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Sample records for social security administration

  1. Social Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    Turn Accessibility Mode On Skip to content Accessibility Contact Us FAQs Español Other Languages Sign In Social Security Official Social Security Website Menu Home Numbers & Cards New or Replacement Social Security ...

  2. Uses of administrative data at the Social Security Administration.

    PubMed

    McNabb, Jennifer; Timmons, David; Song, Jae; Puckett, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) collects a wealth of data in its role as administrator of two large national entitlement programs. Linking SSA's administrative data with survey data yields a broader set of demographic and socioeconomic information and also improves the quality of the survey data. The agency uses these data to produce analyses and research on policy initiatives for its programs and on the earnings of the working and beneficiary populations. SSA studies how these programs and potential changes to them affect individuals, the economy, and program solvency, and develops models to project demographic and economic characteristics of the current working population into the future. The agency also produces public-use microdata files that are available to outside researchers, as well as a variety of research and statistical publications to inform policymakers and the public. PMID:19579531

  3. 20 CFR 221.3 - Social Security Administration jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security Administration jurisdiction... RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction. The Board transfers jurisdiction (railroad service and compensation credits earned by the employee which the...

  4. 20 CFR 221.3 - Social Security Administration jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social Security Administration jurisdiction... RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction. The Board transfers jurisdiction (railroad service and compensation credits earned by the employee which the...

  5. 75 FR 64389 - Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System (OIS) Development Planning; Request for Comment AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION:...

  6. 77 FR 3836 - Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2011...

  7. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  8. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  9. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  10. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  11. Measurement issues associated with using survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul S; Fisher, T Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Researchers using survey data matched with administrative data benefit from the rich demographic and economic detail available from survey data combined with detailed programmatic data from administrative records. The research benefits of using these matched data are too numerous to mention. But there are drawbacks as well, and those drawbacks have received less systematic attention from researchers. We focus on survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration and address the strengths and weaknesses of each in four specific areas: (1) program participation and benefits, (2) disability and health information, (3) earnings, and (4) deferred compensation. We discuss the implications of these strengths and weaknesses for decisions that researchers must make regarding the appropriate data source and definition for the concepts in question. From this discussion, some general conclusions are drawn about measurement issues associated with using matched survey and administrative data for research, policy evaluation, and statistics. PMID:19697503

  12. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security Administration. (a) Claim is for life benefits. An application for life benefits under title II of the...

  13. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security Administration. (a) Claim is for life benefits. An application for life benefits under title II of the...

  14. 20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities. 423.1 Section 423.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and...

  15. 20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities. 423.1 Section 423.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and...

  16. 20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities. 423.1 Section 423.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and...

  17. 20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities. 423.1 Section 423.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities....

  18. 20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities. 423.1 Section 423.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and...

  19. 20 CFR 410.686b - Fee for services performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... before the Social Security Administration. 410.686b Section 410.686b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Representation of Parties § 410.686b Fee for services performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration. (a) General. A fee for services performed for an individual before the Social...

  20. 20 CFR 410.686b - Fee for services performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... before the Social Security Administration. 410.686b Section 410.686b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Representation of Parties § 410.686b Fee for services performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration. (a) General. A fee for services performed for an individual before the Social...

  1. 77 FR 74913 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... October 8, 1999 (64 FR 54930), as amended on May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25775). We will match the OPM data with data in our Medicare Database (MDB), SOR 60-0321, last published at 71 FR 42159 (July 25, 2006). 2... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration...

  2. 75 FR 5166 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration...). ACTION: Notice of renewal of an existing computer matching program, scheduled to expire on April 1, 2010... computer matching program we conduct with RRB. DATES: We will file a report of the subject matching...

  3. 77 FR 43639 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Records--VA'' (58VA21/22/28), first published at 74 FR 14865 (April... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA.... ACTION: Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program that expired on May 10,...

  4. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings;...

  5. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings;...

  6. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings;...

  7. 78 FR 6168 - Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2012 Service... availability of the FY 2012 Service Contract inventory. This inventory provides information on FY 2012 service... are distributed throughout the agency. We developed the inventory in accordance with guidance...

  8. The Social Security Administration's Youth Transition Demonstration Projects: Interim Report on Transition WORKS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraker, Thomas; Black, Alison; Mamun, Arif; Manno, Michelle; Martinez, John; O'Day, Bonnie; O'Toole, Meghan; Rangarajan, Anu; Reed, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    The Social Security Administration is funding a random assignment evaluation of six demonstration projects to improve employment and other outcomes for youth ages 14 to 25 who are either receiving disability benefits or are at high risk of receiving them in the future. This report reviews the Youth Transition Demonstration (YTD) projects, located…

  9. 20 CFR 404.455 - Request by Social Security Administration for reports of earnings and estimated earnings; effect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Request by Social Security Administration for report during taxable year; effect of failure to comply. The... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request by Social Security Administration for reports of earnings and estimated earnings; effect of failure to comply with request. 404.455 Section...

  10. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions; Reductions; and Nonpayments of Benefits §...

  11. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security CSS for FAQ Transportation Security Administration Search When I fly can I bring ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  12. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  13. 20 CFR 404.1362 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans Administration pension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Effect of Other Benefits on Payment of...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1362 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans Administration pension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Effect of Other Benefits on Payment of...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1362 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans Administration pension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Effect of Other Benefits on Payment of...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1362 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans Administration pension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Effect of Other Benefits on Payment of...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1362 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans Administration pension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Effect of Other Benefits on Payment of...

  18. The Effect of the Social Security Earnings Test on Male Labor Supply: New Evidence from Survey and Administrative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Loughran, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous empirical studies, there is surprisingly little agreement about whether the Social Security earnings test affects male labor supply. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the labor supply effects of the earnings test using longitudinal administrative earnings data and more commonly used survey data. We find that…

  19. Use of the Social Security Administration Death Master File for ascertainment of mortality status

    PubMed Central

    Schisterman, Enrique F; Whitcomb, Brian W

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Internet sources that use the Social Security Administration's (SSA) Death Master File have demonstrated high sensitivity among males for detection of mortality status in comparisons to the National Death Index, but the sensitivity has not been investigated for other demographic groups. Methods The authors used the SSA Death Master File to determine the mortality status of 374 decedents from the ongoing Patient Outcomes Study at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center whose deaths were confirmed by physicians using hospital records. Results Decedents identified by the SSA Death Master File were significantly older than those not identified. Foreign-born decedents were significantly less likely to be identified as dead than American-born decedents. Gender and marital status were not significant factors for identification by the SSA Death Master File. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that Internet sources may be used as an inexpensive and effective tool for determination of mortality status. However, among certain populations use of these databases alone may provide incomplete information. PMID:15003125

  20. Development of a Computer-Adaptive Physical Function Instrument for Social Security Administration Disability Determination

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Pengsheng; McDonough, Christine M.; Jette, Alan M.; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.; Brandt, Diane E.; Meterko, Mark; Chan, Leighton

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop and test an instrument to assess physical function (PF) for Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs, the SSA-PF. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses were used to 1) create a calibrated item bank for each of the factors identified in prior factor analyses, 2) assess the fit of the items within each scale, 3) develop separate Computer-Adaptive Test (CAT) instruments for each scale, and 4) conduct initial psychometric testing. Design Cross-sectional data collection; IRT analyses; CAT simulation. Setting Telephone and internet survey. Participants Two samples: 1,017 SSA claimants, and 999 adults from the US general population. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Model fit statistics, correlation and reliability coefficients, Results IRT analyses resulted in five unidimensional SSA-PF scales: Changing & Maintaining Body Position, Whole Body Mobility, Upper Body Function, Upper Extremity Fine Motor, and Wheelchair Mobility for a total of 102 items. High CAT accuracy was demonstrated by strong correlations between simulated CAT scores and those from the full item banks. Comparing the simulated CATs to the full item banks, very little loss of reliability or precision was noted, except at the lower and upper ranges of each scale. No difference in response patterns by age or sex was noted. The distributions of claimant scores were shifted to the lower end of each scale compared to those of a sample of US adults. Conclusions The SSA-PF instrument contributes important new methodology for measuring the physical function of adults applying to the SSA disability programs. Initial evaluation revealed that the SSA-PF instrument achieved considerable breadth of coverage in each content domain and demonstrated noteworthy psychometric properties. PMID:23578594

  1. Statistical security for Social Security.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts. PMID:22592944

  2. Identifying a cohort of US twins using Social Security Administration records.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Bert

    2004-04-01

    A sample of pairs of twins who were born in the United States in 1919 and survived to adulthood is identified through an innovative and large-scale application of the methodology of probabilistic linkage. The social security program began in the United States in November 1936, and the file of applicants for a social security number - which was used in this study - is the closest thing in the United States to a population register. The study results are very satisfactory, and demonstrate the superiority of probabilistic linkage to exact linkage. We estimate that about 33,000 twin pairs were born in the United States in 1919 and about 19,000 survived to age 17. Since the social security number was not then, at the inception of the program, the universal identifier that it is today, the number of enumerated twin pairs is somewhat less. Nonetheless, over 16,000 twin pairs can be identified by the method of probabilistic linkage. By comparison, only about half as many can be identified by straightforward exact linkage. PMID:15169598

  3. Mortality Measurement at Advanced Ages: A Study of the Social Security Administration Death Master File

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of mortality at advanced ages are essential to improving forecasts of mortality and the population size of the oldest old age group. However, estimation of hazard rates at extremely old ages poses serious challenges to researchers: (1) The observed mortality deceleration may be at least partially an artifact of mixing different birth cohorts with different mortality (heterogeneity effect); (2) standard assumptions of hazard rate estimates may be invalid when risk of death is extremely high at old ages and (3) ages of very old people may be exaggerated. One way of obtaining estimates of mortality at extreme ages is to pool together international records of persons surviving to extreme ages with subsequent efforts of strict age validation. This approach helps researchers to resolve the third of the above-mentioned problems but does not resolve the first two problems because of inevitable data heterogeneity when data for people belonging to different birth cohorts and countries are pooled together. In this paper we propose an alternative approach, which gives an opportunity to resolve the first two problems by compiling data for more homogeneous single-year birth cohorts with hazard rates measured at narrow (monthly) age intervals. Possible ways of resolving the third problem of hazard rate estimation are elaborated. This approach is based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File (DMF). Some birth cohorts covered by DMF could be studied by the method of extinct generations. Availability of month of birth and month of death information provides a unique opportunity to obtain hazard rate estimates for every month of age. Study of several single-year extinct birth cohorts shows that mortality trajectory at advanced ages follows the Gompertz law up to the ages 102–105 years without a noticeable deceleration. Earlier reports of mortality deceleration (deviation of mortality from the Gompertz law) at ages below 100 appear to be artifacts of mixing together several birth cohorts with different mortality levels and using cross-sectional instead of cohort data. Age exaggeration and crude assumptions applied to mortality estimates at advanced ages may also contribute to mortality underestimation at very advanced ages. PMID:22308064

  4. 78 FR 9765 - Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under AGENCY: Social Security..., Social Security Administration, 107 Altmeyer Building, 6401 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland...

  5. 78 FR 56266 - Consent Based Social Security Number Verification (CBSV) Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... and Operations Support, Social Security Administration, 6401 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21235... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Consent Based Social Security Number Verification (CBSV) Service AGENCY: Social...

  6. 77 FR 54943 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ..., Education, and Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Records-VA'' (58VA21/22/28), published at 74 FR... FR 42159 (July 25, 2006). 2. Number of Records VA's data file will consist of approximately 4.9... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL...

  7. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxable year (see § 404.455). (e) Extension of time for filing report—(1) Request for extension to file... Social Security number of the person filing the request if other than the beneficiary, the year for which... establish that you had good cause (§ 404.454) for filing your report after the normal due date....

  8. 76 FR 60112 - Consent Based Social Security Number Verification (CBSV) Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... CONTACT: Gerard R. Hart, Office of Public Service and Operations Support, Social Security Administration... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Consent Based Social Security Number Verification (CBSV) Service AGENCY: Social...

  9. Social Security & You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Security Administration (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This set of materials for high school students explains the Social Security system. It consists of five lessons and an overview lesson that may be taught separately. To support the lessons, a videotape, fact sheets, student handouts, and quizzes are included. Handouts are in large print and are suitable for use as black line masters for…

  10. 26 CFR 301.7701-11 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7701-11 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual...

  12. 38 CFR 3.153 - Claims filed with Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims filed with Social... Social Security. An application on a form jointly prescribed by the Secretary and the Commissioner of Social Security filed with the Social Security Administration on or after January 1, 1957, will...

  13. 38 CFR 3.153 - Claims filed with Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims filed with Social... Social Security. An application on a form jointly prescribed by the Secretary and the Commissioner of Social Security filed with the Social Security Administration on or after January 1, 1957, will...

  14. 76 FR 68243 - Social Security Rulings, SSR 91-1c and SSR 66-18c; Rescission of Social Security Rulings (SSR) 66...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Rulings, SSR 91-1c and SSR 66-18c; Rescission of Social Security Rulings (SSR) 66-18c and SSR 91-1c AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of rescission of...

  15. 45 CFR 205.52 - Furnishing of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or CVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN... the State or local agency with the Social Security Administration. If such procedures are not...

  16. 45 CFR 205.52 - Furnishing of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or CVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN... the State or local agency with the Social Security Administration. If such procedures are not...

  17. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  18. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  19. Comparing Social Security reform options.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Craig

    2005-05-01

    Social Security is widely recognized as the nation's most effective anti-poverty program for the elderly and widow(er)s. It is so popular that it has often been dubbed the "third rail" of American politics ("touch it and you die"). As a result, changes have come slowly. For instance, in spite of years of warning in advance of the cash flow crisis of 1983, Congress waited until the last minute to act--and when it did, the action it took included a combination of tax increases and benefit reductions. By the mid-1990s, then-President Clinton was talking about the long-term financing issues faced by Social Security, but Congress did not act. President Bush has raised the same issues since 2000, and has now taken to the road to convince the nation that action should be taken now to assure the program's long-term solvency. Because Social Security is a sensitive, complicated, and emotional political topic, many concepts have been discussed but few elected officials have been willing to put forth detailed plans for fear of political backlash. The public, quite naturally, wants to know how they will be affected by "reform." In this introductory section, Figure S-1 seeks to provide a simple response to that question by following the method used in the Trustees' report, where earners maintain a constant percentage of the average wage. Take the year closest to when you were born, the earnings closest to your expected earnings this year (2005), and follow across the columns to see how much your annual benefit would be in today's dollars if you start taking benefits at age 65. For an example of a specific individual: Your 30-year-old child (born in 1975) makes a 2005 salary around $16,500. Under current law, your child's initial annual Social Security retirement benefit would be dollar 11,200 in today's dollars. However, given the projected funding shortfall currently facing the program, this promised benefit is not likely to materialize unless some sort of change is made to the program. This analysis compares "Model 2" from the President's 2001 Commission to Strengthen Social Security (which appears to have the principles for an individual account plan favored by the Bush administration) with three basic options: Current-law benefits with taxes raised to cover the shortfall over the 75-year actuarial period, by removing the existing dollar 90,000 annual wage cap and including all workers. Maintain current benefits until the revenue shortfall occurs, when a "cliff" benefit cut is imposed. A gradual reduction in current-law benefits. PMID:15898449

  20. 73 FR 80505 - Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and the Czech Republic; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and the Czech Republic; Entry Into Force AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On January 1, 2009, an...

  1. 77 FR 67724 - Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling 05-1(9)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling 05-1(9) AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ] ACTION: Notice of Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling 05- 1(9)--Gillett-Netting v....

  2. 76 FR 65558 - Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of rescission of Social Security Ruling. SUMMARY: In accordance with 20 CFR 402.35(b)(1),...

  3. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social security numbers. 422.103 Section 422.103 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General...

  4. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security numbers. 422.103 Section 422.103 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General...

  5. 76 FR 2142 - Employee Benefits Security Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Administration (EBSA) published in the Federal Register on October 22, 2010, (75 FR 65263), a proposed rule under... on October 22, 2010 (75 FR 65263), is being extended until February 3, 2011. To facilitate the... Benefits Security Administration Hearing on Definition of ``Fiduciary'' AGENCY: Employee Benefits...

  6. 45 CFR 205.52 - Furnishing of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... application, and provide the number upon its receipt. (b) The State or local agency will assist the applicant... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN... the State or local agency with the Social Security Administration. If such procedures are not...

  7. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section 1212.604 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA...

  8. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section 1212.604 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA...

  9. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section 1212.604 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA...

  10. Leadership with Administration: Securing Administrative Support for Transforming Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saginak, Kelli A.; Dollarhide, Colette T.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides school counselors with a plan for securing administrative support for implementing of comprehensive school counseling programs. Systems and systems theory is introduced to explain systemic change in the context of leadership. Leadership theory is presented to assist school counselors in leading systemic change and securing…

  11. Predicting Social Security numbers from public data

    PubMed Central

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Information about an individual's place and date of birth can be exploited to predict his or her Social Security number (SSN). Using only publicly available information, we observed a correlation between individuals' SSNs and their birth data and found that for younger cohorts the correlation allows statistical inference of private SSNs. The inferences are made possible by the public availability of the Social Security Administration's Death Master File and the widespread accessibility of personal information from multiple sources, such as data brokers or profiles on social networking sites. Our results highlight the unexpected privacy consequences of the complex interactions among multiple data sources in modern information economies and quantify privacy risks associated with information revelation in public forums. PMID:19581585

  12. 20 CFR 404.408b - Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction of retroactive monthly social....408b Section 404.408b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI) payments were...

  13. 20 CFR 404.408b - Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction of retroactive monthly social....408b Section 404.408b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI) payments were...

  14. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... security number to satisfy a State or local law that requires you to have a social security number in order... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104 Section 422.104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND...

  15. 20 CFR 638.528 - Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social Security. 638.528 Section 638.528... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.528 Social Security. The Act provides that students are covered by title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) and...

  16. 20 CFR 638.528 - Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Social Security. 638.528 Section 638.528... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.528 Social Security. The Act provides that students are covered by title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) and...

  17. 20 CFR 638.528 - Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security. 638.528 Section 638.528... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.528 Social Security. The Act provides that students are covered by title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) and...

  18. 78 FR 12129 - Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Rulings 92-2(6)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... regulations, 63 FR 24927 (May 6, 1998). Dated: February 12, 2013. Michael J. Astrue, Commissioner of Social... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Rulings 92-2(6) AGENCY: Social Security...

  19. 75 FR 8096 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-023...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office..., ``Department of Homeland Security/Transportation Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence Prevention... and maintain records on their Workplace Violence Prevention Program. Additionally, the Department...

  20. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Myers, Tracy G., Ed.; Hartel, Christine R., Ed.

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits for adults with mental retardation unable to perform substantial gainful activity through the Disability Insurance (DI) program and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI benefits are also provided to families of children and adolescents who evidence

  1. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Myers, Tracy G., Ed.; Hartel, Christine R., Ed.

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits for adults with mental retardation unable to perform substantial gainful activity through the Disability Insurance (DI) program and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI benefits are also provided to families of children and adolescents who evidence…

  2. 20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120 Section 422.120 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.120...

  3. 20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120 Section 422.120 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.120...

  4. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security would modify and strengthen the current-law special minimum benefit. Interest in the special minimum benefit may also increase because of labor force participation and marital trends that suggest that enhancing workers' benefits may be a more effective means of reducing older women's poverty rates than enhancing spousal or widow's benefits. By understanding the Social Security program's experience with the special minimum benefit, policymakers will be able to better anticipate the effectiveness of other initiatives to enhance benefits for long-term low earners. This article presents the most recent and comprehensive information available about the special minimum benefit in order to help policymakers make informed decisions about the provision's future. Highlights of the current special minimum benefit include the following: Very few persons receive the special minimum benefit. As of December 2001, about 134,000 workers and their dependents and survivors were entitled to a benefit based on the special minimum. Of those, only about 79,000 received a higher total benefit because of the special minimum; the other 55,000 were dually entitled. (In effect, when persons are eligible for more than one type of benefit--that is, they are dually eligible--the highest benefit payable determines total benefits. If the special minimum benefit is not the highest benefit payable, it does not increase total benefits paid.) As of February 2000, retired workers who were special minimum beneficiaries with unreduced benefits and were not dually entitled were receiving, on average, a monthly benefit of $510 per month. That amount is approximately $2,000 less than the annual poverty threshold for an aged individual. Special minimum benefits provide small increases in total benefits. For special minimum beneficiaries who were not dually entitled as of December 2001, the average special minimum monthly PIA was just $39 higher than the regular PIA. Most special minimum beneficiaries are female retired workers. About 90 percent of special minimum beneficiaries are retired workers, and 77 percent of those retired workers are women. The special minimum benefit has never provided poverty-level benefits. Maximum payable special minimum benefits (unreduced for early retirement) equal 85 percent of the poverty level for aged persons, down from 96 percent at the provision's inception. Major public policy considerations raised by this analysis include the following: Social Security benefits alone do not protect all long-term low earners from poverty. Low earners with 30 years of earnings equal to the annual full-time minimum wage who retired in selected years from 1982 to 2000 received benefits that were 3.9 percent to 20.1 percent below the poverty threshold, depending on the year they retired. For 40-year earners, the range was 3.9 percent to 15.3 percent below poverty. Furthermore, in 1993, 29.2 percent of retired-worker beneficiaries who were poor had 30 or more years of coverage. The size of the universe of persistently low earners with significant attachment to the covered workforce is unknown. Available research that examines two 28-month periods suggests that only 4 percent to 6 percent of full-time, full-period earners had below-minimum wages for more than 12 consecutive months. Targeting enhanced benefits only toward long-term, regular workers who are low earners is difficult under the current Social Security program. All else being equal, if total wage-indexed lifetime covered earnings are the same for both a full-career low earner and for a high earner who has worked only occasionally, then their Social Security benefits will be identical. Social Security has no information on number of hours worked, hourly wages, or other information that could distinguish between two such persons. PMID:12428507

  5. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104 Section 422.104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons eligible for...

  6. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104 Section 422.104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons eligible for...

  7. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104 Section 422.104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons eligible for...

  8. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized to work. We will also mark your social security card with a legend such as “NOT VALID FOR... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104 Section 422.104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND...

  9. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use and collection of social security... to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.25 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each system manager of a system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a...

  10. 38 CFR 1.521 - Special restrictions concerning social security records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning social security records. 1.521 Section 1.521 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.521 Special restrictions concerning social security records. Information received from the Social Security Administration may be filed in the veteran's claims folder without special...

  11. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  12. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  13. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... Social Security Administration or to have the Department of Veterans Affairs obtain such evidence...

  14. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use and collection of social security... to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.25 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each system manager of a system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a...

  15. 38 CFR 1.521 - Special restrictions concerning social security records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concerning social security records. 1.521 Section 1.521 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.521 Special restrictions concerning social security records. Information received from the Social Security Administration may be filed in the veteran's claims folder without special...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1363 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal benefit payable other than by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... Social Security Benefits and Payments § 404.1363 Treatment of social security benefits or payments...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1363 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal benefit payable other than by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... Social Security Benefits and Payments § 404.1363 Treatment of social security benefits or payments...

  18. A New Paradigm for Secure Social Lending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrelis, Emmanouil; Alexandris, Nikolaos

    Social Lending is one of the latest trends in Social Networking, offering a communication and financial channel between individual borrowers and lenders. The various Social Lending transaction schemes could be subject to multiple security threats, in both financial and technical terms, which could affect the integrity of the service as well as the trust of citizens. This paper provides an overview of the basic characteristics of Social Lending as well as an analysis the potential security issues suggesting some appropriate corrective measures. The ultimate target is to enforce the Social Lending effort with an information security foundation that could become an appreciable alternative to the "traditional" lending system.

  19. Social Security and Part-Time Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euzeby, Alain

    1988-01-01

    Discusses rules governing social security and their implications for part-time employees in various countries. Topics include (1) methods of financing social security, (2) benefits, (3) measures concerning the unemployed, (4) a floor for employers' contributions, (5) graduated contribution rates, and (6) financial incentives. (CH)

  20. Social Security and the Question of Inequities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Elizabeth M.; Parkay, Kristin Kline

    1981-01-01

    Examines the Social Security benefit inequities between male and female workers and between one- and two-earner families and traces the cause of such disparities. Discusses the evolution of today's Social Security System and presents two proposals for a possible reform of the system. (CT)

  1. 76 FR 45309 - Social Security Ruling 11-1p; Titles II and XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling 11-1p; Titles II and XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for Disability Benefits AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  2. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  3. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 16.53 Section 16.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that...

  4. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 16.53 Section 16.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that...

  5. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 16.53 Section 16.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that...

  6. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 16.53 Section 16.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that...

  7. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 16.53 Section 16.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that...

  8. Old-age, survivors, and disability insurance and Supplemental Security Income for the aged, blind, and disabled; substantial gainful activity amounts; "services" for trial work period purposes--monthly amounts; student child earned income exclusion. Social Security Administration. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2000-12-29

    We are revising the rules to automatically adjust each year, based on any increases in the national average wage index, the average monthly earnings guideline we use to determine whether work done by persons with impairments other than blindness is substantial gainful activity; provide that we will ordinarily find that an employee whose average monthly earnings are not greater than the "primary substantial gainful activity amount," has not engaged in substantial gainful activity without considering other information beyond the employee's earnings; increase the minimum amount of monthly earnings and the minimum number of self-employed work hours in month that we consider shows that a person receiving title II Social Security benefits based on disability is performing or has performed "services" during a trial work period, and automatically adjust the earnings amount each year thereafter; increase the maximum monthly and yearly Student Earned Income Exclusion amounts we use in determining Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program eligibility and payment amounts for student children, and automatically adjust the monthly and yearly exclusion amounts each year thereafter. We are revising these rules as part of our efforts to encourage individuals with disabilities to test their ability to work and keep working. We expect that these changes will provide greater incentives for many beneficiaries to attempt to work or, if already working, to continue to work or increase their work effort. PMID:11503739

  9. Social security reform ideas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Noriyasu

    2002-01-01

    Japan has a complex social security system. This article discusses the demographic and economic situation in Japan as background for understanding the setting in which the social security system functions. Japan has a three-pillar system for retirement income. The first pillar is the social security pension plan; the second pillar is the voluntary occupational pension plan; and the third pillar is personal savings, including the personal pension plan. The most important part of the retirement income system is the social security pension plan, which paid benefits accounting for 64% of the total income of elderly households in 1998. The five Employees' Pension Plans are established on a compulsory social insurance basis. Most large Japanese employers have a mandatory retirement age. Over 90% of all employees, including public sector ones, must retire from their career jobs at age 60. PMID:12503331

  10. 28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.23 Use and disclosure of social... provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his or her social security number....

  11. 28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.23 Use and disclosure of social... provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his or her social security number....

  12. Security administration plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-09-29

    This document encompasses and standardizes the integrated approach for security within the PP and Ps applications, It also identifies the security tools and methods to be used. The Security Administration Plan becomes effective as of this document`s acceptance and will provide guidance through implementation efforts and, as a ``living document`` will support the operations and maintenance of the system.

  13. 29 CFR 70.54 - Employee Benefits Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Benefits Security Administration, Public Documents Room, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210. ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employee Benefits Security Administration. 70.54 Section 70.54 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION OR MATERIALS...

  14. 29 CFR 70.54 - Employee Benefits Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Benefits Security Administration, Public Documents Room, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210. ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Employee Benefits Security Administration. 70.54 Section 70.54 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION OR MATERIALS...

  15. 29 CFR 70.54 - Employee Benefits Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Employee Benefits Security Administration. 70.54 Section 70... Records and Filings 70.54 Employee Benefits Security Administration. (a) The annual financial reports (Form 5500) and attachments/schedules as filed by employee benefit plans under the Employee...

  16. Social Security for Composers and Free Lances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossel-Majdan, Karl

    1982-01-01

    Internationally, cultural policies are tending toward increased socioeconomic and legal support for creative artists. Austrian cultural policies which encourage art and cultural professional organizations, increased copyright protection, and greater social security for free-lance artists are discussed. (AM)

  17. Career Socialization of Women in School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine

    This paper describes research that attempted to discover and describe the socialization process in school administrative careers that support or hinder women's decision-making for a career in school administration. After a theoretical framework was set up, twenty-five successful women administrators were interviewed and the data were analyzed. One…

  18. Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Ida C.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the resources devoted by the United States to public social welfare programs. Compares these expenditures with those by other industrial nations and notes possible future trends. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  19. Nurses' perceptions of administrative social support.

    PubMed

    Ihlenfeld, J T

    1996-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 125 nurses in three types of nursing roles investigated whether these nurses received social support from their administrators, the types of social support received, and whether more or less social support from these managers was desired. The Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS) was used to assess these questions. Results showed that home health nurses received social participation and physical assistance, whereas staff nurses received positive feedback and physical assistance. Nursing faculty received little support from their managers. Social exchange theory predicts that intangibles such as social support should exist in equitable relationships. It is possible that the difference in the nurses' and administrators' statuses and power levels affected staff nurses' results. Mental health clinical nurse specialists can use these results to help nurses understand their work relationships. PMID:8920344

  20. Developments and trends in Social Security, 1990-1992: overview of principal trends.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, D D

    1992-01-01

    The article that follows is a reprint of Part I of a report presented by Dalmer D. Hoskins, Secretary General of the International Social Security Association (ISSA), to the organization's XXIVth General Assembly (November 1992, Acapulco). It identifies and interprets the major trends currently influencing the evolution of social security programs around the world, and analyzes these developments against the backdrop of the current economic, demographic, and social environment in which these programs operate. (Part II of the report analyzes the changes according to each major branch of social security; an annex to the report provides more detailed information and source citations in reference to these changes.) The ISSA is a nongovernmental international organization headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. It is made up of 321 social security-related institutions, including the U.S. Social Security Administration, in 122 countries. The Association's aim is to protect, promote, and develop social security worldwide. PMID:1300641

  1. Organizational Policy and Women's Socialization in Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine

    1981-01-01

    Describes research in the process of decision making and socialization in the careers of women administrators. Shows how organizational policies and career norms affect women's incentives and opportunities for training. Suggests that contraditions of feminine and administrator roles and norms often lead to strain, and sometimes failure.…

  2. Social Justice and Educational Administration: Mutually Exclusive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpinski, Carol F.; Lugg, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore some of the current tensions within educational administration in the USA and conclude with a few cautions for educators who engage in social justice projects. Design/methodology/approach: Using a selective case, this historical essay examines the issues of social justice and equity as they have…

  3. International social security agreements: the U.S. experience.

    PubMed

    Butcher, P; Erdos, J

    1988-09-01

    International social security agreements are advantageous both for persons who are working now and for those whose working careers are over. For current workers, the agreements eliminate the dual contributions they might otherwise be paying to the social security systems of both the United States and another country. They also favorably affect the profitability and competitive position of American companies with foreign operations by reducing their cost of doing business. For persons who have worked both in the United States and abroad, and who are now retired, disabled, or deceased, the agreements often result in the payment of benefits to which the worker or the worker's family members would not otherwise have become entitled. Credit for social security coverage the worker earned in the United States and the other country can be combined, if necessary, to meet eligibility requirements, and partial benefits can be paid by one or both countries. Because international social security agreements benefit both workers and employers, the agreements program is supported by organized labor and the international business community. Since the first agreement was signed 15 years ago, every Presidential administration has endorsed the program. In view of this support, and the fact that the agreements enhance the image of the United States as a socially progressive member of the international community, it is expected that totalization agreements will be concluded with additional countries in the future. PMID:3187855

  4. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    PubMed

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  5. Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.

    PubMed

    Galasso, V

    Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the product of the joint employer/employee Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) tax rate and employee earnings. Data on actual contributions are available for median voters in the 1964 to 1976 elections; Social Security Administration (SSA) estimates are used for future tax rates and average wage growth rates. Data on actual old-age, retirement, and survivor benefits, as well as estimates of future benefits, are also available from SSA. Analysis of ex-post returns from "investing" in Social Security and from a buy-and-hold strategy applied to three alternative assets--the Standard & Poor's Composite Index (S&P), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), and U.S. government bonds--shows surprising results. In 1964 and 1968, Social Security largely outperformed the other three assets. In 1972, Social Security and the stock market performed almost equally. In 1976, however, the median voter would have been better off in the stock market. The expected returns for median voters in later elections cannot be directly compared with realized returns from alternative assets. However, estimates range from 5.7 percent in 1984 to 7.0 percent in 1996 and thus compare favorably with average returns of 5.6 percent for S&P, 5.3 percent for DJIA, and 2.1 percent for government bonds over the 1964-1996 period. Although these findings must be taken with caution since they compare ex-post returns, they show that, despite a continuous reduction in profitability, Social Security still represents a safe, high-return asset for a majority of families. PMID:12428510

  6. Job Security for Administrators in the California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Ron

    There is limited security in terms of employment with California community colleges. This paper addresses both the rights of administrators to continued, long-term employment, and the obligations of a college district to continue employment of an administrator. Following an introduction on turnover, discrimination, categories, and regulations of…

  7. Retirement and Social Security. National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Richard; And Others

    The social security system in the United States is becoming increasingly unstable, as the amount of benefits paid to an ever larger number of retirees grows and the number of younger workers paying taxes to the system decreases. The problem will become especially acute in the years 2011 and after, as the members of the "baby boom" generation begin…

  8. Social Security Benefits for Students. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Congressional Budget Office.

    During the fiscal year 1976, outlays for social security student benefits made it the second largest federal program for direct aid to students (second to the Veterans' Readjustment Benefits). Benefits paid on account of a dependent child normally end on a child's eighteenth birthday; but 1965 legislation extended coverage to 18-to-21-year-old…

  9. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    PubMed

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system. PMID:12320521

  10. Administrators' Personal and Social Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindle, Jane Clark; Miller, Linda Demarco

    This study maintains that social support systems alleviate the physical and psychological effects of stress; however, the school administrator often has no peers in the same building and therefore stands apart from any of the built in support systems developed by the subculture within his school. Further, as discovered through interviews with 35…

  11. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  12. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  13. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Employment § 273.6 Social security numbers. (a) Requirements for participation. The State agency shall... State agency with the social security number (SSN) of each household member or apply for one before... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Social security numbers. 273.6 Section...

  14. 4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Social Security number. 83.9 Section 83.9 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.9 Social Security number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN)...

  15. 4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social Security number. 83.9 Section 83.9 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.9 Social Security number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN)...

  16. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section... REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to...' refusal to disclose their social security numbers, except where: (1) The disclosure is required by law;...

  17. 42 CFR 408.43 - Deduction from social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deduction from social security benefits. 408.43... § 408.43 Deduction from social security benefits. SSA, acting as CMS's agent, deducts the premiums from the monthly social security benefits if the enrollee is not entitled to railroad retirement...

  18. 42 CFR 408.43 - Deduction from social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deduction from social security benefits. 408.43... § 408.43 Deduction from social security benefits. SSA, acting as CMS's agent, deducts the premiums from the monthly social security benefits if the enrollee is not entitled to railroad retirement...

  19. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section... REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to...' refusal to disclose their social security numbers, except where: (1) The disclosure is required by law;...

  20. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social security number required. 209.3... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is...

  1. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number required. 209.3... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is...

  2. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Social security number required. 209.3... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is...

  3. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social security number required. 209.3 Section... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is...

  4. 77 FR 54646 - Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 12-1(8); Correction; Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 12-1(8); Correction; Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633... the Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP)--Title II of the Social Security Act AGENCY: Social...

  5. 77 FR 58604 - Social Security Ruling (SSR), 12-1p; Title II: Determining Whether Work Performed in Self...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling (SSR), 12-1p; Title II: Determining Whether Work Performed in Self..., Commissioner of Social Security. Policy Interpretation Ruling Title II: Determining whether work performed in... social programs to be SGA. See 20 CFR 404.1572. Policy Interpretation: For work activity performed...

  6. NNSA Administrator Looks to Future of Nuclear Security at STRATCOM Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    Administrator Thomas P. DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) discusses the future of the Nuclear Security Enterprise and its strategic deterrence mission in light of President Obamas unprecedented nuclear security agenda.

  7. Energy Relations in Russia: Administration, Politics and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarychev, Andrey

    2005-01-01

    This chapter analyses energy relations through a prism of three interlinked concepts: administration, politics and security. This triad describes the basic approaches to questions about technical, politicised and securitised energy. These three concepts are logically linked to one another and represent an elementary matrix; a prism through which…

  8. Social Security: New Functional Assessments for Children Raise Eligibility Questions. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report to Congress examines the Social Security Administration's approach to assessing children's impairments through the individualized functional assessment (IFA) process mandated by the Supreme Court in Sullivan v. Zebley. Specifically, the report assesses the IFA's impact on number of Supplemental Security Income recipients, IFA's…

  9. Social security: the Ponzi path to dystopia.

    PubMed

    Simcox, D

    1998-10-01

    This article challenges the Ben Wattenberg view that Social Security solvency in the US is related to population growth. Population growth would only delay the problem and future sustainability and aggravate demographic and environmental conditions. The Social Security Trust Fund needs a remedy before 2013 and 2032. Revenues will only pay for 70-77% of benefits paid out to the elderly. Population size would need to increase by an additional 200 million to reach 600 million by 2050 in order to balance the ratio of workers to elderly. In 2013, 22.2% of immigrants and 19.1% of native population will be aged 65 years and older. The author shows population projections to 2050 to show the impact of increased immigration and a 4:1 ratio of working age to elderly persons. The pace of growth and the size of the growth would strain social resources, management ability, and infrastructure. Immigrants' low wages would not satisfy the trust income deficit. A doubling of the immigrant labor force by 2040 would also require an additional capital investment of over $20 trillion for equipment and training. The tripling of new immigrants since 1995 could increase immigration of aged parents. Solvency may be reached through policy shifts that would encourage more women to work for longer periods, eliminate pronatalist taxes, limit immigration to under 200,000 yearly, deter non-self-sufficient, unproductive immigrants, restrict immigration of those aged over 50 years, end evasion of Social Security taxes in the informal economy, charge user fees for sponsorship or employment of foreign workers, and deny retirement credits for those ineligible to work in the US. Policies should allow seniors to work. PMID:12178985

  10. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  11. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  12. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  13. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  14. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 700.25 Section 700.25 Judicial Administration OFFICE OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL PRODUCTION OR... January 1, 1975, shall take steps to revise the system to avoid future collection and use of the...

  15. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 700.25 Section 700.25 Judicial Administration OFFICE OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL PRODUCTION OR... January 1, 1975, shall take steps to revise the system to avoid future collection and use of the...

  16. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 700.25 Section 700.25 Judicial Administration OFFICE OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL PRODUCTION OR... January 1, 1975, shall take steps to revise the system to avoid future collection and use of the...

  17. 28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security numbers. 802.23 Section 802.23 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR..., State, or local agency maintaining a system of records in existence and operating before January 1,...

  18. 28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security numbers. 802.23 Section 802.23 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR..., State, or local agency maintaining a system of records in existence and operating before January 1,...

  19. 28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security numbers. 802.23 Section 802.23 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR..., State, or local agency maintaining a system of records in existence and operating before January 1,...

  20. 36 CFR 1202.22 - Will NARA need my Social Security Number?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will NARA need my Social... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Collecting Information § 1202.22 Will NARA need my Social Security Number? (a) Before a NARA employee or NARA contractor asks you...

  1. 42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of social security number. 435.910 Section 435... of social security number. (a) The agency must require, as a condition of eligibility, that each individual (including children) requesting Medicaid services furnish each of his or her social...

  2. 42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of social security number. 435.910 Section 435... of social security number. (a) The agency must require, as a condition of eligibility, that each individual (including children) requesting Medicaid services furnish each of his or her social...

  3. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  4. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  5. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social security number required. 209.3 Section 209.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social...

  6. Two RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Chung; Lo, Nai-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Chen

    2012-10-01

    Medication error can easily cause serious health damage to inpatients in hospital. Consequently, the whole society has to spend huge amount of extra resources for additional therapies and medication on those affected inpatients. In order to prevent medication errors, secure inpatient medication administration system is required in a hospital. Using RFID technology, such administration system provides automated medication verification for inpatient's medicine doses and generates corresponding medication evidence, which may be audited later for medical dispute. Recently, Peris-Lopez et al. (Int. J. Med. Inform., 2011) proposed an IS-RFID system to enhance inpatient medication safety. Nevertheless, IS-RFID system does not detect the denial of proof attack efficiently and the generated medication evidence cannot defend against counterfeit evidence generated from the hospital. That is, the hospital possesses enough privilege from the design of IS-RFID system to modify generated medication evidence whenever it is necessary. Hence, we design two lightweight RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration, one for online verification environment and the other for offline validation situation, to achieve system security on evidence generation and provide early detection on denial of proof attack. PMID:21732130

  7. 78 FR 17744 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Federal Register on February 20, 2013. (78 FR 11939). On page 11940, in the first column, under the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1407 - When railroad retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When railroad retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits. 404.1407 Section 404.1407 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Interrelationship of...

  9. Correlation Analysis of Cultural Development and Social Security in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, K.; Alizadeh, H.; Meshkini, A.; Kohsari, M. J.

    In recent years, politicians have paid more attention to planning methods considering environmental, economical, social and cultural potentials of place. According to general principles and experiences has been achieved by the developed countries, there is a direct link between social security and cultural development. Where the society and region is culturally more developed, social security level is higher and vice versa. Considering this leading point, this research aims to establish a rational correlation between the provinces of Iran considering cultural development ranking and social security levels using planning models and analysis. To reach this goal, different variables in various sectors such as physical, social, economical, etc. were classified leading to developmental indicators of the provinces in the related sectors. In addition to this, many variables concerning the social security levels in provinces such as homicide, robbery, suicide, etc. were also classified to identify the social security level in each province. According to the results, more culturally developed and wealthier provinces, like Tehran, Khorasan, Fars, have lower social security degree and less culturally developed provinces, like Sistan va Baloochestan, Kurdistan, Elam have higher social security level. In other words, the mentioned principle, the correlation between social security and cultural development, does not work in the same direction in Iranian context.

  10. 42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... non-work reason in accordance with 20 CFR 422.104; or (iii) Refuses to obtain an SSN because of well... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of social security number. 435.910 Section 435... of social security number. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, the agency...

  11. 42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... non-work reason in accordance with 20 CFR 422.104; or (iii) Refuses to obtain an SSN because of well... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of social security number. 435.910 Section 435... of social security number. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, the agency...

  12. 42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... only be issued an SSN for a valid non-work reason in accordance with 20 CFR 422.104; or (iii) Refuses... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of social security number. 435.910 Section 435... of social security number. (a) The agency must require, as a condition of eligibility, that...

  13. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Social security numbers. 273.6 Section 273.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Education and Employment § 273.6 Social security...

  14. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Social security numbers. 273.6 Section 273.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Education and Employment § 273.6 Social security...

  15. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 806b.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... Social Security Number and the Air Force uses it to verify a person's identity in a system of records established before that date. (a) The Air Force requests an individual's Social Security Number and...

  16. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 806b.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... Social Security Number and the Air Force uses it to verify a person's identity in a system of records established before that date. (a) The Air Force requests an individual's Social Security Number and...

  17. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 806b.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... Social Security Number and the Air Force uses it to verify a person's identity in a system of records established before that date. (a) The Air Force requests an individual's Social Security Number and...

  18. Social Security: Strengthening a Vital Safety Net for Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Since 1935, Social Security has provided a vital safety net for millions of Americans who cannot work because of age or disability. This safety net has been especially critical for Americans of Latino decent, who number more than 50 million or nearly one out of every six Americans. Social Security is critical to Latinos because it is much more

  19. Social Security: Strengthening a Vital Safety Net for Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Since 1935, Social Security has provided a vital safety net for millions of Americans who cannot work because of age or disability. This safety net has been especially critical for Americans of Latino decent, who number more than 50 million or nearly one out of every six Americans. Social Security is critical to Latinos because it is much more…

  20. Uncovered: Social Security, Retirement Uncertainty, and 1 Million Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Leslie; Aldeman, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Retirement savings are often described as a three-legged stool: Social Security, employer retirement plans, and personal savings. For many American workers, Social Security is the most consistent portion of the three-legged model, providing a solid plank of retirement savings. But nationwide, more than 1 million teachers--about 40 percent of all…

  1. The Social Security Earnings Test and Work Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The labor supply and benefit claiming incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, the labor force participation of Older Americans rises, and a variety of reforms to the Social Security system are considered. Any…

  2. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What the social security overall minimum... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined § 229.10 What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. The social security...

  3. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What the social security overall minimum... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined § 229.10 What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. The social security...

  4. 77 FR 51842 - Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 12-X(8); Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633 (8th Cir. 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 12-X(8); Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633 (8th Cir. 2011... Security. Acquiescence Ruling 12-X(8) Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633 (8th Cir. 2011): Whether a...

  5. 13 CFR 102.35 - Use and collection of Social Security Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. 102.35 Section 102.35 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of...

  6. 13 CFR 102.35 - Use and collection of Social Security Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. 102.35 Section 102.35 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of...

  7. 13 CFR 102.35 - Use and collection of Social Security Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. 102.35 Section 102.35 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of...

  8. Social Security and the Changing Roles of Men and Women (A Summary). NEA Research Memo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spice, Byron L.

    This document is a summary of the longer document of the same name which was published by the Social Security Administration in response to the changes in American society that have made the traditional male/female roles of lifelong worker/lifelong homemaker no longer representative. The study focused on such issues as dependent's benefits and…

  9. Representation at a Social Security Hearing: Focus on Disability: Advocate's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Terrence M.; Villmoare, Edwin

    The handbook is part of a series on legal services for the elderly which can be provided by senior citizens functioning as paralegals. It is designed to teach paralegals to represent claimants at a Social Security administrative hearing. The handbook is designed to serve the following purposes: (1) to present major legal concepts governing the…

  10. Benefit adequacy among elderly Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries and the SSI federal benefit rate.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul; Sears, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Both target effectiveness and administrative simplicity are desirable properties in the design of minimum benefit packages for public retirement programs. The federal benefit rate (FBR) of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has been proposed by some analysts as a potentially attractive basis of establishing a new minimum benefit for Social Security on both of these grounds. This type of proposal is related to a broader array of minimum benefit proposals that would establish a Social Security benefit floor based on the poverty rate. In contrast to Social Security, the SSI program is means tested, including both an income and asset screen and also a categorical eligibility screen (the requirement to qualify as aged or disabled). The SSI FBR provides an inflation-adjusted, guaranteed income floor for aged and disabled people with low assets. The FBR has been perceived by proponents as a minimal measure of Social Security benefit adequacy because it represents a subpoverty income level for a family of one or two depending on marital status. For this same reason it has been seen as a target-effective tool of designing a minimum Social Security benefit. An FBR-based minimum benefit has also been viewed as administratively simple to implement; the benefit can be calculated from Social Security administrative records using a completely automated electronic process. Therefore-in contrast to the SSI program itself-an FBR-based minimum benefit would incur virtually no ongoing administrative costs, would not require a separate application for a means-tested program, and would avoid the perception of welfare stigma. While these ideas have been discussed in the literature and among policymakers in the United States over the years, and similar proposals have been considered or implemented in several foreign countries, there have been no previous analyses measuring the size of the potentially affected beneficiary population. Nor has there been any systematic assessment of the FBR as a measure of benefit adequacy or the tradeoffs between potential target effectiveness and administrative simplicity. Based on a series of simulations, we assess the FBR as a potential foundation for minimum Social Security benefits and we examine the tradeoffs between administrative simplicity and target effectiveness using microdata from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our empirical analysis is limited to Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries aged 65 or older. We start with the assessment of the FBR as a measure of benefit adequacy. We are particularly concerned about two types of error: (1) incorrectly identifying some Social Security beneficiaries as "economically vulnerable," and (2) incorrectly identifying others as "not economically vulnerable." Operationally we measure economic vulnerability by two alternative standards. One of our measures considers beneficiaries with family income below the official poverty threshold as vulnerable. Our second measure is more restrictive; it uses a family income threshold equal to 75 percent of the official poverty threshold. We find that a substantial minority of retired workers have Social Security benefits below the FBR. The results also show that the FBR-based measure of Social Security benefit adequacy is very imprecise in terms of identifying economically vulnerable people. We estimate that the vast majority of beneficiaries with Social Security benefits below the FBR are not economically vulnerable. Conversely, an FBR-level Social Security benefit threshold fails to identify some beneficiaries who are economically vulnerable. Thus an FBR-level minimum benefit would be poorly targeted in terms of both types of errors we are concerned about. An FBR-level minimum benefit would provide minimum Social Security benefits to many people who are clearly not poor. Conversely, an FBR-level minimum benefit would not provide any income relief to some who are poor. The administrative simplicity behind these screening errors also results in additional program cost that may be perceived as substantial. We estimate that an FBR-level minimum benefit would increase aggregate program cost for retired workers aged 65 or older by roughly 2 percent. There are two fundamental reasons for these findings. First, the concept of an FBR-level minimum benefit looks at the individual or married couple in artificial isolation; however, the family is the main consumption unit in our society. The income of an unmarried partner or family members other than a married spouse is ignored. Second, individuals and couples may also have income from sources other than Social Security or SSI, which is also ignored by a simple FBR-based minimum benefit concept. The substantial empirical magnitude of measurement error arising from these conceptual simplifications naturally leads to the assessment of the tradeoff between target effectiveness and administrative simplicity. To facilitate this analysis, we simulate the potential effect of alternative screening methods designed to increase target effectiveness; while reducing program cost, such alternatives also may increase administrative complexity. For example, considering the combined Social Security benefit of a married couple (rather than looking at the husband and wife in isolation) might substantially increase target effectiveness with a relatively small increase in administrative complexity. Adding a family income screen might increase administrative complexity to a greater degree, but also would increase target effectiveness dramatically. The results also suggest that at some point adding new screens-such as a comprehensive asset test-may drastically increase administrative complexity with diminishing returns in terms of increased target effectiveness and reduced program cost. Whether a broad-based minimum benefit concept that is not tied to previous work experience is perceived by policymakers as desirable or not may depend on several factors not addressed in this article. However, to the extent that this type of minimum benefit design is regarded as potentially desirable, the tradeoffs between administrative simplicity and target effectiveness need to be considered. PMID:18605217

  11. Associations between Attachment Security and Social Competence in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theorists suggest that attachment security with parents supports the quality of social adaptation in peer groups during early childhood, and numerous studies supporting this conjecture have been published. Most of these studies used enacted representations rather than mental representations of attachment security, and most studies…

  12. Population dynamics: Social security, markets, and families

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ronald D.; Lee, Sang-Hyop

    2015-01-01

    Upward intergenerational flows – from the working ages to old age – are increasing substantially in the advanced industrialized countries and are much larger than in developing countries. Population aging is the most important factor leading to this change. Thus, in the absence of a major demographic shift, e.g., a return to high fertility, an increase in upward flows is inevitable. Even so, three other important factors will influence the magnitudes of upward flows. First, labor income varies at older ages due to differences in average age at retirement, productivity, unemployment, and hours worked. Second, the age patterns of consumption at older ages vary primarily due to differences in spending on health. Third, spending on human capital, i.e., spending child health and education, varies. Human capital spending competes with spending on the elderly, but it also increases the productivity of subsequent generations of workers and the resources available to support consumption in old age. All contemporary societies rely on a variety of institutions and economic mechanisms to shift economic resources from the working ages to the dependent ages – the young and the old. Three institutions dominate intergenerational flows: governments which implement social security, education, and other public transfer programs; markets which are key to the accumulation of assets, e.g., funded pensions and housing; and families which provide economic support to children in all societies and to the elderly in many. The objectives of this paper are, first, to describe how population aging and other changes influence the direction and magnitude of intergenerational flows; and, second, to contrast the institutional approaches to intergenerational flows as they are practiced around the world. The paper relies extensively on National Transfer Accounts, a system for measuring economic flows across age in a manner consistent with the UN System of National Accounts. These accounts are currently being constructed by research teams located in 33 countries on six continents representing wide variations in the level of development, demographics, and policies regarding intergenerational transfers. PMID:26316657

  13. A Game-Theoretical Approach to Multimedia Social Networks Security

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226

  14. A game-theoretical approach to multimedia social networks security.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226

  15. Privacy in confidential administrative micro data: implementing statistical disclosure control in a secure computing environment.

    PubMed

    Hochfellner, Daniela; Müller, Dana; Schmucker, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    The demand for comprehensive and innovative data is constantly growing in social science. In particular, micro data from various social security agencies become more and more attractive. In contrast to survey data, administrative data offer a census with highly reliable information but are restricted in their usage. To make them accessible for researchers, data or research output either have to be anonymized or released after disclosure review procedures have been used. This article discusses the trade-off between maintaining a high capability of research potential while protecting private information, by exploiting the data disclosure portfolio and the adopted disclosure strategies of the Research Data Center of the German Federal Employment Agency. PMID:25747686

  16. Social Education and Its Administration in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Tokyo (Japan).

    Japanese social education covers all aspects of life, including out-of-school education for children, parents' education in connection with education in the home, etc., from a viewpoint of life-long education. Both governmental and nongovernmental agencies are concerned with the programs. Personnel who are most involved with social education are…

  17. The future financial status of the Social Security program.

    PubMed

    Goss, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of solvency, sustainability, and budget impact are common in discussions of Social Security, but are not well understood. Currently, the Social Security Board of Trustees projects program cost to rise by 2035 so that taxes will be enough to pay for only 75 percent of scheduled benefits. This increase in cost results from population aging, not because we are living longer, but because birth rates dropped from three to two children per woman. Importantly, this shortfall is basically stable after 2035; adjustments to taxes or benefits that offset the effects of the lower birth rate may restore solvency for the Social Security program on a sustainable basis for the foreseeable future. Finally, as Treasury debt securities (trust fund assets) are redeemed in the future, they will just be replaced with public debt. If trust fund assets are exhausted without reform, benefits will necessarily be lowered with no effect on budget deficits. PMID:20737861

  18. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... participating or applying for participation in the Food Stamp Program provide the State agency with the social... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 273.6 Section 273.6... AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.6...

  19. Identifying the Enemy: Social Categorization and National Security Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Kristene

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to understand the interplay between informal articulations of social categories and formal instantiations of those categories in official language. Specifically, it explores the process of social categorization as it is used to identify threats to national security. The research employed a qualitative, document-based,…

  20. Alternate measures of replacement rates for social security benefits and retirement income.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Andrew G; Springstead, Glenn R

    2008-01-01

    Discussions of retirement planning and Social Security policy often focus on replacement rates, which represent retirement income or Social Security benefits relative to preretirement earnings. Replacement rates are a rule of thumb designed to simplify the process of smoothing consumption over individuals' lifetimes. Despite their widespread use, however, there is no common means of measuring replacement rates. Various measures of preretirement earnings mean that the denominators used in replacement rate calculations are often inconsistent and can lead to confusion. Whether a given replacement rate represents an adequate retirement income depends on whether the denominator in the replacement rate calculation is an appropriate measure of preretirement earnings. This article illustrates replacement rates using four measures of preretirement earnings: final earnings; the constant income payable from the present value (PV) of lifetime earnings (PV payment); the wage-indexed average of all earnings prior to claiming Social Security benefits; and the inflation-adjusted average of all earnings prior to claiming Social Security benefits (consumer price index (CPI) average). The article then measures replacement rates against a sample of the Social Security beneficiary population using the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) microsimulation model. Replacement rates are shown based on Social Security benefits alone, to indicate the adequacy of the current benefit structure, as well as on total retirement income including defined benefit pensions and financial assets, to indicate total preparedness for retirement. The results show that replacement rates can vary considerably based on the definition of preretirement earnings used and whether replacement rates are measured on an individual or a shared basis. For current new retirees, replacement rates based on all sources of retirement income seem strong by most measures and are projected to remain so as these individuals age. For new retirees in 2040, replacement rates are projected to be lower, though still adequate on average based on most common benchmarks. PMID:19102135

  1. 29 CFR 2590.606-4 - Notice requirements for plan administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Social Security Administration, under title II or XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et... disability by the Social Security Administration regarding a covered employee, qualified beneficiary,...

  2. 29 CFR 2590.606-4 - Notice requirements for plan administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Social Security Administration, under title II or XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et... disability by the Social Security Administration regarding a covered employee, qualified beneficiary,...

  3. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security...

  4. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security...

  5. 12 CFR 792.68 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... Act § 792.68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of each NCUA Office shall take... furnish Social Security numbers, and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security...

  6. 20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is paid social security benefits by the... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. The following individuals, if entitled to social security...

  7. 12 CFR 792.68 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... Act § 792.68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of each NCUA Office shall take... furnish Social Security numbers, and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security...

  8. 20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is paid social security benefits by the... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. The following individuals, if entitled to social security...

  9. Social Work Values in Human Services Administration: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The perceived wisdom in the social work education community, based on empirical research from the 1990s and the early part of this century, says that the master of social work (MSW) degree is not competitive with the master of business administration or the master of public administration to obtain top-level administration jobs in nonprofit

  10. Social Work Values in Human Services Administration: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The perceived wisdom in the social work education community, based on empirical research from the 1990s and the early part of this century, says that the master of social work (MSW) degree is not competitive with the master of business administration or the master of public administration to obtain top-level administration jobs in nonprofit…

  11. National Nuclear Security Administration Knowledge Base Core Table Schema Document

    SciTech Connect

    CARR,DORTHE B.

    2002-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration is creating a Knowledge Base to store technical information to support the United States nuclear explosion monitoring mission. This document defines the core database tables that are used in the Knowledge Base. The purpose of this document is to present the ORACLE database tables in the NNSA Knowledge Base that on modifications to the CSS3.0 Database Schema developed in 1990. (Anderson et al., 1990). These modifications include additional columns to the affiliation table, an increase in the internal ORACLE format from 8 integers to 9 integers for thirteen IDs, and new primary and unique key definitions for six tables. It is intended to be used as a reference by researchers inside and outside of NNSA/DOE as they compile information to submit to the NNSA Knowledge Base. These ''core'' tables are separated into two groups. The Primary tables are dynamic and consist of information that can be used in automatic and interactive processing (e.g. arrivals, locations). The Lookup tables change infrequently and are used for auxiliary information used by the processing. In general, the information stored in the core tables consists of: arrivals; events, origins, associations of arrivals; magnitude information; station information (networks, site descriptions, instrument responses); pointers to waveform data; and comments pertaining to the information. This document is divided into four sections, the first being this introduction. Section two defines the sixteen tables that make up the core tables of the NNSA Knowledge Base database. Both internal (ORACLE) and external formats for the attributes are defined, along with a short description of each attribute. In addition, the primary, unique and foreign keys are defined. Section three of the document shows the relationships between the different tables by using entity-relationship diagrams. The last section, defines the columns or attributes of the various tables. Information that is included is the Not Applicable (NA) value, the format of the data and the applicable range for the attribute.

  12. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. Participants The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1 022 779 Social Security members: 840 770 (82.2%) contributors and 182 009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. Findings to date The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Future plans Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of the cohort with mortality registries. PMID:26951209

  13. Network Security: What Non-Technical Administrators Must Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    Now it is increasingly critical that community college leaders become involved in network security and partner with their directors of information technology (IT). Network security involves more than just virus protection software and firewalls. It involves vigilance and requires top executive support. Leaders can help their IT directors to…

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Automated Information Security Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Automated Information Security Handbook provides NASA's overall approach to automated information systems security including discussions of such aspects as: program goals and objectives, assignment of responsibilities, risk assessment, foreign national access, contingency planning and disaster recovery, awareness training, procurement, certification, planning, and special considerations for microcomputers.

  15. Network Security: What Non-Technical Administrators Must Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    Now it is increasingly critical that community college leaders become involved in network security and partner with their directors of information technology (IT). Network security involves more than just virus protection software and firewalls. It involves vigilance and requires top executive support. Leaders can help their IT directors to

  16. Population age structure and the size of social security.

    PubMed

    Turner, J A

    1984-04-01

    "This paper uses a general overlapping generations model to analyze social security. Rather than focusing on intertemporal price and income considerations, however, the paper focuses on the effect of contemporaneous (same period) prices and income. The analysis shows that the old-age dependency ratio acts as a shadow price for old-age benefits. With this new shadow price, the equilibrium price and quantity of social security benefits and the level of the payroll tax rate are determined in a demand-supply framework with individual utility maximization. Three explicit demand functions (intergenerational contracts) are analyzed. The model is tested using [U.S.] time series data for the social security Old-Age and Survivors (OASI) program." PMID:12279781

  17. 26 CFR 301.6521-1 - Mitigation of effect of limitation in case of related employee social security tax and self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... related employee social security tax and self-employment tax. 301.6521-1 Section 301.6521-1 Internal... PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6521-1 Mitigation of effect of limitation in case of related employee social security tax and self-employment tax. (a)...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6521-1 - Mitigation of effect of limitation in case of related employee social security tax and self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... related employee social security tax and self-employment tax. 301.6521-1 Section 301.6521-1 Internal... PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6521-1 Mitigation of effect of limitation in case of related employee social security tax and self-employment tax. (a)...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6521-1 - Mitigation of effect of limitation in case of related employee social security tax and self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... related employee social security tax and self-employment tax. 301.6521-1 Section 301.6521-1 Internal... PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6521-1 Mitigation of effect of limitation in case of related employee social security tax and self-employment tax. (a)...

  20. Organizational Socialization and the Preparation of Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, William D.

    If educational administration preparation programs are to become more effective, basic premises need changing. Behavioral and social science knowledge must be deliberately included in the design, structure, and utilization of training programs drawing on the theoretical and empirical literature of socialization of adults in complex organizations.…

  1. Male Labor Force Participation and Social Security in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040. PMID:25328441

  2. Lifetime distributional effects of Social Security retirement benefits.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen; Toder, Eric; Iams, Howard

    This article presents three measures of the distribution of actual and projected net benefits (benefits minus payroll taxes) from Social Security's Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) for people born between 1931 and 1960. The results are based on simulations with the Social Security Administration's Model of Income in the Near Term (MINT), which projects retirement income through 2020. The base sample for MINT is the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation panels for 1990 to 1993, matched with Social Security administrative records. The study population is grouped into 5-year birth cohorts and then ranked by economic status in three ways. First, the population is divided into five groups on the basis of individual lifetime covered earnings, and their lifetime present values of OASI benefits received and payroll taxes paid are calculated. By this measure, OASI provides much higher benefits to the lowest quintile of earners than to other groups, but it becomes less redistributive toward lower earners in more recent birth cohorts. Second, people are ranked by shared lifetime covered earnings, and the values of shared benefits received and payroll taxes paid are computed. Individuals are assumed to split covered earnings, benefits, and payroll taxes with their spouses in the years they are married. By the shared covered earnings measure, OASI is still much more favorable to persons in the lower income quintiles, although to a lesser degree than when people are ranked by individual covered earnings. OASI becomes more progressive among recent cohorts, even as net lifetime benefits decline for the entire population. Finally, individuals are ranked on the basis of their shared permanent income from age 62, when they become eligible for early retirement benefits, until death. Their annual Social Security benefits are compared with the benefits they would have received if they had saved their payroll taxes in individual accounts and used the proceeds to buy either of two annuities that provide level payments from age 62 until death: a unisex annuity that is based on the average life expectancy of the birth cohort or an age-adjusted annuity that is based on the worker's own life expectancy. On the permanent income measure, OASI is generally more favorable to people in higher income quintiles. Moreover, it is particularly unfavorable to those in the lowest quintile. Because people in the lowest quintile have a shorter life expectancy, they receive OASI benefits for a shorter period. This group would receive greater benefits in retirement if they invested their payroll taxes in the age-adjusted annuity. OASI is more favorable to them than the unisex annuity, however, OASI is becoming more progressive in that the net benefits it provides drop more rapidly among higher income quintiles than lower ones. This article also examines how OASI affects individuals by educational attainment, race, and sex. On both the lifetime covered earnings and the permanent income measures, OASI is more favorable to workers with less education and more favorable to women. The results by race and ethnicity are mixed. When people are ranked by the present value of their shared lifetime covered earnings, OASI appears more favorable to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics than to non-Hispanic whites. When people are ranked by shared permanent income in retirement, however, OASI produces negative returns for both non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites in the most recent birth cohorts, with non-Hispanic blacks faring relatively worse. The changes across cohorts occur partly because of changes in tax rates and benefits, but more importantly because of changing demographics and earnings patterns of the workforce. Of particular importance is the increasing share of beneficiaries who receive worker benefits instead of auxiliary benefits as wives or widows. OASI benefits are based on the lifetime covered earnings of current or former married couples, as well as on earned retirement benefits of individuals. The reduced importance of auxiliary benefits (due to the higher lifetime covered earnings of women) and the increased proportion of divorced retirees make OASI more progressive--even as net benefits decline--for current and future cohorts than for cohorts who retired in the 1990s. Analysis of these findings suggests that simulations of policy changes in Social Security must take into account the decreasing importance of auxiliary benefits across birth cohorts and the complex changes in individuals' marital histories. PMID:15218634

  3. Security and Privacy in Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutillo, Leucio Antonio; Manulis, Mark; Strufe, Thorsten

    Social Network Services (SNS) are currently drastically revolutionizing the way people interact, thus becoming de facto a predominant service on the web, today.1 The impact of this paradigm change on socioeconomic and technical aspects of collaboration and interaction is comparable to that caused by the deployment of World Wide Web in the 1990s.

  4. Social Control of Administrative Impropriety: An Analysis of College and University Administrators. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Nathaniel J.

    Calls for greater accountability in higher education have prompted responses from most faculty and administrators that self-regulation is the answer. This paper takes a quantitative approach to examining how administrative behavior is regulated, applying a social control perspective to the issues of sanctioning, detecting, and deterring deviance.…

  5. Early retirees under Social Security: health status and economic resources.

    PubMed

    Leonesio, M V; Vaughan, D R; Wixon, B

    2000-01-01

    Some proposals to change the Social Security program to ensure long-run solvency would reduce or eliminate benefits for early retirees. This article documents the health and financial resources of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) beneficiaries aged 62-64. It identifies a substantial minority of early retirees who might be economically vulnerable if either the early eligibility age or normal retirement age was raised. Attention is directed at the extent to which poor health limits work in this age group and the extent to which curtailment of early OASI benefits might lead to increases in the Disability Insurance (DI) program rolls. Using a set of comprehensive health measures, we estimate that over 20 percent of OASI beneficiaries aged 62-64 have health problems that substantially impair their ability to work. This finding implies that in this age range, as many severely disabled persons receive OASI benefits as disability benefits. In fact, 12 percent of early beneficiaries would meet a more stringent criterion for being classified "disabled"--SSA's medical standard for disability benefits. The evidence therefore indicates that OASI functions as a substantial, albeit unofficial, disability program for early retirees. Compared with those who have no health problems or are less severely impaired, early OASI beneficiaries who meet the medical criteria for disability benefits are more likely to be living alone and more likely to be poor or "near poor." The great majority of the group--almost 80 percent--are women. Analysis of their earnings histories suggests that most of these beneficiaries do not satisfy the insured-status requirements for Disability Insurance benefits. The article considers the different roles of the OASI program and the DI program for health-impaired individuals aged 62-64. Disability modelers sometimes overlook an important aspect of program administration. Under customary screening procedures implemented in Social Security field offices, applicants for early OASI benefits who appear to be severely impaired simultaneously apply for DI benefits if they are disability insured. If they are found eligible for DI benefits, those applicants become DI beneficiaries. The implication is that raising the earliest entitlement age would have little impact on the DI rolls. Unless there are changes in eligibility criteria, the DI program would not serve as a safety net for many of the most severely disabled early retirees. PMID:11641984

  6. 78 FR 55270 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-DHS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... for expedited screening at participating airport security checkpoints. This updated system will be... identification of passengers who are eligible for expedited screening at participating airport security... participating airport security checkpoints. \\10\\ ``Sterile area'' means a portion of an airport defined in...

  7. Social Security Disability Insurance: Time for Fundamental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhauser, Richard V.; Daly, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    The Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program is growing at an unsustainable pace. Over the past 40 years the number of disabled worker beneficiaries has increased nearly sixfold, rising from 1.5 million in 1970 to 8.2 million in 2010. Rapid growth in the rolls has put increasing pressure on program finances. The rapid rise in SSDI…

  8. Social Security Disability Insurance: Essential Protection when Work Incapacity Strikes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a…

  9. Caregiver Sensitivity, Contingent Social Responsiveness, and Secure Infant Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Kassow, Danielle Z.

    2008-01-01

    Findings from two research syntheses of the relationship between caregiver sensitivity and secure infant attachment and one research synthesis of factors associated with increased caregiver use of a sensitive interactional style are presented. The main focus of analysis was the extent to which different measures of caregiver contingent social

  10. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Social security numbers. 273.6 Section 273.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Education...

  11. Women and Social Security: Law and Policy in Five Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Dalmer; Bixby, Lenore E.

    An increased interest in the position of women, stimulated by increasing numbers of women in the labor force as well as the women's movement, has resulted in a reexamination of women's status under social security programs in many countries. Five case studies (Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Great Britain, and United States), which…

  12. Social Security Disability Insurance: Essential Protection when Work Incapacity Strikes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a

  13. School Social Work Outcomes: Perspectives of School Social Workers and School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bye, Lynn; Shepard, Melanie; Partridge, Jamie; Alvarez, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    In an era of fiscal constraint and increased accountability, consistent perceptions of the expectations, means of funding, and reporting of outcomes between administrators and school social workers is vital. School social workers and school administrators in four school districts in Minnesota were surveyed regarding outcomes expected as a result…

  14. 5 CFR 839.901 - When will my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously in CSRS during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... corrected coverage will now require me to pay Social Security taxes? 839.901 Section 839.901 Administrative... CSRS during my qualifying retirement coverage error and my corrected coverage will now require me...

  15. 5 CFR 839.901 - When will my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously in CSRS during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... corrected coverage will now require me to pay Social Security taxes? 839.901 Section 839.901 Administrative... CSRS during my qualifying retirement coverage error and my corrected coverage will now require me...

  16. 5 CFR 839.901 - When will my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously in CSRS during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corrected coverage will now require me to pay Social Security taxes? 839.901 Section 839.901 Administrative... CSRS during my qualifying retirement coverage error and my corrected coverage will now require me...

  17. 5 CFR 839.901 - When will my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously in CSRS during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... corrected coverage will now require me to pay Social Security taxes? 839.901 Section 839.901 Administrative... CSRS during my qualifying retirement coverage error and my corrected coverage will now require me...

  18. 5 CFR 839.901 - When will my employer begin withholding Social Security taxes if I was erroneously in CSRS during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... corrected coverage will now require me to pay Social Security taxes? 839.901 Section 839.901 Administrative... CSRS during my qualifying retirement coverage error and my corrected coverage will now require me...

  19. Intranasal administration of oxytocin promotes social play in domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper,1 we examined whether oxytocin in the domestic dog modulates the maintenance of close social bonds in non-reproductive contexts. We found that exogenous oxytocin promotes positive social behaviors not only toward conspecifics, but also toward human partners. Here we examined in further detail the effect that oxytocin manipulation has on social play. When sprayed with oxytocin, subjects initiated play sessions more often and played for longer periods of time than when sprayed with saline. Furthermore, after oxytocin nasal intake dogs displayed play signals more often than after saline administration, suggesting that oxytocin enhances dogs' play motivation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that oxytocin promotes social play in the domestic dog. We use these results to hypothesize on the potential therapeutic use of oxytocin for promoting social behaviors and treating social deficits in the domestic dog. PMID:26478773

  20. Understanding social insurance: fairness, affordability, and the 'modernization' of Social Security and Medicare.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Theodore R; Mashaw, Jerry L

    2006-01-01

    Americans have been urged for several decades to view Social Security and Medicare as political relics--both unaffordable and unfair in light of contemporary demographic and fiscal circumstances and the practices of modern financial markets and modern medicine. Proposals abound for "modernizing" both systems to emphasize choice, competition, and individual ownership. This paper contends that critics of Social Security and Medicare have misanalyzed the problems of both programs and are urging misdirected reforms. The critics, we argue, are often wrong factually and sometimes confused conceptually. More fundamentally, these critiques and proposals are either ignorant of or hostile to the fundamental logic of social insurance. PMID:16551642

  1. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  2. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport... DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and... an Ex-Im Bank transaction, Ex-Im Bank may request social security and/or U.S. passport numbers...

  3. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport... DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and... an Ex-Im Bank transaction, Ex-Im Bank may request social security and/or U.S. passport numbers...

  4. 31 CFR 1.32 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal statute, or (2) The disclosure of a social security number to any Federal, State, or local agency... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general....

  5. 31 CFR 1.32 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal statute, or (2) The disclosure of a social security number to any Federal, State, or local agency... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general....

  6. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b)...

  7. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b)...

  8. Designing a Retirement System for Federal Workers Covered by Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    A study examined principal cost and benefit issues to be resolved in designing a new retirement system for Federal workers covered by Social Security. The new Federal system would be built on the base of Social Security and would take into account the Social Security program's taxes and benefits. The current Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS)…

  9. The Role of Earnings and Financial Risk in Distributional Analyses of Social Security Reform Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The Social Security Trustees project that the Social Security program faces longterm financing difficulties. Several proposals that have been offered to shore-up the finances of the Social Security program would create individual retirement accounts funded with part of the payroll tax. The authors of many of these proposals claim that future…

  10. 24 CFR 201.6 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 201.6 Section 201.6 Housing and Urban Development... HOME LOANS General § 201.6 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  11. 20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How the Board pays social security benefits... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an individual described in § 235.3 of this part is...

  12. 24 CFR 206.40 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 206.40 Section 206.40 Housing and Urban Development... Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.40 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and... verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided by part 200, subpart U,...

  13. 10 CFR 1008.22 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 1008.22... (PRIVACY ACT) Maintenance and Establishment of Systems of Records § 1008.22 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) The System Manager of each system of records which utilizes social security...

  14. 24 CFR 242.68 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Requirements § 242.68 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban...

  15. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  16. 20 CFR 229.55 - Reduction for spouse social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for spouse social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.55 Reduction for spouse social security benefit. A spouse benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  17. 20 CFR 228.19 - Reduction for a social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for a social security benefit. 228... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.19 Reduction for a social security benefit. The tier I annuity component is reduced for the amount of any social security benefit...

  18. 12 CFR 1204.9 - Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does FHFA collect and use Social Security... OPERATIONS PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 1204.9 Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers? FHFA collects Social Security numbers only when it is necessary and authorized. At least annually, the...

  19. 29 CFR 71.12 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12 Section... UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 71.12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component unit that requests an individual to disclose his social security account number shall provide...

  20. 20 CFR 229.56 - Reduction for child's social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for child's social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.56 Reduction for child's social security benefit. A child's benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  1. 24 CFR 232.616 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 232.616 Section 232.616 Housing and Urban... Borrowers § 232.616 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. To... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  2. 20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How the Board pays social security benefits... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an individual described in § 235.3 of this part is...

  3. 24 CFR 242.68 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Requirements § 242.68 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban...

  4. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  5. 20 CFR 229.55 - Reduction for spouse social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for spouse social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.55 Reduction for spouse social security benefit. A spouse benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  6. 12 CFR 1204.9 - Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Does FHFA collect and use Social Security... OPERATIONS PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 1204.9 Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers? FHFA collects Social Security numbers only when it is necessary and authorized. At least annually, the...

  7. 29 CFR 71.12 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12... RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 71.12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component unit that requests an individual to disclose his social security account number...

  8. 10 CFR 1008.22 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 1008.22... (PRIVACY ACT) Maintenance and Establishment of Systems of Records § 1008.22 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) The System Manager of each system of records which utilizes social security...

  9. 38 CFR 3.216 - Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... social security numbers. 3.216 Section 3.216 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 3.216 Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. Any person who applies for or receives..., furnish the Department of Veterans Affairs upon request with his or her social security number and...

  10. 24 CFR 232.616 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 232.616 Section 232.616 Housing and Urban... Borrowers § 232.616 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. To... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  11. 20 CFR 228.19 - Reduction for a social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for a social security benefit. 228... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.19 Reduction for a social security benefit. The tier I annuity component is reduced for the amount of any social security benefit...

  12. 24 CFR 206.40 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 206.40 Section 206.40 Housing and Urban Development... Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.40 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and... verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided by part 200, subpart U,...

  13. 24 CFR 201.6 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 201.6 Section 201.6 Housing and Urban Development... HOME LOANS General § 201.6 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  14. 20 CFR 229.56 - Reduction for child's social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for child's social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.56 Reduction for child's social security benefit. A child's benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  15. 42 CFR 408.46 - Effect of suspension of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of suspension of social security benefits... Benefits § 408.46 Effect of suspension of social security benefits. (a) Benefit payments to be resumed during the taxable year. (1) If social security benefit payments are scheduled to be resumed during...

  16. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport... DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and... an Ex-Im Bank transaction, Ex-Im Bank may request social security and/or U.S. passport numbers...

  17. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport... DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and... an Ex-Im Bank transaction, Ex-Im Bank may request social security and/or U.S. passport numbers...

  18. 41 CFR 105-64.105 - When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When may Social Security...-64.105 When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected? (a) Statutory or regulatory authority must exist for collecting Social Security Numbers for record systems that use the SSNs as a method...

  19. 41 CFR 105-64.105 - When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When may Social Security...-64.105 When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected? (a) Statutory or regulatory authority must exist for collecting Social Security Numbers for record systems that use the SSNs as a method...

  20. 41 CFR 105-64.105 - When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When may Social Security...-64.105 When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected? (a) Statutory or regulatory authority must exist for collecting Social Security Numbers for record systems that use the SSNs as a method...

  1. 41 CFR 105-64.105 - When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When may Social Security...-64.105 When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected? (a) Statutory or regulatory authority must exist for collecting Social Security Numbers for record systems that use the SSNs as a method...

  2. 41 CFR 105-64.105 - When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may Social Security...-64.105 When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected? (a) Statutory or regulatory authority must exist for collecting Social Security Numbers for record systems that use the SSNs as a method...

  3. Studies in Income Distribution. Estimation of Social Security Taxes on the March Current Population Survey. No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Benjamin, Jr.; Johnston, Mary P.

    The impact of the tax-transfer system on the distribution of income among economic units is the subject of a number of studies by the Office of Research and Statistics of the Social Security Administration. One of the most important data sources for the work is the Census Bureau's March Current Population Survey (CPS). To conduct such studies, the…

  4. eHealth in Belgium, a new "secure" federal network: role of patients, health professions and social security services.

    PubMed

    France, Francis Roger

    2011-02-01

    eHealth platform is the official federal network in Belgium (created by law on 21 August 2008) devoted to a secure exchange of health data in many types of applications, such as health care purposes, simplification of administrative procedures and contribution to health policy. It implies a controlled access to decentralized databases and uses encrypted personal data. The national identification number has been chosen in order to authenticate the requester, the patient, and the receiver of information exchange. Authorizations have to be respected in order to obtain personal health data. Several questions are raised about its security: the lack of mandatory request for systematic journaling on accesses to the electronic patient record as well as the absence of explicit procedures for sanctions in case of unauthorized access, the new role of social security administration in managing security where a eHealth manager can be both judge and party (in the function of trusted third party for health data encryption and of a required lawyer for texts proposed by physicians to the Commission for the protection of private life). Another critic concerns the number of physicians in minority and the absence of patients' delegates in the eHealth Board. At a time when the patient is becoming a partner in the care team, should not he be the gate-keeper for the access to his own health record? How could networks help him to get the appropriate knowledge to contribute to care and to write his testament of life? Recent laws (on private life, patient rights and euthanasia) have contributed to a behavioural change in citizens and physician attitudes. Recommendations are made in order to improve the acceptability of eHealth platform. PMID:21035383

  5. [Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    PubMed

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Jarillo Soto, Edgar; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system. PMID:25375148

  6. Oxytocin administration, salivary testosterone, and father-infant social behavior.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Omri; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    The growing involvement of fathers in childcare is followed by an increased interest in the neurobiology of fatherhood; yet, experimental work on the neuroendocrine basis of paternal care in humans is limited. The steroid Testosterone (T) and the neuropeptide Oxytocin (OT) have each been implicated in complex social behavior including parenting. However, no study to date explored the interaction between these two hormones in the context of fathering. In the current study we first test the relationship between father's basal salivary T and father and infant's social behaviors during parent-child interaction. Second, we examine the effects of intranasal OT administration on father's T production, and, finally, address the relations between OT-induced change in father's T with father-infant social behavior. Thirty-five fathers and their infants participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Father-infant interaction was micro-coded for paternal and infant social behavior and synchrony was measured as the coordination between their gaze, affect, and vocalizations. Father's salivary T levels were measured at baseline and three times after administration. Results indicate that lower baseline T correlated with more optimal father and infant's behaviors. OT administration altered T production in fathers, relative to the pattern of T in the placebo condition. Finally, OT-induced change in T levels correlated with parent-child social behaviors, including positive affect, social gaze, touch, and vocal synchrony. Findings support the view that neuroendocrine systems in human males evolved to support committed parenting and are the first to describe the dynamic interactions between OT and T within a bio-behavioral synchrony model. PMID:24252717

  7. Social Security, retirement incentives, and retirement behavior: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Gruber, J; Wise, D

    1999-05-01

    Escalating rates of early retirement are imposing fiscal pressure on retirement systems around the world. In some developed countries, the labor-force participation rates of men ages 60-64 have fallen by 75 percent over the last three decades. One explanation for this striking decline is social security program provisions which create disincentives to continued labor-force participation by older workers. There are substantial differences among developed nations in the labor-force participation of older workers. While two-thirds of 60-year-old American males are working, only one-quarter of men that age are working in Belgium. Over the entire 55-65 age range, 63 percent of American males are working, compared with only 40 percent of French males and 33 percent of Belgians males. There is strong evidence that the early retirement provisions of social security systems in developed countries determine the modal age of retirement. There is a strong relationship between early retirement ages and labor-force withdrawal rates; for example, in France, 60 percent of those working at the early entitlement age of 60 leave the labor force at that age. The core of this analysis is the construction of "implicit tax/subsidy rates" on additional work at older ages through each nation's social security system. These rates measure the change in a worker's retirement wealth entitlement from delaying retirement for one year, relative to the amount that would have been earned over that year. The U.S. Social Security system has an actuarial adjustment for delayed benefits claiming and other features that avoid financial incentives to leave the labor force at age 62 for a married worker, there is a slight disincentive to work for single workers and high wage earners. However, at ages 65 and older there is a stronger incentive to leave the labor force, with implicit tax rates on work of 19 percent for married workers and 33 percent for single workers. By comparison, other nations do not have actuarially fair adjustments, and as a result impose substantial taxes on additional work at older ages. In several countries, implicit tax rates on work at older ages approach or exceed 100 percent. This is because by delaying retirement, workers forgo benefits which often replace close to their full wage, in addition to having to pay the high payroll taxes required to finance generous social security benefits. There is a striking correlation across nations between high implicit tax rates on additional work and low labor-force participation rates among older workers. This suggests that social security program incentives are an important determinant of retirement. These findings have important policy implications for reforming social security programs in the United States and abroad. Policymakers must consider how program reforms will affect incentives for continued work at older ages. PMID:10539446

  8. Health and Social Security Needs of Rickshaw Pullers in Ranchi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant; Thomas, Joe; Wadhwa, Sonal S; Mishra, Aprajita; Dasgupta, Smita

    2016-07-01

    A significant number of "marginalized" population groups are denied their health rights, healthcare access, benefits of government health programs, and other health-related social security benefits. These population groups, particularly the rickshaw pullers of India, are vulnerable because of their poor social and economic status, migration history, lack of permanent settlements, lack of social capital, and so on. These reasons, coupled with other social-political reasons, lead to no or limited access to health services and poor health conditions. This study intends to explore and understand the context and health seeking behavior of rickshaw pullers in Ranchi, the capital city of Jharkhand state in India, with special reference to wider social determinants of health such as, access, affordability, and delivery of health services. The data was collected from 1,000 rickshaw pullers from 40 "rickshaw garages" in Ranchi. The findings of the study show that rickshaw pullers can't afford to "attach" much importance to their health due to various reasons and suffer from a variety of occupational and other illnesses. The health conditions of the rickshaw pullers are affected by poverty, negligence, illiteracy, lack of awareness and unavailability of affordable, quality health services. These are only a symptom of the larger structural issues affecting health. The study suggests that rickshaw pullers, being a marginalized and excluded population group, require special health and social security programs that include safe, affordable, and accessible services along with a special focus on health education, behavior change, and promotion of appropriate health-seeking behavior. PMID:27050732

  9. 75 FR 18867 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Security Intelligence Service (TSIS) Operations Files System of Records (69 FR 71828, December 10, 2004...(j)(2), (k)(1), (k)(2) and (k)(5) as reflected in the final rule published on August 4, 2006 in 71 FR...)(2), and (k)(5) as reflected in the final rule published on August 4, 2006, in 71 FR 44223....

  10. 75 FR 28046 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Transportation Security Threat Assessment System of Records (70 FR 33383, November 8, 2005). TSA's mission is to... systems as reflected in the final rule published on June 25, 2004 in 69 FR 35536. The information is... Investigation--009 Fingerprint Identification Records System (72 FR 3410, January 1, 2007). ] Exemptions...

  11. The widow(er)'s limit provision of Social Security.

    PubMed

    Weaver, D A

    Widow benefits have been a part of the Social Security program since the 1939 amendments to the Social Security Act (widower benefits were added later). For many years, the Social Security law called for paying a widow(er) a fraction of the deceased worker's primary insurance amount (PIA). However, the worker--while alive--may have received the full PIA as his or her retirement benefit. Over time, arguments were made that a widow(er) should be treated as generously as his or her spouse was. The 1972 amendments to the Social Security Act allowed for a widow(er) to receive a full PIA, subject to actuarial reductions if the widow(er) benefit was claimed before the normal retirement age (NRA) and subject to a new provision of the law commonly referred to as the widow(er)'s limit. Generally, the widow(er)'s limit specifies that if a worker received reduced retirement benefits (because the worker claimed benefits before the NRA), then the worker's widow(er) cannot receive a monthly benefit equal to the full PIA. Rather, the widow(er)'s benefit is generally limited to the amount the worker would receive if he or she was still alive. The limit provision appears to be motivated by the overall intent of the 1972 Congress to pay a benefit to a widow(er) that was comparable with what the worker received. A number of changes to the limit provision have been discussed. This article looks at the following options: Abolishing the limit, Raising the limit by requiring that it never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. Adjusting the limit for some widow(er)s--that is, only persons who are widowed before the NRA (the ARLA option), Making a simpler adjustment to the limit by abolishing it for persons who are widowed before age 62 (the SARLA option), and A proposal by Robert J. Myers that would make modest adjustments to the limit for cases in which the worker died before the NRA. The most fundamental change--abolishing the limit--would increase benefits for about 2.8 million widow(er)s and would cost about $3.1 billion a year. Most of the additional government expenditures would not go to the poor and the near poor. Another change would be more successful in aiding low-income widow(er)s: requiring that the limit amount never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. About 58 percent of the government expenditures from that option would be received by the poor and the near poor. Overall, 1.2 million widow(er)s would be helped, and the cost would be about $816 million a year. Although the limit provision is consistent with the overall intent of the 1972 Congress, it can have effects that may have been unintended and that some policymakers might consider unusual. Persons who delay receipt of Social Security benefits usually receive higher monthly benefit amounts, but a widow(er) who faces a limit cannot increase his or her monthly benefit through delayed receipt of benefits. Thus, many persons who are widowed before the NRA face strong incentives to claim benefits early. That is somewhat unusual because the actuarial adjustments under Social Security are approximately fair, so there are no cost savings to the Social Security program from "forcing" a widow(er) to claim early benefits as opposed to allowing him or her to delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher monthly amount. And many widow(er)s would be better off if they could use the Social Security program to, in effect, save (that is, delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher amount later). This article analyzes two other options that would provide widow(er)s with additional filing options under Social Security. The ARLA option would ultimately help about 229,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be small (about $69 million a year). The SARLA option would help about 117,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be about $41 million a year. Robert J. Myers, a former Chief Actuary of Social Security, has offered a proposal that would provide relief from the widow(er)'s limit in cases in which the worker dies shortly after retirement. That proposal would help about 115,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be low (about $57 million a year). PMID:12428513

  12. Security and Vulnerability Assessment of Social Media Sites: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2015-01-01

    While the growing popularity of social media has brought many benefits to society, it has also resulted in privacy and security threats. The authors assessed the security and vulnerability of 50 social media sites. The findings indicate that most sites (a) posted privacy and security policies but only a minority stated clearly their execution of…

  13. 6 CFR 5.33 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5... OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each... not be denied any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their...

  14. 6 CFR 5.33 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5... OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each... not be denied any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their...

  15. Security and Vulnerability Assessment of Social Media Sites: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2015-01-01

    While the growing popularity of social media has brought many benefits to society, it has also resulted in privacy and security threats. The authors assessed the security and vulnerability of 50 social media sites. The findings indicate that most sites (a) posted privacy and security policies but only a minority stated clearly their execution of

  16. Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, and Savings1

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Mansfield, Richard K.; Moore, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In theory, improvements in healthy life expectancy should generate increases in the average age of retirement, with little effect on savings rates. In many countries, however, retirement incentives in social security programs prevent retirement ages from keeping pace with changes in life expectancy, leading to an increased need for life-cycle savings. Analyzing a cross-country panel of macroeconomic data, we find that increased longevity raises aggregate savings rates in countries with universal pension coverage and retirement incentives, though the effect disappears in countries with pay-as-you-go systems and high replacement rates. PMID:19865594

  17. Security Requirements for Social Networks in Web 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Eduardo B.; Marin, Carolina; Petrie, Maria M. Larrondo

    A social network is a structure of individuals or organizations, which are connected by one or more types of interdependency, such as friendship, affinity, common interests or knowledge. Social networks use now web 2.0 technology and the users may need to follow a series of restrictions or conditions to join or add contents. We look here at their context and threats, in order to ascertain their needs for security. We propose the use of patterns to specify these requirements in a precise way and we present two specific patterns. A pattern is an encapsulated solution to a software problem in a given context. We present here the Participation-Collaboration Pattern, which describes the functionality of the collaboration between users in applications and the Collaborative Tagging Pattern, which is useful to share content using keywords to tag bookmarks, photographs and other contents. We also discuss possible improvements to the current situation.

  18. Act Introducing a Social Security Card and Amending Other Social Laws, 6 October 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Federal Republic of Germany Act introduces a system of social security cards. Under this system every employed person is to be issued a social security card, which must be presented to an employer upon obtaining employment as well as to government officials for the purpose of controlling illegal employment and preventing social benefits from being granted to persons who are not entitled to them. An employer must inform the government if an employee does not present the card when starting work and is responsible for reimbursing the government for any benefits paid out to the worker because of the failure to notify the government. Further provisions of the Act deal with the issuance, contents, loss, and destruction of cards; confidentiality; and fines, among other things. PMID:12344243

  19. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225... RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Employee, Spouse and Divorced Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social...

  20. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225... RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Employee, Spouse and Divorced Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social...

  1. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA... RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Employee, Spouse and Divorced Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social...

  2. 24 CFR 203.35 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 203.35 Section 203.35 Housing and Urban Development... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgagors § 203.35 Disclosure and verification of Social... mortgagor must meet the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social Security and...

  3. 8 CFR 103.35 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS POWERS AND DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.35 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The use and collection of Social Security numbers shall be in accordance with 28 CFR 16.56. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social...

  4. 24 CFR 203.35 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 203.35 Section 203.35 Housing and Urban Development... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgagors § 203.35 Disclosure and verification of Social... mortgagor must meet the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social Security and...

  5. 8 CFR 103.35 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS POWERS AND DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.35 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The use and collection of Social Security numbers shall be in accordance with 28 CFR 16.56. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use and collection of Social...

  6. 36 CFR 1202.22 - Will NARA need my Social Security Number?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will NARA need my Social... Will NARA need my Social Security Number? (a) Before a NARA employee or NARA contractor asks you to provide your social security number (SSN), he or she will ensure that the disclosure is required...

  7. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  8. 13 CFR 102.35 - Use and collection of Social Security Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 102.35 Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social... their social security numbers, unless: (1) The collection is authorized either by a statute; or (2)...

  9. 13 CFR 102.35 - Use and collection of Social Security Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 102.35 Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use and collection of Social... their social security numbers, unless: (1) The collection is authorized either by a statute; or (2)...

  10. 77 FR 18716 - Transportation Security Administration Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule is a technical change to correct a regulatory reference to TSA's postal zip code. This rule revises existing regulations to reflect organizational changes and it has...

  11. 42 CFR 403.812 - HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data standards, and national identifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data standards, and national identifiers. 403.812 Section 403.812 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Prescription Drug Discount Card...

  12. Security of Data, Stored in Information Systems of Bulgarian Municipal Administrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapralyakov, Petko

    2011-12-01

    Massive influx of information technology in municipal administrations increases their efficiency in delivering public services but increased the risk of theft of confidential information electronically. The report proposed an approach for improving information security for small municipal governments in Bulgaria through enhanced intrusion detection and prevention system.

  13. 75 FR 65511 - Employee Benefits Security Administration; Submission for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Federal Register on August 23, 2010 (75 FR 51843). Agency: Employee Benefits Security Administration. Type... public information collection requests (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and... obtained from the RegInfo.gov Web site at http://www.reginfo.gov/public/do/PRAMain or by contacting...

  14. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374

  15. Supplemental security income and social security disability insurance coverage among long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Parsons, Helen M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Park, Elyse R

    2015-06-01

    Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer. PMID:25770148

  16. Administrator Highlights U.S.-Georgian Nuclear Security Cooperation in Tbilisi

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-07-16

    NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino highlighted the strong U.S.-Georgian cooperation on nuclear security issues during a day-long visit to the Republic of Georgia in mid-June. He briefed the media at availability at the Tbilisi airport. In April 2009, President Obama outlined an ambitious agenda to secure vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years, calling the danger of a terrorist acquiring nuclear weapons "the most immediate and extreme threat to global security." In this year's State of the Union, he called the threat of nuclear weapons, "the greatest danger to the American people." In order to meet that challenge, the President's FY2011 Budget Request includes close to $2.7 billion for the National Nuclear Security Administration's Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation program -- an increase of 25.7 percent over FY2010. Included in that request is NNSA's Second Line of Defense (SLD) program, which works around the world to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system.

  17. Administrator Highlights U.S.-Georgian Nuclear Security Cooperation in Tbilisi

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino highlighted the strong U.S.-Georgian cooperation on nuclear security issues during a day-long visit to the Republic of Georgia in mid-June. He briefed the media at availability at the Tbilisi airport. In April 2009, President Obama outlined an ambitious agenda to secure vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years, calling the danger of a terrorist acquiring nuclear weapons "the most immediate and extreme threat to global security." In this year's State of the Union, he called the threat of nuclear weapons, "the greatest danger to the American people." In order to meet that challenge, the President's FY2011 Budget Request includes close to $2.7 billion for the National Nuclear Security Administration's Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation program -- an increase of 25.7 percent over FY2010. Included in that request is NNSA's Second Line of Defense (SLD) program, which works around the world to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system.

  18. 24 CFR 5.216 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 882, subpart H, the documentation required in paragraph (h)(1) of this section must be... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.216 Section 5.216 Housing and Urban Development...; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification...

  19. 24 CFR 5.216 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 882, subpart H, the documentation required in paragraph (h)(1) of this section must be... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.216 Section 5.216 Housing and Urban Development...; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification...

  20. 24 CFR 5.216 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 882, subpart H, the documentation required in paragraph (h)(1) of this section must be... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.216 Section 5.216 Housing and Urban Development...; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification...

  1. 24 CFR 5.216 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 882, subpart H, the documentation required in paragraph (h)(1) of this section must be... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.216 Section 5.216 Housing and Urban Development...; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification...

  2. 24 CFR 5.216 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 882, subpart H, the documentation required in paragraph (h)(1) of this section must be... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.216 Section 5.216 Housing and Urban Development...; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification...

  3. 75 FR 71171 - Social Security Disability Program Demonstration Project: Benefit Offset National Demonstration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...We are announcing the following demonstration project relating to the Social Security disability program under title II of the Social Security Act (Act). Under this project, we will test modifications to current title II program rules that we apply to beneficiaries who work and receive title II benefits based on disability. We will also modify current rules for paying outcome payments to......

  4. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? 287.105 Section 287.105 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE....105 What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? NEW Programs are subject...

  5. 77 FR 72788 - Reduction of Use of Social Security Numbers in the Department of Defense

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... social security numbers (SSN) in the Department on March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9548). The Department published... Allow the Removal of Social Security Numbers from DoD Identification (ID) Cards'' in January 2009 and in... reduce or eliminate SSN use on DoD ID cards: --Phase 1 of the updated plan requires removal of SSNs...

  6. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? 287.105 Section 287.105 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE....105 What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? NEW Programs are subject...

  7. 24 CFR 200.6 - Employer identification and social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identification and social security numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of social security numbers and employer identification numbers by applicants and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer identification and...

  8. 22 CFR 308.7 - Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Use of social security account number in records systems. 308.7 Section 308.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.7 Use of social security account number in records systems....

  9. 24 CFR 200.6 - Employer identification and social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identification and social security numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of social security numbers and employer identification numbers by applicants and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employer identification and...

  10. 22 CFR 308.7 - Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of social security account number in records systems. 308.7 Section 308.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.7 Use of social security account number in records systems....

  11. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... of Veterans Affairs in support of that claim copies of evidence which was previously furnished to...

  12. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... payable before the employee attains retirement age. An overall minimum may also be payable before age 62... guarantee is. 229.10 Section 229.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum...

  13. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... payable before the employee attains retirement age. An overall minimum may also be payable before age 62... guarantee is. 229.10 Section 229.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum...

  14. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... payable before the employee attains retirement age. An overall minimum may also be payable before age 62... guarantee is. 229.10 Section 229.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum...

  15. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... of Veterans Affairs in support of that claim copies of evidence which was previously furnished to...

  16. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... of Veterans Affairs in support of that claim copies of evidence which was previously furnished to...

  17. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... of Veterans Affairs in support of that claim copies of evidence which was previously furnished to...

  18. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. 1.575 Section 1.575 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Safeguarding Personal Information in Department of Veterans Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers...

  19. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. 1.575 Section 1.575 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Safeguarding Personal Information in Department of Veterans Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers...

  20. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. 1.575 Section 1.575 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Safeguarding Personal Information in Department of Veterans Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers...

  1. 78 FR 37244 - Submission for Review: We Need Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: We Need Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security... Eligibility for Social Security Disability Benefits, RI 98-7. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of... faxed to (202) 606-0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 98-7 is used by OPM to verify receipt of...

  2. 42 CFR 408.46 - Effect of suspension of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Benefits § 408.46 Effect of suspension of social security benefits. (a) Benefit payments to be resumed during the taxable year. (1) If social security benefit payments are scheduled to be resumed during the... the premiums during suspension of benefits. (b) Benefit payments not to be resumed during the...

  3. 78 FR 46309 - Rules of Administrative Finality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 Rules of Administrative Finality AGENCY: Social Security Administration.... We strongly urge you not to include in your comments any personal information, such as...

  4. The Treatment of Peace and Security Issues in Social Studies Textbooks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.

    This examination of the treatment given to peace and security issues in American social studies textbooks begins by summarizing the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Curriculum Guidelines and a 1983 study of high school social studies topic priorities. Following a review of past textbook studies and a brief discussion of textbook…

  5. 75 FR 9548 - Reduction of Use of Social Security Numbers (SSN) in the Department of Defense (DoD)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 157 Reduction of Use of Social Security Numbers (SSN) in the Department... establishes policy and assigns responsibilities for social security number (SSN) reduction in DoD. It... titled ``DoD Social Security Number (SSN) Reduction Plan.'' DATES: Comments must be received by May...

  6. 20 CFR 229.54 - Reduction for social security benefit paid to employee on another person's earnings record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefit paid to... BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.54 Reduction for social security benefit paid to employee...

  7. 20 CFR 255.14 - Waiver not available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... made from accrual of social security benefits. 255.14 Section 255.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits. Where the overpayment is the... individual's entitlement to social security benefits and recovery of such overpayment may be made by...

  8. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under the social security overall minimum provision. 243.5 Section 243.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... § 243.5 Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision. Section 3(f)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum provision,...

  9. Dare Public School Administrators Build a New Social Order?: Social Justice and the Possibly Perilous Politics of Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.; Shoho, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how public school administrators with a social justice perspective have an obligation to permeate society beyond their schools and how they might address the perilous politics associated with advocating social change. Using George Counts' landmark 1932 speech, Dare the School Build a New Social Order? as the…

  10. Quality Indicators and Expected Outcomes for Social Work PhD Programs: Perceptions of Social Work Students, Faculty, and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petr, Christopher G.; Harrington, Donna; Kim, Kyeongmo; Black, Beverly; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Bentley, Kia J.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the results of a national survey of social work PhD students, faculty, and administrators (n=416), conducted by the Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education in Social Work (GADE), in December 2012. The survey was undertaken to inform the updating of GADE's 2003 "Guidelines for Quality in Social

  11. 20 CFR 655.665 - Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment and Training Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment and Training Administration. 655.665 Section 655.665 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... Activities in U.S. Ports § 655.665 Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment...

  12. 20 CFR 655.665 - Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment and Training Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment and Training Administration. 655.665 Section 655.665 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... Activities in U.S. Ports § 655.665 Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment...

  13. 20 CFR 655.665 - Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment and Training Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment and Training Administration. 655.665 Section 655.665 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... Activities in U.S. Ports § 655.665 Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment...

  14. 20 CFR 655.665 - Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment and Training Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment and Training Administration. 655.665 Section 655.665 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... Activities in U.S. Ports § 655.665 Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment...

  15. 20 CFR 655.665 - Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment and Training Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment and Training Administration. 655.665 Section 655.665 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... Activities in U.S. Ports § 655.665 Notice to the Department of Homeland Security and the Employment...

  16. Income distribution patterns from a complete social security database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzsy, N.; Néda, Z.; Santos, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the income distribution of employees for 9 consecutive years (2001-2009) using a complete social security database for an economically important district of Romania. The database contains detailed information on more than half million taxpayers, including their monthly salaries from all employers where they worked. Besides studying the characteristic distribution functions in the high and low/medium income limits, the database allows us a detailed dynamical study by following the time-evolution of the taxpayers income. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of this kind (a previous Japanese taxpayers survey was limited to two years). In the high income limit we prove once again the validity of Pareto’s law, obtaining a perfect scaling on four orders of magnitude in the rank for all the studied years. The obtained Pareto exponents are quite stable with values around α≈2.5, in spite of the fact that during this period the economy developed rapidly and also a financial-economic crisis hit Romania in 2007-2008. For the low and medium income category we confirmed the exponential-type income distribution. Following the income of employees in time, we have found that the top limit of the income distribution is a highly dynamical region with strong fluctuations in the rank. In this region, the observed dynamics is consistent with a multiplicative random growth hypothesis. Contrarily with previous results obtained for the Japanese employees, we find that the logarithmic growth-rate is not independent of the income.

  17. The systems approach to airport security: The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)/BWI (Baltimore-Washington International) Airport demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, D.L.; Olascoaga, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in designing, installing and evaluating security systems for various applications during the past 15 years. A systems approach to security that evolved from this experience was applied to aviation security for the Federal Aviation Administration. A general systems study of aviation security in the United States was concluded in 1987. One result of the study was a recommendation that an enhanced security system concept designed to meet specified objectives be demonstrated at an operational airport. Baltimore-Washington International Airport was selected as the site for the demonstration project which began in 1988 and will be completed in 1992. This article introduced the systems approach to airport security and discussed its application at Baltimore-Washington International Airport. Examples of design features that could be included in an enhanced security concept also were presented, including details of the proposed Ramps Area Intrusion Detection System (RAIDS).

  18. 78 FR 55274 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/Transportation Security Administration-DHS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... screening at participating U.S. airport security checkpoints. Additionally, the Department of Homeland... ineligible for the program will continue to be screened at airport security checkpoints according to TSA... screening at airport security checkpoints. The Program retains a component of randomness to maintain...

  19. Social Security and the Retirement and Savings Behavior of Low Income Households1

    PubMed Central

    van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Wolpin, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and estimate a model of retirement and savings incorporating limited borrowing, stochastic wage offers, health status and survival, social security benefits, Medicare and employer provided health insurance coverage, and intentional bequests. The model is estimated on sample of relatively poor households from the first three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), for whom we would expect social security income to be of particular importance. The estimated model is used to simulate the responses to changes in social security rules, including changes in benefit levels, in the payroll tax, in the social security earnings tax and in early and normal retirement ages. Welfare and budget consequences are estimated. PMID:21566719

  20. Posttraumatic distress in security guards and the various effects of social support.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Vanheule, Stijn; Markey, Samuel; Willemsen, Jochem

    2007-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of six types of social support on distress and posttraumatic stress disorders in security guards who did and did not encounter a critical incident. Three types of social support were significantly related to distress and posttraumatic stress disorder: emotional support in problem situations, instrumental support, and social companionship. Emotional support in problem situations paradoxically appeared to have an aggravating effect on distress and posttraumatic stress, whereas instrumental support and social companionship had a mitigating outcome. PMID:17972298

  1. Speech and Language Disorders in Children: Implications for the Social Security Administration's Supplemental Security Income Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Sara, Ed.; Simon, Patti, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Speech and language are central to the human experience; they are the vital means by which people convey and receive knowledge, thoughts, feelings, and other internal experiences. Acquisition of communication skills begins early in childhood and is foundational to the ability to gain access to culturally transmitted knowledge, organize and share…

  2. Daily Experiences of Emotions and Social Contexts of Securely and Insecurely Attached Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torquati, Julia C.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2004-01-01

    This study examined daily emotions and social contexts of young adults who differed in global attachment style (secure vs. insecure). Sixty-nine college students (41% male, 59% female) completed self-report measures of attachment and provided time-sampling data on moods, companionship, and activities using the experience sampling method. Secure (n…

  3. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport numbers. 404.21 Section 404.21 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and passport numbers. (a) Policy. Ex-Im Bank...

  4. Who Said School Administration Would Be Fun?: Coping With a New Emotional and Social Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigford, Jane L.

    2005-01-01

    School administrators fill a crucial need in education, but all too often their social and emotional worlds turn upside-down when they make this momentous career move. This second edition provides an insightful look at the unwritten and unspoken rules of school administration, helping new and sitting administrators work through the initial

  5. Becoming an Administrator: The Socialization of an Assistant Principal through an Autoethnographic Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattuca, F. Patrick, III.

    2012-01-01

    This study is part of a limited but growing body of research that examines and describes the social side of public school administration. Most training programs that prepare public school administrators are highly effective with regard to providing students the theoretical foundation that surrounds administrative roles. But as the literature

  6. Becoming an Administrator: The Socialization of an Assistant Principal through an Autoethnographic Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattuca, F. Patrick, III.

    2012-01-01

    This study is part of a limited but growing body of research that examines and describes the social side of public school administration. Most training programs that prepare public school administrators are highly effective with regard to providing students the theoretical foundation that surrounds administrative roles. But as the literature…

  7. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN KNOWLEDGE UTILIZATION AS APPLIED TO EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHMUCK, RICHARD

    THREE PROBLEM AREAS ARE EXPLORED IN THIS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION--(1) INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL LINKAGES BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR'S SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND HIS ACTIONS, AND (3) THE LACK OF CONNECTION BETWEEN…

  8. Who Said School Administration Would Be Fun?: Coping With a New Emotional and Social Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigford, Jane L.

    2005-01-01

    School administrators fill a crucial need in education, but all too often their social and emotional worlds turn upside-down when they make this momentous career move. This second edition provides an insightful look at the unwritten and unspoken rules of school administration, helping new and sitting administrators work through the initial…

  9. [Changes in workers' rehabilitation procedures under the Brazilian social security system: modernization or undermining of social protection?].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Iguti, Aparecida Mari

    2008-11-01

    This article describes the changes in workers' rehabilitation practices under the Brazilian National Social Security Institute (INSS) in the 1990s, in the context of neoliberal economic adjustment measures, based on an analysis of INSS documents from 1992 to 1997. The INSS plan for "modernization" of workers' rehabilitation led to: (1) dismantling of multidisciplinary teams; (2) induction of workers to accept proportional retirement pensions and voluntary layoffs; (3) under-utilization of the remaining INSS professional staff; (4) elimination of treatment programs for workers' rehabilitation; and (5) dismantling of INSS rehabilitation centers and clinics. The changes in the Brazilian social security system undermined the county's social security project and hegemony and reduced social security reform to a mere management and fiscal issue. Current "rehabilitation" falls far short of the institution's original purpose of social protection for workers, while aiming at economic regulation of the system to contain costs of workers' benefits. Workers that suffer work-related accidents are denied occupational rehabilitation, which aggravates their social disadvantage when they return to work. PMID:19009146

  10. Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…

  11. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  12. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  13. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  14. Post-Social Politics, Employability, and the Security Effects of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frauley, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Trends within Western capitalist societies toward the individualizing of social problems, the responsibilizing of individuals for such problems, the treating of social problems as problems of control, ongoing attempts to shift the burden for safety and security from the state to the market, and changing conceptions of citizenship, have produced a…

  15. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  16. Can Social Security Explain Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Men in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.; Goodstein, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    After a long decline, the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) of older men in the United States leveled off in the 1980s, and began to increase in the late 1990s. We examine how changes in Social Security rules affected these trends. We attribute only a small portion of the decline from the 1960s-80s to the increasing generosity of Social

  17. Infusing Aging and Public Policy Content into Gerontology Courses: Collaborative Learning Methods To Teach about Social Security and Medicare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cianciolo, Patricia K.; Henderson, Tammy L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes modules on Social Security and Medicare for gerontology policy courses. Discusses collaborative exercises in which students explore Internet resources on Social Security and health care finance, identity major concerns about reforms, and enact scenarios about retirees with varying degrees of income and health care security. (Contains 33…

  18. National Nuclear Security Administration Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report in Brief: October 2007 - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, Clarissa O.; Fankhauser, Jana G.; Sandusky, Jessica A.

    2009-05-01

    This abbreviated Annual Report covers program activities of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP) from October 2007 through May 2008--the timeframe between the last Annual Report (which covered activities through September 2007) and the next report (which will begin with June 2008 activities). In that timeframe, the NGFP continued building a solid foundation as the program began reaping the benefits of recently implemented changes. This report is organized by Fellowship class and the pertinent program activities for each, including: October 2007 Recruiting events and final applications (Class of 2008) Winter 2007 Selection and hiring (Class of 2008) Spring 2008 Career development roundtables (Class of 2007) Orientation planning (Class of 2008) Recruitment planning and university outreach (Class of 2009) May 2008 Closing ceremony (Class of 2007)

  19. Quality Indicators and Expected Outcomes for Social Work PhD Programs: Perceptions of Social Work Students, Faculty, and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petr, Christopher G.; Harrington, Donna; Kim, Kyeongmo; Black, Beverly; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Bentley, Kia J.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the results of a national survey of social work PhD students, faculty, and administrators (n = 416), conducted by the Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education in Social Work (GADE), in December 2012. The survey was undertaken to inform the updating of GADE's 2003 "Guidelines for Quality in Social…

  20. Social Security Disability Reviews: The Human Costs. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives and the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Part 3 - Hot Springs, Arkansas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document provides transcripts of witness testimony and prepared statements from the third of three Congressional hearings called to examine at the local level the administration of the social security disability review program. Opening statements are presented from Representatives J. J. Pickle and Beryl Anthony, Jr., and Senator Daniel Pryor.…

  1. Guidelines for development of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) computer security training programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    The report presents guidance for the NASA Computer Security Program Manager and the NASA Center Computer Security Officials as they develop training requirements and implement computer security training programs. NASA audiences are categorized based on the computer security knowledge required to accomplish identified job functions. Training requirements, in terms of training subject areas, are presented for both computer security program management personnel and computer resource providers and users. Sources of computer security training are identified.

  2. The reservation wages of Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    There exists a lot of research on the reservation wages of the unemployed as a determinant of unemployment duration. Little is known about the reservation wages of those who are not in the labor force but might be potential labor force returnees, such as Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries. The main objective of this article is to assess what can be learned from the subjective reservation wages of DI beneficiaries. Using the New Beneficiary Data System (NBDS), the article assesses the magnitudes of reservation wages compared to the last wage earned and the benefit amount, as well as the determinants of reservation wages in a regression framework. The NBDS is unique in that it provides the reservation wages and the work history of DI beneficiaries before and after joining the DI rolls. The article has several noteworthy results and policy implications: *Data show that a significant portion of beneficiaries report being likely to accept a job if offered one. Based on the NBDS, 13 percent of DI beneficiaries who did not work since joining the rolls in 1981-1982 reported in 1991 that they would be willing to work if offered a job and provided their reservation wages. *DI beneficiaries do not appear to price themselves out of the labor market. Half of them would want a wage that is 80 percent or less of the last wage earned before receiving DI. It is estimated that approximately 7 percent of long-term DI beneficiaries may potentially return-to-work if they search for jobs and have a wage offer distribution with a mean at 80 percent of their last wage. *The nonlabor income in addition to the benefit is positively and significantly associated with the reservation wage, while the benefit amount per se is not. However, this result needs to be treated with caution given that nonlabor income is endogenous to the model. *Heterogeneity exists between persons still under the DI program and those that have moved to the Old-Age program. The subsamples of persons who have shifted to the Old-Age program and those who are still under the DI program have median reservation wage to the last wage ratios of 0.69 and 0.93, respectively. A significantly lower reservation wage for persons who have moved to the Old-Age program was also found in a regression framework. This heterogeneity between the two groups may result in part from the different program characteristics both groups face, for instance, in terms of benefit termination and Medicare eligibility rules. *Subjective reservation wage data can be useful to study populations that are out of the labor force. This article is innovative in that it focuses on a group of persons who are typically considered as being out of the labor force, and therefore are not asked reservation wages in general household surveys such as the Current Population Survey. It would be of great interest to collect more reservation wage data for DI beneficiaries in a longitudinal data set to expand this analysis, for instance, to assess conclusively the effects of changing program characteristics on reservation wages and return-to-work outcomes as beneficiaries transition to the Old-Age program or as new return-to-work programs are put in place. PMID:18777671

  3. 29 CFR 2590.606-4 - Notice requirements for plan administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Social Security Administration, under title II or XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et... disability by the Social Security Administration regarding a covered employee, qualified beneficiary, or... qualified beneficiary of any termination of continuation coverage that takes effect earlier than the end...

  4. 29 CFR 2590.606-4 - Notice requirements for plan administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Social Security Administration, under title II or XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et... disability by the Social Security Administration regarding a covered employee, qualified beneficiary, or... qualified beneficiary of any termination of continuation coverage that takes effect earlier than the end...

  5. 24 CFR 884.117 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers by owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided by 24 CFR part 5. (Approved by the... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers by owners. 884.117 Section 884.117 Housing and Urban... PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.117 Disclosure and verification of Social...

  6. 24 CFR 884.117 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers by owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided by 24 CFR part 5. (Approved by the... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers by owners. 884.117 Section 884.117 Housing and Urban... PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.117 Disclosure and verification of Social...

  7. Peer Influences on Drug Self-Administration: Social Facilitation and Social Inhibition of Cocaine Intake in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale One problem facing animal models of intravenous drug self-administration, particularly those examining social manipulations, is that subjects must be removed from the home environment and separated from cagemates during testing. This represents a limitation of animal models, because it fails to capture the complex social environments in which drug use often occurs. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine intravenous cocaine self-administration in isolated and socially housed rats, with the caveat that the socially housed subjects lived together 24 hr/day, including during daily self-administration sessions. As a secondary aim, the study examined the impact of a companion that also self-administered cocaine versus a companion without access to cocaine. Methods Male rats were obtained at weaning and reared in isolated or pair-housed conditions for 6 weeks. Rats were then implanted with intravenous catheters and transferred to custom-built operant conditioning chambers that served as home cages for the remainder of the study. For some socially housed subjects, both rats had simultaneous access to cocaine; for others, only one rat of the pair had access to cocaine. Results Cocaine self-administration was facilitated in socially housed rats if both members of the pair had access to cocaine; however, cocaine self-administration was inhibited if only one rat of the pair had access to cocaine. Conclusions These data indicate that the self-administration behavior of a peer, not merely the presence of a peer, determines whether cocaine self-administration is facilitated or inhibited by social contact. PMID:22588251

  8. The Effects of Income on Mental Health: Evidence from the Social Security Notch

    PubMed Central

    Golberstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health is a key component of overall wellbeing and mental disorders are relatively common, including among older adults. Yet the causal effect of income on mental health status among older adults is poorly understood. Aims This paper considers the effects of a major source of transfer income, Social Security retirement benefits, on the mental health of older adults. Methods The Social Security benefit “Notch” is as a large, permanent, and exogenous shock to Social Security income in retirement. The “Notch” is used to identify the causal effect of Social Security income on mental health among older ages using data from the AHEAD cohort of the Health and Retirement Study. Results We find that increases in Social Security income significantly improve mental health status and the likelihood of a psychiatric diagnosis for women, but not for men. Discussion The effects of income on mental health for older women are statistically significant and meaningful in magnitude. While this is one of the only studies to use plausibly exogenous variation in household income to identify the effect of income on mental health, a limitation of this work is that the results only directly pertain to lower-education households. Implications Public policy proposals that alter retirement benefits for the elderly may have important effects on the mental health of older adults. PMID:25862202

  9. Special interests or citizens' rights? "Senior power," Social Security, and Medicare.

    PubMed

    Street, D

    1997-01-01

    Conventional political analysts and mainstream media accounts attribute substantial political power to the elderly in the United States. This attribution of "senior power" is usually made in the context of the politics of Social Security and Medicare. This article contrasts the conventional construction of elderly political actors as a special interest with a more critical perspective that views Social Security and Medicare as citizens' rights. Critical examination of the welfare state's role in creating age as a potential political cleavage and the politics of Social Security and Medicare reveals that there is no undifferentiated politics of aging in the United States. Rather, age interacts with a variety of other statuses such as race/ethnicity, gender, and class to condition citizens' political mobilization. Welfare state policies--social insurance programs like Social Security and Medicare, means--tested programs like Medicaid and Supplemental Security Income, and targeted tax expenditures for private pensions and health insurance--differentially empower particular subgroups of elderly citizens and routinely disadvantage the most vulnerable elderly, including minority elders, women, and the oldest old. PMID:9399116

  10. Guidelines for developing NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) ADP security risk management plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents guidance to NASA Computer security officials for developing ADP security risk management plans. The six components of the risk management process are identified and discussed. Guidance is presented on how to manage security risks that have been identified during a risk analysis performed at a data processing facility or during the security evaluation of an application system.

  11. 20 CFR 402.50 - Availability of administrative staff manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of administrative staff manuals. 402.50 Section 402.50 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION... staff manuals of the Social Security Administration and instructions to staff personnel which...

  12. 20 CFR 402.50 - Availability of administrative staff manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Availability of administrative staff manuals. 402.50 Section 402.50 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION... staff manuals of the Social Security Administration and instructions to staff personnel which...

  13. Ethical and Social Values in Business Administration and Management Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Lozano, Mercedes; de los Rios-Bergillos, Araceli; Tirado-Valencia, Pilar; Millan-Lara, Salud

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the impact of the learning process in business administration and management of students' values, through the application of factor analysis to the information obtained in a survey consisting of students in the first and fifth year of studies. The study derived the following conclusions: First,…

  14. Physicians' Self-Conceptions of Their Expertise in Statutory Health Insurance and Social Security Systems.

    PubMed

    Seger, Wolfgang; Nüchtern, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    Medical experts who practice social medicine have a strong ethical approach for their professional positions. Their reports must reflect an objective, independent, high-quality assessment of interactions between health status and the disability of individuals. However, they must simultaneously consider the societal involvement of these individuals when determining the framework of the Statutory Health Insurance and Social Security Systems. Their task is to recommend sociomedical benefits that are tailored to suit personal needs and that respect the individual life situations of the persons involved, thus complementing the efforts of healthcare professionals in clinical settings. The editorial describes the self-conception of this medical specialty on behalf of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP). Policy makers in social insurances and social security systems generally must respect independent sociomedical recommendations as a crucial point for further realistic development activities. PMID:26388973

  15. Administrative Leadership as Projection, Social Control, and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.

    Over the past 50 years, theoretical and methodological problems have plagued the study of leadership. This paper, proposing an alternative theory, argues that leadership has three fundamental components: projection and social control, which are linked by action. Projection is the visualization of a project to be completed. Educational

  16. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Michael S.

    2010-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  17. 20 CFR 416.105 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administration. 416.105 Section 416.105 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Introduction, General Provisions and Definitions § 416.105 Administration. The...

  18. 20 CFR 416.105 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administration. 416.105 Section 416.105 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Introduction, General Provisions and Definitions § 416.105 Administration. The...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1406 - Eligibility to railroad retirement benefits as a bar to payment of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Interrelationship of Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program With the Railroad Retirement Program §...

  20. Effects of Macroeconomic Trends on Social Security Spending Due to Sickness and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jahangir; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.; Jansson, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the relationship between macroeconomic conditions, measured as unemployment rate and social security spending, from 4 social security schemes and total spending due to sickness and disability. Methods. We obtained aggregated panel data from 13 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries for 1980–1996. We used regression analysis and fixed effect models to examine spending on sickness benefits, disability pensions, occupational-injury benefits, survivor’s pensions, and total spending. Results. A decline in unemployment increased sickness benefits spending and reduced disability pension spending. These effects reversed direction after 4 years of unemployment. Inclusion of mortality rate as an additional variable in the analysis did not affect the findings. Conclusions. Macroeconomic conditions influence some reimbursements from social security schemes but not total spending. PMID:15514244

  1. Mortality differentials by lifetime earnings decile: implications for evaluations of proposed Social Security law changes.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the distributional effects of some proposed Social Security law changes, such as an increase in Social Security's early entitlement age, retirement policy analysts typically tabulate the number of workers who fall below a predetermined threshold of hardship. Analysts using this technique often implicitly assume that the insured population falls neatly into a low-earnings poor health group and a remaining good health group. If the hardship threshold assumption is correct, there should be no difference in mortality risk between lifetime earnings deciles above a hardship threshold. This study finds that the hardship threshold model is overwhelmingly rejected in US Social Security data, a result consistent with similar studies conducted in Canada, Germany, and England. The bottom 80-95 percent of the male lifetime earnings distribution exhibits an inverse correlation with regard to mortality risk (the higher the earnings, the lower the mortality risk) at ages 63-71. PMID:23687740

  2. Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Edward M

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

  3. [Health research at the Mexican Social Security Institute, a historical review].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine

    2011-01-01

    After the establishment of the Mexican Social Security Institute, medical research developed beside health care activities. Since 1962, the journal Revista Médica del IMSS was formally edited and in 1963 the Central Office for Medical Education and Research was created. The production of the journal Archivos de Investigación Médica, in Spanish started in 1970, which in 1992 was transformed into Archives of Medical Research in English. In 1981, an administrative structure for the research carrier was designed including 6 categories. By 1985, after the conception of the National System of Investigators (1984), 77 IMSS researchers were recognized as national researchers. In 1986, 93 % of the scientific papers were published in national journals, five years later, more than a third of the publications were international, and from year 2000 this percentage doubled. Through the years decentralization and diversification occurred, with promotion of research on health systems and strengthening of clinical research. Today, the institutional research capacity comprises Biomedical Research Centers as well as Research Units on clinical epidemiology, specific medical topics and epidemiology and health systems. PMID:22185863

  4. Bounding the Effects of Social Experiments: Accounting for Attrition in Administrative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social experiments frequently exploit data from administrative records. However, most administrative data systems are designed to track earnings or benefit payments among residents within a single state. When an experimental participant moves across state lines, his entries in the data system of his state of origin consist entirely of…

  5. Bounding the Effects of Social Experiments: Accounting for Attrition in Administrative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social experiments frequently exploit data from administrative records. However, most administrative data systems are designed to track earnings or benefit payments among residents within a single state. When an experimental participant moves across state lines, his entries in the data system of his state of origin consist entirely of

  6. Financing Social Security, 1939-1949: a reexamination of the financing policies of this period.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the financing history of the U.S. Social Security system during the period starting with the amendments of 1939 and concluding with the amendments of 1950. It reviews the program's financing policies during this period, and in particular, a series of tax-rate "freezes" enacted during this time. The tax-rate schedule codified in the Social Security Act of 1935 was prevented from taking full effect during these years and the rates were "frozen" at their 1935 level for 15 years. This article seeks to explain the policy context of these rate freezes and their impact on the program's long-range financial solvency. Two major findings emerge from this research: 1. One of the most basic tests of any policy proposal involving Social Security is the projected impact of that proposal on the program's short-range and long-range financing. It would be virtually impossible to propose any serious policy change without a certification from the Social Security actuaries regarding the potential impact of such change. Although Congress enacted the 1939-1949 rate freezes in eight separate legislative acts, the legislative history contains no useable long-range actuarial estimates to gauge the impact of the rate freezes on program financing. How and why such an anomalous circumstance could arise is explored here. cies and has discovered that throughout the period from 1939 to 1950, the Social Security program was almost certainly rendered out of long-range actuarial balance by the rate freezes. How such a circumstance could arise, without serious policy debate, is then examined by situating the rate-freeze decisions in the larger frame of Social Security policymaking during this period. PMID:18777669

  7. Introduction to Social Psychology: Administrative Manual [And] Student Manual [And] Unit Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Robert E.

    This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in social psychology designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Social Psychology: Explorations in Understanding" (Del Mar, CA: CRM, 1974), the package consists of an administrator manual, a student manual, and a…

  8. Social Justice: The Missing Link in School Administrators' Perspectives on Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Portelli, John P.; Rottmann, Cindy; Pashby, Karen; Barrett, Sarah Elizabeth; Mujuwamariya, Donatille

    2012-01-01

    Critical scholars view schooling as one piece of a larger struggle for democracy and social justice. We investigated 41 school administrators' perceptions about the role and importance of equity, diversity and social justice in new teacher induction in the province of Ontario. Interviews reveal that principals were interested in shaping teacher…

  9. Postwar Developments in German Political, Social and Security Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kendall L., Ed.

    To understand developments in West Germany since World War II, one must consider numerous social, political, economic, military, and educational variables. Important among these are the decline in output orientation, increase in interpersonal political involvement, decline in value placed on politics, stress on democratic decision making,…

  10. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and New York City, to establish... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social... necessary, to assist SSA in establishing the age, U.S. citizenship or alien status, true identity,...

  11. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and New York City, to establish... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social... necessary, to assist SSA in establishing the age, U.S. citizenship or alien status, true identity,...

  12. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and New York City, to establish... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social... necessary, to assist SSA in establishing the age, U.S. citizenship or alien status, true identity,...

  13. The Social Structure of a National Securities Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wayne E.

    1984-01-01

    Behavior by traders in the stock options market is not governed strictly by economic criteria. Trading among participants exhibited distinct social structural patterns that dramatically affected the direction and magnitude of price changes. Findings are discussed in relationship to microeconomic theory, and implications for public policy are…

  14. Ethnicizing Poverty through Social Security Provision in Rural Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarcz, Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Rural poverty has become an increasingly ethnicised category for the majority society in contemporary Hungary. The article aims to explore the process and practice of social exclusion and ethnicisation in relation to mutual effects of post-socialist welfare restructuring and changing discourse on poverty in the post-socialist rural reality. The…

  15. National Nuclear Security Administration Service Center Environmental Programs Long-Term Environmental Stewardship Baseline Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, D. D.; Rohde, K.

    2003-02-26

    As environmental restoration (ER) projects move toward completion, the planning, integration, and documentation of long-term environmental stewardship (LTES) activities is increasingly important for ensuring smooth transition to LTES. The Long-Term Environmental Stewardship Baseline Handbook (Handbook) prepared by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Service Center Environmental Programs Department (EPD) outlines approaches for integrating site-specific LTES planning and implementation into site ER baseline documentation. Since LTES will vary greatly from site to site, the Handbook also provides for flexibility in addressing LTES in ER Project life-cycle baselines, while clearly identifying Environmental Management (EM) requirements. It provides suggestions for enacting LTES principles and objectives through operational activities described in site-specific LTES plans and life cycle ER Project baseline scope, cost, and schedule documentation and tools for more thorough planning, better quantification, broader understanding of risk and risk management factors, and more comprehensive documentation. LTES planning applied to baselines in a phased approach will facilitate seamlessly integrating LTES into site operational activities, thereby minimizing the use of resources.

  16. U.S. Social Security at 75 years: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Dalmer D

    2010-01-01

    Is the historical development of the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program unique or similar to the development of social security programs in other industrialized countries? The U.S. Social Security program was adopted some 40 to 50 years after those of most Western European nations. The United States thus had the opportunity to choose from a number of models and clearly chose to follow the classic social insurance path of such countries as Austria, France, and Germany, which in 1935 already had considerable experience administering earnings-related, employer/worker-financed old-age pension programs. Although based on the traditional social insurance model, OASDI evolved in certain unique ways, including the rejection over the course of succeeding decades of any reliance on general revenue financing, the importance attached to long-range (75-year) actuarial projections, and the relative generosity of benefits for survivors and dependents. PMID:20737859

  17. Review of Child Care Services Provided Under Title IV, Social Security Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. HEW Audit Agency.

    This report on child care services is based on: (1) a review of program administration at the central and regional offices of the Social and Rehabilitation Service and the Office of Child Development, and (2) a review of selected child care providers in nine states. The program and fiscal management at each administrative level were evaluated,…

  18. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially dominant gaze behavior. Therefore we tested as a proof of principle whether single dose testosterone administration can reduce gaze avoidance in SAD. In a double-blind, within-subject design, 18 medication-free female participants with SAD and 19 female healthy control participants received a single dose of 0.5mg testosterone and a matched placebo, at two separate days. On each day, their spontaneous gaze behavior was recorded using eye-tracking, while they looked at angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. Testosterone enhanced the percentage of first fixations to the eye-region in participants with SAD compared to healthy controls. In addition, SAD patients' initial gaze avoidance in the placebo condition was associated with more severe social anxiety symptoms and this relation was no longer present after testosterone administration. These findings indicate that single dose testosterone administration can alleviate gaze avoidance in SAD. They support theories on the dominance enhancing effects of testosterone and extend those by showing that effects are particularly strong in individuals featured by socially submissive behavior. The finding that this core characteristic of SAD can be directly influenced by single dose testosterone administration calls for future inquiry into the clinical utility of testosterone in the treatment of SAD. PMID:26402923

  19. Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Ángel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. Results: In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as “Edentulous” (15.2%), “Class 1 = Unfavorable” (13.7%), “Class 2 = Somewhat favorable” (10.4%), and “Class 3 = Favorable” (60.7%). Using “Class 3 = Favorable” as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. Conclusion: The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico. PMID:24596632

  20. MAINTAINING HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY CAPABILITIES FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, S.; Cordaro, J.; Reeves, G.; Mcintosh, J.; Mauldin, C.; Tietze, K.; Varble, D.

    2011-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a specialized need for analyzing low mass gas species at very high resolutions. The currently preferred analytical method is electromagnetic sector mass spectrometry. This method allows the NNSA Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) to resolve species of similar masses down to acceptable minimum detection limits (MDLs). Some examples of these similar masses are helium-4/deuterium and carbon monoxide/nitrogen. Through the 1980s and 1990s, there were two vendors who supplied and supported these instruments. However, with declining procurements and down turns in the economy, the supply of instruments, service and spare parts from these vendors has become less available, and in some cases, nonexistent. The largest NSE user of this capability is the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) Group in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) investigated the areas of instrument support that were needed to extend the life cycle of these aging instruments. Their conclusions, as to the focus areas of electromagnetic sector mass spectrometers to address, in order of priority, were electronics, software and hardware. Over the past 3-5 years, the R&DE Group has designed state of the art electronics and software that will allow high resolution legacy mass spectrometers, critical to the NNSA mission, to be operated for the foreseeable future. The funding support for this effort has been from several sources, including the SRS Defense Programs, NNSA Readiness Campaign, Pantex Plant and Sandia National Laboratory. To date, electronics systems have been upgraded on one development system at SRNL, two production systems at Pantex and one production system at Sandia National Laboratory. An NSE working group meets periodically to review strategies going forward. The R&DE Group has also applied their work to the electronics for a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) instrument, which applies a similar mass spectrometric technology for resolving high mass isotopes, such as plutonium and uranium. Due to non-compete clauses for DOE, all work has been performed and applied to instruments which are obsolete and are no longer supported by the original vendor.

  1. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  2. Discontinuing Social Security: Reallocating Employer Funds to Improve Employer Fringe Benefit Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsee, Jeffrey A.

    Texarkana (Texas) Community College and Texarkana Independent School District left the federal Social Security System (SSS) and reallocated SSS funds to a self-administered fringe benefit program, while also returning employees' SSS contributions to them intact. Several safeguards for Texas employees were already in place through the Texas Teacher

  3. 42 CFR 401.130 - Materials available at social security district offices and branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Laws. (2) The Public Information Regulation of the Department of Health and Human Services (45 CFR part 5). (3) Medicare Program regulations issued by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 42 CFR... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials available at social security...

  4. 42 CFR 401.130 - Materials available at social security district offices and branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Laws. (2) The Public Information Regulation of the Department of Health and Human Services (45 CFR part 5). (3) Medicare Program regulations issued by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 42 CFR... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials available at social security...

  5. 24 CFR 241.626 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 241.626 Section 241.626 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  6. Reform of Social Security Coverage for Women and Survivors in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Anke

    1982-01-01

    This article outlines the main features of the present pension insurance scheme in the Federal Republic of Germany, the proposals of the Commission of Experts to Study the Social Security Status of Women and Survivors, the prospects for their implementation, and the essential aspects of the reform. (CT)

  7. 24 CFR 241.626 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 241.626 Section 241.626 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  8. 24 CFR 241.626 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 241.626 Section 241.626 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  9. 24 CFR 241.626 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 241.626 Section 241.626 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  10. Social Security. Cooperative Work Experience Learning Activity Packet: Series on Job Entry and Adjustment; Packet Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschbach, Dennis R.; And Others

    This student booklet is sixth in an illustrated series of eleven learning activity packets for use in teaching job hunting and application procedures and the management of wages to secondary students. Four units are included in this packet to explain (1) the different benefits social security provides and the principles behind the program; (2) the…

  11. Borrowing to Save: A Critique of Recent Proposals to Partially Privatize Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattalo, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs…

  12. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that

  13. 24 CFR 241.626 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 241.626 Section 241.626 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  14. Treatment of women in the U.S. Social Security system, 1970-88.

    PubMed

    Ross, J L; Upp, M M

    1993-01-01

    This article, a reprint of a paper presented in 1988 to the International Social Security Association, traces the debate from 1970 through 1988 over treatment of women in the Social Security system. It traces issues relating to working women, couples with two earners, homemakers, widows, and divorced women. It describes the debate that led to widespread support for the concept of earnings sharing. It then addresses the paradox that despite continued widespread support for earnings sharing, despite continuation of the factors underlying its proposal, by 1988 no comprehensive legislation related to the treatment of women under Social Security had been enacted nor was being generally contemplated. This is still true in 1993. The article argues that apparently insoluble, inherent conflicts among the objectives underlying earnings sharing ultimately doomed its enactment. Cost considerations, the realization of unintended side effects, and issues relating to transition to a very different Social Security system also helped remove earnings sharing from the legislative agenda. The article also describes the role policy analysis played in the debate over this proposed reform. PMID:8303503

  15. Uncertain Policy for an Uncertain World: The Case of Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabelhaus, John; Topoleski, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and discussion of Social Security policy are usually based on expected fiscal and societal outcomes. However, future demographic and economic trends are uncertain, and thus ultimate outcomes for aggregate system financial flows and the distribution of taxes and benefits across generations are uncertain. This paper analyzes a

  16. Uncertain Policy for an Uncertain World: The Case of Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabelhaus, John; Topoleski, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and discussion of Social Security policy are usually based on expected fiscal and societal outcomes. However, future demographic and economic trends are uncertain, and thus ultimate outcomes for aggregate system financial flows and the distribution of taxes and benefits across generations are uncertain. This paper analyzes a…

  17. AARP Online Portrayal of Social Security: Engaging Aging Baby Boomers through Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Michael L.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.

    2006-01-01

    Although baby boomers were not the sole focus of the American Association of Retired Persons' (AARP) website content on the issue of Social Security reform, their interests were addressed in a variety of ways. AARP provided information, position statements, a live chat forum, and message boards. Additionally, AARP had a partnership with the Rock…

  18. Career Obsolescence and Social Security: Emerging Education Policy Issues in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandow, Stuart A.

    This document is the second in a series of studies designed to examine the legal aspects of various potential educational problems in our society. This particular study deals with the case of a highly trained aerospace technician who sues the social security trust for loan benefits, arguing that he is economically disabled and has been retired by…

  19. Can Social Security Explain Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Men in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.; Goodstein, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    After a long decline, the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) of older men in the United States leveled off in the 1980s, and began to increase in the late 1990s. We examine how changes in Social Security rules affected these trends. We attribute only a small portion of the decline from the 1960s-80s to the increasing generosity of Social…

  20. Discontinuing Social Security: Reallocating Employer Funds to Improve Employer Fringe Benefit Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsee, Jeffrey A.

    Texarkana (Texas) Community College and Texarkana Independent School District left the federal Social Security System (SSS) and reallocated SSS funds to a self-administered fringe benefit program, while also returning employees' SSS contributions to them intact. Several safeguards for Texas employees were already in place through the Texas Teacher…

  1. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Fathers' Involvement, Internal Working Models, and Use of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.; Freeman, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, fathers' involvement (i.e. parenting behaviors and consistency) and fathering context (i.e. fathers' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a subsample of 102 fathers, taken from a larger sample of 235 culturally diverse US families. The authors predicted…

  2. 38 CFR 3.216 - Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... social security number of any dependent or beneficiary on whose behalf, or based upon whom, benefits are... dependent or beneficiary on whose behalf, or based upon whom, benefits are sought or received, within 60....S.C. 1822, 5101(c)) (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2900-0522)...

  3. National Security in the Nuclear Age. A Conference for State Social Studies Coordinators on Pre-Collegiate National Security Education (Washington, DC, June 26-July 1, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, B. Thomas; And Others

    This conference report addresses education on national security and international relations in secondary school courses in the social studies. Main conclusions of the conference are: (1) Topics on national security should be added to the secondary school curriculum. (2) Current institutional and instructional settings are open to inclusion of…

  4. Red Book on Work Incentives: A Summary Guide to Social Security and Supplemental Security Income Work Incentives for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Security Administration (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This booklet is designed to serve as a general reference source about the employment-related provisions of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs for individuals with disabilities and educators, advocates, rehabilitation professionals, and counselors who serve people with disabilities. The…

  5. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When are railroad industry services by a non... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a... industry to be “employment” as defined in section 210 of the Social Security Act for the following...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When are railroad industry services by a non... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a... industry to be “employment” as defined in section 210 of the Social Security Act for the following...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When are railroad industry services by a non... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a... industry to be “employment” as defined in section 210 of the Social Security Act for the following...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When are railroad industry services by a non... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a... industry to be “employment” as defined in section 210 of the Social Security Act for the following...

  9. Earnings Sharing in the U.S. Social Security System: A Microsimulation Analysis of Future Female Retirees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iams, Howard M.; Reznik, Gayle L.; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: As part of an ongoing effort to analyze the distributional implications of potential policy reforms to the U.S. Social Security system, we consider the widely discussed reform of earnings sharing. Such an approach has been viewed as a way to "update" Social Security's family benefits based on marital status and as a means to make the…

  10. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When are railroad industry services by a non... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a... industry to be “employment” as defined in section 210 of the Social Security Act for the following...

  11. 5 CFR 839.903 - What happens to the Social Security taxes I erroneously paid when my employer corrects my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... I erroneously paid when my employer corrects my retirement coverage to CSRS? 839.903 Section 839.903... employer corrects my retirement coverage to CSRS? (a) Except for the last 3 years, the money you erroneously paid into Social Security will remain to your credit in the Social Security fund. The...

  12. 48 CFR 1552.224-70 - Social security numbers of consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement. 1552.224-70 Section 1552.224-70 Federal... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.224-70 Social security numbers of consultants and... provision in all solicitations. Social Security Numbers of Consultants and Certain Sole Proprietors...

  13. 48 CFR 1552.224-70 - Social security numbers of consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement. 1552.224-70 Section 1552.224-70 Federal... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.224-70 Social security numbers of consultants and... provision in all solicitations. Social Security Numbers of Consultants and Certain Sole Proprietors...

  14. 48 CFR 1552.224-70 - Social security numbers of consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement. 1552.224-70 Section 1552.224-70 Federal... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.224-70 Social security numbers of consultants and... provision in all solicitations. Social Security Numbers of Consultants and Certain Sole Proprietors...

  15. 48 CFR 1552.224-70 - Social security numbers of consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement. 1552.224-70 Section 1552.224-70 Federal... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.224-70 Social security numbers of consultants and... provision in all solicitations. Social Security Numbers of Consultants and Certain Sole Proprietors...

  16. 42 CFR 406.12 - Individual under age 65 who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement disability...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... period as defined in 20 CFR 404.1592a that begins with the first month after the trial work period and... is entitled to social security or railroad retirement disability benefits. (a) Basic requirements. An...) Entitled or deemed entitled to social security disability benefits as an insured individual, child,...

  17. 42 CFR 406.12 - Individual under age 65 who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement disability...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... period as defined in 20 CFR 404.1592a that begins with the first month after the trial work period and... is entitled to social security or railroad retirement disability benefits. (a) Basic requirements. An...) Entitled or deemed entitled to social security disability benefits as an insured individual, child,...

  18. 42 CFR 406.12 - Individual under age 65 who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement disability...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... period as defined in 20 CFR 404.1592a that begins with the first month after the trial work period and... is entitled to social security or railroad retirement disability benefits. (a) Basic requirements. An...) Entitled or deemed entitled to social security disability benefits as an insured individual, child,...

  19. 42 CFR 406.12 - Individual under age 65 who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement disability...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... period as defined in 20 CFR 404.1592a that begins with the first month after the trial work period and... is entitled to social security or railroad retirement disability benefits. (a) Basic requirements. An...) Entitled or deemed entitled to social security disability benefits as an insured individual, child,...

  20. The right to access health care: health care according to European social security law instruments.

    PubMed

    Schoukens, Paul

    2008-09-01

    In this contribution we will look at how the traditional European social security conventions shape the fundamental right to health care. As to the instruments under investigation we focus upon the regional agreements that have been enacted within the framework of the Council of Europe. More specifically we will discuss how the (Revised) Social Charter and the minimum standard setting instrument (Code) give expression to the right to access to health care. This overview is then complemented by an analysis of recent case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The latter Court is indeed increasingly screening the national social security rules on their compatibility with the fundamental rights, as they are enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights. Hence we will dwell upon the potential impact of this case law on the right to access health care. In the conclusions we will compare the three instruments regarding their legal interpretation of the right to health care. PMID:19004379

  1. Social costs of icatibant self-administration vs. health professional-administration in the treatment of hereditary angioedema in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Icatibant is the only subcutaneous treatment for acute Type I and Type II hereditary angioedema with C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH) licensed for self-administration in Europe. Aim To compare the economic impact of two icatibant administration strategies: health professional-administration only (strategy 1) versus including the patient self-administration option (strategy 2). Methods Economic evaluation model based on the building of a decision tree. Both strategies are assumed to have equivalent effectiveness. The payer (Spanish National Health System) and the social perspectives were considered. All relevant cost-generating factors were taken into account. The time horizon was one year. Sources of information included scientific evidence, official data and experts opinion. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was carried out to quantify the underlying uncertainty in the model. Results From the social perspective, which considers both direct (health care costs) and indirect costs (productivity losses), strategy 2 would result into average savings of 121.30 per acute attack compared to strategy 1. For Spain, this would achieve in an annual savings of 551,371. The reduction in direct costs accounts for 74% of the savings and lower indirect costs account for the remaining 26%. Savings per acute attack may range from 79.50 to 169.80; accordingly, the annual savings in Spain may vary between 90,319 and 2,315,360. Conclusion Costs related to the management of acute HAE attacks with C1 inhibitor deficiency may be substantially reduced through interventions targeting home treatment by training patients to self-administer icatibant. PMID:23398817

  2. Social work in the Veterans Administration hospital system: impact of the work.

    PubMed

    Beder, Joan; Postiglione, Paul; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Social workers in the Veterans Administration (VA) hospital system are faced with numerous challenges to best address the ongoing health and mental health needs of those who serve in the military. Social workers in the VA system serve diverse roles on the multidisciplinary medical teams and mental health services and are integral to the VA hospital environment. Most social workers feel positive about their work and their contributions to the care of the military. Despite positive feelings about their work, social workers are also prone to compassion fatigue and burnout as the work, especially with returning veterans from Afghanistan/Iraq, often extracts a toll. This article details the experience of social workers in the VA hospital system; it describes the impact of the work on the social workers, noting levels of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. PMID:22967019

  3. Cocaine Self-Administration in Social Dyads Using Custom-Built Operant Conditioning Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Ryan T.; Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditionally, the analysis of intravenous drug self-administration is limited to conditions in which subjects are tested in isolation. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because drug use in humans often occurs in the presence of others. Newmethod We used custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed social dyads visual, olfactory, auditory, and limited tactile contact while concurrently self-administering cocaine. Male rats were trained to respond according to a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement (with a limited hold) in order to determine if patterns of cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration became more similar over time in social pairs. Cocaine self-administration was tested across five days according to a 10-min fixed interval schedule (with a 5-min limited hold). Quarter-life values (time at which 25% of responses were emitted per interval) were analyzed using intraclass correlations. Results The total number of reinforcers obtained did not vary across the five days of testing; however, quarter-life values became progressively more similar between individuals within the social dyads. Comparison with existing methods Standard operant conditioning chambers are unable to assess responding in multiple animals due to their small size, the need to prevent subjects from responding on the lever of their partner, and the need to prevent infusion lines from entangling. By using custom-built social operant conditioning chambers, we assessed the effects of social contact on cocaine self-administration. Conclusion Social operant conditioning chambers can be used as a preclinical method to examine social influences on drug self-administration under conditions that approximate human substance use. PMID:25109902

  4. 20 CFR 435.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contract administration. 435.47 Section 435.47 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards 435.47 Contract administration....

  5. 20 CFR 435.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contract administration. 435.47 Section 435.47 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards 435.47 Contract administration....

  6. 20 CFR 435.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contract administration. 435.47 Section 435.47 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards 435.47 Contract administration....

  7. 20 CFR 435.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contract administration. 435.47 Section 435.47 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards 435.47 Contract administration....

  8. Guidelines for contingency planning NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) ADP security risk reduction decision studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Guidance is presented to NASA Computer Security Officials for determining the acceptability or unacceptability of ADP security risks based on the technical, operational and economic feasibility of potential safeguards. The risk management process is reviewed as a specialized application of the systems approach to problem solving and information systems analysis and design. Reporting the results of the risk reduction analysis to management is considered. Report formats for the risk reduction study are provided.

  9. The Economic, Social and Administrative Pharmacy (ESAP) Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…

  10. State Administrators in Kentucky. A Study of Their Professional Socialization, Public Service Values and Political Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Manindra K.; And Others

    A study was conducted of professional socialization, public service values, and political orientations of the state administrators in Kentucky. A sample of 3,000 Kentucky public managers was mailed a six-page self-administered questionnaire in three waves. A response rate of 49 percent generated 1,467 usable questionnaires. About 69 percent of the…

  11. Transcending the Limitations of the Social Sciences: Insight, Understanding, and the Humanities in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, James

    1994-01-01

    Considers the role of the humanities in the study and practice of educational administration, offering significant insights into the human condition and the philosophical and moral aspects of education. Discusses the limitations of the subject-object dualism underpinning traditional social science. Explains how Slipperjack's "Honor the Sun,"…

  12. Health and Behavioral/Social Sciences in Health Services Administration Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Univ. Programs in Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    This final report summarizes a nationwide effort to determine appropriate health and behavioral sciences curricula components for graduate programs in health administration. Chapters 1 through 3 summarize the background, methodology, and findings of the project. Chapter 4 presents an analysis of health sciences and behavioral/social science…

  13. Personal, Social, and Organizational Factors that Influence Black Female Athletic Administrators' Identity Negotiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Jacqueline; Cunningham, George B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine factors that influence how Black female athletic administrators negotiate their personal identity. Negotiation of identities is not only about what people say and do, but where and when they do it, as well as with whom they do it. Thus, it is important to identify social, personal, and organizational…

  14. The Social Dimension of Academic Discipline as a Discriminator of Academic Deans' Administrative Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Favero, Marietta

    2005-01-01

    This national study of academic deans examined the social and cognitive dimensions underlying disciplinary variations in respondents' self reports of their administrative behavior. Discriminant analyses identified significant linear functions that distinguished behaviors of deans from hard/pure, hard/applied, soft/pure, and soft/applied discipline…

  15. Towards a Social Theory of School Administrative Practice in a Complex, Chaotic, Quantum World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.

    Educational administration, like many other social sciences, has traditionally followed the rubrics of classical science with its emphasis on prediction and control and attempts to understand the whole by understanding in ever finer detail how the parts fit together. However, the "new" science (especially quantum mechanics, complexity, and chaos…

  16. A Rural Hospice Program: Integrating Social Work Administration, Program Planning, and Direct Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Julie E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes multifacted role of a social worker in establishing a rural hospice care program in Cottage Grove, Oregon, a community of 8,000 inhabitants. Discusses program development, planning, coordination, and administration; problem identification and needs assessment; volunteer training; and client assessment and direct services. (NEC)

  17. 42 CFR 406.11 - Individual age 65 or over who is not eligible as a social security or railroad retirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... social security or railroad retirement benefits beneficiary, or on the basis of government employment... Without Monthly Premiums § 406.11 Individual age 65 or over who is not eligible as a social security or... social security or railroad retirement benefits. (b) Requirements. Unless he or she is excluded...

  18. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-15 - Requirement that plan benefits are not decreased on account of certain Social Security increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on account of certain Social Security increases. 1.401(a)-15 Section 1.401(a)-15 Internal Revenue... decreased on account of certain Social Security increases. (a) In general. Under section 401(a)(15), a trust...-separation social security benefit increase effective after the later of— (i) September 2, 1974, or (ii)...

  19. 42 CFR 406.11 - Individual age 65 or over who is not eligible as a social security or railroad retirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... social security or railroad retirement benefits beneficiary, or on the basis of government employment... Without Monthly Premiums § 406.11 Individual age 65 or over who is not eligible as a social security or... social security or railroad retirement benefits. (b) Requirements. Unless he or she is excluded...

  20. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-15 - Requirement that plan benefits are not decreased on account of certain Social Security increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on account of certain Social Security increases. 1.401(a)-15 Section 1.401(a)-15 Internal Revenue... not decreased on account of certain Social Security increases. (a) In general. Under section 401(a)(15... any post-separation social security benefit increase effective after the later of— (i) September...

  1. 42 CFR 406.10 - Individual age 65 or over who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement benefits, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual age 65 or over who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement benefits, or who is eligible for social security benefits. 406.10 Section... § 406.10 Individual age 65 or over who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3121(k)-4 - Constructive filing of waivers of exemption from social security taxes by certain tax-exempt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from social security taxes by certain tax-exempt organizations. 31.3121(k)-4 Section 31.3121(k)-4... filing of waivers of exemption from social security taxes by certain tax-exempt organizations. (a... provision of prior law) for purposes of section 210(a)(8)(B) of the Social Security Act and section...

  3. 42 CFR 406.10 - Individual age 65 or over who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement benefits, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual age 65 or over who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement benefits, or who is eligible for social security benefits. 406.10 Section... § 406.10 Individual age 65 or over who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement...

  4. Econometric models and the study of the economic effects of Social Security.

    PubMed

    Hambor, J C

    1984-10-01

    This article provides a relatively nontechnical discussion of previously published research on the use of econometric models in the study of the economic effects of social security. It illustrates the role of econometric model building by focusing on three major applications: forecasting, policy simulation, and hypothesis testing. A series of three macroeconomic examples serves to emphasize that the development and use of such models puts the focus of the analysis on the underlying economic structure. The first example presents a program-specific model of the Social Security system, the second a large-scale model of the U.S. economy, and the third a single-equation analysis of a specific issue. PMID:6495132

  5. Disability due to mental illness: social security benefits in Brazil 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    da Silva-Junior, João Silvestre; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2014-01-01

    This communication aimed to analyze the profile variation of disability benefits due to mental disorders. Secondary data published by Brazilian Social Security between 2008 and 2011 were evaluated. Mean annual variation rates over the period were calculated for the economically active population, as were the number insured, paid out overall sickness benefits and for mental and behavioral disorders. Mental disorders are the third most common reason for disability benefits. There was an average annual increase of 0.3% in new benefit claims, with a 2.5% fall in mean annual incidence. Work-related disease was identified in 6.2% of cases, most of it due to mood disorders. The government should use the data from the Social Security Institute to support a debate of public policies regarding mental health. PMID:24789650

  6. Contracting-out in the United Kingdom: a partnership between social security and private pension plans.

    PubMed

    Daykin, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Contracting-out was introduced in the United Kingdom in 1978 as part of the arrangements for the State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme (SERPS) in order to avoid duplication with the existing well-developed defined benefit occupational pension plan sector. Members and sponsors of contracted-out schemes were able to save on their social security contributions in recognition of the fact that they were accruing equivalent benefits through an occupational pension plan. Later on this concept was extended to those with individual money purchase pension plans. This article considers a brief history of contracting-out, the principles of contracting-out, some problems associated with contracting-out, the implications of the introduction of stakeholder pensions and State Second Pension, and the latest rebate review and rebate orders. It examines how U.K. pensions policy since 1978 has been based on a partnership between social security and private pension plans. PMID:12503327

  7. SSA Disability: Other Programs May Provide Lessons for Improving Return-to-Work Efforts. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Social Security, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovbjerg, Barbara D.

    This report compares the Social Security Administration's Disability Insurance (DI) program and the practices of the private sector and other countries in helping people with severe disabilities return to work. Information was gathered in in-depth interviews and a review of policy documents and program data at three private sector disability…

  8. Job Satisfaction of Financial Aid Administrators in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Robert J.; White, Gordon W.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of financial aid administrators in Illinois studied the possible relationships of institutional type, job title, and years of experience on administrators' personal security, socialization, self-esteem, autonomy, self-actualization, and feeling of being knowledgeable. (MSE)

  9. 75 FR 7546 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security Number (SSN) as an Identification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...The U.S. Census Bureau (Census Bureau) issues this final rule amending the Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR) to eliminate the requirement to report a Social Security Number (SSN) as an identification number when registering to file and filing electronic export information in the Automated Export System (AES) or AESDirect. If the U.S. Principal Party in Interest (USPPI) or the U.S. authorized......

  10. Income and assets of Social Security beneficiaries by type of benefit.

    PubMed

    Grad, S

    1989-01-01

    The SIPP data have provided a first look at the relative economic status of various types of Social Security beneficiaries. They have shown that the different types of Social Security beneficiaries face very different economic circumstances. Retired workers and wife beneficiaries have the highest family incomes adjusted for family size. Aged widows and minor children have the lowest family incomes, with high proportions of poor or near poor. And disabled workers are in between, but also have high proportions of poor or near poor. Retired-worker and wife beneficiary households also have considerably more asset holdings than disabled-worker or widow beneficiary households. Beneficiaries with high family incomes are very likely to live with relatives and to rely heavily on the relatives' income. The high-income families tend to have non-means-tested sources of family income other than Social Security amounting to substantial proportions of their total income and to have high asset holdings. Conversely, beneficiaries with low family incomes are very likely to live alone or with nonrelatives, to rely heavily on Social Security and means-tested benefits, and to have low asset holdings. A majority of ever-poor beneficiaries (with the exception of widow beneficiaries) are poor in only some months of a year. This situation is not consistent with the stereotype of beneficiaries living on fixed incomes. But the change in poverty status is often due to a change in the income of other family members rather than of the beneficiary. And in some cases, a change in poverty status occurs with little or no change in income as the cost of living rises. PMID:2522682

  11. Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, B E

    After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique to some of the CEE countries include: Individual accounts in Hungary and Poland have proved more attractive than originally anticipated. As a result, contributions to the public PAYGO system in Hungary and Poland fell short of expectations. In several countries, laws setting up the programs were enacted without all the details of providing benefits. For example, in some countries laws must now be drawn up for establishment of annuities because they do not yet exist. Setting up a coherent pension policy has been difficult in some countries because of frequent and significant changes in government. This situation has affected the progress of reform in various stages of development. In general, a definitive assessment of individual accounts in these countries will not be possible until a cohort of retirees has spent most of its career under the new system. PMID:12822190

  12. Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of Social Security reform on current and future workers, it is essential to accurately characterize the initial situations of representative workers affected by reform. For the purpose of analyzing typical reforms, the most important characteristic of a worker is the level and pattern of his or her preretirement earnings. Under the current system, pensions are determined largely by the level of the workers' earnings averaged over their work life. However, several reform proposals would create individual retirement accounts for which the pension would depend on the investment accumulation within the account. Thus, the pension would also depend on the timing of the contributions into the account and hence on the exact shape of the worker's lifetime earnings profile. Most analysis of the distributional impact of reform has focused, however, on calculating benefit changes among a handful of hypothetical workers whose relative earnings are constant over their work life. The earnings levels are not necessarily chosen to represent the situations of workers who have typical or truly representative earnings patterns. Consequently, the results of such analysis can be misleading, especially if reform involves introducing a fundamentally new kind of pension formula. This article presents two broad approaches to creating representative earnings profiles for policy evaluation. First, we use standard econometric methods to predict future earnings for a representative sample of workers drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our statistical estimates are based on a simple representation of typical career earnings paths and a fixed-effect statistical specification. Because our estimation file contains information on each worker's annual earnings from 1951 through 1996 as reported in the Social Security Administration's earnings files, we have a record (though an incomplete one) of the actual earnings that will be used to determine future benefit payments. Our estimates of the earnings function permit us to make highly differentiated predictions of future earnings for each member of our sample. By combining the historical information on individual earnings with our prediction of future earnings up through the normal retirement age, our first approach produces tens of thousands of predicted career earnings paths that can be used in microsimulation policy analysis. Our second approach to creating lifetime earnings profiles is similar in some ways to the traditional method. For example, it is based on the creation of only a handful of "stylized" career earnings patterns. An important difference with the traditional method, however, is that we define the career earnings patterns so that they are truly representative of patterns observed in the workforce. We use simple mathematical formulas to characterize each stylized earnings pattern, and we then produce estimates of the average path of annual earnings for workers whose career earning path falls within each of the stylized patterns we have defined. Finally, we calculate the percentage of workers in successive birth-year cohorts who have earnings profiles that match each of the stylized earnings patterns. Although this method may seem simple, it allows the analyst to create stylized earnings patterns that are widely varied but still representative of earnings patterns observed among sizable groups of U.S. workers. The effects of policy reforms can then be calculated for workers with each of the stylized earnings patterns. Our analysis of U.S. lifetime earnings patterns and of the impact of selected policy reforms produces a number of findings about past trends in earnings, typical earnings patterns in the population, and the potential impact of reform. The analysis focuses on men and women born between 1931 and 1960. Along with earlier analysts, we find that men earn substantially higher lifetime wages than women and typically attain their peak career earnings at a somewhat earlier age. However, the difference in career earnings patterns between men and women has narrowed dramatically over time. Workers with greater educational attainment earn substantially higher wages than those with less education, and they attain their peak career earnings later in life. For example, among men with the least education, peak earnings are often attained around or even before age 40, whereas many men with substantial postsecondary schooling do not reach their peak career earnings until after 50. Our tabulations of the lifetime earnings profiles of the oldest cohorts (born around 1930) and projections of the earnings of the youngest profiles (born around 1960) imply that the inequality of lifetime earnings has increased noticeably over time. Women in the top one-fifth of female earners and men in the top one-fifth of male earners are predicted to receive a growing multiple of the economy-wide average wage during their career. Women born between 1931 and 1935 who were in the top fifth of female earners had lifetime average earnings that were approximately equal to the average economy-wide wage. In contrast, women born after 1951 who were in the top fifth of earners are predicted to earn almost 50 percent more, that is, roughly 150 percent of the economy-wide average wage. Women with a lower rank in the female earnings distribution will also see gains in their lifetime average earnings, but their gains are predicted to be proportionately much smaller than those of women with a high rank in the distribution. Men with high earnings are also predicted to enjoy substantial gains in their relative lifetime earnings, while men with a lower rank in the earnings distribution will probably see a significant erosion in their typical wages relative to the economy-wide average wage. That is mainly the result of a sharp decline in the relative earnings of low-wage men born after 1950. In creating stylized earnings profiles that are representative of those of significant minorities of U.S. workers, we emphasized three critical elements of the earnings path: the average level of earnings over a worker's career, the upward or downward trend in earnings from the worker's 30s through his or her early 60s, and the "sagging" or "hump-shaped" profile of earnings over the worker's career. That classification scheme yields 27 characteristic patterns of lifetime earnings. Surprisingly, the differnce between men and women within each of those categories is quite modest. The main difference between men and women is in the proportions of workers who fall in each category. Only 14 percent of men born between 1931 and 1940 fall in earnings categories with the lowest one-third of lifetime earnings, whereas 53 percent of women born in those years have low-average-earnings profiles. On the other hand, women born in those years are more likely to have a rising trend in lifetime earnings, while men are more likely to have a declining trend. We find that the distribution of lifetime earnings contains relatively more workers with below-average earnings and relatively fewer with very high earnings than assumed in the Social Security Administration's traditional policy analysis. For example, the "low earner" traditionally assumed by the Office of the Chief Actuary is assigned a level of average lifetime earnings that we find to be higher than the average earnings of persons in the bottom one-third of the lifetime earnings distribution. The stylized earnings profiles developed here can be used for policy evaluation, and the results can be compared with those from the more traditional analysis. That comparison produces several notable findings. Because earnings profiles that are actually representative of the population tend to have lower average earnings than assumed in the traditional analysis, workers typically accumulate somewhat less Social Security wealth than implied in the traditional analysis. On the other hand, because the basic benefit formula is tilted in favor of lower-income workers, the internal rate of return on Social Security contributions is somewhat higher than detected in the traditional analysis. Moreover, the primary insurance amount measured as a percentage of the worker's average indexed earnings tends to be higher than implied by the traditional analysis. Finally, the stylized earnings patterns can be used to compare benefit levels enjoyed by workers under the traditional Social Security formula and under an alternative plan based on individual investment accounts. That comparison shows, as expected, that the traditional formula favors low-wage workers and one-earner couples, while an investment account favors single, high-wage workers. Comparing two workers with the same lifetime average earnings, the traditional formula favors workers with rising earnings profiles (that is, with lifetime earnings heavily concentrated at the end of their career), while investment account pensions favor workers with declining earnings profiles (that is, with earnings concentrated early in their career). PMID:11641991

  13. 76 FR 75799 - General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 400 RIN 0563-AC26 General Administrative Regulations; Mutual... remove Subpart C--General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation and Subpart...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1020 - General administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General administrative requirements. 416.1020 Section 416.1020 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1020 - General administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General administrative requirements. 416.1020 Section 416.1020 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and...

  16. Essential Strategies for School Security: A Practical Guide for Teachers and School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Richard A.; Henderson, Catherine L.

    This self-help guide explores the many factors involved in implementing an effective program of protection for schools. It provides direction and answers to the many questions posed by crime and violence in schools by translating certain principles of security into applications for the campus setting. The guide explains the various protection…

  17. Securing TCP/IP and Dial-up Access to Administrative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, L. Dean

    1992-01-01

    This article describes Arizona State University's solution to security risk inherent in general access systems such as TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/INTERNET Protocol). Advantages and disadvantages of various options are compared, and the process of selecting a log-on authentication approach involving generation of a different password at…

  18. Administration of human leptin differentially affects parameters of cortisol secretion in socially housed female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Collura, Lynn A; Hoffman, Jackie B; Wilson, Mark E

    2009-12-01

    Chronic exposure to psychosocial stress may lead to a dysregulation of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that results in a number of adverse health outcomes. The fat-derived hormone leptin has been indicated as a potential key component to maintaining homeostasis by enhancing glucocorticoid negative feedback. Using an established model of nonhuman primate social stress, notably social subordination, this study examined the effects of continuous leptin administration on cortisol secretion in female rhesus monkeys. The 20 subjects were maintained in stable five-member social groups with established dominance hierarchies. All females were ovariectomized but received estradiol throughout the study to maintain serum concentrations at early follicular phase levels. Three parameters of cortisol secretion were examined in dominant and subordinate females during control and leptin-treatment conditions: diurnal cortisol secretion; response to a dexamethasone suppression test; and response to a brief separation from their social group. We hypothesized that leptin supplementation would attenuate the hypercortisolemia characteristic of subordinate females. During baseline conditions, subordinate female rhesus monkeys had significantly lower levels of serum leptin compared with more dominant monkeys and were less sensitive to glucocorticoid negative feedback. Exogenous administration of leptin improved glucocorticoid negative feedback in subordinate females and decreased morning cortisol in all animals. However, there were no status differences in response to a social separation test and diurnal rhythm in cortisol during baseline conditions. However, leptin administration did not attenuate the increase in cortisol in response to a social separation. The data presented in this study demonstrate that leptin can attenuate several parameters of cortisol secretion in female rhesus monkeys and thus may play a role in the response of the adrenal glands to socio-environmental stimuli. PMID:19856138

  19. Are culturally sophisticated agencies better workplaces for social work staff and administrators?

    PubMed

    Gant, L M

    1996-03-01

    Using the concept of cultural sophistication, data from 285 African American social workers and administrators were analyzed to demonstrate the effect of perceptions of agency cultural sophistication on reports of psychological and work-related stress. Among African American workers, perceptions of cultural sophistication had a significant effect in many areas of work stress but not with reported psychological problems. For African American supervisors and administrators, a moderate effect was identified between cultural sophistication and decreases in work-related stress. The usefulness of cultural sophistication as an explanatory variable in understanding staff perceptions of occupational and psychological stress in human services organizations is discussed. PMID:8851356

  20. Variability in social reasoning: the influence of attachment security on the attribution of goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunfield, Kristen A.; Johnson, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last half decade there has been a growing move to apply the methods and theory of cognitive development to questions regarding infants’ social understanding. Though this combination has afforded exciting opportunities to better understand our species’ unique social cognitive abilities, the resulting findings do not always lead to the same conclusions. For example, a growing body of research has found support for both universal similarity and individual differences in infants’ social reasoning about others’ responses to incomplete goals. The present research examines this apparent contradiction by assessing the influence of attachment security on the ability of university undergraduates to represent instrumental needs versus social-emotional distress. When the two varieties of goals were clearly differentiated, we observed a universally similar pattern of results (Experiments 1A/B). However, when the goals were combined, and both instrumental need and social-emotional distress were presented together, individual differences emerged (Experiments 2 and 3). Taken together, these results demonstrate that by integrating the two perspectives of shared universals and individual differences, important points of contact can be revealed supporting a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the nature of human social reasoning. PMID:26500574