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1

A Laboratory Approach for Social Science Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory technique for bridging the gap between cognitive and affective processes is reviewed---Richard and Mann's Exploring Social Space. Illustrations from the materials are given, some designed to help students explore theoretical controversies; others to deal with substantive social issues and problems. (Author/RF)

Richard ,Michael P.

1972-01-01

2

Physics and social science — The approach of synergetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universally applicable methods originating in statistical physics and synergetics are combined with concepts from social science in order to set up and to apply a model construction concept for the quantitative description of a broad class of collective dynamical phenomena within society. Starting from the decisions of individuals and introducing the concept of dynamical utilities, probabilistic transition rates between attitudes and actions can be constructed. The latter enter the central equation of motion, i.e. the master equation, for the probability distribution over the possible macroconfigurations of society. From the master equation the equations of motion for the expectation values of the macrovariables of society can be derived. These equations are in general nonlinear. Their solutions may include stationary solutions, limit cycles and strange attractors, and with varying trend parameters also phase transitions between different modes of social behaviour can be described. The general model construction approach is subsequently applied to characteristic examples from different social sciences, such as sociology, demography, regional science and economics. These examples refer to collective political opinion formation, to interregional migration of interactive populations, to settlement formation on the micro-, meso- and macroscale, and to nonlinear nonequilibrium economics, including market instabilities.

Weidlich, Wolfgang

1991-05-01

3

Teaching Social Science Research: An Applied Approach Using Community Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A four-week summer project for 100 rural tenth graders in the University of Alabama's Biomedical Sciences Preparation Program (BioPrep) enabled students to acquire and apply social sciences research skills. The students investigated drinking water quality in three rural Alabama counties by interviewing local officials, health workers, and…

Gilliland, M. Janice; And Others

4

A Social Construction Approach to Computer Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer science education research has mostly focused on cognitive approaches to learning. Cognitive approaches to understanding learning do not account for all the phenomena observed in teaching and learning. A number of apparently successful educational approaches, such as peer assessment, apprentice-based learning and action learning, have…

Machanick, Philip

2007-01-01

5

Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Social Sciences and Knowledge Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a unique and groundbreaking collection of questions and answers coming from higher education institutions on diverse fields and across a wide spectrum of countries and cultures. It creates routes for further innovation, collaboration amidst the Sciences (both Natural and Social), the Humanities, and the private and public sectors of…

Lopez-Varela, Asuncion, Ed.

2012-01-01

6

Development of Computer Science Disciplines - A Social Network Analysis Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to many other scientific disciplines, computer science considers conference publications. Conferences have the\\u000a advantage of providing fast publication of papers and of bringing researchers together to present and discuss the paper with\\u000a peers. Previous work on knowledge mapping focused on the map of all sciences or a particular domain based on ISI published\\u000a Journal Citation Report (JCR). Although

Manh Cuong Pham; Ralf Klamma; Matthias Jarke

2011-01-01

7

Social Problem Solving through Science: An Approach to Critical, Place-Based, Science Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Social Problem Solving through Science (SPSS) project engaged middle school-aged youth in the study of local environmental challenges with implications for human health and well-being, both globally and locally. Students considered environmental risk factors in a series of structured activities to develop background knowledge on environmental…

Buxton, Cory A.

2010-01-01

8

Social Psychology as Science or History: An Experimental Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that social psychological findings reflect the discipline's historical boundaries rather than scientific laws was tested in an experiment using the phenomenon known as the halo effect. Subjects (N = 61) were divided into four groups, each of which evaluated a stimulus person presented on videotape. The conditions varied were: (a) description of the person to be evaluated; (b)

Anne E. Foon

1986-01-01

9

Social Sciences and the Sixth Form--An Approach Through Integration. Schools Council Pamphlet No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The task of a conference on social science education in the sixth form was to explore the problems and possibilities of establishing an integrated social science course. Conference papers and discussion deal with the nature of the social science disciplines and the meaning of their integration; the principles--knowledge, skills, problems,…

Schools Council, London (England).

10

The Contribution of Applied Social Sciences to Obesity Stigma-Related Public Health Approaches  

PubMed Central

Obesity is viewed as a major public health concern, and obesity stigma is pervasive. Such marginalization renders obese persons a “special population.” Weight bias arises in part due to popular sources' attribution of obesity causation to individual lifestyle factors. This may not accurately reflect the experiences of obese individuals or their perspectives on health and quality of life. A powerful role may exist for applied social scientists, such as anthropologists or sociologists, in exploring the lived and embodied experiences of this largely discredited population. This novel research may aid in public health intervention planning. Through these studies, applied social scientists could help develop a nonstigmatizing, salutogenic approach to public health that accurately reflects the health priorities of all individuals. Such an approach would call upon applied social science's strengths in investigating the mundane, problematizing the “taken for granted” and developing emic (insiders') understandings of marginalized populations.

Bombak, Andrea E.

2014-01-01

11

Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Street-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economicandethnicdisparitiesthatcauseindividualsufferingandstressattheinstitutionallevel. Methods and Findings We used a cross-methodological approach that incorporated

Philippe Bourgois; Alexis Martinez; Alex Kral; Brian R. Edlin; Jeff Schonberg; Dan Ciccarone

2006-01-01

12

Self-reference and predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in applications of systems thinking in social sciences-(Survey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cybernetics, systems thinking or systems theory, have been viewed as instruments of enhancing predictive, normative and prescriptive capabilities of the social sciences, beginning from microscale-management and ending with various reference to the global system. Descriptions, explanations and predictions achieved thanks to various systems ideas were also viewed as supportive for potential governance of social phenomena. The main aim of the paper is to examine what could be the possible applications of modern systems thinking in predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in modern social sciences, beginning from management theory and ending with global studies. Attention is paid not only to ``classical'' mathematical systems models but also to the role of predictive, normative and prescriptive interpretations of analogies and metaphors associated with application of the classical (``first order cybernetics'') and modern (``second order cybernetics'', ``complexity theory'') systems thinking in social sciences. .

Mesjasz, Czes?aw

2000-05-01

13

An Inquiry-Based Mobile Learning Approach to Enhancing Social Science Learning Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a mobile exploration activity that guides elementary students to learn during a social science activity with digital support from mobile devices and wireless communications. The students are situated in both the real world and the virtual world to extend their learning experiences. The learning activities between the field and…

Shih, Ju-Ling; Chuang, Chien-Wen; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

2010-01-01

14

Preserving the Whole: A Two-Track Approach to Rescuing Social Science Data and Metadata.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the experience of the Yale University (Connecticut) social science data preservation project, this document presents a case study of migration as a preservation strategy, exploring options for migrating data stored in a technically obsolete format and their associated documentation stored on paper. The first section provides background…

Green, Ann; Dionne, JoAnn; Dennis, Martin

15

Social Dynamics of Science  

PubMed Central

The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several “science of science” theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data.

Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojevic, Stasa; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

2013-01-01

16

Reading Online News Media for Science Content: A Social Psychological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading multimodal (popularized) scientific texts is studied predominantly in terms of said-to-be-required technical decoding skills. In this article I suggest that there are other interesting approaches to studying the reading of multimodal (popularized) scientific texts, approaches that are grounded in social psychological concerns. These…

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2010-01-01

17

Social Science Hub  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Sharyn Clarkson, a BA in sociology and anthropology, this Website provides a directory for those looking for materials in the social sciences. The site features categorized listings of social science Websites, online journals and e-zines, search engines, government Websites, databases and archives, interactive forums, and a what's new section. There is an emphasis, but by no means an exclusive one, on Australian materials. Some entries are annotated, and the site is frequently updated.

18

Social Science Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1923, the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) has been an independent, international association committed to the promotion of interdisciplinary research in the social sciences. This Website provides information about the SSRC's academic conferences, grant opportunities, fellowship programs, scholarly exchanges, research committees, and council publications. Expository information about the SSRC as well as a brief history of the council are also available on-site.

19

Mathematical Social and Behavioral Sciences(MSBS)  

NSF Publications Database

... Directorate for Social, Behavioral & Economic Sciences, Division of Social and Economic Sciences ... social, behavioral, and economic science phenomena. Facilitate the interaction of social, behavioral ...

20

Quantum Social Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Physics Concepts in Social Science? A Discussion: 1. Classical, statistical and quantum mechanics: all in one; 2. Econophysics: statistical physics and social science; 3. Quantum social science: a non-mathematical motivation; Part II. Mathematics and Physics Preliminaries: 4. Vector calculus and other mathematical preliminaries; 5. Basic elements of quantum mechanics; 6. Basic elements of Bohmian mechanics; Part III. Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Psychology: Basic Questions and Answers: 7. A brief overview; 8. Interference effects in psychology - an introduction; 9. A quantum-like model of decision making; Part IV. Other Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Economics, Finance and Brain Sciences: 10. Financial/economic theory in crisis; 11. Bohmian mechanics in finance and economics; 12. The Bohm-Vigier Model and path simulation; 13. Other applications to economic/financial theory; 14. The neurophysiological sources of quantum-like processing in the brain; Conclusion; Glossary; Index.

Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

2013-01-01

21

Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

2013-01-01

22

Preserving the Whole: A Two-Track Approach to Rescuing Social Science Data and Metadata  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Preserving the Whole appears as the second publication of the Digital Library Federation and reflects the Federation's interests both in advancing the state of the art of social science data archives and in building the infrastructure necessary for the long-term maintenance of digital information." This 53-page report, published this month, considers migration as a preservation strategy for data currently stored in obsolete technical or deteriorating textual formats and offers conclusions regarding the importance of maintaining file format codebooks and the usefulness of the technically obsolete column binary format in terms of migration and recovery strategies.

Dennis, Martin.; Dionne, Joann.; Green, Ann.

23

Social Science Information Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the Institute for Learning and Research Technology at the University of Bristol, the Social Science Information Gateway (SOSIG) is an online database of high quality Internet resources that primarily deal with the vast array of social science fields and subfields. Visitors can perform a simple search, or browse through the subject headings offered on the homepage. Each one of these discrete sites has been catalogued and annotated, making it easier to find specific resources quickly. Within each field or subfield, the editors of SOSIG have also listed some of their top choices. One particularly fine feature of the site is the "Grapevine", which offers a place for people in the social sciences to find out (and publicize) information about career opportunities and upcoming events. Visitors can also post their vitas in order to facilitate such opportunities. Finally, it is worth noting that the coverage of events and the like here is particularly strong for the United Kingdom and continental Europe.

2005-11-02

24

The Social Sciences in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief history of social sciences in Canada, dividing it into three periods: from early years up to 1960, from 1960 to 1970, and from 1970 to the present. Includes sections on the relation of social sciences to Canadian society and international cooperation. Provides two appendices which list social science journals and scholarly…

Bruce, Erika v. C.; Fox, Alan F.

1987-01-01

25

Interagency Working Group on Ocean Social Science: Incorporating ecosystem services approaches into ocean and coastal decision-making and governance  

EPA Science Inventory

The application of social science has been recognized as a priority for effective ocean and coastal management, driving much discussion and fostering emerging efforts in several areas. The Interagency Working Group on Ocean Social Science (IWG-OSS) is tasked with assisting the Su...

26

Designing and Evaluating Science Teaching Sequences: An Approach Drawing upon the Concept of Learning Demand and a Social Constructivist Perspective on Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews evidence on the effectiveness of "sequence of teaching activities" on student learning and the design and evaluation of science teaching sequences. Discusses the social constructivist perspective on learning and offers a generalized approach to planning a science teaching sequence. Provides an example of how to plan an instructional…

Leach, John; Scott, Phil

2002-01-01

27

Analysis of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Numerous researches conducted on about the quality of perception of media messages shows that the people are not passive receivers but they have the ability of understanding, interpreting and accepting or rejecting messages. In order to make clear the relationship of information and communication technologies with social changes and to gain a broader vision from this scope, sociological theories about information and communication technologies’ usage, especially appropriation approach can be very useful. So, keeping in mind the important role of Databases in the qualitative expansion of education, research, diagnosis, remedy and medical services presentation, this research was carried out with the aim of status determination of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach in 2012. Materials and Methods: This is an applicative research of an analytical-descriptive type, which was carried out by measurement approach. The statistical society of this research was composed of the academic staffs of the Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences in 2012 and finally 390 academic staffs were selected according to the Cochran's formula were selected. The research tool are searcher's made questionnaire, which was composed of nine separate parts. Its validity was accepted by the specialists and its reliability was calculated and found to be 0.961 by Cronbakh's alpha. Results: Database appropriation score in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences with 65.020% was in a good status and data bases dis appropriation score with 71.484 was in a high status. Conclusion: According to the findings of this research, Librarians and politicians in this scope-with determination of the academic staff's positive and negative points in usage and appropriation would be capable of accurately diagnozing and analyzing the chances and challenges of the academic staffs members in using databases and would also be capable of achieving solutions and appropriate catalyzers of prolific usage and appropriation of databases.

Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sohrabi, Mozaffar Cheshmeh; Zare, Firoozeh; Hassnazadeh, Akbar; Malekahmadi, Parisa

2014-01-01

28

Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Street-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the institutional level. Methods and Findings We used a cross-methodological approach that incorporated quantitative, clinical, and ethnographic data collected by two contemporaneous long-term San Francisco studies, one epidemiological and one ethnographic, to explore the impact of ethnicity on street-based heroin-injecting men 45 years of age or older who were self-identified as either African American or white. We triangulated our ethnographic findings by statistically examining 14 relevant epidemiological variables stratified by median age and ethnicity. We observed significant differences in social practices between self-identified African Americans and whites in our ethnographic social network sample with respect to patterns of (1) drug consumption; (2) income generation; (3) social and institutional relationships; and (4) personal health and hygiene. African Americans and whites tended to experience different structural relationships to their shared condition of addiction and poverty. Specifically, this generation of San Francisco injectors grew up as the children of poor rural to urban immigrants in an era (the late 1960s through 1970s) when industrial jobs disappeared and heroin became fashionable. This was also when violent segregated inner city youth gangs proliferated and the federal government initiated its “War on Drugs.” African Americans had earlier and more negative contact with law enforcement but maintained long-term ties with their extended families. Most of the whites were expelled from their families when they began engaging in drug-related crime. These historical-structural conditions generated distinct presentations of self. Whites styled themselves as outcasts, defeated by addiction. They professed to be injecting heroin to stave off “dopesickness” rather than to seek pleasure. African Americans, in contrast, cast their physical addiction as an oppositional pursuit of autonomy and pleasure. They considered themselves to be professional outlaws and rejected any appearance of abjection. Many, but not all, of these ethnographic findings were corroborated by our epidemiological data, highlighting the variability of behaviors within ethnic categories. Conclusions Bringing quantitative and qualitative methodologies and perspectives into a collaborative dialog among cross-disciplinary researchers highlights the fact that clinical practice must go beyond simple racial or cultural categories. A clinical social science approach provides insights into how sociocultural processes are mediated by historically rooted and institutionally enforced power relations. Recognizing the logical underpinnings of ethnically specific behavioral patterns of street-based injectors is the foundation for cultural competence and for successful clinical relationships. It reduces the risk of suboptimal medical care for an exceptionally vulnerable and challenging patient population. Social science approaches can also help explain larger-scale patterns of health disparities; inform new approaches to structural and institutional-level public health initiatives; and enable clinicians to take more leadership in changing public policies that have negative health consequences.

Bourgois, Philippe; Martinez, Alexis; Kral, Alex; Edlin, Brian R; Schonberg, Jeff; Ciccarone, Dan

2006-01-01

29

Social Sciences and Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

1988-01-01

30

Social Factors in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews some principles of learning, examines the relevance of these principles for social factors that influence learning about science, discusses the application of these points to science education, and suggests science policies that reflect an awareness of the influences of these social factors. (Author)

Triandis, Harry C.

1980-01-01

31

Behavioral Sciences in Secondary Schools: An Inquiry-Oriented Interdisciplinary Approach to the Human Behavioral Sciences in Social Studies. Professional Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends in secondary-level behavioral science curriculum development, informational background, and strategies for teaching behavioral science concepts are provided in this book. Chapters one through three define the behavioral sciences and examine their changing role and status in social studies education. Chapters four through six develop…

Anderson, Randall C.

32

Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStreet-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the

Philippe Bourgois; Alexis Martinez; Alex Kral; Brian R Edlin; Jeff Schonberg; Dan Ciccarone

2006-01-01

33

Social Science Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1923 (and last reviewed by the Scout Report on November 3, 1998), the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) is an independent non-profit organization with ongoing research projects on every continent, most of which are designed to encourage innovation and to help social scientists engage broader constituencies. Some of the council's key interests include children and armed conflict, economic growth, international migration, and global security and cooperation. From the website, visitors can learn about the most recent project initiatives, which include the initiative on HIV / AIDS, social transformation and emergencies, and humanitarian action. Along with these recent initiatives, visitors may also read about the 30 thematic programs, which are organized into five broad program areas. Graduate students coming to the site will want to definitely take a look at the many fellowship and dissertation funding opportunities offered by the SSRC. Visitors may also browse through the SSRC quarterly publication, Items & Issues, which features essays, roundtables, and other writings by participants in SSRC-sponsored programs.

34

Communicating science in social settings  

PubMed Central

This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

Scheufele, Dietram A.

2013-01-01

35

The estimation of neighborhood effects in the social sciences: An interdisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically examines the interdisciplinary research of neighborhood effects. Neighborhood effects are community influences on individual social or economic outcomes. Examples include labor force activity, child outcomes, criminal behavior, and other socioeconomic phenomena. The existing theoretical and empirical literature is reviewed. Conceptual definitions from sociology are linked and contrasted with economic models. Early studies are criticized for failing to

Robert D. Dietz

2002-01-01

36

The Social Sciences in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characterizes social science research and teaching in China today as being closely linked to the solution of practical social, economic, and political problems. The emphasis is also on encouraging many different schools of thought among scientists and social scientists as a means of bringing about a flourishing socialist culture. (DB)

Cheng-Fang, Yang

1980-01-01

37

Social Science Research Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP), this site allows users to freely access thousands of abstracts and full-text research papers. The core of the site is the SSRN Electronic Library, which contains an Abstract Database with over 15,600 entries and an Electronic Paper Collection, which currently contains over 4,200 full-text papers. Users can search title, abstract, and author fields, or browse the journals, which are grouped under the five respective Research Networks that form the SSRN: Accounting, Economics, Latin American, Financial, and Legal Scholarship. Within each journal entry, users may select from several display options to narrow their results and available full-text documents are indicated by a special symbol. Information on each of the five networks, including conference and job announcements, as well as information on subscribing and a list of site licenses, is accessible via a menu panel on the left side of the main page. According to SSEP, access to the abstracts and full-text papers will remain free of charge to all users until \\"the next revision to the web site this winter.\\"

2005-11-02

38

Social Science Research Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP), this site allows users to freely access thousands of abstracts and full-text research papers. The core of the site is the SSRN Electronic Library, which contains an Abstract Database with over 15,600 entries and an Electronic Paper Collection, which currently contains over 4,200 full-text papers. Users can search title, abstract, and author fields, or browse the journals, which are grouped under the five respective Research Networks that form the SSRN: Accounting, Economics, Latin American, Financial, and Legal Scholarship. Within each journal entry, users may select from several display options to narrow their results and available full-text documents are indicated by a special symbol. Information on each of the five networks, including conference and job announcements, as well as information on subscribing and a list of site licenses, is accessible via a menu panel on the left side of the main page. According to SSEP, access to the abstracts and full-text papers will remain free of charge to all users until "the next revision to the web site this winter."

39

The Social Science Research Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Science Research Network is a rapidly growing Web site containing full text scholarly working papers and forthcoming papers in the fields of accounting, economics, Latin American studies, and legal research. This column describes and analyzes the site.

John R. Clark

2002-01-01

40

Documentation in Social Science Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews the information accrual processes in social science experiments. Stress is placed on the need for systematic, organized, and well documented accrual processes. These processes are illustrated by a hypothetical experiment that comprises ...

M. M. Rogson

1976-01-01

41

The Social Sciences and the Comparative Study of Educational Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiming at the comprehension of schools as social, political, economic, and cultural systems, this book suggests that education does not constitute a separate academic discipline but is dependent upon the social sciences for its elucidation and for its comparative study. The book emphasizes interdisciplinary approaches within four social sciences

Fischer, Joseph, Ed.

42

Time representations in social science  

PubMed Central

Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged “acceleration” of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

Schulz, Yvan

2012-01-01

43

Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

2008-01-01

44

University Rankings and Social Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

Marginson, Simon

2014-01-01

45

Science, Society, and Social Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook,

K. S. White; T. Lohwater

2009-01-01

46

UNESCO: Social and Human Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has five specialized sectors, and one of them happens to be dedicated to examining the social and human sciences. Within this broad heading, this sector examines a number of key themes, including ethics, human rights, philosophy, and social transformations. The well-designed homepage allows visitors easy access to the organization's various programmatic areas of action and links to a number of helpful features including its newsletter. One particularly timely feature is a link to the upcoming International Forum on the Social Science-Policy Nexus planned for September 2005. Also, within each primary section there are links to publications and subthemes, such as gender equality and development and human security and peace.

47

Graduate thesis studies about using material at social science education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graduate thesis work in the field of social sciences in Turkey is increasing rapidly. Especially in 1998, the process of restructuring of faculties of education provides to an increase in both of quality and quantity of master studies in the field of social sciences as with other areas. In addition, since 2005, transition to a constructivist approach at curriculum also

?ahin Oruç; Burcu Teymuro?lu

2011-01-01

48

Volunteers and volunteering in leisure: social science perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leisure has been widely examined within the context of social science theory. This article adopts a broad approach, examining a range of social science disciplines and applying them to specific phenomena located within the leisure field, namely, volunteers and volunteering in leisure settings. In a disciplinary sense, the sociological view focuses upon the conceptualisation of volunteering as leisure, the psychological

Kirsten Holmes; Karen Smith; Tom Baum

2010-01-01

49

Gaga over Google? Scholar in the Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide a summary of the main features of Google Scholar. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Reviews, contextualizes and provides a summary of Google Scholar. Findings – This article compares the results of a sample search on “homeschooling in Google Scholar against the results in three fee-based article index databases in the social sciences: PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, and ERIC.

Susan Gardner; Susanna Eng

2005-01-01

50

What Good Are the Social Sciences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foresees the crippling effects of the Reagan Administration's budget-cutting measures on social science research. Argues that government planners and policy makers are the obvious beneficiaries of the science of society. Provides examples of information that social science research could provide to help understand and change social behavior. (DMM)

Khoury, Robert M.

1982-01-01

51

e-Science Infrastructure for the Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the term „e-Science“ became popular, it frequently was referred to as “enhanced science” or “electronic science”. More telling is the definition ‘e-Science is about global collaboration in key areas of science and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it’ (Taylor, 2001). The question arises to what extent can the social sciences profit from recent developments in e-

Ekkehard Mochmann

2009-01-01

52

Science, Society, and Social Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

2009-12-01

53

Graduate Training in the Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The state of graduate training in the social sciences and reasons for deficiencies are reviewed, and strategies for improving the situation are proposed. Recent studies of the organization of graduate training in the social sciences have indicated serious weaknesses in the recruitment, selection, and socialization of graduate students. These…

Booth, David B.

54

Social Science Policy in Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses eastern European social science policy, the influences on policy, and key elements of policy. Interrelationships between socialist policy, the strategy of economic growth, scientific and technological progress, and educational and cultural planning are discussed along with the role of social science in solving political, social, and…

Markiewicz, Wladyslaw; Kasprzyk, Leszek

1978-01-01

55

Social competence: an evolutionary approach.  

PubMed

'Social competence' refers to the ability of an individual to optimise its social behaviour depending on available social information. Although such ability will enhance social interactions and thus raise Darwinian fitness, its evolutionary and ecological significance has been largely ignored. Social competence is based on behavioural flexibility. We propose that the study of social competence requires an integrative approach that aims to understand how the brain translates social information into flexible behavioural responses, how flexibility might be constrained by the developmental history of an individual or by trade-offs with other (ecological) competences, and how social plasticity feeds back on fitness. Finally we propose a hypothesis of how social competence can become a driver of social evolution. PMID:23040461

Taborsky, Barbara; Oliveira, Rui F

2012-12-01

56

Archaeology as a social science  

PubMed Central

Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration.

Smith, Michael E.; Feinman, Gary M.; Drennan, Robert D.; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

2012-01-01

57

Using Social Science Tools in Agroforestry Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent innovations in agroforestry research indicate the need to elicit farmers' participation in technology adaptations. The paper is intended for non-social scientists who wish to use social science research tools in order to assess the role of multipur...

J. L. Marcucci

1990-01-01

58

Network Analysis in the Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, there has been an explosion of interest in network research across the physical and social sciences. For social scientists, the theory of networks has been a goldmine, yielding explanations for social phenomena in a wide variety of disciplines from psychology to economics. In this essay, we review the kinds of things that social scientists have tried

Stephen P. Borgatti; Ajay Mehra; Daniel J. Brass; Giuseppe Labianca

2009-01-01

59

Network Analysis in the Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of interest in network research across the physical and social sciences. For social scientists, the theory of networks has been a gold mine, yielding explanations for social phenomena in a wide variety of disciplines from psychology to economics. Here, we review the kinds of things that social scientists have tried to

Stephen P. Borgatti; Ajay Mehra; Daniel J. Brass; Giuseppe Labianca

2009-01-01

60

Capturing order in social interactions [Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humans appear to be literally wired for social interaction, it is not surprising to observe that social aspects of human behavior and psychology attract interest in the computing community as well. The gap between social animal and unsocial machine was tolerable when computers were nothing else than improved versions of old tools (e.g., word processors replacing typewriters), but today

Alessandro Vinciarelli

2009-01-01

61

Applying spatial thinking in social science research  

PubMed Central

Spatial methods that build upon Geographic Information Systems are spreading quickly across the social sciences. This essay points out that the appropriate use of spatial tools requires more careful thinking about spatial concepts. As easy as it is now to measure distance, it is increasingly important to understand what we think it represents. To interpret spatial patterns, we need spatial theories. We review here a number of key concepts as well as some of the methodological approaches that are now at the disposal of researchers, and illustrate them with studies that reflect the very wide range of problems that use these tools.

Logan, John R.; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Hongwei

2010-01-01

62

The Tojolabal Language and Their Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we make an initial attempt to introduce a form of social science amongst a Mayan people, the Tojolabales, that is different from its Western counterpart. In particular we show that their social science as well as their wider culture is predicated on neither subjectivity nor objectivity, but intersubjectivity, and that this intersubjectivity, in turn, is embedded in

Carlos Lenkersdorf

2006-01-01

63

Can the social sciences save bioethics?  

PubMed

John Evans proposes some ways in which the social sciences can improve bioethics: by recognizing that it is a profession, that it embrace the four principles advanced by Beauchamp and Childress over the years, and that ethical commissions and committees make use of social science research to determine and use the values of the public. All three of these proposals are challenged. PMID:24779315

Callahan, Daniel

2014-01-01

64

Characteristics of Citations in Social Science Monographs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DISISS (Design of Information Systems in the Social Sciences) is a research project based at the University of Bath. The objective of the project is to carry out research necessary for the effective design of information systems in the social sciences, wh...

S. A. Roberts

1972-01-01

65

Science In a Social CONtext: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

Addinell, Sue, Comp.; Solomon, Joan, Comp.

66

Literature and Bibliography of the Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this work sets forth some basic points concerning the nature of scientific work and the meaning of knowledge in science, and the patterns of organization and communication characteristic of the scientific world. It considers the ways in which the attributes of science manifest themselves in the social sciences and describes,…

Freides, Thelma

67

Improving interdisciplinary research: Integrating the social and natural sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between social sciences and natural sciences in the natural resource area is explored. Five barriers to joint involvement of the social and natural sciences include the weakness of the social sciences, a perceived illegitimacy of the social sciences, the punishments associated with interdisciplinary research, the lack of disciplinary support structures, and conflicts over power and control.Progress toward bringing

Thomas A. Heberlein

1988-01-01

68

Sea Changes in Social Science Education: Woods Hole 2000. The Social Science Education Consortium Conference Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The agenda for the Social Science Education Consortium conference at Woods Hole (Massachusetts) was designed to continue a tradition of examining scholarship relative to the social sciences in K-12 education. The content focus for this volume, is political science, economics, and sociology. Following a "Foreword" (Matthew T. Downey; Joseph P.…

White, Charles S., Ed.

69

Putting Social Sciences to the Test - Assignments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The course is a new class on the topic of field (that is, 'in situ') and laboratory experiments in the social sciences - both what these experiments have taught and can teach us and how to conduct them.

Mit

70

Climate change adaptation planning for the Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada: A combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada is among the world's most important commercial forest production areas, a key transportation corridor, and provides critical habitat for salmon and other wildlife. Climate change compounds threats to the region from other local environmental and social challenges. To aid local communities in adaptive planning for future climate change impacts, our project combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement in a participatory approach to build regional capacity to prepare and respond to climate change. The sociological aspect of our study interviewed local leaders and resource managers (both First Nations and settlers groups in three communities) to examine how perceptions of environmental and socioeconomic issues have changed in the recent past, and the values placed on diverse natural resources at the present. The three communities differed in their perception of the relative value and condition of community resources, such as small business, natural resource trade, education and local government. However, all three communities regarded salmon as their most important and threatened resource. The most important future drivers of change in the study region were perceived to be: "aboriginal rights, title and treaty settlements", "availability of natural resources", "natural resource policies", and the "global economy". Climate change, as a potential driver of change in the region, was perceived as less important than other socio-economic factors; even though climate records for the region already demonstrate warmer winters, decreased snowfall, and decreased spring precipitation over the last half century. The natural science component of our project applies a regional-scale dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) to simulate the potential future of forest ecosystems, with a focus on how climate change and management strategy interact to influence forest productivity, disturbance frequency, species composition, and carbon storage. LPJ-GUESS was parameterized for 19 tree species and driven by a suite of downscaled projected GCM climate scenarios and an optional forest management scenario at a ~1km spatial resolution over the entire ca. 32,000 km2 study area. Preliminary results show the greatest impacts on hydrology rather than forest productivity or carbon cycling. However, even small changes in forest composition, shrinking of the alpine tundra zones, and forest management for optimal productivity, along with ongoing climate change, could increase impacts on hydrology, ultimately affecting fisheries and other valuable natural resources. These modelling results will be presented to the Skeena communities in a second round of interviews to determine if these results alter residents' views on the importance of climate change to the future of their region.

Melton, J. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Matthews, R.; Sydneysmith, R.; Tesluk, J.; Piggot, G.; Robinson, D. C.; Brinkman, D.; Marmorek, D.; Cohen, S.; McPherson, K.

2011-12-01

71

Network Analysis in Comparative Social Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay describes the pertinence of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for the social sciences in general, and discusses its methodological and conceptual implications for comparative research in particular. The authors first present a basic summary of the theoretical and methodological assumptions of SNA, followed by a succinct overview of its…

Vera, Eugenia Roldan; Schupp, Thomas

2006-01-01

72

New trends in urban social science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper looks critically at the lines of development of international urban social science research, and specifically at the role and significance of international networks and defines a research agenda for the present through a closer look at the UNESCO MOST programme on the ‘Management of Social Transformation’ which places an emphasis on urban research.

Bernd Hamm

1995-01-01

73

Environmental science as a social process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The felt need for better environmental information for planners and voters is based on maladaptive beliefs about the nature of knowledge and social order. Because there is not a meta-model which links the individual environmental sciences into a coherent whole, understanding complex environmental problems is necessarily a process of discourse between scientists from separate sciences—a process of gaining trust, building

Richard B. Norgaard

1992-01-01

74

Ethics and Social Responsibility in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions of ethics and social responsibility are considered by many to be important issues in science education. Teachers are being exposed to the difficult task of dealing with global problems and values. This book contains papers which deal with this apparent dilemma, raising questions about the responsibilities of science educators in the…

Frazer, M. J., Ed.; Kornhauser, A., Ed.

75

Science Education in Two-Year Colleges: Interdisciplinary Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anthropology and interdisciplinary social sciences (ISS) education at two-year colleges are examined as revealed in a study of science education conducted by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges that involved a review of the literature, an examination of the catalogs and class schedules from 175 institutions, and a survey of 1,125…

Beckwith, Miriam M.

76

Contributions of Social Science to Innovation and Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses social science as an aid to decision making, as a source of social technology, and as a tool for understanding innovation and productivity. Identifies factors that limit the utilization of social science in innovation and productivity research. (GC)

Tornatzky, Louis G.; And Others

1982-01-01

77

The Future of Teaching Research in the Social Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current literature on teaching research methodology in the social sciences highlights the changing nature of our world in terms of its complexity and diversity, and points to how this affects the way in which we search for answers to related problems (Brew 2003, 3; Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003, 74). New ways of approaching research problems that…

Wagner, C.

2009-01-01

78

Ranking Journals Using Social Science Research Network Downloads  

Microsoft Academic Search

I use a new approach to rank journals, namely the number and percent frequency of articles a journal publishes that are heavily downloaded from the Social Science Research Network (SSRN). I rank 18 accounting and finance journals, and I identify five journals not considered by the two most recent major published ranking studies of publications by accounting faculty, namely (in

Lawrence D. Brown; J. Mack Robinson Distinguished

2003-01-01

79

On the epistemology of risk: Language, logic and social science  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Risk' is a widely used concept in literatures related to health, health care and medicine. In recent decades, three bodies of literature have emerged in which 'risk' is the primary focus of concern: Health Risk Appraisal, the Risk Approach and Risk Analysis\\/Assessment\\/Management. These literatures overlook important concepts and theoretical developments is contemporary social science. They also lack conceptual coherence. Reduction

Michael V. Hayes

1992-01-01

80

Citizenship and Social Justice in Urban Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes, and then applies a newly developed framework for classroom citizenship as an entry point into addressing social justice issues in urban science classrooms. The author provides in-depth descriptions of cogenerative dialogues, coteaching, and cosmopolitanism (3Cs), and presents this triad of tools as an approach to…

Emdin, Christopher

2011-01-01

81

Race and the Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this collection of essays is on the formulation of research goals and strategies needed for practical solutions to improve race relations. Herbert H. Hyman writes on the effect of Negro social change on white attitudes about the Negro. Thomas F. Pettigrew defines research priorities for desegregation in the public schools. A broad…

Katz, Irwin, Ed.; Gurin, Patricia, Ed.

82

On art and science: an epistemic framework for integrating social science and clinical medicine.  

PubMed

Calls for incorporating social science into patient care typically have accounted for neither the logistic constraints of medical training nor the methodological fallacies of utilizing aggregate "social facts" in clinical practice. By elucidating the different epistemic approaches of artistic and scientific practices, this paper illustrates an integrative artistic pedagogy that allows clinical practitioners to generate social scientific insights from actual patient encounters. Although there is no shortage of calls to bring social science into medicine, the more fundamental processes of thinking by which art and science proceed have not been addressed to this end. As such, the art of medical practice is conceptualized as an innate gift, and thus little is done to cultivate it. Yet doing so is more important than ever because uncertainty in diagnosing and treating chronic illnesses, the most significant contemporary mortality risks, suggests a re-expanding role for clinical judgment. PMID:24776979

Wasserman, Jason Adam

2014-06-01

83

Economics, Social Science and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development economics nowadays is mainstream economics applied to poor countries. An examination of the core principles of mainstream economics reveals tremendous strengths, but also tremendous weaknesses. Other disciplines, such as sociology, anthropology and political science, have complementary strengths that suggest a role for them as equal partners in development studies and policy. The argument for a partnership of disciplines is

Ravi Kanbur

2002-01-01

84

A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

Wang, Hongyu

2013-01-01

85

Survey Nonresponse Bias in Social Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys continue to be one of the primary research methods in social science research, as they have been useful for exploring subjects ranging from attitudes and intentions to motivations and behaviors, to name but a few. Notwithstanding, response rates in survey research continue to decline despite the development of more systematic procedures to…

Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

2007-01-01

86

Africa: A Social Studies and Science Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet was designed to help teachers maximize a visit to a zoo's Africa exhibit. The packet provides two levels of activities, grades 3-5, and grades 6-8, for use before, during and after the visit. Activities are designed to enhance skills taught in science, social studies, language arts, reading, art, and math. A multi-grade background…

Holboke, Kathy; And Others

87

A Social Science Perspective on Flood Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The presentation raises important issues of how floods and other disasters, including land-falling hurricanes and their related warnings, affect public attitudes and actions. Awareness of these social science considerations is important for persons responsible for public weather warnings as well as other types of public interaction.

Spangler, Tim

1998-01-01

88

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH METHODS IN INTERNET TIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses three interrelated challenges related to conducting social science research in ‘Internet Time’. (1) The rate at which the Internet is both diffusing through society and developing new capacities is unprecedented. It creates some novel challenges for scholarly research. (2) Many of our most robust research methods are based upon ceteris paribus assumptions that do not hold in

David Karpf

2012-01-01

89

Social Science Reasoning Using Statistics (ECO 138)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jack Chizmar, Department of Economics, Illinois State University, outlines how to describe, produce, and draw conclusions from data at ECON 131: Social Science Reasoning Using Statistics. Chizmar provides an engaging introduction to using statistics in addition to sample exams, readings, and the opportunity to comment on the course design.

Chizmar, John F.

90

Major Federal Regulations Governing Social Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides administrators, project leaders, and researchers with information about major federal regulations governing research in the social sciences. The report is presented in five major chapters. Chapter I identifies the report's limitations. For example, it describes only statutory and regulatory provisions and covers only domestic…

Gandara, Arturo

91

Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

Tiruneh, Gizachew

2013-01-01

92

Politics and Social Sciences in Brazil: 1964-85.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes the rapid rise of social sciences within universities of Brazil during the 1960s and 1970s. Identifies the interrelationships among the social sciences in Brazilian universities and their involvement with political developments. (JDH)

de Oliveira, Francisco

1987-01-01

93

EPIDEMIOLOGY IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES  

PubMed Central

The techniques and principles of epidemiology, so successfully utilized in the study and control of communicable diseases, should be applied to other mass phenomena in the community. The local health officer should apply them in his “diagnosis” of the sicknesses of his organized community. Epidemiological methods have been used to study mental diseases as well as chronic diseases, and an experiment in using epidemiological methods on the county level to study psychosocial disorders has been carried out. The impact of psychosocial episodes on somatic diseases is now generally accepted and well documented. Individual practitioners of medicine are becoming more interested in the significance of social tensions on the health of their patients. Public health physicians, specialists in preventive medicine, are the best equipped by training and experience to take the leadership in the application of epidemiological methods to sociomedical problems and are in a unique position to assist their colleagues in the private practice of medicine in providing modern helpful and meaningful health protection to their patients. Organized medicine might well become more cognizant of the sociological changes taking place in the nation as they relate to health and assume the responsibility for aggressive leadership in the anticipation of and the solution of these problems.

Chope, H. D.

1959-01-01

94

B. F. Skinner and G. H. Mead: on biological science and social science.  

PubMed

Skinner's contributions to psychology provide a unique bridge between psychology conceptualized as a biological science and psychology conceptualized as a social science. Skinner focused on behavior as a naturally occurring biological phenomenon of interest in its own right, functionally related to surrounding events and, in particular (like phylogenesis), subject to selection by its consequences. This essentially biological orientation was further enhanced by Skinner's emphasis on the empirical foundations provided by laboratory-based experimental analyses of behavior, often with nonhuman subjects. Skinner's theoretical writings, however, also have affinity with the traditions of constructionist social science. The verbal behavior of humans is said to be subject, like other behavior, to functional analyses in terms of its environment, in this case its social context. Verbal behavior in turn makes it possible for us to relate to private events, a process that ultimately allows for the development of consciousness, which is thus said to be a social product. Such ideas make contact with aspects of G. H. Mead's social behaviorism and, perhaps of more contemporary impact in psychology, L. Vygotsky's general genetic law of cultural development. Failure to articulate both the biological and the social science aspects of Skinner's theoretical approach to psychology does a disservice to his unique contribution to a discipline that remains fragmented between two intellectual traditions. PMID:2037828

Blackman, D E

1991-03-01

95

The MAVEN mission to Mars: Communicating science through social media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While science literacy rates in the U.S. have recently increased, overall levels remain remarkably low.There are opportunities for the public to learn about science and to engage directly with real-life practitioners. It is the responsibility of science education and communications professionals to provide these opportunities and to assess the effectiveness of each platform. At the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we utilize a diverse, well-tested approach to introduce science to the public and to give scientists access to the broadest possible audience. This poster will focus on NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars and the social media outlets we have incorporated into our Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program in order to introduce rather complex science concepts to the public. We'll examine several evaluation tools that are used to provide ongoing, immediate feedback regarding our strategies and to guide long-term efforts. MAVEN educators and scientists are capitalizing on the recent excitement surrounding Mars science and the public's fascination with the search for life to bring the science of the mission directly to a variety of audiences. Our EPO professionals are using cross-platform, transportable content to maximize exposure and create pathways for two-way interactions between our audience and mission experts. We are using social media tools to build a community that will join us in the MAVEN journey and its important scientific discoveries.

Mason, T.; Renfrow, S.

2012-12-01

96

Access: news and blog analysis for the social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social sciences strive to understand the political, social, and cultural world around us, but have been impaired by limited access to the quantitative data sources enjoyed by the hard sciences. Careful analysis of Web document streams holds enormous potential to solve longstanding problems in a variety of social science disciplines through massive data analysis. This paper introduces the TextMap

Mikhail Bautin; Charles B. Ward; Akshay Patil; Steven S. Skiena

2010-01-01

97

Post-conflict societies and the social sciences: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper serves as the Editorial Introduction that heads the special issue on post-conflict societies in the social sciences and it reviews the growing literature on this topic. The field offers an interdisciplinary space not just for the various social sciences to interface, but for social science to encounter theology, philosophy and ethics. The field can be divided into three

John Brewer; Bernadette C. Hayes

2011-01-01

98

A Student's Guide to Conducting Social Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes activities, methods, and materials which can be used in conducting a beginning-level social-science research project. Designed for secondary and college students as a laboratory component of a social studies or social science course, it provides ideas for firsthand experience in the methods used by social scientists for their…

Bunker, Barbara Benedict; And Others

99

Introduction: social science perspectives on the 2012 London Olympic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This symposium arises from a public event held on 14 March 2008 by the Academy of Social Sciences, in cooperation with the University of East London, as part of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) 2008 Festival of Social Sciences. The purpose of the symposium is to explore the contribution which social scientists can make to the understanding of

Michael Rustin

2008-01-01

100

Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This paper identifies some of the barriers for adoption and proposes ideas for the future. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING:

Michel Wensing

2008-01-01

101

Social Science and the Bayesian Probability Explanation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C. G. Hempel, one of the logical empiricists, who builds up his probability explanation model by using the empiricist view of probability, this model encountered many difficulties in the scientific explanation in which Hempel is difficult to make a reasonable defense. Based on the bayesian probability theory, the Bayesian probability model provides an approach of a subjective probability explanation based on the subjective probability, using the subjectivist view of probability. On the one hand, this probability model establishes the epistemological status of the subject in the social science; On the other hand, it provides a feasible explanation model for the social scientific explanation, which has important methodological significance.

Yin, Jie; Zhao, Lei

2014-03-01

102

Social and Human Sciences for Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In autumn 2007 for the first time, to our knowledge, a workshop entitled "social and human sciences for space" was organized. This workshop was held in Toulouse, France, after several meetings of a work group formed with representatives from space sectors and from various specialties in human and social sciences. The idea in forming this work group and the workshop was to determine whether both domains would benefit through close collaboration. During several meetings and through e-mail exchanges, lists of topics that have allowed joint work as well as a long list of topics for future studies have been drawn up. The conclusion of the workshop will be presented and recommendations to both space and SHS communities presented and commented. The Toulouse area is a center of excellence for space as well as for SHS. It is therefore planned to use this proximity to develop joint actions. Since the autumn workshop several studies have been launched, especially through doctorates.

Hernandez, Daniel

103

Scout Report for Social Sciences & Humanities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Scout Report for Social Sciences is available. The first volume features over 20 subject specific annotations in the report. The report contains research resources, learning tools, general resources, and current awareness, as well as an In the News section highlighting a recent news story and pointing to relevent Internet resources. In addition, the report links to a current awareness meta-page for its topic, a page that contains pointers to sources of new journals, working papers, data, book listings, etc.

1997-01-01

104

Science and Social Studies in a Nutshell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This articles discusses three practicum students and how they took students' interests in peanuts and expanded it into a full unit concerning nuts and the history behind them. In addition to observing, classifying, and measuring nuts, the students learned valuable history lessons. The teachers found a successful way to integrate science and social studies while also discovering that learning takes place naturally when the kids find something that they are truly interested in.

Edwards, Linda; Nabors, Martha L.; Janas, Monica; Branscombe, N. A.

2005-03-01

105

The contribution of “information science” to the social and ethical challenges of the information age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce readers to the social and ethnical dimensions of information science. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides a literature survey on the concept of information science and its history. It describes the different developments involved in the development of information science as a research field. It present various definitions and domains of

Shifra Baruchson-Arbib

2007-01-01

106

Translating social and behavioral science research to the AIDS epidemic: a center for AIDS research perspective.  

PubMed

Integration of innovative social and behavioral science with public health approaches for HIV prevention and treatment is of critical importance for slowing the global HIV epidemic. Strengthening and focusing social and behavioral research linking testing and treatment strategies to populations at greatest risk for HIV is crucial. The Social and Behavioral Science Research Network(SBSRN), originated in 2006, involves twenty NIH-funded CFAR Centers and is responding to this challenge. PMID:23673885

Curran, James W; Hoxie, James A

2013-06-01

107

Promoting innovation based on social sciences and technologies: the prospect of a social innovation park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obviously Sir Francis Bacon's phrase “Knowledge is Power” refers not only to natural science and technology, aiming at understanding natural phenomena and obtaining material wealth, but also to social sciences and technologies, concerning social ideals and seeking harmonious and sustainable development in society. Innovation and entrepreneurship based on natural sciences and technologies have facilitated science and technology parks in the

Anders Lundström; Chunyan Zhou

2011-01-01

108

The social science PhD: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Winfield Report on the social science PhD and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) response to it, this literature review examines what research has been accomplished on the process of doctoral education in the social sciences. The review encompasses the debate over whether the focus of doctoral research should be education or training. Also examined are such

John Hockey

1991-01-01

109

The Obama Administration: what can social science offer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the 2009 Academy of Social Sciences annual debate about prospects for the new United States administration. Just half way into the ‘first hundred days’ of President Barack Obama's term, a panel of social scientists, convened by Philip Davies, Director of the British Library's Eccles Centre for American Studies, addressed the question of what social science could

Philip Davies; Dilys Hill; Andrew Rudalevige; George C. Edwards III; Jenel Virden; Robert Singh

2009-01-01

110

Organized crime: A social network approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article applies the anthropological approach of social networktheory to the study of organized crime in its local, domestic and transnational contexts. It argues that a social network approach transcends existing criminological paradigms like organizational, patron-client and enterprise theories in that it emphasizes a common supposition held by each paradigm – that human relationships form the basis for organized criminal

Jeffrey Scott McIllwain

1999-01-01

111

Foundations of "new" social science: Institutional legitimacy from philosophy, complexity science, postmodernism, and agent-based modeling  

PubMed Central

Since the death of positivism in the 1970s, philosophers have turned their attention to scientific realism, evolutionary epistemology, and the Semantic Conception of Theories. Building on these trends, Campbellian Realism allows social scientists to accept real-world phenomena as criterion variables against which theories may be tested without denying the reality of individual interpretation and social construction. The Semantic Conception reduces the importance of axioms, but reaffirms the role of models and experiments. Philosophers now see models as “autonomous agents” that exert independent influence on the development of a science, in addition to theory and data. The inappropriate molding effects of math models on social behavior modeling are noted. Complexity science offers a “new” normal science epistemology focusing on order creation by self-organizing heterogeneous agents and agent-based models. The more responsible core of postmodernism builds on the idea that agents operate in a constantly changing web of interconnections among other agents. The connectionist agent-based models of complexity science draw on the same conception of social ontology as do postmodernists. These recent developments combine to provide foundations for a “new” social science centered on formal modeling not requiring the mathematical assumptions of agent homogeneity and equilibrium conditions. They give this “new” social science legitimacy in scientific circles that current social science approaches lack.

Henrickson, Leslie; McKelvey, Bill

2002-01-01

112

Differences in short-term memory span of social sciences, science and engineering, and business majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the difference in the short-term memory span of students of three major groups, namely Social Sciences, Science and Engineering, and Business. This study was designed to answer the following two questions: (1) Is there a difference between short-term memory span, measured by digit span, among the students in or intended for Social Sciences, Science and Engineering, and

Naeem Ullah Khan

2000-01-01

113

Developing partnerships for health and social science research: The International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN) social science component  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade after its inception, the International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN) adopted a social science component. Health social science concepts were added to a physician training curriculum encompassing epidemiology, biostatistics and clinical economics, and a position was created for qualified social scientists at 26 clinical epidemiology units in developing country medical schools. This paper describes the INCLEN model for strengthening

Nick Higginbotham

1992-01-01

114

Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?  

PubMed

Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control. PMID:15632096

Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

2005-06-01

115

Bridging social and geo-sciences data with GIS (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society and climate are co-evolving in a manner that could place more vulnerable populations at risk from exposure to weather and climate stresses. Understanding risks and vulnerabilities to weather hazards and climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach, that includes information about weather, climate, the natural and built environment and social processes and characteristics. Recent advances in GIS science and technology and developments in interoperability standards provide opportunities for innovative coupling of geo- and social sciences data and model outputs in GIS systems. This presentation will provide an overview of research directions for integrating the geo- and social sciences applied to extreme weather events and climate change, and discuss challenges of conducting interdisciplinary spatial research at various scales of analysis. We will explore linkages between quantitative and qualitative data for a more comprehensive understanding of local-level vulnerability and adaptive capacity. A methodology for coupling household-level survey data, collected in 2009 in Phoenix, AZ, with municipal and regional-scale spatial vulnerability models will be presented.

Wilhelmi, O.; Hayden, M.

2009-12-01

116

Social Sciences for the 1980s: From Rhetoric to Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western social science concepts are unproductive in third world situations. The need for decolonization and self-reliance reflects the need for social scientists in developing nations to construct their own research methods and criteria. (KC)

Dube, S. C.

1982-01-01

117

The emergence of social science research on nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the development of social science literature focused on the emerging area of nanotechnology. It is guided\\u000a by the exploratory proposition that early social science work on emerging technologies will draw on science and engineering\\u000a literature on the technology in question to frame its investigative activities, but as the technologies and societal investments\\u000a in them progress, social scientists

Philip Shapira; Jan L. Youtie; Alan L. Porter

2010-01-01

118

Science, Policy, and the Utilization of Social Technology..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is concerned with the problems of social innovation in the development of social technology that utilizes and applies the best social science as a tool in policy-making. It cases developments of social technology, and in particular, the prototyp...

P. M. Burgess L. D. Higgs

1971-01-01

119

A New Way of Thinking about Social Location in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Durkheimian concept of the density of social relationships may prove more fruitful than the historical materialist notion of a social hierarchy for thinking about the social location of epistemic agents in science. To define a scientist's social location in terms of the density of her professional relationships with other scientists permits us…

Schmaus, Warren

2008-01-01

120

Social dimensions of science-humanitarian collaboration: lessons from Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia.  

PubMed

This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue. PMID:24905714

Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter

2014-07-01

121

Critical realism as a philosophy and social theory in information science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The philosophical position known as critical realism is briefly introduced, and some of its central features are used to connect the philosophy and the realist social theory to some current library and information science (LIS) models of information behaviour. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses a literature-based analysis of the critical realism concepts of a stratified social reality, the

Marianne Wikgren

2005-01-01

122

Science-Related Social Issues: Challenges for the Social Studies. ERIC Digest No. 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background, rationale, and promising practices for teaching about science-related social issues in the science and social studies classroom are presented. Material is divided into five sections, each introduced with a topical question. The first section considers the challenges associated with the pervasive influences of science and technology in…

Patrick, John J.; Remy, Richard C.

123

The Influence of Social Science Theories on the Conceptualization of Poverty in Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty has been a widely explored issue that has been debated across many social science academic disciplines. Due to its multi-dimensional nature, different interpretations of the causes of poverty have been put forth. This analysis examines the theories of poverty from five social science disciplines: psychology, anthropology, sociology, economics, and political science. While some of these ideas have evolved since

Catherine M. Vu

2010-01-01

124

An approach for the accurate measurement of social morality levels.  

PubMed

In the social sciences, computer-based modeling has become an increasingly important tool receiving widespread attention. However, the derivation of the quantitative relationships linking individual moral behavior and social morality levels, so as to provide a useful basis for social policy-making, remains a challenge in the scholarly literature today. A quantitative measurement of morality from the perspective of complexity science constitutes an innovative attempt. Based on the NetLogo platform, this article examines the effect of various factors on social morality levels, using agents modeling moral behavior, immoral behavior, and a range of environmental social resources. Threshold values for the various parameters are obtained through sensitivity analysis; and practical solutions are proposed for reversing declines in social morality levels. The results show that: (1) Population size may accelerate or impede the speed with which immoral behavior comes to determine the overall level of social morality, but it has no effect on the level of social morality itself; (2) The impact of rewards and punishment on social morality levels follows the "5?1 rewards-to-punishment rule," which is to say that 5 units of rewards have the same effect as 1 unit of punishment; (3) The abundance of public resources is inversely related to the level of social morality; (4) When the cost of population mobility reaches 10% of the total energy level, immoral behavior begins to be suppressed (i.e. the 1/10 moral cost rule). The research approach and methods presented in this paper successfully address the difficulties involved in measuring social morality levels, and promise extensive application potentials. PMID:24312189

Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Bo

2013-01-01

125

Fisheries policy, research and the social sciences in Europe: Challenges for the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite evidence of a broadening of the science base for European fisheries policy with the incorporation of an ecosystem approach and increasing use of economic modelling, the contribution of the social sciences to policy related research remains less conspicuous. Progress has occurred in the understanding of institutional structures and the theory of fisheries governance, but analysis of EU funded research

David Symes; Ellen Hoefnagel

2010-01-01

126

H-Net: Humanities & Social Sciences Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The highlight of the Humanities Online Web site at Michigan State University is the H-Net List of Lists, a page containing over 75 scholarly discussion lists from H-Africa to H-World, as well as several humanities lists not affiliated with H-Net. Each listing contains subscription information, and may also contain discussion logs, reviews of scholarly works, calls for papers, conference announcements, grant, scholarship and fellowship information, and links to related sites when available. In addition, H-Net includes: a Review Project with hundreds of book reviews that can be sorted by discussion list, author, reviewer, or date; a weekly Job Guide; reports by the National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of History (NCC), and selected links to humanities and social science sites.

1995-01-01

127

Fieldwork and social science research ethics.  

PubMed

Fieldwork as a part of social science research brings the researcher closest to the subject of research. It is a dynamic process where there is an exchange between the researcher, participants, stakeholders, gatekeepers, the community and the larger sociopolitical context in which the research problem is located. Ethical dilemmas that surface during fieldwork often pose a unique challenge to the researcher. This paper is based on field experiences during an action research study conducted with a human rights perspective. It discusses the role conflict that researchers face during fieldwork in a situation of humanitarian crisis. It raises issues pertaining to the need to extend the ethical decision-making paradigm to address ethical dilemmas arising during the course of fieldwork. PMID:18630249

Contractor, Qudsiya

2008-01-01

128

Social Studies: Selected Teaching Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine essays serving as springboards to the study of historical events and cultures focus on the use of memorabilia and primary resources for teaching social studies. Following a short preface by John I. Thomas, Linda Carrillo examines ways in which folk songs can be used to arouse a child's interest in the study of other cultures. In "Using Older…

Thomas, John I., Ed.

129

Social Science Research under Siege: Scarcity or Conspiracy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Threats to social science research progress include decreasing federal support for social science research, restrictions on access to data, the privatization of public research, and the politicization of professional processes associated with research support. Explanations for these threats are explored. (Author/RM)

Kirkpatrick, Samuel A.

1983-01-01

130

Social Sciences and Space Exploration: New Directions for University Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1970s, efforts to teach and research the social science and humanities aspects of the space program were reintensified. A 1978 survey of faculty suggested the need for a single volume that united introductory material on the various social science disciplines and the classroom experience of faculty already teaching in the field. This…

Cheston, T. Stephen; And Others

131

Teaching and Learning about Science and Social Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph explores aspects of science and technology in contemporary society and suggests methods for teaching about social policy issues which have resulted from scientific and technological developments. Section one offers an argument for teaching about science and social policy; surveys the sociology, politics, and history of contemporary…

Benne, Kenneth D.; Birnbaum, Max

132

The Reformed Social Sciences to Reform the University: Mission Impossible?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The core argument is that social science must re-examine its mission and praxis in order to be a significant player in future higher education. This article reviews the results and prospects arising from a four-year international project. Originating in Greenwood and Levin's concern about the social sciences, the project, funded by the Ford…

Greenwood, Davydd J.; Levin, Morten

2008-01-01

133

Describing a social science data information system, networks and components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of data has taken its place with the acquisition of literature as a first-order information problem for social science practitioners, researchers, and students. The traditional mechanisms of information dissemination have been serial publications and professional meetings which provide linkages for social science practitioners and researchers, while monographs and textbooks serve the basic needs of students. Brittain (1), however,

Paul E. Peters

1974-01-01

134

Integrating Social Science and Genetics: News from the Political Front  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been growing interest in the use of genetic models to expand the understanding of political preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Researchers in the social sciences have begun incorporating these models and have revealed that genetic differences account for individual differences in political beliefs, behaviors, and responses to the political environment. The first Integrating Genetics and the Social Sciences Conference,

Peter K. Hatemi; Christopher T. Dawes; Amanda Frost-Keller; Jaime E. Settle; Brad Verhulst

2011-01-01

135

Science and Social Studies for Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science and social studies have much to offer to all learners--including those with disabilities. However, instruction in these subjects has often been overlooked in the quest to better understand and improve leaning in English/language arts and mathematics. As we demonstrate in this paper, science and social studies help students attain skills,…

Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Okolo, Cynthia M.

2008-01-01

136

Science/Technology/Society in the Social Studies. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current trend to include the relationships of science and technology to human societies in the social studies curriculum is the focus of this ERIC Digest. The Digest discusses: (1) major themes in education on science/technology/society (STS); (2) the rationale for emphasizing STS in the social studies; and (3) how to include STS in the…

Heath, Phillip A.

137

Adult Education: A Focus for the Social Sciences. Series 170.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents an adult educator's perspective on the social sciences and the goal and vision of adult education. Adult education is defined as a social science and as a field of practice based on a unique body of theory and knowledge. The discovery of meaning through relevant research is discussed. Various barriers that prevent people from…

Draper, James A.

138

Becoming allies: Combining social science and technological perspectives to improve energy research and policy making  

SciTech Connect

Within the energy research community, social sciences tends to be viewed fairly narrowly, often as simply a marketing tool to change the behavior of consumers and decision makers, and to ''attack market barriers''. As we see it, social sciences, which draws on sociology, psychology, political science, business administration, and other academic disciplines, is capable of far more. A social science perspective can re-align questions in ways that can lead to the development of technologies and technology policy that are much stronger and potentially more successful than they would be otherwise. In most energy policies governing commercial buildings, the prevailing R and D directives are firmly rooted in a technology framework, one that is generally more quantitative and evaluative than that fostered by the social sciences. To illustrate how social science thinking would approach the goal of achieving high energy performance in the commercial building sector, they focus on the US Department of Energy's Roadmap for commercial buildings (DOE 2000) as a starting point. By ''deconstructing'' the four strategies provided by the Roadmap, they set the stage for proposing a closer partnership between advocates of technology-based and social science-based approaches.

Diamond, Rick; Moezzi, Mithra

2002-07-01

139

Science Education and Human Rights: Explorations into Critical Social Consciousness and Postmodern Science Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human-rights education can be realized in the science classroom. Taught from a critical postmodern perspective, science can serve the interest of social justice while embracing a teaching dialectic fostering critical social consciousness. First, science educators must examine scientific theory's role in promoting both human welfare and injustice.…

Jennings, Todd E.; Eichinger, John

1999-01-01

140

An Environmental Approach to Eighth Grade Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines a method of teaching eighth-grade science with an environmental perspective. Areas of study normally found in junior high science curriculum are integrated with environmental concepts. This particular approach to 8th grade science is intended to be process oriented, field oriented, problem oriented, and relevant to the local…

Sargo, Herbert J.

141

Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

House, James S.

2008-01-01

142

Social Sciences in Asia I: Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand. Reports and Papers in the Social Sciences, No. 32.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a series which provides overviews of social science research and teaching in UNESCO member nations, the document focuses on Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Thailand. One chapter is devoted to each of the five nations. Chapter I discusses social science teaching at major universities in Bangladesh and recommends that research…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

143

Ways of Living. Science In a Social CONtext.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

Solomon, Joan

144

Evolution and the Human Population. Science In a Social CONtext.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

Solomon, Joan

145

Journal publishing in era of economic crisis : A case of scientific journals in the field of social sciences in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present findings from the research of aspects of journal publishing in the field of social sciences in Croatia in changing working conditions caused by the rapid development of information and communication technology. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is based on an online survey of 79 journals in the field of social sciences

Radovan Vrana

2011-01-01

146

The Challenge of the Humanities and Social Science Education Through the Basic Seminar (Science of Snow Sports)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Education Center of Chiba Institute of Technology is taking a new approach to the introduction of liberal arts subjects commonly included in the curriculum of all departments through a newly established basic seminar, the Science of Snow Sports. Each faculty member has been working on setting up classes that cross the conventional boundaries of fields and disciplines and which are targeted at students of all faculties and departments. This paper describes the potential for teaching liberal arts and social science subjects to engineering students through the medium of sports science, based on actual experience gained via this new approach.

Taniai, Tetsuyuki; Sugimoto, Taku; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Ikota, Masaru

147

Sharing Techniques and Experience in a Collaborative e-Social Science Pilot Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on insights from a collective ethnographic approach in the development of a multidisciplinary and collaborative e-social science project. Our pilot demonstrator explored the multidimensionality of social exclusion with regard to young people, neighborhood and crime, and in so doing developed user-led and data-driven Grid technologies. This collective ethnographic approach fostered reflexive development, which we define as 'situated

Bridgette Wessels; Max Craglia; Robin S. Smith

148

The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

Fisher, W. P., Jr.

2010-07-01

149

SSHRC: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), a federal research funding agency for higher education in the social sciences and humanities, aims to promote and enrich the social, cultural, and economic lives of Canadians. The expansive SSHRC Website provides information about the structure, people, and mission of the Council; news about current research supported by the SSHRC; guides to assist researchers identify fellowship and grant programs; policy documents and discussion papers; and a comprehensive list of human sciences sites, linking users to academic bodies, research databases, and other funding institutions. The entire site is searchable and is available in English or French.

150

Physical science: A dynamic approach  

SciTech Connect

A partial table of contents is: Early concepts of nature. The rebirth of science. Energy, work, and power. Relativity. The atom. The periodic nature of elements. Chemical energy. The dynamic Earth. The solar system. Stars and nebulae. Extraterrestrial life. The author presents an introduction to physical science and the spirit of scientific inquiry through a historical survey of scientific thought. Specific forces, processes, energies and phenomena are outlined. Various tables, illustrations and questions accompany the text.

Dixon, R.T.

1986-01-01

151

Shaping a Science of Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social workers provide more social services to populations across the life span than any other human service profession, including psychiatry, nursing, and psychology. The scientific methodologies and the scientific knowledge relevant to social services have expanded dramatically in the last 30 years. Using the two indicators of the total number…

Brekke, John S.

2012-01-01

152

The Structure of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Literature. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A clustering experiment applied co-citation analysis to a cumulation (1972-1974) of the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) tapes in order to outline a citation structure for the social and behavioral sciences. Co-citation analysis is a new technique that establishes a link between two older documents and a crude metric of the strength of that…

Griffith, Belver C.; Small, Henry G.

153

Classification systems in behavioural science: current systems and lessons from the natural, medical and social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specifying individual behaviour change techniques (BCTs) is crucial for better development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions. Classification of BCTs will help this process and can be informed by classification systems in the natural, medical and social sciences. Method: A search of the classification literature in the natural, medical and social sciences produced a framework within which to consider

Zoe Stavri; Susan Michie

2011-01-01

154

Classification systems in behavioural science: current systems and lessons from the natural, medical and social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specifying individual behaviour change techniques (BCTs) is crucial for better development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions. Classification of BCTs will help this process and can be informed by classification systems in the natural, medical and social sciences. Method: A search of the classification literature in the natural, medical and social sciences produced a framework within which to consider

Zoe Stavri; Susan Michie

2012-01-01

155

Reasoning in Science and Social Science. A Service for Vermont Schools and Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science and social studies teachers can use these sample learning activities to teach reasoning skills in grades 5-9. The publication was developed by a group which provides information and assistance to Vermont educators of science and social studies in the fifth through the ninth grades with a focus on the teaching and learning of reasoning…

Agne, Russell M., Ed.

156

Social and Behavioral Science Programs in the National Science Foundation, Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The review of social and behavioral science programs supported by the National Science Foundation recommends improvements in program substance and management. Sixteen social and behavioral scientists who are or have been grantees under Foundation programs served on the review committee. They examined more than 150 documents pertaining to…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences.

157

Social Science Research on Family Planning in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After looking at the results of some family planning programs, the contributions and shortcomings of social science research relevant to family planning is discussed, plus its future role and its acceptance in developing countries. (Author/ND)

Allman, James; Mathsson, Bertil

1975-01-01

158

Putting Social Sciences to the Test - Lecture Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The course is a new class on the topic of field (that is, 'in situ') and laboratory experiments in the social sciences - both what these experiments have taught and can teach us and how to conduct them.

Mit

159

Social Science Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three papers on the nonconventional literature and social science libraries were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In 'Grey Material: A Scandinavian View,' Birgitta Bergdahl (Sweden) outlines the ety...

1983-01-01

160

Bad Science and Its Social Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates three types of bad science: (1) cultural prejudice based on scientific errors (polygenism, phrenology, reification through intelligence testing); (2) unethical science (Tuskegee syphilis experiments, tobacco companies and research); and (3) unwitting errors (pesticides, chlorofluorocarbons). (Contains 50 references.) (SK)

Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Berson, Michael J.; Fogelman, Aimee L.

2002-01-01

161

Corporate Social Responsibility: Three Key Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Corporate social responsibility remains an embryonic and contestable concept. This paper assesses three key approaches and offers a perspective gauging little prospect of theoretical synthesis. Ethical responsibility theory advocates strong corporate self-restraint and altruism duties and expansive public policy strengthening stakeholder rights. Economic responsibility theory advocates market wealth creation subject only to minimalist public policy and perhaps customary business

Duane Windsor

2006-01-01

162

[Constructing a language for social sciences: Condorcet's Tableau historique].  

PubMed

Condorcet started working on "social sciences" many years before the French Revolution. Although published in 1793-1794, his Tableau historique, was first conceived in the 1770s. It examined the necessary conditions for scientific reasoning and scientific languages. Analyzing the obstacles that stood in the way of the development of social sciences, Condorcet used case studies to offer a reflection on the making of a language that would be scientific and accessible to the enlightened citizen as well. PMID:22851416

Schandeler, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01

163

Using SOSIG to support Social Science Teaching and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Resource: The Social Science Information Gateway (SOSIG) allows social science researchers and practitioners easily to discover and access relevant high-quality networked resources and services world-wide including data archives and statistical software. It also provides a comprehensive list of relevant UK-based sources. SOSIG points to hundreds of resources on subjects ranging from anthropology to statistics. All the resources that appear

Hiom; Huxley

1996-01-01

164

Scientific approaches to science policy.  

PubMed

The development of robust science policy depends on use of the best available data, rigorous analysis, and inclusion of a wide range of input. While director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), I took advantage of available data and emerging tools to analyze training time distribution by new NIGMS grantees, the distribution of the number of publications as a function of total annual National Institutes of Health support per investigator, and the predictive value of peer-review scores on subsequent scientific productivity. Rigorous data analysis should be used to develop new reforms and initiatives that will help build a more sustainable American biomedical research enterprise. PMID:24174459

Berg, Jeremy M

2013-11-01

165

Social networks generate interest in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

For forty years programming has been the foundation of introductory computer science. Despite exponential increases in computational power during this period, examples used in introductory courses have remained largely unchanged. The incredible growth in statistics courses at all levels, in contrast with the decline of students taking computer science courses, points to the potential for introducing computer science at many

Casey Alt; Owen Astrachan; Jeffrey Forbes; Richard Lucic; Susan Rodger

2006-01-01

166

Practicing Science: The Investigative Approach in College Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of ten articles reprinted from the Journal of College Science Teaching, college and university science professors show how they have used investigative learning--or inquiry-based instruction--to introduce students to the process of science. These first-person accounts demonstrate how students, including non-science majors, can learn to do science as it is done in the real world--through hypothesis building, observation, and experimental design. The higher education faculty represented in this book is committed to the investigative approach. As one contributor writes, "Would I return to lecturing in a traditional fashion? Not a chance. The excitement and energy of a room of students working in groups, challenging each other, and questioning each other is what I'll always want to see in my classroom."

Press, Nsta

2001-01-01

167

Science Fiction in Social Education: Exploring Consequences of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An NCSS Technology Position Statement and Guidelines, published in 2006 (an updated version is published in this issue of "Social Education"), affirms that social studies students should critically examine relations between technology and society. This article describes how teachers can use science fiction to introduce critical questions…

Mason, Lance E.

2013-01-01

168

Computerized Simulation in the Social Sciences: A Survey and Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After years at the periphery of the social sciences, simulation is now emerging as an important and widely used tool for understanding social phenomena. Through simulation, researchers can identify causal effects, specify critical parameter estimates, and clarify the state of the art with respect to what is understood about how processes evolve…

Garson, G. David

2009-01-01

169

Rhizomes for Understanding the Production of Social Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about the social processes which produce social science knowledge. It is based on a discourse analysis of DELOS, a European research project into organizational learning in clusters of SMEs (Small to Medium Enterprises). The substantive focus is on the researchers' core theoretical object: the “cluster of SMEs.” This construct remained a highly contested artifact which, for complex

Gustavo Seijo

2005-01-01

170

Teacher Certification in Fifty States: History/Social Science Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a research project which collected information concerning the history/social science standards established by the 50 states for the preparation and certification of secondary teachers generally, secondary social studies teachers specifically, and current standards for the granting of comprehensive elementary certification.…

Dumas, Wayne; Weible, Thomas

1984-01-01

171

The Social Science Teacher; Vol. 4, No. 1, Summer 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new British journal is a medium of communication for those involved in teaching social science and social studies at the secondary and elementary levels. The first article in this issue, Ian Shelton's "The Sociology of Everyday Life," describes an experimental short course in secondary sociology. The course is designed to produce an…

Townley, Charles, Ed.

172

Quantitative Research Methods in the Social Sciences (15 credits)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This module will run in the Epiphany term and is of ten weeks' duration with weekly two hour evening sessions. It provides a contextualised introduction to the main quantitative methods employed in social science and builds on the preliminary discussion of these topics in 'Perspectives on Social Research'. The module is concerned with the business of measuring the world as

David Byrne

173

A (computational) social science perspective on societal transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to illustrate how social sciences, sociology in particular, have theorized on societal transitions. The first\\u000a section introduces some preliminary definitions. The assumption is that a societal transition is more than a social, economic\\u000a or technological change. It is a large-scale and long-term macro process through which a given social system radically changes\\u000a its structural basis, in terms

Flaminio Squazzoni

2008-01-01

174

Games and Simulations Teach Social Relevance of Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three different simulation and gaming techniques are described in detail as examples of exercises that provide education through science, demonstrating how science and technology fit into the broad political, social, and environmental context. These games and simulations also cultivate useful skills and desirable attitudes. (Author/JN)

Ellington, Henry; And Others

1982-01-01

175

Science and Social Justice: Making the Case for Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporating social justice into science curricula can attract and maintain the interest of students who shy away from science because of a lack of immediate relevance or role models, and permits them to make connections between what they learn in the classroom and what is portrayed in their everyday lives. (Contains 9 resources.)

Chamany, Katayoun

2006-01-01

176

Complex Adaptive Systems in the Behavioral and Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines applications of complexity theory within the behavioral and social sciences. Specific attention is given to the fundamental characteristics of complex adaptive systems (CAS)—such as individuals, groups, and societies—including the underlying structure of CAS, the internal dynamics of evolving CAS, and how CAS respond to their environment. Examples drawn from psychology, sociology, economics, and political science include attitude

Roy J. Eidelson

1997-01-01

177

Complex Adaptive Systems in the Behavioral and Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines applications of complexity theory within the behavioral and social sciences. Specific attention is given to the fundamental characteristics of complex adaptive systems (CAS)--such as individuals, groups, and societies-- including the underlying structure of CAS, the internal dynamics of evolving CAS, and how CAS respond to their environment. Examples drawn from psychology, sociology, economics, and political science include

Roy J. Eidelson

1996-01-01

178

Integrating the Teaching of Science and Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examples of the interface of science and society are offered as several persuasive reasons for integrating science and social studies curriculum in elementary and secondary schools. These reasons include: (1) the search for new personal and societal values as a result of scientific and technological development in prolonging human life, in…

Switzer, Thomas; Voss, Burton

179

Oxytocin facilitates social approach behavior in women  

PubMed Central

In challenging environments including both numerous threats and scarce resources, the survival of an organism depends on its ability to quickly escape from dangers and to seize opportunities to gain rewards. The phylogenetically ancient neurohormonal oxytocin (OXT) system has been shown to influence both approach and avoidance (AA) behavior in men, but evidence for comparable effects in women is still lacking. We thus conducted a series of pharmacological behavioral experiments in a randomized double-blind study involving 76 healthy heterosexual women treated with either OXT (24 IU) or placebo intranasally. In Experiment 1, we tested how OXT influenced the social distance subjects maintained between themselves and either a female or male experimenter. In Experiment 2, we applied a reaction time based AA task. In Experiment 3 we investigated effects on peri-personal space by measuring the lateral attentional bias in a line bisection task. We found that OXT specifically decreased the distance maintained between subjects and the male but not the female experimenter and also accelerated approach toward pleasant social stimuli in the AA task. However, OXT did not influence the size of peri-personal space, suggesting that it does not alter perception of personal space per se, but rather that a social element is necessary for OXT's effects on AA behavior to become evident. Taken together, our results point to an evolutionarily adaptive mechanism by which OXT in women selectively promotes approach behavior in positive social contexts.

Preckel, Katrin; Scheele, Dirk; Kendrick, Keith M.; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, Rene

2014-01-01

180

Dynamical approaches to cognitive science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical ideas are beginning to have a major impact on cognitive science, from foundational debates to daily practice. In this article, I review three contrasting examples of work in this area that address the lexical and grammatical structure of language, Piaget’s classic ‘A-not-B’ error, and active categorical perception in an embodied, situated agent. From these three examples, I then attempt

Randall D. Beer

2000-01-01

181

Puritan Day: A Social Science Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students assume that a thriving society runs smoothly because people abide by the laws. But there are various informal, as well as formal, means of social control such as gossip, ridicule, and shame that function even in complex societies to achieve social control, or conformity to group norms. Good teaching ideas have the potential to lead…

Schur, Joan Brodsky

2007-01-01

182

Community medicine: its contribution to the social science of medicine.  

PubMed

The Division of Behavioral Sciences operates today in a social climate different from that in its formative years. The federal agencies created specifically to stimulate and support social research have been cut back severely over the past two decades, and in some instances have been eliminated. The official policy of the National Institute of Mental Health, once the main source of support for both training and research in social science in medicine, has changed to a much narrower biomedical focus. On the other hand, there are more social scientists engaged in integral roles both locally at Mount Sinai, at medical institutions nationally, and internationally (25-26). Further, reassertion of the importance for medical education of social science specifically, and of behavioral sciences more broadly defined, has been endorsed in the strongest terms by both the Association of American Medical Colleges and the National Board of Medical Examiners (27). Also, the published literature now incorporates what we in the Division of Behavioral Sciences judge to be a richer intellectual contribution to the field than ever before (28). Perhaps most important, funding for health services research and epidemiological studies has been increased in recent federal budgets. Therefore, the division is planning for expansion of both its research and education, perceiving the future as a challenge continuous with challenges of the past: finding new ways to understand the relation between social factors and the problems of health and illness. PMID:1480199

Bloom, S W; Moss, J; Belville, R; Freidenberg, J; Indyk, D; Speedling, E J

1992-11-01

183

Putting Sociology First—Reconsidering the Role of the Social in `Nature of Science' Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrasting two examples from 2005, a creationism-trial and a recent textbook, the article shows two different ways of employing social considerations to demarcate science from non-science. Drawing conclusions from the comparison, and citing some of the leading proponents of science studies, the paper argues for a novel perspective in teaching nature of science (NOS) issues, one that grows out of sociological and anthropological considerations of (scientific) expertise. In contrast to currently dominant epistemic approaches to teach NOS, this view makes it possible to incorporate epistemic and social norms in a unified framework that can alleviate presently problematic aspects of NOS modules, and can help students appreciate science as a privileged form of knowledge-production without becoming scientistic. A pilot module to carry out the above is presented and assessed, showing that a broad sociological starting point is closer to the lifeworld of students, and that traditional epistemic considerations need not be compromised.

Zemplén, Gábor Á.

2009-05-01

184

Teaching Science through a Systems Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the recommendation of the AAAS and the NRC, middle level science is the rightful introduction for a systems approach, including the study of its parts, subsystems, interconnections, and interrelationships. Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" provides an excellent opportunity to combine ecological consequences within a systems approach (Sweeney 2001).…

Llewellyn, Douglas; Johnson, Scott

2008-01-01

185

Social Sciences Research and Instructional Council Teaching Resources Depository  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Social Sciences Research and Instructional Council Teaching Resources Depository (SSRIC/TRD) facilitates computer-aided instruction of quantitative methods for the social sciences and supports the dissemination of research data. SSRIC/TRD contains seven instructional modules for social science research courses. Topics range from Exploring the Macroeconomy to California Opinions on Women's Issues, and modules include downloadable texts, exercises, codebooks, and datasets for use with SPSS or other statistical software packages. Also available at the site are a glossary of statistical terms, a full-text online version of _SPSS For Windows 7.5: A Brief Tutorial_, 13 independent data analysis exercises for students, and numerous other teaching tools and links for instructors of anthropology, economics, geography, political science, and sociology.

186

Dynamical Approaches to Cognitive Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article, I review three rather different examples of such work,addressing the lexical and grammatical structure of language, Piagets classic A-not-B error, andactive categorical perception in an embodied, situated agent. From these three examples, I thenattempt to articulate the major differences between dynamical approaches and more traditionalsymbolic and connectionist approaches. Although the three models reviewed here varyconsiderably in their details,

Randall D. Beer

2000-01-01

187

Astronomical Approach to Physical Science Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Approach to Physical Science Curriculum (AAPS Curriculum) is an innovative curriculum that incorporates an astronomy theme into an inquiry-based physical science curriculum for pre-service, elementary school teachers. Many physical science courses are a non-cohesive collection of topics required for the state teaching license. Through the use of astronomy and space science examples, the AAPS Curriculum will have a coherent theme that ties the wide variety of physical science topics together and provides many real world applications for the topics covered in the course. This new curriculum will incorporate the applications of knowledge to complete the learning cycle-exploration, concept introduction, application. Astronomy and space science applications will be emphasized throughout the curriculum. The theme of astronomy was chosen to prepare elementary school teachers for teaching astronomy and space science in their classroom, as this is a topic in which many school children are consistently interested. Since astronomy is a topic that can be used as a springboard to teach many other areas of study, we want teachers who are knowledgeable in topics of astronomy so they are capable of preparing creative lessons throughout their entire curriculum that are exciting to their students. The AAPS Curriculum will train college students to become teachers who are comfortable with physical science and astronomy topics and who are excited to teach these topics in their classroom. Funding for this work is provided by the IDEAS grant program of the Space Telescope Science Institute.

Manning, H. L. K.; Churukian, A. D.

2004-11-01

188

Director, Division of Social and Economic Sciences, ES-0101, SBE/SES vice Director, Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences (Closes: 10/14/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... Division of Social and Economic Sciences (SES), Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic ... social systems, organizations, and institutions; supports research on the intellectual and social ...

189

Director, Division of Social and Economic Sciences, ES-0101, SBE/SES vice Director, Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, Closes 10/14/2005  

NSF Publications Database

... Division of Social and Economic Sciences (SES), Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic ... social systems, organizations, and institutions; supports research on the intellectual and social ...

190

Controversies in the evolutionary social sciences: a guide for the perplexed  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is 25 years since modern evolutionary ideas were first applied extensively to human behavior, jump-starting a field of study once known as ‘sociobiology’. Over the years, distinct styles of evolutionary analysis have emerged within the social sciences. Although there is considerable complementarity between approaches that emphasize the study of psychological mechanisms and those that focus on adaptive fit to

Eric A. Smith; Monique Borgerhoff Mulder; Kim Hill

2001-01-01

191

Building a bridge to pedagogic research: teaching social science research methods to humanities practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disciplinary differences in approaches and methodologies to research present an important challenge to humanities practitioners wishing to engage in pedagogic research. This article outlines the development of a social sciences research methods workshop as an example of an intervention to provide a bridge for modern languages practitioners to engage with pedagogic research. The workshops have also raised questions about the

John Canning; Angela Gallagher-Brett

2010-01-01

192

Accelerating the development of Expertise: A Step-Change in Social Science Research Capacity Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that future research capacity building for the social sciences needs to incorporate methods to accelerate the acquisition by researchers of holistic expertise relevant to their roles as researchers and as developers of others. An agenda is presented, based on a model of learning that highlights missing elements of current provision, and two approaches currently under development are

Alison Wray; Mike Wallace

2011-01-01

193

The constant causes of never-ending faddishness in the behavioral and social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The history of the behavioral and social sciences contains endless sequences of conceptual and methodological fads. Disappointed with the results of their current concepts and methods, researchers pursue new topics or approaches in the hope that they will bring better results. In time, however, the new fads too disappoint. The wide spread and persistence of disappointment evidence the influence

William H. Starbuck

2009-01-01

194

The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquency prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a comprehensive developmental approach to preventing youth crime based on the social development model, an integration of social control theory and social learning theory. The model asserts that the most important units of socialization, family, schools, peers, and community, influence behavior sequentially. Positive socialization is achieved when youths have the opportunity within each unit to be involved

J. David Hawkins; Joseph G. Weis

1985-01-01

195

A social History of Soviet Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The archive includes a great number of archive materials, recollections, interviews, letters, diaries, bibliography, internet sources concerning history of bolshevik and stalinist purges against scientists in the USSR since 1917 till 1968. The archive is categorized by few divisions: scientists, university teachers, associate professors, professors, members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, Corresponding-Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A great number of research articles and recollections by purged are included. The articles are written not only by historians of science but by scientists also. A great role by P.L. Kapitza in the saving of Soviet science from purges is underlined. The project was realized under the support by SOROS foundation (2000), Russian Foundation for fundamental Research (2002-2004) and Russian State National Foundation (2007).

Idlis, G. M.

196

Using Spatial Data Visualization to Motivate Undergraduate Social Science Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter begins by describing how GIS software canhelp students see social relations and social policy options. Itargues that visualization should be an integral tool inexploratory data analysis; not just a final step in presentingthe results of analysis. Indeed, a major thesis of the paper isthat visualization should be one of the first topics taught inundergraduate social science research methods courses. Thebalance of the article describes a specific model of how toteach spatial analysis and data visualization in the socialsciences that the author and colleagues are developing withNSF support. This is a chapter in the Visualization in Science Education section of the Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) April 2004 conference proceedings published under the title Invention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education.

Richard LeGates (San Francisco State University;)

2004-12-01

197

CESSDA: Council of European Social Science Data Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council of European Social Science Data Archives (CESSDA) facilitates the distribution of electronic data for social science education and research in Europe. CESSDA promotes data sharing by providing the Integrated Data Catalogue (IDC) at its Website. The multilingual IDC allows users to conduct a broadcast search of up to eleven social science data catalogs located all over the world, including catalogs in Israel, Australia, the US, and Europe. The IDC's simple catalog design--based on a Z39.50-WAIS protocol--and interface make it easy to use. The clearly displayed search results are ordered in accordance to the amount of hits per record in proportion to the total size of the record. Mirrors for the IDC are available in both the UK and Australia to foster quicker searching around the globe. In addition to the IDC, the CESSDA site supplies three clickable international maps that link users to the sites of 32 other data archives.

198

Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a group project teaching technique that was used to teach a college-level social research methods course. Students, working in small groups, planned an original study, developed an instrument, and gathered data to test their hypotheses. Lectures and readings also comprised an important part of the course. (SR)

Ransford, H. Edward; Butler, Gerald

1982-01-01

199

Response: From Fish and Bicycles to a Science of Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Brekke challenges the field and profession of social work to define and develop the "science of social work". This response to Brekke's paper identifies the premises undergirding a discussion of the science of social work related to (1) a definition of "science";; (2 ) an organizing principle for social work; (3) a recognition that the task…

Marsh, Jeanne Cay

2012-01-01

200

Social Studies: A Primary Handbook. A Language Arts Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook contains concept-oriented lessons which will help elementary teachers incorporate social studies instruction into their classrooms. The program emphasizes concepts from each of the social science disciplines. Included among these are learning; family; social processes of customs, cooperation, competition, and conflict; rules and…

Atman, Kathryn S.; And Others

201

Director, Division of Social and Economic Sciences, ES-0101, SBE/SES (Closes: 11/30/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... Division of Social and Economic Sciences (SES), Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic ... social systems, organizations, and institutions; supports research on the intellectual and social ...

202

Social-science Perspectives on Bioethics: Predictive Genetic Testing (PGT) in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay, I indicate how social-science approaches can throw light on predictive genetic testing (PGT) in various societal\\u000a contexts. In the first section, I discuss definitions of various forms of PGT, and point out their inherent ambiguity and\\u000a inappropriateness when taken out of an ideal–typical context. In section two, I argue further that an ethics approach proceeding\\u000a from the

Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner

2007-01-01

203

Social networks generate interest in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

For forty years programming has been the foundation of in- troductory computer science. Despite exponential increases in computational power during this period, examples used in introductory courses have remained largely unchanged. The incredible growth in statistics courses at all levels, in contrast with the decline of students taking computer sci- ence courses, points to the potential for introducing com- puter

Casey Alt; Owen L. Astrachan; Jeffrey Forbes; Richard Lucic; Susan H. Rodger

2006-01-01

204

The Diffusion of Academic Information: A Mathematical Model of Citations in the Sciences, Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the pattern of diffusion in the academic literatures of the sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities based on citations. An examination of the citations of articles in the Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, and Arts and Humanities Citation Index from a given year to the year in which the cited…

Barnett, George A.; And Others

205

Teaching Science Using Stories: The Storyline Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Storytelling is an age-old and powerful means of communication that can be used as an effective teaching strategy in the science classroom. This article describes the authors' experiences implementing the Storyline Approach, an inquiry-based teaching method first introduced by Kieran Egan (1986), in the context of teaching the concept of air…

Isabelle, Aaron D.

2007-01-01

206

A Bibliometric Study of Reference Literature in the Sciences and Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier papers the authors focused on differences in the ageing of journal literature in science and the social sciences. It was shown that for several fields and topics bibliometric standard indicators based on journal articles need to be modified in order to provide valid results. In fields where monographs, books or reports are important means of scientific information, standard

Wolfgang Glänzel; Urs Schoepflin

1999-01-01

207

Canadian collaboration networks: A comparative analysis of the natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic dichotomy is generally made between publication practices in the natural sciences and engineering (NSE) on the one hand and social sciences and humanities (SSH) on the other. However, while researchers in the NSE share some common practices with researchers in SSH, the spectrum of practices is broader in the latter. Drawing on data from the CD-ROM versions of

Vincent Larivière; Yves Gingras; Éric Archambault

2006-01-01

208

Integrating the History and Nature of Science and Technology in Science and Social Studies Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of the literature concerning integrating the history and nature of science and technology in science and social studies curricula. Areas reviewed include the importance of these concepts in education, their place in the current curriculum, and efforts at integrating these concepts. (over 50 references) (PR)

King, Bruce B.

1991-01-01

209

Earth System Governance and the Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 2001, the four global change research programs ‘urgently’ called for ‘an ethical framework for global stewardship and strategies\\u000a for Earth System management’. Yet this notion of ‘earth system management’ remains vaguely defined: It is too elusive for\\u000a natural scientists, and too ambitious or too normative for social scientists. In this chapter, I develop an alternative concept\\u000a that is better

Frank Biermann

210

Sustaining the Bering Ecosystem: A Social Science Research Plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bering Sea is changing from an ice-dominated to an increasingly open water system. The over-arching goal of the NSF-supported Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST) is to understand the effects of climate variability and change on the Bering Sea ecosystem. To the people who are simultaneously a part of that ecosystem and rely on its productivity for life and work, climate change and its effects are among the top concerns. Sustaining the Bering Ecosystem articulates a vision and approaches for social science research as a component of the BEST Program (www.arcus.org/bering). This science plan seeks to initiate research to elucidate the dynamic relationship between the Bering Sea ecosystem and the humans who constitute an integral component of that system. To do so, this plan delineates a research program focused on three broad themes: 1. Impacts on humans: how past, current, and possible future changes in the Bering Sea ecosystem affect the health and well-being of people living and depending on this region for subsistence, employment, and cultural survival. 2. Human impacts: how changing human uses of the Bering Sea region affect the natural cycles of this ecosystem by moderating and/or accelerating systemic changes. 3. Dynamics of human and non-human natural systems: how the human-environmental dynamic has changed through time and may change in the future due to internal and external opportunities and pressures. These themes are developed in the context of a community-driven approach based on the concerns, goals, and interests of Bering Sea residents and other stakeholders of the region. This plan has been drafted through the collaboration of Bering Sea residents (primarily Alaska Natives) and non-resident stakeholders, social scientists, and natural scientists to focus efforts around research questions important to stakeholders, which in various ways center on issues of sustainability (of resources, economic opportunities, ways of life, and culture itself). The research envisioned by this plan will provide a foundation for resident communities, regional corporations and tribal councils, industry stakeholders, resource managers and policy makers at various levels to plan for and face the future with less uncertainty. To accomplish this goal, research must be developed with attention to concrete and practical outcomes. In this social science effort, and in the broader Bering Sea Ecosystem Study (BEST) of which it is a part, synergies must be explored that harness the strengths of multiple disciplines toward common purposes. For this reason, the research anticipated in this plan will: - generally involve interdisciplinary teams and projects that include a modeling component; - may focus on more than one of the defined research themes; and - require collaboration and partnership with Native and non-Native residents and stakeholders in the Bering Sea.

Fitzhugh, B.; Huntington, H. P.; Pete, M. C.; Sepez, J. A.

2007-12-01

211

A Social-Ecological Approach to Promote Self-Determination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a social-ecological approach for promoting and enhancing self-determination among individuals with developmental disabilities. A five-level model is presented, based on the interaction of person and environmental factors, that identifies a series of social mediator variables (i.e., social effectiveness, social capital,…

Walker, Hill M.; Calkins, Carl; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Walker, Laura; Bacon, Ansley; Palmer, Susan B.; Jesien, George S.; Nygren, Margaret A.; Heller, Tamar; Gotto, George S.; Abery, Brian H.; Johnson, David R.

2011-01-01

212

Canadian Institutes in the Humanities and Social Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness and ultimate value of the growing number of research institutes in the humanities and social sciences are discussed. Motivations for the establishment, funding and operation problems, and geographic locations are reviewed. Examples are given of different objectives and functions of various kinds of institutes, their…

Forster, Audrey; McKinnirey, John

1976-01-01

213

A Social Science Bibliography of Leisure and Recreation Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography provides an accessible source to social science research in leisure, recreation, and sports. Topical areas covered include: (1) bibliographic sources on leisure and recreation; (2) philosophical issues in leisure; (3) theories of leisure and recreation; (4) methods in leisure and recreation research; (5) evaluation of leisure and…

Burdge, Rabel J.; And Others

214

Kinetic exchange models: From molecular physics to social science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss several multi-agent models that have their origin in the kinetic exchange theory of statistical mechanics and have been recently applied to a variety of problems in the social sciences. This class of models can be easily adapted for simulations in areas other than physics, such as the modeling of income and wealth distributions in economics and opinion dynamics in sociology.

Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban

2013-08-01

215

Tuning in to Young Viewers: Social Science Perspectives on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television…

MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.

216

The Role of Social Science in School Desegregation Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the role of social-science research in school desegregation efforts as a background to this collection of written reports, depositions, and testimony in the March 1996 hearings about whether the St. Louis (Missouri) school district had achieved unitary status, having done all it could to eliminate the wrongs of a racially dual school…

Taylor, William L.

1997-01-01

217

The Origins of Finite Mathematics: The Social Science Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguably the first significant innovation in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum of the second half of the twentieth century was the finite mathematics course. The origins of this course lie in the excitement that arose, in the period around World War II, about applying mathematics to the social sciences. In this article we tell some of that…

Meyer, Walter

2007-01-01

218

Reassessing Research: Liberal Arts Colleges and the Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The success of liberal arts graduates in attaining doctorates in the social sciences may be related to opportunities they have during their undergraduate years to undertake original research projects, individually or in collaboration with faculty. The supportive college environment for faculty professional and research activities and the…

Bourque, Susan C.

1999-01-01

219

Recent Gerontological Developments in Psychology and Social Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports to members of other Sections of the Gerontological Society recent developments in Psychology and Social Sciences Section (P & SS) which might be of interest to them. Three areas mentioned include sex and aging comparative studies on aging, and adult education. Presented in the Vice-Presidential Symposium at the annual meeting of…

Carp, Frances M.; Nydegger, Corinne

1975-01-01

220

TEACHING CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION RULES WITH APPLICATIONS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supervised classification or pattern recognition is a method to solve decision problems in Social Sciences. It is organized on the basis of specific sets of predictor variables and the existence of classes known a priori. Based on a training sample, its main objective is to construct a classification rule in order to predict the class to which a new object

Margarita Díaz; Cecilia Díaz; Patricia Caro; María Ines Stimolo

2006-01-01

221

Fisheries governance: A coming of age for fisheries social science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of fisheries governance has made considerable progress in recent years largely as a result of the concerted actions of the social sciences. A particular focus for this work has been the concept of participative governance and the co-management systems in which responsibility for management is shared between the state and user groups, usually at the local level. With

David Symes

2006-01-01

222

The National Science Foundation: Funding Opportunities for Social Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces the National Science Foundation as a potential funding source for social work researchers and describes the experience of one faculty member in seeking funding from this source. The author provides an overview of the foundation, discusses its programmatic structure, proposal preparation, selection criteria, and review…

Jaskyte, Kristina

2005-01-01

223

Women and Spatial Change: Learning Resources for Social Science Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six units focusing on the effects of spatial change on women are designed to supplement college introductory courses in geography and the social sciences. Unit 1, Woman and Agricultural Landscapes, focuses on how women contributed to landscape change in prehistory, women's impact on the environment, and the hypothesis that women developed…

Rengert, Arlene C., Ed.; Monk, Janice J., Ed.

224

A Scientometric Profile of Social Sciences Research in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

I surveyed the social sciences journal literature for the decade period 1987-1996 looking for papers with authors, or at least one co-author giving an address from an institution in Turkey. The number of such papers had nearly tripled from 1987 to 1996. I found that the papers are scattered into 341 journals and almost one third of all papers went

Ali Uzun

1998-01-01

225

Australian Item Bank Program: Social Science Item Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After vigorous review, editing, and trial testing, this item bank was compiled to help secondary school teachers construct objective tests in the social sciences. Anthropology, economics, ethnic and cultural studies, geography, history, legal studies, politics, and sociology are among the topics represented. The bank consists of multiple choice…

Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

226

Update 76: Selected Recent Works in the Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a selected bibliography of current reference and acquisition tools in the social sciences. The tools include sourcebooks, dictionaries, indexes, conference proceedings, special bibliographies, directories, research reports, and journals. Most citations represent works published since 1970 and new editions of important earlier works.…

Pike, Mary L., Ed.; Lusignan, Louise, Ed.

227

Environmental Problems and the Social Sciences: What Should We Teach?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental issues that can be explored in social science courses include problems with potential to cause serious or irreversible change to an ecosystem or biosphere. Areas for discussion include: environmental attitudes, values, and behaviors; the environmental movement; risk perceptions; and the political economy of the environment and…

Cylke, F. Kurt, Jr.

1995-01-01

228

LATENT VARIABLES IN PSYCHOLOGY AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The paper discusses the use of latent variables in psychology and social science research. Local independence, expected value true scores, and nondeterministic functions of observed variables are three types of definitions for latent variables. These definitions are reviewed and an alternative \\

Kenneth A. Bollen

2002-01-01

229

Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Science (ELSI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Science Web site is especially suitable for middle and high school students and teachers and tackles hard issues that face contemporary scientists every day. Connect to the ELSI pages to see a discussion of basic vs. applied research, equal access to medical screening, indoor air pollution, and personal privacy and medical databases.

2005-10-31

230

Social Science Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers on the nonconventional literature and social science libraries were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "Grey Material: A Scandinavian View," Birgitta Bergdahl (Sweden) outlines the etymology and meaning of the concept of "grey literature" (which can include reports, theses,…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

231

Child Development Associate. Social Science: Children in the Cosmos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is designed to help the CDA intern provide learning experiences in the social sciences for young children. The module stipulates competency-based objectives and provides essential information, suggestions, examples and learning activities on three topics related to the…

Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

232

Conducting social science laboratory experiments on the world wide web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the behavioral and social sciences, particularly psychology, are beginning to conduct laboratory experiments on the World Wide Web. The Web venue offers conveniences that are apparent to market researchers and academic investigators, who have used the Web extensively for survey research. Like traditional experimental researchers. Web experimenters must assure the reliability and inferential validity of their experiments to

Alison I. Piper

1998-01-01

233

Information Science, Historical Changes and Social Aspects: A Nordic Outlook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes and discuses some aspects concerning the historical and social context of information science and information institutions. Highlights include views of Jose Ortega y Gasset; changing conceptions of the structure, foci, and content of the discipline; prewar and postwar paradigms; the physical paradigm; and the cognitive view. (Contains 27…

Orom, Anders

2000-01-01

234

Teaching Science Using Stories: The Storyline Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Storytelling is an age-old and powerful means of communication that can be used as an effective teaching strategy in the science classroom. This article describes the authors' experiences implementing the Storyline Approach, an inquiry-based teaching method first introduced by Kieran Egan (1986), in the context of teaching the concept of air pressure to seventh- and eighth-grade students. Also included are story-shaping strategies and history-of-science resources to assist in the creation of your own story.

Isabelle, Aaron D.

2007-10-01

235

Toward critical spatial thinking in the social sciences and humanities  

PubMed Central

The integration of geographically referenced information into the conceptual frameworks and applied uses of the social sciences and humanities has been an ongoing process over the past few centuries. It has gained momentum in recent decades with advances in technologies for computation and visualization and with the arrival of new data sources. This article begins with an overview of this transition, and argues that the spatial integration of information resources and the cross-disciplinary sharing of analysis and representation methodologies are important forces for the integration of scientific and artistic expression, and that they draw on core concepts in spatial (and spatio-temporal) thinking. We do not suggest that this is akin to prior concepts of unified knowledge systems, but we do maintain that the boundaries to knowledge transfer are disintegrating and that our abilities in problem solving for purposes of artistic expression and scientific development are enhanced through spatial perspectives. Moreover, approaches to education at all levels must recognize the need to impart proficiency in the critical and efficient application of these fundamental spatial concepts, if students and researchers are to make use of expanding access to a broadening range of spatialized information and data processing technologies.

Goodchild, Michael F.; Janelle, Donald G.

2010-01-01

236

Seeking a sustainable approach for computational science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many are now questioning whether our current approaches to developing software for science and engineering are sustainable. In particular, can we deliver to society and the nation the full benefits expected from high-performance simulation at the peta and exascales? Or is innovative science being stifled by the increasing complexities of all aspects of our problem space (rapidly changing hardware, software, multidisciplinary physics, etc.)? Focusing on applications in chemistry and materials science, and motivated by the co-design of exascale hardware and software, I will discuss many of these issues including how chemistry has already been forced to adopt solutions that differ quite sharply to those in the mainstream, and how these solutions position us well for the technology transitions now under way. Radical changes in how we compute, going all the way back to the underlying numerical representation and algorithms used for the simulation, also promise great enhancements to both developer productivity and the accuracy of simulations.

Harrison, Robert

2013-03-01

237

Psychiatric conditions and the social sciences.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders have a distinct shape, come in types and are inherent in Homo sapiens. To a social scientist, disorders exist by stipulation: contingent on a psychiatric frame of reference. Their materiality has meaning only in that framework. What is important is what that material might correspond to in a society's systems of representation and associated institutions. If one assigns disorders some sort of 'objective' reality (a scientific ontology), then one needs to explain what that corresponds to in cultural terms. Moreover, if disorders exist and have an evolutionary history, one has to formulate how they might have been perceived and understood during phases of biological and cultural evolution. The article provides a way to conceptualize meanings psychiatric disorders have had in these two systems of representation and their change during evolution. PMID:16145280

Fabrega, Horacio

2005-01-01

238

NASA Science Internet: An Integrated Approach to Networking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated approach to building a networking infrastructure is an absolute necessity for meeting the multidisciplinary science networking requirements of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) science community. These networking requiremen...

F. Rounds

1991-01-01

239

SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM. PUBLICATION 122, MORALITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS POSITION PAPER PRESENTS AN APPROACH TO THE VERY DIFFICULT PROBLEM OF HANDLING VALUES IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS, PARTICULARLY IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. IT DISCUSSES THE FOUNDATIONS OF ETHICS AND THE METHODOLOGICAL BASIS FOR MORAL VALUE JUDGMENTS. THE DISCUSSIONS ARE PRESENTED UNDER THREE GENERAL TOPIC AREAS--(1) "PRELIMINARIES" WHICH COVERS THE…

SCRIVEN, MICHAEL

240

Interdisciplinary education approach to the human science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduced human sciences as components, and integrated them together as an interdisciplinary endeavor over decades. This year, we built a website to maintain systematically the educational research service. We captured the human sciences in various components in the SPIE proceedings over the last decades, which included: (i) ears & eyes like adaptive wavelets, (ii) brain-like unsupervised learning independent component analysis (ICA); (iii) compressive sampling spatiotemporal sparse information processing, (iv) nanoengineering approach to sensing components, (v) systems biology measurements, and (vi) biomedical wellness applications. In order to serve the interdisciplinary community better, our system approach is based on that the former recipients invited the next recipients to deliver their review talks and panel discussions. Since only the former recipients of each component can lead the nomination committees and make the final selections, we also create a leadership award which may be nominated by any conference attendance, to be approved by the conference organization committee.

Szu, Harold; Zheng, Yufeng; Zhang, Nian

2012-05-01

241

Got Hybridization? A Multidisciplinary Approach for Informing Science Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hybridization in the wild between closely related species is not unusual. In some cases, hybridization may prove beneficial for a rare taxon. Under certain conditions, however, a rare taxon can be driven rapidly to extinction by hybridizing with a more common taxon. This problem is urgent because human activities are increasingly bringing together cross-compatible species that were previously geographically isolated. US conservation policy has yet to address how to deal with hybrid-derived individuals whose ancestry includes an endangered species. Developing sound scienceâÂÂbased conservation policy that addresses hybridization requires cross-disciplinary social-science and life-science research to address the following two questions: (1) How do human decisions with regard to species protection, trade, transportation, land use, and other factors affect the opportunities for, and rates of hybridization between, rare species and more common relatives? and (2) How do the positive or negative perceived values regarding hybrids and hybrid-derived individuals compare with values regarding their nonhybridized counterparts from social, cultural, economic, and environmental perspectives? In this article we explore the ways to inform such policy using a multidisciplinary approach.

Norman Ellstrand (Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside;Department of Botany and Plant Sciences)

2010-05-03

242

Alternative psychotherapy approaches for social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Alternative therapies and therapy modalities for SAD are needed because: Established treatments (CBT and pharmacologic) do not help everyone who seeks help. Established treatments provide only partial decrease in symptoms for many patients. Patients may experience recurrence of symptoms in long-term follow-up. CBT does not reach enough patients in need. Alternative treatment approaches and modalities may also be needed to address the successful outcomes of CBT. Success in overcoming social anxiety symptoms can generate a whole new set of challenges. For example, a 31-year-old man who overcomes his fear of dating and begins his first romantic relationship may need a less symptomatically focused therapy to deal with issues that arise in this relationship. Likewise, a woman whose decreased social anxiety enables her to get a long-awaited promotion may need to deal with the stress of adjusting to her new responsibilities. An individual who overcomes phobia of public speaking and still has mild anxiety may need to graduate to a forum such as Toastmasters to provide continued exposure to further develop confidence and skills in public speaking. PMID:11723635

Lipsitz, J D; Marshall, R D

2001-12-01

243

Taking a Scientific Approach to Science Teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well-documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory science courses often fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, these same courses have been found to teach students things we don't intend. Building on a tradition of research, the physics and astronomy education research communities have been investigating the effects of educational reforms at the undergraduate level for decades. Both within these scientific communities and in the fields of education, cognitive science, psychology, and other social sciences, we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students. This presentation will discuss a variety of effective classroom practices, (with an emphasis on peer instruction, "clickers," and small group activities), the surrounding educational structures, and examine assessments which indicate when and why these do (and sometimes do not) work. After a broad survey of education research, we will look at some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments within this field that are being conducted at the University of Colorado. Throughout, we will consider research and practices that can be of value in both physics and astronomy classes, as well as applications to teaching in a variety of environments.

Pollock, S.

2011-09-01

244

SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR GRADES K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE REPORT IS AN EXTENSION AND CONTINUATION OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM WHICH EXPLORED WAYS OF OBTAINING GREATER COOPERATION AND COMMUNICATION AMONG THE VARIOUS EDUCATORS WHO ARE CONCERNED WITH CREATIVE INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION. THE FOUR PARTS OF THIS REPORT CONTAIN (1) CONTENT FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION--A…

MORRISSETT, IRVING; AND OTHERS

245

Understanding University Reform in Japan through the Prism of the Social Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)

Goodman, Roger

2008-01-01

246

Strengthening the Social within Social Psychology: An Experiential Learning Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a social psychology class based on experiential learning, students carry out research and interpret a setting by observing social interaction. Settings include correctional facilities, self-help groups, and abuse shelters. Describes students responsibilities, reactions, data collection, analysis, and project findings. Finds students learn…

Taub, Diane E.

1991-01-01

247

Philosophy of the Social Sciences: The Nature of Political Inquiry \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course is designed to serve as a required companion to the introductory graduate course in quantitative methods. It presumes a fairly strong background in the study of American politics and institutions. In the first section of the course, we will explore the major approaches to studying political science. Students should be able to identify and apply these approaches to

Thomas Edison

248

Oil and Water do Mix: Social Science Meets Engineering Towards a Transdisciplinary Perspective on Cyberworlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of cyberworlds and their design is now a well established field in computer science & engineering. In parallel, within the social sciences there is also a growing corpus of research regarding the subjective, psychological, social and cultural aspects of cyberworlds such as: human cognition as a base for A.I., social systems modeling and complexity, social networks and group

Javier Salazar

2006-01-01

249

[Legacy and promises from the teaching of Social Sciences in the Health field].  

PubMed

The article analyzes the teaching and learning of social sciences in health sciences courses from the perspective of the curriculum and learning generated by research groups and thesis supervision activities. The author conducts a rereading of the classics and main contemporary scientists, based on the subarea's scientific output and her own personal experience as professor, researcher, and thesis supervisor. The article focuses on the tradition and teaching of the classics in social sciences, the main contemporary social theories, social sciences in health with an emphasis on teaching, and observations on the interface between teaching in social sciences and life sciences. The author concludes by highlighting the importance of work by social scientists in the health field and identifies the following problematic points: difficulties in dealing with mediations between the biological and the social; frequent subordination of foundations to techniques; and ideological and common-sense issues in the teaching and appropriation of Social Sciences in Health. PMID:23288069

Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

2012-12-01

250

Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

2010-01-01

251

Incorporating data literacy into undergraduate information literacy programs in the social sciences : A pilot project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the confluence of data literacy with information literacy in an experimental one-unit course taught in the UCLA Department of Sociology, and present the literature on, rationale for, and future of integrating these interrelated literacies into social science courses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The course was co-taught twice by a librarian

Elizabeth Stephenson; Patti Schifter Caravello

2007-01-01

252

Human Reproduction: Social and Technological Aspects. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is part of an interdisciplinary program designed to educate the general citizenry regarding the issues of science/technology/society that have important consequences for both present and future social policies. Specifically, the program provides an opportunity for students to assess the effects of selected technological innovations in…

McConnell, Mary C.; And Others

253

Modes of Social Science Engagement in Community Infrastructure Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A new space for social science is opening within information infrastructure design projects. These are large-scale, distributed\\u000a scientific collaborations with the dual goal of building community and technical resources for that community. These endeavors\\u000a are complex and ambitious combinations of research, information technology deployment, and bringing together of heterogeneous\\u000a communities (Finholt 2004). It is becoming increasingly common for such projects

David Ribes; Karen Baker

2007-01-01

254

A Social Foundations Approach to Educational Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators hold varied opinions about the nature of the social foundations of education. The social-foundations perspective generally characterizes education as an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the study of education, which focuses on the relationship among social conditions, values, and educational policies. This paper supports the…

Washburn, David E.

255

Social approach and emotion recognition in fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to chronological age- (CA-) and mental age- (MA-) matched controls, the FXS group performed significantly more poorly on the emotion recognition tasks, and displayed a bias towards detecting negative emotions. Moreover, after controlling for emotion recognition deficits, the FXS group displayed significantly reduced ratings of social approachability. These findings suggest that a social anxiety pattern, rather than poor socioemotional processing, may best explain the social avoidance observed in FXS. PMID:24679350

Williams, Tracey A; Porter, Melanie A; Langdon, Robyn

2014-03-01

256

Social competence and collaborative guided inquiry science activities: Experiences of students with learning disabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a qualitative investigation of the effects of social competence on the participation of students with learning disabilities (LD) in the science learning processes associated with collaborative, guided inquiry learning. An inclusive Grade 2 classroom provided the setting for the study. Detailed classroom observations were the primary source of data. In addition, the researcher conducted two interviews with the teacher, and collected samples of students' written work. The purpose of the research was to investigate: (a) How do teachers and peers mediate the participation of students with LD in collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, (b) What learning processes do students with LD participate in during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, and (c) What components of social competence support and constrain the participation of students with LD during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities? The findings of the study suggest five key ideas for research and teaching in collaborative, guided inquiry science in inclusive classrooms. First, using a variety of collaborative learning formats (whole-class, small-group, and pairs) creates more opportunities for the successful participation of diverse students with LD. Second, creating an inclusive community where students feel accepted and valued may enhance the academic and social success of students with LD. Third, careful selection of partners for students with LD is important for a positive learning experience. Students with LD should be partnered with academically successful, socially competent peers; also, this study suggested that students with LD experience more success working collaboratively in pairs rather than in small groups. Fourth, a variety of strategies are needed to promote active participation and positive social interactions for students with and without LD during collaborative, guided inquiry learning. Fifth, adopting a general approach to teaching collaborative inquiry that crosses curriculum borders may enhance success of inclusive teaching practices.

Taylor, Jennifer Anne

257

Social and ethical dimensions of nanoscale science and engineering research.  

PubMed

Continuing advances in human ability to manipulate matter at the atomic and molecular levels (i.e. nanoscale science and engineering) offer many previously unimagined possibilities for scientific discovery and technological development. Paralleling these advances in the various science and engineering sub-disciplines is the increasing realization that a number of associated social, ethical, environmental, economic and legal dimensions also need to be explored. An important component of such exploration entails the identification and analysis of the ways in which current and prospective researchers in these fields conceptualize these dimensions of their work. Within the context of a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in nanomaterials processing and characterization at the University of Central Florida (2002-2004), here I present for discussion (i) details of a "nanotechnology ethics" seminar series developed specifically for students participating in the program, and (ii) an analysis of students' and participating research faculty's perspectives concerning social and ethical issues associated with nanotechnology research. I conclude with a brief discussion of implications presented by these issues for general scientific literacy and public science education policy. PMID:16909148

Sweeney, Aldrin E

2006-07-01

258

Barriers and opportunities for integrating social science into natural resource management: lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves.  

PubMed

The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial. PMID:22903461

Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

2012-12-01

259

Funds of relationality: social bonds and science learners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez, I will focus primarily on the importance of relationality for the development of a science learner identity. Along the way I will review (1) The cultural dynamics involved with the formation and sustenance of relationships in social life; (2) The methodological advantages of ethnographic inquiry for exploring funds of relationality; (3) The importance of relationality for science innovation throughout the pipeline of scientific training from K-12 schooling all the way through scientific breakthrough; (4) The absolutely vital role that relationality plays in creating a science learner identity. Finally I highlight how collaborative ethnography, in particular, is an excellent tool for seeking out funds of relationality that can be marshaled in the classroom as well as contributing to conceptual advancement in the theoretical vocabulary of relational sociology.

Smardon, Regina

2011-12-01

260

Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences  

PubMed Central

National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India – a ‘rising power’ with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health related commodities provide some excellent examples of illuminating social science. Future research agendas on health systems issues need to include innovative empirical work that captures the dynamics of transnational processes and that links macro-level change to fine-grained observations of social life.

2012-01-01

261

Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences.  

PubMed

National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India - a 'rising power' with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health related commodities provide some excellent examples of illuminating social science. Future research agendas on health systems issues need to include innovative empirical work that captures the dynamics of transnational processes and that links macro-level change to fine-grained observations of social life. PMID:22963264

Bisht, Ramila; Pitchforth, Emma; Murray, Susan F

2012-01-01

262

Psychiatry as a Behavioral Science. The Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is another in a series prepared in connection with the Survey of the Behavioral Social Sciences (BASS) conducted between 1967 and 1969. The task here is to provide several illustrative lines of research in sufficient depth to convey the flavor of scientific work on psychiatric problems to a wide range of readers. The report is primarily…

Hamburg, David A., Ed.

263

Stable Rules: Science and Social Transmission. Studies in the Learning Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In laying the groundwork for a co-operative scientific inquiry in the field of learning sciences the following five areas of access to the study are considered in this introductory inquiry statement: 1) genetic sociology (symbolic systems and early socialization); 2) experimental ethnography (the effect of literacy on the structure of skill and…

Nathan, Henry

264

Art, science and social science in nursing: occupational origins and disciplinary identity.  

PubMed

This paper forms part of a wider study examining the history and sociology of nursing education in England between 1860 and 1948. It argues that the question of whether nursing was an art, science and/or social science has been at the 'heart' of a wider debate on the occupational status and disciplinary identity of nursing. The view that nursing was essentially an art and a 'calling', was championed by Florence Nightingale. Ethel Bedford Fenwick and her allies insisted that nursing, like other professions, was a 'scientific' and technical enterprise. Social scientists later came to challenge nursing's claim to professionalism by analysing nursing work first within the context of industrial psychology. But they also advocated a rapprochement between nursing, health services and social science research, a challenge which we are in nursing, still striving to meet. This paper argues for a strong coalition of nursing with its former nineteenth century ally, social science, in the continuing struggle for change within nursing and health care policy. Rather than searching for some rarified and purified essence of nursing knowledge, it argues that nurses need to join forces with sociologists and economists in striving to shape the agenda for health services research and provide the evidential basis for health policy transformation more generally. PMID:7664158

Rafferty, A M

1995-09-01

265

Science-Based Prevention Through Communities That Care: A Model of Social Work Practice for Public Health  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work’s intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers.

Haggerty, Kevin P.; Shapiro, Valerie B.

2013-01-01

266

The role of the social sciences in East–West relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the foundations of the current system of East–West scholarly exchanges in the social sciences, beginning with the Congress for Cultural Freedom in 1950. It traces the development of the social sciences in post-war Europe to philosophical differences between Polanyi and Bernal concerning long-term planning in science. This article argues that the development of the social sciences played

P. Grémion

2001-01-01

267

[Productivity and academic assessment in the Brazilian public health field: challenges for Human and Social Sciences research].  

PubMed

This article analyzes some challenges for knowledge output in the human and social sciences in the public health field, under the current academic assessment model in Brazil. The article focuses on the qualitative research approach in human and social sciences, analyzing its status in comparison to the other traditions vying for hegemony in the public health field, conjugating the dialogue with the literature, especially the propositions pertaining to the social fields present in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, with elements concerning the field's dynamics, including some empirical data. Challenges identified in the article include hurdles to interdisciplinary dialogue and equity in the production of knowledge, based on recognition of the founding place of human and social sciences in the public health field. The article discusses strategies to reshape the current correlation of forces among centers of knowledge in public health, especially those capable of impacting the committees and agendas that define the accumulation of symbolic and economic capital in the field. PMID:23288072

Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

2012-12-01

268

FAST, Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching. Instructional Guide. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) project, which began under the sponsorship of the Hawaii Science Curriculum Council, contains a series of interdisciplinary science courses that emphasize the foundational concepts and methods of the physical, biological, and earth sciences. By directly involving students in investigating…

Young, Donald B.; Pottenger, Francis M., III

269

Sixth Grade Interdisciplinary Packet: Science-Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for sixth graders focuses upon "Who is Man?", "Who am I?" and "Man Needs Man" in an interdisciplinary sequence that combines scientific and social studies ideas and theories. It is hoped that this approach will help the pupil shape positive change within himself and his society. Emphasis is upon pupils gaining both conceptual…

Madison Public Schools, WI.

270

Educacion y Ciencias Sociales en el Mundo Moderno. [Education and the Social Sciences in the Modern World].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document, written in Spanish, discusses the relationship between research in the social sciences and the role of the university in social science education. The author considers the education of researchers, the application of research, the need for interdisciplinary research methods, and problems involved in cross-cultural studies. He states…

Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.

271

Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. The Case of the Humanities and Social Sciences. Expert Contribution: Norway. The Humanities, Social Sciences and Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment, particularly in the humanities and social sciences, looks at the employment of social science and humanities graduates in Norway. The paper opens by briefly sketching some major interrelated developments in current society such as shifts in the economy, changes in…

Eide, Kjell

272

Intuition: A social cognitive neuroscience approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review proposes that implicit learning processes are the cognitive substrate of social intuition. This hypothesis is supported by (a) the conceptual correspondence between implicit learning and social intuition (nonverbal communication) and (b) a review of relevant neuropsychological (Huntington's and Parkinson's disease), neuroimaging, neurophysiological, and neuroanatomical data. It is concluded that the caudate and putamen, in the basal ganglia, are

Matthew D. Lieberman

2000-01-01

273

Social Science and Health Research: Growth at the National Institutes of Health  

PubMed Central

Programs within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have recently taken steps to enhance social science contributions to health research. A June 2000 conference convened by the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research highlighted the role of the social sciences in health research and developed an agenda for advancing such research. The conference and agenda underscored the importance of research on basic social scientific concepts and constructs, basic social science research on the etiology of health and illness, and the application of basic social science constructs in health services, treatment, and prevention research. Recent activities at NIH suggest a growing commitment to social science research and its integration into interdisciplinary multilevel studies of health.

Bachrach, Christine A.; Abeles, Ronald P.

2004-01-01

274

Social and Behavioral Challenges of HIV Vaccines: Implications for Social Work and Social Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safe and efficacious HIV vaccine would be a tremendous asset to halting the spread of HIV. Nevertheless, HIV vaccines face a range of social and behavioral challenges that will determine their ultimate contribution to prevention. HIV vaccine development and clinical trials raise thorny social, behavioral, and ethical issues around resource allocation, recruitment and enrollment, trial implementation, and post-trial follow-up

Peter A. Newman

2009-01-01

275

Science--A Process Approach, Product Development Report No. 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science - A Process Approach, a science program for grades kindergarten through sixth, mainly focuses on scientific processes: observing, classifying, using numbers, measuring, space/time relationships, communicating, predicting, inferring, defining operationally, formulating hypotheses, interpreting data, controlling variables, and experimenting.…

Sanderson, Barbara A.; Kratochvil, Daniel W.

276

Implementation of the NCSS Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues: Exemplar Lessons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…

Otto, Robert A., Ed.

277

Ethics and the unintended consequences of social research: A perspective from the sociology of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that “successful” social science requires the development of a social ethic or sense of research responsibility. An examination of impediments to ethical reflection in sociology suggests that an individualistic orientation is ineffective in coping with the unintended consequences of social research. Such consequences can be particularly harmful in the sociology of science where policy research and governmental

Kenneth E. Studer; Daryl E. Chubin

1977-01-01

278

The role of the social sciences in capacity building in ocean and coastal management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of the role of the social sciences in capacity building in ocean and coastal management is grouped into four main themes. The first part of the paper deals with the nature and record of the social sciences in studies both of and related to coastal management. The major fields are treated in turn, and include psychology, social anthropology, sociology,

Hance D. Smith

2002-01-01

279

Effects of Lawyers' Sociopolitical Attitudes on Their Judgments of Social Science in Legal Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

One theory to explain why courts often ignore relevant social science research is that it often refutes judges' sociopolitical beliefs. Using the death penalty as the exemplar social issue, this study explored whether lawyers' sociopolitical attitudes affect their judgments about the legal relevance of social science research introduced in court cases. Law students and state court judges completed a questionnaire

Richard E. Redding; N. Dickon Reppucci

1999-01-01

280

Trash Conflicts: A Science and Social Studies Curriculum on the Ethics of Disposal. An Interdisciplinary Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for middle school science and social studies classes, this document is a curriculum on waste disposal. Mathematics and language skills also are incorporated into many of the activities. In the study of trash disposal, science students benefit from understanding the social issues related to the problem. Social studies students need…

Ballin, Amy; And Others

281

Society and Culture: Systems Definitions for an Alternative Social Science Paradigm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two basic concepts of the social sciences--society and culture--are analyzed and new definitions are proposed. Concepts are the basic building blocks of scientific theory. A science with poor concepts will, therefore, be incapable of producing powerful scientific theory. When commonly used social science definitions of society and culture are…

Johnson, Gary R.

282

Middle School Science Teachers’ Perceptions of Social Justice: A Study of Two Female Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this qualitative study is to document two middle school science teachers’ perceptions of social justice and how these teachers implement various aspects of social justice in their science instruction. The two teachers teach science in an urban school that serves students from low-income, immigrant, and ethnic minority families. The study highlights key findings that pertain to the

Bhaskar Upadhyay

2010-01-01

283

Middle School Science Teachers' Perceptions of Social Justice: A Study of Two Female Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this qualitative study is to document two middle school science teachers' perceptions of social justice and how these teachers implement various aspects of social justice in their science instruction. The two teachers teach science in an urban school that serves students from low-income, immigrant, and ethnic minority families. The…

Upadhyay, Bhaskar

2010-01-01

284

Coordinate transformation approach to social interactions  

PubMed Central

A coordinate transformation framework for understanding how neurons compute sensorimotor behaviors has generated significant advances toward our understanding of basic brain function. This influential scaffold focuses on neuronal encoding of spatial information represented in different coordinate systems (e.g., eye-centered, hand-centered) and how multiple brain regions partake in transforming these signals in order to ultimately generate a motor output. A powerful analogy can be drawn from the coordinate transformation framework to better elucidate how the nervous system computes cognitive variables for social behavior. Of particular relevance is how the brain represents information with respect to oneself and other individuals, such as in reward outcome assignment during social exchanges, in order to influence social decisions. In this article, I outline how the coordinate transformation framework can help guide our understanding of neural computations resulting in social interactions. Implications for numerous psychiatric disorders with impaired representations of self and others are also discussed.

Chang, Steve W. C.

2013-01-01

285

Latent Space Approaches to Social Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Network models,are widely used to represent relational information,among,interacting units. In studies of social networks, recent emphasis has been placed on random graph models where the nodes,usually represent individual social actors and the edges represent the presence,of a specified relation between,actors. vVe develop,a class of models,where,the probability,of a relation between,actors depends,on the positions of individuals in an unobserved,\\

Peter D. Hoff; Adrian E. Raftery; Mark S. Handcock

2002-01-01

286

Promoting Science Literacy through an Interdisciplinary Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition of the value of a scientifically literate citizenry has driven American science education reform since the 1950s. We have seen some improvement in the comprehension of science facts in the past 10-20 years, but far less improvement in Americans' understanding of the nature of science. College science courses are ideal venues for…

Ross, Karen; Hooten, Mary Ann; Cohen, Glenn

2013-01-01

287

Students' approaches to learning science: responding to learners' needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on students' approaches to learning science. In particular, it highlights the findings of three related research studies conducted by the author and teases out the implications for instructional practice in science classrooms. Areas of focus include: (a) the nature of students' approaches to learning; (b) a comparison of the qualitative differences between deep and surface learning approaches;

Christine Chin

288

Scientific Story Telling & Social Media The role of social media in effectively communicating science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!

Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.

2012-12-01

289

Medical anthropology: toward a third moment in social science?  

PubMed

This article about medical anthropology was inspired by the work of Pierre Bourdieu, specifically, his efforts to reconcile the antinomy of a "social structuralist" and a "cultural constructivist" perspective. These perspectives are often opposed in the literature, but, in Bourdieu's view, human life cannot be studied without taking into account both how individuals are situated within and constrained by social structures and how those individuals construct an understanding of and impose meaning on the world around them. I argue that the special subject matter of medical anthropology--human health--demands that a synthetic approach be taken in our theory and research. I illustrate this argument with examples from my own research on social and cultural factors associated with blood pressure, and I point to other examples of this synthesis in medical anthropology. The results of this research hold promise for the continuing refinement of culture theory. PMID:11794870

Dressler, W W

2001-12-01

290

Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…

Liu, Xiufeng

2010-01-01

291

[The teaching of social sciences in health: between practice and theory].  

PubMed

The models of teaching social sciences and clinical practice are insufficient for the needs of practical-reflective teaching of social sciences applied to health. The scope of this article is to reflect on the challenges and perspectives of social science education for health professionals. In the 1950s the important movement bringing together social sciences and the field of health began, however weak credentials still prevail. This is due to the low professional status of social scientists in health and the ill-defined position of the social sciences professionals in the health field. It is also due to the scant importance attributed by students to the social sciences, the small number of professionals and the colonization of the social sciences by the biomedical culture in the health field. Thus, the professionals of social sciences applied to health are also faced with the need to build an identity, even after six decades of their presence in the field of health. This is because their ambivalent status has established them as a partial, incomplete and virtual presence, requiring a complex survival strategy in the nebulous area between social sciences and health. PMID:24820588

Barros, Nelson Filice de

2014-04-01

292

Perception of Supports and Barriers: Career Decision-Making for Sikh Indo-Canadian Young Women Entering the Social Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research study was to examine the supports and barriers that Sikh Indo-Canadian young women perceive in their career decision-making process to enter the applied social sciences at the university level. A qualitative descriptive case study approach (Yin, 2003) was used. Analyses indicated self-efficacy appraisals played an…

Mani, Priya S.

2005-01-01

293

Learning from Each Other: What Social Studies Can Learn from the Controversy Surrounding the Teaching of Evolution in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the need for researchers to move beyond discipline-specific approaches to research and practice and offers an example of how interdisciplinary understandings can increase knowledge in respective disciplines. The specific focus of the article is the shared challenges of broaching controversy in science and social studies…

Journell, Wayne

2013-01-01

294

In Defense of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship of science to technology and of both to social problems. Considers nature of scientific values and criteria for setting up priorities in science. Proposes interdisciplinary approaches to technological and social problems. (EB)

Weinberg, Alvin M.

1970-01-01

295

Integrating Social Science into the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network: Social Dimensions of Ecological Change and Ecological Dimensions of Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of the social sciences into long-term ecological research is an urgent priority. To address this need, a group of social, earth, and life scientists associated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Net- work have articulated a conceptual framework for understanding the human dimensions of ecological change for the LTER Network. This framework ex- plicitly

Charles L. Redman; J. Morgan Grove; Lauren H. Kuby

296

Specialties and disciplines in science and social science: An examination of their structure using citation indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of co-citation cluster analysis is applied to a special three-year (1972–1974) file of theSocial Sciences Citation Index. An algorithm is devised for identifying clusters which belong to a discipline based on the percentage of source documents which appear in a disciplinary journal set. Clusters in three disciplines (economics, sociology and psychology) are identified using this algorthm. Clusters in

H. G. Small; D. Crane

1979-01-01

297

Influence of a Reflective Explicit Activity-Based Approach on Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the influence of a reflective, explicit, activity-based approach to nature of science (NOS) instruction undertaken in the context of an elementary science methods course on pre- service teachers' views of some aspects of NOS. These aspects included the empirical, tentative, subjec- tive (theory-laden), imaginative and creative, and social and cultural NOS. Two additional aspects were the distinction

Valarie L. Akerson; Norman G. Lederman

2000-01-01

298

[Benchmarks for interdisciplinary health and social sciences research: contributions of a research seminar].  

PubMed

This article proposes a reflection on an interdisciplinary seminar, initiated by philosophy and sociology researchers and public health professionals. The objective of this seminar was to explore the mechanisms involved in setting up and conducting interdisciplinary research, by investigating the practical modalities of articulating health and human and social sciences research in order to more clearly understand the conditions, tensions and contributions of collaborative research. These questions were discussed on the basis of detailed analysis of four recent or current research projects. Case studies identified four typical epistemological or methodological issues faced by researchers in the fields of health and human and social sciences: institutional conditions and their effects on research; deconstruction of the object; the researcher's commitment in his/her field; the articulation of research methods. Three prerequisites for interdisciplinary research in social and human sciences and in health were identified: mutual questioning of research positions and fields of study; awareness of the tensions related to institutional positions and disciplinary affiliation; joint elaboration and exchanges between various types of knowledge to ensure an interdisciplinary approach throughout all of the research process. PMID:24418420

Kivits, Joëlle; Fournier, Cécile; Mino, Jean-Christophe; Frattini, Marie-Odile; Winance, Myriam; Lefève, Céline; Robelet, Magali

2013-01-01

299

The social and political lives of zoonotic disease models: narratives, science and policy.  

PubMed

Zoonotic diseases currently pose both major health threats and complex scientific and policy challenges, to which modelling is increasingly called to respond. In this article we argue that the challenges are best met by combining multiple models and modelling approaches that elucidate the various epidemiological, ecological and social processes at work. These models should not be understood as neutral science informing policy in a linear manner, but as having social and political lives: social, cultural and political norms and values that shape their development and which they carry and project. We develop and illustrate this argument in relation to the cases of H5N1 avian influenza and Ebola, exploring for each the range of modelling approaches deployed and the ways they have been co-constructed with a particular politics of policy. Addressing the complex, uncertain dynamics of zoonotic disease requires such social and political lives to be made explicit in approaches that aim at triangulation rather than integration, and plural and conditional rather than singular forms of policy advice. PMID:23702205

Leach, Melissa; Scoones, Ian

2013-07-01

300

IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Biological and Medical Science Libraries Section. Social Science Libraries Section. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six of the nine papers in this collection focus on biological and medical science libraries; the remaining three are concerned with social science libraries. The papers on biological and medical science libraries appear first in this list: (1) "Standards for Medical and Health Care Libraries: Canada" (Jan Greenwood, Canada); (2) "Standards for…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

301

Science and Technology Curriculum for Non-Science Students in the Secondary School (Technology for Social Action Curriculum - TSAC).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is a study focused on the construction and development of a model for guiding science curricula developers in designing the needed second generation programs for non-science secondary students in the seventies. The Technology (and Science) for Social Action Curriculum (TSAC) is presented as illustrative of the problems involved in…

Zoller, Uri

302

Earth Matters: Promoting Science Exploration through Blogs and Social Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is a 13-year old online publication focusing on the communication of NASA Earth science research, including climate change, weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public"--people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and popular media. We use the EO website (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) to host a variety of content including image-driven stories (natural events and research-based), articles featuring NASA research and, more recently, blogs that give us the ability to increase interaction with our users. For much of our site's history, our communication has been largely one way, and we have relied primarily on traditional online marketing techniques such as RSS and email listservs. As the information ecosystem evolves into one in which many users expect to play a more active role in distributing and even developing content through social media, we've experimented with various social media outlets (blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.) that offer new opportunities for people to interact with NASA data, scientists, and the EO editorial team. As part of our explorations, we are learning about how, and to what extent, these outlets can be used for interaction and outright promotion and how to achieve those goals with existing personnel and resources.

Ward, K.; Voiland, A. P.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Simmon, R. B.; Allen, J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.

2012-12-01

303

CAREER MOBILITY IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION: A SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

mobility phenomenon. An appealing approach for such an in-depth inquiry into turnover is social learning theory. Social learning theory posits that psychological functioning can be explained in terms of the interaction of personal characteristics, previous behavior (learning) and environmental determinants (Chapman, 1984). This psychological functioning involves valuing certain outcomes, discriminating among situations in terms of their potential to bring about

Tom Grady

1990-01-01

304

Social Approach and Emotion Recognition in Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to…

Williams, Tracey A.; Porter, Melanie A.; Langdon, Robyn

2014-01-01

305

Exploring the bio-psycho–social approach to premenstrual experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bio-psycho–social approach to the premenstrual syndrome suggests that cyclical hormonal changes are acknowledged and interpreted in light of the expectations and the attitudes acquired in the process of socialization. In this study, attitudes toward menstruation and premenstrual experiences of 229 Israeli students of different ethnic groups and gender role orientations were explored. The findings were consistent with previous reports:

Ofra Anson

1999-01-01

306

Toward a Social Approach to Learning in Community Service Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe a social approach to learning in community service learning that extends the contributions of three theoretical bodies of scholarship on learning: social constructionism, critical pedagogy, and community service learning. Building on the assumptions about learning described in each of these areas, engagement, identity, and…

Cooks, Leda; Scharrer, Erica; Paredes, Mari Castaneda

2004-01-01

307

Understanding and Accommodating Online Social Communities: A Common Sense Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with…

Lennon, Sean M.

2013-01-01

308

Bridging the cultural chasm: Improving collaboration and cooperation between the computer and social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the cultural chasm between computer scientists and social scientists and suggests ways and benefits of closer interaction and possible collaboration. Specifically, it presents exploratory research on the attitudes of computer scientists concerning the need for social research in computer system design, the efficacy of social science and the utility of social scientists in this endeavor, and finally

Bruce Perlman; Roli Varma

2001-01-01

309

Academic and social dimensions of student experience: The high school science classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study I asked how classroom participants defined and acted on academic and social dimensions of classroom life. Because little is known about how students think and feel about classroom experience (Erickson & Schultz, 1992), I focused on their perspectives. In attempting to sort out and report student perspectives, I used a case of one high school science classroom, Mr. Dansen's. Approaching the study of that case much like an anthropologist would, I treated the classroom as a "local world of science with characteristic habits of mind, behaviors, and meaning systems" (Page, 1994, p. 6). I assumed the centrality of meaning in guiding human behavior, accordingly, I used a social constructivist or interpretive theoretical lens. Ethnographic methods were used to document participants' views across a range of strategies: Classroom observations, interviews, a student focus group, a brief questionnaire, and the collection of school and classroom documents. I concluded that curriculum meaning-making is a series of balancing acts. In lessons teachers and students juggle diverse often contradictory academic and social relations. All of the situated activity constructs a fundamental imbalance in classroom experience. Students react to that perceived imbalance. Specifically, three categories of student response were ascertained. One, student isolates or those who withdraw significantly on some academic or social measure, about 45% of students in his class. Two, student enthusiasts; or those most enthusiastic about science and their science teacher, only 5% of students. Three, students who are ambivalent and waffle between engagement and withdrawal, about 50% of students. In sum, students withdrew in large numbers from the educational encounter. The major implication of this research is that students are clear-headed in their assessments of classroom life. Students' interpretations, in turn, directly influence whether or why they find school knowledge important. Thus, this study reveals the importance of considering student input as a legitimate factor in educational equations.

Longo, Ellen O'neil

310

An Alternative to Von Glasersfeld's Subjectivism in Science Education: Deweyan Social Constructivism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses von Glasersfeld's view of constructivism in science and mathematics educational research and practice. Provides a social constructivist alternative to von Glaserfeld's subjectivist constructivism. Discusses the practical art of experimental construction and objectivity in science education. (Author/JRH)

Garrison, Jim

1997-01-01

311

Cultures of Learning: Critical Reading in the Social and Applied Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares course requirements and student reading practices in a selection of units in business, engineering, health science, and social science and the findings challenge prevailing ideas of what constitutes tertiary literacy in Australian universities. (Author/VWL)

Kirkpatrick, Andy; Mulligan, Denise

2002-01-01

312

Social behavior in the "Age of Empathy"?-A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences.  

PubMed

Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond. PMID:23755003

Matusall, Svenja

2013-01-01

313

Dear Colleague Letter - Director, Division of Social and Economic Sciences (Closes: 10/14/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... Title: Division of Social and Economic Sciences Division Director Employment Opportunities--Dear ... Letter Date: August 18, 2005 Dear Colleague: I am seeking your assistance in identifying potential ...

314

Integrating Social Studies and Ethnobotany: A Multicultural Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a series of four lessons that integrate social studies, language arts, and life science for high school students. Explains that students participate in a wildflower collection activity, interview a person from another culture to collect interesting facts and wild stories, research a flowering plant, and make wildflower bookmarks. (CMK)

Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Forney, Scott

2001-01-01

315

Evaluation Guide - Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) is an interdisciplinary environmental science program which emphasizes the foundational concepts and methods of the physical, biological, and earth sciences, and relates these concepts to issues about the human use of the environment. This document stresses that evaluation is an integral part of…

Brantley, L. Reed; And Others

316

How to compare the social foundations of science culture: A trial with five cities in Korea.  

PubMed

Though there have been several indicator systems to monitor the status quo of science and technology and of scientific literacy, few are especially designed for science culture, especially for its social dimension. Furthermore there is little agreement on how to measure it. In a previous study, an indicator system, SCI (Science Culture Indicators), had been developed to monitor the status quo of the science culture of a nation at both individual and social dimensions. The purpose of this study was to explore a practical way to measure and compare local cities' social foundation of science culture by revising and standardizing the social dimension of SCI and by applying it to five metropolitan cities in Korea. Despite some limits, the results of this study appear not only to reflect the cities' current situations but also to show the strength and weakness of their social foundation of science culture. PMID:23832888

Song, Jinwoong; Chung, Minkyung; Choi, Eunjeong; Kim, Leekyoung; Cho, Sook-Kyoung

2013-01-01

317

Physics in Films: A New Approach to Teaching Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past year and a half we have developed an innovative approach to the teaching of `Physical Science', a general education course typically found in the curricula of nearly every college and university. The new approach uses popular movies to illustrate the principles of physical science, analyzing individual scenes against the background of the fundamental physical laws. The impact

Costas J. Efthimiou; Ralph Llewellyn

2004-01-01

318

Symposium: Uneasy Bedfellows: Social Science and Pornography: The British, Canadian, and U.S. Pornography Commissions and Their Use of Social Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that British, Canadian, and U.S. pornography commissions' definitions of pornography and their positions on its potential effects show substantial variation in sociopolitical interpretations and regard for social science evidence. (ARH)

Einsiedel, Edna F.

1988-01-01

319

On agent-based modeling and computational social science  

PubMed Central

In the first part of the paper, the field of agent-based modeling (ABM) is discussed focusing on the role of generative theories, aiming at explaining phenomena by growing them. After a brief analysis of the major strengths of the field some crucial weaknesses are analyzed. In particular, the generative power of ABM is found to have been underexploited, as the pressure for simple recipes has prevailed and shadowed the application of rich cognitive models. In the second part of the paper, the renewal of interest for Computational Social Science (CSS) is focused upon, and several of its variants, such as deductive, generative, and complex CSS, are identified and described. In the concluding remarks, an interdisciplinary variant, which takes after ABM, reconciling it with the quantitative one, is proposed as a fundamental requirement for a new program of the CSS.

Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario

2014-01-01

320

Connections! Linking Mathematics to Social Studies, Art, and Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national mathematics education standards. This publication offers online resources that connect mathematics to three subject areas: social studies, art, and science. Each section contains lesson plans, problems to solve, and examples of mathematics at work within contexts not usually associated with school mathematics. What is the point of integrating these disciplines? NCTM has reached this conclusion: If all the middle-grades teachers in a school do their best to connect content areas, mathematics and other disciplines will be seen as permeating life and not as just existing in isolation.

Herrera, Terese

2006-10-01

321

A Linguistic Approach to Social Studies Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates using a linguistic approach to supplement teaching social studies vocabulary. Highlights advantages of teaching vocabulary through etymological analysis, including greater student interest, more precise definitions, and the approach's transferability. Disadvantages include the complexity of some prefix meanings. Concludes that this…

Milligan, Jerry L.; Ruff, Thomas P.

1990-01-01

322

Science Sampler: A (minty) fresh approach to science fair projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students are excited at the prospect of doing a science fair project, but they don't know how to go about asking an appropriate question or designing an experiment to answer their question. This class activity allows students to quickly "do" a class science fair project in order to see how it's done. It's also a great way to introduce concepts of controlling variables and testing multiple subjects using an inexpensive breath mint. Even if you do not do science fair projects with your class, this is a terrific activity for the beginning of the year as an introduction to the process of scientific inquiry. Students discover how to ask a simple question and collect data to answer it in a step-by-step fashion.

Balter, Nancy

2007-02-01

323

Schools of California Online Resources for Education: History-Social Science One Stop Shopping for California's Social Studies Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the resources available for social studies teachers from the Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): History Social Science World Wide Web site. Includes curriculum-aligned resources and lessons; standards and assessment information; interactive projects and field trips; teacher chat area; professional development…

Hill, Margaret; Benoit, Robert

1998-01-01

324

An Analysis of the Social Science and History Concepts in Elementary Social Studies Textbooks Grades 1–4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social studies in the primary and elementary schools is often rationalized as providing a foundation in content for junior and senior high students. In this study the history and social science concepts in five selected primary series are identified and analyzed by discipline, for presence, and for sequencing across series. The implications of the omissions and lack of systematic presentation

Mary E. Haas

1991-01-01

325

Reconfiguring Access to Information and Expertise in the Social Sciences: The Social Shaping and Implications of Cyberinfrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

e-Social Science will transform not only how social researchers do their work, but also what they will discover, with whom they will collaborate, how they will share work, how they will report their findings, and what know-how they will require. Emerging technologies, such as the Grid and advanced Internet and Web developments, will reshape not only how researchers do what

William H. Dutton

326

Character or Caricature: Representations of Blackness in Dominican Social Science Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets out to examine the question: how do social science textbooks used in the Dominican public schools portray national identity and ethnicity to its students? This article examines how the popular contemporary Dominican perspective on "blackness" plays a fundamental role in the current Dominican social science public school…

Wigginton, Sheridan

2005-01-01

327

Social Sciences in Forestry, A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 46, June 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a selected bibliography of social sciences in forestry. It includes five major categories: (1) social science applied to forestry at large; (2) applied to forestry's production agents; (3) applied to forest production; (4) applied to manufacturing; and (5) applied to marketing, trade and demand for forest output. The booklet has a…

Lauby, Anne, Ed.

328

The Retreat from the Critical: Social Science Research in the Corporatised University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The commodification of research in the social sciences sees a focus on "inputs" rather than "outputs" and an emphasis on the "science" rather than the "social". The empirical prevails at the expense of the critical, with lessening interest in, and support for, knowledge designed to interrogate orthodoxy. Increasingly, scholars have to operate in a…

Thornton, Margaret

2008-01-01

329

Social Science Information & Documentation: Is the Time Ripe for a State of the Art?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses social science information needs and behavior. The first section describes the Bath studies on social science information behavior in the 1970s. The world "after Bath" is considered in the second section, including the development of large databases, information retrieval problems, and scholars' personal information…

Hobohm, Hans-Christoph

330

Scientific Expertise and Natural Resource Decisions: Social Science Participation on Interdisciplinary Scientific Committees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social scientists should seek greater involvement in interdisciplinary scientific committees, which often play important roles in natural resource management. In addition to our acknowledged areas of expertise, we have the ability to educate other disciplines about social sciences and, importantly, also about the realities of biophysical science input into policy processes. Two examples are worth noting. First, the asymmetry of

William R. Freudenburg; Robert Gramling

2002-01-01

331

Social Science Stereotypes of the Mexican American Woman: Policy Implications for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social sciences portray the Chicana or Mexican American woman almost exclusively as a submissive maternal figure. The tenacity with which the social sciences have perpetuated stereotypes about Chicanas appears to be related to an on-going trend to support studies of interpersonal or cultural characteristics of Chicanas and a resistance to undertake evaluations of systemic discrimination against Mexican American women.

Sally J. Andrade

1982-01-01

332

"White Blankets May Make You Smarter" and Other Questionable Social Science Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social sciences are awash with studies of varying quality. The process of getting published is supposed to sort the good from the bad and, through feedback and editing, make the good better. Ideally, that is how the system should and usually does work--but it does not always work that way. One problem with social science research is that the…

Blimling, Gregory S.

2004-01-01

333

The Use of Citation Linkages and Networks for Information Retrieval in the Social Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Design of Information Systems in the Social Sciences (DISISS) is a research project with the objective of carrying out research necessary for the effective design of information systems in the social sciences, whether by the creation of new systems or...

B. Skelton

1973-01-01

334

Cyberinfrastructure for the humanities and social sciences: advancing the humanities research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006 the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) released Our Cultural Commonwealth, the final report of the Commission on Cyberinfrastructure for the Humanities and Social Sciences. The report, based on a study funded by the Mellon Foundation, explored how research environments might be created for the humanities and social sciences to complement those being developed to support scientific research.

Joyce Ray; Clifford A. Lynch; Brett Bobley; Gregory Crane; Steven Wheatley

2007-01-01

335

Phronetic social science: a means of better researching and analysing coaching?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present the case for phronetic social science as an appropriate lens through which to view sports coaching. In doing so, we firstly define and then elaborate upon the principal concepts contained within phronetic social science as related to complex action, flexibility, moral reflection and power. By locating them within recent coaching research, the

Liv B. Hemmestad; Robyn L. Jones; Øyvind F. Standal

2010-01-01

336

Involving Users in Social Science Research--A New European Paradigm?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent EU social science research programmes have stressed the importance of the "user". Using a study of EU funded social science projects, the article develops a typology of the different forms of user involvement. A case study of a "cluster" of research projects shows that user involvement within projects has significant national variations.…

Wickham, James; Collins, Grainne

2006-01-01

337

The Organisation of Sociality: A Manifesto for a New Science of Multi Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we pose and motivate a challenge, namely the need for a new science of multi- agent systems. We propose that this new science should be grounded, theoretically on a richer conception of sociality, and methodologically on the extensive use of computational modelling for real-world applications and social simulations. Here, the steps we set forth towards meeting that

Pietro Panzarasa; Nicholas R. Jennings

338

Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography and Index. No. 72.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Social Sciences in Forestry" provides an annotated bibliographic listing of 648 current references arranged according to four major areas of forestry: (1) social sciences applications to forestry at large (containing citations on resources, history, legislation, policy, planning, appraisal and valuation, investment and finance,…

Albrecht, Jean, Ed.; Rodkewich, Patricia, Ed.

1987-01-01

339

Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography and Index. No. 71.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Social Sciences in Forestry" provides an annotated bibliographic listing of 682 current references arranged according to four major areas of forestry: (1) social sciences applications to forestry at large (containing citations on resources, history, legislation, policy, planning, appraisal and valuation, investment and finance,…

Albrecht, Jean, Ed.; Rodkewich, Patricia, Ed.

1987-01-01

340

Elements of Creative Social Science: Part I--Towards Greater Authority for the Knowledge Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an argument defending the cognitive knowledge base in the social sciences. Contends that the findings related to the sociosphere are as important as those findings in the technosphere or biosphere. Suggests that the creation of a social science equivalency to research and development which would be called operationalizing and assembly.…

Lengyel, Peter

1989-01-01

341

The Integration of Natural and Social Sciences in the MAB Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods of the Unesco Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program inhibit the integration of natural and social sciences. The systems analysis and modeling used by MAB employ little of social science theory. The program must be committed to disciplinary integration and involve local people in projects. (KC)

Whyte, Anne

1982-01-01

342

Basic Concepts in the Methodology of the Social Sciences. HSRC Studies in Research Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerations of validity that are central to all disciplines in the social sciences are discussed, and concepts that are an essential part of the intellectual equipment of the social sciences researcher are systematically analyzed. Fundamental methodological concepts underlying decisions made in the research process are highlighted to encourage…

Mouton, Johann, Ed.; Marais, H. C.

343

A Guanxi Shibboleth based Security Infrastructure for e-Social Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

An e-Social Science infrastructure generally has security requirements to protect their restricted resources or services. As a widely accepted authentication and authorization technology, Shibboleth supports the sharing of resources on inter- institutional federation. Guanxi is an open source implementation of the Shibboleth protocol and architecture. In this paper, we propose a security infrastructure for e-social science based on the Guanxi

Wei Jie; Alistair Young; Junaid Arshad

344

The 1954 Social Science Statement and School Desegregation: A Reply to Gerard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

H.B. Gerard (1983) has misrepresented the content of the 1954 Social Science Statement. His appraisal of school desegregation is misleading in terms of both its current status and future potential; further, the actual and potential role of social science in public policy is more extensive than Gerard has claimed. (CMG)

Cook, Stuart W.

1984-01-01

345

NSF's approach to misconduct in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the National Science Foundation (NSF), the investigation of allegations of misconduct in science is the responsibility of the Office of Inspector General (OIG). NSF's procedures distinguish between the preliminary inquiry and the formal investigation. They also distinguish these stages from the adjudication stage, which is the responsibility of the Office of the Director of NSF rather than of OIG.

Donald E. Buzzelli

1993-01-01

346

Effective Use of Social Media in Communicating Climate Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.

Sinclair, P. W.

2012-12-01

347

Reusable Social Networking Capabilities for an Earth Science Collaboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast untapped resource of data, tools, information and knowledge lies within the Earth science community. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to share the full spectrum of these entities, particularly their full context. As a result, most knowledge exchange is through person-to-person contact at meetings, email and journal articles, each of which can support only a limited level of detail. We propose the creation of an Earth Science Collaboratory (ESC): a framework that would enable sharing of data, tools, workflows, results and the contextual knowledge about these information entities. The Drupal platform is well positioned to provide the key social networking capabilities to the ESC. As a proof of concept of a rich collaboration mechanism, we have developed a Drupal-based mechanism for graphically annotating and commenting on results images from analysis workflows in the online Giovanni analysis system for remote sensing data. The annotations can be tagged and shared with others in the community. These capabilities are further supplemented by a Research Notebook capability reused from another online analysis system named Talkoot. The goal is a reusable set of modules that can integrate with variety of other applications either within Drupal web frameworks or at a machine level.

Lynnes, C.; Da Silva, D.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Ramachandran, R.

2011-12-01

348

The role of social support in students' perceived abilities and attitudes toward math and science.  

PubMed

Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects. PMID:22890901

Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M

2013-07-01

349

Bayesian Dynamical Systems Modelling in the Social Sciences  

PubMed Central

Data arising from social systems is often highly complex, involving non-linear relationships between the macro-level variables that characterize these systems. We present a method for analyzing this type of longitudinal or panel data using differential equations. We identify the best non-linear functions that capture interactions between variables, employing Bayes factor to decide how many interaction terms should be included in the model. This method punishes overly complicated models and identifies models with the most explanatory power. We illustrate our approach on the classic example of relating democracy and economic growth, identifying non-linear relationships between these two variables. We show how multiple variables and variable lags can be accounted for and provide a toolbox in R to implement our approach.

Ranganathan, Shyam; Spaiser, Viktoria; Mann, Richard P.; Sumpter, David J. T.

2014-01-01

350

Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

351

Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST)--A Structured "Inquiry" Oriented Junior Science Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a detailed description of the three-year Foundational Approaches in Science Education curriculum developed at the University of Hawaii. The program utilizes a spiral approach with topics in ecology, physical science and relational study. Sample units and implementation suggestions are provided. (CP)

Dekkers, John; Rouse, Fae

1977-01-01

352

A Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Approach Improves Science Process Skills in 4-H Animal Science Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) approach was designed for youth who participated in the Minnesota State Fair Livestock interview process. The project and evaluation were designed to determine if the new SET approach increased content knowledge and science process skills in participants. Results revealed that youth participants not…

Clarke, Katie C.

2010-01-01

353

Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 2: A bibliographic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There are strong arguments for social science and interdisciplinary research in the neglected tropical diseases. These diseases represent a rich and dynamic interplay between vector, host, and pathogen which occurs within social, physical and biological contexts. The overwhelming sense, however, is that neglected tropical diseases research is a biomedical endeavour largely excluding the social sciences. The purpose of this review is to provide a baseline for discussing the quantum and nature of the science that is being conducted, and the extent to which the social sciences are a part of that. Methods A bibliographic analysis was conducted of neglected tropical diseases related research papers published over the past 10 years in biomedical and social sciences. The analysis had textual and bibliometric facets, and focussed on chikungunya, dengue, visceral leishmaniasis, and onchocerciasis. Results There is substantial variation in the number of publications associated with each disease. The proportion of the research that is social science based appears remarkably consistent (<4%). A textual analysis, however, reveals a degree of misclassification by the abstracting service where a surprising proportion of the "social sciences" research was pure clinical research. Much of the social sciences research also tends to be "hand maiden" research focused on the implementation of biomedical solutions. Conclusion There is little evidence that scientists pay any attention to the complex social, cultural, biological, and environmental dynamic involved in human pathogenesis. There is little investigator driven social science and a poor presence of interdisciplinary science. The research needs more sophisticated funders and priority setters who are not beguiled by uncritical biomedical promises.

2011-01-01

354

“Ethics wars”: Reflections on the Antagonism between Bioethicists and Social Science Observers of Biomedicine 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social scientists often lament the fact that philosophically trained ethicists pay limited attention to the insights they generate. This paper presents an overview of tendencies in sociological and anthropological studies of morality, ethics and bioethics, and suggests that a lack in philosophical interest might be related to a tendency among social scientists to employ either a deficit model (social science

Klaus Hoeyer

2006-01-01

355

Ethics and the Unintended Consequences of Social Research: A Perspective from the Sociology of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that "successful" social science requires development of a social ethic or sense of research responsibility, and suggests that an individualistic orientation is ineffective in coping with the unintended consequences of social research. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies…

Studer, Kenneth E.; Chubin, Daryl E.

1977-01-01

356

Framing Education for a Science of Social Work: Missions, Curriculum, and Doctoral Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social work education has historically been grounded in professional practice but recent discussions have urged a reconsideration of social work as a science. Social work is progressively doing more intervention work, service systems research, implementation research, and translational research which are elevating research standards to new levels…

Fong, Rowena

2012-01-01

357

The Role of Social Support in Students' Perceived Abilities and Attitudes toward Math and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social

Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M.; Guadagno, Rosanna E.; Smith, Gabrielle P. A.; McCallum, Debra M.

2013-01-01

358

Science for ELLs: Rethinking Our Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many educators feel ill-prepared to meet the academic needs of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. As educators, we strive to guarantee science education opportunities for all students. Although much remains unknown, current research provides us with crucial strategies to help English Language Learner (ELL) students in the science classroom. Here we look at possible issues in diverse classrooms and offer some ideas to provoke curiosity and confidence in ELL students.

Medina, Amelia; Clark, Douglas B.; Ramirez-Marin, Frank; Medina-Jerez, William

2007-03-01

359

Diversity of Approaches to Structuring University-Based Earth System Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past quarter century, the "Earth system science" paradigm has emerged among the interdisciplinary science community, emphasizing interactions among components hitherto considered within separate disciplines: atmosphere (air); hydrosphere (water); biosphere (life); lithosphere (land); anthroposphere (human dimension); and exosphere (solar system and beyond). How should the next generation of Earth system scientists learn to contribute to this interdisciplinary endeavor? There is no one simple answer. The Earth System Science Education program, funded by NASA, has addressed this question by supporting faculty at U.S. universities who develop new courses, curricula and degree programs in their institutional contexts. This report demonstrates the diversity of approaches to structuring university-based Earth system science education, focusing on the 18 current grantees of the Earth System Science Education Program for the 21st Century (ESSE21). One of the most fundamental characteristics is the departmental structure for teaching Earth system science. The "home" departments of the Earth system science faculty range from Earth sciences and physics to agronomy and social work. A brand-new institution created an interdisciplinary Institute for Earth Systems Science and Policy without traditional "parent" departments. Some institutions create new degree programs as majors or as minors while others work within existing degree programs to add or revise courses. A university may also offer multiple strands, such as a degree in the Science of the Earth System and a degree in the Human Dimensions of the Earth System. Defining a career path is extremely important to students considering Earth system science programs and a major institutional challenge for all programs in Earth system science education. How will graduate programs assess prospective students? How will universities and government agencies assess prospective faculty and scientists? How will government agencies allocate funds to interdisciplinary Earth system science and technology? Finally, how should the Earth system science education community evolve?

Aron, J.; Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

2004-12-01

360

Setting up spaces for collaboration in industry between researchers from the natural and social sciences.  

PubMed

Policy makers call upon researchers from the natural and social sciences to collaborate for the responsible development and deployment of innovations. Collaborations are projected to enhance both the technical quality of innovations, and the extent to which relevant social and ethical considerations are integrated into their development. This could make these innovations more socially robust and responsible, particularly in new and emerging scientific and technological fields, such as synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Some researchers from both fields have embarked on collaborative research activities, using various Technology Assessment approaches and Socio-Technical Integration Research activities such as Midstream Modulation. Still, practical experience of collaborations in industry is limited, while much may be expected from industry in terms of socially responsible innovation development. Experience in and guidelines on how to set up and manage such collaborations are not easily available. Having carried out various collaborative research activities in industry ourselves, we aim to share in this paper our experiences in setting up and working in such collaborations. We highlight the possibilities and boundaries in setting up and managing collaborations, and discuss how we have experienced the emergence of 'collaborative spaces.' Hopefully our findings can facilitate and encourage others to set up collaborative research endeavours. PMID:23467918

Flipse, Steven M; van der Sanden, Maarten C A; Osseweijer, Patricia

2014-03-01

361

Pluralism and Rationality in the Social Sciences. Studies of Higher Education and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at science from a sociological perspective while still trying to retain the aim of improving rationality. The paper claims that it is rational to have a methodological division of labor in science, in particular in the social sciences, and concludes that mono-methodological Crusonian rationality should be replaced by…

Johansson, Ingvar

1990-01-01

362

Putting Sociology First--Reconsidering the Role of the Social in "Nature of Science" Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasting two examples from 2005, a creationism-trial and a recent textbook, the article shows two different ways of employing social considerations to demarcate science from non-science. Drawing conclusions from the comparison, and citing some of the leading proponents of science studies, the paper argues for a novel perspective in teaching…

Zemplen, Gabor A.

2009-01-01

363

Integrating Social Science into the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network: Social Dimensions of Ecological Change and Ecological Dimensions of Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of the social sciences into long-term ecological research is an urgent priority. To address this need, a group of social, earth, and life scientists associated with the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network have articulated a conceptual framework for understanding the human dimensions of ecological change for the LTER Network. This framework explicitly advocates that

Charles L. Redman; J. Morgan Grove; Lauren H. Kubyl

2004-01-01

364

An instructional package integrating science and social studies instruction at the fifth-grade level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrative education is being implemented by classroom teachers who want to immerse students in an environment rich in problem-solving skills, critical analysis skills, ethics, valuing of knowledge, and communication of learning. Several subject areas in the curriculum have been integrated, such as literature with social studies and mathematics with science. The focus of this dissertation is on the integration of science and social studies at the fifth grade level using the Mississippi State Department of Education Curriculum Guidelines and Objectives (MSDE, 1995) and the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council (NRC), 1996). An instructional package of lesson plans that teachers can use as ideas to create their own plans for an integrated curriculum of science and social studies was devised. The Mississippi State Department of Education Curriculum Guidelines and Objectives for Social Studies (MSDE, 1995) at the fifth grade level contain fifteen competencies. Three standards from the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) were chosen. They include (a) science and technology, (b) science in personal and social perspectives, and (c) the history and nature of science. Each competency for social studies has three lesson plans written that integrate the three chosen standards from the National Science Education Standards. A total of forty-five lesson plans were written integrating science and social studies. Each lesson plan includes an objective, materials, procedures, and evaluation for teachers. Teachers are encouraged to use the lesson plans as a guide in creating their own lesson plans that would correspond to their school's particular curriculum guidelines. Consideration should be given to the learning levels and styles of their classroom. This qualitative study was done to create lesson plans that integrate science and social studies with the hope that teachers will expand upon them and implement them into their curricula.

Hulley, Kathy Louise Sullivan

365

Social power and approach-related neural activity.  

PubMed

It has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and attention to rewards. In contrast, reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related motivation. Moreover, approach motivation has been found to be associated with increased relative left-sided frontal brain activity, while withdrawal motivation has been associated with increased right sided activations. We measured EEG activity while subjects engaged in a task priming either high or low social power. Results show that high social power is indeed associated with greater left-frontal brain activity compared to low social power, providing the first neural evidence for the theory that high power is associated with approach-related motivation. We propose a framework accounting for differences in both approach motivation and goal-directed behaviour associated with different levels of power. PMID:19304842

Boksem, Maarten A S; Smolders, Ruud; De Cremer, David

2012-06-01

366

FAST: Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching. Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) is a program which is intended to facilitate student transition from the general science process programs of elementary schools to the discipline-oriented programs of high school. This guide has been developed to provide an overview of the total program as well as a description of the…

Brantley, L. Reed; And Others

367

A Language-Sensitive Science Teacher Training Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Primary Science Program's (PSP) 12-step approach to teacher development. Components of the framework are used consistently throughout South Africa in PSP INSET workshops. One desired outcome is that teachers will design tasks that develop both language and science skills. (Author/VWL)

Diamondidis, Elaine; Shaheen, Manal

1998-01-01

368

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL BASES OF SCIENCE--A PROCESS APPROACH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE TEXTS OF THREE LECTURES CONSTITUTE THIS BOOKLET. TWO OF THESE LECTURES WERE USED TO SET THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND FUNCTIONAL TONE FOR THE 1963 AND 1964 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE WRITING CONFERENCES DURING WHICH "SCIENCE--A PROCESS APPROACH" WAS PRODUCED. THE THIRD LECTURE WAS PRESENTED TO TEACHERS WHO WERE PREPARING TO…

GAGNE, ROBERT

369

Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. The Case of the Humanities and Social Science. Country Study: Sweden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment, particularly in the humanities and social sciences, looks at employment for social science and humanities graduates in Sweden. Following an introduction in section 1, section 2 offers a short description of the evolution of humanities and social sciences in Swedish…

Andersson, Dan; And Others

370

Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. The Case of the Humanities and Social Sciences. Country Study: Austria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in the humanities and social sciences, looks at employment prospects for social science and humanities graduates in Austria. Organized in three main sections the first reviews past problems in humanities and social science education. In particular the…

Pechar, Hans; And Others

371

The ethics of pharmaceutical research funding: a social organization approach.  

PubMed

This paper advances a social organization approach to examining unethical behavior. While unethical behaviors may stem in part from failures in individual morality or psychological blind spots, they are both generated and performed through social interactions among individuals and groups. To illustrate the value of a social organization approach, a case study of a medical school professor's first experience with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored research is provided in order to examine how funding arrangements can constrain research integrity. The case illustrates three significant ways that institutional corruption can occur in the research process. First, conflicts of norms between pharmaceutical companies, universities, and affiliated teaching hospitals can result in compromises and self-censorship. Second, normal behavior is shaped through routine interactions. Unethical behaviors can be (or can become) normal behaviors when they are produced and reproduced through a network of social interactions. Third, funding arrangements can create networks of dependency that structurally distort the independence of the academic researcher in favor of the funder's interests. More broadly, the case study demonstrates how the social organization approach deepens our understanding of the practice of ethics. PMID:24088153

Gray, Garry C

2013-01-01

372

The Social Construction of Facts and Artefacts: Or How the Sociology of Science and the Sociology of Technology Might Benefit Each Other.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines arguments for and reviews related literature suggesting that the study of science and technology can benefit from each other. Also discusses the Empirical Program of Relativism and social constructivist approaches to the study of technology, illustrating the parallels between the two approaches. Directions for the future are addressed.…

Pinch, Trevor J.; Bijker, Wiebe E.

1984-01-01

373

Social marketing: an overview of approach and effects  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the applicability of commercial and social marketing to teen driving safety. It draws on a wide range of information, including evaluation studies of specific programs as well as standards of practice within these two professions. Social marketing has been widely applied for more than three decades in the fields of public health, environmental protection, and political marketing with significant success. The paper attempts to distinguish between the practice of commercial marketing, whose goal is profit, and the practice of social marketing, whose goal is societal benefit. Issues of sustainability, segmentation, differences in behavioral characteristics, and cultural competence are discussed with specific examples drawn from the transportation safety literature. The paper suggests that social marketing represents a viable companion to control and education approaches to behavior change to promote teen driving safety.

Smith, W A

2006-01-01

374

Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

Wang, Yingchun

2010-01-01

375

Religious Content in Social Work Education: A Comparative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a rationale and methodology for teaching about the religious and spiritual aspects of human behavior in social work curricula. An approach derived from the field of comparative religious studies is described, including examination of religion as a universal aspect of human culture, religious diversity, and the usefulness and authenticity of religious beliefs and practices. Implications for the

Edward R. Canda

1989-01-01

376

Assessing Learning in Community Service Learning: A Social Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay advances a way of thinking about assessment that envelops both process and outcome. We assert that learning in community service learning and the assessment thereof might fruitfully be considered in communication with others (the students, constituents from the community, instructors, etc.). Concepts central to a social approach to…

Cooks, Leda; Scharrer, Erica

2006-01-01

377

State of Modern Measurement Approaches in Social Work Research Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to develop measures that tap into constructs of interest to social work, refine existing measures, and ensure that measures function adequately across diverse populations of interest is critical. Item response theory (IRT) is a modern measurement approach that is increasingly seen as an essential tool in a number of allied professions.…

Unick, George J.; Stone, Susan

2010-01-01

378

Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

Edwards, Keith E.

2009-01-01

379

Into the Curriculum: Reading/Language Arts: Cinderella, Cinderella, Cinderella! [and] Reading/Language Arts: Fanny vs. Cinderella [and] Science: Animals of the Ocean [and] Science and Social Studies: Weather or Climate? [and] Social Studies/Science/Language Arts/Mathematics: Rivers in America [and] Social Studies/Foreign Language: Bon Voyage!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides lesson plans for grades two and four to five reading/language arts, grade two science, grades three to five science/social studies, grade five language arts/math/science/social studies, and grades five to seven social studies/French. Lists resources and discusses library skills, subject objectives, instructional roles, activities,…

Lee, Betsey; Bailey, Annette; Rechkemmer, Rhonda; Hedrick, Judy; Stavarz, Jamie M.

1998-01-01

380

Social Sciences and Humanities in the IPY 2007/08: An Integrating Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the human dimension of polar regions is immensely greater today than at the beginning of polar science. In the IPY 2007/2008, social sciences and humanities aspire to become fully engaged members of a new multidisciplinary effort. They are eager to address issues of partnership and public involvement, socio-economic development, governance, cultural viability and human rights of polar residents. These societal issues are among the top priorities of the IPY 2007/2008 mission to enhance the understanding of human-environmental interactions in the polar systems and to promote the value of polar science and global monitoring among the public at large. Other social issues-security, diplomacy, demography, health, education, communications-are also critical to polar research and to the scientific advance into the Arctic and Antarctica. The success of IPY 2007/08 requires the articulation of the common interest among scientists, polar peoples, economic actors, and sovereign nations, facing current global change. Experience from various regions present convincing evidence that lasting progress in the understanding and preservation of the environment can only be achieved if local populations are respected and involved. Research made at the "poles" is, thus, crucial for establishing models of equity and involvement, partnership and outreach. In this mission of the IPY 2007/2008 program social scientists and humanists are to make credible contributions. One of the key missions for social scientists under the IPY 2007/2008 program is to develop cooperative observation programs involving interested indigenous experts, subsistence users, and other polar residents. Through generations of life in the polar environment, polar people have developed long-standing knowledge and observation techniques in recording and interpreting a broad range of signals and phenomena in the polar systems. Efforts to integrate local experts into year-round circumpolar observing networks would provide polar researchers with an opportunity to learn of both present and past conditions from the vast store of indigenous knowledge and to augment instrument and satellite data with local observations. Another critical task for social scientists is to initiate studies of human and societal adaptations to past and present change in the polar regions. Research should target strategies and adaptive mechanisms that worked in the past and that are working today, particularly as seen from the community perspective. Analysis of past and present human responses to both physical/natural and social change would inform our broader understanding of integrated social and ecological systems in the polar regions and at the global level. Partnering with polar communities will help the IPY scientists develop new strategies and holistic approaches to explore unique contributions from polar regions to global systems, cultures, and science. These new approaches will promote scholarly cooperation between polar researchers and local residents; advance the scientific use of traditional knowledge; advance studies in community sustainability, subsistence and co-management strategies, ecosystem health, spiritual and environmental healing, heritage and language preservation. Previous IPY/IGY ventures have sparked human imagination and helped build public interest in polar research. The legacy of IPY 2007-2008, when preserved in diaries, instruments, photographs, and museum collections, will excite new generations of researchers and public in 25, 50 or even 100 years from now, as much as the memories, records, and collections of the earlier Polar Years helped generate enthusiasm for the IPY 2007/2008.

Krupnik, I.

2004-12-01

381

Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.  

PubMed

A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary. PMID:24984445

Biddle, Justin B

2014-03-01

382

[Theoretical and methodological uses of research in Social and Human Sciences in Health].  

PubMed

The current article aims to map and critically reflect on the current theoretical and methodological uses of research in the subfield of social and human sciences in health. A convenience sample was used to select three Brazilian public health journals. Based on a reading of 1,128 abstracts published from 2009 to 2010, 266 articles were selected that presented the empirical base of research stemming from social and human sciences in health. The sample was classified thematically as "theoretical/ methodological reference", "study type/ methodological design", "analytical categories", "data production techniques", and "analytical procedures". We analyze the sample's emic categories, drawing on the authors' literal statements. All the classifications and respective variables were tabulated in Excel. Most of the articles were self-described as qualitative and used more than one data production technique. There was a wide variety of theoretical references, in contrast with the almost total predominance of a single type of data analysis (content analysis). In several cases, important gaps were identified in expounding the study methodology and instrumental use of the qualitative research techniques and methods. However, the review did highlight some new objects of study and innovations in theoretical and methodological approaches. PMID:23288071

Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

2012-12-01

383

A Balanced Approach To Science Inquiry Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good science inquiry teaching in the classroom often means many things to practitioners including less teacher intervention,\\u000a less expository teaching, less explicit instruction, less direct teaching, or fewer teacher explanations. Researchers and\\u000a other scholars commenting to teachers don’t mean to leave this false, unbalanced impression: Less explicit teaching is better\\u000a inquiry teaching, by definition (Harris, & Graham, 2000).

William G. Holliday

384

Social Science Courses for Future Teachers: The Conflict between Education and the Arts and Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs which lead to licensing and certification of social studies teachers should be based upon standards and curriculum set by social studies educators instead of social scientists. Reluctance of social scientists to work cooperatively with social studies educators is based largely upon the inability of social studies professionals to define…

Anctil, Donald E.

385

Teaching the behavioral science component in a family practice residency: social work role.  

PubMed

The article describes a social work-oriented behavioral science component within a family practice residency training program. The identified goal of teaching the behavioral science component is the development of skills in the area of interpersonal (physician-patient) relationships. To this end, a lecture series, self-awareness growth groups, and counseling experiences by residents are used. Whereas a number of disciplines deal with human interaction and behavior and are included under the "behavioral science" rubric, the paper shows the particular effectiveness of a social worker's direction in meeting the behavioral science training needs of family practice residents. PMID:7292244

Wolkenstein, A S; Laufenburg, H F

1981-01-01

386

Visualising the invisible: a network approach to reveal the informal social side of student learning.  

PubMed

World-wide, universities in health sciences have transformed their curriculum to include collaborative learning and facilitate the students' learning process. Interaction has been acknowledged to be the synergistic element in this learning context. However, students spend the majority of their time outside their classroom and interaction does not stop outside the classroom. Therefore we studied how informal social interaction influences student learning. Moreover, to explore what really matters in the students learning process, a model was tested how the generally known important constructs-prior performance, motivation and social integration-relate to informal social interaction and student learning. 301 undergraduate medical students participated in this cross-sectional quantitative study. Informal social interaction was assessed using self-reported surveys following the network approach. Students' individual motivation, social integration and prior performance were assessed by the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Adaption Questionnaire and students' GPA respectively. A factual knowledge test represented student' learning. All social networks were positively associated with student learning significantly: friendships (? = 0.11), providing information to other students (? = 0.16), receiving information from other students (? = 0.25). Structural equation modelling revealed a model in which social networks increased student learning (r = 0.43), followed by prior performance (r = 0.31). In contrast to prior literature, students' academic motivation and social integration were not associated with students' learning. Students' informal social interaction is strongly associated with students' learning. These findings underline the need to change our focus from the formal context (classroom) to the informal context to optimize student learning and deliver modern medics. PMID:22294429

Hommes, J; Rienties, B; de Grave, W; Bos, G; Schuwirth, L; Scherpbier, A

2012-12-01

387

Philosophical Approaches of Religious Jewish Science Teachers toward the Teaching of "Controversial" Topics in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the problems that religious Jewish science teachers in Israeli high schools have in coping with science subjects (such as geological time) which conflict with their religious beliefs. We do this by characterizing the philosophical approaches within Judaism that such teachers have adopted for dealing with such controversy.…

Dodick, Jeff; Dayan, Aliza; Orion, Nir

2010-01-01

388

A History of Science Approach to the Nature of Science: Learning Science by Rediscovering it  

Microsoft Academic Search

My interest in teaching the nature of science came from attempts to integrate history into physics courses for teachers at the Bakken Library and Museum beginning in 1985. My background in the history of science and in teaching physics appeared ideal for helping teachers transform the science of facts and equations they typically teach into science as a human activity.

Nahum Kipnis

389

Examining the social and scientific roles of invention in science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have been drawn to the construct of “invention” and “inventive acts” because in my research involving how homeless children construct science and the self-in-science, an overwhelming theme has been the multiple ways in which self-identity in science has been described by the children through a language of invention. Using post-modern feminism and science and technologies studies, I examine the multiple uses and definitions of “invention” in science in order to develop a theory of invention and inventive acts around the themes: invention as a social act, invention as a recursive and socially linked process, and embodied agency. I use this framework to examine the construct of “invention” in two different case studies involving the science education of urban homeless children. Finally, I link this discussion of invention and inventive acts with current international reform initiatives revolving around constructivist science teaching and learning.

Calabrese-Barton, Angela

1998-03-01

390

Qualitative differences in approaches to teaching first year university science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing lecturers' teaching strategies to improve learning in higher education may mean first having to address the intentions associated with those strategies. The study reported in this paper used a phenomenographic approach to explore the intentions associated with the teaching strategies of first year physical science lecturers. Approaches found ranged from those involving information transmission to those where the intention

Keith Trigwell; Michael Prosser; Philip Taylor

1994-01-01

391

A Process Education Approach To Teaching Computer Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The driving force of process education is its focus on students'"learning to learn." This paper describes an approach to teaching computer science which includes classroom management; the adaptation of four different courses to follow the process education approach; successes achieved; and students' responses. The courses are conducted in closed…

Smith, Peter D.

392

Approaches To Teaching Science in the Jordanian Primary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of the influence of different approaches to teaching units from the Jordanian science curriculum on over 600 students from grades 6, 9, and 10. Trains a small sample of male and female teachers in the use of cooperative learning and lecture-demonstration approaches to teaching. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

Qualter, Anne; Abu-Hola, I. R. A.

2000-01-01

393

University student approaches to learning science through writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the approaches adopted by students to a university writing programme designed to help them learn first?year undergraduate science. The research design includes phenomenographic analyses of 19 interviews and 50 open?ended questionnaires, as well as quantitative analyses of the qualitative data. The main results of the study are the close association between the quality of the students’ approaches

Robert A. Ellis

2004-01-01

394

University student approaches to learning science through writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the approaches adopted by students to a university writing programme designed to help them learn first-year undergraduate science. The research design includes phenomenographic analyses of 19 interviews and 50 open-ended questionnaires, as well as quantitative analyses of the qualitative data. The main results of the study are the close association between the quality of the students' approaches

Robert A. Ellis

2004-01-01

395

From Wayback Machine to Yesternet: New Opportunities for Social Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social scientists have stores of data on individuals and groups but relatively little on social interactions, the basis of all social life. That is likely to change due to the spread of computer-mediated interactions that leave a digital record. The flood of available on-line information - from corporate web pages to news groups, wikis, and blogs - has the potential

William Arms; Dan Huttenlocher; Jon Kleinberg; Michael Macy; David Strang

396

A Demanding Future in the Hydrologic Sciences: International Collaborations and Incorporating the Social Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When considering groundwater research focused on sustainable water supply in a developing region such as western Africa, questions that need to be addressed range from long-term variation in precipitation, to geochemical alteration of natural and anthropogenic contaminants, to development of management strategies that are consistent not only with technology but also with social and religious customs. While some may view these projects as 'service', these types of projects provide fertile ground for new technical and policy advances in the study of groundwater resources, with results that may provide substantial new insights to technological and policy issues in the United States. Research questions that might be addressed include impact of long-term uncertainties in climate, integration of data time-series of variable frequency and quality, measure of the value of a groundwater resource, integration of technical and social constraints on management strategies, and integration of multiple views of water as a resource. In addition, these types of projects provide opportunities for active collaboration with colleagues from other countries who view research in hydrology quite differently than do many of our colleagues in the United States. It is therefore argued that there is a demanding, challenging future for advances in the hydrologic sciences focused on sustainability issues in regions of the world for which groundwater is a critical resource limiting development.

Silliman, S. E.; Crane, P.; Boukari, M.

2005-12-01

397

A Contextual Approach to the Assessment of Social Skills: Identifying Meaningful Behaviors for Social Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted which assessed behaviors that characterize social competence in the second and fifth grades. A contextual approach was used to gather information from second- and fifth-grade children and their parents and teachers regarding the behaviors they perceived to be important for getting along well with peers. Data were…

Warnes, Emily D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Geske, Jenenne; Warnes, William A.

2005-01-01

398

Combating Terrorism: Research Priorities in the Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The knowledge and tools of the social, behavioral and economic (SBE) sciences are immediately applicable to the construction of strategies that can enhance the Nation's capacity to predict, prevent, prepare for and recover from a terrorist attack. Our cap...

2006-01-01

399

New territory: Problems of adjusting to the first year of a social science PhD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1982 there have been considerable structural changes in the funding and organisation of the social science PhD, yet what knowledge there is concerning the actual PhD process is scant. In an attempt to remedy this state of affairs, this paper examines in some depth the problems which first year social science PhD students encounter when adapting to their new

John Hockey

1994-01-01

400

A human and social sciences wiktionary in a peer-to-peer network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integration of a multicultural and multilingual wiktionary in human and social sciences in a peer-to-peer network. This on-line dictionary was developed as part of the FSP project to allow researchers from both side of Mediterranean Sea to exchange and to share knowledge in the human and social sciences domain. The present extension would allow off-line collaborative

Lydia Nadia Khelifa; R. Mezil; A. Si-Mohammed; T. Bouabana-Tebibel

2010-01-01

401

A virtual community in transition, a Russian social science and humanities network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about evolving patterns of participation in an electronically-supported network organised in 1999 in Russia for research scholars in the social sciences and humanities (the Russian Social Science and Humanities Network, RSSH.Net). The service provides search, databases, discussion and information services for a world-wide academic community interested in Russian studies. Its users are located in Russia, the FSU,

I. M. Garskova; C. S. Leonard

2003-01-01

402

Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 1: the ongoing neglect in the neglected tropical diseases.  

PubMed

Centuries of scientific advances and developments in biomedical sciences have brought us a long way to understanding and managing disease processes, by reducing them to simplified cause-effect models. For most of the infectious diseases known today, we have the methods and technology to identify the causative agent, understand the mechanism by which pathology is induced and develop the treatment (drugs, vaccines, medical or surgical procedures) to cure, manage or control.Disease, however, occurs within a context of lives fraught with complexity. For any given infectious disease, who gets it, when, why, the duration, the severity, the outcome, the sequelae, are bound by a complex interplay of factors related as much to the individual as it is to the physical, social, cultural, political and economic environments. Furthermore each of these factors is in a dynamic state of change, evolving over time as they interact with each other. Simple solutions to infectious diseases are therefore rarely sustainable solutions. Sustainability would require the development of interdisciplinary sciences that allow us to acknowledge, understand and address these complexities as they occur, rather than rely solely on a form of science based on reducing the management of disease to simple paradigms.In this review we examine the current global health responses to the 'neglected' tropical diseases, which have been prioritised on the basis of an acknowledgment of the complexity of the poverty-disease cycle. However research and interventions for neglected tropical diseases, largely neglect the social and ecological contextual, factors that make these diseases persist in the target populations, continuing instead to focus on the simple biomedical interventions. We highlight the gaps in the approaches and explore the potential of enhanced interdisciplinary work in the development of long term solutions to disease control. PMID:20961461

Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel D; Pokhrel, Subhash

2010-01-01

403

Allostasis and the human brain: Integrating models of stress from the social and life sciences  

PubMed Central

We draw on the theory of allostasis to develop an integrative model of the current stress process that highlights the brain as a dynamically adapting interface between the changing environment and the biological self. We review evidence that the core emotional regions of the brain constitute the primary mediator of the well-established association between stress and health, as well as the neural focus of “wear and tear” due to ongoing adaptation. This mediation, in turn, allows us to model the interplay over time between context, current stressor exposure, internal regulation of bodily processes, and health outcomes. We illustrate how this approach facilitates the integration of current findings in human neuroscience and genetics with key constructs from stress models from the social and life sciences, with implications for future research and the design of interventions targeting individuals at risk.

Ganzel, Barbara L.; Morris, Pamela A.; Wethington, Elaine

2009-01-01

404

Preparing for the unexpected: The pivotal role of social and behavioral sciences in trials of biomedical HIV prevention interventions  

PubMed Central

A range of efficacies have been reported for biomedical HIV prevention interventions, including antiretroviral treatment, male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides and preventive vaccines. This range of efficacies likely results from the influence of multiple inputs and processes during trials, including the strength and target of the intervention, host factors, target population characteristics, level of HIV exposure and intervention dose. Expertise in social and behavioral science, in conjunction with basic science, clinical research, epidemiology, biostatistics and community, is needed to understand the influence of these inputs and processes on intervention efficacy, improve trial design and implementation, and enable interpretation of trial results. In particular, social and behavioral science provides the means for investigating and identifying populations suitable for recruitment into and retention in trials, and for developing and improving measures of HIV exposure and intervention dose, all within the larger socio-cultural context. Integration of social and behavioral science early in idea generation and study design is imperative for the successful conduct of biomedical trials and for ensuring optimal data collection approaches necessary for the interpretation of findings, particularly in cases of unexpected results.

Koblin, Beryl A.; Andrasik, Michele; Austin, Judy

2013-01-01

405

ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION THROUGH DIFFUSION AND SOCIAL NETWORKS: A STUDY OF FAMILY CONSUMER SCIENCES EXTENSION AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the interconnectedness of social networks of the early adopter Family and Consumer Science Extension Agents (FCS Agents) of the Mental Healthiness and Aging Initiative (MHAI) pilot conducted in eleven (11) eastern Kentucky counties between October 2007 and April 2009 and compares the social network connections of the FCS Agents in the other six Extension Districts in Kentucky.

Deborah Adkins Murray

2012-01-01

406

Promoting reciprocal relationships—examining the ‘give and take’ in Social Science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is on how international Social Work research can respond to critiques of western Social Science research with Third World women. Drawing on recent fieldwork experiences with young women in Mozambique, it examines the power relationships that are inherent in the ‘give and take’ between researchers and participants. Questions such as ‘who gave what?’ and ‘who

Aisha Taplin

2009-01-01

407

Social Science Research on Rural Health Care Delivery -- A Compilation of Recent and Ongoing Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature of research work on social and economic problems confronting rural areas is reviewed. During 1975 and 1976, names of persons performing social science research on the delivery of medical care were compiled. A form was devised for obtaining info...

S. M. Cordes

1978-01-01

408

When are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…

Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

2003-01-01

409

POS 6933: Interpretive Approaches to Political Science, Graduate Seminar Spring 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course has two parts. First, we will discuss the philosophical critiques of naturalism and the ontological and epistemological presuppositions of interpretive social science: that the meaningfulness and historical contingency of human life sets the social realm apart from nature and that (to most interpretivists) social science, rather than being separate from its object, is situated within the webs of

Ido Oren; Anderson Hall

410

The Coming Crisis in Social Work: Some Thoughts on Social Work and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, the authors consider the challenge made by two keynote speakers at recent social work research conferences, one in the United States and the other in Europe. Both spoke of a knowledge crisis in social work. Both John Brekke (Society for Social Work and Research) and Peter Sommerfeld (First Annual European Conference for Social Work…

Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

2012-01-01

411

The discourse of power and knowledge in the social sciences and study of Muslim society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines parallels between contemporary Western and Muslim thought. It proposes that there is congruence in Western and Muslim political thought on issues of soft foundationalism, negative theology, provisional truth claims and religious democracy to offset hegemonic tendencies. In the social sciences, specifically political science, the neutralization of ideology is also supported in response to concern about ideological encroachments

Danial Yusof

2012-01-01

412

Our "Collegium Antropologicum" officially the most improved social science journal in the world for mid-2002.  

PubMed

Thomson ISI's bimonthly web-product ISI Essential Science Indicators (ESI) is an in-depth analytical tool that regularly reports quantitative analyses of research performance and science trends, covering about 8,500 scientific journals from the entire world. In each issue ESI lists the scientists, institutions, countries and journals that are most improved from one update to the next, i.e. that show the largest percentage increase in total citations. In its edition of January 2003, it reported that our "Collegium Antropologicum" was the most improved journal in the field of Social Sciences during the period from July 2002 to September 2002. The field of Social Sciences is one of 22 categories of science regularly analyzed by ESI. It includes anthropology, public health, sociology, social work and policy, political science, law, education, communication, library and information sciences, environmental studies and rehabilitation. Due to journal's success, which is based on publications of predominantly Croatian scientists within the past seven post-war years, Croatia was also officially the most improved among more than 200 countries, and University of Zagreb was the most improved in the field of Social Science among thousands of other institutions. We hope that this is an early sign of revival of the scientific activity in our country after the War in Croatia (1991-1995). PMID:12974128

Rudan, Pavao; Skari?-Juri?, Tatjana; Rudan, Igor

2003-06-01

413

Distributed Expertise in a Science Center: Social and Intellectual Role-Taking by Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project examines the way that children and parents talk about science outside of school and, specifically, how they show distributed expertise about biological topics during visits to a science center. We adopt a theoretical framework that looks at learning on three interweaving planes: individual, social, and cultural (tools,…

Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, Philip

2008-01-01

414

A Method of Synthesizing Large Bodies of Knowledge in the Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employing concepts of formal symbolic logic, the philosophy of science, computer technology, and the work of Hans Zetterberg, a format is suggested for synthesizing and increasing use of the rapidly expanding knowledge of the social sciences. Steps in the process include formulating basic propositions, utilizing computers to establish sets, and…

Thiemann, Francis C.

415

How to Teach for Social Justice: Lessons from "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and Cognitive Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explains how principles of cognitive science can help teachers of literature use texts as a means of increasing students' commitment to social justice. Applying these principles to a particular work, Uncle Tom's Cabin, he calls particular attention to the relationship between cognitive science and literary schemes for building reader…

Bracher, Mark

2009-01-01

416

CURRENT PROJECTS ON ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 1964.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PUBLICATION IS THE SIXTH ANNUAL INVENTORY OF RESEARCH PROJECTS WHICH ARE CURRENTLY IN PROGRESS AT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES AND WHICH DEAL WITH THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. THE INFORMATION INVOLVED IN THIS DOCUMENT WAS COMPILED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION FOR THE USE OF SCHOLARS, ADMINISTRATORS, AND OTHERS…

PERLMAN, JACOB

417

Social Cognitive Predictors of Interest in Environmental Science: Recommendations for Environmental Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the influence of social cognitive variables on students' interest in environmental science careers and investigated differences between White and ethnic minority students on several career-related variables. The sample consisted of 161 undergraduate science majors (124 White students, 37 ethnic minority students). Results of…

Quimby, Julie L.; Seyala, Nazar D.; Wolfson, Jane L.

2007-01-01

418

Math and Science Social Cognitive Variables in College Students: Contributions of Contextual Factors in Predicting Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of two contextual factors, parental involvement and perceived career barriers, on math/science goals. Using social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), a path model was tested to investigate hypothesized relationships between math- and science-related efficacy beliefs (i.e., task and…

Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Fouad, Nadya A.

2008-01-01

419

Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology. Final Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study designed, developed, and field-tested a series of nine curriculum resource units for a semester program called "Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology (IST)." The units were designed for use by students and teachers in the 11th and 12th grades and at the junior college level: either…

Tolman, Richard R.

420

Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences  

PubMed Central

A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice.

Davidsen, Annette Sofie

2013-01-01

421

Critical Need for Family-Based, Quasi-Experimental Designs in Integrating Genetic and Social Science Research  

PubMed Central

Researchers have identified environmental risks that predict subsequent psychological and medical problems. Based on these correlational findings, researchers have developed and tested complex developmental models and have examined biological moderating factors (e.g., gene–environment interactions). In this context, we stress the critical need for researchers to use family-based, quasi-experimental designs when trying to integrate genetic and social science research involving environmental variables because these designs rigorously examine causal inferences by testing competing hypotheses. We argue that sibling comparison, offspring of twins or siblings, in vitro fertilization designs, and other genetically informed approaches play a unique role in bridging gaps between basic biological and social science research. We use studies on maternal smoking during pregnancy to exemplify these principles.

Lahey, Benjamin B.; Turkheimer, Eric; Lichtenstein, Paul

2013-01-01

422

Teaching nuclear science: A cosmological approach  

SciTech Connect

Theories of the origin of the chemical elements can be used effectively to provide a unifying theme in teaching nuclear phenomena to chemistry students. By tracing the element-producing steps that are thought to characterize the chemical evolution of the universe, one can introduce the basic principles of nuclear nomenclature, structure, reactions, energetics, and decay kinetics in a self-consistent context. This approach has the additional advantage of giving the student a feeling for the origin of the elements and their relative abundances in the solar system. Further, one can logically introduce all of the basic forces and particles of nature, as well as the many analogies between nuclear and atomic systems. The subjects of heavy-element synthesis, dating, and the practical applications of nuclear phenomena fit naturally in this scheme. Within the nucleosynthesis framework it is possible to modify the presentation of nuclear behavior to suit the audience--ranging from an emphasis on description for the beginning student to a quantitative theoretical approach for graduate students. The subject matter is flexible in that the basic principles can be condensed into a few lecture as part of a more general course of expanded into an entire course. The following sections describe this approach, with primary emphasis on teaching at the elementary level.

Viola, V.E. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1994-10-01

423

Into the Curriculum. Art: Whistler's Mother; Reading/Language Arts: Finding My Voice; Science: Where on My Tongue? Taste; Social Studies/Science: Volcanoes; Social Studies: Pompeii.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, reading, language arts, science, and social studies. Describes library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up for each activity. (LRW)

Reed-Mundell, Charlie

2001-01-01

424

Better Red than Dead--Putting an End to the Social Irrelevance of Postwar Philosophy of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper asks what is necessary in a theory of science adequate to the task of empowering philosophers of science to participate in public debate about science in a social context. It is argued that an adequate theory of science must be capable of theorizing the role of values and motives in science and that it must take seriously the…

Howard, Don

2009-01-01

425

Animal welfare: an animal science approach.  

PubMed

Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

2013-12-01

426

Critical Reflections on a Social Inclusion Approach for an Ageing Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

While social exclusion has been identified as a major issue facing older Australians, it has not yet been identified as a priority area for Australian social policy on ageing. This paper critically examines the concept of social exclusion and the issues and challenges in applying a social inclusion approach to social work practice for Australia's ageing population. By critically examining

Chi-Wai Lui; Jeni Warburton; Rachel Winterton; Helen Bartlett

2011-01-01

427

Better Red than Dead—Putting an End to the Social Irrelevance of Postwar Philosophy of Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper asks what is necessary in a theory of science adequate to the task of empowering philosophers of science to participate in public debate about science in a social context. It is argued that an adequate theory of science must be capable of theorizing the role of values and motives in science and that it must take seriously the irreducibly social nature of scientific knowledge.

Howard, Don

2009-02-01

428

Schools, science, social justice, and the role of violence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is a response to Carolina Castano's article "Extending the purposes of science education." Drawing on personal memories of life in Bogotá, I raise questions about the nature of violence in Colombia broadly, and ask how the intervention Castano proposes changes the ecology of violence in that country. It also ponders the relationship between schools, science, and violence. In conclusion it urges that science educators follow Castano's recommendation to make science education responsive to local community needs rather than standardized visions of education.

Weinstein, Matthew

2012-09-01

429

Social Science: PROJECT DESIGN. Educational Needs, Fresno, 1968, Number 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social studies programs in the Fresno City Unified School District are evaluated as part of PROJECT DESIGN, funded under ESEA Title III. This report surveys the scope and sequence of the social studies program and assesses how well the needs of learners are being met. Visits were made to 16 elementary, junior high, and senior high schools, and…

Sutherland, Jack W.

430

Geriatrics in relation to the social and behavioural sciences.  

PubMed

Social and behavioural gerontology is the scientific study of how men and women adapt to their environment as they grow older. It is a multidisciplinary area, comprising subjects each of which asserts an existence in its own right, as a scientific enterprise, apart from other subjects in the area, and apart from geriatrics. Social and behavioural gerontology, however, forms part of the total context within which geriatrics gets its meaning and value. Geriatrics, in turn, affects these other adjacent disciplines. Social and behavioural gerontology could help in a general way by putting geriatrics into this wide perspective and thus demonstrating the wider issues that might otherwise be neglected in the busy round of geriatric care. Social and behavioural gerontology could also help in numerous particular ways such as: the collection of normative data; improved conceptual analysis; better methods of observation, experimentation, measurement and data analysis; the integration of social and behavioural case-work with clinical geriatrics for both treatment and training purposes; improved techniques of social and behavioural assessment; improvements in communication; better social attitldes; increased self-help and understanding of the role of the elderly in society; more effective consumer behaviour; and more effective social policies incorporating long-range, broad-spectrum preventive measures. PMID:1008006

Bromley, D B

1976-11-01

431

Brown v. Board of Education and the Coleman Report: Social Science Research and the Debate on Educational Equality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of the 50th anniversary of the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) ruling, this article focuses on how the majority opinion in Brown set a precedent for the use of social science research in defining and examining inequity in education. This article argues that following Brown, social science research has gained prominence in its social

Wong, Kenneth K.; Nicotera, Anna C.

2004-01-01

432

[Social cognition of schizophrenia: bridging gap between brain science and psychosocial intervention].  

PubMed

The concept and assessment tools for social cognition of schizophrenia were reviewed in order to bridge the gap between brain cognitive science and psycho-social intervention. Social cognition as well as neuro-cognition strongly influences social functioning, and the impact of neuro-cognition is mediated by social cognition. Neuronal networks of personal identification, facial perception, emotional identification, eye contact, "theory of mind", mutual communication, and the decision-making process have been clarified recently. The results of face discrimination and emotion recognition tasks show impairment in persons with schizophrenia as compared with healthy controls, especially fear, dislike, and sad recognition tasks. It might be difficult for them to link ambiguous stimuli with specific emotions, and they have a tendency to recognize uncomfortable emotions easily. "Jumping to conclusions" tendency (JTC) was identified in previous research on delusion. JTC develops from information uptake bias and confidence bias, and they might be thought to be trait and state. Social problem-solving is the skill to use social cognition to comprehensively adjust to specific social situations, and processing skills of social problem-solving are related to divergent thinking. Rating scales and the results of previous studies on emotion recognition, social perception, attribution style, and "theory of mind" were summarized. Furthermore, psycho-social interventions to improve emotion recognition directly, JTC, and divergent thinking were reported. Interventions aiming at improving social cognition or meta-cognition directly have been recently developed, which might improve some components of social functioning that used to be difficult to improve. These concepts of social cognition and researches on brain science, assessment tools, and intervention methods would clarify the mechanisms of the effects of psycho-social interventions, improve their methodology, and help to develop new aspects of intervention. PMID:22746041

Ikebuchi, Emi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Ikezawa, Satoru; Miura, Sachie; Yamasaki, Syudo; Nemoto, Takahiro; Hidai, Shin-Ichi; Mogami, Tamiko

2012-01-01

433

Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.  

PubMed

Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24245858

Erickson, Paul

2013-11-01

434

Using information technology to integrate social and ethical issues into the computer science and information systems curriculum: report of the ITiCSE '97 working group on social and ethical issues in computing curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a collaborative working group activity focusing on the use of information technology (IT) to integrate social and ethical issues within computer science or information systems courses. The report provides an organizational approach for classifying exercises, based on the issue each one addresses and the course or courses in which it may fit. The exercises

Mary J. Granger; Joyce Currie Little; Elizabeth S. Adams; Christina Björkman; Don Gotterbarn; Diana D. Juettner; C. Dianne Martin; Frank H. Young

1997-01-01

435

Gaming for (Citizen) Science: Exploring Motivation and Data Quality in the Context of Crowdsourced Science through the Design and Evaluation of a Social-Computational System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citizen Sort, currently under development, is a web-based social-computational system designed to support a citizen science task, the taxonomic classification of various insect, animal, and plant species. In addition to supporting this natural science objective, the Citizen Sort platform will also support information science research goals on motivation for participation in social-computation and citizen science. In particular, this research program

Nathan R. Prestopnik; Kevin Crowston

2011-01-01

436

Mobile apps for the greater good: a socially relevant approach to software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socially relevant computing has recently been proposed as a way to reinvigorate interest in computer science. By appealing to students' interest in helping others, socially relevant computing aims to give students life-changing experiential learning not typically achieved in the classroom, while providing software that benefits society at large. For the last two years, the Wake Forest University Computer Science Department

Victor Paul Pauca; Richard T. Guy

2012-01-01

437

Habitus, Social Fields, and Circuits in Rural Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schooling and science education are embedded within larger socio-cultural, political and economic contexts, influenced by global flows of capital, labor, ideas, and images. In this article we consider the ways in which ethnography traces the web of interactions (circuits), in a rural community and the ways that science inquiry was associated with…

Brandt, Carol B.; Shumar, Wesley; Hammond, Lorie; Carlone, Heidi; Kimmel, Sue; Tschida, Christina

2010-01-01

438

Good Practice Guide: Bringing a Social Capital Approach into the Teaching of Adult Literacy and Numeracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This good practice guide is based on research that looked at how to teach adult literacy and numeracy using a social capital approach. The guide suggests ways vocational education and training (VET) practitioners can adopt a social capital approach to their teaching practice. A social capital approach refers to the process in which networks are…

National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

2010-01-01

439

Social science research in malaria prevention, management and control in the last two decades: an overview.  

PubMed

In the recent past, considerable progress has been made in understanding how human behavior and social organization, macro- and micro-level economic processes, and health and political systems affect responses to malaria at global, national, community, household, and individual levels. Advances in malaria-related social, behavioral, economic, evaluation, health systems, and policy (social science) research have resulted in improvements in the design and implementation of malaria prevention, management and control (PMC) strategies. Indeed, the past two decades chronicle dramatic advances in the implementation of evidence-based interventions, drawn not only from biomedical but also from social science research. Malaria awareness-raising, advocacy, case management, and prevention efforts have reaped the benefits of social science research and as a result, many programs are implemented and evaluated in a more effective manner than in the past. However, the pace at which findings from social science research are integrated into program and policy implementation is unsatisfactory. Additionally, examples remain of programs that fail to utilize findings from social science research and as a result, achieve minimal results. Furthermore, there is a sizeable body of knowledge that is underutilized and which, if assimilated into programs and policies, could accelerate progress in malaria PMC. Examples include information on meaningful community participation, gender, socio-economic status, and health systems. Regrettably, although social science input is necessary for almost all interventions for malaria management and control, the numbers of scientists working in this area are dismal in most of the key disciplines-medical anthropology; demography; geography and sociology; health economics and health policy; social psychology; social epidemiology; and behavior-change communication. Further, skills of program workers charged with implementation of interventions and strategies at country level are most often inadequate. The Special Program for Research and training in tropical diseases (TDR) and the multi-lateral initiative on malaria (MIM) have remained in the forefront of capacity building for this area of research, but additional efforts are needed to bring more applied social scientists into the fold. Their skills are necessary to ensure that social science findings get to program planners and implementers in a useful form that allows for more rapid and appropriate integration of the results into malaria PMC programs and policies. A re-thinking of the current focus within capacity building efforts is proposed. PMID:16011829

Mwenesi, Halima Abdullah

2005-09-01

440

Symposium probes materials science approaches in geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of fracture and flow in rocks and ceramics are remarkably similar. As a result, studies of the mechanical properties of Earth materials that ultimately govern the behavior of the lithosphere have benefitted from mineral and rock physics approaches resembling those taken in the study of structural ceramics. Laboratory studies of fracture propagation and frictional sliding in rocks have led to advances in our understanding of earthquake mechanics [e.g., Tullis, 1986; Segall, 1991] much as experimental studies of engineering materials have aided in the prediction of failure and wear of critical structural components.Studies of mineral plasticity and ductile flow of rocks [e.g., Evans and Dresen, 1991] have revealed that nonlinear time-dependent rheologies, as first described for metals and ceramics, govern mechanical response at high temperatures and pressures with pronounced effects on the scaling and evolution of continental collisions [England et al, 1985; Houseman and England, 1993]. Studies of the mechanical and transport properties of partial melts and glass ceramics [Cooper, 1990] are now providing insights into the delivery of melts to active ridge axes [e.g., Phipps Morgan, 1991]. Investigations of phase transformations in silicate and oxide systems have revealed mechanisms that are both thermally driven and stress-induced, and experiments designed to examine phase transformations under nonhydrostatic stresses have provided insight into the source mechanisms of deep-focus earthquakes [Kirby et al., 1991; Green et al., 1992].

Cooper, Reid F.; Fredrick, Joanne T.; Green, David J.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.

441

Concepts and Structure in the New Social Science Curricula; Report of a Conference at Purdue University, January 29-30, 1966.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The task of the conference reported here was to exchange ideas about approaches taken to social science content in the new curricula. The hope was to contribute to the improvement of the large and growing amount of academically based curriculum work through interdisciplinary exposure. The major emphasis was on cognitive content and its…

Morrissett, Irving, Ed.

442

Science Adventures with Children's Literature: A Thematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides background information on the development and implementation of thematic units that focus on a hands-on approach, process orientation, integrated curriculum, cooperative learning, and critical thinking. Topics of the thematic units and mini-units include wild animals, dinosaurs, rainforests, the human body, earth science,…

Fredericks, Anthony D.

443

Reconciling Statistical and Systems Science Approaches to Public Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although systems science has emerged as a set of innovative approaches to study complex phenomena, many topically focused researchers including clinicians and scientists working in public health are somewhat befuddled by this methodology that at times appears to be radically different from analytic methods, such as statistical modeling, to which…

Ip, Edward H.; Rahmandad, Hazhir; Shoham, David A.; Hammond, Ross; Huang, Terry T. -K.; Wang, Youfa; Mabry, Patricia L.

2013-01-01

444

Infusing Quantitative Approaches throughout the Biological Sciences Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major curriculum redesign effort at the University of Maryland is infusing all levels of our undergraduate biological sciences curriculum with increased emphasis on interdisciplinary connections and quantitative approaches. The curriculum development efforts have largely been guided by recommendations in the National Research Council's…

Thompson, Katerina V.; Cooke, Todd J.; Fagan, William F.; Gulick, Denny; Levy, Doron; Nelson, Kären C.; Redish, Edward F.; Smith, Robert F.; Presson, Joelle

2013-01-01

445

A Social-Medical Approach to Violence in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Violence is the main public health problem in Colombia. Many theoretical and methodological approaches to solving this problem have been attempted from different disciplines. My past work has focused on homicide violence from the perspective of social medicine. In this article I present the main conceptual and methodological aspects and the chief findings of my research over the past 15 years. Findings include a quantitative description of the current situation and the introduction of the category of explanatory contexts as a contribution to the study of Colombian violence. The complexity and severity of this problem demand greater theoretical discussion, more plans for action and a faster transition between the two. Social medicine may make a growing contribution to this field.

Franco, Saul

2003-01-01

446

Social network approaches to recruitment, HIV prevention, medical care, and medication adherence  

PubMed Central

This article reviews current issues and advancements in social network approaches to HIV prevention and care. Social network analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates and treatment access and outcomes. Social network analysis is a value tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Social networks provide an avenue for low cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Social networks can be utilized as a viable approach to recruitment for HIV testing and counseling, HIV prevention interventions, and optimizing HIV medical care and medication adherence. Social network interventions may be face-to-face or through social media. Key issues in designing social network interventions are contamination due to social diffusion, network stability, density, and the choice and training of network members. There are also ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of social network interventions. Social network analyses can also be used to understand HIV transmission dynamics.

Latkin, Carl A.; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A.; Knowlton, Amy R.; Alexander, Kamila A.; Williams, Chyvette T.; Boodram, Basmattee

2013-01-01

447

SOCIAL SYSTEMS THEORY AND PRACTICE: THE NEED FOR A CRITICAL APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the success of science in explaining, predicting and controlling natural systems can be attributed to the well understood methods that exist for producing and testing theory in the natural sciences. The successful development of social systems science is similarly likely to depend on the elucidation of methods of inquiry suitable to the systems of its concern. Unfortunately the

MICHAEL C. JACKSON

1985-01-01

448

Socially situated activities and identities: Second-grade dual language students and the social construction of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Latina and Latino American students are among the lowest achievers in science, when compared to European and Asian American students, and are highly underrepresented in science careers. Studies suggested that a part of this problem is students' lack of access to science, due to their status as English language learners and their perceived status as deficient students. This study investigated the social construction of science in a second grade dual language urban classroom that offered bilingual students access to science, while positioning them as competent, capable learners. What participants valued in science was interpreted from their stated beliefs and attitudes, as well as their patterned ways of reading, writing, and talking. A bilingual European American teacher and three Latina and Latino focal students were observed over the course of 10 weeks, as they enacted a science unit, in English, on habitats. Science lessons were videotaped, documented with field notes, and transcribed. Interviews with the teacher and students were audiotaped and transcribed, and relevant curriculum documents, and teacher- and student-generated documents, copied. Gee's (1999) d/Discourse analysis system was applied to the transcripts of science lessons and interviews as a way to understand how participants used language to construct situated activities and identities in science. Curriculum documents were analyzed to understand the positioning of the teacher and students by identifying the situated activities and roles recommended. Students' nonfiction writing and published nonfiction texts were analyzed for linguistic structures, semantic relationships and conventions of science writing. Results indicated that the teacher drew on traditional and progressive pedagogical practices that shaped her and her students' science activities and situated identities. The teacher employed traditional talk strategies to build science themes, while students enacted their roles as compliant learners, but the teacher also provided curricular structures for students to engage in science as knowledge brokers, researching and writing from nonfiction books, and authoring original texts. Conclusions drawn suggest that teachers should be aware that students are multiply positioned as learners, d/Discourse analysis can be a useful tool for studying classroom practices, and science is relational as well as discipline-centered.

Bryce, Nadine

449

A Scientific Approach to Doing Science Outreach Programs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scensational Science Scircus at Western Illinois University is an outreach program in the physical sciences for K-12 students. We have developed a demonstration show, traveling laboratory experiments, and a lab equipment lending program. A novel element to our demonstration show is that we have had students fill out surveys on their attitudes towards science and scientists both prior to and after the shows. We will present data on the general level of interest in and awareness of science among K-12 students in rural West Central Illinois, and also quantify in some degree the impact these demonstration shows have had on student attitudes towards science. The second part of our program is a traveling laboratory exercise that emphasizes hands-on laboratory experiences for the sake of building up students’ science vocabulary. Students work in small teams with state-of-the-art equipment at stations set up around their classroom. Student retention of the relevant vocabulary and/or concepts is tested with short matching exercises. We will present the details of our approach and test results for a number of the experiments conducted in the field.

Pichla, Laurie; Rabchuk, James

2002-04-01

450

Radio Science Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Science experiments have been conducted on most deep space missions leading to numerous scientific discoveries. A set of concepts and approaches are proposed for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) to apply Radio Science tools to investigate the interior structures of the Galilean Satellites and address key questions on their thermal and dynamical evolution. Measurements are identified that utilize the spacecraft's telecommunication system. Additional instruments can augment these measurements in order to leverage observational synergies. Experiments are also offered for the purpose of investigating the atmospheres and surfaces of the satellites.

Anderson, J. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Castillo, J. C.; Folkner, W. M.; Konopliv, A. S.; Marouf, E. A.; Rappaport, N. J.; Schubert, G.; Spilker, T. R.; Tyler, G. L.

2003-01-01

451

Historical and social contexts for scientific writing and use of passive voice: Toward an undergraduate science literacy course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passive voice is a major stylistic feature of modern scientific discourse, but such a feature did not dominate scientific writing until the 1890s. It has its roots in the philosophical thoughts of experimental science of Francis Bacon and his followers such as Thomas Sprat and John Locke. In the early seventeenth century. Bacon called for a new science that emphasized collective knowledge of nature. Such a science was a cooperative and public enterprise in which scientists should work as a group to advance knowledge of nature. When science was moving gradually toward a public enterprise from the early seventeenth century, the passive voice gradually replaced the active voice in science writing as a dominant stylistic feature. The passive voice in scientific writing is thus historically and socially conditioned. Scientists take advantage of the linguistic functions of the passive voice to serve their rhetorical and pragmatic purposes such as presenting experiments as they are for others to reproduce and verify the results. It embodies two major conventions of scientific communities: (1) science is a public enterprise and (2) it is also a cooperative venture. Other conventions are related to these two: the collective authority of an scientific community is above the personal authority of any one individual scientist; science is not an infallible force, so any research result needs to be verified by a scientific community before it becomes knowledge; scientists use passive voice to approach their writing to make it appear as if it were objective; and science is a human profession. Therefore, we need to teach science students to use the passive voice, and more importantly, why and when to use it. We should emphasize writing practice to have students' see that they use passives rhetorically to present experimental processes, materials and methods.

Ding, Dan Xiong

452

Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to the humanities and social sciences.  

PubMed

Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences. PMID:24455813

Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W

2013-01-01

453

Director, Division of Social and Economic Sciences, ES-0101, SBE/SES (Closes: 11/30/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

The National Science Foundation is seeking qualified candidates for the position of Director, Division of Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences (SES), Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences (SBE). Applications may be transmitted electronically to execsrch@nsf.gov, mailed or delivered to the following address: National Science Foundation, Division of Human Resource Management, Executive Personnel, Room 315, ATTN: S20050128A-IPA, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230. ...

454

Of pride and prejudice: the role of sociology and social networks in integrating the health sciences.  

PubMed

Calls have been issued for understanding the "contexts" or "environment" shaping the causes and consequences of health and health care. Existing efforts raise concerns about how a panorama of influences can be considered simultaneously. Sociology's view of contexts as social network structures that shape and are shaped in social interaction offers one key to resolving this dilemma. Because social networks have become central in the social, natural, and physical sciences, this perspective provides a common platform for bringing in sociology's rich theoretical and methodological insights. Yet, to do this well, three conditions must shape our response. First, all levels relevant to health and health care must be considered, separated out, and linked by network mechanisms. The genetic-biological level, perhaps the most foreign level to sociologists, represents the greatest need and best prospect for advancing a sociologically based solution. Second, room must be made to tailor models to populations, whether defined socially or medically. Third, sociologists must find a voice within "big science " to address problems from social construction to social causation that contribute to basic social processes as well as health. I trace developments in the Network-Episode Model as one theoretical starting point. PMID:17066772

Pescosolido, Bernice A

2006-09-01

455

Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social Justice: A Policy Instructional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools of social work are mandated to train students for policy practice. A new instructional approach is needed so that social workers skillfully engage in policy change to address the growing economic, social, and cultural problems that affect our clients. This article presents the Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social

Heidemann, Gretchen; Fertig, Ralph; Jansson, Bruce; Kim, Hansung

2011-01-01

456

Adding Semantics to Social Websites for Citizen Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

While efforts are underway to represent existing ecological databases semantically, so that they may be intelligently queried and integrated by agents, less attention has been paid to 1) rapidly changing datastreams, and 2) unstructured data from amateur observers. We describe the development of two tools that interact with popular social websites as a means to generate and take advantage of

Andriy Parafiynyk; Cynthia Sims Parr; Joel Sachs; Tim Finin

457

Importance of Empathy for Social Work Practice: Integrating New Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empathy is more important than ever to a national population worried about difficult political and socioeconomic situations. During the last 10 years, an enormous amount of research has been carried out to elucidate the nature, mechanism, and function of empathy. New research from social-cognitive neuroscience and related fields indicates that,…

Gerdes, Karen E.; Segal, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

458

The Science of Infancy: Academic, Social, and Political Agendas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of researchers in infancy is conditioned by their participation in 3 agendas. The academic agenda is devoted to the question of understanding infants, the social agenda is devoted to the question of how to improve the life of infants, and the political agenda is devoted to finding the resources for both understanding and…

Sameroff, Arnold J.

2005-01-01

459

Overcoming the Invisibility of Metrology: A Reading Measurement Network for Education and the Social Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The public and researchers in psychology and the social sciences are largely unaware of the huge resources invested in metrology and standards in science and commerce, for understandable reasons, but with unfortunate consequences. Measurement quality varies widely in fields lacking uniform standards, making it impossible to coordinate local behaviours and decisions in tune with individually observed instrument readings. However, recent developments in reading measurement have effectively instituted metrological traceability methods within elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Given established patterns in the history of science, it may be reasonable to expect that widespread routine reproduction of controlled effects expressed in uniform units in the social sciences may lead to significant developments in theory and practice.

Fisher, William P., Jr.; Stenner, A. Jackson

2013-09-01

460

Knowledge and Empire: The Social Sciences and United States Imperial Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the relationship between the social sciences in the U.S. and the formation of empire. I argue that the peculiar way the U.S. has established a global presence during the 20th century—by establishing a commercial empire rather than territorially-based colonies—has generated on the part of state and corporation an unusual interest in the knowledge produced by social

David Nugent

2010-01-01

461

Editors' overview perspectives on teaching social responsibility to students in science and engineering.  

PubMed

Global society is facing formidable current and future problems that threaten the prospects for justice and peace, sustainability, and the well-being of humanity both now and in the future. Many of these problems are related to science and technology and to how they function in the world. If the social responsibility of scientists and engineers implies a duty to safeguard or promote a peaceful, just and sustainable world society, then science and engineering education should empower students to fulfil this responsibility. The contributions to this special issue present European examples of teaching social responsibility to students in science and engineering, and provide examples and discussion of how this teaching can be promoted, and of obstacles that are encountered. Speaking generally, education aimed at preparing future scientists and engineers for social responsibility is presently very limited and seemingly insufficient in view of the enormous ethical and social problems that are associated with current science and technology. Although many social, political and professional organisations have expressed the need for the provision of teaching for social responsibility, important and persistent barriers stand in the way of its sustained development. What is needed are both bottom-up teaching initiatives from individuals or groups of academic teachers, and top-down support to secure appropriate embedding in the university. Often the latter is lacking or inadequate. Educational policies at the national or international level, such as the Bologna agreements in Europe, can be an opportunity for introducing teaching for social responsibility. However, frequently no or only limited positive effect of such policies can be discerned. Existing accreditation and evaluation mechanisms do not guarantee appropriate attention to teaching for social responsibility, because, in their current form, they provide no guarantee that the curricula pay sufficient attention to teaching goals that are desirable for society as a whole. PMID:24277690

Zandvoort, Henk; Børsen, Tom; Deneke, Michael; Bird, Stephanie J

2013-12-01

462

Schools, Science, Social Justice, and the Role of Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a response to Carolina Castano's article "Extending the purposes of science education." Drawing on personal memories of life in Bogota, I raise questions about the nature of violence in Colombia broadly, and ask how the intervention Castano proposes changes the ecology of violence in that country. It also ponders the relationship…

Weinstein, Matthew

2012-01-01

463

The Social Competence of Highly Gifted Math and Science Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Involving 740 highly gifted math and science students from two different countries, Korea and the United States, this study examined how these gifted adolescents perceived their interpersonal ability and peer relationships and whether there were differences between these two groups by demographic variables. Based on the survey data, results showed…

Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Thomson, Dana

2012-01-01

464

The scale issue in social and natural sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Spatial scale is a major concept in many ,sciences concerned with human ,activities and physical processes occurring at the Earth’s surface. In particular, geographic literature is rich in discussions about the importance of scale in both the scientific and the familiar representations of the world (Meentemeyer, 1989; Ferras, 1992). Scale is now increasingly recognized as a central concept in

Danielle J. Marceau

465

Vindication of the Human and Social Science of Kurt H. Wolff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to vindicate the viability of Kurt H. Wolff's methodology of surrender-and-catch for the human and social sciences. The article is divided into three sections. The first section explicates the fundamental significance of surrender-and-catch and Wolff's motivation for advocating its practice. The second section compares surrender-and-catch with phenomenological methodology as well as objective science and

Gary Backhaus

2003-01-01

466

Engage: The Science Speaker Series - A novel approach to improving science outreach and communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating the results and significance of basic research to the general public is of critical importance. Federal funding and university budgets are under substantial pressure, and taxpayer support of basic research is critical. Public outreach by ecologists is an important vehicle for increasing support and understanding of science in an era of anthropogenic global change. At present, very few programs or courses exist to allow young scientists the opportunity to hone and practice their public outreach skills. Although the need for science outreach and communication is recognized, graduate programs often fail to provide any training in making science accessible. Engage: The Science Speaker Series represents a unique, graduate student-led effort to improve public outreach skills. Founded in 2009, Engage was created by three science graduate students at the University of Washington. The students developed a novel, interdisciplinary curriculum to investigate why science outreach often fails, to improve graduate student communication skills, and to help students create a dynamic, public-friendly talk. The course incorporates elements of story-telling, improvisational arts, and development of analogy, all with a focus on clarity, brevity and accessibility. This course was offered to graduate students and post-doctoral researchers from a wide variety of sciences in the autumn of 2010 and 2011, and will be retaught in 2012. Students who participated in the Engage course were then given the opportunity to participate in Engage: The Science Speaker Series. This free, public-friendly speaker series has been hosted at the University of Washington campus and Seattle Town Hall, and has had substantial public attendance and participation. The growing success of Engage illustrates the need for such programs throughout graduate level science curricula. We present the impetus for the development of the program, elements of the curriculum covered in the Engage course, the importance of an interdisciplinary approach, and discuss strategies for implementing similar programs at research institutions nationally.

Mitchell, R.; Hilton, E.; Rosenfield, P.

2012-12-01

467

Engage: The Science Speaker Series - A novel approach to improving science outreach and communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating the results and significance of basic research to the general public is of critical importance. Federal funding and university budgets are under substantial pressure, and taxpayer support of basic research is critical. Public outreach by ecologists is an important vehicle for increasing support and understanding of science in an era of anthropogenic global change. At present, very few programs or courses exist to allow young scientists the opportunity to hone and practice their public outreach skills. Although the need for science outreach and communication is recognized, graduate programs often fail to provide any training in making science accessible. Engage: The Science Speaker Series represents a unique, graduate student-led effort to improve public outreach skills. Founded in 2009, Engage was created by three science graduate students at the University of Washington. The students developed a novel, interdisciplinary curriculum to investigate why science outreach often fails, to improve graduate student communication skills, and to help students create a dynamic, public-friendly talk. The course incorporates elements of story-telling, improvisational arts, and development of analogy, all with a focus on clarity, brevity and accessibility. This course was offered to graduate students and post-doctoral researchers from a wide variety of sciences in the autumn of 2010. Students who participated in the Engage course were then given the opportunity to participate in Engage: The Science Speaker Series. This free, public-friendly speaker series is hosted on the University of Washington campus and has had substantial public attendance and participation. The growing success of Engage illustrates the need for such programs throughout graduate level science curricula. We present the impetus for the development of the program, elements of the curriculum covered in the Engage course, the importance of an interdisciplinary approach, and discuss strategies for implementing similar programs at research institutions nationally.

Mitchell, R.; Hilton, E.; Rosenfield, P.

2011-12-01

468

The challenges of cognitive aging: integrating approaches from science to intergenerational relationships.  

PubMed

The individual and social challenges created by population aging and especially the growing number of people labeled with dementia demand new innovative and comprehensive approaches. A broader integrative biology needs to replace reductionist, overly simplistic biomedical solutions that dominate today's scientific discourse, particularly with regards to cognitive aging. Alzheimer's disease is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized more fully at a system rather than molecular level. Coordinated scientific and community responses are needed including new attention to intergenerational relationships, innovative learning organizations, and empowering health practices. The Intergenerational School is a successful public charter school which provides learning opportunities for elementary school children and adults of various ages, including those with dementia. InterWell is a planned primary care and public health practice to be associated with the school. Both represent innovations that balance the sciences and the humanities in address growing social challenges associated with changes in population demographics and climate. PMID:23619307

Whitehouse, Peter

2013-01-01

469

Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies of science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we initially address the main categories of Marxism, illustrating how Vygotsky has appropriated them as mediational meta-theoretical tools for building concepts for his psychological approach. In order to investigate the influence of Marxism in cultural studies of science education, we make an account of how current research, sustained by Vygotsky's original and successor theories, has been appropriating meta-theoretical categories of dialectical materialism. Once we identified Cultural Studies of Science Education as a journal that would probably concentrate papers that follow these perspectives, we decided to take it as the context of this study. In the process of selecting the corpus to be reviewed from the editions published from 2006 to 2011, we have found that 16 % of the articles that matched keywords denoting frameworks related to the Vygotskian tradition developed and appropriated the categories of dialectical materialism. The quality and originality of contemporary development of CHAT denote that this framework has been playing a very important role in recent expansion of Vygotskian approaches to research in science education. Among the papers that we considered to develop and appropriate Vygotskian frameworks, incompletion in the appropriation of meta-theoretical categories of dialectical materialism and the misusage of dialectics intertwined with dialogism were highlighted. Our findings suggest that overcoming these limitations can enhance political analysis of sociocultural phenomena in the context of science education. It also represents a strengthening of the role of dialectical materialism in expanding sociocultural perspectives toward a better articulation between individual and institutional-centered analyses.

Lima Junior, Paulo; Ostermann, Fernanda; Rezende, Flavia

2013-02-01

470

Learning to Communicate Science: Stony Brook University's Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stony Brook University offers an unusual series of short courses to help science graduate students learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including the public, public officials, potential funders and employers, students, the press, and colleagues in other fields. The courses include six 1-credit (14-hour) modules in oral and written communication that rely on practice and interactive feedback. More than 120 master's and PhD students, from more than 16 departments, have taken at least one of the courses since spring 2011. Most students who try one module end up taking two or three. An additional course for medical and nursing students was added in fall 2012. The courses are offered in the School of Journalism and were developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). CCS was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. The Communicating Science courses have received strong institutional support and enthusiastic reviews. They are required by two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. Two successive Provosts have subsidized course costs for PhD students, and Graduate School leaders are working to establish a steady funding stream to allow expansion of the program. Our aspiration at CCS is for every science graduate student to receive some training in communicating about science to the public. Several factors have helped in establishing the program: --CCS' multidisciplinary nature helped build support, with participation by faculty from across the campus, including not only the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine, but journalism, theatre arts, and the Writing Program, as well as nearby Brookhaven National Laboratory and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. --Before offering courses, CCS conducted all-day workshops and high-profile activities that generated interest and allowed students, postdocs, faculty and administrators to sample course material. --CCS structured the courses as "bite-size" modules to make them easier to take. Courses are given in the evening, in successive four- or five-week blocks, so a student can take one to six modules in a single semester. At the heart of the effort are two courses: Distilling Your Message, in which students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally at different levels of complexity to different audiences, and Improvisation for Scientists, in which students use improvisational theater exercises to help connect more responsively with their audiences. This is not about acting. It is about paying dynamic attention to the audience, shifting the focus from what the student is saying to what the other person is receiving. Other modules deal with writing for the public; using social media, and connecting with the community. In addition to the 1-credit courses, science graduate students can take a 3-credit course examining how the media cover science and health issues. This course also is taken by students in the journalism MS program, which focuses on science, health and environmental reporting, part of Stony Brook University's multi-pronged effort to improve communication of science to the public.

Bass, E.

2012-12-01

471

Towards a Social Science of the Social: The Contribution of Praxeological Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational research developed initially using the natural science model based on the positivist tradition. Education was then seen as an application of the positivist science thus produced. This research could predict some effects but not explain the processes through which these effects came about. This exclusively numerical representation of…

Formosinho, Joao; Formosinho, Julia Oliveira

2012-01-01

472

NOAA Ocean Exploration: Science, Education and Ocean Literacy Online and in Social Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Engagement" in ocean science initially might seem like a simple concept, however within an agency like NOAA, with a broad mission and a wide variety of stakeholders, the concept of engagement becomes quite complex. Several years ago, a Kellogg Commission Report was submitted to NOAA's Science Advisory Board to assist the Agency with more closely defining-and refining-how it could more effectively engage with the multiple audiences with which it works. For NOAA, engagement is a two-way relationship that unfolds in a commitment of service to society. It is an Enterprise-wide capability represented in NOAA's Next Generation Strategic Plan and carries the same weight across the Agency as science and technology. NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) engages scientists, educators and the public through a variety of online and social media offerings explicitly tied to the exploration science of its expeditions. The principle platform for this engagement is the Ocean Explorer website (http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov). It is the single point of entry for formal and informal educators and the public to chronicled OER expeditions to little known regions of the world ocean. The site also enables access to live streaming video and audio from the United States' first ship solely dedicated to ocean exploration, the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and the Institute for Exploration's E/V Nautilus. Video includes footage from the remotely operated vehicles, sonar displays, navigation displays, and mapping data displays. Through telepresence technologies and other online communication tools, scientists at remote locations around the world, including Exploration Command Centers, collaborate in deep-sea exploration conducted by the Okeanos Explorer. Those wanting access to the ship's track, oceanographic data, daily updates, web logs, and imagery during an expedition can access the online Okeanos Explorer Digital Atlas. Information on archived expeditions can be accessed through the OER Digital Atlas, a Google map application that displays expedition locations searchable by year, expedition theme or by a text-entry. Information on expedition-specific collection data, education and outreach is also provided. Educators have access to online interactive courses; entitled Why Do We Explore? and How Do We Explore?; that convey the exploration science, capabilities, and assets of the Okeanos Explorer. Hundreds of online lessons, multimedia learning tools, OceanAGE Career Connections and other resources assist educators with bringing authentic ocean exploration and the scientists behind it into classrooms. Live webcasts by San Francisco's Exploratorium and the use of social media; including Twitter, YouTube, Facebook, the Apple iTunes Channel, and conversations with ITunes University have had immediate and profound impacts on OER's ability to successfully engage diverse partners with a ride range of ocean exploration science and education needs. This presentation will highlight several OER's approaches to engaging scientists, educators and others in ocean exploration, including efforts associated with the upcoming Fall 2012 Submarine Ring of Fire: Lau Basin Expedition onboard the Scripps Institution of Oceanography R/V Roger Revelle.

Keener-Chavis, P.

2012-12-01

473

A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number of key features of geoscience and humanitarian Communities of Practice. It focuses on the barriers to and enablers of learning on the boundaries between CoPs and explores the important role played by boundary workers/brokers at this interface. Wenger's (2000) typology of knowledge brokers is used to analyse the different forms this role can take and identify the challenges that hinder it. For example, boundary workers often find themselves in a 'no man's land' between CoP, where their efforts are not recognised or rewarded by either community of practice. We conclude by drawing out wider conclusions on the potential for boundary workers to bridge the science-policy-practice interface particularly ways of developing appropriate boundary infrastructure (for example, recognised career paths, funding mechanisms and organisational support structures).

Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

2014-05-01

474

Effective HIV prevention: the indispensable role of social science  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the ways in which HIV prevention is understood including “biomedical”, “behavioural”, “structural”, and “combination” prevention. In it I argue that effective prevention entails developing community capacity and requires that public health addresses people not only as individuals but also as connected members of groups, networks and collectives who interact (talk, negotiate, have sex, use drugs, etc.) together. I also examine the evaluation of prevention programmes or interventions and argue that the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness is often glossed and that, while efficacy can be evaluated by randomized controlled trials, the evaluation of effectiveness requires long-term descriptive strategies and/or modelling. Using examples from a number of countries, including a detailed account of the Australian HIV prevention response, effectiveness is shown to be dependent not only on the efficacy of the prevention technology or tool but also on the responses of people – individuals, communities and governments – to those technologies. Whether a particular HIV prevention technology is adopted and its use sustained depends on a range of social, cultural and political factors. The paper concludes by calling on biomedical and social scientists to work together and describes a “social public health”.

Kippax, Susan

2012-01-01

475

The Dynamics of Science and Technology: Social Values, Technical Norms and Scientific Criteria in the Development of Knowledge. Sociology of the Sciences, Volume II - Yearbook 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is the second volume of an annual publication that deals with the sociology of the sciences from a very broad perspective. This volume is designed to stimulate new discussion among historians and sociologists of science and technology, economic and social historians as well as philosophers of science aiming at a more appropriate…

Krohn, Wolfgang, Ed.; And Others

476

Utilizing Social Media and Blogging to Teach Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation presented the Science: Becoming the Messenger Workshop at my university in Fall 2011. Following the workshop, I started a blog (http://plasma.physics.wvu.edu/), Facebook page (WVU Plasma Physics), and Twitter feed (@WVUPlasma) to promote the West Virginia University Plasma Physics Research Groups. Faculty, postdocs, and graduate students in plasma physics are assigned the task of writing a blog post on a rotating basis as one of three elements for our monthly Journal Club. Our Facebook page and Twitter feed are used to announce new blog posts and accomplishments by group members. We have found this process to be a good way for students to learn to describe their research to people outside of their field of expertise. Details on establishing and maintaining these resources and specific examples will be presented. Follow me @plasmaphysmom.

Keesee, A. M.

2012-12-01

477

Turkey's output in social science publications: 1970-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publications originating from Turkey in SSCI were analyzed for changes in the thirty-year span between 1970 and 1999. There\\u000a has been a high rate of increase in the number of publications and most of these publications were in the form of articles\\u000a and review papers. The rate of increase was lower than the increase in science publications but the rankings

Sami Gülgöz; Ömer A. Yedekçioglu; Ersin Yurtsever

2002-01-01

478

The Potential Impact of Social Science Research on Legal Issues Surrounding Single-Sex Classrooms and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article examines the role social science has played in litigation involving public single-sex educational programs. It also explores a body of social science research related to gender and education that we believe could assist the courts and school leaders in better examining the possibilities and the limitations of single-sex…

Eckes, Suzanne Elizabeth; McCall, Stephanie D.

2014-01-01

479

Perceptions of Pre-Service Social Sciences Teachers Regarding the Concept of "Geography" by Mind Mapping Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to present the perceptions of preservice social sciences teachers regarding the concept of geography. In the study, the study group consists of 46 preservice social sciences teachers, who receive education at Ahi Evran University. The data were collected in December, 2010. Mind maps were used as data collection tools…

Ozturk Demirbas, Cagri

2013-01-01

480

Delaware Student Testing Program: State Summary Report: Science & Social Studies, Spring 2002 Administration, Grades 8 and 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results from the third administration of the 8th and 11th grade science and social studies portions of the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) represent an important step in Delawares efforts to educate all students to a higher level. Science and social studies data for grades 8 and 11 are summarized here, and the results for grades 4 and…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

481

World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing California's history-social science framework. The document offers stimulating ideas to enrich the teaching of history and social science, enliven instruction for every student, focus on essential topics, and help make learning more memorable. Experiences…

Prescott, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others

482

Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) Maintained Research Institutes’ Libraries in India: Towards Digitization and Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) was established for development of social science research in India. It provides grants to 27 research institutes and six regional centers in India. These institutes have established close links with scholars in the region through activities such as seminars, workshops, training, and consultancy programs. Some of the institutes are closely associated with

P. K Jain

2003-01-01

483

Conducting Web-Based Surveys of Government Practitioners in Social Sciences: Practical Lessons for E-Government Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the use of surveys in social science research is not new, growing computerization and widespread availability of Internet access has made it increasingly possible to conduct these surveys online. However, populations in the social sciences - and particularly in e-government - are not always well defined, and their boundaries are fuzzy. Therefore, additional challenges need to be considered in

José Ramón Gil-garcía; Sara A. Berg; Theresa A. Pardo; G. Brian Burke; Ahmet Guler

2009-01-01

484

Within the Pipeline: Self-Regulated Learning, Self-Efficacy, and Socialization among College Students in Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined associations between changes in students' science self-efficacy and self-regulated learning strategies and their relation to science achievement. Influences of gender, ethnicity, and childhood and adolescent socialization experiences were also examined. The variables were consistent with Bandura's social cognitive…

DiBenedetto, Maria K.; Bembenutty, Hefer

2013-01-01

485

The Relationship Between Primary and Secondary Literature in the Social Sciences: A Study of Secondary Literature in Criminology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Study of the relationship between the primary and secondary journal literature of a social science discipline is described in this working paper. Criminology was chosen as the subject area for study, because it forms a fairly clearly identifiable area of the social sciences, is fairly self-contained, and because it has some distinctive…

Line, Maurice B.; And Others

486

Designing convivial digital cities: a social intelligence design approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conviviality is a mechanism to reinforce social cohesion and a tool to reduce mis-coordination between individuals, groups and institutions in web communities, for example in digital cities. We use a two-fold definition of conviviality as a condition for social interactions and an instru- ment for the internal regulation of social systems. In this paper we discuss the use of social

Patrice Caire

2009-01-01