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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

20 CFR 221.3 - Social Security Administration jurisdiction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social Security Administration jurisdiction...DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction...earned by the employee which the Social Security Administration considers...

2013-04-01

2

The Social Security Administration’s youth transition demonstration projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The Social Security Administration (SSA) is funding Youth Transition Demonstration (YTD) projects in multiple sites across the country. These projects seek to improve,transitions to adulthood for youth whose,disabilities are so severe that they either are currently receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or Social Security disability benefits, or are at high risk of receiving them in the future. Youth participating

Thomas Fraker; Anu Rangarajan; Todd Honeycutt; Arif Mamun; John Martinez; Bonnie O'Day; David Wittenburg

3

20 CFR 423.3 - Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner...3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS...Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the...

2013-04-01

4

20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in...5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials...

2013-04-01

5

20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES...forms used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart...prescribed by the Social Security Administration for use by the public in applying for...

2013-04-01

6

20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs...501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Applications...Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration...

2009-04-01

7

20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs...501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Applications...Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration...

2010-04-01

8

Social Security Administration, Strategic Plan 2008-2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Social Security Administration's Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 2008-2013 is presented. The plan reflects four main priorities: service, stewardship, solvency, and staff. It also provides a guide for meeting the goals of the President's Management Ag...

2008-01-01

9

20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true Claim filed with the Social Security Administration. 217.7 ...217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security Administration. (a) Claim...benefits under title II of the Social Security Act is an application...

2013-04-01

10

Social Security Administration: Workloads, Resources, and Service Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some Members of Congress have expressed concern about whether the Social Security Administration (SSA) has adequate resources to manage its workloads. The agency has struggled to provide quality service to the public. Backlogs in the disability programs have caused widespread concern. SSA’s efforts to ensure the accuracy of benefit payments have declined. Many applicants and beneficiaries have experienced long waits

Kathleen Romig

2009-01-01

11

20 CFR 404.455 - Request by Social Security Administration for reports of earnings and estimated earnings; effect...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Request by Social Security Administration...failure to comply with request...Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE... Request by Social Security Administration...failure to comply with request....

2009-04-01

12

20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees...1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS...423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its...

2009-04-01

13

20 CFR 404.455 - Request by Social Security Administration for reports of earnings and estimated earnings; effect...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Request by Social Security Administration for reports...455 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...Benefits § 404.455 Request by Social Security Administration for...

2010-04-01

14

20 CFR 410.686b - Fee for services performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration. 410.686b...686b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL...for an individual before the Social Security Administration. (a)...

2010-04-01

15

20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees...1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS...423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its...

2010-04-01

16

20 CFR 410.686b - Fee for services performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration. 410.686b...686b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL...for an individual before the Social Security Administration. (a)...

2009-04-01

17

2 CFR 2339.225 - Who in the Social Security Administration does a recipient other than an individual notify about...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Who in the Social Security Administration does a recipient...Regulations for Grants and Agreements SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION REQUIREMENTS...Individuals § 2339.225 Who in the Social Security Administration does a...

2013-01-01

18

20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings...452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of...

2013-04-01

19

20 CFR 404.455 - Request by Social Security Administration for reports of earnings and estimated earnings; effect...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Request by Social Security Administration for reports...455 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...Benefits § 404.455 Request by Social Security Administration for...

2013-04-01

20

20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees...1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS...423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its...

2013-04-01

21

The Social Security Administration's Disability Service Improvement process.  

PubMed

Reprinted here in its entirety is Commissioner Jo Anne B. Barnhart's statement of June 15, 2006, to the Subcommittee on Social Security of the House Committee on Ways and Means. In her statement, Commissioner Barnhart outlines the improved disability determination process and how the changes to the process were decided. The key elements are collectively referred to as the Disability Service Improvement (DSI) and represent the most significant changes in the Social Security Administration's 50-year history of determining disability for workers seeking Social Security Disability Insurance benefits. Commissioner Barnhart's statement underscores that while the need for change in the disability determination process was clear, both she and SSA staff listened carefully to all points of view in the decisionmaking process. The end product of this outreach effort and deliberative process is the final rule that was published on March 31, 2006. The new procedures outlined in the final rule will take advantage of the new electronic disability claims system, or eDib, and will shorten times to make disability decisions and will allow benefits to be paid sooner to people who are clearly disabled. Key elements include a new Medical and Vocational Expert System to improve the quality and availability of such expertise at all levels of adjudication, review of state agency determinations by a Federal Reviewing Official to ensure more accurate and consistent decisionmaking earlier in the process, and a newly created Decision Review Board to identify and correct decisional errors and to identify quality issues at all levels. Two improvements underlying the new process at all levels include better documentation of the record and more effective quality feedback loops for continuous improvement. Read Commissioner Barnhart's statement for a further explanation of DSI, how the changes were decided, and her plans for implementation. PMID:17252741

Barnhart, Jo Anne B

22

Connecting Contemporary Paradigms to the Social Security Administration’s Disability Evaluation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1998 to 2008, the Social Security Administration’s (SSA) disability insurance program (DI) applications rose from 1.2 million to 2.3 million and exceeded 3 million in 2009. Given these large and growing numbers, even small changes in processing disability applications may reduce processing time, lower program costs, and improve performance of SSA’s disability programs. A literature review examining current conceptual

Diane E. Brandt; Andrew J. Houtenville; Minh T. Huynh; Leighton Chan; Elizabeth K. Rasch

2011-01-01

23

20 CFR 404.1362 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans Administration pension or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans...1362 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...Other Benefits on Payment of Social Security Benefits and Payments §...

2013-04-01

24

Software Systems: SSA (Social Security Administration) Encountering Significant Delays in Its Claims Modernization Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final report contains the information regarding the Social Security Administration's (SSA) Claims Modernization Project (CMP). CMP represents a major SSA effort to improve the software used to process claims for benefits and to change benefit records,...

1987-01-01

25

Social Security Administration: Improved Planning and Performance Measures are Needed to Help Ensure Successful Technology Modernization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Services provided by the Social Security Administration (SSA) touch the lives of virtually every American. To support the delivery of these services, the agency uses information technology (IT) systems that are increasingly costly and difficult to maintai...

2012-01-01

26

DISABILITY RESEARCH USING SURVEY DATA MATCHED TO SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION RECORD DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Security Administration (SSA) maintains a rich system of administrativ e record databases. These data systems have been extensively used to administer SSA's programs , to compile descriptive program statistics, and as the basis for many research projects conducted at SSA. There has been increasing interest in using administrative records for policy evaluation, particularly in capitalizing on the analytic

Kalman Rupp; Paul S. Davies

27

Collaboration in electronic medical evidence development: A case study of the Social Security Administration's MEGAHIT System  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn January 2009, the Social Security Administration (SSA) began a collaboration with MedVirginia to send authorized requests for and receipts of patient health information using the Medical Evidence Gathering and Analysis through Health IT (MEGAHIT) application. This request and receipt used the Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN) for secure and interoperable Health IT standards-based transport of patient information.

Sue S. Feldman; Thomas A. Horan

2011-01-01

28

Lighting recommendations for the Social Security Administration Frank Hagel Federal Building in Richmond CA  

SciTech Connect

Specific recommendations are made to improve the lighting quality and energy efficiency of the lighting system at the Social Security Administration Frank Hagel Building in Richmond, CA. The main recommendation is to replace the recessed fluorescent lighting system in the general office area with indirect lighting. Indirect lighting will improve lighting quality, will provide an energy efficient solution and will be about the same cost as the direct lighting system originally proposed.

Rubinstein, Francis M.

1999-10-25

29

The Supplemental Security Income Program And Incentives To Take Up Social Security Early Retirement: Empirical Evidence from Matched SIPP and Social Security Administrative Files  

Microsoft Academic Search

Features of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program and the social security retirement system may interact in a manner that creates incentives for prospective SSI recipients to take social security early retirement (SSER). This paper takes a first close look at this issue. The work disincentives posed by SSI rules and the potential interactions between the SSI and SSER programs

Elizabeth T. Powers; David Neumark

2002-01-01

30

The Supplemental Security Income Program and Incentives to Take up Social Security Early Retirement: Empirical Evidence from Matched SIPP and Social Security Administrative Files  

Microsoft Academic Search

Features of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program and the social security retirement system may interact in a manner that creates incentives for prospective SSI recipients to take social security early retirement (SSER). This paper takes a first close look at this issue. The work disincentives posed by SSI rules and the potential interactions between the SSI and SSER programs

Elizabeth T. Powers; David Neumark

2001-01-01

31

Social security administration in India study of provident funds and pension scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Security is becoming a distinct part of social policy of India and the time has come to give a serious thought to ever increasing Social Security needs of the population. There are diversified views on extension of Social Security coverage. Some say it should be limited to only working population and to their families and while others say that

Madhava P Rao

2005-01-01

32

Health Hazard Evaluation Report No. HETA-83-136-1398, Social Security Administration, New Brunswick, New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1983, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request to evaluate employees at the Social Security Administration Office Building in New Brunswick, New Jersey, for: (1) a possible increase in miscarriages a...

C. Lucas

1983-01-01

33

Equal Employment Opportunity: Some Racial Imbalance in SSA (Social Security Administration) Region X, Better Data and Remedies Needed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents information on the employment status of black employees in Region X of the Social Security Administration (SSA), an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). This request was prompted by concerns about whether equal ...

1987-01-01

34

The Fourth Bite at the Apple: A Study of the Operation and Utility of the Social Security Administration's Appeals Council  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Security Administration's Appeals Council performs the fourth and final administrative evaluation of appealed disability claims. Very little information about the Appeals Council has been available to claimants and their representatives, even though claimants must request Appeals Council review before filing an appeal in federal court. In response to criticism and controversy surrounding this obscure branch of the Social

Koch Charles H. Jr; David A. Koplow

1990-01-01

35

SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION: Revision to the Government Pension Offset Exemption Should Be Considered.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses your request for information on the Government Pension Offset (GPO) exemption. Generally, Social Security benefits are payable to the spouses of retired, disabled, or deceased workers covered by Social Security. These benefits often ...

E. C. Shaw

2002-01-01

36

Social Security: Telephone Accessibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact sheet contains information testing accessibility to the Social Security Administration (SSA) by telephone. Specifically, it measured the extent to which telephone calls to SSA's local offices and teleservice centers during a single workweek were ...

1987-01-01

37

Social Security Administration's Report on Supplemental Security Income: Income and Resource Exclusions and Disability Insurance Earnings-Related Provisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As required by Section 303(d) of the Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999, this report identifies all income and resource disregards (exclusions) under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (...

2000-01-01

38

Forecasting Incidence Of Work Limitations, Disability Insurance Receipt, And Mortality In Dynamic Simulation Models Using Social Security Administrative Records: A Research Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

In examining a number of important research questions related to the reform of the Social Security program, it is helpful to understand patterns of participation in the Disability Insurance (DI) program. DI beneficiaries comprise a large fraction, approximately 15 percent, of the pool of workers who receive Social Security benefits (Social Security Administration, 2001: Table 5.A16). They are a particularly

Melissa Favreaul

2002-01-01

39

Social Security Administration Employment of and Service to Hispanics. Report to the Chairman, Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to Congressional inquiry, the General Accounting Office investigated the Social Security Administration's (SSA) employment of Hispanics and Spanish-speaking persons and the extent of SSA program materials available in Spanish. SSA's overall employment of Hispanics in 1987 was 6.4%, equal to the national rate of availability of…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

40

The Effect of the Social Security Earnings Test on Male Labor Supply: New Evidence from Survey and Administrative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite numerous empirical studies, there is surprisingly little agreement about whether the Social Security earnings test affects male labor supply. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the labor supply effects of the earnings test using longitudinal administrative earnings data and more commonly used survey data. We find that…

Haider, Steven J.; Loughran, David S.

2008-01-01

41

20 CFR 404.1362 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans Administration pension or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans...Other Benefits on Payment of Social Security Benefits and Payments § 404.1362 Treatment of social security benefits or payments where...

2010-04-01

42

20 CFR 404.1362 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans Administration pension or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans...Other Benefits on Payment of Social Security Benefits and Payments § 404.1362 Treatment of social security benefits or payments where...

2009-04-01

43

Statistical security for Social Security.  

PubMed

The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts. PMID:22592944

Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

2012-08-01

44

IRS (Internal Revenue Service) and SSA (Social Security Administration) Can Improve the Verification and Recording of Data Provided by Self-Employed Taxpayers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Self-employed workers are required to report Social Security self-employment earnings to the Internal Revenue Service and pay any taxes that are due. IRS forwards all relevant self-employment data to the Social Security Administration (SSA) where it is ac...

1985-01-01

45

Social Security Death Index (SSDI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Social Security Death Index (SSDI), provided by Infobases, Inc., is a searchable database of the Death Master File (DMF) from the Social Security Administration (SSA). DMF "contains over 50 million records created from SSA payment records." The database can contain name, social security number, date of birth, date of death, and last residence/lump sum payment information when available, and can be searched on those criteria. Search help is available from the home page. Note that this is not an index of everyone who has died in the United States, but rather an index of people who had Social Security Benefits when they died.

1998-01-01

46

Construction of a New Building to House the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Social Security Administration Payment Center in Chicago, Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed action consists of construction of a new building to house the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Social Security Administration Payment Center in Chicago, Illinois. The facility will include approximately 757,600 gross square feet ...

1973-01-01

47

Disability, Social Security  

MedlinePLUS

... Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Disability, Social Security New SSA Ruling for Polio Survivors with "Post-Polio Sequelae" Two Social Security programs provide benefits based on disability. Both ...

48

38 CFR 1.521 - Special restrictions concerning social security records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special restrictions concerning social security records. 1.521 Section...Special restrictions concerning social security records. Information received from the Social Security Administration may be...

2013-07-01

49

Social Security: Equitable Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Security is a major social insurance program that is projected to undergo financial woes in the near future. As this program is so essential to securing the human infrastructure of the United States, particularly because so many elderly have become increasingly reliant on Social Security benefits, any financial doubts in the program's estimates should be dealt with quickly and

Kathryn Tippey

2009-01-01

50

20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security numbers. 422.103 Section 422.103 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION...General Procedures § 422.103 Social security numbers. (a) General....

2010-04-01

51

20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Social security numbers. 422.103 Section 422.103 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION...General Procedures § 422.103 Social security numbers. (a) General....

2009-04-01

52

20 CFR 404.408b - Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security...408b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where...

2009-04-01

53

20 CFR 404.408b - Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security...408b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where...

2010-04-01

54

Social Security and Retirement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical question for Social Security policy is how program incentives affect retirement behavior. We use the wealth of new data available through the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) to examine the impact of Social Security incentives on male retirement. We implement forward-looking models of retirement whereby individuals consider not just the incentives to work in the next year but

Courtney C. Coile; Jonathan Gruber

2000-01-01

55

Social Security Money's Worth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how three money's worth measures - the benefit-to-tax ratio, the internal rate of return, and the net present value - are calculated and used in analyses of social security reforms, including systems with privately managed individual accounts invested in equities. Declining returns from the U.S. social security system prove to be the inevitable result of having instituted

John Geanakoplos; Olivia S. Mitchell; Stephen P. Zeldes

1999-01-01

56

A model of Social Security Disability Insurance using matched SIPP\\/Administrative data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Disability Insurance (DI) application behavior in the US using matched SIPP and administrative data over 1989–1995. Certain state-contingent earnings projections and eligibility probabilities are central to the analysis. We find evidence for a small work disincentive effect of DI that seems to be restricted to a subset of the DI beneficiaries, including low earning groups such as blue

Kajal Lahiri; Jae Song; Bernard Wixon

2008-01-01

57

What Does Price Indexing Mean for Social Security Benefits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential component of the administration’s Social Security proposal is to shift from “wage indexing” of benefits to “price indexing.” This change sounds modest, but, in fact, would change the nature of the Social Security program. Price indexing would preserve the purchasing power of Social Security benefits, but these benefits would represent an ever-declining percentage of earnings before retirement. This

Alicia H. Munnell; Mauricio Soto

2005-01-01

58

20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37...Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37...governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration....

2013-04-01

59

Suggestions for Social Security Disability Applicants  

MedlinePLUS

... and specialty. How much will an attorney cost? Fee Agreement Before the attorney can charge you for ... and your attorney must sign and file a fee agreement with the Social Security Administration. Your attorney ...

60

20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120...120 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures...Earnings reported without a social security number or with...

2009-04-01

61

20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120...120 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures...Earnings reported without a social security number or with...

2013-04-01

62

20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120...120 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures...Earnings reported without a social security number or with...

2010-04-01

63

Social Security Administration  

MedlinePLUS

... me about page updates... Due to the government shutdown, information on our website may not be up ... information on available services visit www.socialsecurity.gov/shutdown/ . Back to Top Privacy · Website Policies · Español Site ...

64

Social Security & You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This set of materials for high school students explains the Social Security system. It consists of five lessons and an overview lesson that may be taught separately. To support the lessons, a videotape, fact sheets, student handouts, and quizzes are included. Handouts are in large print and are suitable for use as black line masters for…

Social Security Administration (DHHS), Washington, DC.

65

20 CFR 404.408b - Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI) payments were received for the...404.408b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE,...

2013-04-01

66

20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104 Section 422.104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION...104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons...

2013-04-01

67

38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs...201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs...was previously furnished to the Social Security Administration or to have...

2013-07-01

68

20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section...611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General...

2013-04-01

69

20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104...104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures...104 Who can be assigned a social security number....

2010-04-01

70

20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104...104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures...104 Who can be assigned a social security number....

2009-04-01

71

20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...child's disability determination...regulations of the Social Security Administration...DISABILITY Disability Determinations...Regulations of the Social Security Administration...child's disability determination...regulations of the Social Security...

2009-04-01

72

20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...child's disability determination...regulations of the Social Security Administration...DISABILITY Disability Determinations...Regulations of the Social Security Administration...child's disability determination...regulations of the Social Security...

2010-04-01

73

Proposals to Restructure Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses five proposed changes in Social Security: indexing the normal retirement age to life expectancy (as Sweden is doing); investing part of the trust funds in private securities; partial privatization (as has been proposed by Senators Kerrey and Simpson, Sweden is doing and Mexico has done); replacing Social Security by individually mandated savings (as was done in Chile

Peter A. Diamond

1996-01-01

74

29 CFR 70.54 - Employee Benefits Security Administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Benefits Security Administration. 70.54 Section...INFORMATION OR MATERIALS Public Records and Filings...Benefits Security Administration. (a) The...Benefits Security Administration, Public Documents...

2013-07-01

75

20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38...Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38...governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. In...

2013-04-01

76

Social Security Should Improve Its Collection of Overpayments to Supplemental Security Income Recipients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Efficient resolution of Supplemental Security Income overpayments requires that they be acted upon quickly and uniformly so that the debts are collected promptly and the overpaid recipients are treated fairly. The Social Security Administration has not ac...

1979-01-01

77

Social Security Benefits and the Accumulation of Preretirement Wealth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a new and particularly well-suited body of data to assess the impact of social security retirement benefits on private savings. The Retirement History Survey combines survey evidence on the wealth of couples in their early sixties with detailed information from the administrative records of the Social Security Administration on the lifetime earnings of those individuals and the

Martin Feldstein

1985-01-01

78

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 to the Social Security Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Supplement is a major resource for data on our nation's social insurance and welfare programs. The majority of the statistical tables present information about programs administered by the Social Security Administration-the Old-Age, Survivors, and Dis...

2004-01-01

79

Education, social security, and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the role of government's allocation of tax revenues between two outlays: public investment in education (a transfer to the young generation) and social security benefits to the older generation. In an overlapping generations economy with pay-as-you-go social security and altruistically motivated transfers from parents to children, we analyze how the allocation of the tax revenues between the two

Michael Kaganovich; Itzhak Zilcha

1999-01-01

80

The Progressivity of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much does the current social security system really redistribute from rich to poor? We use the PSID to estimate lifetime wage profiles and actual earnings each year for a sample of 1778 individuals, and we use mortality probabilities to calculate expected payroll taxes and social security benefits. For a given set of facts' about the net flows received by

Julia Lynn Coronado; Don Fullerton; Thomas Glass

2000-01-01

81

Transportation Security Administrations National Deployment Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Transportation Security Administration's National Deployment Force deploys Transportation Security Officers to support airport screening operations during emergencies, seasonal demands, or other circumstances requiring more staffing resources than are...

2008-01-01

82

20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...under Social Security? 404.1402...Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE...Survivors and Disability Insurance Program With the Railroad...covered under Social Security? If...

2010-04-01

83

20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...under Social Security? 404.1402...Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE...Survivors and Disability Insurance Program With the Railroad...covered under Social Security? If...

2009-04-01

84

20 CFR 404.1363 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal benefit payable other than by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal...1363 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...Other Benefits on Payment of Social Security Benefits and Payments §...

2013-04-01

85

20 CFR 404.1406 - Eligibility to railroad retirement benefits as a bar to payment of social security benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...benefits as a bar to payment of social security benefits. 404.1406 Section...1406 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...benefits as a bar to payment of social security benefits....

2013-04-01

86

20 CFR 404.1407 - When railroad retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits. 404.1407 Section...1407 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits. The provisions...

2013-04-01

87

20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...non-vested worker covered under Social Security? 404.1402 Section 404.1402 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a...

2013-04-01

88

20 CFR 404.469 - Nonpayment of benefits where individual has not furnished or applied for a Social Security number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...not furnished or applied for a Social Security number. 404.469 Section 404.469 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...not furnished or applied for a Social Security number. No monthly...

2013-04-01

89

20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...er)'s disability determination...regulations of the Social Security Administration...DISABILITY Disability Determinations...Regulations of the Social Security Administration...er)'s disability determination...regulations of the Social Security...

2010-04-01

90

20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...er)'s disability determination...regulations of the Social Security Administration...DISABILITY Disability Determinations...Regulations of the Social Security Administration...er)'s disability determination...regulations of the Social Security...

2009-04-01

91

Americans' Dependency on Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper determines the standard of living reductions that young, middle aged, and older households would experience were the U.S. government to cut Social Security benefits (but not taxes) to deal with its well documented (see Gokhale and Smetters, 2005) long-term fiscal crisis. To determine pre- and post-retirement living standards in the absence and presence of Social Security benefit cuts

Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Ben Marx; Pietro Rizza

2006-01-01

92

Projected U.S. Demographics and Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without policy reforms, the aging of the U.S. population is likely to increase the burden of the currently unfunded Social Security and Medicare systems. In this paper we build an applied general equilibrium model and incorporate the population projections made by the Social Security Administration (SSA) to evaluate the macroeconomic and welfare implications of alternative fiscal responses to the retirement

Mariacristina De Nardi; Selahattin ?mrohoro?lu; Thomas J. Sargent

1999-01-01

93

How effective is redistribution under the social security benefit formula?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses earnings histories from the Social Security Administration, linked to the survey responses for participants in the Health and Retirement Study, to investigate redistribution under the current social security benefit formula. As advertised, own benefits are significantly redistributed from individuals with high to those with low lifetime earnings. However, redistribution is roughly halved when spouse and survivor benefits

Alan L. Gustman; Thomas L. Steinmeier

2001-01-01

94

How Effective is Redistribution Under the Social Security Benefit Formula?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses earnings histories obtained from the Social Security Administration and linked to the survey responses for participants in the Health and Retirement Study to investigate redistribution under the current social security benefit formula. We find that as advertised, at the level of the individual respondent, the benefit formula is progressive. When individuals are arrayed by indexed lifetime earnings,

Alan L. Gustman; Thomas L. Steinmeier

2000-01-01

95

The Impact of Inflation on Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the Social Security Administration announced that benefits payable in December 2008 would be increased 5.8 percent beginning January 1, 2009. This cost-of-living-adjustment (COLA) – the largest in 26 years – is an important reminder that keeping pace with inflation is one of the attributes that makes Social Security benefits such a unique source of income. (The other is that

Alicia H. Munnell; Dan Muldoon

2008-01-01

96

The Social Security Student Benefit Program and Family Decisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from the Social Security Administration's "1973 Survey of Student Beneficiaries, this paper shows that the Social Security Student Benefit Program (terminated in 1982) positively influenced recipients' selection of quality private college programs. The program also affected parents' contributions and recipients' on campus employment.…

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Luzadis, Rebecca A.

1986-01-01

97

Update on Social Security Disability Determination for the Mentally Impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflecting concerns about Social Security Administration (SSA) policies regarding determination and review of disability status, Congress passed the Social Security Disability Benefits Reform Act of 1984. The Act stipulated that the combined effect of the claimants’ impairments must be considered, required the revision of the Mental Disorders section of the Listing of Impairments, defined the criteria for discontinuation of benefits,

Thomas A. Novack

1987-01-01

98

Evaluation of Organic Syndromes for Social Security Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately four million individuals in the United States have been considered by the Social Security Administration as disabled (Social Security Forum, 1989). While the figures have not changed since 1974 (or the inception of the program) the number of applicants claiming mental impairments continues to increase (Dapper, 1987). Most of these are individuals with low income, limited education, and of

Antonio E. Puente

1990-01-01

99

Social Security Rules and Marginal Tax Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social security payroll tax has become the largest tax paid by the majority of American households. Although, the statutory marginal social security tax rate is the same for all those with wage and salary income up to the maximum level, the complex rules linking social security taxes and subsequent benefits imply that the net marginal social security tax on

Martin S. Feldstein; Andrew Samwick

1992-01-01

100

2 CFR 2339.500 - Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than an individual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...violated the requirements of this part? 2339.500...ADMINISTRATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL...ASSISTANCE) Violations of this Part and Consequences § 2339.500 Who...violated the requirements of this part? The...

2013-01-01

101

78 FR 12129 - Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Rulings 92-2(6)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Social Security Acquiescence Rulings 92-2(6) AGENCY: Social Security Administration...Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 92-2(6)--Difford v. Sullivan, 910 F.2d 1316...rescission of Social Security AR 92-2(6). DATES: Effective Date: February...

2013-02-21

102

14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to deny to individuals any rights,...

2013-01-01

103

42 CFR 401.130 - Materials available at social security district offices and branch offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (1) Claims Manual of the Social Security Administration. ...HIM-17), and Extended Care Facilities (HIM-18). ...upon survey reports of health care institutions or facilities...or made available only at the social security district...

2012-10-01

104

Future Social Security Financing Alternatives and National Saving  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the short-run financial status of Social Security is secure, its long-run financial status is very uncertain. The retirement and disability part of the system (OASDI) is projected to be in long-run actuarial deficit under the Social Security Administration's intermediate economic and demographic f9recasts. Hospital Insurance (HI) is projected to run a large deficit, beginning in the 1990s. OASDI is

Michael J. Boskin

1987-01-01

105

Simulated social control for secure Internet commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we suggest that soft security such as social control has to be used to create secure open systems. Social control means that it is the participants themselves who are responsible for the security, as opposed to leaving the security to some external or global authority. Social mechanisms don't deny the existence of malicious participants. Instead they are

Lars Rasmusson; Sverker Jansson

1996-01-01

106

Gender Differences in Social Security Disability Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes gender differences in Social Security disability awards. Logit analysis is used to identify significant determinants of receiving a Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) award. The results show that, even after controlling for applicant characteristics and nature of impairment, women receive Social Security disability awards at a significantly lower rate than do men.

Marjorie L. Baldwin

1997-01-01

107

Social security finances  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the government’s main functions is to protect the population against a number of social risks. Hence, replacement incomes are provided in the event of unemployment, old age or occupational disability. Income supplements are granted to compensate in part for the financial burden associated with illness or with bringing up children. These social benefits are an important facet of

B. Eugène; T. Stragier; K. Van Cauter; L. Van Meensel

2005-01-01

108

Predicting Social Security numbers from public data  

PubMed Central

Information about an individual's place and date of birth can be exploited to predict his or her Social Security number (SSN). Using only publicly available information, we observed a correlation between individuals' SSNs and their birth data and found that for younger cohorts the correlation allows statistical inference of private SSNs. The inferences are made possible by the public availability of the Social Security Administration's Death Master File and the widespread accessibility of personal information from multiple sources, such as data brokers or profiles on social networking sites. Our results highlight the unexpected privacy consequences of the complex interactions among multiple data sources in modern information economies and quantify privacy risks associated with information revelation in public forums.

Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph

2009-01-01

109

The Impact on National Death Index Ascertainment of Limiting Submissions to Social Security Administration Death Master File Matches in Epidemiologic Studies of Mortality  

PubMed Central

Although many epidemiologists use the National Death Index (NDI) as the “gold standard” for ascertainment of US mortality, high search costs per year and per subject for large cohorts warrant consideration of less costly alternatives. In this study, for 1995–2001 deaths, the authors compared matches of a random sample of 11,968 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study subjects to the Social Security Administration's Death Master File (DMF) and commercial list updates (CLU) with matches of those subjects to the NDI. They examined how varying the lower limits of estimated DMF match probabilities (m scores of 0.60, 0.20, and 0.05) altered the benefits and costs of mortality ascertainment. Observed DMF/CLU ascertainment of NDI-identified decedents increased from 89.8% to 95.1% as m decreased from 0.60 (stringent) to 0.20 (less stringent) and increased further to 96.4% as m decreased to 0.05 (least stringent). At these same cutpoints, the false-match probability increased from 0.4% of the sample to 0.6% and then 2.3%. Limiting NDI cause-of-death searches to subjects found in DMF searches using less stringent match criteria, further supplemented by CLU vital status updates, improves vital status assessment while increasing substantially the cost-effectiveness of ascertaining mortality in large prospective cohort studies.

Hermansen, Sigurd W.; Leitzmann, Michael F.

2009-01-01

110

Social Security in a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private transfer payments are modeled as outcomes of a constrained social choice pro blem facing donors. The approach is applied to a large household leve l data set for Java and hypotheses are tested concerning the performa nce of the \\

Martin Ravallion; Lorraine Dearden

1988-01-01

111

Social insurance and children: The relationship between Social Security, economic well-being, and family context among child recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between social insurance, which provides families protection against certain risks, and child economic security is understudied. Using the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to Social Security Administration benefit records, this article investigates the economic welfare effects of the child component of the US Social Security program. We examine how the poverty rate of child

Christopher R. Tamborini; Emily Cupito

2012-01-01

112

Political Equilibria with Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model pay-as-you-go social security systems as the outcome of majority voting within a overlapping generations model with production. When voting, individuals make two choices, pay the elderly their pensions or default, which amount to promise themselves next period. Under general circumstances, there exist equilibria where pensions are voted into existence and maintained. Our analysis uncovers two reasons for this.

Michele Boldrin; Aldo Rustichini

2000-01-01

113

Inequality and social security reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a quantitative Markovian overlapping generations model with altruistic individuals and incomplete financial markets in order to analyze the long-run distributional implications of two hypothetical public social security policy changes, made in response to impending future demographic shifts. The two policy changes considered are first, raising the tax rate while keeping the replacement rate constant and second, keeping

Jean-Olivier Hairault; François Langot

2008-01-01

114

Social Security Definition of Disability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) program was enacted in 1956, it was intended for the 'totally and permanently disabled,' a population for whom work was not an option. But over the past half-century, there have been many changes in the S...

2003-01-01

115

African Americans with Disabilities and the Social Security Administration's Return-to-Work IncentivesA Potential Clash of Culture and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because there is a high incidence of work-related disabilities in the African American community, which is due to several factors, African Americans are likely to be recipients of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits. In this article, the author reviews SSDI policies and examines cultural variables specific to African Americans that may negate return-to-work incentives. Social cognitive theory is offered

Reginald J. Alston

2004-01-01

116

SOCIAL SECURITY NETS FOR MARINE FISHERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Social Security is achieved when,deprivation or vulnerability is reduced or removed as a result of using social means, thereby, in the process, making lives and livelihoods more secure. However, provision ofsuch,social security measures ,is influenced by various ,supply and demand,factors. This paper attempts to explain the provision of social security in the fisheries sector of Kerala State in south

John Kurien; Antonyto Paul

2001-01-01

117

Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits for adults with mental retardation unable to perform substantial gainful activity through the Disability Insurance (DI) program and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI benefits are also provided to families of children and adolescents who…

Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Myers, Tracy G., Ed.; Hartel, Christine R., Ed.

118

A Positive Theory of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries. social security is a large fraction of the government budget. Why is it, given that at any moment in time the number of recipients of social security benefits is smaller than the number of contributors? Kore generally, what determines the size of social security? To answer these questions, this paper studies an overlapping generations model in which

Guido Tabellini

1990-01-01

119

Social Security as Trade among Living Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors study social security legislated endogenously by altruistic, overlapping generations. Starting from a steady-state equilibrium without social security, both generations living in a period can gain from legislation that mandates transfers from young to old in that and all subsequent periods. The social security allocation is Pareto optimal. Later living pairs of generations may lose, but do not amend

Ingemar Hansson; Charles Stuart

1989-01-01

120

A Positive Theory of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries, social security accounts for a large fraction of the government budget. Why is this so, given that at any point in time the number of recipients of social security benefits is smaller than the number of contributors? In the overlapping-generations model studied in this paper, all individuals currently alive vote on social security in every period. In

Guido Tabellini

2000-01-01

121

Social Security Benefits for the Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic changes in society have clear implications for the U. S. Social Security system. Changing familial relationships will affect the scope and value of Social Security protection that will require policy changes as well. In reporting the changes in family structure, this analysis also discusses implications for Social Security benefits and the effects on minorities and women, and calls attention

Yung-Ping Chen

2001-01-01

122

Should Social Security Benefits Increase with Age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that the optimal relation between social security benefits and retiree age depends on balancing the advantage of providing an otherwise unavailable actuarially fair annuity against the lower rate of return earned in a pay-as-you-go social security system. The ability of compulsory social security programs to provide an actuarially fair annuity implies that benefits should increase with age

Martin Feldstein

1987-01-01

123

Income Security Programmes and the Philosophy of Social Security Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social security programmes may be divided into two broad groups of pro grammes, those concerned with income security and those concerned with op portunity security. Income security programmes may be further divided into positive transfer programmes, where there is a cash flow from the government to the individual, and negative transfer programmes, which are a component of the taxation system.

C. P. Harris

1977-01-01

124

The Financial Impact of Social Security by Cohort Under Alternative Financing Assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the financial impact of Social Security by age cohort under alternative assumptions concerning future financing of Social Security. It examines the Social Security Administration's intermediate IIB and various combinations of optimistic and pessimistic assumptions concerning fertility, mortality, and wage growth. Importantly, it examines the implications of alternative potential resolutions of the long-term financing deficit and scenarios concerning

Michael J. Boskin; Douglas J. Puffert

1987-01-01

125

Nuclear Security: Security Issues at DOE and Its Newly Created National Nuclear Security Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the General Accounting Office (GAO) provides its observations on the Department of Energy's (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) security programs to protect against theft, sabotage, espionage, terrorism, and othe...

G. L. Jonese

2000-01-01

126

Social Administration, Social Policy and Socialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops from the marxist critique of social policy under capitalism a speculative picture of socialist social policy. It draws its ideas from:(a) socialist theory of the state, human nature, family life, and the relationship between need and resources(b) 'socialist' countries such as Russia and Cuba(c) struggles about welfare policies under capitalism.It attempts to answer a number of questions

Bob Deacon

1981-01-01

127

Students and Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the publication of the Goverment's White Paper, Top?up Loans for Students in November 1988, public debate has been confined to the merits of the loans proposals. The proposal to exclude full?time students from the social security system has been neglected in the media and in Parliament alike.This article examines the origins and development of this proposal from its first

Mark Stephens

1990-01-01

128

Dropping Out of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liability facing a pay-as-you-go social security system can be calculated in several ways. The exact liability measure chosen can significantly affect the conversion of a public pay-as-you-go system to a system based on individually funded accounts. Most conversions, including that which took place in Chile, as well as in many plans to convert the US system, assume the largest

Kent Smetters; Jan Walliser

2002-01-01

129

Understanding Social Security: A Civic Obligation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social Security is a contemporary topic that exemplifies a social issue-centered approach to social studies, one that allows students to get beyond the school walls to analyze a contemporary topic that ultimately affects virtually everyone. In this article, the authors provide a brief history of Social Security, describe how it is funded and…

Steinbrink, John E.; Cook, Jeremy W.

2002-01-01

130

Retirement Responses to Early Social Security Benefit Reductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates potential responses to reductions in early Social Security retirement benefits. Using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) linked to administrative records, we find that Social Security coverage is quite uneven in the older population: one-quarter of respondents in their late 50's lacks coverage under the Disability Insurance program, and one-fifth lacks coverage for old-age benefits. Among those

Olivia S. Mitchell; John W. R. Phillips

2000-01-01

131

Is Social Security Part of the Social Safety Net?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on the existing literature that examines the extent of redistribution in the Social Security system as a whole, this paper focuses more specifically on how Social Security affects the poor. This question is important because a Social Security program that reduces overall inequality by redistributing from high income individuals to middle income individuals may do nothing to help the

Jeffrey R. Brown; Julia Lynn Coronado; Don Fullerton

2009-01-01

132

Security Administrators: A Breed Apart  

Microsoft Academic Search

System administrators (sysadmins) are the linchpin of civilization, managing the Information Technology (IT) infrastructures on which modern life depends. Unfortunately, there has been a lack of research on sysadmin practices and consequently admin tools are often not designed to support their tasks effectively. Over the past five years, we conducted a series of field studies investigating the work practices and

Eben M. Haber; Eser Kandogan

2007-01-01

133

Sequencing social security, pension, and insurance reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

For both economic and regulatory reasons, most developing countries have underdeveloped pension funds and insurance sectors, and their social security systems face many financial and organizational problems. Wide-ranging reform would produce considerable economic and social benefits. A restructured social security system would avoid financial involvency and be better able to meet its objectives of redistribution. The development of pension funds

Dimitri Vittas

1995-01-01

134

Longitudinal Statistics for New Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries. Washington, DC: Center for Studying Disability Policy and Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings from a longitudinal examination regarding the extent to which new Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries return to work and use disability insurance work incentives, based on Social Security Administration data.

David Stapleton; Su Liu; Dawn Phelps; Sarah Prenovitz

2010-01-01

135

SOCIAL SECURITY :R EGRESSIVE OR PROGRESSIVE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence is growing that a positive correlation exists between income levels and longevity. In short, high-income earners live longer. That also means that high-income earners get larger retirement-income security benefits from social security. This correlation raises the following questions: x If social security contributions are a level percentage of earnings and high-income earners live longer and receive larger social

Robert L. Brown

136

Congressional Budget Justification, FY 2008: Employee Benefits Security Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Employee Benefits Security Administration (EBSA) is responsible for the administration and enforcement of Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), in both civil and criminal areas. ERISA established broad standards of re...

2007-01-01

137

The development of social security in America.  

PubMed

This article examines the historical origins and legislative development of the U.S. Social Security program. Focusing on the contributory social insurance program introduced in title II of the Social Security Act of 1935, the article traces the major amendments to the original program and provides an up-to-date description of the major provisions of the system. The article concludes with a brief overview of the debate over the future of the program, and it provides a summary assessment of the impact and importance of Social Security as a central pillar of the U.S. social welfare system. PMID:20737857

DeWitt, Larry

2010-01-01

138

Bush Plan Takes Security Out of Social Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social workers understand that assessing the implications of a policy for individual citizens like Veronica, a 51 year-old African American woman whose retirement will be jeopardized by President Bush's plan for social security, is often a good yardstick by which to measure the impact of a change. Moreover, social workers understand that policy…

Marsh, Jeanne C.

2005-01-01

139

Bush Plan Takes Security Out of Social Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social workers understand that assessing the implications of a policy for individual citizens like Veronica, a 51 year-old African American woman whose retirement will be jeopardized by President Bush's plan for social security, is often a good yardstick by which to measure the impact of a change. Moreover, social workers understand that policy…

Marsh, Jeanne C.

2005-01-01

140

Social Security private accounts: a risky proposition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ongoing debate over Social Security, private accounts have been recommended as one part of the resolution of the funding difficulties the system faces in coming years. This article discusses what private accounts can and cannot do for individuals who choose to use them and for future Social Security deficits. ; Under current proposals, private accounts would give account

Gerald P. Dwyer Jr.

2005-01-01

141

Social Security Reform with Heterogeneous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the quantitative role of idiosyncratic uncertainty in an economy in which rational agents vote on hypothetical social security reforms. We find that the role of a pay-as-you-go social security system as a partial insurance and redistribution device significantly reduces political support for a transition to an economy with a fully funded system. We conclude that the status

Juan C. Conesa; Dirk Krueger

1999-01-01

142

Social Security and Retirement in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the German public old age social security program (,Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung') and its incentive effects on retirement decisions. The paper presents the key features of the system and expresses retirement incentives in the form of accrual rates of social security wealth and implicit tax rates on earnings. It summarizes labor market behavior of older persons in Germany during

Axel Boersch-Supan; Reinhold Schnabel

1997-01-01

143

Optimizing the initiation of Social Security benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the decision couples and individuals face when determining the age at which to begin receiving their Social Security benefits. By comparing a personal required rate of return to the internal rate of return between various retirement ages and various life expectancies, a couple or an individual can better decide when to initiate receipt of Social Security benefits.

Joseph P. McCormack; Grady Perdue

2006-01-01

144

Should Social Security Benefits Be Means Tested?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-security retirement benefits distort the saving decisions of workers who are rational enough to save for their future. Since the implicit rate of return in an unfunded social-security program is less than the marginal product of capital, the resulting decline in saving causes a welfare loss. The present paper examines the conditions under which the welfare loss can be reduced

Martin S. Feldstein

1987-01-01

145

The Optimal Level of Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal level of Social Security benefits depends on balancing the protection that these benefits offer to those who have not provided adequately for their own old age against the welfare costs of distorting economic behavior. The primary such cost is the distortion in private saving. The present paper derives the level of Social Security benefits that is optimal in

Martin Feldstein

1986-01-01

146

Are People Claiming Social Security Benefits Later?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the retirement income system — comprising Social Security and employer-sponsored pension plans — is contracting. To compensate, people need to work longer to ensure an adequate income over many years throughout retirement. A few additional years in the labor force can make a big difference. Working longer directly increases current income; it avoids the actuarial reduction in Social Security

Dan Muldoon; Richard W. Kopcke

2008-01-01

147

Social Security and the Question of Inequities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the Social Security benefit inequities between male and female workers and between one- and two-earner families and traces the cause of such disparities. Discusses the evolution of today's Social Security System and presents two proposals for a possible reform of the system. (CT)|

Dolan, Elizabeth M.; Parkay, Kristin Kline

1981-01-01

148

Social Security Disability Applicant Statistics, 1968.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About one of every 10 dollars in social security benefits under the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance program (OASDI) goes to disabled workers or their families. By the end of 1969, nearly 2,500,000 workers and dependents and 40,000 widows and widowers were receiving some form of social security disability compensation, while another…

Lerner, Philip R., Comp.

149

78 FR 22361 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative Law Judges (ALJs); Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social...

2013-04-15

150

78 FR 8217 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative Law Judges (ALJs); Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social...

2013-02-05

151

78 FR 9987 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative Law Judges (ALJs); Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social...

2013-02-12

152

TWO COMPUTATIONS TO FUND SOCIAL SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a general equilibrium model to study the impact offully funding social security on the distribution of consumptionacross cohorts and over time. In an initial stationary equilibriumwith an unfunded social security system, the capital\\/output ratio,debt\\/output ratio, and rate of return to capital are 3.2, 0.6, and6.8%, respectively. In our first experiment, we suddenly terminatesocial security payments but compensate entitled

HE HUANG; SELAHATTIN IMROHOROGLU; THOMAS J. SARGENT

1997-01-01

153

[Universalization of health or of social security?].  

PubMed

This article presents an analysis of the architecture of Mexico's health system based on the main economic problem, failing to achieve a GDP growth rate to increase real wages and give workers in formal employment coverage social security. This analysis describes the relationship between social security of the population and employment status of it (either formal or informal employment) and the impact that this situation poses to our health system. Also, it ends with a reform proposal that will give all workers the same social rights, ie to grant universal social security. PMID:22116175

Levy-Algazi, Santiago

154

A Structural Model Of Social Security'S Disability Determination Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate a multistage sequential logit model reflecting the structure of the disability determination process of the Social Security Administration (SSA). The model is estimated using household survey information exact-matched to SSA records on disability adjudications from 1989 to 1993. Under program provisions, different criteria dictate outcomes at different steps of the determination process. We find that, without the multistaged

Jianting Hu; Kajal Lahiri; Denton R. Vaughan; Bernard Wixon

2001-01-01

155

Information Technology and the Governance of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent welfare state developments have emphasized the structure, administration and governance of service delivery. In critically examining these developments, this article advances a governmentality approach to the welfare state that highlights the significance of technology in contributing to the nature and practices of the welfare state. Based on a comparative study of computerization in the social security systems of 13

Paul Henman; Michael Adler

2003-01-01

156

Rights and Politics in Argentine Social Security Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, Argentine social security underwent deep changes, as the Menem Administration (1989–99) pushed through Congress an ambitious reform program devised to privatize and streamline benefits. Supreme Court decisions generally followed suit, maintaining that pensions should be frozen, given the fact that pension mobility was not accurately defined in the Constitution. Claims by retirees imposed a huge strain on

Walter F. Carnota

2009-01-01

157

20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social security number required. 209.3...RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee...

2013-04-01

158

7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Social security numbers. 273.6 Section...and Employment § 273.6 Social security numbers. (a) Requirements...provide the State agency with the social security number (SSN) of...

2013-01-01

159

Marxism and Social Administration: a Shaky Start  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines Taylor-Gooby and Dale's interesting attempt at producing a marxist account of social administration in their book Social Theory and Social Welfare. It argues that their distinction between 'materialist' marxism and the 'idealist' Social Administration tradition breaks down because of an inadequate definition of 'idealism' and because their own variant of marxism is 'idealist'. Their attempt to apply

Mark Cowling

1982-01-01

160

Social Security: Effects of Budget Constraints on Disability Program. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Social Security, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews and analyzes several issues surrounding DDS funding and staffing. It specifically evaluates the effects of budget constraints imposed by the Social Security Administration (SSA) on state agencies' operations and determines whether SSA's...

1987-01-01

161

Forensics Tools for Social Network Security Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of Social Network Sites has increased rapidly in recent years. Since the success of a Social Network Site depends on the number of users it attracts, there is pressure on providers of Social Network sites to design systems that encourage behavior which increases both the number of users and their connections. However, like any fast- growing technology, security

Janet Cheng; Jennifer Hoffman; Therese LaMarche; Ahmet Tavil; Amit Yavad; Steve Kim

162

Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of its total resources that a society devotes to social welfare is a useful general measure related to social policy. In fiscal 1976, the United States spent 21 percent of Gross National Product (GNP) for public social welfare programs, including health and education as well as social insurance (the largest segment) and assistance. Program developments, inflation, population growth,

Ida C. Merriam

1978-01-01

163

An empirical study of the effects of social security reforms on benefit claiming behavior and receipt using public-use administrative microdata.  

PubMed

In the past few years, the Social Security Old-Age and Survivors Insurance benefit system in the United States has undergone some of the most significant changes since its inception. In a short period of time, we have seen the implementation of the phased increase in the full retirement age (FRA) with the resulting increase in the penalty for claiming benefits early, the elimination of the earnings test for those above the FRA, and the incremental increase in the delayed retirement credit (DRC) for those claiming benefits after the FRA. Because these changes have taken place only recently, there is relatively little research using household-level data that analyzes the consequences of all these changes. Using the public-use microdata extract from the Master Beneficiary Record, we are able to uncover a number of interesting trends in benefit claiming behavior and level of benefit receipt, which can help us understand how the changes in the system are shaping the retirement benefit claiming behavior of older Americans. We find evidence of substantial effects of the removal of the earnings test and the increase in the FRA, but evidence of very small effects as a result of the increases in the DRC. PMID:19961065

Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Yin, Na

2009-01-01

164

A Median Voter Model of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical median voter analysis of the determination of the level of social security. The framework for the analysis is a continuous-time, overlapping-generations model with nonaltruistic households facing borrowing constraints in the capital market. A majority voting equilibrium is shown to exist in which the median voter is liquidity-constrained. The desired level of social security for each

Robin W Boadway; David E Wildasin

1989-01-01

165

Lifetime Earnings Patterns, The Distribution Of Future Social Security Benefits, And The Impact Of Pension Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an analysis of career earnings patterns developed for predicting the impact of Social Security reform. We produce estimates of age-earnings profiles of American men and women born between 1931 and 1960. The estimates are obtained using lifetime earnings records maintained by the Social Security Administration. We use a standard econometric approach to develop forecasts of future individual

Barry Bosworth; Gary Burtless; Eugene Steuerle

2002-01-01

166

Symptom validity issues in the psychological consultative examination for social security disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about Social Security Administration (SSA) policy with regard to the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability, particularly with respect to validation of the responses and findings. First, the nature of the consultation and the importance of understanding the boundaries and ethics of the psychologist's role are described. Issues particular to working with low-functioning claimants usually

Michael D. Chafetz

2010-01-01

167

Socializing electronics: Secure interactions in social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networks help us to follow friends and family daily lives. Home devices are rich in user's information so they are appropriate platforms to deploy social network applications. This article addresses two main requirements: content must be adapted to different devices and user's privacy must be respected. To enable social network interaction in home environments and to overcome privacy problems

Daniel Díaz-Sánchez; Andrés Marín; Florina Almenárez; Alberto Cortés

2010-01-01

168

The Contribution of Sociology To Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date only a few sociological studies have been devoted to the study of social security, in spite of the fact that this major social institution increasingly finds itself at the centre of controversy in the political and economic arenas. However, in recent years there have been several international conferences at which the question of the potential contribution of a

Roland Sigg

1986-01-01

169

Sequencing Social Security, Pension, and Insurance Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 1995The full benefits of social security reform will not be realized until social pension systems are restructured and downsized, contribution rates lowered, and the scope for private pension funds (voluntary or mandatory) increased. Reform of the insurance sector is also essential because of the close links between pensions and life, disability, and annuity insurance.For both economic and regulatory reasons,

Dimitri Vittas

1999-01-01

170

Secure friend discovery in mobile social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile social networks extend social networks in the cyberspace into the real world by allowing mobile users to discover and interact with existing and potential friends who happen to be in their physical vicinity. Despite their promise to enable many exciting applications, serious security and privacy concerns have hindered wide adoption of these networks. To address these concerns, in this

Wei Dong; Vacha Dave; Lili Qiu; Yin Zhang

2011-01-01

171

Social security, social welfare and the aging population  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This study examines the effects of pay-as-you-go social security programs in aging economies when the middle-aged both educate\\u000a their dependent children and subsidize the retirement of the old. Using an overlapping generations framework in which agents\\u000a are three-period lived but timing of death in the third period is uncertain, we analyze the effects of social security tax\\u000a schemes, under

Rowena A. Pecchenino; Kelvin R. Utendorf

1999-01-01

172

Social justice and educational administration: mutually exclusive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to explore some of the current tensions within educational administration in the USA and conclude with a few cautions for educators who engage in social justice projects. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a selective case, this historical essay examines the issues of social justice and equity as they have related to educational administration in

Carol F. Karpinski; Catherine A. Lugg

2006-01-01

173

Report to the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency. Federal Agencies' Controls over the Access, Disclosure and Use of Social Security Numbers by External Entities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of the House Ways and Means Committee, Subcommittee on Social Security, and discussions with the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency (PCIE), the Social Security Administration's Office of the Inspector General (OIG) led 15 OIGs ...

2003-01-01

174

Security administration plan for HANDI 2000 business management system  

SciTech Connect

This document encompasses and standardizes the integrated approach for security within the PP and Ps applications, It also identifies the security tools and methods to be used. The Security Administration Plan becomes effective as of this document`s acceptance and will provide guidance through implementation efforts and, as a ``living document`` will support the operations and maintenance of the system.

Wilson, D.

1998-09-29

175

Home-centric visualization of network traffic for security administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's system administrators, burdened by rapidly increasing network activity, must quickly perceive the security state of their networks, but they often have only text-based tools to work with. These tools often provide no overview to help users grasp the big-picture. Our interviews with administrators have revealed that they need visualization tools; thus, we present VISUAL (Visual Information Security Utility for

Robert Ball; Glenn A. Fink; Chris North

2004-01-01

176

Transportation Security Administration: Clear Policies and Oversight Needed for Designation of Sensitive Security Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concerns have arisen about whether the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is applying the Sensitive Security Information (SSI) designation consistently and appropriately. SSI is one category of 'sensitive but unclassified' information- informati...

2005-01-01

177

Prefunding Social Security Benefits to Achieve Intergenerational Fairness: Can It Be Done in the Social Security Trust Fund.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Being fair to future generations requires that Social Security be reformed in a manner that prefunds a significant share of future Social Security benefit payments. All serious reform plans have this property. Prefunding is done exclusively in the Social ...

R. P. Mariger

2008-01-01

178

When to Take Social Security Benefits: Questions to Consider  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retirees can claim Social Security benefits at any age between 62 and 70. There are sound financial reasons to work beyond the earliest age and to delay claiming Social Security benefits if you can. Monthly benefits will be higher for the rest of your life if you wait. Social Security is the safest and most secure source of retirement income

Virginia P. Reno; Joni I. Lavery

2010-01-01

179

Career Socialization of Women in School Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes research that attempted to discover and describe the socialization process in school administrative careers that support or hinder women's decision-making for a career in school administration. After a theoretical framework was set up, twenty-five successful women administrators were interviewed and the data were analyzed. One…

Marshall, Catherine

180

Analysis of the Use of the Social Security Number as Veteran Identification as it Relates to Identity Theft; A Cost Benefit Analysis of Transitioning the Department of Defense and Veterans Administration to a Military Identification Number.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identity theft has become one of the fastest growing crimes in America and stems from the widespread and growing reliance of organizations across the nation to use Social Security Numbers (SSN) as a primary personal identifier. Originally intended for the...

D. G. Maraska G. R. Opria

2007-01-01

181

[Social security for health system transformation].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to present the management and medical components within the public health institutions that can contribute to the transformation of the National Health System (NHS). It is expected that these will have an impact in the extent of the medical coverage and will improve the health care services delivered to the Mexican population. A diagnostic study revealed the existence of fragmentation in the NHS. The health institutions are vertically established and operate under isolated mechanisms of financing and administration. Additionally, it is pointed out the problematic derived from the multiplicity in the public insurance conditions among individuals and the lack of census of the insured population within the institutions. As part of the universalization of health services, it is necessary to integrate the health care system; accordingly, a variety of mechanisms for the partial and total integration are arise, such as the exchange of the health care services and the portability and convergence of the institutions. Particularly, we listed the actions carried out by the Mexican Institute of Social Security for the integration of the NHS such as, the independent management medical areas, diagnosis-related groups (DRG), the performing evaluation of the medical units, and the preventive and curative strategies in the implemented programs. Finally, is dealt some reflections in order to improve the public health care. PMID:23254711

Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago

182

System and method for secure social networking  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and method for secure social networking is disclosed. In one embodiment, a social networking site is accessible on the Internet for use by minors that allows for adult supervision and approval for participation on the site, and provides safeguards against abuses and misuse of many social networking sites available today. In another embodiment, a social networking site on the Internet is available for use by minors that permits users to access the Internet only according to guidelines previously approved by adults for each user. The system further comprises a call screening feature that allows incoming and outgoing calls according to guidelines previously approved by adults for each user.

Williams; Robert Gordon (Coral Springs, FL)

2013-10-08

183

38 CFR 3.153 - Claims filed with Social Security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Claims filed with Social Security. 3.153 Section 3.153...3.153 Claims filed with Social Security. An application on a form...Secretary and the Commissioner of Social Security filed with the Social...

2013-07-01

184

Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies  

PubMed Central

In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake.

Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

2013-01-01

185

24 CFR 200.6 - Employer identification and social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Employer identification and social security numbers. 200.6 Section... Employer identification and social security numbers. The requirements...disclosure and verification of social security numbers and employer...

2013-04-01

186

The Payroll Taxes and Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social security system encompasses a broad group of compulsory public and negotiated private quasi insur ances which protect workers against the economic risks of death, old age, disability, and unemployment. The various parts of this system cover from 25 per cent to 95 per cent of all workers. And the combined revenues of the public and private programs are

Paul G. Craig

1959-01-01

187

Social Security in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Security program is now 75 years old and debate and reform are in the air. Some decry that its benefits are inadequate and should be improved, especially for lifetime low earners, women and minorities. Others, more loudly, proclaim that the system is in financial difficulty and, if nothing is done, will soon go broke. As a result of

John G. Kilgour

2010-01-01

188

A life cycle analysis of social security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We develop an applied general equilibrium model to examine the optimal social security replacement rate and the welfare benefits associated with it. Our setup consists of overlapping generations of 65-period lived individuals facing mortality risk and individual income risk. Private credit markets, including markets for private annuities, are closed by assumption. Unlike previous analyses, we find that an unfunded

Ay?e ?mrohoroglu; Selahattin ?mrohoroglu; Douglas H. Joines

1995-01-01

189

Would Privatizing Social Security Raise Economic Welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A funded social security retirement program would imply a larger capital stock and a higher level of real income than an unfunded program that provides the same level of benefits. The transition from an unfunded program to a funded program that does not reduce the benefits of existing retirees or the present value of the benefit entitlements of existing employees

Martin Feldstein

1995-01-01

190

Delays in claiming social security benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on Social Security benefit claiming behavior, a takeup decision that has been ignored in the previous literature. Using financial calculations and simulations based on an expected utility maximization model, we show that delaying benefit claim for a period of time after retirement is optimal in a wide variety of cases and that gains from delay may be

Courtney COILE; Peter DIAMOND; Jonathan GRUBER; Alain JOUSTEN

2000-01-01

191

Discount Rate Heterogeneity and Social Security Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many countries consider the privatization of existing pay-as-you-go Social Security systems, the option to make participation in the new system voluntary may appeal to policy makers who need to obtain the political support of their workers. A critical issue in evaluating such a reform and its economic consequences is the unobserved heterogeneity in households' preferences for consumption. This paper

Andrew A. Samwick

1997-01-01

192

A positive theory of social security  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I make two points. First, I argue that social security programs around the world link public pensions to retirement: people do not lose their pensions if they make a million dollars a year in the stock market, but they do confront marginal tax rates of up to 100 percent if they choose to work. Second, after arguing

Xavier X. Sala-I-Martin

1996-01-01

193

Discount rate heterogeneity and social security reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many countries consider the privatization of existing pay-as-you-go Social Security systems, the option to make participation in the new system voluntary may appeal to policy makers who need to obtain the political support of their workers. A critical issue in evaluating such a reform and its economic consequences is the unobserved heterogeneity in households' preferences for consumption. This paper

Andrew A. Samwick

1998-01-01

194

The Optimal Design of Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Social Security system is fairly unique in that it explicitly allows for a progressive formulation of retirement benefits by assigning a larger replacement rate to workers with small pre-retirement wages. In contrast, the public pension systems in other countries often replace a constant fraction of pre-retirement wages, although the length of the “averaging period\\

Shinichi Nishiyama; Kent Smetters

2008-01-01

195

Social Security Benefits for Students. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the fiscal year 1976, outlays for social security student benefits made it the second largest federal program for direct aid to students (second to the Veterans' Readjustment Benefits). Benefits paid on account of a dependent child normally end on a child's eighteenth birthday; but 1965 legislation extended coverage to 18-to-21-year-old…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Congressional Budget Office.

196

Delays in claiming social security benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on Social Security benefit claiming behavior, a take-up decision that has been ignored in the previous literature. Using financial calculations and simulations based on an expected utility maximization model, we show that delaying benefit claim for a period of time after retirement is optimal in a wide variety of cases and that gains from delay may be

Courtney Coile; Peter Diamond; Jonathan Gruber; Alain Jousten

2002-01-01

197

Delays in Claiming Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on Social Security benefit claiming behavior, a take-up decision that has been ignored in the previous literature. Using financial calculations and simulations based on an expected utility maximization model, we show that delaying benefit claim for a period of time after retirement is optimal in a wide variety of cases and that gains from delay may be

Courtney Coile; Peter Diamond; Jonathan Gruber; Alain Jousten

1999-01-01

198

Market Valuation of Accrued Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

One measure of the health of the Social Security system is the difference between the market value of the trust fund and the present value of benefits accrued to date. How should present values be computed for this calculation in light of future uncertainties? We think it is important to use market value. Since claims on accrued benefits are not

John Geanakoplos; Stephen P. Zeldes

2009-01-01

199

Utilization of Social Security Educational Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Michigan Competitive Scholarship and Tuition Grant Program survey of 1973-74 participants who also reported receiving Social Security Educational Benefits (SSEB) shows that reported educational utilization of SSEB is significantly higher than that expected by program assessment procedures. Implications for needs analysis theory and practice are…

Blesch, Tom; And Others

1976-01-01

200

Dynamics of Individual Information about Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have raised concern about an appare nt widespread lack of knowledge about pensions and Social Security, even among people close to ret irement. These findings largely rely on cross- sectional analyses, and therefore are likely to ove rstate the negative consequences of lack of knowled ge: they only allow limited inference on whether lack o f knowledge is

Susann Rohwedder

201

Deafblindness, ontological security, and social recognition.  

PubMed

Trust, ontological security, and social recognition are discussed in relation to self-identity among people with acquired deafblindness. To date the phenomenon has not been elaborated in the context of deafblindness. When a person with deafblindness interacts with the social and material environment, the reliability, constancy, and predictability of his or her relations is crucial for maintaining or achieving ontological security or a general and fairly persistent feeling of well-being. When these relations fundamentally change, the impact on ontological security will be very negative. The construction of social recognition through the interaction between the self and others is embodied across three dimensions: at the individual level, at the legal systems level, and at the normative or value level. The relationship between trust and ontological security on the one hand and social recognition on the other hand is discussed. It is argued that these basic processes affecting personality development have to be identified and acknowledged in the interactions people with deafblindness experience. Some implications for the rehabilitation of people with acquired deafblindness are presented and illustrated. PMID:19012120

Danermark, Berth D; Möller, Kerstin

2008-11-01

202

Social Security Disability Criteria and Substance Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists play an important role in the diagnosis of psychologically disabling conditions. These professional conclusions and their documentation are essential to the process of Social Security Disability determination. Substance dependence is a frequently present complicating factor in these cases. Once considered to be one of the acceptable bases for determining disability status, it now has a disqualifying effect on eligibility

Randy Noblitt; Pamela Noblitt

2012-01-01

203

Social security disability and clinical neuropsychological assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the guidelines for Social Security disability evaluation of mental impairments in general and organic syndromes in particular. The listings of diagnostic categories for application and procedures for evaluation are outlined. The qualifications and roles of the clinical neuropsychologist are discussed. In addition, the special problem of malingering is considered.

Antonio E. Puente

1987-01-01

204

Eligibility for Social Security Disability Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand whom among the non-disabled older population experiences a health problem later in life and applies for Social Security Disability Insurance, it is necessary to investigate patterns of coverage and reasons for non-coverage. This paper shows that while the safety net program covers most American workers, a substantial group of older women is not covered. In this

Olivia S. Mitchell; John W. R. Phillips

2001-01-01

205

The Employment Effects of Social Security Disability Insurance in the Past 25 Years: A Study of Rejected Applicants Using Administrative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use administrative longitudinal data on earnings, impairment, and mortality to replicate and extend Bound¡¯s seminal study of rejected applicants to federal Disability Insurance (DI). We confirm Bound¡¯s main result that rejected older male applicants do not exhibit substantial labor force participation. We show this result is stable over time, robust to more narrow control groups, and similar within gender,

Till von Wachter; Jae Song; Joyce Manchester

2008-01-01

206

Social Security Reform: Experience of the Alternate Plans in Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1981, the employees of three Texas counties-Galveston, Matagorda, and Brazoria-withdrew from Social Security. The counties replaced Social Security with a system of individual accounts that provided retirement, survivor, and disability benefits. Under ...

1999-01-01

207

Public Administration, Social Science, and Political Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public administration writers have placed considerable faith in the power of social science to improve the practice of public administration. This article argues that such faith derives from their vision of the state as a purposive association. However, because we live in what is essentially a civil association rather than a purposive association, there are severe limits on the knowledge

Michael W. Spicer

1998-01-01

208

How Large Are the Classication Errors in the Social Security Disability Award Process?Ü  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an ìauditî of the multistage application and appeal process that the U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) uses to determine eligibility for disability benets from the Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. We use a subset of individuals from the Health and Retirement Study who applied for DI or SSI benets between 1992 and 1996,

John Rust

209

How Large are the Classification Errors in the Social Security Disability Award Process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an .audit. of the multistage application and appeal process that the U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) uses to determine eligibility for disability benefits from the Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. We use a subset of individuals from the Health and Retirement Study who applied for DI or SSI benefits between 1992 and 1996,

Hugo Benitez-Silva; Moshe Buchinsky; John Rust

2005-01-01

210

How Large are the Classification Errors in the Social Security Disability Award Process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an audit' of the multistage application and appeal process that the U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) uses to determine eligibility for disability benefits from the Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. We study a subset of individuals from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who applied for DI or SSI benefits between 1992 and

Hugo Benitez-Silva; Moshe Buchinsky; John Rust

2004-01-01

211

Transportation Security Administrations Efforts to Proactively Address Employee Concerns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Transportation Security Administration reports that a stable, mature, and experienced workforce is the most effective tool it has to meet its mission. Despite the value placed on the workforce, employees have expressed their concerns about how the age...

2008-01-01

212

The political economy of social security: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the literature on the political economy of social security. We review models that address the following questions: (i) Why do social security programs that transfer resources from young and middle-aged workers to the elderly exist? (ii) What are the economic and political interactions between social security systems and other redistributive programs of the welfare state? (iii) How

Vincenzo Galasso; Paola Profeta

2002-01-01

213

Social Security Reform; Work Incentives. Issue Brief No.6  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This sixth and final Treasury issue brief on Social Security reform discusses Social Securitys effect on work incentives and the implications for reform. Social Security discourages work effort in much the same way as does an ordinary tax on labor income....

2008-01-01

214

34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section...Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security number. (a)(1) Except...Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a student provides...

2013-07-01

215

Social Security Benefits of Immigrants and U.S. Born  

Microsoft Academic Search

For each year of work under the Social Security System, immigrants realize higher benefits than U.S. born, even when their earnings are identical in all years the immigrant has been in the U.S.. Two features of the social security benefit calculation are responsible: the social security benefit formula transfers benefits toward those with low lifetime covered earnings, and all years

Alan L. Gustman; Thomas L. Steinmeier

1998-01-01

216

Social Security and Supplemental Security Income Benefits for Children with Disabilities. The Arc Q & A Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Basic information about Social Security and Supplementary Security Income benefits for children with disabilities is presented in a question-and-answer format. The following questions are addressed: "How can a child get benefits from Social Security or Supplemental Security Income (SSI)?"; "How is eligibility determined?"; "What is the definition…

Arc, Arlington, TX.

217

Social Security privatization in Latin America.  

PubMed

The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for women and lower earners than for men and higher earners; A minimum required rate of return among the pension fund management companies (in most of these countries) that has resulted in similarity among the companies and the consequent lack of meaningful choice; and High administrative fees in most of these countries, which reduce the individual's effective rate of return. To what extent these issues can be mitigated or resolved in the future is not yet clear. In general, a definitive assessment of the Chilean model and its Latin American variations will not be possible until a cohort of retirees has spent most of its career under the new system. PMID:11131978

Kritzer, B E

2000-01-01

218

Prefunding Social Security Benefits to Achieve Intergenerational Fairness: Can It Be Done in the Social Security Trust Fund?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being fair to future generations requires that Social Security be reformed in a manner that prefunds a significant share of future Social Security benefit payments. All serious reform plans have this property. Prefunding is done exclusively in the Social Security trust fund in some plans, and it is done partly in personal retirement accounts (PRAs) in others. The consequences of

Randall P. Mariger

219

Privatizing Social Security: the Chilean experience.  

PubMed

In 1981, Chile introduced a new approach to social insurance, a system of individual capitalization accounts financed solely by the employee. This new privatized system was an improvement over Chile's failing pay-as-you-go arrangement. As many countries worldwide are facing financial problems with their social security system, they are now looking to the Chilean model in trying to find solutions. This article describes the conditions that led to the new system, the transition, and details of the new privatized system. PMID:8994293

Kritzer, B E

1996-01-01

220

Aging, fertility, social security and political equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the effect of population aging on the political choice of the size of a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) social security system,\\u000a incorporating the heterogeneity of individuals in their preference for having children, and hence the endogenous fertility\\u000a choices of individuals, into a simple overlapping generations model. We show that population aging may result in an increase\\u000a in the contribution rate,

Makoto Hirazawa; Koji Kitaura; Akira Yakita

2010-01-01

221

Continuity and Change in the Obama Administration's National Security Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the Obama Administration's recently released National Security Strategy (May 2010) and compares it with its predecessors. While consistent with its predecessors in its definition of American interests, its stress on U.S. global leadership, and the importance of American values in its foreign policy, it differs from the strategy released by the George W. Bush Administration by offering

Christopher Hemmer

2011-01-01

222

Changes in the Way Social Security Evaluates Claims for Childhood Disability Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1990 Sullivan v. Zebley decision ruled that the Social Security Administration's rules for evaluating disability in SSI childhood cases were inconsistent with the statutory definition of disability for children. In this article, the decision is reviewed and SSA's regulatory and administrative response is described.

Susan B. Parker

1991-01-01

223

Estimating the Prevalence of Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence Among Social Security Disability Benefit Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the passage of Public Law 104-121, the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996, the federal Social Security Administration was no longer allowed to grant disability benefits to persons whose primary diagnosis was one of substance abuse or dependence. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2004a), a nationally representative

Debra Brucker

2007-01-01

224

Disability Benefits Available Under the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Veterans Disability Compensation (VDC) Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Veterans Disability Compensation (VDC)— administered by the Social Security Administration (SSA) and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) respectively—are two of the largest federal disability programs, but strongly differ along several dimensions, including the populations served, how each program defines a “disability,” as well as varying eligibility requirements.\\u000aThis report provides a description

Umar Moulta-Ali

2012-01-01

225

Social security and mental illness: reducing disability with supported employment.  

PubMed

Social Security Administration disability programs are expensive, growing, and headed toward bankruptcy. People with psychiatric disabilities now constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding subgroup of program beneficiaries. Evidence-based supported employment is a well-defined, rigorously tested service model that helps people with psychiatric disabilities obtain and succeed in competitive employment. Providing evidence-based supported employment and mental health services to this population could reduce the growing rates of disability and enable those already disabled to contribute positively to the workforce and to their own welfare, at little or no cost (and, depending on assumptions, a possible savings) to the government. PMID:19414885

Drake, Robert E; Skinner, Jonathan S; Bond, Gary R; Goldman, Howard H

226

Social Security And Mental Illness: Reducing Disability With Supported Employment  

PubMed Central

Social Security Administration disability programs are expensive, growing, and headed toward bankruptcy. People with psychiatric disabilities now constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding subgroup of program beneficiaries. Evidence-based supported employment is a well-defined, rigorously tested service model that helps people with psychiatric disabilities obtain and succeed in competitive employment. Providing evidence-based supported employment and mental health services to this population could reduce the growing rates of disability and enable those already disabled to contribute positively to the workforce and to their own welfare, at little or no cost (and, depending on assumptions, a possible savings) to the government.

Drake, Robert E.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Bond, Gary R.; Goldman, Howard H.

2010-01-01

227

NNSA Administrator Looks to Future of Nuclear Security at STRATCOM Symposium  

ScienceCinema

Administrator Thomas P. DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) discusses the future of the Nuclear Security Enterprise and its strategic deterrence mission in light of President Obamas unprecedented nuclear security agenda.

228

A review of Transportation Security Administration funding 2001–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 spurred a fundamental change in the thinking, organization, and funding of transportation\\u000a security in the United States. The most visible organizational change was the creation of the Transportation Security Administration\\u000a (TSA), first as an entity within the Department of Transportation in November 2001, and then as part of the newly-established\\u000a Department of Homeland

Clinton V. Oster; John S. Strong

2008-01-01

229

Benefit adequacy among elderly Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries and the SSI federal benefit rate.  

PubMed

Both target effectiveness and administrative simplicity are desirable properties in the design of minimum benefit packages for public retirement programs. The federal benefit rate (FBR) of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has been proposed by some analysts as a potentially attractive basis of establishing a new minimum benefit for Social Security on both of these grounds. This type of proposal is related to a broader array of minimum benefit proposals that would establish a Social Security benefit floor based on the poverty rate. In contrast to Social Security, the SSI program is means tested, including both an income and asset screen and also a categorical eligibility screen (the requirement to qualify as aged or disabled). The SSI FBR provides an inflation-adjusted, guaranteed income floor for aged and disabled people with low assets. The FBR has been perceived by proponents as a minimal measure of Social Security benefit adequacy because it represents a subpoverty income level for a family of one or two depending on marital status. For this same reason it has been seen as a target-effective tool of designing a minimum Social Security benefit. An FBR-based minimum benefit has also been viewed as administratively simple to implement; the benefit can be calculated from Social Security administrative records using a completely automated electronic process. Therefore-in contrast to the SSI program itself-an FBR-based minimum benefit would incur virtually no ongoing administrative costs, would not require a separate application for a means-tested program, and would avoid the perception of welfare stigma. While these ideas have been discussed in the literature and among policymakers in the United States over the years, and similar proposals have been considered or implemented in several foreign countries, there have been no previous analyses measuring the size of the potentially affected beneficiary population. Nor has there been any systematic assessment of the FBR as a measure of benefit adequacy or the tradeoffs between potential target effectiveness and administrative simplicity. Based on a series of simulations, we assess the FBR as a potential foundation for minimum Social Security benefits and we examine the tradeoffs between administrative simplicity and target effectiveness using microdata from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our empirical analysis is limited to Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries aged 65 or older. We start with the assessment of the FBR as a measure of benefit adequacy. We are particularly concerned about two types of error: (1) incorrectly identifying some Social Security beneficiaries as "economically vulnerable," and (2) incorrectly identifying others as "not economically vulnerable." Operationally we measure economic vulnerability by two alternative standards. One of our measures considers beneficiaries with family income below the official poverty threshold as vulnerable. Our second measure is more restrictive; it uses a family income threshold equal to 75 percent of the official poverty threshold. We find that a substantial minority of retired workers have Social Security benefits below the FBR. The results also show that the FBR-based measure of Social Security benefit adequacy is very imprecise in terms of identifying economically vulnerable people. We estimate that the vast majority of beneficiaries with Social Security benefits below the FBR are not economically vulnerable. Conversely, an FBR-level Social Security benefit threshold fails to identify some beneficiaries who are economically vulnerable. Thus an FBR-level minimum benefit would be poorly targeted in terms of both types of errors we are concerned about. An FBR-level minimum benefit would provide minimum Social Security benefits to many people who are clearly not poor. Conversely, an FBR-level minimum benefit would not provide any income relief to some who are poor. The administrative simplicity behind these screening errors also results in addit

Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul; Sears, Jim

2007-01-01

230

32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Security Number, but the individual does not have to disclose it. If the individual refuses to respond, use alternative means of identifying records. (c) Social Security Numbers are personal and unique to each individual. Protect them as...

2013-07-01

231

Point/Counterpoint: Should Social Security Be Mandatory for Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fefferman argues that mandatory Social Security coverage for teachers and other government employees assures their own pension protection and equalizes their contributions with their potential Social Security benefits. Brundige feels that teachers already have superior retirement plans and should not be forced to bail out the ailing Social

Fefferman, Arthur S.; Brundige, N. Eugene

1980-01-01

232

Social Security Disability: Improved Processes for Planning and Conducting Demonstrations May Help SSA More Effectively Use Its Demonstration Authority.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1980, the Congress has required the Social Security Administration (SSA) to conduct demonstration projects to test the effectiveness of possible program changes that could encourage individuals to return to work and decrease their dependence on Disa...

2004-01-01

233

20 CFR 422.310 - Collection of overdue debts by administrative offset.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 422.310 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Claims Collection § 422...Federal employees, including employees of the Social Security Administration. A Federal...

2013-04-01

234

Social Security and Elderly Living Arrangements--Evidence from Social Security Notch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social Security program has over the period become unsustainable from tax finance and imply reforms that would cut down on benefits of the elderly. The implications are that elderly may have to increase their post-retirement working, reduce consumption and opt for shared living rather than independent living conditions. The last of the three…

Engelhardt, Gary V.; Gruber, Jonathan; Perry, Cynthia D.

2005-01-01

235

38 CFR 3.216 - Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. 3.216 Section...216 Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. Any person who...upon request with his or her social security number and the social...

2013-07-01

236

The Efficiency Gains from Social Security Benefit - Tax Linkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the efficiency gains from linking marginal Social Security benefits to marginal Social Security payroll taxes. In the U.S. the current combined employer-employee OASI payroll tax rate is 10.4 percent. Recent estimates suggest that the average marginal income tax rate is roughly 27 percent (Barro and Sahaskul (1983)). If marginal OASI payroll taxes provided no marginal Social Security

Alan J. Auerbach; Laurence J. Kotlikoff

1985-01-01

237

What rehabilitation counselors should know to assist Social Security beneficiaries in becoming employed.  

PubMed

The 1999 Ticket to Work and Work Incentive Improvement Act (TTWWIIA) has opened new employment opportunities for vocational rehabilitation professionals. The legislation minimized longstanding disincentives in the return to work efforts of beneficiaries collecting Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI). Although some of these key disincentives have been eliminated, rehabilitation counselors working with this population will find some interesting new challenges posed by this population. This article will outline the Social Security Administration's SSI/SSDI programs and process for applying; characteristics of beneficiaries; and information regarding the psychological and physiological aspects of beneficiaries with psychiatric disabilities and musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:12897389

Marini, Irmo

2003-01-01

238

NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1  

ScienceCinema

Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

239

Secure Flight Report: DHS Privacy Office Report to the Public on the Transportation Security Administrations's Secure Flight Program and Privacy Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Privacy Office conducted a review of the Transportation Security Administration's (TSA) collection and use of commercial data during initial testing for the Secure Flight program that occurred in the fall 2004 thr...

2006-01-01

240

Energy Relations in Russia: Administration, Politics and Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter analyses energy relations through a prism of three interlinked concepts: administration, politics and security. This triad describes the basic approaches to questions about technical, politicised and securitised energy. These three concepts are logically linked to one another and represent an elementary matrix; a prism through which…

Makarychev, Andrey

2005-01-01

241

Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Supplement is a major resource for data on our nation's social insurance and welfare programs. The majority of the statistical tables present information about programs administered by the Social Security Administrationthe Old-Age, Survivors, and Disa...

2010-01-01

242

Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Supplement is a major resource for data on our nation's social insurance and welfare programs. The majority of the statistical tables present information about programs administered by the Social Security Administrationthe Old-Age, Survivors, and Disa...

2006-01-01

243

Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Supplement is a major resource for data on our nation's social insurance and welfare programs. The majority of the statistical tables present information about programs administered by the Social Security Administrationthe Old-Age, Survivors, and Disa...

2008-01-01

244

Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Supplement is a major resource for data on our nation's social insurance and welfare programs. The majority of the statistical tables present information about programs administered by the Social Security Administrationthe Old-Age, Survivors, and Disa...

2009-01-01

245

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 to the Social Security Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Supplement is a major resource for data on our nation's social insurance and welfare programs. The majority of the statistical tables present information about programs administered by the Social Security Administrationthe Old-Age, Survivors, and Disa...

2009-01-01

246

Strategic asset allocation for individual investors: the impact of the present value of Social Security benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the dramatic effect of Social Security wealth on individuals' asset allocation. We first discuss why Social Security wealth should be included in portfolio asset-mix decisions. We then draw parallels between Social Security benefits and inflation-indexed treasury bonds to help quantify the present value of Social Security benefits. Finally, we show the portfolio impact of including Social Security

Steve P. Fraser; William W. Jennings; David R. King

2001-01-01

247

Study on emergent social security event management in social transition period in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unexpected social security events are one of the important research topics in the field of crisis management. Science reasonable management can effectively reduce the hazards of crisis. The article, from perspective of crisis management and combining with the special social stage of social transition in China, studies the management of social security events. This text analyses the basic triggers of

Shang Gao; Zao-li Yang; Zheng-pei Wang

2011-01-01

248

Indirect taxes and social policy: distributional impact of alternative financing of social security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of indirect taxes in social policy is investigated by 1) comparing the distributional pattern of indirect taxes with the one of personal income taxes and social security contributions; 2) calculating the indirect tax liabilities for recipients of social benefits; 3) assessing the distributional impact of shifting the financing of social security from contributions to indirect taxes. For this

André Decoster; Kris De Swerdt; Gerlinde Verbist

2007-01-01

249

Social security reform: Does partial privatization make sense for China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the year 2025, one quarter of the world's population over age 60 will be living in China, a nation in the process of partially privatizing its social security system. This article presents a brief history of social security policy in China, describes the current scheme, presents an analysis of the pros and cons of this scheme, and asks why

John B. Williamson; Catherine Deitelbaum

2005-01-01

250

Social Security and Its Impact on Older Latinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older Latinos have distinct demographic and economic characteristics that are making their reliance on Social Security critical. Latinos are the fastest growing segment of the older adult population. They have lower than average educational levels and higher rates of poverty than other subgroups. In addition, they have small accumulated wealth and limited retirement income. Social Security is a particularly important

Bum Jung Kim; Fernando Torres-Gil

2011-01-01

251

Stochastic Models of the Social Security Trust Funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year in March, the Board of Trustees of the Social Security trust funds reports on the current and projected financial condition of the Social Security programs. Those programs, which pay monthly benefits to retired workers and their families, to the survivors of deceased workers, and to disabled workers and their families, are financed through the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability

Clark Burdick; Joyce Manchester

2003-01-01

252

Social Security for Persons with Disabilities in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the programmes of Social Security are to guarantee income maintenance or income support, the condition of the disabled persons is somewhat different. Some might have become disabled due to work injury or accident or due to some other contingency during their work life. Such persons have employment related social security schemes in operation in India. However, there are majority

P Madhava Rao

253

Do Income Taxes Affect the Progressivity of Social Security?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers have designed Social Security to be a progressive retirement program that replaces a larger share of monthly earnings for low- and middle-income workers than for high earners. However, previous research has found that, although the Disability Insurance (DI) component of Social Security is very progressive, the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) component may be less progressive than intended. One

Norma B. Coe; Zhenya Karamcheva; Richard Kopcke; Alicia H. Munnell

2012-01-01

254

SOCIAL SECURITY AND SAVING: NEW TIME SERIES EVIDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Abstract - This paper reexamines the results of my 1974 paper on Social Security and saving with the help of an additional 21 years of data. The estimates presented here reconfirm that each dollar of Social Security wealth (SSW) reduces private saving by between two and three cents. The parameter estimates for the postwar period and for the entire

MARTIN FELDSTEIN

1996-01-01

255

The Economics of Prefunding Social Security and Medicare Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a detailed analysis of the economics of prefunding benefits for the aged, focusing on Social Security but indicating some of the analogous magnitudes for prefunding Medicare Benefits. We use detailed Census and Social Security information to model the transition to a fully funded system based on mandatory contributions to individual accounts. The funded system we examine would

Martin S. Feldstein; Andrew Samwick

1997-01-01

256

The Social Security Earnings Test and Work Incentives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The labor supply and benefit claiming incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, the labor force participation of Older Americans rises, and a variety of reforms to the Social Security system are considered. Any…

Benitez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

2007-01-01

257

Interaction of defined benefit pension plans and social security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the shift from defined benefit to defined contribution pension plans when the payout rate from social security is set optimally. This paper shows that when employees are receiving more of their private pensions from defined contribution plans one should be raising the payout rate from traditional social security rather than trying to privatize part of it.

Pierre PESTIEAU; Uri M Possen

2008-01-01

258

Actuarial Nonequivalence in Early and Delayed Social Security Benefit Claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related adjustments to Social Security benefits are intended to be actuarially equivalent, on average, rendering lifetime benefits invariant to the timing of first receipt. This article analyzes actuarial equivalence with respect to early and delayed Social Security benefit claims using a large sample of current and former retired-worker beneficiaries. We find substantial deviations from actuarial equivalence that have resulted in

James E. Duggan; Christopher J. Soares

2002-01-01

259

The Effects of Phasing Out Social Security Student Benefits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aspects of the student benefit program under the Social Security Act and the consequences of phasing out the program are considered. The 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act phases out the Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance (OASDI) student benefit program under the Social Security Act. The OASDI was one of the largest programs offering…

Rosen, David Paul

260

The Changing Role of Women and Social Security Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the Social Security program as it relates to women in the workplace. As increasing numbers of working-age women enter the paid labor force, women's groups are voicing their concerns of the inequitable distribution of Social Security benefits. Discusses three options for reform and expected changes. (Author/ABL)|

Johnson, Barbara Brooks

1987-01-01

261

Social Security: Strengthening a Vital Safety Net for Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 1935, Social Security has provided a vital safety net for millions of Americans who cannot work because of age or disability. This safety net has been especially critical for Americans of Latino decent, who number more than 50 million or nearly one out of every six Americans. Social Security is critical to Latinos because it is much more…

Cruz, Jeff

2012-01-01

262

Food Security and Social Protection in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

America's vulnerable populations face increasing levels of food insecurity, hunger and poverty as social protection programs are attacked and delegitimized. This paper examines the changes in social protection policy as a whole but focuses on the extreme case of food security. We first look at the interrelated concepts and definitions of food security, hunger and poverty. Next, we describe governmental

Richard Hoefer; Carolyn Curry

2012-01-01

263

The Effects of Phasing Out Social Security Student Benefits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects of the student benefit program under the Social Security Act and the consequences of phasing out the program are considered. The 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act phases out the Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance (OASDI) student benefit program under the Social Security Act. The OASDI was one of the largest programs offering…

Rosen, David Paul

264

Applications, Denials, and Appeals for Social Security Disability Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project explores the process by which older workers apply for, and are awarded, Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) benefits. Our focus is on how and whether DI serves as a path out of the labor market at older ages. This research is important to the extent that proposals to raise the early retirement age under Social Security alter the

Olivia S. Mitchell; John W. R. Phillips

2002-01-01

265

Terminating Social Security Disability Benefits: Another Burden for the Disabled?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent legislation has led to removal of more than 374,000 individuals from the Social Security disability rolls. After a study indicated that a significant percentage of beneficiaries were not actually entitled to Social Security disability payments, the Act was amended to provide for mandatory and frequent review of nearly all individuals on disability, resulting in the rise in removals. Removing

Beth S. Glassman

1984-01-01

266

Psychologists and the Economics of Social Security Disability Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disability status is an important characteristic of the diverse populations that psychologists serve. Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) are vital resources for people with disabilities. Access to healthcare is facilitated by Medicare that is provided by SSDI; and SSI affords a small income to eligible beneficiaries. Both programs are administered by the United States Social

Randy Noblitt; Pamela Perskin Noblitt

2010-01-01

267

Social Security, Growth and Welfare in OLG Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the impact of a stylized pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) Social Security program in an economy of overlapping generations with equilibrium growth. We adopt realistic mortality and other demographic assumptions and allow for the presence or absence of full life annuities. In all cases we find that steady state economies with PAYGO Social Security programs grow more slowly than those without.

Neil Bruce; Stephen J. Turnovsky

2012-01-01

268

4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.9 Social Security number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security...or denial of benefits for refusing to provide it. (c) When GAO requests an individual to disclose his or her SSN, it shall...

2013-01-01

269

42 CFR 403.812 - HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data standards, and national identifiers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data...Transitional Assistance Program § 403.812 HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data...standards, and national identifiers. (a) HIPAA covered entities. An endorsed...

2009-10-01

270

42 CFR 403.812 - HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data standards, and national identifiers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data...Transitional Assistance Program § 403.812 HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data...standards, and national identifiers. (a) HIPAA covered entities. An endorsed...

2010-10-01

271

Financial Capability in the United States: Consumer Decision-Making and the Role of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes new data from the 2009 National Financial Capability Study. This survey provides information to assess how American households make financial decisions, how they are faring under current economic conditions, and in what ways financial knowledge contributes to financial capability. In addition, it includes data about the information that the Social Security Administration (SSA) provides to consumers. The

Annamaria Lusardi

2010-01-01

272

Social Security Issues in Developing CountriesThe Latin American Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper surveys the major economic, financial, and administrative issues that confront social security systems in Latin America. The larger systems have contributed substantially to public sector financial disequilibria. Expenditures of the younger systems with more limited coverage could increase dramatically as the pension plan matures, life expectancy increases, and coverage is broadened, but the narrow revenue base will force

G. A. Mackenzie

1988-01-01

273

Estimating the Labor Market Impact of Voluntary Military Service Using Social Security Data on Military Applicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of military service on veterans' earnings are estimated using Social Security administrative records to fit models with heterogeneous potential outcomes. The first estimation strategy uses matching and regression to compare applicants who enlisted with applicants who did not enlist. The second uses instrumental variables generated by an error in military entrance exams. The empirical results suggest that military service

Joshua D. Angrist

1998-01-01

274

Representation at a Social Security Hearing: Focus on Disability: Advocate's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook is part of a series on legal services for the elderly which can be provided by senior citizens functioning as paralegals. It is designed to teach paralegals to represent claimants at a Social Security administrative hearing. The handbook is designed to serve the following purposes: (1) to present major legal concepts governing the…

Donnelly, Terrence M.; Villmoare, Edwin

275

24 CFR 206.40 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer...

2013-04-01

276

13 CFR 102.35 - Use and collection of Social Security Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. 102.35 Section...35 Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. Each Program...of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless: (1)...

2013-01-01

277

20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage...THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE ...§ 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's...

2013-04-01

278

20 CFR 229.55 - Reduction for spouse social security benefit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true Reduction for spouse social security benefit. 229.55 Section...THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE ...229.55 Reduction for spouse social security benefit. A spouse...

2013-04-01

279

28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use and collection of social security numbers. 16.53 Section...53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component...of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless the...

2013-07-01

280

24 CFR 201.6 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer...

2013-04-01

281

28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use and disclosure of social security numbers. 802.23 Section...23 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general...refusal to disclose his or her social security number. (b)...

2013-07-01

282

20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA...Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit...

2013-04-01

283

20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. 229...REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined §...

2010-04-01

284

24 CFR 203.35 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer...

2013-04-01

285

24 CFR 5.216 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification...Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer...

2013-04-01

286

12 CFR 792.68 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use and collection of Social Security numbers. 792.68 Section...68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of...regulatory authorization to furnish Social Security numbers, and that...

2013-01-01

287

28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use and collection of social security numbers. 700.25 Section...25 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each system...system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a method of...

2013-07-01

288

6 CFR 5.33 - Use and collection of social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5.33 Section...33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component...of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless the...

2013-01-01

289

20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. 229...REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined §...

2009-04-01

290

12 CFR 1070.63 - Use and collection of social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use and collection of social security numbers. 1070.63 Section...63 Use and collection of social security numbers. The CFPB will ensure...of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless the...

2013-01-01

291

10 CFR 1008.22 - Use and collection of social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use and collection of social security numbers. 1008.22 Section...22 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) The System...system of records which utilizes social security numbers as a method of...

2013-01-01

292

1 CFR 304.31 - Use and collection of social security numbers and other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true Use and collection of social security numbers and other information...31 Use and collection of social security numbers and other information...of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless the...

2013-01-01

293

20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. 229...REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined §...

2013-04-01

294

20 CFR 229.56 - Reduction for child's social security benefit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Reduction for child's social security benefit. 229.56 Section...THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE ...56 Reduction for child's social security benefit. A child's...

2013-04-01

295

41 CFR 105-64.105 - When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected... § 105-64.105 When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected...authority must exist for collecting Social Security Numbers for record...

2013-01-01

296

26 CFR 1.31-2 - Credit for âspecial refundsâ of employee social security tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...âspecial refundsâ of employee social security tax. 1.31-2 Section...special refundsâ of employee social security tax. (a) In general. ...deducted and withheld as employee social security tax with respect to...

2013-04-01

297

24 CFR 242.68 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer...

2013-04-01

298

24 CFR 5.216 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification...Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer...

2009-04-01

299

29 CFR 71.12 - Use and collection of social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12 Section...12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component...an individual to disclose his social security account number shall...

2013-07-01

300

31 CFR 1.32 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use and disclosure of social security numbers. 1.32 Section...32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general...individual's refusal to disclose his social security number. (b)...

2013-07-01

301

Stabilizing Social Security - Which Wage Measure Would Best Align Benefit Increases with Revenue Increases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Social Security Amendments of 1983 included an automatic mechanism to help align Social Security benefit payment increases with revenue increases if Social Security reserves fall below a specified level. GAO was asked which of several wage measures wo...

1985-01-01

302

20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How the Board pays social security benefits. 235.4 Section 235...RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an...

2010-04-01

303

20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How the Board pays social security benefits. 235.4 Section 235...RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an...

2009-04-01

304

An Overview of the Equality Directive On Social Security and Its Implementation in Four Social Security Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1984 the Equality Directive 79\\/ 7\\/EEC on Statutory Social Security schemes came into force. Since then, this Directive has forced changes to the social security systems in the UK, Ireland, Belgium and the Netherlands. This article argues that, in the main, these changes have achieved the removal of bars on certain categories of women, married women and women

Julia A. Sohrab

1994-01-01

305

Analyzes of International Social Security System and Discussions on Perfecting Chinese Social Security System Especially for State-Own Incorporations  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the pivotal factors that lead to the lacking of breaking though in reformation of Chinese state-own corporations are the following: the social security system has not been stroke up in the light of international routine and accordingly not been bringing into play of its own. The defects of current Chinese social security system can be collectively represented by

Song Yu-ling; Miao Zhuang

2007-01-01

306

Two RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration.  

PubMed

Medication error can easily cause serious health damage to inpatients in hospital. Consequently, the whole society has to spend huge amount of extra resources for additional therapies and medication on those affected inpatients. In order to prevent medication errors, secure inpatient medication administration system is required in a hospital. Using RFID technology, such administration system provides automated medication verification for inpatient's medicine doses and generates corresponding medication evidence, which may be audited later for medical dispute. Recently, Peris-Lopez et al. (Int. J. Med. Inform., 2011) proposed an IS-RFID system to enhance inpatient medication safety. Nevertheless, IS-RFID system does not detect the denial of proof attack efficiently and the generated medication evidence cannot defend against counterfeit evidence generated from the hospital. That is, the hospital possesses enough privilege from the design of IS-RFID system to modify generated medication evidence whenever it is necessary. Hence, we design two lightweight RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration, one for online verification environment and the other for offline validation situation, to achieve system security on evidence generation and provide early detection on denial of proof attack. PMID:21732130

Yen, Yi-Chung; Lo, Nai-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Chen

2011-07-06

307

LIFETIME EARNINGS PATTERNS, THE DISTRIBUTION OF FUTURE SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS, AND THE IMPACT OF PENSION REFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes an analysis of career earnings patterns deve loped for predicting the impact of Social Security reform. We produce estimates of age-earnings profiles of A merican men and women,born between 1931 and 1960. The,estimates are obtained using lifetime earnings records maintained by the Social Securit y Administration. We use a standard econometricapproach to develop forecasts of future

Barry Bosworth; Gary Burtless; Eugene Steuerle

1999-01-01

308

Implications of Changing Social Norms for Social Security Benefits: Results of Pilot Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem. The U.S. Social Security program is designed to protect the American family structure that existed when the program was introduced in the 1930s. Both family structure and social norms regarding family life have changed substantially in the interim. Major changes in family structure invite proposals to modify Social Security benefits to accommodate contemporary conditions. To remain politically viable, the

Francis G. Caro; Yung-Ping Chen

2004-01-01

309

Security and privacy in online social networks: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networking becomes increasingly important due to the recent surge in online interaction. Social network analysis can be used to study the functioning of computer networks, information flow patterns in communities, and emergent behavior of physical and biological systems. In this paper, the mathematical formulation and computational models for security and privacy of social network data are discussed. Several possible

Prateek Joshi; C.-C. Jay Kuo

2011-01-01

310

What Every Parent Should Know About Social Security  

MedlinePLUS

... or 19 if he or she is still in school full time. Your monthly payments stop with the 16th birthday of your youngest child receiving Social Security benefits, unless the child is disabled and continues ...

311

Military Retirement and Social Security: A Comparative Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Old Age and Survivor's Insurance (OASI) program of Social Security and the military retirement system provide substantial amounts of income for retirees, they are fundamentally different. In addition to providing retirement annuities, OASI attempts to...

D. J. Cymrot

1986-01-01

312

Methods of Integrating Social Security with Private Pension Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the reasons for considering integration of Social Security benefits into the company pension plan and the approaches to and methods of integration, and how they apply to various types of plans. (Editor/TA)|

Burke, Paul E.

1977-01-01

313

Department of Energy Congressional Budget Request, FY 2012: National Nuclear Security Administration; Office of Administrator; Weapons Activities; Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation; Naval Reactors. (Volume 1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is critical to ensuring the security and safety of our nation. The NNSA implements programs for three major national security endeavors: leveraging science to maintain a safe, secure and effective arsena...

2011-01-01

314

Alternate measures of replacement rates for social security benefits and retirement income.  

PubMed

Discussions of retirement planning and Social Security policy often focus on replacement rates, which represent retirement income or Social Security benefits relative to preretirement earnings. Replacement rates are a rule of thumb designed to simplify the process of smoothing consumption over individuals' lifetimes. Despite their widespread use, however, there is no common means of measuring replacement rates. Various measures of preretirement earnings mean that the denominators used in replacement rate calculations are often inconsistent and can lead to confusion. Whether a given replacement rate represents an adequate retirement income depends on whether the denominator in the replacement rate calculation is an appropriate measure of preretirement earnings. This article illustrates replacement rates using four measures of preretirement earnings: final earnings; the constant income payable from the present value (PV) of lifetime earnings (PV payment); the wage-indexed average of all earnings prior to claiming Social Security benefits; and the inflation-adjusted average of all earnings prior to claiming Social Security benefits (consumer price index (CPI) average). The article then measures replacement rates against a sample of the Social Security beneficiary population using the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) microsimulation model. Replacement rates are shown based on Social Security benefits alone, to indicate the adequacy of the current benefit structure, as well as on total retirement income including defined benefit pensions and financial assets, to indicate total preparedness for retirement. The results show that replacement rates can vary considerably based on the definition of preretirement earnings used and whether replacement rates are measured on an individual or a shared basis. For current new retirees, replacement rates based on all sources of retirement income seem strong by most measures and are projected to remain so as these individuals age. For new retirees in 2040, replacement rates are projected to be lower, though still adequate on average based on most common benchmarks. PMID:19102135

Biggs, Andrew G; Springstead, Glenn R

2008-01-01

315

The effect of changes in Social Security on bequests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net effect on intergenerational transfers of an increase in Social Security benefits will depend on how much of the increase\\u000a is consumed and how much bequeathed. I show analytically that the marginal propensity to consume an increase in Social Security\\u000a benefits is indeterminate: it could range from zero to 1.0 or even larger. At one extreme bequests would fully

Michael D. Hurd

1993-01-01

316

Estimating the Effects of Changing Social Security Benefit Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] The U.S. Social Security system faces serious financial difficulties in both the short and the long run. The short-run problem is that the system has very meager financial reserves. In the long run—after the year 2010, when the post-World-War-II baby-boom generation reaches retirement age—the financial problems of Social Security will intensify because of population aging and the consequent decline

Gary S Fields; Olivia S Mitchell

1985-01-01

317

Cost-neutral policies to increase Social Security benefits for widows: a simulation for 1992.  

PubMed

Among older women, widows are more likely to live in poverty than married women. Thus, increasing Social Security benefits to widows seems desirable. Shifting some Social Security benefits from the period when women live as part of a couple to the period when they are widows could reduce poverty. This article uses the 1991 Survey of Income and Program Participation exactly matched to the Social Security Administration's record of benefits to evaluate the effect on poverty rates of four cost-neutral proposals that transfer Social Security benefits from married couples to surviving widows. The policies would moderately decrease poverty rates among older women by reducing the rate for widows more than the slight increase in the rate for couples. The evaluated proposals include a proposal supported by the majority of the 1994-96 Advisory Council on Social Security that would calculate the survivor's benefit as 75 percent of the couple's benefit, reduce the spouse's benefit from 50 to 33 percent of the husband's benefit, and reduce benefits by 1.5 percent. PMID:9674070

Iams, H M; Sandell, S H

1998-01-01

318

Labor Supply Responses to Marginal Social Security Benefits: Evidence from Discontinuities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key question for Social Security reform is whether workers currently perceive the link on the margin between the Social Security taxes they pay and the Social Security benefits they will receive. We estimate the effects of the marginal Social Security benefits that accrue with additional earnings on three measures of labor supply: retirement, hours, and labor earnings. We develop

Jeffrey B. Liebman; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; David G. Seif

2008-01-01

319

Labor supply responses to marginal Social Security benefits: Evidence from discontinuities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key question for Social Security reform is whether workers respond to the link on the margin between the Social Security taxes they pay and the Social Security benefits they will receive. We estimate the effects of the marginal Social Security benefits that accrue with additional earnings on three measures of labor supply: retirement age, hours, and labor earnings. We

Jeffrey B. Liebman; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; David G. Seif

2009-01-01

320

Labor Supply Responses to the Social Security Tax-Benefit Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key question for Social Security reform is whether workers currently perceive the link on the margin between the Social Security taxes they pay and the Social Security benefits they will receive. We develop a methodology for estimating the incentive effects of the marginal Social Security benefits that accrue with additional earnings on three measures of labor supply: hours, labor

Jeffrey B. Liebman; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; David G. Seif

321

A social approach to security: Using social networks to help detect malicious web content  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the midst of a social networking revolution, social media has become the new vehicle for effective business marketing and transactions. As social aspects to the Internet continue to expand in both quantity and scope, so has the security threat towards enterprise networks and systems. Many social networking users also become main targets of spams, phishing, stalking, and other malware

Michael Robertson; Yin Pan; Bo Yuan

2010-01-01

322

Primer on Disability Benefits: Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] This report presents information on two components of federal disability benefits, those provided through the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. The SSDI program is an insured program that provides benefits to individuals who have paid into the system and meet certain minimum work requirements. The SSI program, in contrast, is a means-tested

Umar Moulta-Ali

2012-01-01

323

Social Security Performance and Accountability Report for Fiscal Year 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The year 2000 marked the 65th anniversary of the establishment of the Social Security program. It is a dynamic program that has changed over time to meet changing circumstances. And, largely because of this responsiveness to changing needs, the Social Sec...

2001-01-01

324

Identifying the Enemy: Social Categorization and National Security Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation seeks to understand the interplay between informal articulations of social categories and formal instantiations of those categories in official language. Specifically, it explores the process of social categorization as it is used to identify threats to national security. The research employed a qualitative, document-based,…

Unsworth, Kristene

2010-01-01

325

Social Security, Private Transfers and Voting Behaviour: the Italian case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the political sustainability of the current Italian welfare state - in particular of the social security system. Previous studies - see D'Amato and Galasso (2002) for a politico-economic analysis based on a large calibrated model of the Italian economy - suggest that the demographic dynamic of population aging will lead to a larger size of the social

Agar Brugiavini; Jose Ignacio; Conde Ruiz; Vincenzo Galasso

326

Bilateral Social Security Instruments Concluded between European Socialist Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of existing bilateral treaties, conventions, and agreements in the field of social policy concluded between European socialist countries. It summarizes their basic principles, their social security provisions (old-age benefit, employment injury benefits, cash benefits for sickness and maternity), and the provisions concerning…

Popescu, Andrei

1982-01-01

327

DISXPERT: A Social Security Disability Screening Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study paper reports on the development and implementation of DISXPERT, a rule-based expert system tool for referral of social security disability recipients to vocational rehabilitation services. The growing use of paraprofessionals as caseworkers responsible for assessment in the social services area provides fertile domain areas for new and innovative application of expert systems technology. The main function of

James R. Nolan

1997-01-01

328

Social security in the Middle East: a brief review.  

PubMed

The countries of the Middle East all have traditional social insurance type social security programs. The move towards defined contribution individual accounts that is occurring in some regions has not affected this region The social security programs in the Middle East are not facing the problems of financing found in Europe and North America, in part because they still have relatively high fertility rates and are thus little affected by population aging. They tend to have low retirement ages and some of the wealthy countries of the region provide very generous benefits. Many of them need to consider reforms that raise retirement ages. A characteristic of many of the social security old-age benefit programs of the region is that they exclude foreign workers, who in some countries account for more than half the workforce. PMID:12503334

Turner, John; Lichtenstein, Jules H

2002-01-01

329

A benefit of one's own: older women's entitlement to Social Security retirement.  

PubMed

This article explores differences in Social Security eligibility and benefit levels for older men and women using survey data from the Health and Retirement Study combined with administrative records on actual work histories and Social Security rules. We are able to determine the fully insured status of those persons, how close they are to meeting eligibility criteria when they are not fully insured, and their prospects for benefits. Around three-quarters of older women nearing retirement today will be fully insured for Social Security old-age benefits on the basis of their own accounts, but the rest would need substantial extra employment to rise above the eligibility threshold. Further, two-thirds of older married women who are fully insured have sufficient lifetime earnings to translate into an age-65 primary insurance amount worth at least half their husband's, but the other one-third can expect no additional retirement benefit from contributing to Social Security late in life. Finally, most wives will not be able to improve their benefits by working more under current rules. These results have mixed implications regarding the potential impact of women's rising labor force attachment on eventual retirement benefits. Working more years could increase women's chances of becoming eligible for Social Security benefits, but that effect is likely to be small. Furthermore, even when women do become fully insured according to the rules, not many wives will receive a higher benefit at the margin. The reason is that married women still receive higher Social Security benefits as a spouse than they do on the basis of their own work record. In fact, the net benefit from Social Security due to additional work is negative once one takes into account the Social Security contributions the women paid while employed. Benefits paid to widows are even more likely to be based on the spouse's work history rather than on the woman's. Hence, the rising labor market attachment of women in the future may increase their eligibility for benefits but will produce only modest (and often negative) impacts on their old-age Social Security benefits under current rules. PMID:11439706

Levine, P B; Mitchell, O S; Phillips, J W

2000-01-01

330

Non-Take-Up of Social Security Benefits in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of non-take-up of social security benefits has social policy implications and is therefore a relevant subject for study for social policy analysts. This article starts with a discussion of the arguments in support of this general statement, followed by an overview of available data on non-take-up in various western European countries. Britain, and to a lesser extent the

W. J. H. van Oorschot

1991-01-01

331

THE AMERICAS SOCIAL SECURITY REPORT 2006 THE CHALLENGES OF AGING AND DISABILITY: EMPLOYMENT AND INSURANCE, AND INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SECURITY AGREEMENTS (Book Review)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

he 2006 Issue of the Report on Social Security in the Americas is divided in four chapters. The first two chapters address older-adult issues, the third chapter deals with disability-related problems, and the fourth chapter discusses Social Security agreements in the Americas. In the Presentation, it was pointed out that the objective of the Report on Social Security in the

Jorge Valero Gil

332

The Work Incentives Planning and Assistance Program: Promoting Employment Among Social Security Disability Beneficiaries. Washington, DC: Center for Studying Disability Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue brief summarizes findings from the Work Incentives Planning and Assistance program, a Social Security Administration program to promote employment by providing beneficiaries with information about federal work supports.

Jody Schimmel; Bonnie ODay; Allison Roche

2012-01-01

333

Uncovering the American Dream: Inequality and Mobility in Social Security Earnings Data since 1937  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses Social Security Administration longitudinal earnings micro data since 1937 to analyze the evolution of inequality and mobility in the United States. Earnings inequality follows a U-shape pattern, decreasing sharply up to 1953 and increasing steadily afterwards. We find that short-term and long-term (rank based) mobility among all workers has been quite stable since 1950 (after a temporary

Wojciech Kopczuk; Emmanuel Saez; Jae Song

2007-01-01

334

Social Security Reform: Possible Effects on the Elderly Poor and Mitigation Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Social Security has significantly reduced elderly poverty. The elderly poverty rate has fallen from 35% in 1959 to an all-time low of 9% in 2006, in large part because of Social Security. If Social Security benefits did not exist, an estimated 44% the elderly would be poor today assuming no changes in behavior. The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program,

Kathleen Romig

2008-01-01

335

The Obama Administration: what can social science offer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the 2009 Academy of Social Sciences annual debate about prospects for the new United States administration. Just half way into the ‘first hundred days’ of President Barack Obama's term, a panel of social scientists, convened by Philip Davies, Director of the British Library's Eccles Centre for American Studies, addressed the question of what social science could

Philip Davies; Dilys Hill; Andrew Rudalevige; George C. Edwards III; Jenel Virden; Robert Singh

2009-01-01

336

Disabled workers and the indexing of Social Security benefits.  

PubMed

We examine how benefit amounts and family income would change in response to changing the Social Security (Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance, OASDI) benefit indexing scheme. We are interested in a class of reform options designed to gradually slow the growth of benefits across the board. These options include the "price indexing" and "longevity indexing" proposals that have been part of the recent Social Security reform debate in the United States as well as a range of proposals developed in Europe. In this article, we focus on the distributional effects on the disabled. This focus leads to two comparisons. First, we compare disabled-worker beneficiaries to another group that would be affected by the changes, retired-worker beneficiaries. Second, we examine relative changes for particularly vulnerable subgroups of disabled workers. In the empirical analysis, we use two illustrative examples of potential indexing changes: Shifting from wage indexing to price indexing of the initial level of OASDI benefits; and Adjusting the initial benefit level for changes in life expectancy at retirement, that is, longevity indexing. We employ a historical counterfactual simulation to evaluate outcomes that would have resulted from changing the indexing scheme at one particular point in time. The hypothetical implementation period begins with the historical start of the current regime of indexing in 1979 and ends with one of the reference periods of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), a 17-year period. However, we briefly assess the extent to which the results would be applicable to other time horizons. The analysis uses a cross-sectional sample of OASDI beneficiaries from the 1996 SIPP matched to Social Security administrative records. Further, we use total income from the SIPP (as adjusted to correspond to the calculated OASDI benefit amounts) to simulate eligibility for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and SSI benefit amounts. Our overall findings pertain to three outcomes: (1) effects on OASDI benefits viewed in isolation, (2) the offsetting role of SSI, and (3) the diluting effect of other sources of family income. We find that a broader perspective incorporating all three measures is necessary to obtain an appropriate picture of distributional outcomes. Even though the proposals were designed to have proportional effects, differences between groups--such as disabled and retired workers--can arise from differences in the timing of benefit claiming, mortality, and other factors. Specifically, our cross-sectional estimates suggest that the average change in OASDI benefit levels would be higher for disabled-worker beneficiaries than for retired-worker beneficiaries. These differences are attributable to the fact that a higher proportion of the stock of disabled beneficiaries have been on the Disability Insurance (DI) program rolls for a relatively short period of time and therefore have been affected by the shift in indexing scheme for a longer period of time. These results must be interpreted within the context of the methodology that was used. Further, other methodologies may lead to different results. For example, in previous studies that restricted the sample to a particular birth cohort, a higher proportion of disabled workers than retired workers were observed to have been on the DI program rolls for a relatively long period of time. Longer time on the beneficiary rolls corresponds to less exposure to the new indexing scheme and smaller estimated benefit changes. Thus, the same underlying factor-the timing of benefit claiming-influences both results. When the offsetting role of SSI benefits is also considered, we estimate smaller overall changes, especially for those at the bottom of the income distribution. When OASDI and SSI are considered together, differences in average benefit changes between disabled and retired workers are removed. This is due to a higher rate of SSI program participation among disabled workers than among retired workers. In addition, including SSI

Strand, Alexander; Rupp, Kalman

2007-01-01

337

Administrative Subpoenas and National Security Letters in Criminal and Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Background and Proposed Adjustments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Administrative subpoena authority, including closely related national security letter authority, is the power vested in various administrative agencies to compel testimony or the production of documents or both in aid of the agencies' performance of their...

C. Doyle

2005-01-01

338

Social applications: exploring a more secure framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online social network sites, such as MySpace, Facebook and others have grown rapidly, with hundreds of millions of active users. A new feature on many sites is social applications - applications and services written by third party developers that provide additional functionality linked to a user's profile. However, current application platforms put users at risk by permitting the disclosure of

Andrew Besmer; Heather Richter Lipford; Mohamed Shehab; Gorrell Cheek

2009-01-01

339

Social Security Disability Insurance. Training Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Administration and Sources of Law; Comparison of Disability Programs; Widow(er)s and Surviving Spouses; Application Process; Non-Medical Eligibility Criteria; Definition of Disability; Sequential Evaluation of Disability; Appeals Process; Post-E...

1999-01-01

340

20 CFR 435.47 - Contract administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 435.47 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement...

2013-04-01

341

20 CFR 422.403 - When may we use administrative wage garnishment?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...403 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Collection...under section 226(b) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C...Overpayments under title II of the Social Security Act. This...

2013-04-01

342

Debating the Future: A Social Security Political Leadership Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are well served by course simulations that employ active learning styles and student-driven interaction. For debate on political issues, particular public policies are quite effective in stimulating that discussion. We developed an in-class simulation of political debate on the issue of Social Security. We describe the simulation itself,…

Rackaway, Chapman; Goertzen, Brent J.

2008-01-01

343

Social security, public education and the growth–inequality relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how the relationship between economic growth and inequality depends upon the levels of funding of two of the largest government programs, public education and social security. We do this in the context of an overlapping generations economy with heterogeneous agents where the government collects a tax on labor income to finance these programs. We show that in our

Gerhard Glomm; Michael Kaganovich

2008-01-01

344

A Guide to Fixing Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coming challenge of paying Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid benefits to 77 million retiring baby boomers will be one of the greatest economic chal-lenges of the 21st century. What Federal Reserve Chair-man Ben Bernanke called the \\

Brian M. Riedl

345

Social Security Disability Insurance: Time for Fundamental Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program is growing at an unsustainable pace. Over the past 40 years the number of disabled worker beneficiaries has increased nearly sixfold, rising from 1.5 million in 1970 to 8.2 million in 2010. Rapid growth in the rolls has put increasing pressure on program finances. The rapid rise in SSDI…

Burkhauser, Richard V.; Daly, Mary C.

2012-01-01

346

Social Security Disability Insurance: Essential Protection when Work Incapacity Strikes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a…

Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.

2012-01-01

347

Social Security Disability Insurance: Essential Protection when Work Incapacity Strikes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a…

Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.

2012-01-01

348

Social Security, Medicare, and the Rise in Health Care Spending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract I provide a novel explanation of the rise in health care spending as a share of GDP over the last 50 years in the United States. Health care spending was approximately 5% of the U.S. GDP in 1950, and it jumped to 15% in 2000. I argue that the social security and Medicare programs are important causes of the

Kai Zhao

349

Psychiatric disability determination under social security in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Security Act provides disability benefits to those insured who are prevented from working by a severe medically determinable impairment. Under the Act, psychiatric impairment is assessed on the basis of demonstrable clinical manifestations including mental status examination and, where needed, by standardized psychological tests yielding quantifiable results. The total function of the person in daily living, both in

Kurt Nussbaum

1974-01-01

350

MOSI: AN ACCOUNT SYSTEM FOR THE DUTCH SOCIAL SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dutch social security system is quite elaborate. From a budget point of view, it is divided in two parts. The larger part is financed by insurance premiums, the remainder by taxes. The insurance part takes care for allowances for people with little or no income: the elder, the disabled, the unemployed; moreover, a large part of the health care

van der Jan Leeuw

2000-01-01

351

How Changes in Social Security Affect Recent Retirement Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to CPS data, men 65 to 69 were about six percentage points less likely to be retired in 2004 than in 1992. CPS and Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data indicate a corresponding difference of 3 percentage points between 1998 and 2004. Simulations with a structural retirement model suggest changes in Social Security rules between 1992 and 2004 increased

Alan L. Gustman; Thomas Steinmeier

2008-01-01

352

The Labor Supply Effects of the Social Security Earnings Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Security earnings test taxes away benefits at a 33%-50% rate once earnings pass a threshold amount. I investigate the response to three past changes in the earnings test rules, each applying to some age groups and not others. I find that beneficiaries bunch in substantial numbers just below the earnings threshold, and the bunching shifts when the earnings

Leora Friedberg

2000-01-01

353

Social Security Benefits, Consumption Expenditure, and the Life Cycle Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of changes in social security benefits on aggregate consumption expenditure. Under the null hypothesis, there should be no contemporaneous effect at the monthly frequency because increases in benefits have always been announced at least six weeks prior to payment. The paper develops overwhelming evidence--contrary to the null--that benefits have affected aggregate spending. The results have

David W. Wilcox

1989-01-01

354

Social Security: A Financial Appraisal Across and Within Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper computes the expected present value of Social Security retirement benefits and taxes for households of different marital circumstances, incomes, and age cohorts. Also computed are the net gain or loss from participation in the system and the expected internal rate of return it offers various participants. The paper calculates the marginal linkage between benefits and contributions, and also

Michael J. Boskin; Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Douglas J. Puffert; John B. Shoven

1987-01-01

355

The Labor Supply Effects of the Social Security Earnings Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Security earnings test reduces benefits at a 33-50% rate once earnings pass a threshold amount - among the highest marginal tax rates in the economy. Previous research dismissed the importance of the earnings test but failed to take advantage of three changes in the earnings test rules in order to identify its impact. Each change applied to some

Leora Friedberg

1999-01-01

356

Social Security: The Government Pension Offset (GPO), January 8, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Social Security spousal benefits were established in the 1930s to help support wives who are financially dependent on their husbands. It has since become more common for both spouses in a couple to work, with the result that, in more cases, both members o...

C. Scott

2013-01-01

357

Adjusting Social Security for Increasing Life Expectancy: Effects on Progressivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving long-run Social Security solvency requires addressing rising life expectancy. Increasing the Full Retirement Age (FRA), while holding the Early Entitlement Age (EEA) fixed, could be effective but eventually will result in replacement rates that are viewed by many as too low. A possible policy to prop up replacement rates is to raise the EEA, which has been age 62

Courtney Monk; John A. Turner; Natalia A. Zhivan

2010-01-01

358

A Simple Exposition of the Social Security Trust Fund.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a strategy for teaching students about how the Social Security Trust Fund works. Explains that a flow chart is presented to the students; four terms are defined (deficit, surplus, debt, and reserve); and a new graph is prepared to show the paths of these four variables. (CMK)|

Holahan, William L.; Schug, Mark C.

2000-01-01

359

Ensuring a Minimum: Social Security Reform and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The potential effects of implementing three different minimum benefits in Social Security, which have accompanied proposals to privatize the program and reform family benefits, are examined in relation to the adequacy of benefits for women reaching age 62 between 2020 and 2030. Design and Methods: The 1992 Health and Retirement Study is…

Herd, Pamela

2005-01-01

360

Individuals' Uncertainty about Future Social Security Benefits and Portfolio Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the degree to which individuals are uncertain about their future Social Security benefits, how this varies within the U.S. population, and whether this uncertainty influences financial decisions related to retirement planning. To illuminate these issues, the authors present empirical evidence from the Health and Retirement Study Internet Survey and document systematic variation in respondents' uncertainty about

Adeline Delavande; Susann Rohwedder

2010-01-01

361

Social Security Benefits: An Empirical Study of Expectations and Realizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

I employ data drawn from the Retirement History Survey to study the accuracy of pre-retirement expectations concerning social security benefits. The major findings of this study are as follows. First, survey responses to questions about expected benefits are reasonably noisy. However, when one properly filters out the noise, reported forecasts appear to explain roughly 60% of the variance in realizations.

B. Douglas Bernheim

1987-01-01

362

The Optimal Time to File for Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under current Social Security rules, a newly retired worker can affect the age structureof benefits that he or she will receive by choosing when to file for a claimfor benefits: the longer the claim is deferred, the greater the monthly benefit willbe. This paper examines the alternatives available to individuals and presents alife cycle model of retirement planning that determines

Thad Mirer

1998-01-01

363

Attitudes Toward the Unemployed Receiving Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though there appear to have been a number of psychological studies done in the 1930s and 1970s on the consequence of unemployment, there seem to be very few studies on attitudes toward the unemployed receiving social security benefits or attitudes toward welfare in general. This study examined the effect of sex, education, and voting pattern of over 170 subjects on

Adrian Furnham

1983-01-01

364

The Decision to Delay Social Security Benefits: Theory and Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Security benefits may be commenced at any time between age 62 and age 70. As individuals who claim later can, on average, expect to receive benefits for a shorter period, an actuarial adjustment is made to the monthly benefit amount to reflect the age at which benefits are claimed. We investigate the actuarial fairness of this adjustment. Our simulations

John B. Shoven; Sita Nataraj Slavov

2012-01-01

365

Social Security: Process and Problems. (Part One and Two).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This two-part program, first broadcast in April 2000, is being rebroadcast in response to requests from judges and court personnel for information that will help them deal more effectively with the fast growing Social Security disability docket. Part one ...

2000-01-01

366

Medicare and the Social Security Disability Insurance program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This DataWatch traces changes over time in the age and health characteristics of persons awarded Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits. SSDI beneficiaries are increasingly younger and more likely to be incapacitated by health conditions that at any age lengthen spells of disablement. These changes have had a significant impact on SSDI operations; they also have important implications for financing

Thomas N. Chirikos

1995-01-01

367

Macroeconomic Influences on Social Security Disability Insurance Application Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) Program application rates are influenced by the macro economy. DI program data and previous research indicate that a disproportionate number of beneficiaries (past applicants) are less-educated, with low-skill employment histories. These applicants, while they worked, were likely to intertemporally shift their durables consumption expenditures in response to tight budget constraints

Dana A. Kerr; Bert J. Smoluk

2011-01-01

368

Assessing Dissimulation Among Social Security Disability Income Claimants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Security disability income programs have been beset by increasingly politicized concerns regarding widespread fraud among claimants. This study was an initial investigation of malingering among claimants in Los Angeles seeking disability income on psychological grounds. After a review of 100 disability income applications, a population-appropriate instrument was developed from established psychometric indices of malingering. The Composite Disability Malingering Index

G. A. Elmer Griffin; Jill Normington; Robin May; David Glassmire

1996-01-01

369

An explanation of the growth of social security disability transfers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation for the growth of one of the most important components of social security income transfers: disability benefits to people who withdraw from the labour market as a consequence of becoming disabled. We use a disability model and apply this to branches of industry for the Netherlands (1968-1979). The main

Frans A. J. van den Bosch; Carel Petersen

1983-01-01

370

Social Security Disability Insurance: Applications, Awards, and Lifetime Income Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides new evidence about the impact of Social Security Disability Insurance on male labor force participation decisions based on estimates from a structural model of applications, awards, and state-contingent lifetime income flows. The lifetime framework makes it possible to consider long-term opportunity costs associated with early labor force withdrawal and the disincentive to applications resulting from the statutory

Brent Kreider

1999-01-01

371

Security and Privacy in Online Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social Network Services (SNS) are currently drastically revolutionizing the way people interact, thus becoming de facto a predominant service on the web, today.1 The impact of this paradigm change on socioeconomic and technical aspects of collaboration and interaction is comparable to that caused by the deployment of World Wide Web in the 1990s.

Cutillo, Leucio Antonio; Manulis, Mark; Strufe, Thorsten

372

24 CFR 5.216 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.216 Section...Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for Obtaining...Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers for Applicants and...

2010-04-01

373

Changing Social Security Benefits to Reflect ChildCare Years: A Policy Proposal Whose Time Has Pass  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article estimates the effects of proposals to increase the retirement benefits of women who reduce their earnings to care for young children. Using the 1990 Survey of Income and Program Participation tile-exactly matched to the Social Security Administration's record of lifetime earnings- the authors present the distribution of child-care dropout years by retirement cohort and other demographic characteristics, and

Howard M. Iams; Steven H. Sandell

1994-01-01

374

Representation and Advocacy at Non-Adversary Hearings: The Need for Non-Adversary Representatives at Social Security Disability Hearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of independent non-adversary representatives responsible for development and presentation of all relevant evidence and issues would resolve most of the deficiencies in the hearing stage of the present Social Security process, including those resulting from deficiencies in the prehearing stages. Administrative law judges would be relieved of unmanageable responsibilities and the hearing would be conducted fairly and on

Frank S. Bloch

1981-01-01

375

20 CFR 255.14 - Waiver not available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits. 255.14 Section...recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits. Where the overpayment...individual's entitlement to social security benefits and recovery of...

2013-04-01

376

24 CFR 886.305 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers by owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...verification requirements for Social Security and Employer Identification...

2013-04-01

377

24 CFR 884.117 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers by owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...verification requirements for Social Security and Employer Identification...

2013-04-01

378

20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision...portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision...Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum...

2013-04-01

379

5 CFR 839.903 - What happens to the Social Security taxes I erroneously paid when my employer corrects my...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What happens to the Social Security taxes I erroneously paid when...RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Social Security Taxes § 839.903 What happens to the Social Security taxes I erroneously paid...

2013-01-01

380

24 CFR 5.218 - Penalties for failing to disclose and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...failing to disclose and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification...Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer...

2009-04-01

381

24 CFR 5.218 - Penalties for failing to disclose and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...failing to disclose and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers...Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification...Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer...

2013-04-01

382

20 CFR 404.1363 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal benefit payable other than by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal...Other Benefits on Payment of Social Security Benefits and Payments § 404.1363 Treatment of social security benefits or payments where...

2010-04-01

383

20 CFR 404.1363 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal benefit payable other than by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal...Other Benefits on Payment of Social Security Benefits and Payments § 404.1363 Treatment of social security benefits or payments where...

2009-04-01

384

Do Social Security Surpluses Pay Down Publicly Held Debt. Evidence From Budget Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Being fair to future generations requires that Social Security be reformed in a manner that effectively prefunds a significant share of future Social Security benefit payments. All serious reform plans have this property. Prefunding is attempted exclusive...

R. P. Mariger

2008-01-01

385

Discountinuing Social Security's Currently Insured Benefit Provision Would Save Millions and Eliminate Inequities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of Social Security's benefit eligibility insurance provisions, the currently insured provision, no longer has relevance. Discontinuance of the provision could save Social Security's trust funds about $180 million through 1990 and will not affect survi...

1982-01-01

386

22 CFR 308.7 - Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved...IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.7 Use of social security account number in records systems....

2013-04-01

387

Revising Social Security Benefit Formula Which Favors Short-Term Workers Could Save Billions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

People who have worked for only a short period under social security receive proportionately more for their social security tax dollar than lifetime workers. In this report, GAO presents two alternative formulas for computing benefits which would end this...

1981-01-01

388

Timing of Social Security Acceptance by Older Men: Examining the Financial Incentives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ways in which particular features of the social security program create incentives to begin taking benefits at a certain ages are discussed. Previous empirical studies concerning the factors that influence the age of social security benefit acceptance...

F. J. Sammartino

1982-01-01

389

Social Context of Public Administration Reform in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public administration reform in Slovenia is regarded as an ongo- ing process with intertwining political, legal, sociological, economic, information-based, and other dimensions of the efforts and activities involved. The main sociological-political aspects include the guide- lines of social and economic development directed by Slovenia's membership in the EU. These comprise particularly the programme for reducing the administrative burden, the use

IRENA FRANCELJ

2008-01-01

390

The New Social Studies; Implications for School Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent innovations in the secondary school social studies curriculum require the immediate attention of school administrators. Five major areas of the instructional process which contribute to a new social studies product include: (1) objectives, (2) teaching strategies, (3) materials, (4) pupil deployment, and (5) evaluation. School…

Fenton, Edwin

391

The decision to exclude agricultural and domestic workers from the 1935 Social Security Act.  

PubMed

The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias. PMID:21261169

DeWitt, Larry

2010-01-01

392

77 FR 72788 - Reduction of Use of Social Security Numbers in the Department of Defense  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Updated Plan for the Removal of Social Security Numbers (SSNs) from...Memorandum (DTM) 07-015, ``DoD Social Security Number (SSN) Reduction...1000.30, ``Reduction of Social Security Number (SSN) Use...Recreation or TRICARE purchased care, will, in addition to...

2012-12-06

393

Characteristics of and determinants of the density of contributions in a Private Social Security System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates previously unresearched issues pertaining to the well-known Chilean innovations in Social Security. Previous empirical studies of the Chilean system used aggregate and macro data, without attention to individual heterogeneity. This study uses new household survey data, linked with Social Security records for over 20 years, to analyze selected reform issues related to social security coverage and the

Alberto Arenas de Mesa; Jere Behrman; David Bravo

2001-01-01

394

The Effect of State-Legalized Same-Sex Marriage on Social Security Benefits and Pensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the 2004 legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts, many have questioned how the legalization of such marriages at the state level may affect the eligibility for and payment of federal Social Security benefits and private pensions. Social Security benefits are currently paid to the spouses of disabled, retired, or deceased workers entitled to Social Security. However, under current law,

Laura Haltzel; Patrick Purcell

2008-01-01

395

Partial Privatization of Social Security: Assessing Its Effect on Women, Minorities, and Lower-Income Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once viewed as the “third rail” of politics, Social Security appears to be moving inexorably toward reform. In his 1998 State of the Union address, President Clinton proclaimed strengthening Social Security a high priority and called for bipartisan forums on Social Security reform to be held throughout the United States. Similarly, following the 1998 November elections, congressional leaders expressed commitment

Kathryn L. Moore

2000-01-01

396

The Effect of Social Security on Labor Supply: A Cohort Analysis of the Notch Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses aggregate birth year\\/calendar year level data derived from the Current Population Survey to estimate the effect of Social Security wealth on the labor supply of older men in the 1970s and 1980s. The analysis focuses on measuring the impact of the 1977 amendments to the Social Security Act, which created a substantial, unanticipated reduction in Social Security

Alan B. Krueger; Jorn-Steffen Pischke

1992-01-01

397

Civil society and the right to have access to social security in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines transformation in South Africa's social security system from a human rights and civil society perspective. Three claims are made: rights can be realised by civil society organisations, civil society organisations can transform social security, and the realisation of social security rights by civil society organisations can give us a means to address many of the problems identified

Naudé Malan

2005-01-01

398

20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true How the Board pays social security benefits. 235.4 Section...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...235.4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an...

2013-04-01

399

12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport numbers. 404... § 404.21 Submission of social security and passport numbers. (a...transaction, Ex-Im Bank may request social security and/or U.S. passport...

2013-01-01

400

20 CFR 228.19 - Reduction for a social security benefit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Reduction for a social security benefit. 228.19 Section... § 228.19 Reduction for a social security benefit. The tier I annuity...reduced for the amount of any social security benefit to which the...

2013-04-01

401

The Role of Earnings and Financial Risk in Distributional Analyses of Social Security Reform Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Social Security Trustees project that the Social Security program faces longterm financing difficulties. Several proposals that have been offered to shore-up the finances of the Social Security program would create individual retirement accounts funded with part of the payroll tax. The authors of many of these proposals claim that future…

Hungerford, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

402

20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. 235...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...BOARD § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board....

2013-04-01

403

Rising Tides and Retirement: The Aggregate and Distributional Effects of Differential Wage Growth on Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent growth in wage inequality has important implications for Social Security solvency and the distribution of benefits. Because only earnings below the taxable maximum are subject to Social Security payroll taxes, wage growth that is concentrated among very high earners will generate lower tax receipts than wage growth that is more evenly distributed. The progressivity of the Social Security benefit

Melissa M. Favreault

2009-01-01

404

20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. 235.3...RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT... § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. The...

2010-04-01

405

20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. 235.3...RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT... § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. The...

2009-04-01

406

Do Social Security Surpluses Pay Down Publicly Held Debt? Evidence from Budget Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being fair to future generations requires that Social Security be reformed in a manner that effectively prefunds a significant share of future Social Security benefit payments. All serious reform plans have this property. Prefunding is attempted exclusively in the Social Security trust fund in some plans, and it is attempted partly in personal retirement accounts in others. Many analysts believe

Randall P. Mariger

407

75 FR 28046 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-002...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...individuals subject to a security threat assessment, employment...investigation, or other security analysis; from aviation...transportation operators, flight schools, or other persons sponsoring...sources of information in the criminal history...Secretary of Homeland Security has exempted...

2010-05-19

408

School Social Work Outcomes: Perspectives of School Social Workers and School Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an era of fiscal constraint and increased accountability, consistent perceptions of the expectations, means of funding, and reporting of outcomes between administrators and school social workers is vital. School social workers and school administrators in four school districts in Minnesota were surveyed regarding outcomes expected as a result…

Bye, Lynn; Shepard, Melanie; Partridge, Jamie; Alvarez, Michelle

2009-01-01

409

Subsequent program participation of former social security disability insurance beneficiaries and supplemental security income recipients whose eligibility ceased because of medical improvement.  

PubMed

The Social Security Administration (SSA) periodically reviews the disabilities of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients and Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries to determine if their impairments still meet the requirements for program eligibility. For individuals whose eligibility was ceased after a full medical review from 2003 to 2008, we track subsequent program participation for up to 8 years. We use survival analyses to estimate the time untilfirst return to SSI and DI and explore the differences in returns by various personal and programmatic characteristics such as age, disability type, time on program, and SSA expectations regarding medical improvement. Overall, we estimate that about 30 percent ofSSI-only recipients whose eligibility ceases because of medical improvement return to the SSI program within 8 years. For DI-only worker beneficiaries whose eligibility ceases, we estimate that 20 percent will return to the DI program within 8 years. PMID:23914620

Hemmeter, Jeffrey; Stegman, Michelle

2013-01-01

410

Women's Receipt of Social Security Retirement Benefits: Expectations Compared to Elections.  

PubMed

This research contributes knowledge regarding the options of early, normal, or delayed receipt of Social Security retirement benefits and research-based findings regarding women's expected and actual timing of election of Social Security retirement benefits. First, descriptive analyses of alternative retirement options, based on Social Security retirement benefit rules, are provided. Second, the 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data are used to analyze women's anticipated and actual election of Social Security retirement benefits. Third, based on these considerations, recommendations are made regarding Social Security retirement benefit receipt alternatives. PMID:24116993

Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

2013-01-01

411

Individual Risk in an Investment-Based Social Security System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the risk aspects of an investment-based defined contribution Social Security plan. We focus on the risk after the plan is fully phased in. Individuals deposit a fraction of wages to a Personal Retirement Account (PRA), invest these funds in a 60:40 equity-debt mix, and in a similarly invested annuity at age 67. The value of the assets

Martin Feldstein; Elena Ranguelova

2001-01-01

412

Has Pharmaceutical Innovation Reduced Social Security Disability Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes longitudinal state-level data during the period 1995–2004 to investigate whether use of newer prescription drugs has reduced the ratio of the number of workers receiving Social Security Disability Insurance benefits to the working-age population (the “DI recipiency rate”). All of the estimates indicate that there is a significant inverse relationship between disability recipiency and a good indicator

Frank R. Lichtenberg

2011-01-01

413

The Social Security Disability Program and Labor Force Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last twenty years the labor force participation rates of 45 to 54-year-old men have fallen 10.6 percentage points among non-whites and 4.4 percentage points among whites. I find that nearly half of this puzzling decline can be explained by the growth of the Social Security Disability program. By 1975, 6.22% of the prime-age non-white men and 3.57% of

Jonathan S. Leonard

1979-01-01

414

The impact of immigration on the United States social security system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immigration is a controversial subject in United Stales politics This chapter addressed the impact immigrants inflicted on United States Social Security system To ascertain llie objective of the aforementioned topic, these topical areas were addressed: demographic distribution, language, religion economic status, social issues and problems United States a nation of immigrants, origin of the Social Security system, social amenities and

Alfred A. Jarrett; Shelley Wyckoff; Roosevelt Wilmore

1997-01-01

415

Network Security: What Non-Technical Administrators Must Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Now it is increasingly critical that community college leaders become involved in network security and partner with their directors of information technology (IT). Network security involves more than just virus protection software and firewalls. It involves vigilance and requires top executive support. Leaders can help their IT directors to…

Council, Chip

2005-01-01

416

Requiem for a national ideal? Social solidarity, the crisis of French social security, and the role of global financial markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well appreciated that demographic trends threaten the integrity of continental European systems of social security. For France these trends imply a long-term financial crisis as well as a crisis of confidence in national economic and social institutions. The payment of social security entitlements is a recurrent and largely unresolved political issue; proposals for comprehensive reform are heavily contested,

Gordon Leslie Clark

2001-01-01

417

Report on Information Security and Privacy Controls over the Airmen Medical Support Systems: Federal Aviation Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of our review of the information security and privacy controls over the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Airmen Medical Support Systems (MSS). FAA requires airmen to hold a medical certification of their medical and...

2010-01-01

418

Liberal Democracy and National Security: Continuities in the Bush and Obama Administrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiterrorist policy of the George W. Bush Administration established a relationship between democracy and security that implied the limitation of the former as a necessary condition for the achievement of the latter. This strategy led to the diminishing of the basic liberties promoted by liberal democracy through legal means with the putative objective of guaranteeing the ‘security’ of American

Silvina M. Romano

2012-01-01

419

75 FR 18867 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-011...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Intelligence Service Operations Files Systems of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office...Security Intelligence Service Operations Files previously published on December 10, 2004...Intelligence Service (TSIS) Operations Files System of Records (69 FR 71828,...

2010-04-13

420

Social Security and Undergraduates with Disabilities: An Analysis of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey. Addressing Trends in Development in Secondary Education and Transition. Information Brief. Vol. 3, Issue 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this brief is to describe the characteristics of undergraduate students receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Social Security Administration (SSI) benefits as they relate to issues of participation in postsecondary education and employment. This brief describes results from the National Postsecondary Student Aid…

Berry, Hugh; Conway, Megan A.; Change, Kelly B.T.

2004-01-01

421

Maintaining Social Security Benefits and Tax Rates through Personal Retirement Accounts: An Update Based on the 1998 Social Security Trustees Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of Personal Retirement Accounts (PRAs) funded by deposits equal to 2.3 percent of earnings (up to the Social Security maximum) would permit retirees to receive more income in retirement than with the current Social Security program while at the same time making it unnecessary to increase the 12.4 percent payroll tax in response to the aging of the

Martin Feldstein; Andrew Samwick

1999-01-01

422

Reducing women's poverty by shifting social security benefits from retired couples to widows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines proposals to transfer Social Security benefits from married couples to surviving widows in terms of effects on poverty rates, trust fund expenditures, and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) expenditures. Because widows are much more likely to be living in poverty than older married women, it makes sense to consider Social Security benefits in a lifetime framework and transfer

Steven H. Sandell; Howard M. Iams

1997-01-01

423

Why Do Married Men Claim Social Security Benefits So Early? Ignorance or Caddishness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most married men claim Social Security benefits at age 62 or 63, well short of both Social Security’s Full Retirement Age and the age that maximizes the household’s expected present value of benefits (EPVB). This results in a loss of less than 4 percent in household EPBV. But essentially the entire loss is borne by the survivor benefit, falls nearly

Steven A. Sass; Wei Sun; Anthony Webb

2007-01-01

424

The widow(er)'s limit provision of Social Security.  

PubMed

Widow benefits have been a part of the Social Security program since the 1939 amendments to the Social Security Act (widower benefits were added later). For many years, the Social Security law called for paying a widow(er) a fraction of the deceased worker's primary insurance amount (PIA). However, the worker--while alive--may have received the full PIA as his or her retirement benefit. Over time, arguments were made that a widow(er) should be treated as generously as his or her spouse was. The 1972 amendments to the Social Security Act allowed for a widow(er) to receive a full PIA, subject to actuarial reductions if the widow(er) benefit was claimed before the normal retirement age (NRA) and subject to a new provision of the law commonly referred to as the widow(er)'s limit. Generally, the widow(er)'s limit specifies that if a worker received reduced retirement benefits (because the worker claimed benefits before the NRA), then the worker's widow(er) cannot receive a monthly benefit equal to the full PIA. Rather, the widow(er)'s benefit is generally limited to the amount the worker would receive if he or she was still alive. The limit provision appears to be motivated by the overall intent of the 1972 Congress to pay a benefit to a widow(er) that was comparable with what the worker received. A number of changes to the limit provision have been discussed. This article looks at the following options: Abolishing the limit, Raising the limit by requiring that it never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. Adjusting the limit for some widow(er)s--that is, only persons who are widowed before the NRA (the ARLA option), Making a simpler adjustment to the limit by abolishing it for persons who are widowed before age 62 (the SARLA option), and A proposal by Robert J. Myers that would make modest adjustments to the limit for cases in which the worker died before the NRA. The most fundamental change--abolishing the limit--would increase benefits for about 2.8 million widow(er)s and would cost about $3.1 billion a year. Most of the additional government expenditures would not go to the poor and the near poor. Another change would be more successful in aiding low-income widow(er)s: requiring that the limit amount never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. About 58 percent of the government expenditures from that option would be received by the poor and the near poor. Overall, 1.2 million widow(er)s would be helped, and the cost would be about $816 million a year. Although the limit provision is consistent with the overall intent of the 1972 Congress, it can have effects that may have been unintended and that some policymakers might consider unusual. Persons who delay receipt of Social Security benefits usually receive higher monthly benefit amounts, but a widow(er) who faces a limit cannot increase his or her monthly benefit through delayed receipt of benefits. Thus, many persons who are widowed before the NRA face strong incentives to claim benefits early. That is somewhat unusual because the actuarial adjustments under Social Security are approximately fair, so there are no cost savings to the Social Security program from "forcing" a widow(er) to claim early benefits as opposed to allowing him or her to delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher monthly amount. And many widow(er)s would be better off if they could use the Social Security program to, in effect, save (that is, delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher amount later). This article analyzes two other options that would provide widow(er)s with additional filing options under Social Security. The ARLA option would ultimately help about 229,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be small (about $69 million a year). The SARLA option would help about 117,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be about $41 million a year. Robert J. Myers, a former Chief Actuary of Social Security, has offered a proposal that would provide relief from the widow(er)'s limit in cases in which the worker dies shortl

Weaver, D A

425

Charting the Future of Social Security's Disability Programs: The Need for Fundamental Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nation's two primary disability programs - Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability - today provide vital income support for about 10 million individuals. These programs have grown rapidly in recent y...

2001-01-01

426

Consumers' Trust in Virtual Mall Shopping: The Role of Social Presence and Perceived Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the impact of social presence on perceived security and intention in virtual shopping malls. Following the conceptual model of social presence proposed by Hassanein and Head (2007), this study discusses social presence in a virtual environment as a complex multidimensional construct characterized by directed relationships among a set of uni-dimensional constructs. Given the rising importance of security,

Dong-Hee Shin; Youn-Joo Shin

2011-01-01

427

Sources of financing social security systems in countries of South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the objectives of the State is to achieve the highest possible level os society, which is central to ensuring a level of social protection that tends to universality and coverage of socially recognized needs and contingencies such as education, health, security, old age, maternity, disability and unemployment, among others. In this context, social security, defined as the set

Alejandro A. Calabria; Vanesa D´Elia; Sergio Rottenschweiler; Analía Calero; Julio Gaiada

2010-01-01

428

Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, and Savings1  

PubMed Central

In theory, improvements in healthy life expectancy should generate increases in the average age of retirement, with little effect on savings rates. In many countries, however, retirement incentives in social security programs prevent retirement ages from keeping pace with changes in life expectancy, leading to an increased need for life-cycle savings. Analyzing a cross-country panel of macroeconomic data, we find that increased longevity raises aggregate savings rates in countries with universal pension coverage and retirement incentives, though the effect disappears in countries with pay-as-you-go systems and high replacement rates.

Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Mansfield, Richard K.; Moore, Michael

2009-01-01

429

The systems approach to airport security: The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)\\/BWI (Baltimore-Washington International) Airport demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in designing, installing and evaluating security systems for various applications during the past 15 years. A systems approach to security that evolved from this experience was applied to aviation security for the Federal Aviation Administration. A general systems study of aviation security in the United States was concluded in 1987. One result of the

D. L. Caskey; M. T. Olascoaga

1990-01-01

430

Options to Liberalize Social Security Disabled Widow(er)s Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each month, 200,000 widows and 6,000 widowers receive Social Security disabled widow(er)s benefits, each benefit averaging about $550. Among the most economically at-risk Social Security beneficiaries, their benefits are permanently reduced.This paper reviews the legislative history of the disabled widow(er)s benefit, identifying key decisions that gave shape to this benefit. Social Security program data and six years of Current Population

Eric R. Kingson; Gary Calhoun; Margaret Morse; Maria Brown

2007-01-01

431

Technical and administrative cyber security issues with implementation of a SCADA security upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the relative perspective of corporate IT and real time system when addressing SCADA cyber security issues. Outlines is the evolution of these positions during the progress of a project delivering SCADA cyber security policies, procedures, standards, guidelines and physical infrastructure.

B. Fulton

2005-01-01

432

Computer Administration of Questions: More Desirable or More Social Desirability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the effect of computer vs. paper-and-pencil administration on 2 components of socially desirable responding (SDR), impression management (IM), and self-deception (SD). Ss' degree of anonymity was also manipulated. Independent variables were expected to affect only IM scores, with the computer anonymous condition resulting in the least amount of IM. Results indicated that IM and SD scores were influenced by

Gary J. Lautenschlager; Vicki L. Flaherty

1990-01-01

433

Impact of Capitation Payment: The Social Security Scheme of Thailand. Major Applied Research Working Paper 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1990, Thailand introduced a Social Security Scheme (SSS), a compulsory social insurance scheme that covers formal sector private employees. The SSS contracts with hospitals (main contractors, MCs) at a capitation rate to cover all services SSS benefici...

W. C. Yip S. Supakankunti J. Sriratanaban W. S. Janjaroen S. Pongpanich

2001-01-01

434

The social security scheme in Thailand: what lessons can be drawn?  

PubMed

The Social Security Scheme was launched in 1990, covering formal sector private employees for non-work related sickness, maternity and invalidity including cash benefits and funeral grants. The scheme is financed by tripartite contributions from government, employers and employees, each of 1.5% of payroll (total of 4.5%). The scheme decided to pay health care providers, whether public or private, on a flat rate capitation basis to cover both ambulatory and inpatient care. Registration of the insured with a contractor hospital was a necessary consequence of the chosen capitation payment system. The aim of this paper is to review the operation of the scheme, and to explore the implications of capitation payment and registration for utilisation levels and provider behaviour. A key weakness of the scheme's design is suggested to be the initial decision to give employers not employees the responsibility for choosing the registered hospitals. This was done for administrative reasons, but it contributed to low levels of use of the contractor hospitals. In addition, low levels of use were also probably the result of the potential for cream skimming, cost shifting from inpatient to ambulatory care and under-provision of patient care, though since monitoring mechanisms by the Social Security Office were weak, these effects are difficult to detect conclusively. Mechanisms to improve utilisation levels were gradually introduced, such as employee choice of registered hospitals and the formation of sub-contractor networks to improve access to care. A beneficial effect of the capitation payment system was that the Social Security Fund generated substantial reserves and expenditures on sickness benefits were well stabilised. The paper ends by recommending that future policy amendments should be guided by research and empirical findings and that tougher monitoring and enforcement of quality of care standards are required. PMID:10192558

Tangcharoensathien, V; Supachutikul, A; Lertiendumrong, J

1999-04-01

435

LifeSocial.KOM: A secure and P2P-based solution for online social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of online social networks reaches millions of users in the Internet nowadays. In these, users present themselves, their interests and their social links which they use to interact with other users. We present in this paper LifeSocial.KOM, a p2p-based platform for secure online social networks which provides the functionality of common online social networks in a totally distributed

Kalman Graffi; Christian Gross; Dominik Stingl; Daniel Hartung; Aleksandra Kovacevic; Ralf Steinmetz

2011-01-01

436

Design of cyber security awareness game utilizing a social media framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networking sites are a popular medium of interaction and communication. Social networking sites provide the ability to run applications and games to test users' knowledge. The popularity of social networks makes it an ideal tool through which awareness can be created on existing and emerging security threats. This paper proposes an interactive game hosted by social networking sites with

W. A. Labuschagne; I. Burke; N. Veerasamy; M. M. Eloff

2011-01-01

437

The US Social Security: A Financial Appraisal For The Median Voter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do voters support PAYG social security systems? Browning (1975) suggested that for a majority of voters, who consider past contributions as a sunk cost, unfunded systems may represent a better investment than alternative assets, such as mutual or pension funds. I quantify the relevance of Browning's argument by analysing the performance of the US social security system as an

Vincenzo Galasso

2000-01-01

438

The Evolution of Social Security System: Pension System vs. Unemployment Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how the social security system evolves as attribution of voters changes. In our setting, policy determination is based on majority voting and the government has two kinds of social security policy; pension and the unemployment insurance. That is, when the workers constitute the majority of voters, pension system is supported and when the unemployed is the majority,

Yusuke KINAI; Masaya YASUOKA

439

Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security

Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

2008-01-01

440

Workers' Compensation, Social Security Disability Insurance, and the Offset: A Fact Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a brief summary of the workers' compensation and Social Security Disability Insurance programs. Information highlighted includes the differences between the two programs' types and terms of coverage. It compares the differing patterns in workers' compensation and Social Security disability benefits as a percentage of wages over the past few decades and considers the potential causes for such

Virginia Reno; Cecili Thompson Williams; Ishita Sengupta

441

Demographics and the Political Sustainability of Pay-as-you-go Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net present value of costs and benefits from a pay-as-you-go social security system are negative for young people and positive for the elderly. If people all vote their financial self- interest, there will be a pivotal age such that those who are younger favor smaller social security benefits and those who are older will favor larger benefits. For persons

Theodore C. Bergstrom; John L. Hartman

2004-01-01

442

8 CFR 1.3 - Lawfully present aliens for purposes of applying for Social Security benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...present aliens for purposes of applying for Social Security benefits. 1.3 Section...present aliens for purposes of applying for Social Security benefits. (a) Definition...alien who belongs to one of the following classes of aliens permitted to remain in...

2013-01-01

443

Social Security Reform: Mechanisms for Achieving True Pre-Funding. Issue Brief No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fourth in a series of Treasury issue briefs on Social Security reform. It expands on a point introduced in the second issue brief; namely, that making Social Security reform fair to future generations requires building up and safeguarding reso...

2008-01-01

444

Risky business? Evaluating market risk of equity investment proposals to reform social security  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of options have been proposed to address the expected financing shortfall of Social Security in the next century. Most basic aspects of the various reform proposals are captured by the three options offered by the Advisory Council on Social Security in 1996. Common to all three options is that they would permit either public or private equity investment.

Christian E. Weller

2000-01-01

445

Social security arrangements and early-stage entrepreneurial activity; an empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study focuses on the relation between social security arrangements and the rate of early-stage entrepreneurial activity at the country level. Using a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, we explore how various measures of entrepreneurial activity are related to various measures of social security arrangements. On the one hand we look at aggregate indicators such

André van Stel; Peter Brouwer; Sander Wennekers; Jolanda Hessels

2006-01-01

446

Adverse Selection in the Annuity Market and the Role for Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the role of social security in providing annuity insurance. I calculate the welfare cost of adverse selection in the annuity market using a life cycle model in which individuals have private information about their mortality. I calibrate the model to the current U.S. social security replacement ratio, fraction of annuitized wealth and mortality heterogeneity in the Health

Roozbeh Hosseini

2008-01-01

447

The social security persons abroad regulations a case for policy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Persons Abroad Regulations form a minor and arcane part of British social security legislation but although little known or discussed they have major implications. Except in cases where Britain has reciprocal social security agreements with other countries, these Regulations govern whether people can continue to be paid their benefit when they go abroad with different restrictions applying to different

Helen Bolderson; Anita Horwich

1991-01-01

448

Long-Term Consequences of Vietnam-Era Conscription: New Estimates Using Social Security Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the draft lottery to construct instrumental variables (IV) estimates of the impact of Vietnam-era military service on veterans' Social Security (SSA) earnings through 2007. We also use SSA data to construct IV estimates for employment (as measured by an indicator for positive earnings) and disability status (as measured by an indicator for social security disability program application). New

Joshua D. Angrist; Stacey H. Chen; Jae Song

2011-01-01

449

Social Security and Individual Welfare: Precautionary Saving, Borrowing Constraints, and the Payroll Tax  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of social security on national saving and individual welfare in the presence of realistic capital-market imperfections: market failure in the private provision of annuities and restrictions on borrowing against anticipated future wages. The introduction of social security increases lifetime welfare and reduces national saving if borrowing restrictions are absent. However, the increase in individual welfare

R Glenn Hubbard; Kenneth L Judd

1987-01-01

450

Average Marginal Tax Rates from Social Security and the Individual Income Tax  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend previous estimates of the average marginal tax rate from the federal individual income tax to include social security. Our computations consider the tax rates on employers, employees, and the self-employed; the income that accrues to persons with earnings below the ceiling; and the effective deductibility of employers' social security contributions from workers' taxable income. The next effect of

Robert J. Barro; Chaipat Sahasakul

1986-01-01

451

Would a Privatized Social Security System Really Pay a Higher Rate of Return?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many advocates of social security privatization argue that rates of return under a defined contribution individual account system would be much higher for all than they are under the current social security system. This claim is false. The mistake comes from ignoring accrued benefits already promised based on past payroll taxes, and from underestimating the riskiness of stock investments. Confusion

Olivia S. Mitchell; Stephen P. Zeldes

1998-01-01

452

Modelling Political Economy of Social Security in Mauritius: A Game Theoretic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of the paper is to relate social security expenditure to the political process. An attempt is made to establish a relationship between the election of the ageing politicians and the ageing voters who have the belief that the election of ageing politicians would be beneficial in terms of higher social security benefits. A game-theoretic approach is used as

Avinash S. Samboo; Shyam Nath

453

How Social Security and Medicare Affect Retirement Behavior in a World of Incomplete Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an empirical analysis of how the U.S. Social Security and Medicare system affects the labor supply of older males in the presence of incomplete markets. The authors estimate a dynamic programming model of the joint labor supply and Social Security acceptance decision. The model is able to account for a wide variety of phenomena observed in the

John Rust; Christopher Phelan

1997-01-01

454

Social Security, Benefit Claiming, and Labor Force Participation: A Quantitative General Equilibrium Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We build a general equilibrium model with endogenous saving, labor force participation, work hours and social security benefit claiming, in which overlapping generations of individuals face income, survival and health expenditure risks in incomplete markets. We use the model to study the impact of three Social Security reforms; reduction in benefits and payroll taxes, increase in the early retirement age

Selo Imrohoroglu

2011-01-01

455

Future Beneficiary Expectations of the Returns to Delayed Social Security Benefit Claiming and Choice Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on our preliminary findings from an innovative module of survey questions in the RAND American Life Panel designed to measure willingness to delay take-up of Social Security benefits. Among respondents who expect to stop working full time prior to turning age 62, over 60 percent report that they expect to start claiming Social Security benefits after they turn

Jeff Dominitz; Angela Hung; Arthur vanSoest

2007-01-01

456

Social Security, benefit claiming, and labor force participation: a quantitative general equilibrium approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We build a general equilibrium model of overlapping generations that incorporates endogenous saving, labor force participation, work hours, and Social Security benefit claims. Using this model, we study the impact of three Social Security reforms: 1) a reduction in benefits and payroll taxes; 2) an increase in the earliest retirement age, to sixty-four from sixty-two; and 3) an increase in

Selahattin Imrohoroglu; Sagiri Kitao

2010-01-01

457

The Impact of the 1972 Social Security Benefit Increase on Household Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the consumption response to the 1972 Social Security benefit increase. Nominal benefits were increased by 20 percent while annual cost of living adjustments (COLAs) were contemporaneously implemented and scheduled to begin in less than three years. Taken in isolation, this benefit increase could be viewed as a large and permanent increase in real Social Security benefits. However,

Melvin Stephens Jr.

2005-01-01

458

The Effective Target of the Social Security Disability Benefits Reform Act of 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial portion of the rise in Social Security Disability Insurance rolls since 1984 has been attributed to the Social Security Disability Benefits Reform Act. Using data from the National Health Insurance Survey, I examine whom the act effectively targeted. The analysis shows that new enrollees were demonstrably taller than previous enrollees, suggesting that the act expanded eligibility to individuals

Perry Singleton

2009-01-01

459

Dynamic programming model estimates of Social Security Disability Insurance application timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a dynamic programming model of the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) application timing decision. We estimate the time to application from the point at which a health condition first begins to affect the kind or amount of work that a currently employed person can do. We use Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and restricted access Social Security

Richard V. Burkhauser; J. S. Butler; Gulcin Gumus

2004-01-01

460

Reducing the Probability of False Positives in Malingering Detection of Social Security Disability Claimants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Symptom Validity Scale (SVS) for low-functioning individuals (Chafetz, Abrahams, & Kohlmaier, 2007) employs embedded indicators within the Social Security Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) to derive a score validated for malingering against two criterion tests: Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT). When any symptom validity test is used with Social Security claimants there is a

Michael Chafetz

2011-01-01

461

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI): The Five-Month Waiting Period for Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is authorized by Title II of the Social Security Act and provides income replacement for eligible individuals who are unable to work due to a long-term injury or illness that is expected to last at least one year or result in death. Current eligibility requirements include (1) verification of an applicant’s disability, (2) filing

Umar Moulta-Ali

2012-01-01

462

Social Security Disability Beneficiaries: Characteristics, Work Activity, and Use of Services. In \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents findings from the 2004 National Beneficiary Survey, a nationally representative survey of Social Security disability beneficiaries conducted by Mathematica for SSA as part of its Ticket to Work program evaluation. The data provide an overview of the health and sociodemographic characteristics of Social Security disability beneficiaries, and highlight their employment activity, work aspirations, and use of employment-related

Gina A. Livermore; Nanette Goodman; Debra Wright

2007-01-01

463

The role of social security in an economy with asymmetric information and financial intermediaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study an overlapping generations model with production, asymmetric information and competitive financial intermediaries. Social security may be beneficial even when it should not be used under full information, unless credit rationing emerges with pooling contracts. In this case social security could be welfare reducing even when the safe rate of return falls short of population growth. We provide a

Pietro Reichlin; Paolo Siconolfi

1996-01-01

464

24 CFR 5.218 - Penalties for failing to disclose and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.218 Section...Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for Obtaining...Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers for Applicants and...

2010-04-01

465

General Services Administration Status of Efforts to Improve Management of Building Security Upgrade Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I am pleased to be here today to discuss the General Services Administration's (GSA) progress in upgrading the security of federal buildings under its operation. As you know, following the April 19, 1995, bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma...

B. L. Ungar

1999-01-01

466

Security of Data, Stored in Information Systems of Bulgarian Municipal Administrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive influx of information technology in municipal administrations increases their efficiency in delivering public services but increased the risk of theft of confidential information electronically. The report proposed an approach for improving information security for small municipal governments in Bulgaria through enhanced intrusion detection and prevention system.

Kapralyakov, Petko

2011-12-01

467

76 FR 40352 - National Nuclear Security Administration; Amended Record of Decision: Site-Wide Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a semi- autonomous agency within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is amending its September 26, 2008 Record of Decision (ROD) issued pursuant to the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (LANL SWEIS; DOE/EIS-0380). That ROD announced NNSA's decision,......

2011-07-08

468

Assessment of packaging needs for the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Defense Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents a study by Sandia's Systems Analysis Group to assess the status of, and need for, shipping containers to support the mission of National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Defense Program. The focus of the study evolved into determining the status of existing packages relative to Federal Regulations for the Department of Transportation and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proposed

David Henry Zeuch; Robert A. Watson

2003-01-01

469

Maintaining Perspective on Who Is The Enemy in the Security Systems Administration of Computer Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human operators in security systems administration of large and complex networks have the difficult task of maintaining the integrity of operations and network service availability while a multitude of organizationa l users accidentally misconfigure, misuse, and break software and hardware. This is also a position where adversaries actively try to avoid detection and circumvent protection in order to maliciously misconfigure,

William Yurcik; James Barlow; Jeff Rosendale

2003-01-01

470

National Nuclear Security Administration Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report in Brief: October 2007 - May 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

This abbreviated Annual Report covers program activities of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP) from October 2007 through May 2008--the timeframe between the last Annual Report (which covered activities through September 2007) and the next report (which will begin with June 2008 activities). In that timeframe, the NGFP continued building a solid foundation as the

Clarissa O. Berkman; Jana G. Fankhauser; Jessica A. Sandusky

2009-01-01

471

5 CFR 839.901 - When will my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously in CSRS during...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously...coverage will now require me to pay Social Security taxes? 839.901 Section...RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Social Security Taxes § 839.901 When...

2010-01-01

472

26 CFR 1.401(a)-15 - Requirement that plan benefits are not decreased on account of certain Social Security increases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...decreased on account of certain Social Security increases. 1.401(a...decreased on account of certain Social Security increases. (a) In general...reason of any post-separation social security benefit increase effective...

2013-04-01

473

26 CFR 31.3121(k)-4 - Constructive filing of waivers of exemption from social security taxes by certain tax-exempt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...filing of waivers of exemption from social security taxes by certain tax-exempt...of waivers of exemption from social security taxes by certain tax-exempt...210(a)(8)(B) of the Social Security Act and section...

2013-04-01

474

5 CFR 839.901 - When will my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously in CSRS during...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously...coverage will now require me to pay Social Security taxes? 839.901 Section...RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Social Security Taxes § 839.901 When...

2013-01-01

475

5 CFR 839.901 - When will my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously in CSRS during...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously...coverage will now require me to pay Social Security taxes? 839.901 Section...RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Social Security Taxes § 839.901 When...

2009-01-01

476

77 FR 58604 - Social Security Ruling (SSR), 12-1p; Title II: Determining Whether Work Performed in Self...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...activity (SGA) under the disability program in title II of the Social Security Act (Act). In addition, this ruling clarifies that...disability program in title II of the Social Security Act (Act).\\1\\ In addition, this ruling clarifies...

2012-09-21

477

The Role and Nature of Non-Contributory Social Security in the Design of Social Protection Strategies for Older People in DCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-contributory social security is increasingly attracting the attention of developing country policymakers and observers, not least as a mechanism to help address the perceived failure of contributory social security to reduce poverty in developing countries. This development is most visible in relation to non-contributory social security's role in contributing to meeting the immediate cash income needs of a growing number

Roddy McKinnon; Roland Sigg

2006-01-01

478

The Role and Nature of Non-Contributory Social Security in the Design of Social Protection Strategies for Older People in DCs 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-contributory social security is increasingly attracting the attention of developing country policymakers and observers, not least as a mechanism to help address the perceived failure of contributory social security to reduce poverty in developing countries. This development is most visible in relation to non-contributory social security's role in contributing to meeting the immediate cash income needs of a growing number

Roddy McKinnon; Roland Sigg

2003-01-01

479

78 FR 11939 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p.; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Social Security Ruling (SSR...of SSR 13-2p, in which we explain...XVI of the Social Security Act, and to the...determine disability in those claims. 20...policy, as set out in the Commissioner's...regulations, SSRs, Social Security Acquiescence...

2013-02-20

480

26 CFR 32.1 - Social security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Social security taxes with respect to payments...L. 97-123) § 32.1 Social security taxes with respect to payments...employee is not subject to income or social security taxes on the reduction in...

2013-04-01

481

Tax Incentives for Private Life Annuities and the Social Security Reform: Effects on Consumption and on Adverse Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a two-period model with uncertainty about life expectancy, we analyze several measures that are typically included in a social security reform: tax incentives for private life annuities, a cut in the social security benefits, and an increase in the social security tax. First, we look at the demand side and study the effects on old-age provision for a given

Susanne Pech

2004-01-01

482

Applicants' preference for impression management tactic in employment interviews by Transportation Security Administration.  

PubMed

Following past findings on employment interviews, this study hypothesized applicants would have a preference for using self-promoting tactics of impression management over other focuses. Self-reports of impression management tactics were collected from 124 applicants who had interviews for screener positions with the Transportation Security Administration. Contrary to the hypothesis, analysis indicated participants reported they used more ingratiation tactics attempting to praise the interviewer than self-promotion tactics which focused on their own accomplishments. Special qualifications for security jobs which required well-developed perceptual abilities and the controlling structure of the interview context were perhaps responsible for present results differing from prior findings. PMID:19610468

Scudder, Joseph N; Lamude, Kevin G

2009-04-01

483

Income distribution patterns from a complete social security database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the income distribution of employees for 9 consecutive years (2001-2009) using a complete social security database for an economically important district of Romania. The database contains detailed information on more than half million taxpayers, including their monthly salaries from all employers where they worked. Besides studying the characteristic distribution functions in the high and low/medium income limits, the database allows us a detailed dynamical study by following the time-evolution of the taxpayers income. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of this kind (a previous Japanese taxpayers survey was limited to two years). In the high income limit we prove once again the validity of Pareto's law, obtaining a perfect scaling on four orders of magnitude in the rank for all the studied years. The obtained Pareto exponents are quite stable with values around ??2.5, in spite of the fact that during this period the economy developed rapidly and also a financial-economic crisis hit Romania in 2007-2008. For the low and medium income category we confirmed the exponential-type income distribution. Following the income of employees in time, we have found that the top limit of the income distribution is a highly dynamical region with strong fluctuations in the rank. In this region, the observed dynamics is consistent with a multiplicative random growth hypothesis. Contrarily with previous results obtained for the Japanese employees, we find that the logarithmic growth-rate is not independent of the income.

Derzsy, N.; Néda, Z.; Santos, M. A.

2012-11-01

484

76 FR 51358 - National Nuclear Security Administration Amended Record of Decision: Disposition of Surplus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a semi- autonomous agency within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is amending the August 5, 1996, Record of Decision (the 1996 ROD) (61 FR 40619) for the Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Environmental Impact Statement (HEU EIS) (DOE/EIS-0240). The 1996 ROD included DOE's decision to implement a program to render a nominal 200......

2011-08-18

485

Administrator Highlights U.S.-Georgian Nuclear Security Cooperation in Tbilisi  

ScienceCinema

NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino highlighted the strong U.S.-Georgian cooperation on nuclear security issues during a day-long visit to the Republic of Georgia in mid-June. He briefed the media at availability at the Tbilisi airport. In April 2009, President Obama outlined an ambitious agenda to secure vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years, calling the danger of a terrorist acquiring nuclear weapons "the most immediate and extreme threat to global security." In this year's State of the Union, he called the threat of nuclear weapons, "the greatest danger to the American people." In order to meet that challenge, the President's FY2011 Budget Request includes close to $2.7 billion for the National Nuclear Security Administration's Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation program -- an increase of 25.7 percent over FY2010. Included in that request is NNSA's Second Line of Defense (SLD) program, which works around the world to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system.

486

Challenges in Computational Social Modeling and Simulation for National Security Decision-Making.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the findings of an October 2010 workshop, which explored a broad range of issues related to computational social modeling and simulation and national security decision making, from the impact of new computational techniques on socia...

C. Gieseler L. A. McNamara M. Bevir R. Albro T. G. Trucano

2011-01-01

487

Social Security and the Retirement and Savings Behavior of Low Income Households1  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we develop and estimate a model of retirement and savings incorporating limited borrowing, stochastic wage offers, health status and survival, social security benefits, Medicare and employer provided health insurance coverage, and intentional bequests. The model is estimated on sample of relatively poor households from the first three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), for whom we would expect social security income to be of particular importance. The estimated model is used to simulate the responses to changes in social security rules, including changes in benefit levels, in the payroll tax, in the social security earnings tax and in early and normal retirement ages. Welfare and budget consequences are estimated.

van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Wolpin, Kenneth I.

2011-01-01

488

Social Security Reform: Possible Effects on the Elderly Poor and Mitigation Options. CRS Report for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes the projected effects of four possible approaches to mitigating the effects of Social Security benefit reductions on elderly poverty in 2042, the first full year of projected trust fund insolvency. The options are compared to a payabl...

K. Romig

2008-01-01

489

Report of the 1994-1996 Advisory Council on Social Security. Volume 1. Findings and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report first outlines those principles on which there was broad agreement within the Council. It covers recommendations concerning the overall Social Security system, research and data, and private pensions. The report then details three different So...

1997-01-01

490

Social Security Disability Insurance Program Worker Experience. Actuarial Study No. 118.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After onset of a severe physical or mental impairment, a worker may become entitled to monthly disability insurance benefits under the Social Security Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program, provided he or she: (1) Meets the definiti...

T. Zayatz

2005-01-01

491

Social Security Funds: Additional Measures Could More Fully Indicate the System's Financial Condition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a General Accounting Office analysis of some technical changes which should be made in how the social security trust fund reserves are reported. Specifically, GAO looked at how the trustees' report currently presents actuarial informat...

1988-01-01

492

Attachment and social bonding in maximum and minimum security prison inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes towards social attachment and bonding were evaluated in groups of maximum (N = 48) and minimum (N=46) security prison inmates and compared with the attitudes of a group of 49 noncriminal college students. Three primary\\u000a styles of attachment were considered: avoidant, ambivalent\\/anxious, and secure. It was predicted that the maximum security\\u000a condition, a group hypothesized to contain a large

Glenn D. Walters; Thomas W. White

1990-01-01

493

The impact of the Social Cash Transfer Scheme on food security in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malawi Social Cash Transfer Scheme (SCTS) was launched in 2006 to improve food security by directly providing cash transfers to the country’s most destitute households. Although government-implemented cash transfer schemes have gained popularity throughout Latin America, these schemes are just emerging in Africa. While where there is evidence of the beneficial impact of cash transfers on food security from

Candace M. Miller; Maxton Tsoka; Kathryn Reichert

2011-01-01

494

Security Analysis of Information Systems Taking into Account Social Engineering Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper suggests an attack trees based approach to security analysis of information systems. The approach considers both software-technical and social engineering attacks. It extends the approach to network security analysis based on software-technical attacks which was suggested earlier by the authors of this paper. The main difference is in generalizing the suggested approach for information systems and in use

Igor V. Kotenko; Mikhail Stepashkin; Elena Doynikova

2011-01-01

495

Earnings and Work Expectations of Social Security Disability Beneficiaries. Washington, DC: Center for Studying Disability Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999 prompted changes in the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) programs to help beneficiaries get and stay employed. This brief, the first in a new series from the Center for Studying Disability Policy at Mathematica, highlights the extent to which SSI and SSDI beneficiaries are

Gina A. Livermore

2008-01-01

496

Demographics and the Political Sustainability of Pay-as-you-go Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net present value of costs and benefits from a pay-as-you-go social security system are negative for young people and positive for the elderly. If people all vote their financial self-interest, there will be a pivotal age such that those who are younger favor smaller social security benefits and those who are older will favor larger benefits. For persons of

Theodore C. Bergstrom; John L. Hartman

2005-01-01

497

How Hispanics in the U.S. Fare Under the Privatization of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The privatization of Social Security will harm Hispanics in the United States. Hispanics benefit greatly from the current system of Social Security because it helps people with the following characteristics: those who have (1) lower-than-average income, (2) higher incidence of disability, (3) more children per family, and (4) longer-than-average life expectancies. Unlike other ethnic\\/racial groups, Hispanics have all four of

Avery Blank

2012-01-01

498

Savings, Social Security, and Bequests in an OLG Model. A Simulation Exercise for Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper analyses the relation between savings, social security, and bequests in an OLG model. The social security system\\u000a is modelled on a pay-as-you-go basis to replicate aspects of the Austrian pension scheme. A bequest motive is introduced by\\u000a postulating that households derive utility from bequeathing wealth to their heirs. The parameters of the model are chosen\\u000a to replicate important

Klaus Neusser

1991-01-01

499

Savings, social security, and bequests in an OLG model. A simulation exercise for Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the relation between savings, social security, and bequests in an OLG model. The social security system\\u000a is modelled on a pay-as-you-go basis to replicate aspects of the Austrian pension scheme. A bequest motive is introduced by\\u000a postulating that households derive utility from bequeathing wealth to their heirs. The parameters of the model are chosen\\u000a to replicate important

Klaus Neusser

1993-01-01

500

SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS AS A RETIREMENT RESOURCE FOR U.S. NEAR-RETIREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes Social Security benefits as a retirement resource (wealth and income) for U.S. near-retirees. We look at how the average values of several measures of benefits such as Social Security wealth and earnings replacement rates have changed from earlier cohorts to today's near-retirement cohort, examine differences among demographic and socioeconomic groups within cohorts, and discuss reasons for these

Benjamin Bridges; Sharmila Choudhury

2007-01-01