young is an important form of insect parental care and is believed to improve the survival and growth of the young. Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae) is a cosmopolitan species of earwig that shows sub-social behavior in which the females tend clutches of eggs in soil burrows. The defensive and provisioning behaviors of these females were examined in this study. When disturbed, maternal individuals abandoned the nest less than non-maternal individuals. Females brought food to the nest after their eggs hatched, and the survival of the nymphs was increased by provisioning. Even when mothers were removed, providing food to the nymphs increased survival as well as when the nymphs were provisioned by the mother. These results show that A. maritima mothers provision the nymphs and that this provisioning improves their survival. PMID:21062141

  6. The evolutionary and ecological roots of human social organization

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Hillard S.; Hooper, Paul L.; Gurven, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Social organization among human foragers is characterized by a three-generational system of resource provisioning within families, long-term pair-bonding between men and women, high levels of cooperation between kin and non-kin, and relatively egalitarian social relationships. In this paper, we suggest that these core features of human sociality result from the learning- and skill-intensive human foraging niche, which is distinguished by a late age-peak in caloric production, high complementarity between male and female inputs to offspring viability, high gains to cooperation in production and risk-reduction, and a lack of economically defensible resources. We present an explanatory framework for understanding variation in social organization across human societies, highlighting the interactive effects of four key ecological and economic variables: (i) the role of skill in resource production; (ii) the degree of complementarity in male and female inputs into production; (iii) economies of scale in cooperative production and competition; and (iv) the economic defensibility of physical inputs into production. Finally, we apply this framework to understanding variation in social and political organization across foraging, horticulturalist, pastoralist and agriculturalist societies. PMID:19805435

  7. 48 CFR 1552.224-70 - Social security numbers of consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Social security numbers of consultants and certain...Provisions and Clauses 1552.224-70 Social security numbers of consultants and certain...following provision in all solicitations. Social Security Numbers of Consultants and...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.224-70 - Social security numbers of consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Social security numbers of consultants and certain...Provisions and Clauses 1552.224-70 Social security numbers of consultants and certain...following provision in all solicitations. Social Security Numbers of Consultants and...

  9. Combating Threats to the Quality of Information in Social Systems 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Kyumin

    2013-06-04

    Many large-scale social systems such as Web-based social networks, online social media sites and Web-scale crowdsourcing systems have been growing rapidly, enabling millions of human participants to generate, share and ...

  10. 48 CFR 225.7605 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel 225.7605 Solicitation provision. Unless an exception...the provision at 252.225-7031, Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel, in all solicitations, including solicitations using...

  11. 48 CFR 225.7605 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel 225.7605 Solicitation provision. Unless an exception...the provision at 252.225-7031, Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel, in all solicitations, including solicitations using...

  12. 10 CFR 26.711 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General provisions. 26.711 Section 26.711 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 26.711 General provisions. (a) Each...

  13. 12 CFR 1807.905 - Criminal provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Section 1807.905 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.905 Criminal provisions. The criminal provisions of 18...

  14. 12 CFR 1807.905 - Criminal provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Section 1807.905 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.905 Criminal provisions. The criminal provisions of 18...

  15. 12 CFR 1807.905 - Criminal provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 1807.905 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.905 Criminal provisions. The criminal provisions of 18...

  16. 12 CFR 1807.905 - Criminal provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Section 1807.905 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.905 Criminal provisions. The criminal provisions of 18...

  17. 48 CFR 204.7207 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Solicitation provision. Use the provision at 252.204-7001, Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) Code... Contractor Registration; and (b) The CAGE codes for the potential offerors are not available to...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY UNDER GENERAL AGENCY AGREEMENT Sec. 3 General provisions. (a) The voyage...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 6 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. Sec. 6 Section 6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 6 General provisions. (a) In cases of...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY UNDER GENERAL AGENCY AGREEMENT Sec. 3 General provisions. (a) The voyage...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 6 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. Sec. 6 Section 6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 6 General provisions. (a) In cases of...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY SLOP CHESTS Sec. 4 General provisions. (a) All slop chest...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY SLOP CHESTS Sec. 4 General provisions. (a) All slop chest...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 6 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. Sec. 6 Section 6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY REPATRIATION OF SEAMEN Sec. 6 General provisions. (a) In case of...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 6 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. Sec. 6 Section 6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY REPATRIATION OF SEAMEN Sec. 6 General provisions. (a) In case of...

  6. 50 CFR 27.41 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.41 General provisions. Carrying, possessing, or discharging firearms, fireworks, or explosives on national wildlife refuges is prohibited unless specifically authorized under the provisions of this...

  7. 50 CFR 71.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.2 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public hunting on a national fish hatchery area:...

  8. 50 CFR 71.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.2 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public hunting on a national fish hatchery area:...

  9. 50 CFR 71.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.2 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public hunting on a national fish hatchery area:...

  10. 50 CFR 71.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.2 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public hunting on a national fish hatchery area:...

  11. 50 CFR 71.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.2 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public hunting on a national fish hatchery area:...

  12. 40 CFR 192.41 - Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...element thorium; (b) Provisions applicable to radon-222 shall also apply to radon-220; and (c) Provisions applicable to radium-226...the planned discharge of radioactive materials, radon-220 and its daughters excepted, to the...

  13. 40 CFR 192.41 - Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...element thorium; (b) Provisions applicable to radon-222 shall also apply to radon-220; and (c) Provisions applicable to radium-226...the planned discharge of radioactive materials, radon-220 and its daughters excepted, to the...

  14. 40 CFR 192.41 - Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...element thorium; (b) Provisions applicable to radon-222 shall also apply to radon-220; and (c) Provisions applicable to radium-226...the planned discharge of radioactive materials, radon-220 and its daughters excepted, to the...

  15. 40 CFR 192.41 - Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...element thorium; (b) Provisions applicable to radon-222 shall also apply to radon-220; and (c) Provisions applicable to radium-226...the planned discharge of radioactive materials, radon-220 and its daughters excepted, to the...

  16. 40 CFR 192.41 - Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...element thorium; (b) Provisions applicable to radon-222 shall also apply to radon-220; and (c) Provisions applicable to radium-226...the planned discharge of radioactive materials, radon-220 and its daughters excepted, to the...

  17. 22 CFR 63.9 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to the foregoing regulations:...

  18. 22 CFR 63.9 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to the foregoing regulations:...

  19. 22 CFR 63.9 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to the foregoing regulations:...

  20. 22 CFR 63.9 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to the foregoing regulations:...

  1. 22 CFR 63.9 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to the foregoing regulations:...

  2. 7 CFR 4288.131 - Payment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.131 Payment provisions. Payments to advanced biofuel producers for eligible advanced biofuel production will be determined in...

  3. 7 CFR 4288.131 - Payment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.131 Payment provisions. Payments to advanced biofuel producers for eligible advanced biofuel production will be determined in...

  4. 10 CFR 1706.6 - Solicitation provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Solicitation provisions. 1706.6 Section 1706.6 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL AND CONSULTANT CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS § 1706.6 Solicitation provisions....

  5. 14 CFR 1260.20 - Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisions. 1260.20 Section 1260.20 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.20 Provisions. (a) Research grants, education grants, training grants, and cooperative agreements with U.S....

  6. 12 CFR 604.420 - Exemptive provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exemptive provisions. 604.420 Section 604.420 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION BOARD MEETINGS § 604.420 Exemptive provisions. Except in a case where the Board determines that the public interest requires otherwise, a meeting...

  7. 31 CFR 25.400 - Loan provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan provisions. 25.400 Section 25... FEDERAL FINANCING BANK AND GUARANTEED BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY Form of Private Loan § 25.400 Loan provisions. (a) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the principal...

  8. 7 CFR 273.7 - Work provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with the Child Care and Development Block Grant provisions of 45 CFR 98.43, and based on local... provisions of 45 CFR 98.43, and are based on local market rate surveys. The State agency will provide a... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Work provisions. 273.7 Section 273.7...

  9. 7 CFR 273.7 - Work provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the Child Care and Development Block Grant provisions of 45 CFR 98.43, and based on local... provisions of 45 CFR 98.43, and are based on local market rate surveys. The State agency will provide a... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Work provisions. 273.7 Section 273.7...

  10. 7 CFR 273.7 - Work provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with the Child Care and Development Block Grant provisions of 45 CFR 98.43, and based on local... provisions of 45 CFR 98.43, and are based on local market rate surveys. The State agency will provide a... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Work provisions. 273.7 Section 273.7...

  11. 7 CFR 273.7 - Work provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with the Child Care and Development Block Grant provisions of 45 CFR 98.43, and based on local... provisions of 45 CFR 98.43, and are based on local market rate surveys. The State agency will provide a... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Work provisions. 273.7 Section 273.7...

  12. 7 CFR 273.7 - Work provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with the Child Care and Development Block Grant provisions of 45 CFR 98.43, and based on local... provisions of 45 CFR 98.43, and are based on local market rate surveys. The State agency will provide a... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Work provisions. 273.7 Section 273.7...

  13. 7 CFR 4280.313 - Grant provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant provisions. 4280.313 Section 4280.313... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program § 4280.313 Grant provisions. (a) General. The following provisions apply to each type of...

  14. 7 CFR 4280.313 - Grant provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant provisions. 4280.313 Section 4280.313... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program § 4280.313 Grant provisions. (a) General. The following provisions apply to each type of...

  15. 50 CFR 25.61 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... agreement on national wildlife refuges where there is a demonstrated justified need for services or... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Concessions § 25.61 General provisions. Public... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General provisions. 25.61 Section...

  16. 50 CFR 25.51 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General provisions. 25.51 Section 25.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Fees and Charges § 25.51 General provisions. Reasonable charges and fees may...

  17. 50 CFR 25.61 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. 25.61 Section 25.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Concessions § 25.61 General provisions. Public use facilities may be operated...

  18. 50 CFR 25.51 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... onto national wildlife refuges. Regulations regarding recreational use fees are contained in 36 CFR... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Fees and Charges § 25.51 General provisions... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General provisions. 25.51 Section...

  19. 50 CFR 25.51 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General provisions. 25.51 Section 25.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Fees and Charges § 25.51 General provisions. Reasonable charges and fees may...

  20. 50 CFR 25.51 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. 25.51 Section 25.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Fees and Charges § 25.51 General provisions. Reasonable charges and fees may...

  1. 50 CFR 25.61 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 25.61 Section 25.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Concessions § 25.61 General provisions. Public use facilities may be operated...

  2. 50 CFR 25.61 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... agreement on national wildlife refuges where there is a demonstrated justified need for services or... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Concessions § 25.61 General provisions. Public... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General provisions. 25.61 Section...

  3. 50 CFR 25.61 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General provisions. 25.61 Section 25.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Concessions § 25.61 General provisions. Public use facilities may be operated...

  4. 50 CFR 25.51 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 25.51 Section 25.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Fees and Charges § 25.51 General provisions. Reasonable charges and fees may...

  5. 10 CFR 950.20 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 950.20 Section 950.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Claims Administration Process § 950.20 General provisions. The parties shall include provisions in the Standby Support Contract to specify...

  6. 12 CFR 1807.905 - Criminal provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criminal provisions. 1807.905 Section 1807.905 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.905 Criminal provisions. The criminal provisions...

  7. 12 CFR 1807.905 - Criminal provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criminal provisions. 1807.905 Section 1807.905 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.905 Criminal provisions. The criminal provisions...

  8. 12 CFR 1807.905 - Criminal provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criminal provisions. 1807.905 Section 1807.905 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.905 Criminal provisions. The criminal provisions...

  9. 12 CFR 1807.905 - Criminal provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criminal provisions. 1807.905 Section 1807.905 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.905 Criminal provisions. The criminal provisions...

  10. 12 CFR 933.4 - Transition provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transition provisions. 933.4 Section 933.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS BANK CAPITAL STRUCTURE PLANS § 933.4 Transition provisions. (a) The capital plan of a Bank may include a transition provision that would allow...

  11. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section...PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security number. (a)(1) Except...the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a student provides...

  12. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section...PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security number. (a)(1) Except...the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a student provides...

  13. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  14. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  15. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  16. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  17. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  18. Perceived social support among HIV patients newly enrolled in care in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lifson, Alan R; Workneh, Sale; Hailemichael, Abera; Demissie, Workneh; Slater, Lucy; Shenie, Tibebe

    2015-11-01

    Social support significantly enhances physical and mental health for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We surveyed 142 rural Ethiopian HIV patients newly enrolled in care for perceived social support and factors associated with low support levels. Using the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), the mean summary score was 19.1 (possible scores?=?0-48). On six SPS subscales, mean scores (possible scores?=?0-8), were: Reliable Alliance (others can be counted on for tangible assistance)?=?2.8, Attachment (emotional closeness providing sense of security)?=?2.9, Reassurance of Worth (recognition of competence and value by others)?=?3.2, Guidance (provision of advice or information by others)?=?3.2, Social Integration (belonging to a group with similar interests and concerns)?=?3.5, and Nurturance (belief that others rely on one for their well-being)?=?3.6. In multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with lower social support scores were: lower education level (did not complete primary school) (p?=?.019), lower total score on knowledge items about HIV care/treatment (p?=?.038), and greater number of external stigma experiences in past three months (p?social support, with lowest scores for subscales reflecting emotional closeness and reliance on others for tangible assistance. Given that patients who have recently learned their diagnosis and entered care may be an especially vulnerable group, programs to help identify and address social support needs can provide multiple benefits in facilitating the best possible physical, emotional and functional quality of life for people living with HIV. PMID:26679266

  19. Social scaling of extrapersonal space: target objects are judged as closer when the reference frame is a human agent with available movement potentialities.

    PubMed

    Fini, C; Brass, M; Committeri, G

    2015-01-01

    Space perception depends on our motion potentialities and our intended actions are affected by space perception. Research on peripersonal space (the space in reaching distance) shows that we perceive an object as being closer when we (Witt, Proffitt, & Epstein, 2005; Witt & Proffitt, 2008) or another actor (Costantini, Ambrosini, Sinigaglia, & Gallese, 2011; Bloesch, Davoli, Roth, Brockmole, & Abrams, 2012) can interact with it. Similarly, an object only triggers specific movements when it is placed in our peripersonal space (Costantini, Ambrosini, Tieri, Sinigaglia, & Committeri, 2010) or in the other's peripersonal space (Costantini, Committeri, & Sinigaglia, 2011; Cardellicchio, Sinigaglia, & Costantini, 2013). Moreover, also the extrapersonal space (the space outside reaching distance) seems to be perceived in relation to our movement capabilities: the more effort it takes to cover a distance, the greater we perceive the distance to be (Proffitt, Stefanucci, Banton, & Epstein, 2003; Sugovic & Witt, 2013). However, not much is known about the influence of the other's movement potentialities on our extrapersonal space perception. Three experiments were carried out investigating the categorization of distance in extrapersonal space using human or non-human allocentric reference frames (RF). Subjects were asked to judge the distance ("Near" or "Far") of a target object (a beach umbrella) placed at progressively increasing or decreasing distances until a change from near to far or vice versa was reported. In the first experiment we found a significant "Near space extension" when the allocentric RF was a human virtual agent instead of a static, inanimate object. In the second experiment we tested whether the "Near space extension" depended on the anatomical structure of the RF or its movement potentialities by adding a wooden dummy. The "Near space extension" was only observed for the human agent but not for the dummy. Finally, to rule out the possibility that the effect was simply due to a line-of-sight mechanism (visual perspective taking) we compared the human agent free to move with the same agent tied to a pole with a rope, thus reducing movement potentialities while maintaining equal visual accessibility. The "Near space extension" disappeared when this manipulation was introduced, showing that movement potentialities are the relevant factor for such an effect. Our results demonstrate for the first time that during allocentric distance judgments within extrapersonal space, we implicitly process the movement potentialities of the RF. A target object is perceived as being closer when the allocentric RF is a human with available movement potentialities, suggesting a mechanism of social scaling of extrapersonal space processing. PMID:25460378

  20. Growth of the Proprietary Sector in Social Welfare: A Challenge to the Social Policy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Elizabeth T.

    The rapid growth of the proprietary sector in the provision of social services traditionally administered under non-profit or government auspices creates a problem and challenge for teachers of social policy. Instructors need to interpret this new trend, without much literature support, to a group of students with increasing potential for…

  1. Social Capitalism and Educational Policy: Democracy, Professionalism and Social Justice under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamarnikow, Eva; Green, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Here we examine New Labour's education policy concerning social justice and the organisation of educational provision with reference to social capital as policy vocabulary. The central focus is on policy discourses and practices in relation to networking between schools and other partners. We identify three policy phases for reducing inequalities…

  2. Assessment and application of potential food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yongzhong; Gao, Yanghua; Zhu, Lifen

    2006-08-01

    The assessment of food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas is helpful for better understanding the function of ecosystems in local human well-beings. In this paper, process-based models are used to assess the potential food provisioning services derived from agriculture ecosystems and grassland ecosystems, a modifying model along with normal woodlands and a set of modifying coefficients is built to assess the potential food from woodland ecosystems. A set of power regression models based on environment factors are built to estimate the potential fish production from water ecosystems. Land cover data stemmed from Landsat TM images, as well as other natural and social-economic data in 1km resolution such as temperature, precipitation, and DEM, are used to support these assessment models. It shows that the four ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can provide 85.98×10 12 calories heat, 2.49 billion kilograms protein and 823.4 million kilograms fat. Human carrying capacity model under the balance nutrition pattern is built in this paper, which results in two key findings: ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can feed 45.92 million people under wealthy living standard which is 1.53 times of the current population, and the sustainable population is from 9.69 to 36.23 million under that living standard. Multi-scale population pressure model is built to calculate the population pressure index in Three-gorge areas. The grain for green pressure index, a multivariate linear weighed model, is used to determine the spatial distribution of farmland fit for grain for green and fit for protecting.

  3. 20 CFR 410.580 - Relation to provisions for reductions or increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relation to provisions for reductions or increases. 410.580 Section 410.580 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  4. 20 CFR 416.1266 - Individual under special resource provision dies after December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dies after December 1973. 416.1266 Section 416.1266 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... under special resource provision dies after December 1973. Where only one person, either the eligible individual or the eligible spouse, meets the conditions specified in § 416.1260 and that person dies...

  5. Collaboration at a Distance: Using a Wiki to Create a Collaborative Learning Environment for Distance Education and On-Campus Students in a Social Work Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Continuing moves towards more flexible approaches to the provision of higher education have been reflected in the increased provision of social work education through distance learning and the related increase in the use of online technologies for social work education. This article reports on the use of a wiki in a final year social work subject.…

  6. Social genetic and social environment effects on parental and helper care in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark James; Robinson, Matthew R; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2015-07-01

    Phenotypes expressed in a social context are not only a function of the individual, but can also be shaped by the phenotypes of social partners. These social effects may play a major role in the evolution of cooperative breeding if social partners differ in the quality of care they provide and if individual carers adjust their effort in relation to that of other carers. When applying social effects models to wild study systems, it is also important to explore sources of individual plasticity that could masquerade as social effects. We studied offspring provisioning rates of parents and helpers in a wild population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus using a quantitative genetic framework to identify these social effects and partition them into genetic, permanent environment and current environment components. Controlling for other effects, individuals were consistent in their provisioning effort at a given nest, but adjusted their effort based on who was in their social group, indicating the presence of social effects. However, these social effects differed between years and social contexts, indicating a current environment effect, rather than indicating a genetic or permanent environment effect. While this study reveals the importance of examining environmental and genetic sources of social effects, the framework we present is entirely general, enabling a greater understanding of potentially important social effects within any ecological population. PMID:26063846

  7. Social genetic and social environment effects on parental and helper care in a cooperatively breeding bird

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mark James; Robinson, Matthew R.; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Hatchwell, Ben J.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypes expressed in a social context are not only a function of the individual, but can also be shaped by the phenotypes of social partners. These social effects may play a major role in the evolution of cooperative breeding if social partners differ in the quality of care they provide and if individual carers adjust their effort in relation to that of other carers. When applying social effects models to wild study systems, it is also important to explore sources of individual plasticity that could masquerade as social effects. We studied offspring provisioning rates of parents and helpers in a wild population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus using a quantitative genetic framework to identify these social effects and partition them into genetic, permanent environment and current environment components. Controlling for other effects, individuals were consistent in their provisioning effort at a given nest, but adjusted their effort based on who was in their social group, indicating the presence of social effects. However, these social effects differed between years and social contexts, indicating a current environment effect, rather than indicating a genetic or permanent environment effect. While this study reveals the importance of examining environmental and genetic sources of social effects, the framework we present is entirely general, enabling a greater understanding of potentially important social effects within any ecological population. PMID:26063846

  8. 5 CFR 9901.361 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS...DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...General provisions. (a) Introduction . As provided...

  9. Cross-scale morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Holling, C.S.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2013-01-01

    The scaling of physical, biological, ecological and social phenomena is a major focus of efforts to develop simple representations of complex systems. Much of the attention has been on discovering universal scaling laws that emerge from simple physical and geometric processes. However, there are regular patterns of departures both from those scaling laws and from continuous distributions of attributes of systems. Those departures often demonstrate the development of self-organized interactions between living systems and physical processes over narrower ranges of scale.

  10. Brief Report: Theory of Mind, Relational Reasoning, and Social Responsiveness in Children with and without Autism--Demonstration of Feasibility for a Larger-Scale Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, John R., Jr.; Kandala, Sridhar; Petersen, Steven E.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of social responsiveness and theory of mind (ToM) will enhance our knowledge of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesize that higher-order relational reasoning (higher-order RR: reasoning necessitating integration of relationships among multiple variables) is necessary but not sufficient for ToM, and that…

  11. The Individual and Collective Effect of US Colonialism in Puerto Rico: A Scale Construction and Validation, with Implications for Social Work Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Aviles, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the individual and collective psychology of the people of Puerto Rico requires an understanding of both the history of its colonialism and the U.S. laws that have helped shaped the social world of the Puerto Rican people, in the United States and in the colony itself" (Rivera Ramos, 2001, p. 4). This research presents…

  12. 18th July 2014 Social Media Analytics are Evolving -From Twitter-based Crisis Mapping to Large-scale Real-Time

    E-print Network

    Middleton, Stuart E.

    for social media can be broadly categorized as dashboards, crisis mapping toolkits and in-depth analysis frameworks. Dashboard applications (e.g. Tweetdeck, Sulia, Storyful, Flumes, WebLyzard) allow people people. These dashboard applications allow click- through from content to author, providing contact

  13. Advance Resource Provisioning in Bulk Data Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    Today?s scientific and business applications generate mas- sive data sets that need to be transferred to remote sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. Because of increasing data volumes and enhancement in current net- work technology that provide on-demand high-speed data access between collaborating institutions, data handling and scheduling problems have reached a new scale. In this paper, we present a new data scheduling model with ad- vance resource provisioning, in which data movement operations are defined with earliest start and latest comple- tion times. We analyze time-dependent resource assign- ment problem, and propose a new methodology to improve the current systems by allowing researchers and higher-level meta-schedulers to use data-placement as-a-service, so they can plan ahead and submit transfer requests in advance. In general, scheduling with time and resource conflicts is NP-hard. We introduce an efficient algorithm to organize multiple requests on the fly, while satisfying users? time and resource constraints. We successfully tested our algorithm in a simple benchmark simulator that we have developed, and demonstrated its performance with initial test results.

  14. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  15. 19 CFR 122.182 - Security provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security provisions. 122.182 Section 122.182 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Access to Customs Security Areas § 122.182 Security provisions....

  16. Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) maintenance provisions

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was designed with maintainability as a primary parameter, and facilities and provisions were designed into the plant to accommodate the maintenance function. This paper describes the FFTF and its systems. Special maintenance equipment and facilities for performing maintenance on radioactive components are discussed. Maintenance provisions designed into the plant to enhance maintainability are also described.

  17. 20 CFR 340.1 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statutory provisions. 340.1 Section 340.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.1 Statutory provisions. (a) Section 2(d) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides that: If the Board finds...

  18. 36 CFR 62.9 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL NATURAL LANDMARKS PROGRAM § 62.9 General provisions. (a) Agreements. The NPS may enter into... Landmarks Program. The agreements may include but are not limited to provisions about identification, evaluation, monitoring or protecting national natural landmarks. (b) Information dissemination. The NPS...

  19. 40 CFR 49.123 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General provisions. 49.123 Section 49.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT General Federal Implementation Plan Provisions General Rules for Application to Indian...

  20. 40 CFR 64.10 - Savings provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Savings provisions. 64.10 Section 64.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE MONITORING § 64.10 Savings provisions. (a) Nothing in this part shall: (1) Excuse...

  1. 40 CFR 1043.95 - Interim provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim provisions. 1043.95 Section 1043.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.95 Interim provisions. The...

  2. 40 CFR 1043.95 - Interim provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim provisions. 1043.95 Section 1043.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.95 Interim provisions. The...

  3. 40 CFR 60.755 - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance provisions. 60.755 Section 60.755 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.755 Compliance provisions....

  4. 45 CFR 98.16 - Plan provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plan provisions. 98.16 Section 98.16 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND General Application Procedures § 98.16 Plan provisions. A CCDF Plan shall contain the following: (a) Specification of the Lead Agency whose duties...

  5. 14 CFR 212.3 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 212.3 Section 212.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.3 General provisions. (a) Certificated and foreign air carriers...

  6. 42 CFR 412.200 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.200 General provisions. Beginning with discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1987, hospitals located in Puerto Rico are subject to the rules governing... provisions of subparts A, B, C, F, G, and H of this part apply to hospitals located in Puerto Rico....

  7. 40 CFR 165.40 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General provisions. 165.40 Section 165.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.40 General provisions....

  8. 40 CFR 165.40 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General provisions. 165.40 Section 165.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.40 General provisions....

  9. 40 CFR 165.40 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General provisions. 165.40 Section 165.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.40 General provisions. (a) What is the purpose of the regulations...

  10. 40 CFR 165.40 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General provisions. 165.40 Section 165.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.40 General provisions....

  11. 40 CFR 165.40 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 165.40 Section 165.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.40 General provisions....

  12. 22 CFR 706.11 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...'s regulations governing Privacy Act requests are located at 22 CFR part 707. (d) OPIC Internet site... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General provisions. 706.11 Section 706.11 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FREEDOM OF...

  13. 22 CFR 706.11 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...'s regulations governing Privacy Act requests are located at 22 CFR part 707. (d) OPIC Internet site... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions. 706.11 Section 706.11 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FREEDOM OF...

  14. 22 CFR 706.11 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...'s regulations governing Privacy Act requests are located at 22 CFR part 707. (d) OPIC Internet site... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions. 706.11 Section 706.11 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FREEDOM OF...

  15. 22 CFR 706.11 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...'s regulations governing Privacy Act requests are located at 22 CFR part 707. (d) OPIC Internet site... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions. 706.11 Section 706.11 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FREEDOM OF...

  16. 46 CFR 502.501 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 502.501 Section 502.501 Shipping... Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act in Commission Proceedings § 502.501 General provisions. (a...) A charitable or other tax-exempt organization described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal...

  17. 40 CFR 64.10 - Savings provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savings provisions. 64.10 Section 64.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE MONITORING § 64.10 Savings provisions. (a) Nothing in this part shall: (1) Excuse...

  18. Memory Management for Quality of Service Provisioning

    E-print Network

    Katchabaw, Michael James

    Memory Management for Quality of Service Provisioning Michael J. Katchabaw, Hanan L. Lutfiyya of quality of service must be delivered to the user. This, in turn, entails effective management resource management for quality of ser­ vice provisioning, memory is one resource that has been

  19. 16 CFR 1025.70 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General provisions. 1025.70 Section 1025.70 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act in Adjudicative Proceedings With the Commission § 1025.70 General provisions. (a)...

  20. NATURAL RESOURCES CODE TITLE 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

    E-print Network

    NATURAL RESOURCES CODE TITLE 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS CHAPTER 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS Sec. 1.001. PURPOSE OF CODE. (a) This code is enacted as a part of the state's continuing statutory revision program change. (b) Consistent with the objectives of the statutory revision program, the purpose of this code

  1. 7 CFR 3402.9 - Financial provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Program Description § 3402.9 Financial provisions. An institution may elect to apply the cost-of-education... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial provisions. 3402.9 Section 3402.9... institution elects to use its cost-of-education institutional allowance for this purpose or elects to pay...

  2. 43 CFR 402.23 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Project, Arizona § 402.23 Special provisions. (a) After disposition of any lands under this subpart by... improvements, construction, or operation and maintenance costs of the Gila Project. Any such lands situate within the Wellton-Mohawk Division of said project shall also be subject to the provisions of...

  3. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  4. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  5. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  6. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  7. 50 CFR 27.41 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General provisions. 27.41 Section 27.41 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.41 General provisions. Carrying, possessing,...

  8. 50 CFR 26.31 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.31 General provisions. Public recreation will be permitted on national wildlife refuges as an appropriate incidental or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General provisions. 26.31 Section...

  9. 50 CFR 27.41 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. 27.41 Section 27.41 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.41 General provisions. Carrying, possessing,...

  10. 50 CFR 27.41 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... refuges is prohibited unless specifically authorized under the provisions of this subchapter C. ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.41 General... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General provisions. 27.41 Section...

  11. 50 CFR 26.31 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.31 General provisions. Public recreation will be permitted on national wildlife refuges as an appropriate incidental or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General provisions. 26.31 Section...

  12. 50 CFR 27.41 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... refuges is prohibited unless specifically authorized under the provisions of this subchapter C. ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.41 General... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General provisions. 27.41 Section...

  13. 50 CFR 27.41 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... refuges is prohibited unless specifically authorized under the provisions of this subchapter C. ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.41 General... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 27.41 Section...

  14. 50 CFR 26.31 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General provisions. 26.31 Section 26.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.31 General provisions. Public recreation will be permitted...

  15. 50 CFR 26.31 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.31 General provisions. Public recreation will be permitted on national wildlife refuges as an appropriate incidental or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 26.31 Section...

  16. 50 CFR 26.31 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. 26.31 Section 26.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.31 General provisions. Public recreation will be permitted...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 63.111 shall apply. (6) When Table 35 of subpart G of this part refers to 40 CFR 63.119(e)(1) or (e... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 63.111 shall apply. (6) When Table 35 of subpart G of this part refers to 40 CFR 63.119(e)(1) or (e... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 63.111 shall apply. (6) When Table 35 of subpart G of this part refers to 40 CFR 63.119(e)(1) or (e... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 63.111 shall apply. (6) When Table 35 of subpart G of this part refers to 40 CFR 63.119(e)(1) or (e... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.111 shall apply. (6) When Table 35 of subpart G of this part refers to 40 CFR 63.119(e)(1) or (e... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified...

  2. 40 CFR 65.67 - Reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting provisions. 65.67 Section 65.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Process Vents § 65.67 Reporting provisions. (a) Initial compliance status report. The owner or operator shall submit...

  3. 42 CFR 423.504 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acquisition regulations set forth in Title 48 of the CFR and provisions of law or other regulations relating... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General provisions. 423.504 Section 423.504 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  4. 42 CFR 422.503 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal and Departmental acquisition regulations set forth in title 48 of the CFR and provisions of law or... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General provisions. 422.503 Section 422.503 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  5. 40 CFR 65.119 - Recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordkeeping provisions. 65.119 Section 65.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.119 Recordkeeping provisions. (a) Recordkeeping system. An owner or operator of more than...

  6. 40 CFR 65.66 - Recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordkeeping provisions. 65.66 Section 65.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Process Vents § 65.66 Recordkeeping provisions. (a) TRE index value records. The owner or operator shall...

  7. 38 CFR 17.802 - Application provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application provisions. 17.802 Section 17.802 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Transitional Housing Loan Program § 17.802 Application provisions. (a) To obtain a loan under these Transitional Housing Loan Program regulations,...

  8. 45 CFR 612.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 612.1 Section 612.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.1 General provisions. This part contains the rules that the National Science Foundation follows in processing...

  9. 50 CFR 71.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.2 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public hunting on a national fish hatchery... age and older shall secure and possess a Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp while hunting...

  10. 50 CFR 71.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.2 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public hunting on a national fish hatchery... age and older shall secure and possess a Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp while hunting...

  11. 50 CFR 71.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.2 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public hunting on a national fish hatchery... age and older shall secure and possess a Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp while hunting...

  12. 50 CFR 71.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.2 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public hunting on a national fish hatchery... age and older shall secure and possess a Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp while hunting...

  13. 50 CFR 71.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.2 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public hunting on a national fish hatchery... age and older shall secure and possess a Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp while hunting...

  14. 7 CFR 248.24 - Other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other provisions. 248.24 Section 248.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions §...

  15. 7 CFR 248.24 - Other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other provisions. 248.24 Section 248.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions §...

  16. 28 CFR 512.21 - Copyright provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyright provisions. 512.21 Section 512... ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.21 Copyright provisions. (a) An employee of the Bureau may not copyright... non-employee may copyright original materials developed as a result of research conducted under...

  17. 12 CFR 931.9 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transition provision. 931.9 Section 931.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.9 Transition provision. (a) In general. Each Bank shall comply with the minimum leverage and...

  18. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  19. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  20. 7 CFR 4280.313 - Grant provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... referencing. TA-only grantees will be required to: (i) Refer clients to internal or external non-program... is facilitated by referral to either an internal or external non-program loan fund so that these... Program § 4280.313 Grant provisions. (a) General. The following provisions apply to each type of...

  1. 7 CFR 4280.313 - Grant provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... referencing. TA-only grantees will be required to: (i) Refer clients to internal or external non-program... is facilitated by referral to either an internal or external non-program loan fund so that these... Program § 4280.313 Grant provisions. (a) General. The following provisions apply to each type of...

  2. 40 CFR 79.58 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions. 79.58 Section 79...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.58 Special provisions. (a... definitions in § 79.50 need not undergo the emission characterization or health effects testing specified...

  3. 40 CFR 49.123 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General provisions. 49.123 Section 49.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT General Federal Implementation Plan Provisions General Rules for Application to Indian...

  4. 49 CFR 172.102 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special provisions. 172.102 Section 172.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS...

  5. 21 CFR 640.27 - Emergency provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency provisions. 640.27 Section 640.27 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.27 Emergency provisions. The use...

  6. 10 CFR 26.203 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General provisions. 26.203 Section 26.203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.203 General provisions. (a) Policy. Licensees shall establish a policy for the management of fatigue for all individuals who are subject to...

  7. 10 CFR 26.53 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General provisions. 26.53 Section 26.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.53 General provisions. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual, a licensee or other entity shall...

  8. 10 CFR 26.53 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 26.53 Section 26.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.53 General provisions. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual, a licensee or other entity shall...

  9. 10 CFR 26.53 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General provisions. 26.53 Section 26.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.53 General provisions. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual, a licensee or other entity shall...

  10. 10 CFR 26.203 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General provisions. 26.203 Section 26.203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.203 General provisions. (a) Policy. Licensees shall establish a policy for the management of fatigue for all individuals who are subject to...

  11. 10 CFR 26.203 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General provisions. 26.203 Section 26.203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.203 General provisions. (a) Policy. Licensees shall establish a policy for the management of fatigue for all individuals who are subject to...

  12. 10 CFR 26.53 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General provisions. 26.53 Section 26.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.53 General provisions. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual, a licensee or other entity shall...

  13. 10 CFR 26.53 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General provisions. 26.53 Section 26.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.53 General provisions. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual, a licensee or other entity shall...

  14. 10 CFR 26.203 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General provisions. 26.203 Section 26.203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.203 General provisions. (a) Policy. Licensees shall establish a policy for the management of fatigue for all individuals who are subject to...

  15. 10 CFR 26.203 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 26.203 Section 26.203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.203 General provisions. (a) Policy. Licensees shall establish a policy for the management of fatigue for all individuals who are subject to...

  16. Implementing the optimal provision of ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Nelson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives to landowners for increased provision of ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners’ costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information. PMID:24722635

  17. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits at a certain time, for a certain bandwidth and length of time. Though OSCARS operates within the ESnet, it also supplies end-to-end provisioning between multiple autonomous network domains. OSCARS gets reservation requests through a standard web service interface, and conducts a Quality-of-service (QoS) path for bandwidth guarantees. Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) and the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) enable to create a virtual circuit using Label Switched Paths (LSP's). It contains three main components: a reservation manager, a bandwidth scheduler, and a path setup subsystem. The bandwidth scheduler needs to have information about the current and future states of the network topology in order to accomplish end-to-end bandwidth guaranteed paths.

  18. 7 CFR 457.104 - Cotton crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton crop insurance provisions. 457.104 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.104 Cotton crop insurance provisions. The cotton crop insurance provisions for the 1998...

  19. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011...

  20. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011...

  1. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011...

  2. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and...

  3. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and...

  4. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and...

  5. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The Apple Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and...

  6. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and...

  7. 7 CFR 457.169 - Mint crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mint crop insurance provisions. 457.169 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.169 Mint crop insurance provisions. The Mint Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and...

  8. 7 CFR 457.169 - Mint crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mint crop insurance provisions. 457.169 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.169 Mint crop insurance provisions. The Mint Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and...

  9. 7 CFR 457.169 - Mint crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mint crop insurance provisions. 457.169 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.169 Mint crop insurance provisions. The Mint Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and...

  10. 7 CFR 457.169 - Mint crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mint crop insurance provisions. 457.169 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.169 Mint crop insurance provisions. The Mint Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and...

  11. 7 CFR 457.169 - Mint crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mint crop insurance provisions. 457.169 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.169 Mint crop insurance provisions. The Mint Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and...

  12. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop insurance provisions. The Green Pea Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and...

  13. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop insurance provisions. The Green Pea Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and...

  14. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for...

  15. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for...

  16. 40 CFR 63.16 - Performance Track Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Performance Track Provisions. 63.16 Section 63.16...General Provisions § 63.16 Performance Track Provisions. (a) Notwithstanding...source or any area source at a Performance Track member facility, which is...

  17. 40 CFR 63.16 - Performance Track Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Performance Track Provisions. 63.16 Section 63.16...General Provisions § 63.16 Performance Track Provisions. (a) Notwithstanding...source or any area source at a Performance Track member facility, which is...

  18. 7 CFR 457.123 - Almond crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Almond crop insurance provisions. 457.123 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.123 Almond crop insurance provisions. The Almond Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008...

  19. 7 CFR 457.123 - Almond crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Almond crop insurance provisions. 457.123 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.123 Almond crop insurance provisions. The Almond Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008...

  20. 7 CFR 457.123 - Almond crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Almond crop insurance provisions. 457.123 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.123 Almond crop insurance provisions. The Almond Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008...

  1. 9 CFR 145.7 - Specific provisions for participating dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Provisions § 145.7 Specific provisions for participating dealers. Dealers in poultry breeding stock, hatching eggs, or baby or started poultry shall comply with all provisions in this part which apply to their...

  2. 9 CFR 145.7 - Specific provisions for participating dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Provisions § 145.7 Specific provisions for participating dealers. Dealers in poultry breeding stock, hatching eggs, or baby or started poultry shall comply with all provisions in this part which apply to their...

  3. 9 CFR 145.7 - Specific provisions for participating dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Provisions § 145.7 Specific provisions for participating dealers. Dealers in poultry breeding stock, hatching eggs, or baby or started poultry shall comply with all provisions in this part which apply to their...

  4. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005...

  5. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005...

  6. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005...

  7. Effect of infrastructure design on commons dilemmas in social-ecological system dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yu, David J; Qubbaj, Murad R; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Anderies, John M; Aggarwal, Rimjhim M

    2015-10-27

    The use of shared infrastructure to direct natural processes for the benefit of humans has been a central feature of human social organization for millennia. Today, more than ever, people interact with one another and the environment through shared human-made infrastructure (the Internet, transportation, the energy grid, etc.). However, there has been relatively little work on how the design characteristics of shared infrastructure affect the dynamics of social-ecological systems (SESs) and the capacity of groups to solve social dilemmas associated with its provision. Developing such understanding is especially important in the context of global change where design criteria must consider how specific aspects of infrastructure affect the capacity of SESs to maintain vital functions in the face of shocks. Using small-scale irrigated agriculture (the most ancient and ubiquitous example of public infrastructure systems) as a model system, we show that two design features related to scale and the structure of benefit flows can induce fundamental changes in qualitative behavior, i.e., regime shifts. By relating the required maintenance threshold (a design feature related to infrastructure scale) to the incentives facing users under different regimes, our work also provides some general guidance on determinants of robustness of SESs under globalization-related stresses. PMID:26460043

  8. "Le Contrat Social"--and a New Curricular Approach to Inclusive Education. Occupational Opportunities and Social Competence. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 859.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magne, Olof

    This Swedish paper discusses the design of an inclusive curriculum for students with disabilities based on Rousseau's concept of a social contract. The importance of a curricular philosophy in which social competence and ecological conditions are crucial provisions in shaping the curriculum is discussed. The social contract philosophy is used to…

  9. 46 CFR 502.201 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false General provisions governing discovery. 502.201 Section 502.201 Shipping...Depositions, Written Interrogatories, and Discovery § 502.201 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  10. 46 CFR 502.201 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false General provisions governing discovery. 502.201 Section 502.201 Shipping...Depositions, Written Interrogatories, and Discovery § 502.201 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  11. 46 CFR 502.201 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false General provisions governing discovery. 502.201 Section 502.201 Shipping...Depositions, Written Interrogatories, and Discovery § 502.201 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  12. 49 CFR 511.31 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false General provisions governing discovery. 511.31 Section 511.31 ...TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Discovery; Compulsory Process § 511.31 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  13. 16 CFR 1025.31 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false General provisions governing discovery. 1025.31 Section 1025.31...PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery, Compulsory Process § 1025.31 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  14. 49 CFR 511.31 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false General provisions governing discovery. 511.31 Section 511.31 ...TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Discovery; Compulsory Process § 511.31 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  15. 49 CFR 511.31 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false General provisions governing discovery. 511.31 Section 511.31 ...TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Discovery; Compulsory Process § 511.31 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  16. 49 CFR 511.31 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false General provisions governing discovery. 511.31 Section 511.31 ...TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Discovery; Compulsory Process § 511.31 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  17. 16 CFR 1025.31 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false General provisions governing discovery. 1025.31 Section 1025.31...PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery, Compulsory Process § 1025.31 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  18. 49 CFR 511.31 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false General provisions governing discovery. 511.31 Section 511.31 ...TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Discovery; Compulsory Process § 511.31 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  19. 16 CFR 1025.31 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false General provisions governing discovery. 1025.31 Section 1025.31...PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery, Compulsory Process § 1025.31 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....

  20. 16 CFR 1025.31 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false General provisions governing discovery. 1025.31 Section 1025.31...PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery, Compulsory Process § 1025.31 General provisions governing discovery. (a) Applicability....